WorldWideScience

Sample records for policymakers ten recommendations

  1. Ten recommendations for software engineering in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Janna; Haug, Kenneth; Steinbeck, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Research in the context of data-driven science requires a backbone of well-written software, but scientific researchers are typically not trained at length in software engineering, the principles for creating better software products. To address this gap, in particular for young researchers new to programming, we give ten recommendations to ensure the usability, sustainability and practicality of research software.

  2. Myths and Facts Regarding Second Language Acquisition in Early Childhood: Recommendations for Policymakers, Administrators, and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soonhyang; Plotka, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood teachers play a key role in addressing the needs of young English Language Learners, and a vast body of research is dedicated to assessing best practices for teachers. However, less research addressing the role of policymakers, program directors and administrators is available. Although teachers can make a difference in the lives…

  3. Increasing consumer demand for tobacco treatments: Ten design recommendations for clinicians and healthcare systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Susan Swartz; Jaén, Carlos Roberto

    2010-03-01

    Health professionals play an important role in addressing patient tobacco use in clinical settings. While there is clear evidence that identifying tobacco use and assisting smokers in quitting affects outcomes, challenges to improve routine, clinician-delivered tobacco intervention persist. The Consumer Demand Initiative has identified simple design principles to increase consumers' use of proven tobacco treatments. Applying these design strategies to activities across the healthcare system, we articulate ten recommendations that can be implemented in the context of most clinical systems where most clinicians work. The recommendations are: (1) reframe the definition of success, (2) portray proven treatments as the best care, (3) redesign the 5A's of tobacco intervention, (4) be ready to deliver the right treatment at the right time, (5) move tobacco from the social history to the problem list, (6) use words as therapy and language that makes sense, (7) fit tobacco treatment into clinical team workflows, (8) embed tobacco treatment into health information technology, (9) make every encounter an opportunity to intervene, and (10) end social disparities for tobacco users. Clinical systems need to change to improve tobacco treatment implementation. The consumer- and clinician-centered recommendations provide a roadmap that focuses on increasing clinician performance through greater understanding of the clinician's role in helping tobacco users, highlighting the value of evidence-based tobacco treatments, employing shared decision-making skills, and integrating routine tobacco treatment into clinical system routines. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. iPrincipals: Innovative Themes, Strategies, and Recommendations of Ten Online University Educational Leadership Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, Teri A.; Loose, William V.

    2015-01-01

    This report, the second in a series, provides comparative empirical data on current state and national university trends around the thematic strategies and constructs ten fully online Educational Leadership programs engage within their innovative designs. Our 2014 iPrincipals report provided information on how one California University…

  5. Evidence-based policymaking: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Nortje

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The process of facilitating the uptake of evidence, for example, scientific research findings, into the policymaking process is multifaceted and thus complex. It is therefore important for scientists to understand this process in order to influence it more effectively. Similarly, policymakers need to understand the complexities of the scientific process to improve their interaction with the scientific sphere. This literature review addresses those factors that influence the uptake of scientific evidence into policymaking, the barriers to using science in policymaking, as well as recommendations for improved science–policymaking interaction. A visual diagram of the gears of a car is used to convey the message of the complexities around the engagement between science and policymaking. It is concluded that the issue of evidence-based policymaking remains unresolved and questions for future research on the science–policy interface are raised.

  6. A review of Health Technology Assessment (HTA) recommendations for drug therapies issued between 2007 and 2009 and their impact on policymaking processes in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolasa, Katarzyna; Schubert, Sebastian; Manca, Andrea; Hermanowski, Tadeusz

    2011-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to critically review and analyze the Polish Health Technology Assessment (AHTAPol) agency's health technology drug recommendations (HTA activity), in order to ascertain to what extent HTA findings have been incorporated into national drug reimbursement decisions (HTA impact). HTA recommendations issued between 2007 and 2009 were studied. Positive recommendations were classified into three categories: recommendations with major restrictions; minor restrictions; and without restrictions. Definitions of clinical and non-clinical reasons were drawn ups for negative recommendations. The study examined how many different drug technologies assessed by AHTAPol were included in reimbursement lists. In terms of HTA activity, 63 negative and 83 positive HTA recommendations were issued. While clinical arguments were the most prevalent reason for negative HTA recommendations, major restrictions were most common in the positive guidance group. In terms of HTA impact, the results revealed 30 drugs with positive HTA recommendations and four with negative HTA recommendations were included on the reimbursement lists. Most of AHTAPol's recommendations have a positive outcome for the drug being appraised. The study revealed room for further enhancement of HTA impact. Three key areas that need future attention were identified: consistency, credibility; and pragmatism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The status of recommendations of the President's Commission on the accident at Three Mile Island: A ten-year review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-03-01

    This report summarizes the status of actions taken by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in response to recommendations made by the Presidential Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island in the 10 years since the accident occurred in March 1979. It also updates NRC's initial response to the Presidential Commission's recommendations contained in ''NRC Views and Analysis of the Recommendations of the President's Commission of the Accident at Three Mile Island'' (NUREG-0632), issued in November 1979. The status of ongoing initiatives for actions not yet complete is also reported for reference purposes. On the basis of its analysis of NRC and the industry, the Presidential Commission found many then-current practices inadequate and in need of improvement. As a result of its recommendations and of guidance from other studies, substantial changes have been made in the 10 years since the accident. This report reflects how, based on Presidential Commission recommendations and continued work, revised practices and standards are now being implemented by NRC and throughout the industry

  8. Usability Analysis of the Big Ten Academic Alliance Geoportal: Findings and Recommendations for Improvement of the User Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Blake

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Big Ten Academic Alliance (BTAA Geospatial Data Project is a collaboration between twelve member institutions of the consortium and works towards providing discoverability and access to geospatial data, scanned maps, and web mapping services. Usability tests and heuristic evaluations were chosen as methods of evaluation, as they have had a long standing in measuring and managing website engagement and are essential in the process of iterative design. The BTAA project hopes to give back to the community by publishing the results of our usability findings with the hope that it will benefit other portals built with GeoBlacklight.

  9. Expansion of the baby-friendly hospital initiative ten steps to successful breastfeeding into neonatal intensive care: expert group recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyqvist, Kerstin H; Häggkvist, Anna-Pia; Hansen, Mette N; Kylberg, Elisabeth; Frandsen, Annemi L; Maastrup, Ragnhild; Ezeonodo, Aino; Hannula, Leena; Haiek, Laura N

    2013-08-01

    In the World Health Organization/United Nations Children's Fund document Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative: Revised, Updated and Expanded for Integrated Care, neonatal care is mentioned as 1 area that would benefit from expansion of the original Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding. The different situations faced by preterm and sick infants and their mothers, compared to healthy infants and their mothers, necessitate a specific breastfeeding policy for neonatal intensive care and require that health care professionals have knowledge and skills in lactation and breastfeeding support, including provision of antenatal information, that are specific to neonatal care. Facilitation of early, continuous, and prolonged skin-to-skin contact (kangaroo mother care), early initiation of breastfeeding, and mothers' access to breastfeeding support during the infants' whole hospital stay are important. Mother's own milk or donor milk (when available) is the optimal nutrition. Efforts should be made to minimize parent-infant separation and facilitate parents' unrestricted presence with their infants. The initiation and continuation of breastfeeding should be guided only by infant competence and stability, using a semi-demand feeding regimen during the transition to exclusive breastfeeding. Pacifiers are appropriate during tube-feeding, for pain relief, and for calming infants. Nipple shields can be used for facilitating establishment of breastfeeding, but only after qualified support and attempts at the breast. Alternatives to bottles should be used until breastfeeding is well established. The discharge program should include adequate preparation of parents, information about access to lactation and breastfeeding support, both professional and peer support, and a plan for continued follow-up.

  10. Intersectionality in European Union policymaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lombardo, Emanuela; Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    2016-01-01

    Inclusiveness of different social groups and responsiveness to the needs of increasingly diverse societies are key criteria for policy analysts to assess the quality of public policies. We argue that an intersectional approach attentive to the interaction of gender with other inequalities...... is particularly apt to deal with equality and diversity in policymaking. By analysing a selection of European Union policy documents on gender-based violence in the period 2000–2014, we attend to the question of what intersectionality can bring to policymaking in terms of strengthening inclusiveness and address...

  11. Macroeconomic models, forecasting, and policymaking

    OpenAIRE

    Pescatori, Andrea; Zaman, Saeed

    2011-01-01

    Models of the macroeconomy have gotten quite sophisticated, thanks to decades of development and advances in computing power. Such models have also become indispensable tools for monetary policymakers, useful both for forecasting and comparing different policy options. Their failure to predict the recent financial crisis does not negate their use, it only points to some areas that can be improved.

  12. Evidence based policy-making: A review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Strydom, FW

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The process of facilitating the uptake of evidence, for example, scientific research findings, into the policymaking process is multifaceted and thus complex. It is therefore important for scientists to understand this process in order to influence...

  13. Maritime Governance and Policy-Making

    CERN Document Server

    Roe, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A close analysis of the framework of existing governance and the existing jurisdictional arrangements for shipping and ports reveals that while policy-making is characterized by national considerations through flags, institutional representation at all jurisdictions and the inviolability of the state, the commercial, financial, legal and operational environment of the sector is almost wholly global. This governance mismatch means that in practice the maritime industry can avoid policies which it dislikes by trading nations off against one another, while enjoying the freedoms and benefits of a globalized economy. A Post-modern interpretation of this globalized society prompts suggestions for change in maritime policy-making so that the governance of the sector better matches more closely the environment in which shipping and ports operate. Maritime Governance and Policy-Making is a controversial commentary on the record of policy-making in the maritime sector and assesses whether the reason for continued polic...

  14. Strategic Purchasing in Practice: Comparing Ten European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasa, Katarzyna; Greer, Scott L; van Ginneken, Ewout

    2018-02-05

    Strategic purchasing of health care services is widely recommended as a policy instrument. We conducted a review of literature of material drawn from the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies Health Systems in Transition series, other European Observatory databases, and selected country-specific literature to augment the comparative analysis by providing the most recent healthcare trends in ten selected countries. There is little evidence of purchasing being strategic according to any of the established definitions. There is little or no literature suggesting that existing purchasing mechanisms in Europe deliver improved population health, citizen empowerment, stronger governance and stewardship, or develop purchaser organization and capacity. Strategic purchasing has not generally been implemented. Policymakers considering adopting strategic purchasing policies should be aware of this systemic implementation problem. Policymakers in systems with strategic purchasing built into policy should not assume that a purchasing system is strategic or that it is delivering any expected objectives. However, there are individual components of strategic purchasing that are worth pursuing and can provide benefits to health systems. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Policy-making in the European Union

    CERN Document Server

    Pollack, Mark A; Young, Alasadair R

    2015-01-01

    Constantly evolving, and with far-reaching implications, European Union policy-making is of central importance to the politics of the European Union. From defining the processes, institutions and modes through which policy-making operates, the text moves on to situate individual policies within these modes, detail their content, and analyse how they are implemented, navigating policy in all its complexities. The first part of the text examines processes, institutions, and the theoretical and analytical underpinnings of policy-making, while the second part considers a wide range of policy areas, from economics to the environment, and security to the single market. Throughout the text, theoretical approaches sit side by side with the reality of key events in the EU, including enlargement, the ratification of the Lisbon Treaty, and the financial crisis and resulting euro area crisis, exploring what determines how policies are made and implemented. In the final part, the editors consider trends in EU policy-makin...

  16. Optimal Degrees of Transparency in Monetary Policymaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    According to most academics and policymakers, transparency in monetary policymaking is desirable. I examine this proposition in a small theoretical model emphasizing forward-looking private sector behavior. Transparency makes it easier for price setters to infer the central bank's future policy...... intentions, thereby making current inflation more responsive to policy actions. This induces the central bank to pay more attention to inflation rather than output gap stabilization. Then, transparency may be disadvantageous. It may actually be a policy-distorting straitjacket if the central bank enjoys low...

  17. Education Policy-Making and Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Greg; Cook, Ian

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the global policy convergence toward high-stakes testing in schools and the use of test results to "steer at a distance", particularly as it applies to policy-makers' promise to improve teacher quality. Using Deleuze's three syntheses of time in the context of the Australian policy blueprint Quality Education, this…

  18. Promoting Research for Policymaking under Decentralization in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Today, regional governments account for the majority of public investment, but show limited capacity to cope with the responsibility. Moreover, capacity for research and evidence based policymaking remains weak outside Lima. This grant will allow the Consortium for Economic and Social Research (CIES - Consorcio de ...

  19. An assessment of policymakers' engagement initiatives to promote ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An assessment of policymakers' engagement initiatives to promote evidence informed health policy making in Nigeria. ... efforts and various initiatives that have been undertaken to deliberately engage policymakers and other stakeholders in the health sector in Nigeria for the promotion of evidence informed policymaking.

  20. Improving Nigerian health policymakers' capacity to access and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nigeria, the lack of adequate capacity on the use of ICT by health sector policymakers constitutes a major impediment to the uptake of research evidence into the policymaking process. The objective of this study was to improve the knowledge and capacity of policymakers to access and utilize policy relevant evidence.

  1. Ten Leading Causes of Death and Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overdose Traumatic Brain Injury Violence Prevention Ten Leading Causes of Death and Injury Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... in Hospital Emergency Departments, United States – 2014 Leading Causes of Death Charts Causes of Death by Age ...

  2. Ten Steps to Making Evaluation Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Sanjeev; Nakaima, April

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes ten steps to make evaluations matter. The ten steps are a combination of the usual recommended practice such as developing program theory and implementing rigorous evaluation designs with a stronger focus on more unconventional steps including developing learning frameworks, exploring pathways of evaluation influence, and…

  3. Transforming Government's Policy-making Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Johnston

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We have seen a lot of very welcome progress in terms of making it easier for citizens to input their views into government policy-making processes. However, governments and citizens are now in a similar situation – after a burst of initial enthusiasm, they are not sure what to do next. Governments have struggled to get the mass participation they would like and where significant participation has occurred, have had difficulty integrating it effectively into existing decision-making processes. Citizens have been unsure what to make of this new apparent openness and where they have engaged, have found it hard to know what difference their input made. The solution is to focus on using technology to make existing policy processes more transparent and more participative rather than creating separate e-participation initiatives. The challenge for governments is to open up the whole of the policy process and be prepared to flag up very clearly and explicitly the difference citizen input made. The challenge for e-democracy advocates is to convince policymakers that their ideas can improve the existing policy process rather than simply generating more inputs into it.

  4. Does trade openness affect CO2 emissions: evidence from ten newly industrialized countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shun; Liu, Xuyi; Bae, Junghan

    2017-07-01

    This paper examines whether the hypothetical environmental Kuznet curve (EKC) exists or not and investigates how trade openness affects CO 2 emissions, together with real GDP and total primary energy consumption. The study sample comprises ten newly industrialized countries (NICs-10) from 1971 to 2013. The results support the existence of hypothetical EKC and indicate that trade openness negatively and significantly affects emissions, while real GDP and energy do positive effects of emissions. Moreover, the empirical results of short-run causalities indicate feedback hypothetical linkage of real GDP and trade, unidirectional linkages from energy to emissions, and from trade to energy. The error correction terms (ECTs) reveal in the long run, feedback linkages of emissions, real GDP, and trade openness, while energy Granger causes emissions, real GDP, and trade, respectively. The study recommendations are that our policymakers should encourage and expand the trade openness in these countries, not only to restrain CO 2 emissions but also to boost their growth.

  5. Judicial policy-making and Europeanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2011-01-01

    , against the preferences of the member governments. It finds that the principle of proportionality constitutes a most powerful means for the European Court to strike the balance between supranational principles and national policy conditions and administrative discretion. While the Court has previously......Judicial policy-making is having an increasing impact on political domains traditionally guarded by national sovereignty. This paper examines how the European judiciary has expanded Community competences into the policy domains of welfare and immigration, followed by subsequent Europeanization...... been cautious to apply the principle beyond economic law, it no longer treads as reluctantly, instead generally limiting the inner core of national policy control, i.e. the capacity of the national executive to detail, condition and administer national policies in almost all domains....

  6. China's Policymaking for Regional Economic Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Yang

    the influence of competing domestic interests, protectionist and conservative forces vis-a-vis liberal and reformist forces; government agencies, ministries and national commissions, local governments; and different ideas on China's foreign economic policy. In doing so, she also provides interesting comparisons...... between China and other countries in international negotiations. Her invesitgation offers a fresh look into China, its changing decision-making under different generations of leadership, and the basis for its current and potential contribution to international economic cooperation.......Yang Jiang opens the black box of China's policymaking for free trade agreements and key regional financial initiatives. Using first-hand interview data, she sheds light on the key trends of China's trade and financial politics after its WTO entry in 2001. In particular, she highlights...

  7. Improving policy implementation through collaborative policymaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansell, Christopher; Sørensen, Eva; Torfing, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    We offer a fresh perspective on implementation problems by suggesting that collaborative policy design and adaptive policy implementation will help public policy makers to improve policy execution. Classical implementation theories have focused too narrowly on administrative stumbling blocks and ...... collaborative policymaking and adaptive policy implementation might work in theory and practice......We offer a fresh perspective on implementation problems by suggesting that collaborative policy design and adaptive policy implementation will help public policy makers to improve policy execution. Classical implementation theories have focused too narrowly on administrative stumbling blocks...... and New Public Management has reinforced the split between politics and administration. Attempts to improve policy implementation must begin by looking at policy design, which can be improved through collaboration and deliberation between upstream and downstream actors. We provide a broad overview of how...

  8. Screening radon risks: A methodology for policymakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisinger, D.S.; Simmons, R.A.; Lammering, M.; Sotiros, R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides an easy-to-use screening methodology to estimate potential excess lifetime lung cancer risk resulting from indoor radon exposure. The methodology was developed under U.S. EPA Office of Policy, Planning, and Evaluation sponsorship of the agency's Integrated Environmental Management Projects (IEMP) and State/Regional Comparative Risk Projects. These projects help policymakers understand and use scientific data to develop environmental problem-solving strategies. This research presents the risk assessment methodology, discusses its basis, and identifies appropriate applications. The paper also identifies assumptions built into the methodology and qualitatively addresses methodological uncertainties, the direction in which these uncertainties could bias analyses, and their relative importance. The methodology draws from several sources, including risk assessment formulations developed by the U.S. EPA's Office of Radiation Programs, the EPA's Integrated Environmental Management Project (Denver), the International Commission on Radiological Protection, and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. When constructed as a spreadsheet program, the methodology easily facilitates analyses and sensitivity studies (the paper includes several sensitivity study options). The methodology will be most helpful to those who need to make decisions concerning radon testing, public education, and exposure prevention and mitigation programs.26 references

  9. HIPs at Ten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuh, George; O'Donnell, Ken; Schneider, Carol Geary

    2017-01-01

    2017 is the anniversary of the introduction of what are now commonly known as high-impact practices (HIPs). Many of the specific activities pursued under the HIPs acronym have been around in some form for decades, such as study abroad, internships, and student-faculty research. It was about ten years ago that, after conferring HIPs at Ten with…

  10. Public Policy-Making in Contemporary Ethiopia | Abebe | Africa Insight

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article draws attention to the perennial problems and salient features of public policy-making in contemporary Ethiopia, namely, the imbalance between policy-making institutions and policy benefi ciaries, and how these have infl uenced policy formulation and implementation from 1991 to 2004. Drawing from interviews ...

  11. What Policymakers Can Do to Make Education Inclusive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijl, Sip Jan; Frissen, Paul H. A.

    Inclusive education challenges all schools to cater for a wider range of students. This implies that schools and teachers have to change. This literature study analyses how, if at all, policymakers can bring about changes in schools. Specific steering concepts of policymakers, whose interventions

  12. The Policymaking, Institutional and Administrative Practices of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article documents the predominant policymaking, institutional and administrative practices of what came to be known as the Dergue regime that ruled Ethiopia from 1974 to 1991. It identifies and describes the key institutional, individual and group players that had exclusive claim over the public policymaking process ...

  13. The anatomy of EU policy-making: Appointing the experts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Field

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available At 38,000, the total number of staff at the European Commission is relatively small for a body representing half a billion citizens. Likewise, the 3,500 strong research and statistical team is modest in size given that it operates across the Directorates General and other services. In order to assist policy-makers, the Commission supplements this research base by using outside expertise to advise at all stages of the policy-making process. For many years, those who observe the European Union’s institutions have recognised that this use of outside expertise to assist with the shaping of policy presents a potential democratic shortfall. The 2001 White Paper on Governance acknowledged that the line between expertise and political authority had become blurred and that, increasingly, the public questioned the independence of expert advice. The following year, the Commission published its first set of guidelines on the collection and use of expertise, listing ‘openness’ as one of three core principles. Despite considerable changes that have occurred in the transparency landscape in the intervening period, the Commission’s commitment to this core principle of expertise remains. This article investigates the measures the Commission introduced specifically to facilitate this openness. Applying a structure-agency approach, the article characterises an expert group as a ‘community of knowledge’ and contrasts the transparency of the Commission’s formal appointment procedures with the less visible but frequently used informal measures through which individuals are identified and approached. Based on a recent and highly relevant case, the article employs data gathered from the near contemporaneous accounts of expert group members and Commission officials. It finds that the reported appointment processes do not reflect the widespread incidence of individuals selected based on previous contact or personal recommendation and argues that this may

  14. Acceptability of financial incentives for health behaviour change to public health policymakers: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma L. Giles

    2016-09-01

    they could be a valuable behaviour change tool. Conclusions There are aspects of design that influence acceptability of financial incentive interventions to public health policymakers. However, it is not clear that even interventions designed to maximise acceptability would be acceptable enough to be recommended for implementation. Further work may be required to help policymakers understand the potential responses of other stakeholder groups to financial incentive interventions.

  15. Acceptability of financial incentives for health behaviour change to public health policymakers: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Emma L; Sniehotta, Falko F; McColl, Elaine; Adams, Jean

    2016-09-15

    design that influence acceptability of financial incentive interventions to public health policymakers. However, it is not clear that even interventions designed to maximise acceptability would be acceptable enough to be recommended for implementation. Further work may be required to help policymakers understand the potential responses of other stakeholder groups to financial incentive interventions.

  16. Looking for Trouble: A Policymaker's Guide to Biosensing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Armstrong, Robert; Coomber, Patricia; Prior, Stephen; Dincher, Ashley

    2004-01-01

    .... This primer is written for the non-technical policymaker and is designed to assist him or her in reaching important decisions regarding how best to help provide early warning of a biological attack...

  17. Twelve myths about systematic reviews for health system policymaking rebutted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moat, Kaelan A; Lavis, John N; Wilson, Mike G; Røttingen, John-Arne; Bärnighausen, Till

    2013-01-01

    Systematic reviews are increasingly being viewed as important sources of information for policymakers who need to make decisions on different aspects of the health system, often under tight time constraints and with many factors competing for their attention. Unfortunately, a number of misconceptions, or 'myths', stand in the way of promoting their use. The belief that systematic review topics are not relevant to health systems policymaking, that they cannot be found quickly, and that they are not available in formats that are useful for policymakers are but three examples of such myths. This paper uses evidence drawn mainly from Health Systems Evidence, a continuously updated repository of syntheses of health systems research, to counter these and nine other common myths, with the aim of changing the constraining beliefs associated with them, while improving the prospects for the use of systematic reviews in health system policymaking.

  18. Advancing Evidence Based Policymaking and Regulation to Ensure ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ? Rapports. Research, capacity-building, advocacy and dissemination by LIRNEasia : advancing evidence-based policymaking and regulation in the emerging Asia-Pacific to ensure greater participation in ICTs (Phase II); final technical report ...

  19. Policymakers pledge "fundamental change" in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This brief article highlights a recent conference held in October 1996 in India: "Expanding Partnerships for Adolescent Girls." The conference was conducted by CEDPA, Prerana-Associate CEDPA, and UNFPA. The conference focused on the need for a major fundamental change in the lives and living conditions of adolescent girls in India. Participants included over 300 representatives of government agencies and multilateral organizations. The conference began with presentations by girls who had participated in development programs for young women. Representatives from UNFPA and the UN Development Program indicated that their agencies would increase support of programs for girls and urged others to do the same. There were some innovative program recommendations for improving girls' nutrition, health needs, educational status, and sex and family life education. Many Indian girls suffer from sex discrimination. 3 million of the 15 million girls born every year die before the age of 15 years. 33% of these deaths occur in infancy. 3 million of the 4.5 million marriages every year involve girls aged 15-19 years. 17% of all births are to girls aged 15-18 years. It was argued at the conference that legislation that protects girls' well-being must be enforced. A number of CEDPA organizational representatives discussed their successful adolescent programs. The conference concluded with assurances from the Department of Women and Child Development that government would fund projects for adolescent girls and incorporate conference recommendations into policies.

  20. Affordances: Ten Years On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jill P.; Stillman, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    Ten years ago the construct, affordance, was rising in prominence in scholarly literature. A proliferation of different uses and meanings was evident. Beginning with its origin in the work of Gibson, we traced its development and use in various scholarly fields. This paper revisits our original question with respect to its utility in mathematics…

  1. Tens bij bevallingen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuin-Nuis, F.D.F.

    2000-01-01

    TENS (Transcutane Electrische Neuro Stimulatie) is een pijnverlichtingsmethode die berust op de Gate Control Theory van Melzack en Wall. Door middel van electrische pulsen via de huid zou de geleiding van nociceptieve signalen (pijnprikkels) worden beïnvloed en zou het lichaam endorfinen aanmaken:

  2. Ten Utah Painters

    OpenAIRE

    Whitlock, Andrew

    1984-01-01

    Today the art world is rich and diverse with regional as well as national art centers. As in the past, art is alive and well in Utah. The show Ten Utah Painters invites us to see and experiece what some of Utah's best contemporary artists are doing. Their paintings invite us to look and to enjoy but also to learn and open up our visual senses to a broader vista.

  3. Powers of ten

    CERN Document Server

    Innocenti, Pier Giorgio

    1979-01-01

    Powers of Ten is a 1977 short documentary film written and directed by Charles Eames and his wife, Ray. The film depicts the relative scale of the Universe in factors of ten (see also logarithmic scale and order of magnitude). The idea for the film appears to have come from the 1957 book Cosmic View by Kees Boeke. The film begins with an aerial image of a man reclining on a blanket; the view is that of one meter across. The viewpoint, accompanied by expository voiceover, then slowly zooms out to a view ten meters across ( or 101 m in standard form), revealing that the man is picnicking in a park with a female companion. The zoom-out continues, to a view of 100 meters (102 m), then 1 kilometer (103 m), and so on, increasing the perspective—the picnic is revealed to be taking place near Soldier Field on Chicago's waterfront—and continuing to zoom out to a field of view of 1024 meters, or the size of the observable universe. The camera then zooms back in to the picnic, and then to views of negative pow...

  4. Involvement of external stakeholders in local health policymaking process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eklund Karlsson, Leena; Jakobsen, Mette Winge; Winblad Heiberg, Malin

    2017-01-01

    Collaboration between research and policy is an essential element for knowledge-based public health. However, only half of the Danish municipalities have experience with collaborating with researchers or other stakeholders. Through content analysis of interviews and policy documents the study...... explores the involvement of external stakeholders in local health policymaking and public officials’ perceptions on involving them. Main involvement was through a personal contact or through a regular hearing. The purpose of involvement was mostly tactical or to solve problems. Politicians had substantial...... influence on the involvement of external stakeholders, allowing only a few to contribute in a closed policymaking process....

  5. Connecting Students and Policymakers through Science and Service-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    their findings to the non-profit partner and make policy recommendations to legislators in Capitol Hill visits. The projects have been highly impactful as a form of community science, creating passionate science advocacy among non-majors, improving collaborations with community partners, and spurring action by federal policymakers.

  6. Chernobyl - ten years after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This folder contains ten brief factsheets which aim to give a balanced presentation of the facts relating to the reactor accident at the Chernobyl power station ten years after the event. Details of the incident are given and its aftermath, in particular as it has affected the lives and health of people living in the immediate vicinity, is considered. Since records of the health of people in the region before the accident were very poor, it is extremely difficult to make definitive statements about the health effects of the accident. It is clear, however, that there has been a marked increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer especially among children in Belarus. Although curable this has given rise to deaths owing to poor health care. It is likely that deaths due to other cancers will occur in the longer term. Though estimates vary, they are in the region of 10-25,000 world wide over the next 70 years. Comparisons with the numbers of deaths from other large-scale non-nuclear industrial disasters are provided which put the Chernobyl incident in context and experts who refute the wilder claims made in the media are quoted. The status of the plant today and the international effort to improve the safety of the 15 original RMBK commercial reactors still operating in the former USSR are described. (Author)

  7. Health Reporting in Print Media in Lebanon: Evidence, Quality and Role in Informing Policymaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Bou Karroum, Lama; Bawab, Lamya; Kdouh, Ola; El-Sayed, Farah; Rachidi, Hala; Makki, Malak

    2015-01-01

    Media plays a vital role in shaping public policies and opinions through disseminating health-related information. This study aims at exploring the role of media in informing health policies in Lebanon, identifying the factors influencing health reporting and investigating the role of evidence in health journalism and the quality of health reporting. It also identifies strategies to enhance the use of evidence in health journalism and improve the quality of health reporting. Media analysis was conducted to assess the way media reports on health-related issues and the quality of reporting using a quality assessment tool. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted with 27 journalists, researchers and policymakers to explore their perception on the role of media in health policymaking and the factors influencing health reporting. In addition, a validation workshop was conducted. Out of 1,279 health-related news articles identified, 318 articles used certain type of evidence to report health issues 39.8% of which relied on experts' opinions as their source of evidence while only 5.9% referenced peer-reviewed research studies. The quality of health reporting was judged to be low based on a quality assessment tool consisting of a set of ten criteria. Journalists raised concerns about issues impeding them from referring to evidence. Journalists also reported difficulties with the investigative health journalism. Policymakers and researchers viewed media as an important tool for evidence-informed health policies, however, serious concerns were voiced in terms of the current practice and capacities. Our study provides a structured reflection on the role of media and the factors that influence health reporting including context-specific strategies that would enhance the quality and promote the use of evidence in health reporting. In the light of the political changes in many Middle Eastern countries, findings from this study can contribute to redefining the role of media

  8. Health Reporting in Print Media in Lebanon: Evidence, Quality and Role in Informing Policymaking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadi El-Jardali

    Full Text Available Media plays a vital role in shaping public policies and opinions through disseminating health-related information. This study aims at exploring the role of media in informing health policies in Lebanon, identifying the factors influencing health reporting and investigating the role of evidence in health journalism and the quality of health reporting. It also identifies strategies to enhance the use of evidence in health journalism and improve the quality of health reporting.Media analysis was conducted to assess the way media reports on health-related issues and the quality of reporting using a quality assessment tool. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted with 27 journalists, researchers and policymakers to explore their perception on the role of media in health policymaking and the factors influencing health reporting. In addition, a validation workshop was conducted.Out of 1,279 health-related news articles identified, 318 articles used certain type of evidence to report health issues 39.8% of which relied on experts' opinions as their source of evidence while only 5.9% referenced peer-reviewed research studies. The quality of health reporting was judged to be low based on a quality assessment tool consisting of a set of ten criteria. Journalists raised concerns about issues impeding them from referring to evidence. Journalists also reported difficulties with the investigative health journalism. Policymakers and researchers viewed media as an important tool for evidence-informed health policies, however, serious concerns were voiced in terms of the current practice and capacities.Our study provides a structured reflection on the role of media and the factors that influence health reporting including context-specific strategies that would enhance the quality and promote the use of evidence in health reporting. In the light of the political changes in many Middle Eastern countries, findings from this study can contribute to redefining

  9. Stewart's maxims: eight "do's" for successfully communicating silviculture to policymakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. E. Stewart

    1997-01-01

    Technical specialists may experience difficulties in presenting information to non-technical policymakers and having that information used. Eight maxims are discussed that should help the silviculturist successfully provide technical information to non-technical audiences so that it will be considered in the formulation of policy.

  10. Advancing Evidence Based Policymaking and Regulation to Ensure ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Advancing Evidence Based Policymaking and Regulation to Ensure Greater Participation in ICTs (LIRNEasia Phase II). Significant strides have been made in closing the digital divide in Asia, mainly due to the proliferation of mobile telephones. Close to a billion people, some among the poorest segments of society, have ...

  11. Governance and political consumerism in Finnish energy policy-making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruostetsaari, Ilkka [University of Turku, Turku (Finland)

    2009-01-15

    The research task in the study was, firstly, to analyse citizens' perceptions of the power structure underlying Finnish energy policy-making. Secondly, we analysed the role of civil society in the energy sector, addressing the question whether Finns feel that they can influence energy policy-making as citizens through general elections (civic participation) or as consumers via their own consumption choices (political consumerism). Methodologically, the study was based on postal survey conducted in 2007 among a random sample representing 18-75-year-old Finns (N=4000). According to the views expressed, the innermost core of the influence structure of Finland's energy policy-making today comprises only the Cabinet and Parliament, while the second circle is composed of energy-producer firms and big firms. The European Union, the Ministry of the Environment and the Ministry of Trade and Industry belong to the third circle of influence. The power relations in Finland's energy sector have continued particularly stable since the late 1980s despite the liberalization and globalization of the energy markets. In order to influence energy policy-making, citizens consider their own consumption choices more useful than voting in elections or contacts with MPs, authorities and energy-producing companies. The least useful devices are radical environmental activism and participation in mass demonstrations. (author)

  12. Monetary union without fiscal coordination may discipline policymakers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; Bovenberg, A.L.

    1995-01-01

    We show that, with benevolent policymakers and fiscal leadership, monetary unification reduces inflation, taxes and public spending. These disciplining effects of a monetary union, which rise with the number of fiscal players in the union, are likely to raise welfare. Joining an optimally designed

  13. A dual justification for science-based policy-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, David Budtz

    2014-01-01

    Science-based policy-making has grown ever more important in recent years, in parallel with the dramatic increase in the complexity and uncertainty of the ways in which science and technology interact with society and economy at the national, regional and global level. Installing a proper framewo...

  14. Use of research evidence in policymaking in three Danish municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Mette Winge; Lau, Cathrine Juel; Skovgaard, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    This article analyses the use of research evidence (RE) in three policy processes, at the local level, dealing with physical activity. We analysed an extensive number of policy documents and a total of 14 interviews with policymakers. Results show an unsystematic way of using RE, where demographic...

  15. Power, Politics and Transnational Policy-Making in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutsios, Stavros

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the relation between power and politics under the conditions of economic globalisation and transnational policy-making in education. The paper argues that power lies not only with the producers of the dominant educational discourse nor simply with the very discourse which is circulated and reproduced in national legislations,…

  16. Education Hubs and Talent Development: Policymaking and Implementation Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jack T.

    2014-01-01

    The discourse on the internationalization of higher education emphasizes revenue generation while neglecting other diverse rationales pursued by governments and institutions. For countries that are seeking to venture into a knowledge economy or accrue greater competitive advantages under globalization, many policymakers view cross-border higher…

  17. Democratization and Participation: National Education Policy-Making in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredua-Kwarteng, Eric

    2016-01-01

    This is Ghanaian case study that focuses on widening participation in national education policy-making via a social justice panel. It analyses the narratives of two former members of the Ghana Education Reform Committee and focus-groups interviews of ordinary Ghanaians. While the narratives of commission members are in favour of maintaining the…

  18. Governance and political consumerism in Finnish energy policy-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruostetsaari, Ilkka

    2009-01-01

    The research task in the study was, firstly, to analyse citizens' perceptions of the power structure underlying Finnish energy policy-making. Secondly, we analysed the role of civil society in the energy sector, addressing the question whether Finns feel that they can influence energy policy-making as citizens through general elections (civic participation) or as consumers via their own consumption choices (political consumerism). Methodologically, the study was based on postal survey conducted in 2007 among a random sample representing 18-75-year-old Finns (N=4000). According to the views expressed, the innermost core of the influence structure of Finland's energy policy-making today comprises only the Cabinet and Parliament, while the second circle is composed of energy-producer firms and big firms. The European Union, the Ministry of the Environment and the Ministry of Trade and Industry belong to the third circle of influence. The power relations in Finland's energy sector have continued particularly stable since the late 1980s despite the liberalization and globalization of the energy markets. In order to influence energy policy-making, citizens consider their own consumption choices more useful than voting in elections or contacts with MPs, authorities and energy-producing companies. The least useful devices are radical environmental activism and participation in mass demonstrations

  19. Monetary union without fiscal coordination may discipline policymakers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; Bovenberg, A.L.

    1998-01-01

    With benevolent policymakers and fiscal leadership, monetary unification reduces inflation, taxes, and public spending. These disciplining effects of a monetary union, which become stronger if the number of participants in the union increases, are likely to raise welfare. Two types of arrangements

  20. Enhancing health policymakers' information literacy knowledge and skill for policymaking on control of infectious diseases of poverty in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ezeoha, Abel Ebeh; Uro-Chukwu, Henry; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla; Ogbu, Ogbonnaya; Onwe, Friday; Edoga, Chima

    2015-01-01

    In Nigeria, one of the major challenges associated with evidence-to-policy link in the control of infectious diseases of poverty (IDP), is deficient information literacy knowledge and skill among policymakers. There is need for policymakers to acquire the skill to discover relevant information, accurately evaluate retrieved information and to apply it correctly. To use information literacy tool of International Network for Availability of Scientific Publications (INASP) to enhance policymakers' knowledge and skill for policymaking on control of IDP in Nigeria. Modified "before and after" intervention study design was used in which outcomes were measured on target participants both before the intervention is implemented and after. This study was conducted in Ebonyi State, south-eastern Nigeria and participants were career health policy makers. A two-day health-policy information literacy training workshop was organized to enhance participants" information literacy capacity. Topics covered included: introduction to information literacy; defining information problem; searching for information online; evaluating information; science information; knowledge sharing interviews; and training skills. A total of 52 policymakers attended the workshop. The pre-workshop mean rating (MNR) of knowledge and capacity for information literacy ranged from 2.15-2.97, while the post-workshop MNR ranged from 3.34-3.64 on 4-point scale. The percentage increase in MNR of knowledge and capacity at the end of the workshop ranged from 22.6%-55.3%. The results of this study suggest that through information literacy training workshop policy makers can acquire the knowledge and skill to identify, capture and share the right kind of information in the right contexts to influence relevant action or a policy decision.

  1. Norwegian environmental policy-making and the role of NGOs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rommetvedt, Hilmar; Farsund, Arild Aurvaag; Melberg, Kjersti

    1997-12-31

    This publication examines the role of pressure groups and their influence in the environmental policy-making processes in Norway. Fields concerned in this connection are in which ways do environmental and industrial organizations influence political authorities, and what kind of impact do the different organizations have on the processes mentioned. The publication presents firstly a classification of different types of relations between organized interests and public authorities, and of the different methods used to influence policy-making. Based on this classification and more general developmental trends in Norwegian politics, the publication then gives an elaboration of some hypotheses regarding environmental and industrial organizations and their influence on environmental policy. The validity of these hypotheses is examined through empirical data from surveys and case-studies. 27 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  2. Contested meanings of inclusiveness, accountability and transparency in trade policymaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Malcolm

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Inclusiveness, accountability and transparency carry different meanings in the context of different public policy processes, and for different stakeholder groups engaged in those processes. In particular, civil society has had a substantial role in conceptualising these meanings in internet governance policy spaces, but a much reduced rule in their explication in trade policymaking. It will be argued that greater support for trade policymaking could arise from a project to reconcile civil society’s expectations of the inclusiveness, accountability and transparency of trade negotiations with the political realities of the trade negotiator, while at the same time enhancing negotiators’ appreciation of the metrics that civil society stakeholders will use in assessing trade negotiations, especially those that relate to the internet.

  3. Technocracy in Economic Policy-Making in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid, Khadijah Md; Abidin, Mahani Zainal

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the role of the technocracy in economic policy-making in Malaysia. The analysis was conducted across two phases, namely the period before and after the 1997/98 economic and financial crises, and during the premiership of four prime ministers namely Tun Razak, Dr Mahathir, Abdullah Ahmad Badawi, and Najib Razak. It is claimed that the technocrats played an important role in helping the political leadership achieve their objectives. The article traces the changing fortu...

  4. Renewable electricity production costs-A framework to assist policy-makers' decisions on price support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinica, Valentina

    2011-01-01

    Despite recent progress, the production costs for renewable electricity remain above those for conventional power. Expectations of continuous reductions in production costs, typically underpin governments' policies for financial support. They often draw on the technology-focused versions of the Experience Curve model. This paper discusses how national-contextual factors also have a strong influence on production costs, such as geographic, infrastructural, institutional, and resource factors. As technologies mature, and as they reach significant levels of diffusion nationally, sustained increases in production costs might be recorded, due to these nationally contextual factors, poorly accounted for in policy-making decisions for price support. The paper suggests an analytical framework for a more comprehensive understanding of production costs. Based on this, it recommends that the evolution of specific cost levels and factors be monitored to locate 'sources of changes'. The paper also suggests policy instruments that governments may use to facilitate cost decreases, whenever possible. The application of the framework is illustrated for the diffusion of wind power in Spain during the past three decades. - Highlights: → Models, frameworks for policy-making on price support for renewable electricity production costs. → Policy instruments to help reduce production costs. → Limits to the influence of policies of production costs reductions.

  5. Big Data for Public Health Policy-Making: Policy Empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mählmann, Laura; Reumann, Matthias; Evangelatos, Nikolaos; Brand, Angela

    2018-04-04

    Digitization is considered to radically transform healthcare. As such, with seemingly unlimited opportunities to collect data, it will play an important role in the public health policy-making process. In this context, health data cooperatives (HDC) are a key component and core element for public health policy-making and for exploiting the potential of all the existing and rapidly emerging data sources. Being able to leverage all the data requires overcoming the computational, algorithmic, and technological challenges that characterize today's highly heterogeneous data landscape, as well as a host of diverse regulatory, normative, governance, and policy constraints. The full potential of big data can only be realized if data are being made accessible and shared. Treating research data as a public good, creating HDC to empower citizens through citizen-owned health data, and allowing data access for research and the development of new diagnostics, therapies, and public health policies will yield the transformative impact of digital health. The HDC model for data governance is an arrangement, based on moral codes, that encourages citizens to participate in the improvement of their own health. This then enables public health institutions and policymakers to monitor policy changes and evaluate their impact and risk on a population level. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Communicating space weather to policymakers and the wider public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Bárbara

    2014-05-01

    As a natural hazard, space weather has the potential to affect space- and ground-based technological systems and cause harm to human health. As such, it is important to properly communicate this topic to policymakers and the general public alike, informing them (without being unnecessarily alarmist) about the potential impact of space-weather phenomena and how these can be monitored and mitigated. On the other hand, space weather is related to interesting phenomena on the Sun such as coronal-mass ejections, and incorporates one of the most beautiful displays in the Earth and its nearby space environment: aurora. These exciting and fascinating aspects of space weather should be cultivated when communicating this topic to the wider public, particularly to younger audiences. Researchers have a key role to play in communicating space weather to both policymakers and the wider public. Space scientists should have an active role in informing policy decisions on space-weather monitoring and forecasting, for example. And they can exercise their communication skills by talking about space weather to school children and the public in general. This presentation will focus on ways to communicate space weather to wider audiences, particularly policymakers. It will also address the role researchers can play in this activity to help bridge the gap between the space science community and the public.

  7. Recommender systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kembellec, Gérald; Saleh, Imad

    2014-01-01

    Acclaimed by various content platforms (books, music, movies) and auction sites online, recommendation systems are key elements of digital strategies. If development was originally intended for the performance of information systems, the issues are now massively moved on logical optimization of the customer relationship, with the main objective to maximize potential sales. On the transdisciplinary approach, engines and recommender systems brings together contributions linking information science and communications, marketing, sociology, mathematics and computing. It deals with the understan

  8. The nuclear controversy: unequal competition in public policy-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderson, I.

    1980-05-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction; some epistemological problems; energy policy-making and the energy crisis; the nuclear controversy - substantive issues (the need for nuclear power; the desirability of nuclear power (safety of nuclear power; cost of nuclear power; nuclear power and weapons proliferation; nuclear power and civil liberties; some other aspects of nuclear power development); conclusion); the dominance of pro-nuclear thinking; conclusion and prospects. Appendix A describes the structure of the UK nuclear industry and its European connections. (U.K.)

  9. Strategic information for industrial policy-making in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonod, P.F.

    1990-05-01

    The practice shows that many crucial decisions for industrialization in developing countries have been taken based on incomplete information. For strategic decisions an incomplete information may have catastrophic consequences. The function of policy-making is defined as the process by which the information generated/or used in a particular context is reevaluated in a different context in order to formulate/or execute a policy of alternative decisions. It follows that the industrial information must be presented in such a manner to allow a reevaluation and alternative decisions. 30 notes

  10. The effects of corporate restructuring on hospital policymaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, J A; Morlock, L L; Gifford, B D

    1988-06-01

    Hospital corporate restructuring is the segmentation of assets or functions of the hospital into separate corporations. While these functions are almost always legally separated from the hospital, their impact on hospital policymaking may be far more direct. This study examines the effects of corporate restructuring by community hospitals on the structure, composition, and activity of hospital governing boards. In general, we expect that the policymaking function of the hospital will change to adapt to the multicorporate structure implemented under corporate restructuring, as well as the overlapping boards and diversified business responsibilities of the new corporate entity. Specifically, we hypothesize that the hospital board under corporate restructuring will conform more to the "corporate" model found in the business/industrial sector and less to the "philanthropic" model common to most community hospitals to date. Analysis of survey data from 1,037 hospitals undergoing corporate restructuring from 1979-1985 and a comparison group of 1,883 noncorporately restructured hospitals suggests general support for this hypothesis. Implications for health care governance and research are discussed.

  11. Implementation research evidence uptake and use for policy-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panisset Ulysses

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A major obstacle to the progress of the Millennium Development Goals has been the inability of health systems in many low- and middle-income countries to effectively implement evidence-informed interventions. This article discusses the relationships between implementation research and knowledge translation and identifies the role of implementation research in the design and execution of evidence-informed policy. After a discussion of the benefits and synergies needed to translate implementation research into action, the article discusses how implementation research can be used along the entire continuum of the use of evidence to inform policy. It provides specific examples of the use of implementation research in national level programmes by looking at the scale up of zinc for the treatment of childhood diarrhoea in Bangladesh and the scaling up of malaria treatment in Burkina Faso. A number of tested strategies to support the transfer of implementation research results into policy-making are provided to help meet the standards that are increasingly expected from evidence-informed policy-making practices.

  12. The effects of corporate restructuring on hospital policymaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, J A; Morlock, L L; Gifford, B D

    1988-01-01

    Hospital corporate restructuring is the segmentation of assets or functions of the hospital into separate corporations. While these functions are almost always legally separated from the hospital, their impact on hospital policymaking may be far more direct. This study examines the effects of corporate restructuring by community hospitals on the structure, composition, and activity of hospital governing boards. In general, we expect that the policymaking function of the hospital will change to adapt to the multicorporate structure implemented under corporate restructuring, as well as the overlapping boards and diversified business responsibilities of the new corporate entity. Specifically, we hypothesize that the hospital board under corporate restructuring will conform more to the "corporate" model found in the business/industrial sector and less to the "philanthropic" model common to most community hospitals to date. Analysis of survey data from 1,037 hospitals undergoing corporate restructuring from 1979-1985 and a comparison group of 1,883 noncorporately restructured hospitals suggests general support for this hypothesis. Implications for health care governance and research are discussed. PMID:3384671

  13. ABACC ten years applying safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, Elias

    2001-01-01

    The Argentinian-Brazilian Agency for Accounting and Control of nuclear special materials has been in operations for ten years. The rational behind the creation and the work performed by the Agency during the last decade is described. (author)

  14. Social Cost Benefit Analysis for Environmental Policy-Making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Zeeuw, A.; In t Veld, R.; Van Soest, D.; Meuleman, L.; Hoogewoning, P.

    2008-01-01

    Review of the theoretical literature and the current debate on the valuation of environmental goods and services, on the discounting of future benefits and costs, and on how social cost benefit analysis (SCBAs) can be integrated in the policy and decision making process. It is concluded that SCBA can be a good decision support method in environmental policy-making if it is transparent and if all impacts are taken into account. Furthermore, the SCBA process should be participative, and politicians must be prepared to take responsibility for the assumptions behind the SCBA, including the assumptions on valuation and on the discount rate. Such a political role makes each SCBA a unique product of a politically responsible actor, and makes it possible for other stakeholders to have calculated an alternative SCBA based on their own assumptions. This Background Study also contains the proceedings of the international SCBA conference organised by RMNO on 16-17 January 2008

  15. Do policy-makers find commissioned rapid reviews useful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Gabriel; Redman, Sally; Rudge, Sian; Haynes, Abby

    2018-02-26

    Rapid reviews are increasingly used by policy agencies to access relevant research in short timeframes. Despite the growing number of programmes, little is known about how rapid reviews are used by health policy agencies. This study examined whether and how rapid reviews commissioned using a knowledge brokering programme were used by Australian policy-makers. This study used interview data to examine the use of 139 rapid reviews by health policy agencies that were commissioned between 2006 and 2015. Transcripts were coded to identify how rapid reviews were used, the type of policy processes in which they were used, what evidence of use was provided and what reasons were given when rapid reviews were not used. Fisher's exact test was used to assess variation between types of agencies. Overall, 89% of commissioned rapid reviews were used by the commissioning agencies and 338 separate instances of use were identified, namely, on average, three uses per review. Policy-makers used reviews primarily to determine the details of a policy or programme, identify priorities for future action or investment, negotiate interjurisdictional decisions, evaluate alternative solutions for a policy problem, and communicate information to stakeholders. Some variation in use was observed across agencies. Reasons for non-use were related to changes in organisational structures, resources or key personnel in the commissioning agencies, or changes in the broader political environment. This study found that almost all rapid reviews had been used by the agencies who commissioned them, primarily in policy and programme development, agenda-setting, and to communicate information to stakeholders. Reviews were used mostly in instrumental and conceptual ways and there was little evidence of symbolic use. Variations in use were identified across agencies. The findings suggest that commissioned rapid reviews are an effective means of providing timely relevant research for use in policy processes

  16. International recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, Bo

    1986-01-01

    Full text: This short presentation will indicate the general radiation protection background to protective measures against foodstuffs contaminated with radioactive substances. A number of international organizations are involved in various aspects of radiation protection, for example, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), and the World Health Organization (WHO). Two international organizations, however, provide the basic background. These are the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). UNSCEAR provides the scientific information on radiation levels and effects. It consists of 21 member countries, with truly international coverage. It issues reports to the UN General Assembly, including comprehensive scientific annexes. Its latest comprehensive report was issued in 1982, the next is expected to be published in 1988. That report will include an assessment of the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The ICRP is a non-governmental organization. It has issued recommendations on radiation protection since 1928. The postulated biological basis for radiation protection recommendations involves two types of biological effects. The so-called non-stochastic effects, mainly due to cell death, appear only when the radiation doses exceed a certain threshold value. These effects, therefore, can only appear after high accidental exposures. After the Chernobyl accident, they only affected about 200 individuals involved in fire extinction and rescue work at the damaged nuclear power plant. Stochastic effects, with some simplification, may be seen as the result of initial changes in the genetic code of some surviving cells. If these cells are germ cells, this may lead to hereditary harm. If they are somatic cells, the result could be cancer

  17. Ten Lessons from Ten Years PPP Experience in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, T.; Verhoest, K.; Voets, J.; Coppens, T.; van Dooren, W.; van den Hurk, M.

    2017-01-01

    In 2004 Flanders, the northern region of Belgium launched a range of large public–private partnership (PPP) projects for a total value of 6 billion euros. Ten years later, PPP has become a well-embedded procurement method for long-term public infrastructure projects. This article makes a critical

  18. Virginia policymakers' views on the value of visual arts education at the high school level

    OpenAIRE

    Goodwin, Daisy Wilson

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out from Virginia policymakers their feelings toward visual arts education as a required subject at the high school level by answering the following questions: (1) How do policymakers and gatekeepers see the value of visual arts education as a required subject on the high school level? (2) What is the attitude of Virginia policymakers and gatekeepers towards the importance of issues pertaining to the framing of a visual arts education p...

  19. Ten statistics commandments that almost never should be broken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Thomas R; Brown, Jean K

    2014-08-01

    Quantitative researchers must choose among a variety of statistical methods when analyzing their data. In this article, the authors identify ten common errors in how statistical techniques are used and reported in clinical research and recommend stronger alternatives. Useful references to the methodological research literature in which such matters are discussed are provided. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Challenges to pharmaceutical policymaking: lessons from Australia's national medicines policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipworth, Wendy; Doran, Evan; Kerridge, Ian; Day, Richard

    2014-05-01

    National medicines policies (NMP) provide a means for governments to achieve their objectives in relation to pharmaceuticals and other medicines. This research aimed to identify challenges to implementing the objectives of the Australian NMP from the perspective of key stakeholders. In 2012 and 2103, we conducted 30 semistructured interviews with stakeholders involved in the discovery, clinical testing, regulation and funding of medicines in Australia. We asked participants to describe their careers and to give their opinions on specific issues surrounding drug development, clinical research, regulation and subsidisation in Australia. Data were analysed using Morse's outline of the cognitive basis of qualitative research and Charmaz's outline of data analysis in grounded theory. The initial phase of 'open coding' revealed findings that could be mapped to three of the four objectives of the NMP. We then conducted 'focussed coding' for themes relevant to these objectives. Participants identified many issues relevant to the ongoing evolution of the NMP, relating primarily to ongoing tensions between the commercial objective of ensuring a viable medicines industry, and the non-commercial objectives of ensuring that medicines are safe, effective and affordable. There were also several other challenges identified to the achievement of both the commercial and non-commercial objectives of the NMP. These included limits to government funding, globalisation, consumer advocacy, changing scientific paradigms and new information technologies. There are many issues that need to be addressed if policymakers are to achieve the best outcomes from the NMP. Tensions between the commercial and non-commercial objectives of the NMP suggest the need to ensure that one stakeholder group's imperatives do not stifle those of other groups. At the same time, there are several emerging issues that are likely to concern all stakeholders equally, and these are both challenges and opportunities

  1. A Ten-Year Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillip, Cyndi

    2016-01-01

    Five initiatives launched during Cyndi Phillip's term as American Association of School Librarians (AASL) President (2006-2007) continue to have an impact on school librarians ten years later. They include the rewriting of AASL's learning standards, introduction of the SKILLS Act, the presentation of the Crystal Apple Award to Scholastic Library…

  2. Ten-dimensional Supergravity Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric; Roo, Mees de; Kerstan, Sven; Riccioni, Fabio; Diaz Alonso, J.; Mornas, L.

    2006-01-01

    We show that the exisiting supergravity theories in ten dimensions can be extended with extra gauge fields whose rank is equal to the spacetime dimension. These gauge fields have vanishing field strength but nevertheless play an important role in the coupling of supergravity to spacetime filling

  3. Ten Rules of Academic Writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donovan, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    Creative writers are well served with 'how to' guides, but just how much do they help? And how might they be relevant to academic authors? A recent survey of writing tips by twenty-eight creative authors has been condensed to the ten most relevant to the academic, supported by some comments on

  4. The Inclusion of the Lived Experience of Disability in Policymaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laufey Löve

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the process under way in Iceland to align national law with the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, focusing on the Convention’s call for the active involvement of disabled people and their representative organizations in policy and decision making on matters that affect them. The paper draws on comments submitted by Icelandic DPOs on draft legislation intended to replace the existing law on services for disabled people, focusing on comments relating to their ability to participate in and affect the policymaking process. Furthermore, it draws on interviews with leaders of representative organizations of disabled people that solicited their views on the issue. The findings indicate that there is a reluctance on behalf of Icelandic authorities to make changes to the established process, which limits the active participation of disabled people and their representative organizations. The draft legislation has neither been revised to include provisions for expanding the participation of DPOs in policy and decision making, nor to ensure that disabled people themselves participate in the process.

  5. Support Mechanisms for Evidence-Based Policy-Making in Education. Eurydice Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riiheläinen, Jari Matti; Böhm, Franziska

    2017-01-01

    The report describes the mechanisms and practices that support evidence-based policy-making in the education sector in Europe. It comparatively looks at institutions and practices in evidence-based policy-making, as well as the accessibility, and mediation, of evidence. The report presents more detailed information on each individual country, with…

  6. The Impact of School Culture on Schools' Pupil Well-Being Policy-Making Capacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gasse, Roos; Vanhoof, Jan; Van Petegem, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Pupil well-being has been an important topic in educational research for some time. Differences between schools in their influence on the well-being of their pupils are attributed to the policy-making capacities of the school. Little is known about schools' policy-making capacities with regard to pupil well-being, and the impact of school culture…

  7. Practicing Community Engagement: Engaging contradictions in inclusion and exclusion in collaborative planning and policymaking

    OpenAIRE

    Bredow, Victoria Ann Lowerson

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes community engagement practices as a fundamental feature of democracy, planning, and policymaking processes. Multiple disciplines, including public policy, planning, and public health, understand community engagement as a mechanism to make planning, policymaking, and research processes and their outcomes more democratic, effective, and sustainable. Yet scholars, practitioners, and community residents continue to observe and experience difficulty collaborating in the ...

  8. Educational Policymaking and the Methodology of Positive Economics: A Theoretical Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilead, Tal

    2014-01-01

    By critically interrogating the methodological foundations of orthodox economic theory, Tal Gilead challenges the growing conviction in educational policymaking quarters that, being more scientific than other forms of educational investigation, inquiries grounded in orthodox economics should provide the basis for educational policymaking. He…

  9. The Employability Skills of Business Graduates in Syria: Do Policymakers and Employers Speak the Same Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoubi, Rami M.; Alzarif, Kahla; Khalifa, Bayan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to compare the desired employability skills of business graduates in Syria from the perspective of both higher education policymakers and employers in the private sector. Design/Methodology/Approach: Interviews were conducted with 12 higher education policymakers and managers from the business sector. Content…

  10. Influenza vaccination policy-making processes in France and The Netherlands: framework and determinants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, M.L.; Perrier, L.; Paget, W.J.; Mosnier, A.; Buthion, V.; Cohen, J.M.; Späth, H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Target groups for seasonal influenza vaccination are nationally defined based on several factors. However, few studies have explored the policy-making processes at the country-level. We investigated key differences in the policy-making process for the development of vaccination

  11. Global Environmental Leadership and Sustainability: High School Students Teaching Environmental Science to Policymakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S.; Tamsitt, V. M.

    2016-02-01

    A two week high school course for high-achieving 10th-12th graders was developed through the combined efforts of Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) Graduate Students and UC San Diego Academic Connections. For the high school students involved, one week was spent at SIO learning basic climate science and researching climate-related topics, and one week was spent in Washington D.C. lobbying Congress for an environmental issue of their choosing. The specific learning goals of the course were for students to (1) collect, analyze and interpret scientific data, (2) synthesize scientific research for policy recommendations, (3) craft and deliver a compelling policy message, and (4) understand and experience change. In this first year, 10 students conducted research on two scientific topics; sea level rise using pier temperature data and California rainfall statistics using weather stations. Simultaneous lessons on policy messaging helped students learn how to focus scientific information for non-scientists. In combining the importance of statistics from their Science lessons with effective communication from their Policy lessons, the students developed issue papers which highlighted an environmental problem, the solution, and the reason their solution is most effective. The course culminated in two days of meetings on Capitol Hill, where they presented their solutions to their Congressional and Senate Members, conversed with policymakers, and received constructive feedback. Throughout the process, the students effectively defined arguments for an environmental topic in a program developed by SIO Graduate Students.

  12. Using knowledge brokering to promote evidence-based policy-making: The need for support structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kammen, Jessika; de Savigny, Don; Sewankambo, Nelson

    2006-08-01

    Knowledge brokering is a promising strategy to close the "know-do gap" and foster greater use of research findings and evidence in policy-making. It focuses on organizing the interactive process between the producers and users of knowledge so that they can co-produce feasible and research-informed policy options. We describe a recent successful experience with this novel approach in the Netherlands and discuss the requirements for effective institutionalization of knowledge brokering. We also discuss the potential of this approach to assist health policy development in low-income countries based on the experience of developing the Regional East-African Health (REACH)-Policy Initiative. We believe that intermediary organizations, such as regional networks, dedicated institutional mechanisms and funding agencies, can play key roles in supporting knowledge brokering. We recommend the need to support and learn from the brokerage approach to strengthen the relationship between the research and policy communities and hence move towards a stronger culture of evidence-based policy and policy-relevant research.

  13. Strengthening the framework for independence of science in policymaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, A.; Phartiyal, P.; Halpern, M.; Goldman, G. T.; Reed, G.

    2016-12-01

    The "independence" of scientific advice—shorthand for the safeguards that are needed to ensure that scientific evidence that informs policy proposals stems from a valid and credible scientific process—is crucial to better policy decisions and public faith in public policy decisions. To the public, and often policy-makers, the process of developing, refereeing, and synthesizing science is often opaque, confusing, and underappreciated. At the same time, calls for disclosure of real or perceived conflicts of interest and for greater public access to scientific information and data are increasing. Further, vested interests routinely produce their own analyses, which often do not meet acceptable standards, to justify their own ends or a particular pre-determined policy position for economic, political, ideological, or other gains. These are not speculative concerns. For example, conflict of interest disclosure is often incomplete and inconsistently enforced. Peer review, even in the academic community, has been compromised or circumvented in too many cases. Scientific misconduct and research integrity in several fields have become high-profile scandals. Scientific integrity policies in government agencies are not fully implemented. A decline in public funding of research makes private-public partnerships more commonplace, and sometimes, those partnerships allow funders to unduly influence faculty appointment, curricula, and research. In this complicated landscape, a coherent, publicly credible and acceptable framework to assure that scientific advice is independent is sorely needed. Such a framework must incorporate best practices such as peer review; disclosure of conflicts; public availability of research findings, methodology and data; reproducibility of results; scientific freedom to publish; and deterrents against scientific misconduct. The framework would be broadly applicable across many technical fields and sectors. Here we delve into each of these elements

  14. Transport policy-making and planning Javanese cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitriou, H.

    1995-12-31

    Based on findings of field studies in five Javanese cities in Indonesia, this paper looks at a hierarchy of settlements and investigates what aspects of urban development and the transport sector most influences transport policy-making and planning in the country. The paper highlights the presence of a community hierarchy within these settlements with consonant trip-making patterns and the widespread mis-use of certain transport modes. The paper cross-relates observed transport problems and policy issues diagnosed from the five Javanese cities with an earlier prepared national agenda of urban transport policy issues and problems. This is done with a view to arriving at more sensitive policy and planning responses nationwide for cities of different kinds in Indonesia. The paper commences with an explanation of the settlement hierarchy and community structure employed by Indonesian government planners. An attempt is then made to relate this hierarchy and structure to the five cities studied. Within this context, factors affecting urban transport are discussed and tabulated against the above cities settlement hierarchy. These include aspects of: settlement size, structure and area; settlement development policy, urban for, density and topography; and travel and transport characteristics. An attempt is made to match this settlement hierarchy (and its constituent community structure) with a conceptualized hierarchy of transport modes, simultaneously investigating: the relationship between urban communities and assigned road hierarchies; community-based travel demand and trip-making characteristics; and the relationship between travel, speed and distance. From this an assessment is made of the performance and current use and mis-use of such transport modes.

  15. [Neuroethics of pharmaceutical cognitive enhancement: the first ten years: current problems and practical guiding principles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzinger, T K

    2012-01-01

    An evaluating survey of the development of the neuroethics of pharmaceutical cognitive enhancement (PCE) during the last decade, focussing on the situation in Germany, has been undertaken. This article presents the most important conceptual problems, current substances and central ethical and legal issues. Very first guidelines and recommendations for policy-makers are formulated at the end of the text. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Ten Thousand Years of Solitude?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benford, G.; Pasqualetti, M.J.

    1991-03-01

    This report documents the authors work as an expert team advising the US Department of Energy on modes of inadvertent intrusion over the next 10,000 years into the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP) nuclear waste repository. Credible types of potential future accidental intrusion into the WIPP are estimated as a basis for creating warning markers to prevent inadvertent intrusion. A six-step process is used to structure possible scenarios for such intrusion, and it is concluded that the probability of inadvertent intrusion into the WIPP repository over the next ten thousand years lies between one and twenty-five percent. 3 figs., 5 tabs

  17. Ten questions on nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillaumont, R.; Bacher, P.

    2004-01-01

    The authors give explanations and answers to ten issues related to nuclear wastes: when a radioactive material becomes a waste, how radioactive wastes are classified and particularly nuclear wastes in France, what are the risks associated with radioactive wastes, whether the present management of radioactive wastes is well controlled in France, which wastes are raising actual problems and what are the solutions, whether amounts and radio-toxicity of wastes can be reduced, whether all long life radionuclides or part of them can be transmuted, whether geologic storage of final wastes is inescapable, whether radioactive material can be warehoused over long durations, and how the information on radioactive waste management is organised

  18. Ten Thousand Years of Solitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benford, G. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) California Univ., Irvine, CA (USA). Dept. of Physics); Kirkwood, C.W. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (USA). Coll. of Business Administration); Harry, O. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Pasqualetti, M.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (USA))

    1991-03-01

    This report documents the authors work as an expert team advising the US Department of Energy on modes of inadvertent intrusion over the next 10,000 years into the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP) nuclear waste repository. Credible types of potential future accidental intrusion into the WIPP are estimated as a basis for creating warning markers to prevent inadvertent intrusion. A six-step process is used to structure possible scenarios for such intrusion, and it is concluded that the probability of inadvertent intrusion into the WIPP repository over the next ten thousand years lies between one and twenty-five percent. 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Ten questions about systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joyner, Michael J; Pedersen, Bente K

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we raise 'ten questions' broadly related to 'omics', the term systems biology, and why the new biology has failed to deliver major therapeutic advances for many common diseases, especially diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We argue that a fundamentally narrow and reductionist...... to understand how whole animals adapt to the real world. We argue that a lack of fluency in these concepts is a major stumbling block for what has been narrowly defined as 'systems biology' by some of its leading advocates. We also point out that it is a failure of regulation at multiple levels that causes many...

  20. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for neuropathic pain in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, William; Wand, Benedict M; O'Connell, Neil E

    2017-09-14

    active treatments or favoured the comparator intervention (very low quality evidence). We were unable to report on other primary and secondary outcomes in these single trials (health-related quality of life, global impression of change and changes in analgesic use).Of the 15 included studies, three reported adverse events which were minor and limited to 'skin irritation' at or around the site of electrode placement (very low quality evidence). Three studies reported no adverse events while the remainder did not report any detail with regard adverse events. In this review, we reported on the comparison between TENS and sham TENS. The quality of the evidence was very low meaning we were unable to confidently state whether TENS is effective for pain control in people with neuropathic pain. The very low quality of evidence means we have very limited confidence in the effect estimate reported; the true effect is likely to be substantially different. We make recommendations with respect to future TENS study designs which may meaningfully reduce the uncertainty relating to the effectiveness of this treatment modality.

  1. Europe's energy transition. The big five recommendations to guide and inspire EU policy-makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-09-01

    The energy transition is more than a shift from one energy system (finite resources) to another (more renewable and low energy-based). Our century's challenge is to radically reduce our energy use. The local level is where the new energy paradigm is happening. Ambitious policies at European level are crucial to speed up the movement

  2. Benefits, Barriers and Guideline Recommendations for the Implementation of Serious Games in Education for Stakeholders and Policymakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsekleves, Emmanuel; Cosmas, John; Aggoun, Amar

    2016-01-01

    Serious games and game-based learning have received increased attention in recent years as an adjunct to teaching and learning material. This has been well echoed in the literature with numerous articles on the use of games and game theory in education. Despite this, no policy for the incorporation of serious games in education exists to date.…

  3. Ten Challenges for Decision Neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A Huettel

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Decision neuroscience research, as currently practiced, employs the methods of neuroscience to investigate concepts drawn from the social sciences. A typical study selects one or more variables from psychological or economic models, manipulates or measures choices within a simplified choice task, and then identifies neural correlates. Using this neuroeconomic approach, researchers have described brain systems whose functioning shapes key economic variables, most notably aspects of subjective value. Yet, the standard approach has fundamental limitations. Important aspects of the mechanisms of decision making – from the sources of variability in decision making to the very computations supported by decision-related regions – remain incompletely understood. Here, I outline ten outstanding challenges for future research in decision neuroscience. While some will be readily addressed using current methods, others will require new conceptual frameworks. Accordingly, a new strain of decision neuroscience will marry methods from economics and cognitive science to concepts from neurobiology and cognitive neuroscience.

  4. Ten questions about systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joyner, Michael J; Pedersen, Bente K

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we raise 'ten questions' broadly related to 'omics', the term systems biology, and why the new biology has failed to deliver major therapeutic advances for many common diseases, especially diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We argue that a fundamentally narrow and reductionist...... perspective about the contribution of genes and genetic variants to disease is a key reason 'omics' has failed to deliver the anticipated breakthroughs. We then point out the critical utility of key concepts from physiology like homeostasis, regulated systems and redundancy as major intellectual tools...... common diseases. Finally, we attempt to integrate our critique of reductionism into a broader social framework about so-called translational research in specific and the root causes of common diseases in general. Throughout we offer ideas and suggestions that might be incorporated into the current...

  5. Ten out of ten for LHC decapole magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    CERN's Albert Ijspeert (left) and Avinash Puntambekar of the Indian CAT laboratory with the ten Indian decapole magnets on the test bench. Tests will be carried out by the LHC-MTA group. A batch of 10 superconducting decapole magnets for the LHC has just arrived at CERN from India. These will be used to correct for slight imperfections in the dipole magnets that will steer proton beams around CERN's new accelerator. All magnets have slight imperfections in the fields they produce, and in the LHC dipoles these will be corrected for using sextupoles and decapoles. The sextupoles were the first LHC magnets to be given the production green-light following successful tests of pre-series magnets last year (Bulletin 21/2000, 22 May 2000). Now it is the turn of pre-series decapoles to go on trial at CERN. Of the LHC's 1232 dipole magnets, half will use sextupole correctors only and the other half will use both sextupoles and decapoles. That means that a total of 616 pairs of decapoles are needed. Like the sextupole...

  6. 75 FR 71317 - Fundamental Principles and Policymaking Criteria for Partnerships With Faith-Based and Other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ... Agency; (xi) the Administrator of the Small Business Administration; (xii) the Administrator of the... Homeland Security; (xii) the Environmental Protection Agency; (xiii) the Small Business Administration... Part IV The President Executive Order 13559--Fundamental Principles and Policymaking Criteria for...

  7. Exploring health researchers’ perceptions of policymaking in Argentina: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corluka, Adrijana; Hyder, Adnan A; Winch, Peter J; Segura, Elsa

    2014-01-01

    Much of the published research on evidence-informed health policymaking in low- and middle-income countries has focused on policymakers, overlooking the role of health researchers in the research-to-policy process. Through 20 semi-structured, in-depth qualitative interviews conducted with researchers in Argentina’s rural northwest and the capital of Buenos Aires, we explore the perspectives, experiences and attitudes of Argentine health researchers regarding the use and impact of health research in policymaking in Argentina. We find that the researcher, and the researcher’s function of generating evidence, is nested within a broader complex system that influences the researcher’s interaction with policymaking. This system comprises communities of practice, government departments/civil society organizations, bureaucratic processes and political governance and executive leadership. At the individual level, researcher capacity and determinants of research availability also play a role in contributing to evidence-informed policymaking. In addition, we find a recurrent theme around ‘lack of trust’ and explore the role of trust within a research system, finding that researchers’ distrust towards policymakers and even other researchers are linked inextricably to the sociopolitical history of Argentina, which contributes to shaping researchers’ identities in opposition to policymakers. For policymakers, national research councils and funders of national health research systems, this article provides a deeper understanding of researchers’ perceptions which can help inform and improve programme design when developing interventions to enhance research utilization and develop equitable and rational health policies. For donors and development agencies interested in health research capacity building and achieving development goals, this research demonstrates a need for investment in building research capacity and training health researchers to interact with the

  8. Exploring health researchers' perceptions of policymaking in Argentina: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corluka, Adrijana; Hyder, Adnan A; Winch, Peter J; Segura, Elsa

    2014-09-01

    Much of the published research on evidence-informed health policymaking in low- and middle-income countries has focused on policymakers, overlooking the role of health researchers in the research-to-policy process. Through 20 semi-structured, in-depth qualitative interviews conducted with researchers in Argentina's rural northwest and the capital of Buenos Aires, we explore the perspectives, experiences and attitudes of Argentine health researchers regarding the use and impact of health research in policymaking in Argentina. We find that the researcher, and the researcher's function of generating evidence, is nested within a broader complex system that influences the researcher's interaction with policymaking. This system comprises communities of practice, government departments/civil society organizations, bureaucratic processes and political governance and executive leadership. At the individual level, researcher capacity and determinants of research availability also play a role in contributing to evidence-informed policymaking. In addition, we find a recurrent theme around 'lack of trust' and explore the role of trust within a research system, finding that researchers' distrust towards policymakers and even other researchers are linked inextricably to the sociopolitical history of Argentina, which contributes to shaping researchers' identities in opposition to policymakers. For policymakers, national research councils and funders of national health research systems, this article provides a deeper understanding of researchers' perceptions which can help inform and improve programme design when developing interventions to enhance research utilization and develop equitable and rational health policies. For donors and development agencies interested in health research capacity building and achieving development goals, this research demonstrates a need for investment in building research capacity and training health researchers to interact with the public policy

  9. Private sector involvement in science and innovation policy-making in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Annamária Inzelt

    2008-01-01

    The overall thrust of this paper is that policy learning is enhanced by the participation of private business. It is assumed that business involvement would suggest abundant opportunities for policy learning and transfer. The empirical part of this paper investigates private sector involvement in science, technology and innovation (STI) policy-making in a transition economy (Hungary). Private sector involvement in Hungarian STI policy-making is investigated in terms of the stages and types of...

  10. Resolution 1540, ten years on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hautecouverture, Benjamin

    2014-06-01

    Adopted on the 28 April 2004 by the United Nations Security Council under Chapter VII of the UN Charter, Resolution 1540 is a composite tool that was hitherto unprecedented. To recap, States are bound to 'refrain from providing any form of support to non-State actors that attempt to develop, acquire, manufacture, possess, transport, transfer or use nuclear, chemical or biological weapons and their means of delivery' (par. 1), and to prohibit and prevent non-State actors from the aforementioned through 'appropriate and effective' (par. 2,3) legal, judiciary, and administrative means. A Committee was established to which States had to submit a first report outlining the steps 'they have taken or intend to take to implement this resolution' (par. 4). This Committee was initially established for two years and has been regularly renewed since, and its mandate was extended in 2011 for ten years. It is not a surveillance mechanism. Finally, with the aim of remedying difficulties that certain States may experience in implementing the Resolution, 'States in a position to do so' are invited to offer assistance (par. 7). The level of the application of Resolution 1540 was originally based on a delicate three-pronged balance of obligation, good will, and partnership. It is not a matter of designating certain States to the rest of the international community, whilst avoiding that the exercise be limited to the submission of national reports, instead aiming to initiate a dynamic. The wager was a risky one. Ten years on, 90% of UN member States have submitted one or several implementation reports. 170 States and 50 international and regional organisations have taken part in outreach and implementation support events. Whatever quantitative or qualitative conclusions that can be reached, we should continue to promote the Re-solution's universal adoption, and to ensure that the implementation of its provisions is undertaken in a lasting

  11. Trade policy governance: What health policymakers and advocates need to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarman, Holly

    2017-11-01

    Trade policies affect determinants of health as well as the options and resources available to health policymakers. There is therefore a need for health policymakers and related stakeholders in all contexts to understand and connect with the trade policymaking process. This paper uses the TAPIC (transparency, accountability, participation, integrity, capacity) governance framework to analyze how trade policy is commonly governed. I conclude that the health sector is likely to benefit when transparency in trade policymaking is increased, since trade negotiations to date have often left out health advocates and policymakers. Trade policymakers and negotiators also tend to be accountable to economic and trade ministries, which are in turn accountable to economic and business interests. Neither tend to appreciate the health consequences of trade and trade policies. Greater accountability to health ministries and interests, and greater participation by them, could improve the health effects of trade negotiations. Trade policies are complex, requiring considerable policy capacity to understand and influence. Nevertheless, investing in understanding trade can pay off in terms of managing future legal risks. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Asthma Disparity Photovoice: The Discourses of Black Adolescent and Public Health Policymakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Agnew, Robin Andrew

    2018-03-01

    Policies in U.S. public schools that address asthma management for Black adolescents may not sufficiently transform sociocultural determinants of disparities. A critical analysis of public health policy maker and adolescent discourses on asthma management using an ecological framework could inform policy development. This study describes the discourses of asthma management disparities of school and other public health policymakers and Black adolescents with asthma during a statewide asthma planning activity. I conducted a qualitative critical discourse analysis on transcripts and phototexts from a photovoice project with Black adolescents with asthma (n = 19), an asthma-planning meeting with school and public health policymakers (n = 12), and an observation of a photovoice dissemination event that included the same adolescents and policymakers. Policymakers did not discuss sociocultural discourses concerning asthma management disparities such as racism and discrimination, but the adolescents did. The only shared discourses between adolescents and policymakers were on the management of indoor environments, health care quality, inadequate housing, and outdoor air pollution. Including Black adolescents in policymaking activities concerning asthma management disparities furthers the identification of differing and shared discourses. School policies should include multilevel strategies that address structural inequities. Photovoice presents an opportunity for including the voice of marginalized youth in policy-planning processes.

  13. SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed health Policymaking (STP) 14: Organising and using policy dialogues to support evidence-informed policymaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavis, John N; Boyko, Jennifer A; Oxman, Andrew D; Lewin, Simon; Fretheim, Atle

    2009-12-16

    This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. Policy dialogues allow research evidence to be considered together with the views, experiences and tacit knowledge of those who will be involved in, or affected by, future decisions about a high-priority issue. Increasing interest in the use of policy dialogues has been fuelled by a number of factors: 1. The recognition of the need for locally contextualised 'decision support' for policymakers and other stakeholders 2. The recognition that research evidence is only one input into the decision-making processes of policymakers and other stakeholders 3. The recognition that many stakeholders can add significant value to these processes, and 4. The recognition that many stakeholders can take action to address high-priority issues, and not just policymakers. In this article, we suggest questions to guide those organising and using policy dialogues to support evidence-informed policymaking. These are: 1. Does the dialogue address a high-priority issue? 2. Does the dialogue provide opportunities to discuss the problem, options to address the problem, and key implementation considerations? 3. Is the dialogue informed by a pre-circulated policy brief and by a discussion about the full range of factors that can influence the policymaking process? 4. Does the dialogue ensure fair representation among those who will be involved in, or affected by, future decisions related to the issue? 5. Does the dialogue engage a facilitator, follow a rule about not attributing comments to individuals, and not aim for consensus? 6. Are outputs produced and follow-up activities undertaken to support action?

  14. Enhancing the Capacity of Policy-Makers to Develop Evidence-Informed Policy Brief on Infectious Diseases of Poverty in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chigozie Jesse Uneke

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The lack of effective use of research evidence in policy-making is a major challenge in most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. There is need to package research data into effective policy tools that will help policy-makers to make evidence-informed policy regarding infectious diseases of poverty (IDP. The objective of this study was to assess the usefulness of training workshops and mentoring to enhance the capacity of Nigerian health policy-makers to develop evidence-informed policy brief on the control of IDP. Methods A modified “before and after” intervention study design was used in which outcomes were measured on the target participants both before the intervention is implemented and after. A 4-point Likert scale according to the degree of adequacy; 1 = “grossly inadequate,” 4 = “very adequate” was employed. The main parameter measured was participants’ perceptions of their own knowledge/understanding. This study was conducted at subnational level and the participants were the career health policy-makers drawn from Ebonyi State in the South-Eastern Nigeria. A oneday evidence-to-policy workshop was organized to enhance the participants’ capacity to develop evidence-informed policy brief on IDP in Ebonyi State. Topics covered included collaborative initiative; preparation and use of policy briefs; policy dialogue; ethics in health policy-making; and health policy and politics. Results The preworkshop mean of knowledge and capacity ranged from 2.49-3.03, while the postworkshop mean ranged from 3.42–3.78 on 4-point scale. The percentage increase in mean of knowledge and capacity at the end of the workshop ranged from 20.10%–45%. Participants were divided into 3 IDP mentorship groups (malaria, schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis [LF] and were mentored to identify potential policy options/recommendations for control of the diseases for the policy briefs. These policy options were subjected to research

  15. The Universal Recommender

    OpenAIRE

    Kunegis, Jérôme; Said, Alan; Umbrath, Winfried

    2009-01-01

    We describe the Universal Recommender, a recommender system for semantic datasets that generalizes domain-specific recommenders such as content-based, collaborative, social, bibliographic, lexicographic, hybrid and other recommenders. In contrast to existing recommender systems, the Universal Recommender applies to any dataset that allows a semantic representation. We describe the scalable three-stage architecture of the Universal Recommender and its application to Internet Protocol Televisio...

  16. Initiatives supporting evidence informed health system policymaking in Cameroon and Uganda: a comparative historical case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongolo-Zogo, Pierre; Lavis, John N; Tomson, Goran; Sewankambo, Nelson K

    2014-11-29

    There is a scarcity of empirical data on institutions devoted to knowledge brokerage and their influence in Africa. Our objective was to describe two pioneering Knowledge Translation Platforms (KTPs) supporting evidence informed health system policymaking (EIHSP) in Cameroon and Uganda since 2006. This comparative historical case study of Evidence Informed Policy Network (EVIPNet) Cameroon and Regional East African Community Health Policy Initiative (REACH-PI) Uganda using multiple methods comprised (i) a descriptive documentary analysis for a narrative historical account, (ii) an interpretive documentary analysis of the context, profiles, activities and outputs inventories and (iii) an evaluative survey of stakeholders exposed to evidence briefs produced and policy dialogues organized by the KTPs. Both initiatives benefited from the technical and scientific support from the global EVIPNet resource group. EVIPNet Cameroon secretariat operates with a multidisciplinary group of part-time researchers in a teaching hospital closely linked to the ministry of health. REACH-PI Uganda secretariat operates with a smaller team of full time staff in a public university. Financial resources were mobilized from external donors to scale up capacity building, knowledge management, and linkage and exchange activities. Between 2008 and 2012, twelve evidence briefs were produced in Cameroon and three in Uganda. In 2012, six rapid evidence syntheses in response to stakeholders' urgent needs were produced in Cameroon against 73 in Uganda between 2010 and 2012. Ten policy dialogues (seven in Cameroon and three in Uganda) informed by pre-circulated evidence briefs were well received. Both KTPs contributed to developing and testing new resources and tools for EIHSP. A network of local and global experts has created new spaces for evidence informed deliberations on priority health policy issues related to MDGs. This descriptive historical account of two KTPs housed in government

  17. "Ten Commandments" for the Appropriate use of Antibiotics by the Practicing Physician in an Outpatient Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levy-Hara, Gabriel; Amábile-Cuevas, Carlos F; Gould, Ian

    2011-01-01

    A multi-national working group on antibiotic stewardship, from the International Society of Chemotherapy, put together ten recommendations to physicians prescribing antibiotics to outpatients. These recommendations are: (1) use antibiotics only when needed; teach the patient how to manage symptoms...

  18. Human Rights Impact Assessment: A Method for Healthy Policymaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNaughton, Gillian

    2015-06-11

    Two decades ago, Lawrence Gostin and Jonathan Mann developed a methodology for human rights impact assessment (HRIA) of proposed public health policies. This article looks back over the last 20 years to examine the development of HRIA in the health field and consider the progress that has been made since Gostin and Mann published their pioneering article. Health-related HRIA has advanced substantially in three ways. First, the content of the right to health has been delineated in greater detail through domestic and international laws and policies. Second, the UN human rights mechanisms have recommended that governments undertake HRIAs and have issued guidelines and methodologies for doing so. Third, nongovernmental organizations and international organizations have developed HRIA tools and carried out case studies to demonstrate their feasibility. In this light, the article concludes by recognizing the substantial progress that has been made in HRIA over the last 20 years and by considering some challenges that remain for health-related HRIA. Copyright 2015 MacNaughton. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  19. Entrepreneurship development policymaking factors: An exploratory survey of tourism in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Jafari Moghaddam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Widespread presence of small and medium enterprise (SME and entrepreneurial businesses (EB as well as governments' key role in tourism sphere, especially in developing countries. As a result, the importance of policymaking in SME and EB has been growing through last decade. This study is trying to identify and prioritize the factors influencing SME and EB policy in Iran tourism scope. For this research, data were collected via exploratory mixed method in two steps. Firstly, qualitative techniques such as literature review has been done to find all scholarly work and then using qualitative content analysis, factors influencing SME policy in tourism has been identified. In second step, quantitative methods, namely survey and Statistical techniques were used for analysis. Population of this study comprised policymaking and tourism entrepreneurship experts of Iran. The survey results showed there were 40 variables into six factors under two main dimensions influence on SME and EB. Factors identified in this study can be used to formulate macro policies in the tourism industry and national policymakers can utilize these concepts for entrepreneurship and SME's development in tourism. This research contributes to the existing literature in the field of entrepreneurship policymaking by introduce a systematic framework. This new framework can provide better insights and inform thinking in the area of entrepreneurship policymaking.

  20. Economics for assisting policy-makers to take decisions about new and endemic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, T E

    2017-04-01

    Animal health policy-makers are frequently faced with making decisions concerning the control and exclusion of diseases in livestock and wildlife populations. Economics is one of the tools they have to aid their decision-making. It can enable them to make objective decisions based on the expected costs and benefits of their policy. In addition, economics can help them determine both the distribution impact and the indirect impact of their decisions. However, economics is only one of many tools available to policy-makers, who also need to consider non-economic outcomes in their decision-making process. While there are sophisticated epidemic and economic (epinomic) models that are available to help evaluate complex problems, these models typically require extensive data and well-trained analysts to run and interpret their results. In addition, effective communication between analysts and policy-makers is important to ensure that results are clearly conveyed to the policy-makers. This may be facilitated by early and continued discussions between these two potentially disparate groups. If successfully performed and communicated, economic analyses may present valuable information to policy-makers, enabling them to not only better understand the economic implications of their policy, but also to communicate the policy to relevant stakeholders, further ensuring their likelihood of participating in the planned policy and hence increasing its likelihood of success.

  1. Ten years of effective multilateralism?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hautecouverture, Benjamin

    2013-12-01

    the following one: do the successes of multilateralism and international law provide security assurances or do they mask the flaws of an insufficiently intrusive system? While the U.S. signaled their defiance under the guidance of John Bolton, European thinking settled on a conclusion with the air of a slogan: yes to multilateralism, providing it is effective. This was to be the cornerstone of the policies to undertake and the instruments to implement to forge a global role for the Union. Its originality is based simultaneously in realism and in a refusal to resort to force as the foremost means of action on the international stage. Another way of defining the 2003 Strategy is a skillful compromise between differing positions to banish the Iraqi 'cacophony' as quickly as possible. Ten years on, it is now time for 'impact assessments' and other 'scorecards' of public policies. In the midst of the Eurozone economic crisis, evaluating a strategy of 'effective multilateralism' is not easy. The Union's bi-annual reports on its implementation have recently begun to try to provide a quantitative analysis that is not entirely convincing (for instance, the number of ratifications of such-and-such an instrument with regard to the budget allocated by the EU to facilitate its universalization, over such-and-such a period). Fundamentally, the 2003 Strategy is essentially beyond this kind of analysis even if it can prove useful. The strength of the European approach consists in establishing a long-term willingness to maintain and strengthen collective security tools approved by the greatest possible number of States. Its weakness is to occasionally confront a strategic reality that is as contradictory as it is stubborn. Effective multilateralism is linked to voluntarism and vows. (author)

  2. Preventing Smog Crisis: New Thinking for Energy Policy-Making in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Dong, Liang

    2015-01-01

    environmental-friendly guidance, financial support and drafted strict regulations to guide the recycling of straw. However, many farmers in China still chose the cheapest and crudest way to dispose of straw, burning it rather than recycling for sustainable use, e.g. power generation, bioethanol production...... to give enough financial support to the farmers for straw recycling due to the limited fiscal budget. What is more, the farmers will also suffer from declining soil fertility without burning straw. Therefore, the policies for promoting biomass to energy face a bottleneck and innovative policies design...... represent the stakeholders in policy-making; (2) the policy-making cannot achieve democratic or judicial decision-making. The purpose of energy policy-making is to promote the industry development, and the stakeholders are the key actors in the value chain. The experts in China are usually top scholars...

  3. A Biological Security Motivation System for Potential Threats: Are There Implications for Policy-Making?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Z Woody

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Research indicates that there is a specially adapted, hard-wired brain circuit, the security motivation system, which evolved to manage potential threats, such as the possibility of contamination or predation. The existence of this system may have important implications for policy-making related to security. The system is sensitive to partial, uncertain cues of potential danger, detection of which activates a persistent, potent motivational state of wariness or anxiety. This state motivates behaviours to probe the potential danger, such as checking, and to correct for it, such as washing. Engagement in these behaviours serves as the terminating feedback for the activation of the system. Because security motivation theory makes predictions about what kinds of stimuli activate security motivation and what conditions terminate it, the theory may have applications both in understanding how policy-makers can best influence others, such as the public, and also in understanding the behavior of policy-makers themselves.

  4. Australia's Health Star Rating policy process: Lessons for global policy-making in front-of-pack nutrition labelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Medha; Gleeson, Deborah; Barraclough, Simon

    2017-11-12

    This study explored factors that shaped the development of Australia's Health Star Rating system for front-of-pack labelling (FoPL) on packaged foods and whether insights could be drawn from this experience to inform the development of global FoPL standards. Ten individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with public health or consumer advocates, academics in the field of nutrition labelling and policy, a food industry employee, and Australian public servants. Thematic analysis was undertaken, guided by Kingdon's Multiple Streams Framework, to identify factors which shaped Australian and international FoPL policy processes. Senior Australian bureaucrats played the policy entrepreneur role to facilitate the development of the Health Star Rating system. The public health and consumer advocacy groups formed an alliance to counter-balance the influence of the food industry in the Health Star Rating development process. Public health and consumer groups have less influence at Codex Alimentarius, where policy-making is constrained by political alliances and consensus voting structures. Strong leadership, policy entrepreneurship and a coherent alliance between public health and consumer groups enabled the development of a FoPL system in Australia and could contribute to advancing FoPL standards at the international level. © 2017 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  5. An overview of the United States government's space and science policy-making process

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    A brief overview of the basic elements of the US space and science policy-making apparatus will be presented, focussing on insights into the interactions among the principal organizations, policy-making bodies and individual participants and their respective impact on policy outcomes. Several specific examples will be provided to illustrate the points made, and in the conclusion there will be some observations on current events in the US that may shape the outcome for the near-term future of US space and science policy in several areas.

  6. Clinical experience with TENS and TENS combined with nitrous oxide-oxygen. Report of 371 patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Quarnstrom, F. C.; Milgrom, P.

    1989-01-01

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) alone or TENS combined with nitrous oxide-oxygen (N2O) was administered for restorative dentistry without local anesthesia to 371 adult patients. A total of 55% of TENS alone and 84% of TENS/N2O visits were rated successful. A total of 53% of TENS alone and 82% of TENS/N2O patients reported slight or no pain. In multivariable analyses, pain reports were related to the anesthesia technique and patient fear and unrelated to sex, race, age, toot...

  7. Ten steps to successful software process improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandt, R. K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper identifies ten steps for managing change that address organizational and cultural issues. Four of these steps are critical, that if not done, will almost guarantee failure. This ten-step program emphasizes the alignment of business goals, change process goals, and the work performed by the employees of an organization.

  8. Working with Hispanic Women Who Are Deaf: Recommendations from the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, Amber M.; Saladin, Shawn P.; Hansmann, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    The authors used the hermeneutics approach within social cognitive career theory to explore employment trends and issues over the past 20 years relevant to Hispanic women who are deaf. Barriers to employment were discovered including discrepancies due to gender, race/ethnicity, and severity of hearing loss. Recommendations for policymakers and…

  9. Factors that encourage and discourage policy-making to prevent childhood obesity: Experience in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkow, Lainie; Jones-Smith, Jesse; Walters, Hannah J; O'Hara, Marguerite; Bleich, Sara N

    2016-12-01

    Policy-makers throughout the world seek to address childhood obesity prevention, yet little is known about factors that influence policy-makers' decisions on this topic. From September 2014 to April 2015, we conducted 43 semi-structured interviews about factors that encourage and discourage policy-makers' support for childhood obesity prevention policies. We interviewed policy-makers (n = 12) and two other groups engaged with childhood obesity prevention policies: representatives of non-governmental organizations (n = 24) and academics (n = 7). Factors that encourage policy-makers' support for childhood obesity prevention policies included: positive impact on government finances, an existing evidence base, partnerships with community-based collaborators, and consistency with policy-makers' priorities. Factors that discourage policy-makers' support included the following: perceptions about government's role, food and beverage industry opposition, and policy-makers' beliefs about personal responsibility. As public health practitioners, advocates, and others seek to advance childhood obesity prevention in the U.S. and elsewhere, the factors we identified offer insights into ways to frame proposed policies and strategies to influence policy-makers.

  10. What is the possibility of citizens to achieve influence on practical policymaking?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Didde Cramer

    What is the possibility of citizens to achieve influence on practical policymaking? The purpose of my thesis is to examine the relationship between the front line employees and the citizens in the practical policy making. The study aims to have it out with an almost one-sided focus on front emplo...

  11. The Role of Standards in eco-innovation: Lessons for Policymakers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollebergh, H.R.J.; Werf, van der E.

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to help policymakers identify how standards can contribute to the effective and cost-efficient development and deployment of eco-innovations (innovations that reduce environmental impacts). To this end, we argue that the general perception among environmental economists that

  12. Pharmaceutical companies' role in state vaccination policymaking: the case of human papillomavirus vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Michelle M; Abiola, Sara; Colgrove, James

    2012-05-01

    We sought to investigate roles that Merck & Co Inc played in state human papillomavirus (HPV) immunization policymaking, to elicit key stakeholders' perceptions of the appropriateness of these activities, and to explore implications for relationships between health policymakers and industry. We used a series of state case studies combining data from key informant interviews with analysis of media reports and archival materials. We interviewed 73 key informants in 6 states that were actively engaged in HPV vaccine policy deliberations. Merck promoted school-entry mandate legislation by serving as an information resource, lobbying legislators, drafting legislation, mobilizing female legislators and physician organizations, conducting consumer marketing campaigns, and filling gaps in access to the vaccine. Legislators relied heavily on Merck for scientific information. Most stakeholders found lobbying by vaccine manufacturers acceptable in principle, but perceived that Merck had acted too aggressively and nontransparently in this case. Although policymakers acknowledge the utility of manufacturers' involvement in vaccination policymaking, industry lobbying that is overly aggressive, not fully transparent, or not divorced from financial contributions to lawmakers risks undermining the prospects for legislation to foster uptake of new vaccines.

  13. Discourses, Decisions, Designs: "Special" Education Policy-Making in New South Wales, Scotland, Finland and Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Pei Wen; Graham, Linda J.

    2017-01-01

    This comparative analysis investigates the influence of neo-liberal and inclusive discourses in "special" education policy-making in New South Wales, Scotland, Finland and Malaysia. The centrality of competition, selectivity and accountability in the discourses used in New South Wales and Malaysia suggests a system preference for…

  14. Crossroads of Crisis: Forces at Play in the Policy-Making Arena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Addison S.

    1976-01-01

    The following forces that play on policymaking are examined: Social and cultural influences, the caste system with its attendant anxiety to conform, warring between equals, the competitive spirit unleased. On the question of what should be incorporated in policy, the author states that vocational educators should look inwardly and seek to make…

  15. Co-designing collaboration: Using a partnership framework for shared policymaking in geriatric networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, E.; Baur, V.; de Wit, M.P.T.; Wilbrink, N.; Abma, T.

    2015-01-01

    Involving older people in policymaking is an emerging trend. In the literature no studies were found on the macro-level development of partnerships between older people and professionals in healthcare policy. The purpose of this article is to explore the potential of a partnership framework as part

  16. Accounting for Co-Teaching: A Guide for Policymakers and Developers of Value-Added Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, Eric; Walsh, Elias

    2015-01-01

    We outline the options available to policymakers for addressing co-teaching in a value-added model. Building on earlier work, we propose an improvement to a method of accounting for co-teaching that treats co-teachers as teams, with each teacher receiving equal credit for co-taught students. Hock and Isenberg (2012) described a method known as the…

  17. Environmental Pollution Control Policy-Making: An Analysis of Elite Perceptions and Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, Phillip; Greig, William H.

    1974-01-01

    This article is based on an analysis of the perceptions and preferences of elite groups concerning environmental pollution control policy making. Results showed that although the groups agreed that present methods were inadequate, they were, nevertheless, unable to agree upon the nature of a future policy-making system. (MA)

  18. Determinants of health policy impact: comparative results of a European policymaker study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rütten, A.; Lüschen, G.; Lengerke, T. von; Abel, T.; Kannas, L.; Rodríguez Diaz, J.A.; Vinck, J.; Zee, J. van der

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This article will use a new theoretical framework for the analysis of health policy impact introduced by Rutten et al. (2003). In particular, it will report on a comparative European study of policymakers' perception and evaluation of specific determinants of the policy impact, both in

  19. The Political Implications of Performance Management and Evidence-Based Policymaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafillou, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few decades performance management (PM) has invaded the public sector in most Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. More recently, we have seen increasing demands for evidence-based policymaking (EP). This article critically discusses the political...

  20. Using Knowledge of the Past to Improve Education Today: US Education History and Policy-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinovskis, Maris A.

    2015-01-01

    Early American historians provided the public and policy-makers with information about US history that provided both entertainment and policy suggestions. As American historians became more professionalised in the early twentieth century, they concentrated more on their own scholarly concerns and less on policy-relevant writings. In recent…

  1. Teacher Education Research and Education Policy-Makers: An Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Simone

    2016-01-01

    As teacher educators, we want our research to be influential in contributing to educational policy and practice, but there remains little understanding about ways in which teacher educators might more productively engage with each other and policy-makers so as to maximise their research impact. Drawing on an empirical study and policy document…

  2. Policy-maker attitudes to the ageing of the HIV cohort in Botswana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although there has been some realization of this development at international level, no clear defined intervention strategy has been established in many highly affected countries. Therefore we ... Conclusions: HIV among older adults remains a low priority among policy-makers in Botswana but is at least now on the agenda.

  3. The African diaspora’s public participation in policy-making concerning Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norglo, Benhardt Edem Kofi; Goris, Margriet; Lie, Rico; Ong’ayo, Antony Otieno

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the involvement of African diaspora organizations in Dutch and European policy-making concerning Africa. It addresses the extent to which their inclusion or exclusion in public policy processes in their destination countries is likely to impact (development) policies relating to

  4. Public debate and policy-making on family migration in the Netherlands, 1960-1995

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonjour, S.; Schrover, M.

    2015-01-01

    Is ‘public opinion’ systematically opposed to immigration? And has this pushed policymakers to implement restrictive migration policies? To answer these questions, we investigate the impact of public opinion, as expressed in media debates, on the making of family migration policies in the

  5. Ingredients for Good Health Policy-Making: Incorporating Power and Politics into the Mix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusra Shawar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Eggs, flour, sugar, butter, baking soda, milk, and vanilla extract—all ingredients necessary to make a delicious cake. Similarly, good health policy-making can only be successfully pursued and understood by accounting for all of its basic ingredients, including the role of politics and power. Otherwise, the result is simply not good.

  6. Promoting Children's Public Participation in Policy-Making through Achievement-Oriented Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwandure, Calvin; Mayekiso, Thokozile

    2013-01-01

    This theoretical paper looked at the possibility of incorporating the social learning concept of achievement-oriented behaviour in promoting children's public participation in policy-making in the educational system. The paper highlighted how the concepts of public participation and achievement-oriented education could be used in the governance of…

  7. Stakeholder Partnerships as Collaborative Policymaking: Evaluation Criteria Applied to Watershed Management in California and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, William D.; Pelkey, Neil W.; Sabatier, Paul A.

    2002-01-01

    Public policymaking and implementation in the United States are increasingly handled through local, consensus-seeking partnerships involving most affected stakeholders. This paper formalizes the concept of a stakeholder partnership, and proposes techniques for using interviews, surveys, and documents to measure each of six evaluation criteria.…

  8. HIV/AIDS Policy-Making in Iran: Part 2- from Formulation to Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Khodayari Zarnaq

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Achieving an appropriate policy needs an in-depth and comprehensive understanding of policy-making process. This study aimed to analyze HIV/AIDS policy-making process in Iran. Material and Methods: This is a qualitative/exploratory study. Data were collected through document review and semi-structured interview. Non-probability sampling was used for selecting documents and research participants. We used framework analysis approach assisted by MAXQDA for analyzing qualitative data. Results: AIDS policy is formulated in two specific ways within national work group in the format of national strategic plan and drug damage reduction committee. The main problem of the policy process is fragmentation and lack of comprehensiveness. Country approach of the policy implementation is top-down. The main duty of country committee and its sub-committees facing with some challenges is generating interaction between the relevant organizations. Despite the specific structure of evaluation process, it suffers from challenges such as lack of required implementation power, lack of resource anticipation, weakness in systematic and comprehensiveness evaluation and not-enough cooperation among plan’s stakeholders. Conclusion: It is obvious that policy-making in this area is completely governmental and the role of non-governmental organizations and civil servants is neglected. It seems that reform in AIDS policy-making structure and process can solve most of the problems of implementation, monitoring and evaluation.

  9. Intellectual Property Rights for Plant Breeding and Rural Development : Challenges for Agricultural Policymakers

    OpenAIRE

    Tripp, Rob; Louwaars, Niels; Eaton, Derek

    2006-01-01

    Although many developing countries have drafted legislation to address plant variety protection (PVP) requirements, relatively few have begun to implement PVP, and little guidance is available on appropriate strategies. This note looks at some of the key decisions facing agricultural policymakers in establishing a PVP regime, examines the implementation of PVP, assesses some of the impacts...

  10. Intellectual property rights for plant breeding and rural development: challenges for agriculture policymakers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tripp, R.; Eaton, D.J.F.; Louwaars, N.P.

    2006-01-01

    Although many developing countries have drafted legislation to address plant variety protection (PVP) requirements, relatively few have begun to implement PVP, and little guidance is available on appropriate strategies. This note looks at some of the key decisions facing agricultural policymakers in

  11. Creating Adaptive Policies: A Guide for Policy-making in an ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-01-01

    Jan 1, 2009 ... Today's policy-maker has a tough job to do. Policies that cannot perform effectively under today's complex, dynamic, and uncertain conditions run the risk of not achieving their intended purpose. Instead of helping, they may actually hinder the ability of individuals, communities, and businesses to cope with ...

  12. Adjusting pulse amplitude during transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) application produces greater hypoalgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantaleão, Manuela A; Laurino, Marjorie F; Gallego, Natalie L G; Cabral, Cristina M N; Rakel, Barbara; Vance, Carol; Sluka, Kathleen A; Walsh, Deirdre M; Liebano, Richard E

    2011-05-01

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a noninvasive technique used for pain modulation. During application of TENS there is a fading of current sensation. Textbooks of electrophysical agents recommend that pulse amplitude should be constantly adjusted. This seems to be accepted clinically despite the fact that there is no direct experimental evidence. The aim of the current study was to investigate the hypoalgesic effect of adjusting TENS pulse amplitude on pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) in healthy humans. Fifty-six healthy TENS naïve participants were recruited and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups (n = 14 per group): control, placebo TENS, fixed pulse amplitude TENS, and adjusted pulse amplitude TENS. Both active and placebo TENS were applied to the dominant forearm. PPTs were recorded from 2 points on the dominant forearm and hand before, during, and after 40 minutes of TENS. TENS increased the PPTs on the forearm (P = .003) and hand (P = .003) in the group that received the adjusted pulse amplitude when compared to all other groups. The mean final pulse amplitude for the adjusted pulse amplitude TENS group was 35.51 mA when compared to the fixed pulse amplitude TENS group, which averaged 31.37 mA (P = .0318). These results suggest that it is important to adjust the pulse amplitude during TENS application to get the maximal analgesic effect. We propose that the fading of current sensation allows the use of higher pulse amplitudes, which would activate a greater number of and deeper tissue afferents to produce greater analgesia. Copyright © 2011 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. WOMEN’S AUTONOMY AND THE FAMILY IN RECENT ROMANIAN POLICY-MAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALICE IANCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In my paper I aim to provide an analysis of the relation between women’s autonomy and the family in Romanian recent policy-making. I will focus primarily on policies developed by the Romanian state after Romania’s integration in the European Union with regards to the family and family-related policy domains. My analysis will focus on several variables: 1. the theoretical instruments available for analyzing women’s autonomy in relation to state policies 2. the understanding of the family in Romanian policy-making 3. the interplay between women’s autonomy and the family and how policy-making influences the relation between the two. The analysis will take into consideration the specific Romanian socio-political context in terms of economic conditions, ideological influences and gender relations. Political theory is no stranger to the issue of individual autonomy. In my paper I will focus on recent feminist political theories on gendered accounts of autonomy. These accounts modify the understanding of autonomy and focus on conditions and aspects of autonomy relevant to women’s lives and experiences. The current financial crisis and recent developments in Romanian policy-making will be analyzed in terms of how they affect women’s autonomy. Since much of Romanian policy-making still avoids including gender and gender relations into its explicit justifications, provisions and evaluation, referring to the family as a basic social unit, the gendered consequences for women’s autonomy of such an approach need to be understood and acknowledged. In my analysis I will use both Romanian and European recent policy papers, as well as recent data obtained through social research.

  14. Policymaking as a Multi-Layered Activity. A Case Study from the Higher Education Sector in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljosland, Ragnhild

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with policymaking in the higher education sector as an activity which happens on many levels, with many and varying interests involved. As the present thematic issue highlights, language is present in higher education policymaking, whether explicitly or implicitly. This special issue's initial claim is that "Policy is what…

  15. The world’s citizens get involved in global policymaking : global resistance, global public participation, and global democracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkers, O.

    2016-01-01

    The central question of this contribution is how international policymakers – mostly States - ought to respond to global protests. There are essentially three ways for them to respond. First, they can refuse these critical world’s citizens the possibility to take part in authoritative policymaking

  16. Applying behavioural economics to health systems of low- and middle-income countries: what are policymakers' and practitioners' views?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Antonio J; Glassman, Amanda; Fleisher, Lisa K; Nair, Divya; Duran, Denizhan

    2015-07-01

    Interest in behavioural economics has soared in recent years, particularly because of its application to several areas of public policy, now including international development, education, and health. Yet, little is known about how the policy and political implications of behavioural economics are perceived among stakeholders. Using an innovative vignette-based online survey, we assessed the opinions of 520 policymakers and practitioners around the world about health policy recommendations emanating from behavioural economics principles that are relevant to low- and middle-income country settings. We also determined the sources of disagreement among the respondents. The results suggest that there is strong support for health policies based on the concepts of framing choices to overcome present bias, providing periodic information to form habits, and messaging to promote social norms. There is less support for policies which use cash rewards as extrinsic motivators either to change individual behaviour related to the management of chronic conditions or to mitigate risky sexual behaviour. The sources of disagreement for these policy prescriptions derive mainly from normative concerns and perceived lack of effectiveness of such interventions. Addressing these disagreements may require developing a broader research agenda to explore the policy and political implications of these prescriptions. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2014; all rights reserved.

  17. [Effective Presentations in Medicine. The Art of Communication and Transmission: Ten Recommendations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Álvaro J Ruiz

    2012-01-01

    To communicate effectively during a lecture or presentation it is necessary to follow simple rules, including the preparation of the conference with the audience in mind and with the definition of a specific message to leave the audience. The public's attention should be quickly captured and all subsequent actions should aim to keep it. The text must be accurate and sizes easily visible, the slides should provide good contrast with solid and simple backgrounds and should avoid excessive animations. At the close of the conference, the conclusions and question session offers the invaluable opportunity to reinforce the desired message. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  18. Trust for intelligent recommendation

    CERN Document Server

    Bhuiyan, Touhid

    2013-01-01

    Recommender systems are one of the recent inventions to deal with the ever-growing information overload in relation to the selection of goods and services in a global economy. Collaborative Filtering (CF) is one of the most popular techniques in recommender systems. The CF recommends items to a target user based on the preferences of a set of similar users known as the neighbors, generated from a database made up of the preferences of past users. In the absence of these ratings, trust between the users could be used to choose the neighbor for recommendation making. Better recommendations can b

  19. Design Concepts and Design Practices in Policy-Making and Public Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junginger, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    National governments around the globe are actively seeking new ways to engage in social innovation and are investing in innovation labs and innovation centers where methods and principles of design are now being explored and applied to problems of transforming and innovating the public sector (cf...... that could “achieve more humanizing outcomes” (Lynch 1965) and meaningfully transform government. Problem-solving design is then contrasted with design as inquiry. The paper concludes that a more sophisticated understanding of design concepts, methods and practices in policy-making is a condition......: US Personnel Department; National University in Australia; SITRA in Finland; Mindlab in Denmark and the Innovation & Improvement in the NHS in the UK). They are part of an effort to bring in new design approaches to policy-making and policy-implementation that promise to innovate and transform...

  20. European policymaking on the tobacco advertising ban: the importance of escape routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamini, Sandra; Versluis, Esther; Maarse, Hans

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the European Union policymaking process regarding tobacco advertising. While others already highlighted the importance of intergovernmental bargaining between member states to explain the outcome of the tobacco advertising case, the main aim of this article is to identify the use of escape routes by the Commission, the European Parliament, the Council and interest groups that played an important role in overcoming the deadlock. When looking at the different institutions that structure policymaking, we argue that indeed focusing on escape routes provides a clear insight in the process and in what strategies were necessary to 'make Europe work'. In the end, it appears to be a combination of escape routes that resulted in the final decision.

  1. The role of policy-making and planning cultures for sustainable transport?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Jahn

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the potential role of culture in relation to policy-making and planning activities, exemplified through a discussion on how it may influence sustainable transport policy and planning. It is recognised that discourses and institutions play an essential part in framing problems...... and barriers. In conclusion, a culture focus recognises diversity inside and outside normal policy and planning settings and procedures and attempts to bring different cultures to interact and to learn from each other. A transport policy-making and planning process based in a culture approach may illuminate...... a so-called ‘value-action gap’ concerning the possibility of more sustainable transportation. A closer cultural interaction may point out some of the divides between professionals on how to deal with transportenvironment issues. Moreover, a more culturally oriented deliberation would provide room...

  2. Developing a policy game intervention to enhance collaboration in public health policymaking in three European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spitters, H P E M; van Oers, J A M; Sandu, P

    2017-01-01

    of the policy game ‘In2Action’ within a real-life setting of public health policymaking networks in the Netherlands, Denmark and Romania. METHODS: The development of the policy game intervention consisted of three phases, pre intervention, designing the game intervention and tailoring the intervention. RESULTS......BACKGROUND: One of the key elements to enhance the uptake of evidence in public health policies is stimulating cross-sector collaboration. An intervention stimulating collaboration is a policy game. The aim of this study was to describe the design and methods of the development process......: In2Action was developed as a role-play game of one day, with main focus to develop in collaboration a cross-sector implementation plan based on the approved strategic local public health policy. CONCLUSIONS: This study introduced an innovative intervention for public health policymaking. It described...

  3. Unravelling networks in local public health policymaking in three European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spitters, Hilde P.E.M.; Lau, Cathrine J; Sandu, Petru

    2017-01-01

    -world policymaking processes will help reveal the complexity of a network of stakeholders. Therefore, the main objectives were to unravel the stakeholder network in the policy process by conducting three systems analyses, and to increase insight into the similarities and differences in the policy processes...... of driving forces underlying the relations between stakeholders were formal relations, informal interaction and knowledge exchange. Conclusions: A systems analysis providing detailed descriptions of positions and relations in the stakeholder network in local level HEPA policymaking is rather unique...... in this area. The analyses are useful when a need arises for increased interaction, collaboration and use of knowledge between stakeholders in the local HEPA network, as they provide an overview of the stakeholders involved and their mutual relations. This information can be an important starting point...

  4. Obesity prevention programs and policies: practitioner and policy-maker perceptions of feasibility and effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Verity; McNeilly, Briohny; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2013-09-01

    The aims of this study were to map obesity prevention activity being implemented by government, non-government, and community-based organizations; to determine practitioner and policy-maker perceptions of the feasibility and effectiveness of a range of evidence-based obesity prevention strategies; and to determine practitioner and policy-maker perceptions of preferred settings for obesity prevention strategies. This study involved a cross-sectional survey of 304 public health practitioners and policy-makers from government, non-government, and community organizations across Victoria, Australia. Participants reported their organizations' current obesity prevention programs and policies, their own perceptions of the feasibility and effectiveness of strategies to prevent obesity and their preferred settings for obesity prevention. Thirty-nine percent had an obesity prevention policy, and 92% were implementing obesity prevention programs. The most common programs focused on education, skill-building, and increasing access to healthy eating/physical activity opportunities. School curriculum-based initiatives, social support for physical activity, and family-based programs were considered the most effective strategies, whereas curriculum-based initiatives, active after-school programs, and providing access to and information about physical activity facilities were deemed the most feasible strategies. Schools were generally perceived as the most preferred setting for obesity prevention. Many organizations had obesity prevention programs, but far fewer had obesity prevention policies. Current strategies and those considered feasible and effective are often mismatched with the empirical literature. Systems to ensure better alignment between researchers, practitioners, and policy-makers, and identifying effective methods of translating empirical evidence into practice and policy are required. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  5. The global stock of research evidence relevant to health systems policymaking

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Michael G; Moat, Kaelan A; Lavis, John N

    2013-01-01

    Background: Policymakers and stakeholders need immediate access to many types of research evidence to make informed decisions about the full range of questions that may arise regarding health systems. Methods: We examined all types of research evidence about governance, financial and delivery arrangements, and implementation strategies within health systems contained in Health Systems Evidence (HSE) (http://www.healthsystemsevidence.org). The research evidence types include evidence briefs fo...

  6. Environmental policy-making networks and the future of the Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Lemos, Maria Carmen; Roberts, J. Timmons

    2008-01-01

    This article examines four periods of environmental policy-making in the Amazonian region of Brazil. It specifically analyses the role of pro-environment and pro-development policy networks in affecting policy design and implementation. It argues that the efforts of environmentalist networks trying to advocate or block relative developmentalist policies in the Amazon depend on three critical factors - whether they are able to attract the support of elites (or at least block their developmenta...

  7. Using media to impact health policy-making: an integrative systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou-Karroum, Lama; El-Jardali, Fadi; Hemadi, Nour; Faraj, Yasmine; Ojha, Utkarsh; Shahrour, Maher; Darzi, Andrea; Ali, Maha; Doumit, Carine; Langlois, Etienne V; Melki, Jad; AbouHaidar, Gladys Honein; Akl, Elie A

    2017-04-18

    Media interventions can potentially play a major role in influencing health policies. This integrative systematic review aimed to assess the effects of planned media interventions-including social media-on the health policy-making process. Eligible study designs included randomized and non-randomized designs, economic studies, process evaluation studies, stakeholder analyses, qualitative methods, and case studies. We electronically searched Medline, EMBASE, Communication and Mass Media Complete, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the WHO Global Health Library. We followed standard systematic review methodology for study selection, data abstraction, and risk of bias assessment. Twenty-one studies met our eligibility criteria: 10 evaluation studies using either quantitative (n = 7) or qualitative (n = 3) designs and 11 case studies. None of the evaluation studies were on social media. The findings of the evaluation studies suggest that media interventions may have a positive impact when used as accountability tools leading to prioritizing and initiating policy discussions, as tools to increase policymakers' awareness, as tools to influence policy formulation, as awareness tools leading to policy adoption, and as awareness tools to improve compliance with laws and regulations. In one study, media-generated attention had a negative effect on policy advocacy as it mobilized opponents who defeated the passage of the bills that the media intervention advocated for. We judged the confidence in the available evidence as limited due to the risk of bias in the included studies and the indirectness of the evidence. There is currently a lack of reliable evidence to guide decisions on the use of media interventions to influence health policy-making. Additional and better-designed, conducted, and reported primary research is needed to better understand the effects of media interventions, particularly social media, on health policy-making processes, and

  8. Intellectual property rights for plant breeding and rural development: challenges for agriculture policymakers

    OpenAIRE

    Tripp, R.; Eaton, D.J.F.; Louwaars, N.P.

    2006-01-01

    Although many developing countries have drafted legislation to address plant variety protection (PVP) requirements, relatively few have begun to implement PVP, and little guidance is available on appropriate strategies. This note looks at some of the key decisions facing agricultural policymakers in establishing a PVP regime, examines the implementation of PVP, assesses some of the impacts and limitations of PVP regimes, and identifies policy priorities that complement the establishment of IP...

  9. Towards better metrics and policymaking for seed system development: Insights from Asia's seed industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielman, David J; Kennedy, Adam

    2016-09-01

    Since the 1980s, many developing countries have introduced policies to promote seed industry growth and improve the delivery of modern science to farmers, often with a long-term goal of increasing agricultural productivity in smallholder farming systems. Public, private, and civil society actors involved in shaping policy designs have, in turn, developed competing narratives around how best to build an innovative and sustainable seed system, each with varying goals, values, and levels of influence. Efforts to strike a balance between these narratives have often played out in passionate discourses surrounding seed rules and regulations. As a result, however, policymakers in many countries have expressed impatience with the slow progress on enhancing the contribution of a modern seed industry to the overarching goal of increasing agricultural productivity growth. One reason for this slow progress may be that policymakers are insufficiently cognizant of the trade-offs associated with rules and regulations required to effectively govern a modern seed industry. This suggests the need for new data and analysis to improve the understanding of how seed systems function. This paper explores these issues in the context of Asia's rapidly growing seed industry, with illustrations from seed markets for maize and several other crops, to highlight current gaps in the metrics used to analyze performance, competition, and innovation. The paper provides a finite set of indicators to inform policymaking on seed system design and monitoring, and explores how these indicators can be used to inform current policy debates in the region.

  10. Communicating Program Outcomes to Encourage Policymaker Support for Evidence-Based State Tobacco Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison M. Schmidt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use, the leading cause of preventable death in the U.S., can be reduced through state-level tobacco prevention and cessation programs. In the absence of research about how to communicate the need for these programs to policymakers, this qualitative study aimed to understand the motivations and priorities of policymakers in North Carolina, a state that enacted a strong tobacco control program from 2003–2011, but drastically reduced funding in recent years. Six former legislators (three Democrats, three Republicans and three lobbyists for health organizations were interviewed about their attitudes towards tobacco use, support of state-funded programs, and reactions to two policy briefs. Five themes emerged: (1 high awareness of tobacco-related health concerns but limited awareness of program impacts and funding, (2 the primacy of economic concerns in making policy decisions, (3 ideological differences in views of the state’s role in tobacco control, (4 the impact of lobbyist and constituent in-person appeals, and (5 the utility of concise, contextualized data. These findings suggest that building relationships with policymakers to communicate ongoing program outcomes, emphasizing economic data, and developing a constituent advocacy group would be valuable to encourage continued support of state tobacco control programs.

  11. Developing a policy game intervention to enhance collaboration in public health policymaking in three European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitters, H P E M; van Oers, J A M; Sandu, P; Lau, C J; Quanjel, M; Dulf, D; Chereches, R; van de Goor, L A M

    2017-12-19

    One of the key elements to enhance the uptake of evidence in public health policies is stimulating cross-sector collaboration. An intervention stimulating collaboration is a policy game. The aim of this study was to describe the design and methods of the development process of the policy game ‘In2Action’ within a real-life setting of public health policymaking networks in the Netherlands, Denmark and Romania. The development of the policy game intervention consisted of three phases, pre intervention, designing the game intervention and tailoring the intervention. In2Action was developed as a role-play game of one day, with main focus to develop in collaboration a cross-sector implementation plan based on the approved strategic local public health policy. This study introduced an innovative intervention for public health policymaking. It described the design and development of the generic frame of the In2Action game focusing on enhancing collaboration in local public health policymaking networks. By keeping the game generic, it became suitable for each of the three country cases with only minor changes. The generic frame of the game is expected to be generalizable for other European countries to stimulate interaction and collaboration in the policy process.

  12. Clinic consortia media advocacy capacity: partnering with the media and increasing policymaker awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Annette; Geierstanger, Sara; Brindis, Claire; McConnel, Coline

    2010-04-01

    Media advocacy is a popular means of crafting and disseminating messages broadly and has been used by advocates to increase policymaker and public awareness of key health policy issues, such as the large number of uninsured. Some media advocacy activities are more effective than others, however, requiring increased sensitivity to the media environment and adequate resources and expertise. This article describes the results of media advocacy activities undertaken by 19 clinic consortia funded under The California Endowment's Clinic Consortia Policy and Advocacy Program from 2002 to 2006. The consortia used different media advocacy strategies and venues, including newspaper, television, radio, video, brochures, newsletters, and websites. The findings indicate that consortia may have influenced the media agenda and increased the likelihood of securing coverage of key issues, such as the role of clinics in supporting the health care safety net. There is evidence that suggests that clinic consortia media advocacy activities, such as front-page coverage in local and major daily newspapers, increased public and policymaker awareness of key clinic policy issues. Although grantees rated media advocacy overall as less effective than other advocacy activities and few reported that it had directly achieved a policy change or increased funding to clinics, nearly all thought it was effective in increasing policymaker awareness. We conclude that media advocacy is a useful tool for partnering with the media and increasing stakeholder awareness more broadly, but it should not be solely relied upon to achieve a policy change.

  13. OARSI Clinical Trials Recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAlindon, T. E.; Driban, J. B.; Henrotin, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this document is to update the original OARSI recommendations specifically for the design, conduct, and reporting of clinical trials that target symptom or structure modification among individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA). To develop recommendations for the design, conduct......, and reporting of clinical trials for knee OA we initially drafted recommendations through an iterative process. Members of the working group included representatives from industry and academia. After the working group members reviewed a final draft, they scored the appropriateness for recommendations. After...... and index knee, describing interventions, patient-reported and physical performance measures, structural outcome measures, biochemical biomarkers, and reporting recommendations. In summary, the working group identified 25 recommendations that represent the current best practices regarding clinical trials...

  14. Trust and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Patricia; de Cock, Martine; Cornelis, Chris

    Recommendation technologies and trust metrics constitute the two pillars of trust-enhanced recommender systems. We discuss and illustrate the basic trust concepts such as trust and distrust modeling, propagation and aggregation. These concepts are needed to fully grasp the rationale behind the trust-enhanced recommender techniques that are discussed in the central part of the chapter, which focuses on the application of trust metrics and their operators in recommender systems. We explain the benefits of using trust in recommender algorithms and give an overview of state-of-the-art approaches for trust-enhanced recommender systems. Furthermore, we explain the details of three well-known trust-based systems and provide a comparative analysis of their performance. We conclude with a discussion of some recent developments and open challenges, such as visualizing trust relationships in a recommender system, alleviating the cold start problem in a trust network of a recommender system, studying the effect of involving distrust in the recommendation process, and investigating the potential of other types of social relationships.

  15. Research recommendations [Chapter 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary; Alvin L. Medina; John N. Rinne

    2012-01-01

    This chapter contains a number of research recommendations that have developed from the 15 years of research on the UVR conducted by the Southwest Watershed Science Team, as well as from insights from key cooperators and contacts. It is meant to be our best insight as to where efforts should go now. Achieving these recommendations will depend on a number of factors,...

  16. Ten Great Low-Cost Teaching Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughey, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes ten of his favorite tools and explains how they can be employed in various ways: (1) to manage the classroom better; (2) to jump into fun activities with little or no preparation; or (3) to promote student-created art and materials. All of these teaching tools are affordable--even cheap. In the event that some…

  17. Ten years after the Jali Commission

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lukas Muntingh is an associate professor and co-founder and ... Ten years have lapsed since the Jali Commission's final report became publicly available, and ..... as is generally required across the public service. In 2010 the auditor general started to include performance targets in his audits, the results of which are not.

  18. Ten-year urban forestry action plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.W." Jerry" Van Sambeek

    2017-01-01

    The Ten-year Urban Forestry Action Plan: 2016-2026 was published in September, 2015 (see http://www.urbanforestry.subr.edu/FinalActionPlan_Complete_11_17_15.pdf). This 260 page heavily illustrated document was prepared by the National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Council (NUCFAC) under leadership and funding from the USDA Forest Service. The Plan's...

  19. Supersymmetric R4-actions in ten dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roo, M. de; Suelmann, H.; Wiedemann, A.

    1992-01-01

    We construct supersymmetric R+R4-actions in ten dimensions. Two invariants, of which the bosonic parts are known from string amplitude and sigma model calculations, are obtained. One of these invariants can be generalized to an R+F2+F4-invariant for supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory coupled to

  20. Ten Essential Concepts for Remediation in Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, Louis

    1985-01-01

    Ten crucial mathematical concepts with which errors are made are listed, with methods used to teach them to high school students. The concepts concern order, place values, inverse operations, multiplication and division, remainders, identity elements, fractions, conversions, decimal points, and percentages. (MNS)

  1. Top-Ten IT Issues: 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agee, Anne Scrivener; Yang, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the top-ten IT-related issues in terms of strategic importance to the institution, as revealed by the tenth annual EDUCAUSE Current Issues Survey. These IT-related issues include: (1) Funding IT; (2) Administrative/ERP Information Systems; (3) Security; (4) Infrastructure/Cyberinfrastructure; (5) Teaching and Learning with…

  2. Czech, Slovak science ten years after split

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Ten years after the split of Czechoslovakia Czech and Slovak science are facing the same difficulties: shortage of money for research, poor salaries, obsolete equipment and brain drain, especially of the young, according to a feature in the Daily Lidove Noviny (1 page).

  3. CRUDE PROTEIN ELECTROPHORESIS OF SEEDS OF TEN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A A Essiett

    Seeds of mature fruits of ten species of Solanum were collected from the gardens near the screen house, Botany. Department, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. Crude seed proteins were extracted from them and characterised using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Inter and intra specific ...

  4. Conclusions and recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaik, van H.; Kabat, P.; Connor, R.

    2003-01-01

    Work will continue. The Water-and-Climate ball is rolling and there is a strong commitment to keep it going. This wrapup chapter contains a ten-point action agenda for countries, river basin authorities, regional organisations and the international development community. Contents: 6.1 Undeniable

  5. A Qualitative Assessment of the Evidence Utilization for Health Policy-Making on the Basis of SUPPORT Tools in a Developing Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hasan Imani-Nasab

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background SUPPORT tools consist of 18 articles addressing the health policy-makers so that they can learn how to make evidence-informed health policies. These tools have been particularly recommended for developing countries. The present study tries to explain the process of evidence utilization for developing policy documents in the Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MoHME and to compare the findings with those of SUPPORT tools. Methods A qualitative research was conducted, using the framework analysis approach. Participants consisted of senior managers and technicians in MoHME. Purposeful sampling was done, with a maximum variety, for the selection of research participants: individuals having at least 5 years of experience in preparing evidence-based policy documents. Face-to-face interviews were conducted for data collection. As a guideline for the interviews, ‘the Utilization of Evidence in Policy Making Organizations’ procedure was used. The data were analyzed through the analysis of the framework method using MAXQDA 10 software. Results The participants acquired the research evidence in a topic-based form, and they were less likely to search on the basis of the evidence pyramid. To assess the quality of evidence, they did not use standard critical tools; to adapt the evidence and interventions with the local setting, they did not use the ideas and experiences of all stakeholders, and in preparing the evidence-based policy documents, they did not take into consideration the window of opportunity, did not refrain from using highly technical terms, did not write user-friendly summaries, and did not present alternative policy options. In order to develop health policies, however, they used the following innovations: attention to the financial burden of policy issues on the agenda, sensitivity analysis of the preferred policy option on the basis of technical, sociopolitical, and economic feasibility, advocacy from other

  6. The Effects of Policy Knowledge on Attitudes and Behaviors towards Participation in Educational Policy-Making among Parents: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-wen

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a study designed to examine the relations between knowledge, attitude and behavior towards educational policy-making. Understanding parents' knowledge in terms of attitude is important to predict behavior for participation in educational policy-making. Factors affecting parental participation in educational policy-making are…

  7. Recommender Systems for Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Manouselis, Nikos; Verbert, Katrien; Duval, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Technology enhanced learning (TEL) aims to design, develop and test sociotechnical innovations that will support and enhance learning practices of both individuals and organisations. It is therefore an application domain that generally covers technologies that support all forms of teaching and learning activities. Since information retrieval (in terms of searching for relevant learning resources to support teachers or learners) is a pivotal activity in TEL, the deployment of recommender systems has attracted increased interest. This brief attempts to provide an introduction to recommender systems for TEL settings, as well as to highlight their particularities compared to recommender systems for other application domains.

  8. Structural analysis of health-relevant policy-making information exchange networks in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contandriopoulos, Damien; Benoît, François; Bryant-Lukosius, Denise; Carrier, Annie; Carter, Nancy; Deber, Raisa; Duhoux, Arnaud; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Larouche, Catherine; Leclerc, Bernard-Simon; Levy, Adrian; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Maximova, Katerina; McGrail, Kimberlyn; Nykiforuk, Candace; Roos, Noralou; Schwartz, Robert; Valente, Thomas W; Wong, Sabrina; Lindquist, Evert; Pullen, Carolyn; Lardeux, Anne; Perroux, Melanie

    2017-09-20

    Health systems worldwide struggle to identify, adopt, and implement in a timely and system-wide manner the best-evidence-informed-policy-level practices. Yet, there is still only limited evidence about individual and institutional best practices for fostering the use of scientific evidence in policy-making processes The present project is the first national-level attempt to (1) map and structurally analyze-quantitatively-health-relevant policy-making networks that connect evidence production, synthesis, interpretation, and use; (2) qualitatively investigate the interaction patterns of a subsample of actors with high centrality metrics within these networks to develop an in-depth understanding of evidence circulation processes; and (3) combine these findings in order to assess a policy network's "absorptive capacity" regarding scientific evidence and integrate them into a conceptually sound and empirically grounded framework. The project is divided into two research components. The first component is based on quantitative analysis of ties (relationships) that link nodes (participants) in a network. Network data will be collected through a multi-step snowball sampling strategy. Data will be analyzed structurally using social network mapping and analysis methods. The second component is based on qualitative interviews with a subsample of the Web survey participants having central, bridging, or atypical positions in the network. Interviews will focus on the process through which evidence circulates and enters practice. Results from both components will then be integrated through an assessment of the network's and subnetwork's effectiveness in identifying, capturing, interpreting, sharing, reframing, and recodifying scientific evidence in policy-making processes. Knowledge developed from this project has the potential both to strengthen the scientific understanding of how policy-level knowledge transfer and exchange functions and to provide significantly improved advice

  9. Evidence-to-policy gap on hepatitis A vaccine adoption in 6 countries: Literature vs. policymakers' beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Sachiko; Privor-Dumm, Lois A; Nanni, Angeline; Durden, Emily; Maiese, Brett A; Nwankwo, Chizoba U; Brodovicz, Kimberly G; Acosta, Camilo J; Foley, Kathleen A

    2014-07-07

    National vaccine adoption decisions may be better understood by linking multiple data sources. When examining countries' decisions to adopt the hepatitis A vaccine, applying multiple research methods can facilitate assessments of gaps between evidence and policy. We conducted a literature review on hepatitis A and stakeholder interviews about decisions to adopt the vaccine in six countries (Chile, India, South Korea, Mexico, Russia, and Taiwan). A systematic literature review was conducted across five literature databases. The review identified and abstracted 340 articles, supplemented by internet search. In addition, we interviewed 62 experts and opinion leaders on hepatitis A and/or vaccines. Data from the two sources were analyzed to identify gaps around epidemiologic data, economic data, and barriers/facilitators of hepatitis A vaccine adoption. Epidemiologic data gaps were found in Chile and Russia, where stakeholders believed data to be more solid than the literature documented. Economic data on hepatitis A was found to be weak across all countries despite stakeholders' agreement on its importance. Barriers and facilitators of vaccine adoption such as political will, prioritization among vaccines, and global or local recommendations were discussed more by stakeholders than the literature. Stakeholders in India and Mexico were not concerned with the lack of data, despite growing recognition in the literature of the epidemiological transition and threat of outbreaks. Triangulation of results from two methods captured a richer story behind vaccine adoption decisions for hepatitis A. The discrepancy between policymakers' beliefs and existing data suggest a decline in priority of hepatitis A or weak investment in data collection. Filling the confirmed data gaps in seroprevalence or economic data is important to help guide policy decisions. Greater communication of the risk of hepatitis A and the benefits of the vaccine may help countries undergoing the

  10. Policy-making in science policy: The ‘OECD model’ unveiled

    OpenAIRE

    HENRIQUES Luisa; LARÉDO Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Version auteur consultable sur Internet : https://www.escholar.manchester.ac.uk/jrul/item/?pid=uk-ac-man-scw:172889; International audience; This article addresses the issue of the development of national science policies in OECD countries in the 1960s. It argues that the Organisation for Economic and Co-operation and Development (OECD) acted as a policy innovator playing a central role in the development and adoption of what we call the "OECD model of science policy-making". Through a detail...

  11. Why the media matters in a warming world: A guide for policymakers in the global South

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanahan, Mike

    2011-06-15

    Climate change journalism can protect people and promote sustainable development — but only if it is accurate, timely and relevant. Strengthening the media's capacity to cover climate change can help countries to plan and implement domestic policies that work on the ground, while also meeting their international obligations. Policymakers have a huge role to play: by improving the media's access to locally relevant policy information; supporting journalists to report from rural areas and international meetings; engaging the media in policy and planning processes; and working to improve their own media literacy and ability to communicate clearly on climate change.

  12. Participation, public policy-making, and legitimacy in the EU Voluntary Partnership Agreement process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wodschow, Astrid; Nathan, Iben; Cerutti, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses how participatory policy-making processes such as the Voluntary Partnership Agreement (VPA) negotiations are and should be organised to foster political legitimacy and support. The VPAs are bilateral agreements between the European Union (EU) and timber producing countries....... VPAs constitute a cornerstone in EU's Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT) programme, the most important tool for the EU to address illegal logging problems. The EU requires that national VPA negotiations include participation by the relevant stakeholders. Based on primary data, we...

  13. Search and Recommendation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Toine

    2014-01-01

    In just a little over half a century, the field of information retrieval has experienced spectacular growth and success, with IR applications such as search engines becoming a billion-dollar industry in the past decades. Recommender systems have seen an even more meteoric rise to success with wide......-scale application by companies like Amazon, Facebook, and Netflix. But are search and recommendation really two different fields of research that address different problems with different sets of algorithms in papers published at distinct conferences? In my talk, I want to argue that search and recommendation...... are more similar than they have been treated in the past decade. By looking more closely at the tasks and problems that search and recommendation try to solve, at the algorithms used to solve these problems and at the way their performance is evaluated, I want to show that there is no clear black and white...

  14. Probabilistic approaches to recommendations

    CERN Document Server

    Barbieri, Nicola; Ritacco, Ettore

    2014-01-01

    The importance of accurate recommender systems has been widely recognized by academia and industry, and recommendation is rapidly becoming one of the most successful applications of data mining and machine learning. Understanding and predicting the choices and preferences of users is a challenging task: real-world scenarios involve users behaving in complex situations, where prior beliefs, specific tendencies, and reciprocal influences jointly contribute to determining the preferences of users toward huge amounts of information, services, and products. Probabilistic modeling represents a robus

  15. OARSI Clinical Trials Recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emery, C. A.; Roos, Ewa M.; Verhagen, E.

    2015-01-01

    the design, conduct and analytical approaches to RCTs evaluating the preventative effect of joint injury prevention strategies. Recommendations regarding the design, conduct, and reporting of RCTs evaluating injury prevention interventions were established based on the consensus of nine researchers...... regarding the research question, research design, study participants, randomization, baseline characteristics, intervention, outcome measurement, analysis, implementation, cost evaluation, reporting and future considerations including the impact on development of PTOA. Methodological recommendations...

  16. The Scottish Ten Project: Collaborative Heritage Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, L.; Rawlinson, A.; Mitchell, D. S.; McGregor, H. C.; Parsons, R.

    2013-07-01

    The Scottish Ten project is a five-year initiative of the Scottish Government to digitally document significant heritage sites around the world for future generations both in Scotland and overseas. The project is fundamentally grounded in collaboration and is delivered by Historic Scotland and the Digital Design Studio at Glasgow School of Art, in partnership with CyArk. In addition, the Scottish Ten team collaborate with local partners at each site to deliver products which will be of use to site managers in the ongoing conservation, management and interpretation of their sites. The project utilises diverse 3D data capture methods, as appropriate for each site, but the foundation of the documentation lies in terrestrial laser scanning. This paper explores the collaborations, methodologies and gives brief case studies from one Scottish and one international site.

  17. EEG Correlates of Ten Positive Emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Xin; Yu, Jianwen; Song, Mengdi; Yu, Chun; Wang, Fei; Sun, Pei; Wang, Daifa; Zhang, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Compared with the well documented neurophysiological findings on negative emotions, much less is known about positive emotions. In the present study, we explored the EEG correlates of ten different positive emotions (joy, gratitude, serenity, interest, hope, pride, amusement, inspiration, awe, and love). A group of 20 participants were invited to watch 30 short film clips with their EEGs simultaneously recorded. Distinct topographical patterns for different positive emotions were found for th...

  18. School Psychologists' Job Satisfaction: Ten Years Later

    OpenAIRE

    Worrell, Travis G.

    2004-01-01

    School Psychologistsâ Job Satisfaction: Ten Years Later (ABSTRACT) This study was designed to replicate nationwide surveys completed in 1982 and 1992. The purpose was to examine and describe the levels of job satisfaction and the relationship between the variables in a national sample of school psychologists belonging to the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP). The sample for this study consisted of respondents who reported being full-time school practitioners. ...

  19. Antimicrobial activity of Verbascum macrurum Ten. (Scrophulariaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, C

    2002-01-01

    The Author presents the results regarding the antibacterial action of extracts of Verbascum macrurum Ten.. The leaves of this species, gathered on the slopes of Mt. Matese, were ground and four extracts were made as follows: with dicholoromethane, ethonol and water (70:30 v/v), water and methanol. The antibacterial activity of each of the samples was tested and it is demonstrated that the extract with the ethanol/water was the most activity one.

  20. EEG Correlates of Ten Positive Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xin; Yu, Jianwen; Song, Mengdi; Yu, Chun; Wang, Fei; Sun, Pei; Wang, Daifa; Zhang, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Compared with the well documented neurophysiological findings on negative emotions, much less is known about positive emotions. In the present study, we explored the EEG correlates of ten different positive emotions (joy, gratitude, serenity, interest, hope, pride, amusement, inspiration, awe, and love). A group of 20 participants were invited to watch 30 short film clips with their EEGs simultaneously recorded. Distinct topographical patterns for different positive emotions were found for the correlation coefficients between the subjective ratings on the ten positive emotions per film clip and the corresponding EEG spectral powers in different frequency bands. Based on the similarities of the participants' ratings on the ten positive emotions, these emotions were further clustered into three representative clusters, as 'encouragement' for awe, gratitude, hope, inspiration, pride, 'playfulness' for amusement, joy, interest, and 'harmony' for love, serenity. Using the EEG spectral powers as features, both the binary classification on the higher and lower ratings on these positive emotions and the binary classification between the three positive emotion clusters, achieved accuracies of approximately 80% and above. To our knowledge, our study provides the first piece of evidence on the EEG correlates of different positive emotions.

  1. A Hybrid Recommender System Based on User-Recommender Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Heng-Ru; Min, Fan; He, Xu; Xu, Yuan-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Recommender systems are used to make recommendations about products, information, or services for users. Most existing recommender systems implicitly assume one particular type of user behavior. However, they seldom consider user-recommender interactive scenarios in real-world environments. In this paper, we propose a hybrid recommender system based on user-recommender interaction and evaluate its performance with recall and diversity metrics. First, we define the user-recommender interaction...

  2. Factors affecting evidence-use in food policy-making processes in health and agriculture in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waqa, Gade; Bell, Colin; Snowdon, Wendy; Moodie, Marj

    2017-01-09

    There is limited research on the use of evidence to inform policy-making in the Pacific. This study aims to identify and describe factors that facilitate or limit the use of evidence in food-related policy-making in the Health and Agriculture Ministries in Fiji. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with selected policy-makers in two government ministries that were instrumental in the development of food-related policies in Fiji designed to prevent Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs). Snowball sampling was used to recruit, as key informants, senior policy-makers in management positions such as national advisors and directors who were based at either the national headquarters or equivalent. Interviewees were asked about their experiences in developing food-related or other policies, barriers or facilitators encountered in the policy development and implementation process and the use of evidence. Each interview lasted approximately 45-60 minutes, and was conducted in English. Audio-recorded interviews were transcribed, thematically coded and analyzed using N-Vivo 8.0 software. Thirty-one policy-makers from the Ministry of Health and Medical Services (MoHMS n = 18) and the Ministry of Agriculture (MoA n = 13) in Fiji participated in the study. Whilst evidence is sometimes used in food-related policy-making in both the Health and Agriculture Ministries (including formal evidence such as published research and informal evidence such as personal experiences and opinions), it is not yet embedded as an essential part of the process. Participants indicated that a lack of resources, poor technical support in terms of training, the absence of clear strategies for improving competent use of evidence, procedures regarding engagement with other stakeholders across sectors, varying support from senior managers and limited consultation across sectors were barriers to evidence use. The willingness of organizations to create a culture of using evidence was

  3. Consumer Behavior and Sustainable Development in China: The Role of Behavioral Sciences in Environmental Policymaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Dias Simões

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available China’s astonishing economic development over the last decades has produced a momentous impact on the country’s environmental equilibrium. Chinese officials are now confronted with the need to tackle environmental problems without disrupting the country’s development. The Chinese government seems keen on striking a balance between these two apparently contradictory goals by promoting the concept of “ecological civilization”, a notion that emphasizes the importance of individual behavior. Over the last few years, environmental policymaking worldwide has been giving a lower profile to the role of the State and placing increasing responsibility for many environmental issues on citizens/consumers. Individuals are increasingly perceived as agents for environmental change and their behaviors are subject to tighter scrutiny. Due to the emergence of a consumer society in China, individual behaviors are increasingly a source of environmental problems and a key component of efficient and long-lasting solutions. Accordingly, Chinese policymakers should recognize the environmental significance of individual behaviors and look beyond traditional policy tools. This article argues that Behavioral Sciences can offer important lessons and help in designing new strategies that can speak directly to the Chinese people as a source of environmental harm, thus reducing their impact on the environment.

  4. HIV/AIDS policy-making in Kyrgyzstan: a stakeholder analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancker, Svetlana; Rechel, Bernd

    2015-02-01

    Kyrgyzstan has adopted a number of policy initiatives to deal with an accelerating HIV/AIDS epidemic. This article explores the main actors in HIV/AIDS policy-making, their interests, support and involvement and their current ability to set the agenda and influence the policy-making process. Fifty-four semi-structured interviews were conducted in the autumn of 2011, complemented by a review of policy documents and secondary sources on HIV/AIDS in Kyrgyzstan. We found that most stakeholders were supportive of progressive HIV/AIDS policies, but that their influence levels varied considerably. Worryingly, several major state agencies exhibited some resistance or lack of initiative towards HIV/AIDS policies, often prompting international agencies and local NGOs to conceptualize and drive appropriate policies. We conclude that, without clear vision and leadership by the state, the sustainability of the national response will be in question. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2013; all rights reserved.

  5. A Policymaker's Guide to Scaling Home Energy Upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeBaron, Robin [Home Performance Coalition, Moon, PA (United States); Saul-Rinaldi, Kara [Home Performance Coalition, Moon, PA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    There has never been a better time to launch initiatives to promote residential energy efficiency savings. Over the past several decades, residential retrofit programs have demonstrated that energy efficiency measures contribute to achieving multiple benefits, including but not limited to reductions in home energy consumption, stabilization improvements for the grid by shaving peak loads, saving consumers millions on utility bills, and significantly reducing carbon emissions. Although a number of barriers to widespread uptake of home energy upgrades persist, the lessons learned as a result of the 2009 stimulus funding1 have resulted in a set of policy approaches that create new strategies for taking residential energy efficiency to scale.2 The identification of these approaches is well timed; energy efficiency is often the least expensive and most cost effective way to comply with a variety of federal, state and local policies. This Guide is designed to help state and local policymakers to take full advantage of new policy developments by providing them with a comprehensive set of tools to support launching or accelerating residential energy efficiency programs. It is written primarily for state and local policymakers, including state and local executives, legislators, public utility commissioners, and the staff who advise them.

  6. The Role of Higher Education in National Quality Infrastructure Policy-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Ruso

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to raise awareness of the importance of the policy makers’ knowledge and expertise about quality infrastructure (QI for the successful policy-making. This article, which addresses the role of higher education in Serbian quality infrastructure policy-making, is an analysis of QI related contents of higher education institution curriculum. The target institutions are public faculties from whose official websites the data were collected. Depending on the keywords, the analysis was performed in order to classify the faculties into three categories. After reviewing the 307 subject titles and descriptions of undergraduate courses, the results show that the concepts of QI are widely recognized as an important and popular topic. The analysis of the QI adoption and diffusion indicates that although some of the faculties might be ‘leaders’ in a particular dimension, they still do not necessarily fall into the ‘leader’ category. JEL Classification:I21, I23, H54, L15

  7. Recommended methods for purification of solvents and tests for impurities

    CERN Document Server

    Coetzee, J F

    1982-01-01

    Recommended Methods for Purification of Solvents and Tests for Impurities is a compilation of recommended procedures for purification of solvents and tests for solvent impurities. Ten solvents are covered: acetonitrile, sulfolane, propylene carbonate, dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethylformamide, hexamethylphosphoramide, pyridine, ethylenediamine, N-methylacetamide, and N-methylpropionamide. This book is comprised of 12 chapters and opens with an introduction to general aspects of impurity effects. The rationale for the selection of solvent is explained, and the relative reactivities of solutes in di

  8. Distributed Deliberative Recommender Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recio-García, Juan A.; Díaz-Agudo, Belén; González-Sanz, Sergio; Sanchez, Lara Quijano

    Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) is one of most successful applied AI technologies of recent years. Although many CBR systems reason locally on a previous experience base to solve new problems, in this paper we focus on distributed retrieval processes working on a network of collaborating CBR systems. In such systems, each node in a network of CBR agents collaborates, arguments and counterarguments its local results with other nodes to improve the performance of the system's global response. We describe D2ISCO: a framework to design and implement deliberative and collaborative CBR systems that is integrated as a part of jcolibritwo an established framework in the CBR community. We apply D2ISCO to one particular simplified type of CBR systems: recommender systems. We perform a first case study for a collaborative music recommender system and present the results of an experiment of the accuracy of the system results using a fuzzy version of the argumentation system AMAL and a network topology based on a social network. Besides individual recommendation we also discuss how D2ISCO can be used to improve recommendations to groups and we present a second case of study based on the movie recommendation domain with heterogeneous groups according to the group personality composition and a group topology based on a social network.

  9. Summary (and) recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report looks at the Health and Safety record at the Atomic Weapons Establishment at Aldermaston. The last outside report was by Pochin in 1978 which recommended that staffing for health physicists and maintenance staff should be increased and that some buildings where solid and liquid radioactive wastes were processed should be replaced. A new facility to process contaminated heavy equipment was also recommended. This report finds that none of the recommendations have been fully implemented. It also lists accidents, fires and worker contamination. It is concluded that some of the problems are that nuclear weapons production is inherently unsafe and cannot be made safe, that the secrecy surrounding the establishments' safety record is not good for improving it and finally the report calls for production at Aldermaston to be halted. (UK)

  10. Archetypal Game Recommender Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sifa, Rafet; Bauckhage, C.; Drachen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary users (players, consumers) of digital games have thousands of products to choose from, which makes nding games that t their interests challenging. Towards addressing this challenge, in this paper two dierent formulations of Archetypal Analysis for Top-L recommender tasks using implicit...... feedback are presented: factor- and neighborhood-oriented models. These form the rst application of rec- ommender systems to digital games. Both models are tested on a dataset of 500,000 users of the game distribution platform Steam, covering game ownership and playtime data across more than 3000 games....... Compared to four other recommender models (nearest neighbor, two popularity mod- els, random baseline), the archetype based models provide the highest recall rates showing that Archetypal Analysis can be successfully applied for Top-L recommendation purposes...

  11. Recommending Multidimensional Queries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacometti, Arnaud; Marcel, Patrick; Negre, Elsa

    Interactive analysis of datacube, in which a user navigates a cube by launching a sequence of queries is often tedious since the user may have no idea of what the forthcoming query should be in his current analysis. To better support this process we propose in this paper to apply a Collaborative Work approach that leverages former explorations of the cube to recommend OLAP queries. The system that we have developed adapts Approximate String Matching, a technique popular in Information Retrieval, to match the current analysis with the former explorations and help suggesting a query to the user. Our approach has been implemented with the open source Mondrian OLAP server to recommend MDX queries and we have carried out some preliminary experiments that show its efficiency for generating effective query recommendations.

  12. Ten years of telerehabilitation: A literature overview of technologies and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogante, Marco; Grigioni, Mauro; Cordella, Daniele; Giacomozzi, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims at delivering a structured overview of telerehabilitation literature by analysing the entire set of articles under the search terms "telerehabilitation" or "tele-rehabilitation" to portray "state of the art" ten years after the publication of the first scientific article on the topic. A structured study has been conducted by considering all those articles containing the word "telerehabilitation" or "tele-rehabilitation". Medline, Embase, Cochrane, UK Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health databases have been interrogated for articles between 1998 and 2008. 146 scientific articles were found. 56 articles focus on patient treatment, 23 are reviews, 3 are to be considered as both patient treatment papers and reviews, 53 are either technical reports, system descriptions or analyses of new approaches; 8 are general discussion on telerehabilitation. The present paper draw the scenario of the first ten years of telerehabilitation, focussing on clinical applications and technologies. Basically, it confirms the lack of comprehensive studies providing evidence for supporting decision and policy-makers in adopting telerehabilitation technologies in the clinical practice. An overall lack of standardisation in the used terminology also results from the analysis of keywords, which is typical of quite recent fields of application.

  13. New Insulin Delivery Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, Anders H; Kreugel, Gillian; Grassi, Giorgio; Halimi, Serge; Hicks, Debbie; Hirsch, Laurence J; Smith, Mike J; Wellhoener, Regine; Bode, Bruce W; Hirsch, Irl B; Kalra, Sanjay; Ji, Linong; Strauss, Kenneth W

    2016-09-01

    Many primary care professionals manage injection or infusion therapies in patients with diabetes. Few published guidelines have been available to help such professionals and their patients manage these therapies. Herein, we present new, practical, and comprehensive recommendations for diabetes injections and infusions. These recommendations were informed by a large international survey of current practice and were written and vetted by 183 diabetes experts from 54 countries at the Forum for Injection Technique and Therapy: Expert Recommendations (FITTER) workshop held in Rome, Italy, in 2015. Recommendations are organized around the themes of anatomy, physiology, pathology, psychology, and technology. Key among the recommendations are that the shortest needles (currently the 4-mm pen and 6-mm syringe needles) are safe, effective, and less painful and should be the first-line choice in all patient categories; intramuscular injections should be avoided, especially with long-acting insulins, because severe hypoglycemia may result; lipohypertrophy is a frequent complication of therapy that distorts insulin absorption, and, therefore, injections and infusions should not be given into these lesions and correct site rotation will help prevent them; effective long-term therapy with insulin is critically dependent on addressing psychological hurdles upstream, even before insulin has been started; inappropriate disposal of used sharps poses a risk of infection with blood-borne pathogens; and mitigation is possible with proper training, effective disposal strategies, and the use of safety devices. Adherence to these new recommendations should lead to more effective therapies, improved outcomes, and lower costs for patients with diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevention and control of tuberculosis in correctional and detention facilities: recommendations from the CDC

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Parsons, S

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available roles of shared responsibility. The recommendations in this report can assist officials of federal, state, and local correctional facilities in preventing trans- mission of TB and controlling TB among inmates and facility employees. The target...-care professionals. The report is intended to assist policymakers in reaching informed decisions regarding the pre- vention and control of TB in correctional facilities. Methods To update the existing guidelines, with assistance from ACET, CDC organized...

  15. Ten Guidelines for Translating Legal Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Kocbek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a targeted model for translating legal texts, developed by the author by combining translation science (i.e. functionalist approaches with the findings of comparative law and legal linguistics. It consists of ten guidelines directing the translator from defining the intended function of the target text and selecting the corresponding translation type, through comparing the legal systems involved in the translation and analysing the memetic structure of the source text and parallel texts in the target culture to designing the target text as a cultureme and ensuring its legal security.

  16. Ten Years of Speckle Interferometry at SOAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokovinin, Andrei

    2018-03-01

    Since 2007, close binary and multiple stars are observed by speckle interferometry at the 4.1 m Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope. The HRCam instrument, observing strategy and planning, data processing and calibration methods, developed and improved during ten years, are presented here in a concise way. Thousands of binary stars were measured with diffraction-limited resolution (29 mas at 540 nm wavelength) and a high accuracy reaching 1 mas; 200 new pairs or subsystems were discovered. To date, HRCam has performed over 11,000 observations with a high efficiency (up to 300 stars per night). An overview of the main results delivered by this instrument is given.

  17. Ten themes of viscous liquid dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, J. C.

    2007-01-01

    Ten ‘themes' of viscous liquid physics are discussed with a focus on how they point to a general description of equilibrium viscous liquid dynamics (i.e., fluctuations) at a given temperature. This description is based on standard time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equations for the density fields......, stress tensor fields, potential energy density field, and fields quantifying molecular orientations. One characteristic aspect of the theory is that density has the appearance of a non-conserved field. Another characteristic feature is the long-wavelength dominance of the dynamics, which not only...

  18. Novitäten im Breslauer Stadttheater

    OpenAIRE

    Zduniak, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Am Anfang des 20. Jahrhunderts zählte das Breslauer Stadttheater, obwohl mit nur einer kleinen Orchester-Besetzung ausgestattet, zu den bemerkenswerten europäischen Opernbühnen. Es war aufgeschlossen für musikalische Novitäten. Als Beweis dafür sind u.a. die Breslauer Premieren Salome (1906) von Richard Strauss, L\\'Orfeo (1913) von Claudio Monteverdi und die Uraufführung der Oper Eros und Psyche (1917) von Ludomir Różycki zu nennen.

  19. Ten essential skills for electrical engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Dorr, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Engineers know that, as in any other discipline, getting a good job requires practical, up-to-date skills. An engineering degree provides a broad set of fundamentals. Ten Essential Skills applies those fundamentals to practical tasks required by employers. Written in a user-friendly, no-nonsense format, the book reviews practical skills using the latest tools and techniques, and features a companion website with interview practice problems and advanced material for readers wishing to pursue additional skills. With this book, aspiring and current engineers may approach job interviews confident

  20. The Top Ten Algorithms in Data Mining

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Xindong

    2009-01-01

    From classification and clustering to statistical learning, association analysis, and link mining, this book covers the most important topics in data mining research. It presents the ten most influential algorithms used in the data mining community today. Each chapter provides a detailed description of the algorithm, a discussion of available software implementation, advanced topics, and exercises. With a simple data set, examples illustrate how each algorithm works and highlight the overall performance of each algorithm in a real-world application. Featuring contributions from leading researc

  1. TENS (transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation) for labour pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Richard

    2012-05-01

    Because TENS is applied inconsistently and not always in line with optimal TENS application theory, this may explain why TENS for labour pain appears to be effective in some individuals and not in others. This article reviews TENS theory, advises upon optimal TENS application for labour pain and discusses some of the limitations of TENS research on labour pain. TENS application for labour pain may include TENS applied to either side of the lower spine, set to 200 mus pulse duration and 100 pulses per second. As pain increases, TENS intensity should be increased and as pain decreases, TENS intensity should be reduced to maintain a strong but pain free intensity of stimulation. This application may particularly reduce back pain during labour.

  2. Modeling the public health impact of malaria vaccines for developers and policymakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Julia K; Cárdenas, Vicky; Loucq, Christian; Maire, Nicolas; Smith, Thomas; Shaffer, Craig; Måseide, Kårstein; Brooks, Alan

    2013-07-01

    Efforts to develop malaria vaccines show promise. Mathematical model-based estimates of the potential demand, public health impact, and cost and financing requirements can be used to inform investment and adoption decisions by vaccine developers and policymakers on the use of malaria vaccines as complements to existing interventions. However, the complexity of such models may make their outputs inaccessible to non-modeling specialists. This paper describes a Malaria Vaccine Model (MVM) developed to address the specific needs of developers and policymakers, who need to access sophisticated modeling results and to test various scenarios in a user-friendly interface. The model's functionality is demonstrated through a hypothetical vaccine. The MVM has three modules: supply and demand forecast; public health impact; and implementation cost and financing requirements. These modules include pre-entered reference data and also allow for user-defined inputs. The model includes an integrated sensitivity analysis function. Model functionality was demonstrated by estimating the public health impact of a hypothetical pre-erythrocytic malaria vaccine with 85% efficacy against uncomplicated disease and a vaccine efficacy decay rate of four years, based on internationally-established targets. Demand for this hypothetical vaccine was estimated based on historical vaccine implementation rates for routine infant immunization in 40 African countries over a 10-year period. Assumed purchase price was $5 per dose and injection equipment and delivery costs were $0.40 per dose. The model projects the number of doses needed, uncomplicated and severe cases averted, deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted, and cost to avert each. In the demonstration scenario, based on a projected demand of 532 million doses, the MVM estimated that 150 million uncomplicated cases of malaria and 1.1 million deaths would be averted over 10 years. This is equivalent to 943 uncomplicated cases

  3. The HIV epidemic and sexual and reproductive health policy integration: views of South African policymakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Diane; Mantell, Joanne E; Moodley, Jennifer; Mall, Sumaya

    2015-03-04

    Integration of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and HIV policies and services delivered by the same provider is prioritised worldwide, especially in sub-Saharan Africa where HIV prevalence is highest. South Africa has the largest antiretroviral treatment (ART) programme in the world, with an estimated 2.7 million people on ART, elevating South Africa's prominence as a global leader in HIV treatment. In 2011, the Southern African HIV Clinicians Society published safer conception guidelines for people living with HIV (PLWH) and in 2013, the South African government published contraceptive guidelines highlighting the importance of SRH and fertility planning services for people living with HIV. Addressing unintended pregnancies, safer conception and maternal health issues is crucial for improving PLWH's SRH and combatting the global HIV epidemic. This paper explores South African policymakers' perspectives on public sector SRH-HIV policy integration, with a special focus on the need for national and regional policies on safer conception for PLWH and contraceptive guidelines implementation. It draws on 42 in-depth interviews with national, provincial and civil society policymakers conducted between 2008-2009 and 2011-2012, as the number of people on ART escalated. Interviews focused on three key domains: opinions on PLWH's childbearing; the status of SRH-HIV integration policies and services; and thoughts and suggestions on SRH-HIV integration within the restructuring of South African primary care services. Data were coded and analysed according to themes. Participants supported SRH-HIV integrated policy and services. However, integration challenges identified included a lack of policy and guidelines, inadequately trained providers, vertical programming, provider work overload, and a weak health system. Participants acknowledged that SRH-HIV integration policies, particularly for safer conception, contraception and cervical cancer, had been neglected. Policymakers

  4. Policy entrepreneurs and structural influence in integrated community case management policymaking in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Jessica C

    2015-12-01

    Policy entrepreneurs are individuals who attempt to influence the policy process and its outcomes through their opportunistic or incremental actions. Their success in the policy-making process has been associated with the convergence of four factors: behavioural traits; institutional factors; network position and political capital. Policy entrepreneurs have received little study in low- and middle-income country policy research despite observations of individualized decision-making, informal institutions and the unequal distribution and exercise of power in policymaking. This article aims to identify whether policy entrepreneurs were present in the policy process around integrated community case management (iCCM) in Burkina Faso, whether they were successful in achieving policy change, and whether success or failure can be explained using existing policy entrepreneur frameworks from high-income polities. This mixed methods policy study collected data from in-depth qualitative interviews and social network surveys of actors involved in iCCM policymaking [known locally as C-integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI)]; data were analysed based on the framework categories. Interview data pointed to one key individual who played a significant role in the inclusion of pneumonia treatment into the country's iCCM policy, an issue that had been a point of contention between government policy elites and development partners. Social network data confirmed that this actor was strategically located in the policy network to be able to reach the most other actors and to be able to control the flow of information. Although some development partner actors were as strategically located, none had the same level of authority or trust as was imbued by being a member of the government civil service. The entrepreneur's mid-level rank in the health ministry may have encouraged him/her to invest political capital and take risks that would not have been feasible or attractive to a

  5. Policy entrepreneurs and structural influence in integrated community case management policymaking in Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Policy entrepreneurs are individuals who attempt to influence the policy process and its outcomes through their opportunistic or incremental actions. Their success in the policy-making process has been associated with the convergence of four factors: behavioural traits; institutional factors; network position and political capital. Policy entrepreneurs have received little study in low- and middle-income country policy research despite observations of individualized decision-making, informal institutions and the unequal distribution and exercise of power in policymaking. This article aims to identify whether policy entrepreneurs were present in the policy process around integrated community case management (iCCM) in Burkina Faso, whether they were successful in achieving policy change, and whether success or failure can be explained using existing policy entrepreneur frameworks from high-income polities. This mixed methods policy study collected data from in-depth qualitative interviews and social network surveys of actors involved in iCCM policymaking [known locally as C-integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI)]; data were analysed based on the framework categories. Interview data pointed to one key individual who played a significant role in the inclusion of pneumonia treatment into the country’s iCCM policy, an issue that had been a point of contention between government policy elites and development partners. Social network data confirmed that this actor was strategically located in the policy network to be able to reach the most other actors and to be able to control the flow of information. Although some development partner actors were as strategically located, none had the same level of authority or trust as was imbued by being a member of the government civil service. The entrepreneur’s mid-level rank in the health ministry may have encouraged him/her to invest political capital and take risks that would not have been feasible or attractive to

  6. An audience research study to disseminate evidence about comprehensive state mental health parity legislation to US State policymakers: protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purtle, Jonathan; Lê-Scherban, Félice; Shattuck, Paul; Proctor, Enola K; Brownson, Ross C

    2017-06-26

    A large proportion of the US population has limited access to mental health treatments because insurance providers limit the utilization of mental health services in ways that are more restrictive than for physical health services. Comprehensive state mental health parity legislation (C-SMHPL) is an evidence-based policy intervention that enhances mental health insurance coverage and improves access to care. Implementation of C-SMHPL, however, is limited. State policymakers have the exclusive authority to implement C-SMHPL, but sparse guidance exists to inform the design of strategies to disseminate evidence about C-SMHPL, and more broadly, evidence-based treatments and mental illness, to this audience. The aims of this exploratory audience research study are to (1) characterize US State policymakers' knowledge and attitudes about C-SMHPL and identify individual- and state-level attributes associated with support for C-SMHPL; and (2) integrate quantitative and qualitative data to develop a conceptual framework to disseminate evidence about C-SMHPL, evidence-based treatments, and mental illness to US State policymakers. The study uses a multi-level (policymaker, state), mixed method (QUAN→qual) approach and is guided by Kingdon's Multiple Streams Framework, adapted to incorporate constructs from Aarons' Model of Evidence-Based Implementation in Public Sectors. A multi-modal survey (telephone, post-mail, e-mail) of 600 US State policymakers (500 legislative, 100 administrative) will be conducted and responses will be linked to state-level variables. The survey will span domains such as support for C-SMHPL, knowledge and attitudes about C-SMHPL and evidence-based treatments, mental illness stigma, and research dissemination preferences. State-level variables will measure factors associated with C-SMHPL implementation, such as economic climate and political environment. Multi-level regression will determine the relative strength of individual- and state

  7. Recommendations for Alternative Credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenderman, Ed; And Others

    Following a review of the mathematics topics taught in accounting, electronics, auto, food and clothing, and metals courses at Linn-Benton Community College, Albany, Oregon, recommendations were made to grant one semester of mathematics credit for completing a two-year sequence of these courses. The other required semester of mathematics should be…

  8. Privacy in Recommender Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeckmans, Arjan; Beye, Michael; Erkin, Zekeriya; Erkin, Zekeriya; Hartel, Pieter H.; Lagendijk, Reginald; Tang, Qiang; Ramzan, Naeem; van Zwol, Roelof; Lee, Jong-Seok; Clüver, Kai; Hua, Xian-Sheng

    In many online applications, the range of content that is offered to users is so wide that a need for automated recommender systems arises. Such systems can provide a personalized selection of relevant items to users. In practice, this can help people find entertaining movies, boost sales through

  9. Privacy enhanced recommender system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkin, Zekeriya; Erkin, Zekeriya; Beye, Michael; Veugen, Thijs; Lagendijk, Reginald L.

    2010-01-01

    Recommender systems are widely used in online applications since they enable personalized service to the users. The underlying collaborative filtering techniques work on user’s data which are mostly privacy sensitive and can be misused by the service provider. To protect the privacy of the users, we

  10. Chapter 10: Management recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Janie Agyagos; Tracy McCarthey; Robert M. Marshall; Scott H. Stoleson; Mary J. Whitfield

    2000-01-01

    This chapter was developed over a series of meetings using a group-consensus process. Our recommendations are based on published results, on information compiled in the previous chapters, on expert opinion, and on unpublished data of conservation team members. This chapter is available as temporary guidance until the Recovery Plan for the southwestern willow flycatcher...

  11. Ten principles of good interdisciplinary team work

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Interdisciplinary team work is increasingly prevalent, supported by policies and practices that bring care closer to the patient and challenge traditional professional boundaries. To date, there has been a great deal of emphasis on the processes of team work, and in some cases, outcomes. Method This study draws on two sources of knowledge to identify the attributes of a good interdisciplinary team; a published systematic review of the literature on interdisciplinary team work, and the perceptions of over 253 staff from 11 community rehabilitation and intermediate care teams in the UK. These data sources were merged using qualitative content analysis to arrive at a framework that identifies characteristics and proposes ten competencies that support effective interdisciplinary team work. Results Ten characteristics underpinning effective interdisciplinary team work were identified: positive leadership and management attributes; communication strategies and structures; personal rewards, training and development; appropriate resources and procedures; appropriate skill mix; supportive team climate; individual characteristics that support interdisciplinary team work; clarity of vision; quality and outcomes of care; and respecting and understanding roles. Conclusions We propose competency statements that an effective interdisciplinary team functioning at a high level should demonstrate. PMID:23663329

  12. Ten principles of good interdisciplinary team work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancarrow, Susan A; Booth, Andrew; Ariss, Steven; Smith, Tony; Enderby, Pam; Roots, Alison

    2013-05-10

    Interdisciplinary team work is increasingly prevalent, supported by policies and practices that bring care closer to the patient and challenge traditional professional boundaries. To date, there has been a great deal of emphasis on the processes of team work, and in some cases, outcomes. This study draws on two sources of knowledge to identify the attributes of a good interdisciplinary team; a published systematic review of the literature on interdisciplinary team work, and the perceptions of over 253 staff from 11 community rehabilitation and intermediate care teams in the UK. These data sources were merged using qualitative content analysis to arrive at a framework that identifies characteristics and proposes ten competencies that support effective interdisciplinary team work. Ten characteristics underpinning effective interdisciplinary team work were identified: positive leadership and management attributes; communication strategies and structures; personal rewards, training and development; appropriate resources and procedures; appropriate skill mix; supportive team climate; individual characteristics that support interdisciplinary team work; clarity of vision; quality and outcomes of care; and respecting and understanding roles. We propose competency statements that an effective interdisciplinary team functioning at a high level should demonstrate.

  13. Responses to Human Bioeffluents at Levels Recommended by Ventilation Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaojing; Wargocki, Pawel; Lian, Zhiwei

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether exposure to human bioeffluents, at the levels recommended by the current ventilation standards, would cause any effects on humans. Ten subjects were exposed in a low-emission stainless-steel climate chamber for 4.25 hours. The outdoor air supply rate...

  14. Exploring governance learning: How policymakers draw on evidence, experience and intuition in designing participatory flood risk planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newig, Jens; Kochskämper, Elisa; Challies, Edward; Jager, Nicolas W

    2016-01-01

    The importance of designing suitable participatory governance processes is generally acknowledged. However, less emphasis has been put on how decision-makers design such processes, and how they learn about doing so. While the policy learning literature has tended to focus on the substance of policy, little research is available on learning about the design of governance. Here, we explore different approaches to learning among German policymakers engaged in implementing the European Floods Directive. We draw on official planning documents and expert interviews with state-level policymakers to focus on learning about the procedural aspects of designing and conducting participatory flood risk management planning. Drawing on the policy learning and evidence-based governance literatures, we conceptualise six types of instrumental 'governance learning' according to sources of learning (endogenous and exogenous) and modes of learning (serial and parallel). We empirically apply this typology in the context of diverse participatory flood risk management planning processes currently unfolding across the German federal states. We find that during the first Floods Directive planning cycle, policymakers have tended to rely on prior experience in their own federal states with planning under the Water Framework Directive to inform the design and carrying out of participatory processes. In contrast, policymakers only sporadically look to experiences from other jurisdictions as a deliberate learning strategy. We argue that there is scope for more coordinated and systematic learning on designing effective governance, and that the latter might benefit from more openness to experimentation and learning on the part of policymakers.

  15. Policy-makers' views on impact of specialist and advanced practitioner roles in Ireland: the SCAPE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begley, Cecily; Murphy, Kathy; Higgins, Agnes; Cooney, Adeline

    2014-05-01

    To ascertain and explore the views held by key healthcare policy-makers on the impact of clinical specialist and advanced practice nursing and midwifery roles. Specialist and advanced practice roles are common world-wide and were introduced in Ireland in 2000. After experiencing these roles for a decade, the views of healthcare policy-makers were sought as part of a national evaluation. A qualitative, descriptive design was used. Following ethical approval, 12 policy-makers were interviewed in 2010, using a six-part interview schedule. Policy-makers believed that specialist and advanced practice roles resulted in better continuity of care, improved patient/client outcomes and a more holistic approach. These clinicians were also said to be leading guideline development, new initiatives in care, education of staff, audit and policy development. They lacked administrative support and research time. Budget cuts and a government-applied recruitment moratorium were said to hamper the development of specialist/advanced practice roles. Healthcare policy-makers believe that specialists and advanced practitioners contribute to higher quality patient/client care, particularly at a strategic level. These roles could make an important contribution to future health service developments, particularly in relation to chronic-disease management and community care, where more advanced practitioner posts are required. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. From a Bureaucratic to a Critical-Sociocultural Model of Policymaking in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Correa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the National Bilingual Program 2004-2019, currently called “Program for Strengthening the Development of Competencies in a Foreign Language,” the Colombian government has implemented a series of actions to raise the level of English proficiency of teachers and students and insert the country into globalization processes. The purpose of this article, which is the result of a project conducted by the authors in Antioquia (Colombia about the stakeholders’ views of the program, is to show how these actions fit a bureaucratic policymaking model which has been highly questioned by policy experts and to propose a new model which can be used to make deep changes in the program with the participation of all stakeholders.

  17. Environmental policy-making in a difficult context: motorized two-wheeled vehicle emissions in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badami, Madhav G.

    2004-01-01

    Motor vehicle activity is growing rapidly in India and other less-industrialized countries in Asia. This growth is contributing to serious health and welfare effects due to vehicle emissions, and energy insecurity, acidification and climate change. This paper applies the problem-structuring tools of 'value-focused thinking' to inform policy-making and implementation related to this complex problem in a difficult context, with specific reference to motorized two-wheeled vehicles, which play an important role in transport air pollution but also provide affordable mobility to millions with few other attractive options. The paper describes the process used to elicit and structure objectives and measures, based on interviews conducted by the author, and demonstrates how the objectives and measures can be used to more effectively characterize policy impacts, and create policy packages that have a better chance of long-term success

  18. Science does not speak for itself: translating child development research for the public and its policymakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shonkoff, Jack P; Bales, Susan Nall

    2011-01-01

    Science has an important role to play in advising policymakers on crafting effective responses to social problems that affect the development of children. This article describes lessons learned from a multiyear, working collaboration among neuroscientists, developmental psychologists, pediatricians, economists, and communications researchers who are engaged in the iterative construction of a core story of development, using simplifying models (i.e., metaphors) such as "brain architecture,"toxic stress," and "serve and return" to explain complex scientific concepts to nonscientists. The aim of this article is to stimulate more systematic, empirical approaches to the task of knowledge transfer and to underscore the need to view the translation of science into policy and practice as an important academic endeavor in its own right. © 2011 The Authors. Child Development © 2011 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  19. Welfare policymaking and intersections of race, ethnicity, and gender in U.S. state legislatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reingold, Beth; Smith, Adrienne R

    2012-01-01

    Welfare policy in the American states has been shaped profoundly by race, ethnicity, and representation. Does gender matter as well? Focusing on state welfare reform in the mid-1990s, we test hypotheses derived from two alternative approaches to incorporating gender into the study of representation and welfare policymaking. An additive approach, which assumes gender and race/ethnicity are distinct and independent, suggests that female state legislators—regardless of race/ethnicity—will mitigate the more restrictive and punitive aspects of welfare reform, much like their African American and Latino counterparts do. In contrast, an intersectional approach, which highlights the overlapping and interdependent nature of gender and race/ethnicity, suggests that legislative women of color will have the strongest countervailing effect on state welfare reform—stronger than that of other women or men of color. Our empirical analyses suggest an intersectional approach yields a more accurate understanding of gender, race/ethnicity, and welfare politics in the states.

  20. Communicating Scientific Findings to Lawyers, Policy-Makers, and the Public (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W.; Velsko, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    This presentation will summarize the authors' collaborative research on inferential errors, bias and communication difficulties that have arisen in the area of WMD forensics. This research involves analysis of problems that have arisen in past national security investigations, interviews with scientists from various disciplines whose work has been used in WMD investigations, interviews with policy-makers, and psychological studies of lay understanding of forensic evidence. Implications of this research for scientists involved in nuclear explosion monitoring will be discussed. Among the issues covered will be: - Potential incompatibilities between the questions policy makers pose and the answers that experts can provide. - Common misunderstandings of scientific and statistical data. - Advantages and disadvantages of various methods for describing and characterizing the strength of scientific findings. - Problems that can arise from excessive hedging or, alternatively, insufficient qualification of scientific conclusions. - Problems that can arise from melding scientific and non-scientific evidence in forensic assessments.

  1. The clean development mechanism and urban air pollution A handbook for policymakers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefevre, T.; Todoc, J.L.; Thiansathit, W. [Centre for Energy Environment Resources Development CEERD, Bangkok (Thailand); Gomez Caldes, N.; Claude Labriet, M. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambiantales Tecnologicas, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Bakker, S.J.A.; Smekens, K.E.L. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Li, Sun; Leteng, Lin [Energy Research Institute of Shandong Academy of Sciences SDERI, Jinan, Shandong (China); Dass, A.; Bordoloi, A. [Winrock International India, Haryana (India); Haq, G.; Schwela, D. [Stockholm Environment Institute SEI, University of York, York (United Kingdom); Rahmah, A.; Salim, N. [Yayasan Pelangi Indonesia, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2008-01-15

    Urban air pollution is a serious health problem in large Asian cities. Often policymakers in those cities are not sufficiently equipped with budget or capacity to address urban air pollution. The clean development mechanism (CDM) could provide finance for air pollution reduction if the measures taken also reduce greenhouse gases. Indeed, there is room for synergy, as there is often a strong sectoral overlap between sources of air pollution and sources of greenhouse gases. This handbook is based on the results an EU Asia Pro Eco co-funded project 'CURB-AIR: CDM and urban air pollution: partnerships enhancing synergies in urban air and health in Kyoto mechanisms'. The CURB-AIR project intends to pave the way for projects that both improve air quality and reduce greenhouse gases emissions. The handbook aims to be a guide for policymakers, civil servants and anyone who is interested in the issue of CDM, urban air pollution and climate change. The Handbook consists of five chapters. Chapter 1 reviews the key issues of the synergy between air pollution, CDM, and climate change. Chapter 2 provides an overview of the various steps which constitute the CDM process. Chapter 3 examines the different types of CDM methodologies that could be applied to projects that contribute to improving urban air quality. Chapter 4 presents four case studies that examine the CDM methodological issues of urban projects that both improve air quality and reduce greenhouse gases emissions. Finally, Chapter 5 highlights the key conclusions with regard to the synergy between CDM and urban air pollution.

  2. Stakeholders Analysis of Policy-Making Process: The Case of Timber Legality Policy on Private Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulyaningrum Mulyaningrum

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to identify and measure the relationships among stakeholders that influence the process of policy-making in defining legality of timber from private forests. The study focuses on the policy-making process of the Ministry of Forestry Regulation P.38/Menhut-II/2009 on Standard and Guidelines for Assessment of Sustainable Forest Management Performance and Timber Legality Verification of Concessionaire or of the Private Forest License Holder as the subject that has been implemented in several private forest management units as follow: Giri Mukti Wana Tirta in Lampung, Koperasi Serba Usaha APIK in Bali, Koperasi Hutan Jaya Lestari in South East Sulawesi, and Koperasi Wana Lestari Menoreh Kulonprogo in Yogyakarta. This research used a qualitative approach and the analysis method used in this research is a modified-stakeholder analysis that developed by ODA (1995, Reitbergen et al. (1998, and Mayer (2005. The stakeholder analysis shows that the interests and influences do not consider private forest farmers as primary stakeholder during  the process of policy formulation.  The strong national and international interests, supported by high authority could not be influnced by the role of the NGOs and academicians. The imbalance of responsibilities, rights, and revenues that was experienced by  farmers as the manager of private forest when started implementing the policy was more as burdens, it means implementation of the policy was more as burdens. Strong relationships between the Ministry of Forestry with the state as a core could not empower the relationship with private forest farmers. As result, policy assumptions cannot be implemented properly.Keywords: policy making process, timber legality, private forest, stakeholder.DOI: 10.7226/jtfm.19.2.156

  3. Voluntarism, public engagement and the role of geoscience in radioactive waste management policy-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilham, Nic

    2014-05-01

    In the UK, as elsewhere in Europe, there has been a move away from previous 'technocratic' approaches to radioactive waste management (RWM). Policy-makers have recognised that for any RWM programme to succeed, sustained engagement with stakeholders and the public is necessary, and any geological repository must be constructed and operated with the willing support of the community which hosts it. This has opened up RWM policy-making and implementation to a wider range of (often contested) expert inputs, ranging across natural and social sciences, engineering and even ethics. Geoscientists and other technical specialists have found themselves drawn into debates about how various types of expertise should be prioritised, and how they should be integrated with diverse public and stakeholder perspectives. They also have a vital role to play in communicating to the public the need for geological disposal of radioactive waste, and the various aspects of geoscience which will inform the process of implementing this, from identifying potential volunteer host communities, to finding a suitable site, developing the safety case, construction of a repository, emplacement of waste, closure and subsequent monitoring. High-quality geoscience, effectively communicated, will be essential to building and maintaining public confidence throughout the many decades such projects will take. Failure to communicate effectively the relevant geoscience and its central role in the UK's radioactive waste management programme arguably contributed to West Cumbria's January 2013 decision to withdraw from the site selection process, and may discourage other communities from coming forward in future. Across countries needing to deal with their radioactive waste, this unique challenge gives an unprecedented urgency to finding ways to engage and communicate effectively with the public about geoscience.

  4. Role of spatial tools in public health policymaking of Bangladesh: opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dohyeong; Sarker, Malabika; Vyas, Priyanka

    2016-02-27

    In spite of the increasing efforts to gather spatial data in developing countries, the use of maps is mostly for visualization of health indicators rather than informed decision-making. Various spatial tools can aid policymakers to allocate resources effectively, predict patterns in communicable or infectious diseases, and provide insights into geographical factors which are associated with utilization or adequacy of health services. In Bangladesh, the launch of District Health Information System 2, along with recent efforts to gather spatial data of facilities location, provides an interesting opportunity to study the current landscape and the potential barriers in advancing the use of spatial tools for informed decision making. This study assessed the current level of map usage and spatial tools for health sector planning in Bangladesh, focusing on investigating why map usage and spatial tools remained at a basic level for the purpose of health policy. The study design involved in-depth interviews, followed by an expert survey (n = 39) obtained through snowball sampling.Our survey revealed that assessing areas with shortage of community health workers emerged as the top most for basic map usage or primarily for visualization purpose, while planning for emergency and obstetric care services, and disease mapping was the most frequent category for intermediate and advanced map usage, respectively. Furthermore, we found lack of inter-institutional collaboration, lack of continuous availability of trained personnel, and lack of awareness on the use of geographic information system (GIS) as a decision-making tool as three most critical barriers in the current landscape. Our findings highlight the barriers in increasing the adoption of spatial tools for health policymaking and planning in Bangladesh.

  5. Contestations and complexities of nurses’ participation in policy-making in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prudence Ditlopo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: There has been increased emphasis globally on nurses’ involvement in health policy and systems development. However, there has been limited scholarly attention on nurses’ participation in policy-making in South Africa. Objective: This paper analyses the dynamics, strengths, and weaknesses of nurses’ participation in four national health workforce policies: the 2008 Nursing Strategy, revision of the Scope of Practice for nurses, the new Framework for Nursing Qualifications, and the Occupation-Specific Dispensation (OSD remuneration policy. Design: Using a policy analysis framework, we conducted in-depth interviews with 28 key informants and 73 frontline nurses in four South African provinces. Thematic content analysis was done using the Atlas.ti software. Results: The study found that nurses’ participation in policy-making is both contested and complex. The contestation relates to the extent and nature of nurses’ participation in nursing policies. There was a disjuncture between nursing leadership and frontline nurses in their levels of awareness of the four policies. The latter group was generally unaware of these policies with the exception of the OSD remuneration policy as it affected them directly. There was also limited consensus on which nursing group legitimately represented nursing issues in the policy arena. Shifting power relationships influenced who participated, how the participation happened, and the degree to which nurses’ views and inputs were considered and incorporated. Conclusions: The South African health system presents major opportunities for nurses to influence and direct policies that affect them. This will require a combination of proactive leadership, health policy capacity and skills development among nurses, and strong support from the national nursing association.

  6. Contestations and complexities of nurses' participation in policy-making in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditlopo, Prudence; Blaauw, Duane; Penn-Kekana, Loveday; Rispel, Laetitia C

    2014-01-01

    There has been increased emphasis globally on nurses' involvement in health policy and systems development. However, there has been limited scholarly attention on nurses' participation in policy-making in South Africa. This paper analyses the dynamics, strengths, and weaknesses of nurses' participation in four national health workforce policies: the 2008 Nursing Strategy, revision of the Scope of Practice for nurses, the new Framework for Nursing Qualifications, and the Occupation-Specific Dispensation (OSD) remuneration policy. Using a policy analysis framework, we conducted in-depth interviews with 28 key informants and 73 frontline nurses in four South African provinces. Thematic content analysis was done using the Atlas.ti software. The study found that nurses' participation in policy-making is both contested and complex. The contestation relates to the extent and nature of nurses' participation in nursing policies. There was a disjuncture between nursing leadership and frontline nurses in their levels of awareness of the four policies. The latter group was generally unaware of these policies with the exception of the OSD remuneration policy as it affected them directly. There was also limited consensus on which nursing group legitimately represented nursing issues in the policy arena. Shifting power relationships influenced who participated, how the participation happened, and the degree to which nurses' views and inputs were considered and incorporated. The South African health system presents major opportunities for nurses to influence and direct policies that affect them. This will require a combination of proactive leadership, health policy capacity and skills development among nurses, and strong support from the national nursing association.

  7. Contestations and complexities of nurses’ participation in policy-making in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditlopo, Prudence; Blaauw, Duane; Penn-Kekana, Loveday; Rispel, Laetitia C.

    2014-01-01

    Background There has been increased emphasis globally on nurses’ involvement in health policy and systems development. However, there has been limited scholarly attention on nurses’ participation in policy-making in South Africa. Objective This paper analyses the dynamics, strengths, and weaknesses of nurses’ participation in four national health workforce policies: the 2008 Nursing Strategy, revision of the Scope of Practice for nurses, the new Framework for Nursing Qualifications, and the Occupation-Specific Dispensation (OSD) remuneration policy. Design Using a policy analysis framework, we conducted in-depth interviews with 28 key informants and 73 frontline nurses in four South African provinces. Thematic content analysis was done using the Atlas.ti software. Results The study found that nurses’ participation in policy-making is both contested and complex. The contestation relates to the extent and nature of nurses’ participation in nursing policies. There was a disjuncture between nursing leadership and frontline nurses in their levels of awareness of the four policies. The latter group was generally unaware of these policies with the exception of the OSD remuneration policy as it affected them directly. There was also limited consensus on which nursing group legitimately represented nursing issues in the policy arena. Shifting power relationships influenced who participated, how the participation happened, and the degree to which nurses’ views and inputs were considered and incorporated. Conclusions The South African health system presents major opportunities for nurses to influence and direct policies that affect them. This will require a combination of proactive leadership, health policy capacity and skills development among nurses, and strong support from the national nursing association. PMID:25537938

  8. Integrating the views and perceptions of UK energy professionals in future energy scenarios to inform policymakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkes, Gareth; Spataru, Catalina

    2017-01-01

    The Energy Institute (EI) developed its first Energy Barometer survey in 2015 which aims to understand professionals’ views and opinions of energy priorities, policies and technologies. 543 UK energy professionals from across the energy sector were surveyed. Following the survey, 79% of UK energy professionals believe their sector is not effectively communicating with the public. This suggests there is an urgent need to better understand how to use surveys in a more methodological way. Developed in conjunction with the EI, this paper presents the Energy Barometer survey methodology and results to achieve a better understanding of UK energy professionals’ current perceptions and future priorities. The paper makes two contributions to enhance the UK's energy debate. First, it provides the first results in a longitudinal assessment of energy professionals’ views of energy policy issues and discusses the implications for future policymaking. Second, it identifies opportunities for Energy Barometer findings to feed into scenarios development. A comparison with other studies was undertaken. It has been shown that the views of professionals working across the sector are aligned with decentralised approaches to decarbonisation. In particular, professionals expect action from policymakers to coordinate, engage with and encourage investment in energy efficiency. - Highlights: • 543 UK energy professionals from across the energy sector were surveyed. • Aiming to better understand views and opinions of energy priorities, policies and technologies. • A comparison of the methodology and results with other studies was undertaken. • Considers contributions of results to energy system scenario development. • Identifies particular need for increased energy efficiency investment.

  9. Knowledge and power in policy-making for child survival in Niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalglish, Sarah L; Rodríguez, Daniela C; Harouna, Abdoutan; Surkan, Pamela J

    2017-03-01

    Calls to enhance the use of scientific evidence in international health and development policy have increased in recent years; however, analytic frameworks for understanding evidence use focus narrowly on scientific research and were created using data and observations nearly exclusively from Western countries. We examine processes of health policy development in a case study of Niger, a low-income West African country that adopted integrated community case management of childhood illness (iCCM) beginning in 2007, resulting in measurable declines in child mortality. Data collection included in-depth interviews with policy actors in Niger (N = 32), document review (N = 103) and direct observation of policy forums (N = 3). Data analysis used process tracing methodology and applied an Aristotelian definition of "knowledge" as 1) episteme (facts), 2) techne (skills) and 3) phronesis (practical wisdom), while also using a critical perspective to understand issues of power. We found sharp differentials in policy-makers' possession and use of codified forms of knowledge (episteme), with Nigerien policy officers' access highly mediated by actors at international agencies. Government policy-makers possessed skills and capacities (techne) to negotiate with donors and deliberate and weigh conflicting considerations; however they lacked capacity and resources to formally evaluate and document programs and thus reliably draw lessons from them. Practical wisdom (phronesis) emerged as key to the iCCM policy enterprise, particularly among Nigerien government actors, who used logical and ethical arguments to make decisions later found to be critical to iCCM's success. While codified knowledge confers power on members of policy discussions who can access it, this represents only one form of knowledge used in the policy process and perhaps not the most important. Future research on evidence-based policy should use broader definitions of evidence or knowledge, examine on how

  10. Increasing Perceived Emergency Preparedness by Participatory Policy-Making (Think-Tanks).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adini, Bruria; Israeli, Avi; Bodas, Moran; Peleg, Kobi

    2018-02-20

    The study aimed to examine impact of think-tanks designed to create policies for emerging threats on medical teams' perceptions of individual and systemic emergency preparedness. Multi-professional think-tanks were established to design policies for potential attacks on civilian communities. In total, 59 multi-sector health care managers participated in think-tanks focused on: (a) primary care services in risk zones; (b) hospital care; (c) casualty evacuation policies; (d) medical services to special-needs populations; and (e) services in a "temporary military-closed zone." Participants rotated systematically between think-tanks. Perceived individual and systemic emergency preparedness was reviewed pre-post participation in think-tanks. A significant increase in perceived emergency preparedness pre-post-think-tanks was found in 8/10 elements including in perceived individual role proficiency (3.71±0.67 vs 4.60±0.53, respectively; P<0.001) and confidence in colleagues' proficiency during crisis (3.56±0.75 vs 4.37±0.61, respectively; P<0.001). Individual preparedness and role perception correlates with systemic preparedness and proficiency in risk assessment. Participation in policy-making impacts on individuals' perceptions of empowerment including trust in colleagues' capacities, but does not increase confidence in a system's preparedness. Field and managerial officials should be involved in policy-making processes, as a means to empower health care managers and improve interfaces and self-efficacy that are relevant to preparedness and response for crises. (Disaster Med Public Health Prepardness. 2018;page 1 of 6).

  11. Knowledge and Attitudes of a Number of Iranian Policy-makers towards Abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourieh, Shamshiri-Milani; Abolghasem, Pourreza; Feizollah, Akbari

    2010-10-01

    Unsafe and illegal abortions are the third leading cause of maternal death. It affects physical, emotional and social health of women and their families. Abortion is a multi-dimensional phenomenon with several social, legal, and religious implications. The views of policy-makers affect the approach to abortion in every society. Understanding the attitudes and knowledge of high-ranking decision makers towards abortion was the purpose of this study. A qualitative research was implemented by carrying out individual interviews with 29 out of a selection of 80 presidents of medical sciences universities, senior executive managers in the legal system, forensic medicine and decision-makers in the health system and a number of top Muslim clerics, using a semi-structured questionnaire for data gathering. Content analysis revealed the results. There were considerable unwillingness and reluctance among the interviewees to participate in the study. The majority of participants fairly knew about the prevalence of illegal abortions and their complications. There was strong agreement on abortion when health of the mother or the fetus was at risk. Abortion for reproductive health reasons was supported by a minority of the respondents. The majority of them disagreed with abortion when pregnancy was the result of a rape, temporary marriage or out of wedlock affairs. Making decision for abortion by the pregnant mother, as a matter of her right, did not gain too much approval. It seemed that physical health of the mother or the fetus was of more importance to the respondents than their mental or social health. The mother's hardship was not any indication for induced abortion in the viewpoints of the interviewed policy-makers. Strengthening family planning programs, making appropriate laws in lines with religious orders and advocacy programs targeting decision makers are determined as strategies for improving women's health rights.

  12. Electroanaesthesia--from torpedo fish to TENS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, J; Dingley, J

    2015-01-01

    In 153 AD, the Roman physician Scribonius Largus identified that electric current had analgesic properties, instructing patients to stand on an electric ray for the treatment of gout. In 2014, transcranial magnetic stimulation was approved by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence for the treatment of migraine. Although separated by nearly two millennia, these milestones represent the evolution of the utilisation of electric current in medical and anaesthetic practice. Significant advances have been made over the last century in particular, and during the 1960s and 1970s, tens of thousands of patients were reportedly anaesthetised for surgical interventions using electric current as the anaesthetic agent. Many medical interventions, including transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and deep brain stimulation, have evolved in the aftermath of investigations into electroanaesthesia; the potential for electric current to be an anaesthetic agent of the future still exists. © 2014 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  13. Spacelab - Ten years of international cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bignier, M.; Harrington, J. C.; Sander, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    The history, current status, and future plans of the Spacelab program are reviewed, with a focus on the cooperative relationship between ESA and NASA. The initial decision to undertake the program and the three agreements signed to begin its implementation are examined, and the division of responsibilities and financial contributions is discussed insofar as it affected the management structure. Consideration is given to the major facilities, the 50-mission operational cycle, communications, the currently scheduled activities (through 1985), the prospective later uses, and the ten dedicated discipline laboratories. The importance of continuous mutual support during the planning and development phases is stressed. The program so far is considered a success, in terms of the goals set by the participants and in terms of the resolution of the problems inherent in international technological endeavors.

  14. Diæten - et andet perspektiv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Frank Juul

    2014-01-01

    Temaet for den seneste udgave af vores studenterblad ”Næringsstoffet” er ”Et andet perspektiv”. Ifølge redaktionens oplæg kunne det eksempelvis dreje sig om »artikler om nye kropsidealer, at sundhed ikke kun handler om, hvad man propper i munden, forskellige perspektiver på de nye kostråd, altern......, alternative kostformer (5:2 kuren) osv.«. Det gav mig anledning til et indlæg, hvor jeg har forsøgt at strejfe flere punkter fra listen med et andet perspektiv på diæten. I bloggen gengives det indlæg i en lettere tilrettet version....

  15. Ten years of x-ray holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faigel, G.; Bortel, G.; Tegze, M.; Fadley, C.S.; Simionovici, A.S.

    2007-01-01

    With the appearance of nano-science the role of local methods has become more and more important. Hard x-ray holography based on the inside reference point concept is a local probe of the atomic order in solids. It gives the 3D real space image of atoms without the phase ambiguity inherent to diffraction methods. In this paper a brief description of the basics of hard x-ray holography is given. The last ten years' experimental and evaluation-related developments are reviewed. We also introduce different variants of the method, such as Bremsstrahlung and gamma ray holography (GRH). The power of the method is illustrated by examples. We outline new directions and future possibilities. (authors)

  16. OARSI Clinical Trials Recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, V B; Blanco, F J; Englund, M

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to describe requirements for inclusion of soluble biomarkers in osteoarthritis (OA) clinical trials and progress toward OA-related biomarker qualification. The Guidelines for Biomarkers Working Group, representing experts in the field of OA biomarker research from...... both academia and industry, convened to discuss issues related to soluble biomarkers and to make recommendations for their use in OA clinical trials based on current knowledge and anticipated benefits. This document summarizes current guidance on use of biomarkers in OA clinical trials...... and their utility at five stages, including preclinical development and phase I to phase IV trials. As demonstrated by this summary, biomarkers can provide value at all stages of therapeutics development. When resources permit, we recommend collection of biospecimens in all OA clinical trials for a wide variety...

  17. Successful replantation in ten-digit amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantarci, Umit; Cepel, Selim; Buldu, Halil

    2010-01-01

    Amputations involving ten digits are very rare because of different lengths of the digits. A 34-year-old man working in a printing house presented one hour after guillotine amputation involving all ten digits. Surgery was initiated 80 minutes after admission and took seven hours. Under axillary anesthesia, the operation was performed by two teams each consisting of two microsurgeons and two assistants. Replantation was completed without the use of any skin graft or flap. Fingertip examination showed poor arterial circulation in the second, third, and fourth digits of the left hand after 24 hours of replantation and surgical exploration was performed, during which anastomosis of the ulnar digital artery of the second digit was re-established and a Y-shaped vein graft was placed at the level of the third web to restore revascularization of the third and fourth digits. However, these interventions did not prevent the development of necrosis in the distal segment of the fourth digit which resulted in dry gangrene that required amputation. After 38 months of replantation, radiographic examination showed complete union in all fingers without malunion or damage to the joint surface and about 8 degrees of medial angulation in the proximal phalanx of the fourth digit of the right hand. The patient did not have difficulty in performing daily activities and had a considerably good pinching. Losses of active range of motion of the metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints were within the rage of 10 to 30 degrees in both hands. In the assessment of sensation, static and dynamic two-point discrimination test results were 6.1 mm and 4.0 mm, respectively.

  18. Recommending audio mixing workflows

    OpenAIRE

    Sauer, Christian; Roth-Berghofer, Thomas; Auricchio, Nino; Proctor, Sam

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes our work on Audio Advisor, a workflow recommender for audio mixing. We examine the process of eliciting, formalising and modelling the domain knowledge and expert’s experience. We are also describing the effects and problems associated with the knowledge formalisation processes. We decided to employ structured case-based reasoning using the myCBR 3 to capture the vagueness encountered in the audio domain. We detail on how we used extensive similarity measure modelling to ...

  19. Improving Nigerian health policymakers' capacity to access and utilize policy relevant evidence: outcome of information and communication technology training workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ezeoha, Abel Ebeh; Uro-Chukwu, Henry; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla; Ogbu, Ogbonnaya; Onwe, Friday; Edoga, Chima

    2015-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) tools are known to facilitate communication and processing of information and sharing of knowledge by electronic means. In Nigeria, the lack of adequate capacity on the use of ICT by health sector policymakers constitutes a major impediment to the uptake of research evidence into the policymaking process. The objective of this study was to improve the knowledge and capacity of policymakers to access and utilize policy relevant evidence. A modified "before and after" intervention study design was used in which outcomes were measured on the target participants both before the intervention is implemented and after. A 4-point likert scale according to the degree of adequacy; 1 = grossly inadequate, 4 = very adequate was employed. This study was conducted in Ebonyi State, south-eastern Nigeria and the participants were career health policy makers. A two-day intensive ICT training workshop was organized for policymakers who had 52 participants in attendance. Topics covered included: (i). intersectoral partnership/collaboration; (ii). Engaging ICT in evidence-informed policy making; use of ICT for evidence synthesis; (iv) capacity development on the use of computer, internet and other ICT. The pre-workshop mean of knowledge and capacity for use of ICT ranged from 2.19-3.05, while the post-workshop mean ranged from 2.67-3.67 on 4-point scale. The percentage increase in mean of knowledge and capacity at the end of the workshop ranged from 8.3%-39.1%. Findings of this study suggest that policymakers' ICT competence relevant to evidence-informed policymaking can be enhanced through training workshop.

  20. Badali recommends simplified bills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2003-01-01

    A report on the variety of retail electricity bills across the province, authored by Salvatore Badali of Deloitte Consulting, was recently released by the Ontario Government. The report was commissioned by the Government to examine the underlying reasons for the significant format differences and the wide variation of fixed and variable charges among the approximately 95 local electricity distribution companies across the province. Regarding the appropriateness of the charges the report recommends common definitions for local distribution company (LDC) fixed and variable costs, and consideration of options for reducing LDC charges, mainly by consolidating the sector and sharing such services as customer billing, accounting and out sourcing operations. Seven recommendations deal with bill simplification. These include bills that are clear and easy to read and provide sufficient information for consumers to verify charges; promote energy conservation, e.g. by including historical information; allow comparisons between retail suppliers and distributors; accommodate revenue collection, marketing needs and other billing services. The report also recommends clearly defined and consistently used terminology for standardized line items, suggests ways to provide consumer information in a form useful for making energy conservation decisions, development of an LDC scorecard to enable stake holders to compare their own LDCs with LDCs around the province, creation of a conservation and bill calculation website, consideration of further use of shared services, and solutions to address the removal of line losses from invoices

  1. The Europeanization of German energy and climate policies. New forms of policy-making and EU multi-level-governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Severin

    2015-01-01

    The Energy Transition (''Energiewende'') is one of the hot topics of the political debate in Germany for some years. As a consequence of ongoing European integration, EU level politics have gained growing importance. The focus of this study is on the interaction of German and EU energy and climate policies. How have German actors influenced EU policy-making processes and in how far are EU policies relevant for national policy-making in Germany? Three case studies look at processes in the fields of electricity market regulation, renewable energy policy and climate protection between 2007 and 2013.

  2. Sharing Perspectives and Learning from One Another: Southern Paiutes, Scientists, and Policymakers in the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, D. E.; Bulletts, K.; Bulletts, C.

    2017-12-01

    The traditional lands of the Southern Paiute people in the United States are bounded by more than 600 miles of the Colorado River from the Kaiparowits Plateau in the north to Blythe, California in the south. According to Southern Paiute traditional knowledge, Southern Paiutes were the first inhabitants of this region and are responsible for protecting and managing this land along with the water and all that is upon and within it. In 1963, the Bureau of Reclamation completed construction of Glen Canyon Dam on the Colorado River, and in 1972, the Glen Canyon National Recreation Area was established, encompassing Lake Mead above the Dam and a world class trout fishery on the Colorado River between the Dam and Lees Ferry. Below Lees Ferry on its way to Lake Mead and Hoover Dam, the Colorado River flows through Grand Canyon National Park and the Navajo and Hualapai reservations. U.S. federal law requires that Glen Canyon Dam be operated with minimal impact to the natural, recreational, and cultural resources of the region of the Colorado River that is potentially impacted by flows from the Dam. The Grand Canyon Protection Act and the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Operation of the Glen Canyon Dam established a program of long-term research and monitoring of the effects of the Dam on these resources. In 1991, three Southern Paiute tribes - the Kaibab Band of Paiute Indians, the Paiute Indian Tribe of Utah, and the San Juan Southern Paiute Tribe - agreed to participate in studies to identify cultural resources impacted by Glen Canyon Dam and to recommend strategies for their protection, In 1995, the EIS was completed and transition to the Adaptive Management Program (AMP) called for in the Grand Canyon Protection Act was begun. At that time, Southern Paiute activities expanded to include assessing potential environmental and cultural impacts of the dam, developing monitoring procedures, and interacting with scientists, other tribal representatives, and

  3. Transfusion in Haemoglobinopathies: Review and recommendations for local blood banks and transfusion services in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arwa Z. Al-Riyami

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Sickle cell disease and homozygous β-thalassaemia are common haemoglobinopathies in Oman, with many implications for local healthcare services. The transfusions of such patients take place in many hospitals throughout the country. Indications for blood transfusions require local recommendations and guidelines to ensure standardised levels of care. This article summarises existing transfusion guidelines for this group of patients and provides recommendations for blood banks and transfusion services in Oman. This information is especially pertinent to medical professionals and policy-makers developing required services for the standardised transfusion support of these patients.

  4. Simultaneous determination of ten preservatives in ten kinds of foods by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiao-Jing; Xie, Na; Zhao, Shan; Wu, Yu-Chen; Li, Jiang; Wang, Zhi

    2015-08-15

    An improved micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography method (MEKC) for the simultaneous determination of ten preservatives in ten different kinds of food samples was reported. An uncoated fused-silica capillary with 50 μm i.d. and 70 cm total length was used. Under the optimized conditions, the linear response was observed in the range of 1.2-200mg/L for the analytes. The limits of detection (LOD, S/N=3) and limits of quantitation (LOQ, S/N=10) ranging from 0.4 to 0.5mg/L and 1.2 to 1.5mg/L, respectively were obtained. The method was used for the determination of sorbic and benzoic acids in two FAPAS® (Food Analysis Performance Assessment Scheme) proficiency test samples (jam and chocolate cake). The results showed that the current method with simple sample pretreatment and small reagent consumption could meet the needs for routine analysis of the ten preservatives in ten types of food products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Successful dexamethasone pulse therapy in a toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) patient featuring recurrent TEN to oxazepam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, J B; Schuttelaar, M L; Toth, G G; Kardaun, S H; Beerthuizen, G; de Jong, M C; Jonkman, M F; Nieuwenhuis, P

    2001-01-01

    A 62-year-old female patient is described who developed toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) after medication with phenytoin and oxazepam. Initially phenytoin was discontinued and dexamethasone pulse therapy (1.5 mg/kg on 3 consecutive days) was initiated on the tenth day of skin disease. This resulted

  6. Ten Years of Tamoxifen Reduces Breast Cancer Recurrences, Improves Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Ten Years of Tamoxifen Reduces Breast Cancer Recurrences, Improves ... a link to this page included, e.g., “Ten Years of Tamoxifen Reduces Breast Cancer Recurrences, Improves ...

  7. ICRS Recommendation Document

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Ewa M.; Engelhart, Luella; Ranstam, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    and function evaluated for validity and psychometric properties in patients with articular cartilage lesions. Results: The knee-specific instruments, titled the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form and the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis and Outcome Score, both fulfill the basic......, and confirmatory longitudinal studies are needed prior to recommending this scale for use in cartilage repair. Inclusion of a generic measure is feasible in cartilage repair studies and allows analysis of health-related quality of life and health economic outcomes. The Marx or Tegner Activity Rating Scales...

  8. WIPP: a perspective from ten years of operating success - 16189

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, Phillip C.

    2009-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located 35 miles east of Carlsbad, New Mexico, USA is the first and, to the author's knowledge, only facility in the world for the permanent disposal of defense related transuranic (TRU) waste. Soon after plutonium was first synthesized in 1940 by a team of scientists at the University of California Berkeley Laboratory, the need to find a permanent repository for plutonium contaminated waste was recognized due to the more than 24,000 year half-life of Plutonium-239 ( 239 Pu). In 1957 the National Academy of Sciences published a report recommending deep geological burial in bedded salt as a possible solution. However, more than 50 years passed before the solution was achieved when in 1999 WIPP received the first shipment of TRU waste from Los Alamos National Laboratory. Ten years later, more than 7,600 shipments of TRU waste have been disposed of in rooms mined in an ancient salt bed more than 2,000 feet underground. This paper provides a brief history of WIPP with an overview of the technical, regulatory, and political hurdles that had to be overcome before the idea of a permanent disposal facility became reality. The paper focuses primarily on the safe, uneventful transportation program that has moved 100,000- plus containers of TRU waste from various U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) generator and/or storage sites across the Unites States to southeastern New Mexico. (author)

  9. [Ten years after the latest revision International Anatomical Terminology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachlík, D; Bozdechová, I; Cech, P; Musil, V; Báca, V

    2008-01-01

    Ten years ago, the latest revision of the Latin anatomical nomenclature was approved and published as Terminologia Anatomica (International Anatomical Terminology), and is acknowledged by the organization uniting national anatomical societies--International Federation of Associations of Anatomists. The authors concentrate on new terms included in the nomenclature and on the linguistic changes of terminology. The most frequent errors done by medical specialists in the usage of the Latin anatomical terminology are emphasized and the situation of eponyms in contemporary anatomy is discussed in detail as well. The last version of the nomenclature makes its way very slowly in the professional community and it is necessary to refer to positive changes and advantages it has brought. The usage of this Latin anatomical nomenclature version is suggested by the International Federation to follow in theoretical and clinical fields of medicine. The authors of the article strongly recommend using the recent revision of the Latin anatomical nomenclature both in the oral and written forms, when educating and publishing.

  10. Goiania, ten years later. Proceedings of an international conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    Following the radiological accident that happened in Goiania, Brazil, in late 1987, the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) was able to turn to the international community for assistance under the terms of the 1986 IAEA sponsored Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency; this marked the first time the convention was invoked. Additionally, to prevent the loss of useful information, CNEN and the IAEA designated a panel of international experts to investigate the causes and consequences of the accident and draw up a comprehensive report, 'The Radiological Accident in Goiania', which the IAEA published in 1988. Under its nuclear safety programme, it is the IAEA's intention to follow up serious radiological accidents with review and analysis, to document the causes and circumstances and to disseminate conclusions, lessons to be learned and recommendations from which all States may benefit. A decade after the Goiania accident, the CNEN convened the international conference 'Goiania, Ten Years Later' in co-operation with the IAEA. The purpose of this conference was to share with the local population and the international community the knowledge gained during this tragic event and in the following years. The conference attracted some 400 participants from 17 countries (Argentina, Austria, Brazil, Canada, Cuba, El Salvador, Estonia, Germany, Israel, Italy, Mexico, Peru, Russian Federation, Spain, Uruguay, United States of America and Venezuela). The present IAEA proceedings contain some 50 papers selected for publication by the editorial committee of the conference

  11. Ten years for the public Web

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Ten years ago, CERN issued a statement declaring that a little known piece of software called the World Wide Web was in the public domain. Nowadays, the Web is an indispensable part of modern communications. The idea for the Web goes back to March 1989 when CERN Computer scientist Tim Berners-Lee wrote a proposal for a 'Distributed Information Management System' for the high-energy physics community. The Web was originaly conceived and developed to meet the demand for information sharing between scientists working all over the world. There were many obstacles in the 1980s to the effective exchange of information. There was, for example a great variety of computer and network systems, with hardly any common features. The main purpose of the web was to allow scientists to access information from any source in a consistent and simple way. By Christmas 1990, Berners-Lee's idea had become the World Wide Web, with its first server and browser running at CERN. Through 1991, the Web spread to other particle physics ...

  12. Comparative Genomics of Ten Solanaceous Plastomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpreet Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Availability of complete plastid genomes of ten solanaceous species, Atropa belladonna, Capsicum annuum, Datura stramonium, Nicotiana sylvestris, Nicotiana tabacum, Nicotiana tomentosiformis, Nicotiana undulata, Solanum bulbocastanum, Solanum lycopersicum, and Solanum tuberosum provided us with an opportunity to conduct their in silico comparative analysis in depth. The size of complete chloroplast genomes and LSC and SSC regions of three species of Solanum is comparatively smaller than that of any other species studied till date (exception: SSC region of A. belladonna. AT content of coding regions was found to be less than noncoding regions. A duplicate copy of trnH gene in C. annuum and two alternative tRNA genes for proline in D. stramonium were observed for the first time in this analysis. Further, homology search revealed the presence of rps19 pseudogene and infA genes in A. belladonna and D. stramonium, a region identical to rps19 pseudogene in C. annum and orthologues of sprA gene in another six species. Among the eighteen intron-containing genes, 3 genes have two introns and 15 genes have one intron. The longest insertion was found in accD gene in C. annuum. Phylogenetic analysis using concatenated protein coding sequences gave two clades, one for Nicotiana species and another for Solanum, Capsicum, Atropa, and Datura.

  13. Choledochal cysts: our ten year experience.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cianci, F

    2012-04-01

    We present our experience in the management of choledochal cysts from 1999 to 2009. A retrospective review of all charts with a diagnosis of choledochal cysts in our institution in this ten-year period. Data was collated using Excel. A total of 17 patients were diagnosed with choledochal cyst: 9 females and 8 males. The average age at diagnosis was 28 months (range from 0 to 9 years). The most common presenting symptoms were obstructive jaundice 6 (35%) and abdominal pain and vomiting 4 (23%). Ultrasound (US) was the initial diagnostic test in all cases with 4 patients requiring further investigations. All patients underwent Roux-en-Y Hepaticojejunostomy. The average length of stay was 11 days. Patients were followed up with Liver Function Tests (LFTS) and US 4-6 weeks post-operatively. Three patients developed complications including post-op collection, high drain output requiring blood transfusion and adhesive bowel obstruction. Our overall experience with choledochal cyst patients has been a positive one with effective management and low complication rates.

  14. Ten tips for authors of scientific articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung-Tae

    2014-08-01

    Writing a good quality scientific article takes experience and skill. I propose 'Ten Tips' that may help to improve the quality of manuscripts for scholarly journals. It is advisable to draft first version of manuscript and revise it repeatedly for consistency and accuracy of the writing. During the drafting and revising the following tips can be considered: 1) focus on design to have proper content, conclusion, points compliant with scope of the target journal, appropriate authors and contributors list, and relevant references from widely visible sources; 2) format the manuscript in accordance with instructions to authors of the target journal; 3) ensure consistency and logical flow of ideas and scientific facts; 4) provide scientific confidence; 5) make your story interesting for your readers; 6) write up short, simple and attractive sentences; 7) bear in mind that properly composed and reflective titles increase chances of attracting more readers; 8) do not forget that well-structured and readable abstracts improve citability of your publications; 9) when revising adhere to the rule of 'First and Last' - open your text with topic paragraph and close it with resolution paragraph; 10) use connecting words linking sentences within a paragraph by repeating relevant keywords.

  15. Ten steps to a cooler planet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The overwhelming scientific consensus is that human activities, especially activities that produce greenhouse gases are accumulating in the atmosphere and are changing the intricate balance that has sustained life on earth for millions of years. The estimate is that in Canada about 35 per cent of the greenhouse gases released to the atmosphere come from personal sources. This booklet provides brief account of the ways that individuals contribute to green house gas emissions and provides some helpful hints on how to reduce this personal contribution to the climate change problem. The ten ways suggested are: (1) use public transport as much as possible, (2) buy smaller cars , (3) use the train instead of flying, make fewer long distance trips by combining business and vacation travel, (4) set the thermostat one degree lower and save 525 kg of carbon dioxide per year, (5) avoid overhousing by choosing a smaller house and by making every square foot count, (6) buy energy efficient appliances, (7) reduce water heater's energy consumption by insulating it, (8) reduce meat intake and buy locally produced food in season, (9) minimize garbage production by reusing and recycling, (10) use green power wherever available and contribute to the development of renewable energy sources

  16. The global stock of research evidence relevant to health systems policymaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael G; Moat, Kaelan A; Lavis, John N

    2013-09-04

    Policymakers and stakeholders need immediate access to many types of research evidence to make informed decisions about the full range of questions that may arise regarding health systems. We examined all types of research evidence about governance, financial and delivery arrangements, and implementation strategies within health systems contained in Health Systems Evidence (HSE) (http://www.healthsystemsevidence.org). The research evidence types include evidence briefs for policy, overviews of systematic reviews, systematic reviews of effects, systematic reviews addressing other questions, systematic reviews in progress, systematic reviews being planned, economic evaluations, and health reform and health system descriptions. Specifically, we describe their distribution across health system topics and domains, trends in their production over time, availability of supplemental content in various languages, and the extent to which they focus on low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), as well as (for systematic reviews) their methodological quality and the availability of user-friendly summaries. As of July 2013, HSE contained 2,629 systematic reviews of effects (of which 501 are Cochrane reviews), 614 systematic reviews addressing other questions, 283 systematic reviews in progress, 186 systematic reviews being planned, 140 review-derived products (evidence briefs and overviews of systematic reviews), 1,669 economic evaluations, 1,092 health reform descriptions, and 209 health system descriptions. Most systematic reviews address topics related to delivery arrangements (n = 2,663) or implementation strategies (n = 1,653) with far fewer addressing financial (n = 241) or governance arrangements (n = 231). In addition, 2,928 systematic reviews have been quality appraised with moderate AMSTAR ratings found for reviews addressing governance (5.6/11), financial (5.9/11), and delivery (6.3/11) arrangements and implementation strategies (6.5/11); 1,075 systematic reviews

  17. Ebola virus: recommendations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Medical Service

    2014-01-01

    The CERN Medical Service has been closely following, in particular via the WHO, the development of the Ebola virus outbreak currently affecting some African countries. This infectious disease may be passed on through direct contact with the bodily fluids of a sick person.   Based on the recommendations of the WHO and the two Host States, Switzerland and France, as updated on their respective websites, so far there has been no ban on travel to the countries concerned. However, unless it is absolutely essential, you are advised not to visit any of the countries affected by Ebola (Guinea, Republic of Sierra Leone, Liberia, Nigeria). The two Host States have established an alert system, and a check is carried out on departure from the airports of those countries. It is strongly recommended that you contact the Medical Service if you are travelling to those countries. We remind you to observe the basic rules of hygiene such as frequent hand washing, whatever your destination. The Medical Service is...

  18. Overweight and obesity in primary-school children: a surveillance system for policy-making in Europe from 2007 onwards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, T.M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Trudy M.A. Wijnhoven

    Overweight and obesity in primary-school children: a surveillance system for policy-making in Europe from 2007 onwards.

    Background

    As a follow-up to the European Ministerial Conference on

  19. A Framework for Using Qualitative Research To Inform Policy-Makers and Empower Practitioners: Lessons from Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneveld, Ward; Craig, Helen

    National education policy reforms often do not translate into changes at the classroom level. This paper presents a conceptual framework developed for Sub-Saharan Africa to assist policy-makers in bridging the gap between school practice and national policies. It also describes how the framework was applied to current school-improvement efforts in…

  20. Regulating chemical accumulation in the environment: the integration of toxicology and economics in environmental policy-making

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swanson, Timothy M; Vighi, M

    1998-01-01

    ... particular region (the European Union), the book forms a general study of the value of interdisciplinary approaches in environmental policy-making. This volume will be a valuable resource for a broad group of academics and researchers in the area of environmental science and environmental policy. It will also form a useful supplementary reference tex...

  1. Getting farming on the agenda: Planning, policymaking, and governance practices of urban agriculture in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay K. Campbell

    2016-01-01

    How and why is urban agriculture taken up into local food policies and sustainability plans? This paper uses a case study of urban agriculture policymaking in New York City from 2007 to 2011 to examine the power-laden operation of urban environmental governance. It explores several 'faces of power,' including overt authority, institutionalized 'rules of...

  2. Views of policymakers, healthcare workers and NGOs on HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP): a multinational qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wheelock, Ana; Eisingerich, Andreas B.; Gomez, Gabriela B.; Gray, Emily; Dybul, Mark R.; Piot, Peter

    2012-01-01

    To examine policymakers and providers' views on pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and their willingness to support its introduction, to inform policy and practice in this emerging field. Semistructured qualitative interview study. Peru, Ukraine, India, Kenya, Uganda, Botswana and South Africa. 35

  3. From National Policy-Making to Global Edu-Business: Swedish Edu-Preneurs on the Move

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönnberg, Linda

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the movements of some Swedish former education policy-makers that are currently active as commercial edu-business actors with the ambition to expand in the Global Education Industry (GEI). The aim is to map and analyze how a selection of Swedish edu-preneurs affiliated with a particular Swedish school chain enter the GEI and…

  4. Strategies for successful evaluation and policy-making toward health care technology on the move : The case of medical lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banta, H.D.; Vondeling, H.

    1994-01-01

    Evaluating new health care technology that is rapidly diffusing is one of the greatest challenges to researchers and policy-makers. If no evaluation is done until the technology is mature, evaluation will not influence processes of diffusion. If evaluation is done early, it may be irrelevant when it

  5. The Discrepancy of Meaning of Citizenship between the State and Society in China: Implications for Citizenship Education and Policymaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sicong

    2013-01-01

    Although citizenship education has received significant official attention in China in recent years, its aim remains vague. At a time when social demands increasingly influence policymaking by the state, this article examines the meaning of citizenship to the state and society in China. Data are derived from a content analysis of the use of…

  6. Scientists as lobbyists? How science can make its voice heard in the South African policy-making arena

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Funke, Nicola S

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the complexity of the South African policy-making context and its official and non-official actors and investigates the challenges that scientists face when trying to exert their influence here in order to strengthen the science...

  7. The use of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for pain relief in labour: a review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedwell, Carol; Dowswell, Therese; Neilson, James P; Lavender, Tina

    2011-10-01

    to assess the effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for pain relief in labour. studies were identified from a search of the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (November 2008). randomised controlled trials comparing women receiving TENS for pain relief in labour vs routine care or placebo devices. All types of TENS machines were included. two review authors assessed all trials identified by the search strategy, carried out data extraction and assessed risk of bias. 14 studies including 1256 women were included: 11 examined TENS applied to the back, two to acupuncture points and one to the cranium. Overall, there was little difference in satisfaction with pain relief or in pain ratings between TENS and control groups, although women receiving TENS to acupuncture points were less likely to report severe pain (risk ratio 0.41, 95% confidence interval 0.32-0.55). The majority of women using TENS would use it again in a future labour. There was no evidence that TENS had any impact on interventions and outcomes in labour. There was little information on outcomes for mothers and infants. No adverse events were reported. there is only limited evidence that TENS reduces pain in labour and it does not seem to have any impact on other outcomes for mothers or infants. The use of TENS at home in early labour has not been evaluated. Although the guidelines of the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence recommend that TENS should not be offered to women in labour, women appear to be choosing it and midwives are supporting them in their choice. Given the absence of adverse effects and the limited evidence base, it seems unreasonable to deny women that choice. More robust studies of effectiveness are needed. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Digest of Reports of the Carnegie Commission on Higher Education. With an Index to Recommendations and Suggested Assignments of Responsibility for Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnegie Commission on Higher Education , Berkeley, CA.

    In 21 reports issued over the span of almost six years, the Carnegie Commission on Higher Education has made available a massive resource of information for policymakers in colleges and universities, government agencies, and philanthropic and business organizations. The Commission has also offered nearly 300 individual recommendations for…

  9. Role of nanocrystalline silver dressings in the management of toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) and TEN/Stevens-Johnson syndrome overlap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Saxon D; Dodds, Annabel; Dixit, Shreya; Cooper, Alan

    2015-11-01

    Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) and Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) are severe mucocutaneous eruptions. There is currently no defined optimal approach to wound care. The objective of this study was to evaluate silver dressings in the wound-care management of TEN and SJS/TEN syndrome overlap with a retrospective case review of nine patients with TEN and SJS/TEN overlap presenting to our institution. Nanocrystalline silver dressings appear to be useful in the rapid commencement of healing in these patients. TEN and SJS/TEN overlap are rare conditions. This contributed to a relatively small number of cases included in the study. The ease of application, antimicrobial properties and low frequency of change make nanocrystalline silver dressings ideal in TEN/SJS. © 2014 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  10. Mining and representing recommendations in actively evolving recommender systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assent, Ira

    2010-01-01

    Recommender systems provide an automatic means of filtering out interesting items, usually based on past similarity of user ratings. In previous work, we have suggested a model that allows users to actively build a recommender network. Users express trust, obtain transparency, and grow (anonymous......) recommender connections. In this work, we propose mining such active systems to generate easily understandable representations of the recommender network. Users may review these representations to provide active feedback. This approach further enhances the quality of recommendations, especially as topics...... of interest change over time. Most notably, it extends the amount of control users have over the model that the recommender network builds of their interests....

  11. Communication measures to bridge ten millennia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebeok, T.A.

    1984-04-01

    The Department of Energy created the Human Interference Task Force (HITF) in 1980 to investigate the problems connected with the postclosure, final marking of a filled nuclear waste repository. The task of the HITF is to devise a method of warning future generations not to mine or drill at that site unless they are aware of the consequences of their actions. Since the likelihood of human interference should be minimized for 10,000 years, an effective and long-lasting warning system must be designed. This report is a semiotic analysis of the problem, examining it in terms of the science or theory of messages and symbols. Because of the long period of time involved, the report recommends that a relay system of recoding messages be initiated; that the messages contain a mixture of iconic, indexical, and symbolic elements; and that a high degree of redundancy of messages be employed

  12. Communication Measures to Bridge Ten Millennia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebeok, Thomas A. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Research Center for Language and Semiotic Studies

    1984-04-01

    The Department of Energy created the Human Interference Task Force (HITF) in 1980 to investigate the problems connected with the postclosure, final marking of a filled nuclear waste repository. The task of the HITF is to devise a method of warning future generations not to mine or drill at that site unless they are aware of the consequences of their actions. Since the likelihood of human interference should be minimized for 10,000 years, an effective and long-lasting warning system must be designed. This report is a semiotic analysis of the problem, examining it in terms of the science or theory of messages and symbols. Because of the long period of time involved, the report recommends that a relay system of recoding messages be initiated; that the messages contain a mixture of iconic, indexical, and symbolic elements; and that a high degree of redundancy of messages be employed.

  13. "Take ten minutes": a dedicated ten minute medication review reduces polypharmacy in the elderly.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, E K

    2010-09-01

    Multiple and inappropriate medications are often the cause for poor health status in the elderly. Medication reviews can improve prescribing. This study aimed to determine if a ten minute medication review by a general practitioner could reduce polypharmacy and inappropriate prescribing in elderly patients. A prospective, randomised study was conducted. Patients over the age of 65 (n = 50) underwent a 10-minute medication review. Inappropriate medications, dosage errors, and discrepancies between prescribed versus actual medication being consumed were recorded. A questionnaire to assess satisfaction was completed following review. The mean number of medications taken by patients was reduced (p < 0.001). A medication was stopped in 35 (70%) patients. Inappropriate medications were detected in 27 (54%) patients and reduced (p < 0.001). Dose errors were detected in 16 (32%). A high level of patient satisfaction was reported. A ten minute medication review reduces polypharmacy, improves prescribing and is associated with high levels of patient satisfaction.

  14. "Take ten minutes": a dedicated ten minute medication review reduces polypharmacy in the elderly.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, E K

    2012-02-01

    Multiple and inappropriate medications are often the cause for poor health status in the elderly. Medication reviews can improve prescribing. This study aimed to determine if a ten minute medication review by a general practitioner could reduce polypharmacy and inappropriate prescribing in elderly patients. A prospective, randomised study was conducted. Patients over the age of 65 (n = 50) underwent a 10-minute medication review. Inappropriate medications, dosage errors, and discrepancies between prescribed versus actual medication being consumed were recorded. A questionnaire to assess satisfaction was completed following review. The mean number of medications taken by patients was reduced (p < 0.001). A medication was stopped in 35 (70%) patients. Inappropriate medications were detected in 27 (54%) patients and reduced (p < 0.001). Dose errors were detected in 16 (32%). A high level of patient satisfaction was reported. A ten minute medication review reduces polypharmacy, improves prescribing and is associated with high levels of patient satisfaction.

  15. The TEN-T core network and the Fehmarnbelt region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guasco, Clement Nicolas

    This note is a snapshot picture, taken in early 2014, that places the Green STRING corridor project within the context of the TEN-T strategy and gives a summarized overview on the impact of this strategy in the region. Chapter 1 contains a summary of the TEN-T strategy today, chapter 2 presents...... the sources used for this note, chapter 3 presents all the relevant EU regulations with direct impact on the development of TEN-T corridors, chapter 4 gives practical examples of the challenges for the development of TEN-T corridors, chapter 5 pre-sents the national initiatives related to the TEN-T corridor...

  16. Do evidence summaries increase policy-makers' use of evidence from systematic reviews: A systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkovic, Jennifer; Welch, Vivian; Tugwell, Peter

    2015-09-28

    Systematic reviews are important for decision-makers. They offer many potential benefits but are often written in technical language, are too long, and do not contain contextual details which makes them hard to use for decision-making. There are many organizations that develop and disseminate derivative products, such as evidence summaries, from systematic reviews for different populations or subsets of decision-makers. This systematic review will assess the effectiveness of systematic review summaries on increasing policymakers' use of systematic review evidence and to identify the components or features of these summaries that are most effective. We will include studies of policy-makers at all levels as well as health-system managers. We will include studies examining any type of "evidence summary," "policy brief," or other products derived from systematic reviews that present evidence in a summarized form. The primary outcomes are the following: (1) use of systematic review summaries decision-making (e.g., self-reported use of the evidence in policy-making, decision-making) and (2) policy-maker understanding, knowledge, and/or beliefs (e.g., changes in knowledge scores about the topic included in the summary). We will conduct a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomized controlled trials (NRCTs), controlled before-after studies (CBA), and interrupted time series (ITS) studies. The results of this review will inform the development of future systematic review summaries to ensure that systematic review evidence is accessible to and used by policy-makers making health-related decisions.

  17. Public, private and personal: qualitative research on policymakers' opinions on smokefree interventions to protect children in 'private' spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouch, Gareth; Thomson, George; Wilson, Nick; Hudson, Sheena; Edwards, Richard; Gifford, Heather; Lanumata, Tolotea

    2010-12-31

    Governments use law to constrain aspects of private activities for purposes of protecting health and social wellbeing. Policymakers have a range of perceptions and beliefs about what is public or private. An understanding of the possible drivers of policymaker decisions about where government can or should intervene for health is important, as one way to better guide appropriate policy formation. Our aim was to identify obstacles to, and opportunities for, government smokefree regulation of private and public spaces to protect children. In particular, to seek policymaker opinions on the regulation of smoking in homes, cars and public parks and playgrounds in a country with incomplete smokefree laws (New Zealand). Case study, using structured interviews to ask policymakers (62 politicians and senior officials) about their opinions on new smokefree legislation for public and private places. Supplementary data was obtained from the Factiva media database, on the views of New Zealand local authority councillors about policies for smokefree outdoor public places. Overall, interviewees thought that government regulation of smoking in private places was impractical and unwise. However, there were some differences on what was defined as 'private', particularly for cars. Even in public parks, smoking was seen by some as a 'personal' decision, and unlikely to be amenable to regulation. Most participants believed that educative, supportive and community-based measures were better and more practical means of reducing smoking in private places, compared to regulation. The constrained view of the role of regulation of smoking in public and private domains may be in keeping with current political discourse in New Zealand and similar Anglo-American countries. Policy and advocacy options to promote additional smokefree measures include providing a better voice for childrens' views, increasing information to policymakers about the harms to children from secondhand smoke and the

  18. Public, private and personal: Qualitative research on policymakers' opinions on smokefree interventions to protect children in 'private' spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwards Richard

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Governments use law to constrain aspects of private activities for purposes of protecting health and social wellbeing. Policymakers have a range of perceptions and beliefs about what is public or private. An understanding of the possible drivers of policymaker decisions about where government can or should intervene for health is important, as one way to better guide appropriate policy formation. Our aim was to identify obstacles to, and opportunities for, government smokefree regulation of private and public spaces to protect children. In particular, to seek policymaker opinions on the regulation of smoking in homes, cars and public parks and playgrounds in a country with incomplete smokefree laws (New Zealand. Methods Case study, using structured interviews to ask policymakers (62 politicians and senior officials about their opinions on new smokefree legislation for public and private places. Supplementary data was obtained from the Factiva media database, on the views of New Zealand local authority councillors about policies for smokefree outdoor public places. Results Overall, interviewees thought that government regulation of smoking in private places was impractical and unwise. However, there were some differences on what was defined as 'private', particularly for cars. Even in public parks, smoking was seen by some as a 'personal' decision, and unlikely to be amenable to regulation. Most participants believed that educative, supportive and community-based measures were better and more practical means of reducing smoking in private places, compared to regulation. Conclusions The constrained view of the role of regulation of smoking in public and private domains may be in keeping with current political discourse in New Zealand and similar Anglo-American countries. Policy and advocacy options to promote additional smokefree measures include providing a better voice for childrens' views, increasing information to

  19. Public, private and personal: Qualitative research on policymakers' opinions on smokefree interventions to protect children in 'private' spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Governments use law to constrain aspects of private activities for purposes of protecting health and social wellbeing. Policymakers have a range of perceptions and beliefs about what is public or private. An understanding of the possible drivers of policymaker decisions about where government can or should intervene for health is important, as one way to better guide appropriate policy formation. Our aim was to identify obstacles to, and opportunities for, government smokefree regulation of private and public spaces to protect children. In particular, to seek policymaker opinions on the regulation of smoking in homes, cars and public parks and playgrounds in a country with incomplete smokefree laws (New Zealand). Methods Case study, using structured interviews to ask policymakers (62 politicians and senior officials) about their opinions on new smokefree legislation for public and private places. Supplementary data was obtained from the Factiva media database, on the views of New Zealand local authority councillors about policies for smokefree outdoor public places. Results Overall, interviewees thought that government regulation of smoking in private places was impractical and unwise. However, there were some differences on what was defined as 'private', particularly for cars. Even in public parks, smoking was seen by some as a 'personal' decision, and unlikely to be amenable to regulation. Most participants believed that educative, supportive and community-based measures were better and more practical means of reducing smoking in private places, compared to regulation. Conclusions The constrained view of the role of regulation of smoking in public and private domains may be in keeping with current political discourse in New Zealand and similar Anglo-American countries. Policy and advocacy options to promote additional smokefree measures include providing a better voice for childrens' views, increasing information to policymakers about the harms to

  20. Bioenergy production and sustainable development: science base for policymaking remains limited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo-Abad, Carmenza; Althaus, Hans-Jörg; Berndes, Göran; Bolwig, Simon; Corbera, Esteve; Creutzig, Felix; Garcia-Ulloa, John; Geddes, Anna; Gregg, Jay S; Haberl, Helmut; Hanger, Susanne; Harper, Richard J; Hunsberger, Carol; Larsen, Rasmus K; Lauk, Christian; Leitner, Stefan; Lilliestam, Johan; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Muys, Bart; Nordborg, Maria; Ölund, Maria; Orlowsky, Boris; Popp, Alexander; Portugal-Pereira, Joana; Reinhard, Jürgen; Scheiffle, Lena; Smith, Pete

    2017-03-01

    The possibility of using bioenergy as a climate change mitigation measure has sparked a discussion of whether and how bioenergy production contributes to sustainable development. We undertook a systematic review of the scientific literature to illuminate this relationship and found a limited scientific basis for policymaking. Our results indicate that knowledge on the sustainable development impacts of bioenergy production is concentrated in a few well-studied countries, focuses on environmental and economic impacts, and mostly relates to dedicated agricultural biomass plantations. The scope and methodological approaches in studies differ widely and only a small share of the studies sufficiently reports on context and/or baseline conditions, which makes it difficult to get a general understanding of the attribution of impacts. Nevertheless, we identified regional patterns of positive or negative impacts for all categories - environmental, economic, institutional, social and technological. In general, economic and technological impacts were more frequently reported as positive, while social and environmental impacts were more frequently reported as negative (with the exception of impacts on direct substitution of GHG emission from fossil fuel). More focused and transparent research is needed to validate these patterns and develop a strong science underpinning for establishing policies and governance agreements that prevent/mitigate negative and promote positive impacts from bioenergy production.

  1. DYNAMICS OF POVERTY, DEFORESTATION AND BEEKEEPING IN NORTHERN NIGERIA: CONCERNS FOR POLICYMAKERS – Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rabi’u JA'AFAR-FURO

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the role of beekeeping amidst condition of abject poverty among the majority of the populationin northern Nigeria, and the much popularised Afforestation Programmes of the public sector. Data were collectedboth from primary and secondary sources. The findings indicated that while the activities/livelihood of the peoplehad devastating effects on the environment (felling of trees of which massive adoption of low-technologybeekeeping would play immense role in reviving the situation, the attitude of the government towards promoting treeplanting campaign in the area has not been encouraging. Its concluded that the livelihoods of the poor majority ofthe people of northern Nigeria had devastating effects on the Afforestation efforts in the area, and beekeepingenterprise could be used as a bridge between the two (poverty and afforestation. It is therefore, stronglyrecommended that policymakers should address the dynamics between poverty, deforestation and beekeeping withthe hope of stabilising the economic situation of the people of northern Nigeria and by extension improves theirincomes and livelihoods

  2. Barriers to optimizing investments in the built environment to reduce youth obesity: policy-maker perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jill L; MacKay, Kathryn C; Manuel, Patricia M; McHugh, Tara-Leigh F

    2010-01-01

    To identify factors which limit the ability of local governments to make appropriate investments in the built environment to promote youth health and reduce obesity outcomes in Atlantic Canada. Policy-makers and professionals participated in focus groups to discuss the receptiveness of local governments to introducing health considerations into decision-making. Seven facilitated focus groups involved 44 participants from Atlantic Canada. Thematic discourse analysis of the meeting transcripts identified systemic barriers to creating a built environment that fosters health for youth aged 12-15 years. Participants consistently identified four categories of barriers. Financial barriers limit the capacities of local government to build, maintain and operate appropriate facilities. Legacy issues mean that communities inherit a built environment designed to facilitate car use, with inadequate zoning authority to control fast food outlets, and without the means to determine where schools are built or how they are used. Governance barriers derive from government departments with distinct and competing mandates, with a professional structure that privileges engineering, and with funding programs that encourage competition between municipalities. Cultural factors and values affect outcomes: people have adapted to car-oriented living; poverty reduces options for many families; parental fears limit children's mobility; youth receive limited priority in built environment investments. Participants indicated that health issues have increasing profile within local government, making this an opportune time to discuss strategies for optimizing investments in the built environment. The focus group method can foster mutual learning among professionals within government in ways that could advance health promotion.

  3. Implementing European climate adaptation policy. How local policymakers react to European policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hartmann

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available EU policy and projects have an increasing influence on policymaking for climate adaptation. This is especially evident in the development of new climate adaptation policies in transnational city networks. Until now, climate adaptation literature has paid little attention to the influence that these EU networks have on the adaptive capacity in cities. This paper uses two Dutch cities as an empirical base to evaluate the influence of two EU climate adaptation projects on both the experience of local public officials and the adaptive capacity in the respective cities. The main conclusion is that EU climate adaptation projects do not automatically lead to an increased adaptive capacity in the cities involved. This is due to the political opportunistic use of EU funding, which hampers the implementation of climate adaptation policies. Furthermore, these EU projects draw attention away from local network building focused on the development and implementation of climate adaptation policies. These factors have a negative cumulative impact on the performance of these transnational policy networks at the adaptive capacity level in the cities involved. Therefore, in order to strengthen the adaptive capacity in today’s European cities, a context-specific, integrative approach in urban planning is needed at all spatial levels. Hence, policy entrepreneurs should aim to create linkage between the issues in the transnational city network and the concerns in local politics and local networks.

  4. Policymaker's Guide to Feed-in Tariff Policy Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couture, T. D.; Cory, K.; Kreycik, C.; Williams, E.

    2010-07-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most widely used renewable energy policy in the world for driving accelerating renewable energy (RE) deployment, accounting for a greater share of RE development than either tax incentives or renewable portfolio standard (RPS) policies. FITs have generated significant RE deployment, helping bring the countries that have implemented them successfully to the forefront of the global RE industry. In the European Union (EU), FIT policies have led to the deployment of more than 15,000 MW of solar photovoltaic (PV) power and more than 55,000 MW of wind power between 2000 and the end of 2009. In total, FITs are responsible for approximately 75% of global PV and 45% of global wind deployment. Countries such as Germany, in particular, have demonstrated that FITs can be used as a powerful policy tool to drive RE deployment and help meet combined energy security and emissions reductions objectives. This policymaker's guide provides a detailed analysis of FIT policy design and implementation and identifies a set of best practices that have been effective at quickly stimulating the deployment of large amounts of RE generation. Although the discussion is aimed primarily at decision makers who have decided that a FIT policy best suits their needs, exploration of FIT policies can also help inform a choice among alternative renewable energy policies.

  5. Use of research evidence in state policymaking for childhood obesity prevention in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollust, Sarah E; Kite, Hanna A; Benning, Sara J; Callanan, Rachel A; Weisman, Susan R; Nanney, Marilyn S

    2014-10-01

    We describe how scientific evidence about obesity has been used in Minnesota legislative materials to understand how research evidence might more effectively be translated into policymaking. We selected 13 obesity-related bills introduced from 2007 to 2011 in Minnesota. Using state archives, we collected all legislative committee meeting materials and floor testimony related to each bill. We used a coding instrument to systematically analyze the content of a sample of 109 materials for their use of research evidence and non-research-based information. Research evidence was mentioned in 41% of all legislative materials. Evidence was often used to describe the prevalence or consequences of obesity or policy impacts but not to describe health disparities. In 45% of materials that cited evidence, no source of evidence was indicated. By contrast, 92% of materials presented non-research-based information, such as expert beliefs, constituent opinion, political principles, and anecdotes. Despite an abundance of available research evidence on obesity, less than half of legislative materials cited any such evidence in discussions around obesity-related bills under consideration in Minnesota.

  6. The didn't pilot the Welfare State: on evidence and temporality in policy-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vohnsen, Nina Holm

    for a discussion a key civil servants lament that “they did not pilot the welfare state” the paper moves on to argue that the real potential of a pilot lies not in its capacity to predict and prepare for policy outcome but in its capacity to prototype political alliances which might eventually do other work.......This paper examines the early stages of planning for a possible pilot on Universal Basic Income in Fife, Scotland. It builds on interviews with key stakeholders in the process and a number of internal and public documents related to the case. It focuses the analysis on a particular moment...... in the development of the pilot and discusses the idea of ‘piloting’, which in today’s policy-making seems to be an indispensable stage preceding radically new policy. Yet it seems there is a fundamental mismatch between ‘a pilot’ and the innovative work such are often called upon to do. Taking as is starting point...

  7. A multistage crucible of revision and approval shapes IPCC policymaker summaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, Katharine J; Freeman, Patrick T; Mastrandrea, Michael D; Field, Christopher B

    2016-08-01

    Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) member governments approve each report's summary for policymakers (SPM) by consensus, discussing and agreeing on each sentence in a plenary session with scientist authors. A defining feature of IPCC assessment, the governmental approval process builds joint ownership of current knowledge by scientists and governments. The resulting SPM revisions have been extensively discussed in anecdotes, interviews, and perspectives, but they have not been comprehensively analyzed. We provide an in-depth evaluation of IPCC SPM revisions, establishing an evidential basis for understanding their nature. Revisions associated with governmental review and approval generally expand SPMs, with SPM text growing by 17 to 53% across recent assessment reports. Cases of high political sensitivity and failure to reach consensus are notable exceptions, resulting in SPM contractions. In contrast to recent claims, we find that IPCC SPMs are as readable, for multiple metrics of reading ease, as other professionally edited assessment summaries. Across reading-ease metrics, some SPMs become more readable through governmental review and approval, whereas others do not. In an SPM examined through the entire revision process, most revisions associated with governmental review and approval occurred before the start of the government-approval plenary session. These author revisions emphasize clarity, scientific rigor, and explanation. In contrast, the subsequent plenary revisions place greater emphasis especially on policy relevance, comprehensiveness of examples, and nuances of expert judgment. Overall, the value added by the IPCC process emerges in a multistage crucible of revision and approval, as individuals together navigate complex science-policy terrain.

  8. Ten years of energy policy in Catalonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masalles Roman, I.; Marin Sanchez, J.M.; Gurgui Ferrer, A.; Figuerola Perez, E.

    1992-01-01

    Catalonia is located in the north-east corner of Spain, on the Mediterranean coast and bordering with France in the north. It is one of the most industrialized and developed regions of Spain, with a per capita income of 10879 ECU per year (1989), 21.9% higher than the Spanish average. It contributes to 20.3% of the Spanish GDP. Primary energy consumption was 16.5 M toe in 1989, covered by the following sources: 3.5% coal, 51.8% oil, 9.4% natural gas, 3.6% hydro, 30.8% nuclear, 0.1% electrical import/export balance and 0.8% waste residuals. Oil dependence is distorted by the existence of a major petrochemical industry that uses more than 2.6 Mtoe of oil derivatives for non-energy purposes. Final energy demand in 1989 was 8.8 Mtoe, 40.9% for industry, 36.9% for transportation and 22.3% for the domestic and services sector. In the 60's, Catalonia's socio-economic development was accompanied by a spectacular increase in the demand for primary energy: from slightly above 2.5 million toe in 1960 to 5.6 Mtoe ten years later. If this decade can be characterized by a steady increase in the total value of consumption, the 70's also constitute years of major changes in the field of energy on an international scale (the oil crisis) and in politics in the Spanish State. 6 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  9. "Highly recommended introduction"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ask Vest

    2009-01-01

    by detachment, normatively and morally. Besides researching the actual abuse, individually and in aggregate, they also study structural circumstances that promote the use of drugs in sports; besides evaluations of the efficacy of the anti-doping efforts, they consider the effects of various anti-doping schemes...... on the integrity and privacy of the athletes. Ask Vest Christiansen, himself an internationally renowned scholar in the field, has read a recent, thus detached, introduction to drug use in sports, An Introduction to Drugs in Sport: Addicted to Winning by Ivan Waddington and Andy Smith (Routledge). Christiansen...... finds much to appreciate in the book, and a couple of disconcerting mistakes and misjudgments notwithstanding, he recommends the book as a solid introduction to the problem of doping – knowledgeable, well written and easy to read....

  10. Conclusions and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The FAO/IAEA/GSF/SIDA Co-ordinated Research Programme on Cereal Grain Protein Improvement by Nuclear Techniques was a follow-up to the FAO/IAEA/GSF Co-ordinated Research Programme on the Use of Nuclear Techniques for Seed Protein Improvement. It was initiated in 1969 and ended in 1981. The objectives of the meeting were to review and evaluate the achievements of the current and previous programmes in order to draw conclusions on the possibility of genetic improvement of cereal grain protein using nuclear techniques, to identify unsolved problems and to discuss and propose possible approaches for their solution. Through reviews and discussions, conclusions and recommendations were made by the participants

  11. Urgent recommendation. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Masayuki

    2000-01-01

    The Investigation Committee for Critical Accident at Uranium Processing Plant was founded immediately after the accident to investigate the cause of the accident and to establish measures to prevent the similar accident. On September 30, 1999 around 10:35, the Japan's first criticality accident occurred at JCO Co. Ltd. Uranium processing plant (auxiliary conversion plant) located at Tokai-mura Ibaraki-ken. The criticality continued on and off for approximately 20 hours after the first instantaneous criticality. The accident led the recommendation of tentative evacuation and sheltering indoors for residents living in the neighborhood. The serious exposure to neutrons happened to three workers. The dominant effect is dose due to neutrons and gamma rays from the precipitation tank. When the accident took place, three workers dissolved sequentially about 2.4 kg uranium powder with 18.8 % enrichment in the 10-litter bucket with nitric acid. The procedure of homogenization of uranium nitrate was supposed to be controlled using the shape-limited narrow storage column. Actually, however, the thick and large precipitation tank was used. As a result, about 16.6 kg of uranium was fed into the tank, which presumably caused criticality. The first notification by JCO was delayed and the following communication was not smooth. This led to the delay of correct understanding of the situation and made the initial proper response difficult, then followed by insufficient communication between the nation, prefecture, and local authority. Urgent recommendations were made on the following items; (1) Safety measures to be taken at the accident site, (2) health cares for residents and others, (3) Comprehensive safety securing at nuclear operators such as Establishment of the effective audit system, Safety education for employees and Qualification and licensing system, Safety related documents, etc. (4) Reconstruction of the government's safety regulations such as How safety regulation

  12. Multimedia services in intelligent environments recommendation services

    CERN Document Server

    Virvou, Maria; Jain, Lakhmi

    2013-01-01

    Multimedia services are now commonly used in various activities in the daily lives of humans. Related application areas include services that allow access to large depositories of information, digital libraries, e-learning and e-education, e-government and e-governance, e-commerce and e-auctions, e-entertainment, e-health and e-medicine, and e-legal services, as well as their mobile counterparts (i.e., m-services). Despite the tremendous growth of multimedia services over the recent years, there is an increasing demand for their further development. This demand is driven by the ever-increasing desire of society for easy accessibility to information in friendly, personalized and adaptive environments. In this book at hand, we examine recent Recommendation Services. Recommendation services appear in the mobile environment, medicine/biology, tourism, education, and so on. The book includes ten chapters, which present various recently developed recommendation services. This research book is directed to professors...

  13. Ten-Year Network Development Plan - 2015 edition, executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Complying with the European and French laws, each year, RTE prepares and publicizes a Ten-Year Network Development Plan (NDP) to meet the expectations of its stakeholders and customers. The NDP lists the network development projects that RTE plans to complete and commission over a 3-year period and presents the main power transmission infrastructure work envisaged for the next Ten-years. Beyond, it outlines the possible network adaptation needs for a variety of energy transition scenarios. Over the next 10 years, the network investments will make it possible to: - Meet the goals of the Regional Climate Air Energy Plans, - Create 4 GW of extra offshore wind generation integration capacity and 10 GW of additional interconnection capacity, 2/3 more than the current capacity, - Enable the development of economically and demographically dynamic areas, with safe and high-standard electricity supply. In the coming decade, RTE plans: - 1,200 km of new underground and sub-sea DC links, along with their associated converter stations; - 600 km of existing equipment upgrades or new overhead 400 kV AC circuits substituting existing power lines. - and, at the same time, nearly 900 km of underground lines and just over 400 km of overhead 225 kV AC lines should be built. 400 projects are listed in this NDP: - 21% of the operations are on overhead lines (for 3/4 new lines or upgrade and for 1/4 dismantling of existing assets) - 27% concern new underground lines; - 52% on substation adaptations (about 20 new RTE substations and 100 new customer substations connected). Globally, nearly 80% of the network is developed underground or sub-sea. This edition of the Network Development plan is further enriched. In particular, it explains more thoroughly the link between the integration of renewable energy and the entailed development of the transmission network. It also provides a focus on smart grids. This edition relies on mid and long term scenarios describing the evolution of the

  14. Recommendation in evolving online networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao; Zeng, An; Shang, Ming-Sheng

    2016-02-01

    Recommender system is an effective tool to find the most relevant information for online users. By analyzing the historical selection records of users, recommender system predicts the most likely future links in the user-item network and accordingly constructs a personalized recommendation list for each user. So far, the recommendation process is mostly investigated in static user-item networks. In this paper, we propose a model which allows us to examine the performance of the state-of-the-art recommendation algorithms in evolving networks. We find that the recommendation accuracy in general decreases with time if the evolution of the online network fully depends on the recommendation. Interestingly, some randomness in users' choice can significantly improve the long-term accuracy of the recommendation algorithm. When a hybrid recommendation algorithm is applied, we find that the optimal parameter gradually shifts towards the diversity-favoring recommendation algorithm, indicating that recommendation diversity is essential to keep a high long-term recommendation accuracy. Finally, we confirm our conclusions by studying the recommendation on networks with the real evolution data.

  15. "ON-AIR SECRETS": TEN YEARS LATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bysko Maxim V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is a scientific review on the training manual On-air secret by Andrey Bubukin, published in 2003. This guide has been written by a man who never had anything to do with radio, but by the will of fate suddenly became at once the program director of Russia's first non-state radio station Europa Plus Moscow, the commercial music radio. Then came to the fore not the questions of art qualities of broadcast, but technical-mathematical details of the automated programming of song material. Therefore, at the end of the Soviet broadcasting, it became possible appearance some people obviously alien to the electronic mass media. They are, however, strongly influenced the further "format" broadcasting in new Russia, so as the principles of songs rotation and playlist making on the radio still can’t do without recourse to the Bubukin's textbook. There are serious concerns about the fact that the book is intended not only for program directors, but for the music editors also. Extremely dubious assertions and recommendations related to the problems of arts, journalism, radio-presenter's skill, history of radio.

  16. Feasibility of a rapid response mechanism to meet policymakers' urgent needs for research evidence about health systems in a low income country: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijumbi, Rhona M; Oxman, Andrew D; Panisset, Ulysses; Sewankambo, Nelson K

    2014-09-10

    Despite the recognition of the importance of evidence-informed health policy and practice, there are still barriers to translating research findings into policy and practice. The present study aimed to establish the feasibility of a rapid response mechanism, a knowledge translation strategy designed to meet policymakers' urgent needs for evidence about health systems in a low income country, Uganda. Rapid response mechanisms aim to address the barriers of timeliness and relevance of evidence at the time it is needed. A rapid response mechanism (service) designed a priori was offered to policymakers in the health sector in Uganda. In the form of a case study, data were collected about the profile of users of the service, the kinds of requests for evidence, changes in answers, and courses of action influenced by the mechanism and their satisfaction with responses and the mechanism in general. We found that in the first 28 months, the service received 65 requests for evidence from 30 policymakers and stakeholders, the majority of whom were from the Ministry of Health. The most common requests for evidence were about governance and organization of health systems. It was noted that regular contact between the policymakers and the researchers at the response service was an important factor in response to, and uptake of the service. The service seemed to increase confidence for policymakers involved in the policymaking process. Rapid response mechanisms designed to meet policymakers' urgent needs for research evidence about health systems are feasible and acceptable to policymakers in low income countries.

  17. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for pain management in labour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowswell, Therese; Bedwell, Carol; Lavender, Tina; Neilson, James P

    2014-01-01

    Background Transcutaneous nerve stimulation (TENS) has been proposed as a means of reducing pain in labour. The TENS unit emits low-voltage electrical impulses which vary in frequency and intensity. During labour, TENS electrodes are generally placed on the lower back, although TENS may be used to stimulate acupuncture points or other parts of the body. The physiological mechanisms whereby TENS relieves pain are uncertain. TENS machines are frequently operated by women, which may increase a sense of control in labour. Objectives To assess the effects of TENS on pain in labour. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (30 April 2011) and reference lists of retrieved papers. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials comparing women receiving TENS for pain management in labour versus routine care, alternative non-pharmacological methods of pain relief, or placebo devices. We included all types of TENS machines. Data collection and analysis Two review authors assessed for inclusion all trials identified by the search strategy, carried out data extraction and assessed risk of bias. We have recorded reasons for excluding studies. Main results Seventeen trials with 1466 women contribute data to the review. Thirteen examined TENS applied to the back, two to acupuncture points, and two to the cranium. Overall, there was little difference in pain ratings between TENS and control groups, although women receiving TENS to acupuncture points were less likely to report severe pain (average risk ratio 0.41, 95% confidence interval 0.31 to 0.54; measured in two studies). The majority of women using TENS said they would be willing to use it again in a future labour. Where TENS was used as an adjunct to epidural analgesia there was no evidence that it reduced pain. There was no consistent evidence that TENS had any impact on interventions and outcomes in labour. There was little information on outcomes for mothers and babies. No

  18. Urgent recommendation. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Masayuki [International Affairs and Safeguards Division, Atomic Energy Bureau, Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-12-01

    The Investigation Committee for Critical Accident at Uranium Processing Plant was founded immediately after the accident to investigate the cause of the accident and to establish measures to prevent the similar accident. On September 30, 1999 around 10:35, the Japan's first criticality accident occurred at JCO Co. Ltd. Uranium processing plant (auxiliary conversion plant) located at Tokai-mura Ibaraki-ken. The criticality continued on and off for approximately 20 hours after the first instantaneous criticality. The accident led the recommendation of tentative evacuation and sheltering indoors for residents living in the neighborhood. The serious exposure to neutrons happened to three workers. The dominant effect is dose due to neutrons and gamma rays from the precipitation tank. When the accident took place, three workers dissolved sequentially about 2.4 kg uranium powder with 18.8 % enrichment in the 10-litter bucket with nitric acid. The procedure of homogenization of uranium nitrate was supposed to be controlled using the shape-limited narrow storage column. Actually, however, the thick and large precipitation tank was used. As a result, about 16.6 kg of uranium was fed into the tank, which presumably caused criticality. The first notification by JCO was delayed and the following communication was not smooth. This led to the delay of correct understanding of the situation and made the initial proper response difficult, then followed by insufficient communication between the nation, prefecture, and local authority. Urgent recommendations were made on the following items; (1) Safety measures to be taken at the accident site, (2) health cares for residents and others, (3) Comprehensive safety securing at nuclear operators such as Establishment of the effective audit system, Safety education for employees and Qualification and licensing system, Safety related documents, etc. (4) Reconstruction of the government's safety regulations such as How safety

  19. National Recommended Water Quality Criteria

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Recommended Water Quality Criteria is a compilation of national recommended water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life and human health...

  20. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for phantom pain and stump pain following amputation in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark I; Mulvey, Matthew R; Bagnall, Anne-Marie

    2015-08-18

    This is the first update of a Cochrane review published in Issue 5, 2010 on transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for phantom pain and stump pain following amputation in adults. Pain may present in a body part that has been amputated (phantom pain) or at the site of amputation (stump pain), or both. Phantom pain and stump pain are complex and multidimensional and the underlying pathophysiology remains unclear. The condition remains a severe burden for those who are affected by it. The mainstay treatments are predominately pharmacological, with increasing acknowledgement of the need for non-drug interventions. TENS has been recommended as a treatment option but there has been no systematic review of available evidence. Hence, the effectiveness of TENS for phantom pain and stump pain is currently unknown. To assess the analgesic effectiveness of TENS for the treatment of phantom pain and stump pain following amputation in adults. For the original version of the review we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, AMED, CINAHL, PEDRO and SPORTDiscus (February 2010). For this update, we searched the same databases for relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs) from 2010 to 25 March 2015. We only included RCTs investigating the use of TENS for the management of phantom pain and stump pain following an amputation in adults. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We planned that where available and appropriate, data from outcome measures were to be pooled and presented as an overall estimate of the effectiveness of TENS. In the original review there were no RCTs that examined the effectiveness of TENS for the treatment of phantom pain and stump pain in adults. For this update, we did not identify any additional RCTs for inclusion. There were no RCTs to judge the effectiveness of TENS for the management of phantom pain and stump pain. The published literature on TENS

  1. Ten “Big Bangs” in Theory and Practice that Have Made a Difference to Australian Policing in the Last Three Decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Sarre

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses what could be considered the top ten innovations that have occurred in policing in the last thirty years. The intent is to focus attention on how practice could be further inspired by additional innovation. The innovations are discussed here as “Big Bangs” as a way of drawing attention to the significant impact they have had on policing, in the same way that the cosmological Big Bang was an important watershed event in the universe’s existence. These ten policing innovations ushered in, it is argued, a new mindset, pattern or trend, and they affected Australian policing profoundly; although many had their roots in other settings long before Australian policy-makers implemented them.

  2. Site Recommendation Subsurface Layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C.L. Linden

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to develop a Subsurface Facility layout that is capable of accommodating the statutory capacity of 70,000 metric tons of uranium (MTU), as well as an option to expand the inventory capacity, if authorized, to 97,000 MTU. The layout configuration also requires a degree of flexibility to accommodate potential changes in site conditions or program requirements. The objective of this analysis is to provide a conceptual design of the Subsurface Facility sufficient to support the development of the Subsurface Facility System Description Document (CRWMS M andO 2000e) and the ''Emplacement Drift System Description Document'' (CRWMS M andO 2000i). As well, this analysis provides input to the Site Recommendation Consideration Report. The scope of this analysis includes: (1) Evaluation of the existing facilities and their integration into the Subsurface Facility design. (2) Identification and incorporation of factors influencing Subsurface Facility design, such as geological constraints, thermal loading, constructibility, subsurface ventilation, drainage control, radiological considerations, and the Test and Evaluation Facilities. (3) Development of a layout showing an available area in the primary area sufficient to support both the waste inventories and individual layouts showing the emplacement area required for 70,000 MTU and, if authorized, 97,000 MTU

  3. Conflicts of interest and critiques of the use of systematic reviews in policymaking: an analysis of opinion articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Strong opinions for or against the use of systematic reviews to inform policymaking have been published in the medical literature. The purpose of this paper was to examine whether funding sources and author financial conflicts of interest were associated with whether an opinion article was supportive or critical of the use of systematic reviews for policymaking. We examined the nature of the arguments within each article, the types of disclosures present, and whether these articles are being cited in the academic literature. Methods We searched for articles that expressed opinions about the use of systematic reviews for policymaking. We included articles that presented opinions about the use of systematic reviews for policymaking and categorized each article as supportive or critical of such use. We extracted all arguments regarding the use of systematic reviews from each article and inductively coded each as internal or external validity argument, categorized disclosed funding sources, conflicts of interest, and article types, and systematically searched for undisclosed financial ties. We counted the number of times each article has been cited in the “Web of Science.” We report descriptive statistics. Results Articles that were critical of the use of systematic reviews (n = 25) for policymaking had disclosed or undisclosed industry ties 2.3 times more often than articles that were supportive of the use (n = 34). We found that editorials, comments, letters, and perspectives lacked published disclosures nearly twice as often (60% v. 33%) as other types of articles. We also found that editorials, comments, letters, and perspectives were less frequently cited in the academic literature than other article types (median number of citations = 5 v. 19). Conclusions It is important to consider whether an article has industry ties when evaluating the strength of the argument for or against the use of systematic reviews for policymaking. We found that journal

  4. Pathways of undue influence in health policy-making: a main actor's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Aguado, Ildefonso; Chilet-Rosell, Elisa

    2018-02-01

    It is crucial to know the extent to which influences lead to policy capture-by which the policy-making process is shifted away from the public interest towards narrow private interests. Using the case study of Spain, our aim was to identify interactions between public administration, civil society and private companies that could influence health policies. 54 semistructured interviews with key actors related to health policy. The interviews were used to gather information on main policy actors as well as on direct and subtle influences that could modify health policies. The analysis identified and described, from the interviewed persons' experiences, both the inappropriate influences exerted on the actors and those that they exerted. Inappropriate influences were identified at all levels of administration and policy. They included actions for personal benefits, pressure for blocking health policies and pressure from high levels of government in favour of private corporations. The private sector played a significant role in these strategies through bribery, personal gifts, revolving doors, negative campaigns and by blocking unfavourable political positions or determining the knowledge agenda. The interviewees reported subtle forms of influence (social events, offers of technical support, invitations, etc) that contributed to the intellectual and cultural capture of health officials. The health policy decision-making processes in Spain are subject to influences by stakeholders that determine a degree of policy capture, which is avoidable. The private sector uses different strategies, from subtle influences to outright corruption, taking advantage in many cases of flexible legislation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) in dentistry- A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasat, Vikrant; Gupta, Aditi; Ladda, Ruchi; Kathariya, Mitesh; Saluja, Harish; Farooqui, Anjum-Ara

    2014-12-01

    Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) is a non-pharmacological method which is widely used by medical and paramedical professionals for the management of acute and chronic pain in a variety of conditions. Similarly, it can be utilized for the management of pain during various dental procedures as well as pain due to various conditions affecting maxillofacial region. This review aims to provide an insight into clinical research evidence available for the analgesic and non analgesic uses of TENS in pediatric as well as adult patients related to the field of dentistry. Also, an attempt is made to briefly discuss history of therapeutic electricity, mechanism of action of TENS, components of TENs equipment, types, techniques of administration, advantages and contradictions of TENS. With this we hope to raise awareness among dental fraternity regarding its dental applications thereby increasing its use in dentistry. Key words:Dentistry, pain, TENS.

  6. Joint safety recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhofer, A.; Cogne, F.X.

    1996-01-01

    In 1992, the French utility EdF, a consortium of German utilities, and the vendor NPI, a joint venture of Siemens and Framatome, joint the efforts in developing an advanced reactor concept called EPR (European Pressurized water Reactor). Therefore, the French and German safety authorities decided to work out a common safety approach which has been laid down in the form of recommendations firstly drawn up by GRS and IPSN and then reviewed by the French and German Nuclear Safety commissions GPR and RSK. The main objective of this approach is the strengthening of accident prevention through optimization of defense-in-depth. Particular objectives are the improvement of plant behavior during transients, especially by increasing thermal inertia and the grace periods for interventions by the control room personnel, the reduction of the possibility of common cause failures, a further improvement of the man-machine interface, the simplification of the systems configuration, and the use of advanced information technology. These objectives are similar to those of many other evolutionary rector concepts. Regarding severe accidents, the French-German approach surpasses current evolutionary developments. One of the fundamental aims is the practical elimination of accidents situations which would lead to large early releases such as containment bypass, shutdown states and open containment building, reactivity accidents, high pressure core melt, depressurization of the RPV or global hydrogen detonation. The dual concept of 'practical elimination' of scenarios or phenomena and of 'dealing with them' is essential for the consistency of the approach and the safety demonstration. This would be expressed by no permanent relocation, no need for emergency evacuation outside the immediate vicinity of the plant, limited sheltering and no long-term restriction in the consumption of food. Such a reduction of radioactive release implies a substantial improvement of the containment function

  7. [Recommendations for neonatal transport].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Hernando, J; Thió Lluch, M; Salguero García, E; Rite Gracia, S; Fernández Lorenzo, J R; Echaniz Urcelay, I; Botet Mussons, F; Herranz Carrillo, G; Sánchez Luna, M

    2013-08-01

    During pregnancy, it is not always possible to identify maternal or foetal risk factors. Infants requiring specialised medical care are not always born in centres providing intensive care and will need to be transferred to a referral centre where intensive care can be provided. Therefore Neonatal Transport needs to be considered as part of the organisation of perinatal health care. The aim of Neonatal Transport is to transfer a newborn infant requiring intensive care to a centre where specialised resources and experience can be provided for the appropriate assessment and continuing treatment of a sick newborn infant. Intrauterine transfer is the ideal mode of transport when the birth of an infant with risk factors is diagnosed. Unfortunately, not all problems can be detected in advance with enough time to safely transfer a pregnant woman. Around 30- 50% of risk factors will be diagnosed during labour or soon after birth. Therefore, it is important to have the knowledge and resources to resuscitate and stabilise a newborn infant, as well as a specialised neonatal transport system. With this specialised transport it is possible to transfer newly born infants with the same level of care that they would receive if they had been born in a referral hospital, without increasing their risks or affecting the wellbeing of the newborn. The Standards Committee of the Spanish Society of Neonatology reviewed and updated recommendations for intrauterine transport and indications for neonatal transfer. They also reviewed organisational and logistic factors involved with performing neonatal transport. The Committee review included the type of personnel who should be involved; communication between referral and receiving hospitals; documentation; mode of transport; equipment to stabilise newly born infants; management during transfer, and admission at the referral hospital. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. The origin of the future ten questions for the next ten years

    CERN Document Server

    Gribbin, John

    2006-01-01

    How did the universe begin? Where do galaxies come from? How do stars and planets form? Where do the material particles we are made of come from? How did life begin? Today we have only provisional answers to such questions. But scientific progress will improve these answers dramatically over the next ten years, predicts John Gribbin in this riveting book. He focuses on what we know—or think we know—about ten controversial, unanswered issues in the physical sciences and explains how current cutting-edge research may yield solutions in the very near future. With his trademark facility for engaging readers with or without a scientific background, the author explores ideas concerning the creation of the universe, the possibility of other forms of life, and the fate of the expanding cosmos. He examines “theories of everything,” including grand unified theories and string theory, and he discusses the Big Bang theory, the origin of structure and patterns of matter in the galaxies, and dark mass and dark ene...

  9. The application of the 'ten-day rule' in radiopharmaceutical investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, R.E.; Nordin, B.E.C.; Tothill, P.; Veall, N.

    1977-01-01

    The working party first classified subjects who are investigated using radiopharmaceuticals into three groups, being (a) patients and other subjects who are asked to volunteer as controls for research studies, (b) patients on whom research investigations are being conducted which are relevant to their clinical condition but which are not strictly necessary for their management, and (c) patients on whom investigations are required for their proper management. The application of the 'ten-day rule' in relation to the use of radiopharmaceuticals is complicated by the fact that the total radiation dose is received over a time given by the effective life of the radiopharmaceutical in the organ, which may be a substantial part or even longer of the menstrual cycle. The activities of the radiopharmaceuticals normally administered are tabulted together with their effective half-lives and resulting gonad doses, and those radiopharmaceuticals requiring consideration of the implementation of the 'ten-day rule' for patients in groups (b) and (c) are identified. When the administration of therapeutic quantities of radiopharmaceuticals is being contemplated it is particularly important to take into account the applicability or otherwise of the 'ten-day rule'. It is recommended that the 'ten-day rule' should be strictly applied to all radiopharmaceutical administrations to women of child-bearing age who are volunteers for research purposes (group(a)). (U.K.)

  10. Multi-Criteria Recommender Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adomavicius, Gediminas; Manouselis, Nikos; Kwon, Youngok

    This chapter aims to provide an overview of the class of multi-criteria recommender systems. First, it defines the recommendation problem as a multicriteria decision making (MCDM) problem, and reviews MCDM methods and techniques that can support the implementation of multi-criteria recommenders. Then, it focuses on the category of multi-criteria rating recommenders - techniques that provide recommendations by modelling a user's utility for an item as a vector of ratings along several criteria. A review of current algorithms that use multi-criteria ratings for calculating predictions and generating recommendations is provided. Finally, the chapter concludes with a discussion on open issues and future challenges for the class of multi-criteria rating recommenders.

  11. Is welfare all that matters? A discussion of what should be included in policy-making regarding animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yeates, J.W.; Röcklinsberg, H.; Gjerris, Mickey

    2011-01-01

    Policy-making concerned with animals often includes human interests, such as economy, trade, environmental protection, disease control, species conservation etc. When it comes to the interests of the animals, such policy-making often makes use of the results of animal welfare science to provide...... assessments of ethically relevant concerns for animals. This has provided a scientific rigour that has helped to overcome controversies and allowed debates to move forward according to generally agreed methodologies. However, this focus can lead to policies leaving out other important issues relevant...... to animals. This can be considered as a problem of what is included in welfare science, or of what is included in policy. This suggests two possible solutions: expanding animal welfare science to address all ethical concerns about animals’ interests or widening the perspective considered in policy...

  12. Between Policy-Making and Planning SEA and Strategic Decision-Making in the Danish Energy Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Ivar

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with the challenge of approaching decision-making processes through strategic environmental assessment (SEA). It is argued that the interaction between policy-making and planning in strategic decision-making processes is a neglected reason for problems with applying SEA......, as legislation and guidance on SEA primarily approach either the policy or plan level. To substantiate the argument, the extent of interaction is empirically investigated. Four contemporary decision-making processes in the Danish energy sector are mapped as a series of choices. Fundamental changes...... with considerable environmental impacts are decided these years, often without preceding SEA processes. The mapping shows a profound interaction between policy-making and planning. In this interaction, public consultation, systematic environmental analyses, and transparency on alternatives are primarily related...

  13. Increasing intensity of TENS prevents analgesic tolerance in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Karina L.; Sanada, Luciana S.; Rakel, Barbara A.; Sluka, Kathleen A.

    2012-01-01

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) reduces hyperalgesia and pain. Both low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) TENS, delivered at the same intensity (90% motor threshold (MT)) daily, result in analgesic tolerance with repeated use by the 5th day of treatment. Thecurrentstudytestedif 1) increasingintensityby 10% per daypreventsthedevelopmentoftolerance to repeated TENS, and 2) iflowerintensity TENS (50 % MT) produces an equivalentreduction in hyperalgesia when compared to 90% MT TENS. Sprague-Dawley rats with unilateral knee joint inflammation (3% carrageenan) were separated according to the intensity of TENS used: Sham, 50% LF, 50% HF, 90% LF, 90% HF, and increased intensity by 10% per day (LF and HF). The reduced mechanical withdrawal threshold following the induction of inflammation was reversed by application of TENS applied at 90% MT and increasing intensity for the first 4 days. On the 5th day, the groups that received 90% MT intensity showed tolerance. Nevertheless, the group that received an increased intensity on each day still showed a reversal of the mechanical withdrawal threshold with TENS. These results show that the development of tolerance can be delayed by increasing intensity of TENS. PMID:22858165

  14. Historical institutionalism and economic policymaking ??? determinants of the pattern of economic policy in Brazil, 1930???1960

    OpenAIRE

    Guimar??es, Alexandre Queiroz

    2005-01-01

    From 1930 to 1960, Brazil adopted a pattern of economic policy marked by strong state intervention, high levels of protectionism, disregard of exports and a permissive treatment of inflation. These policies distorted the model of industrialisation and had a negative impact on the prospects for economic development. This article employs a historical institutionalist approach to investigate how the international context, the ideology of the policymakers, the role of the techno...

  15. Identifying trustworthy experts: how do policymakers find and assess public health researchers worth consulting or collaborating with?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abby S Haynes

    Full Text Available This paper reports data from semi-structured interviews on how 26 Australian civil servants, ministers and ministerial advisors find and evaluate researchers with whom they wish to consult or collaborate. Policymakers valued researchers who had credibility across the three attributes seen as contributing to trustworthiness: competence (an exemplary academic reputation complemented by pragmatism, understanding of government processes, and effective collaboration and communication skills; integrity (independence, "authenticity", and faithful reporting of research; and benevolence (commitment to the policy reform agenda. The emphases given to these assessment criteria appeared to be shaped in part by policymakers' roles and the type and phase of policy development in which they were engaged. Policymakers are encouraged to reassess their methods for engaging researchers and to maximise information flow and support in these relationships. Researchers who wish to influence policy are advised to develop relationships across the policy community, but also to engage in other complementary strategies for promoting research-informed policy, including the strategic use of mass media.

  16. Identifying trustworthy experts: how do policymakers find and assess public health researchers worth consulting or collaborating with?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Abby S; Derrick, Gemma E; Redman, Sally; Hall, Wayne D; Gillespie, James A; Chapman, Simon; Sturk, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports data from semi-structured interviews on how 26 Australian civil servants, ministers and ministerial advisors find and evaluate researchers with whom they wish to consult or collaborate. Policymakers valued researchers who had credibility across the three attributes seen as contributing to trustworthiness: competence (an exemplary academic reputation complemented by pragmatism, understanding of government processes, and effective collaboration and communication skills); integrity (independence, "authenticity", and faithful reporting of research); and benevolence (commitment to the policy reform agenda). The emphases given to these assessment criteria appeared to be shaped in part by policymakers' roles and the type and phase of policy development in which they were engaged. Policymakers are encouraged to reassess their methods for engaging researchers and to maximise information flow and support in these relationships. Researchers who wish to influence policy are advised to develop relationships across the policy community, but also to engage in other complementary strategies for promoting research-informed policy, including the strategic use of mass media.

  17. Influential Factors of Evidence-Based Energy Policy-making: Government Regulation on Targeting Renewable Energy in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wati Hermawati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper is based on research identifying lessons and approaches in making energy policy and scrutinizes whether empirical evidence–based energy policy exists in Indonesia. Empirical evidence–based energy policy has the potential to reduce poverty as well as have a greater impact on the economic performance of individuals, communities and the government. In this study, we used document analysis and key informant interviews to explore empirical evidence input in energy policy-making. The results of the analysis revealed the following three points. First, there are a range of limitations in the process of energy policy-making as well as in getting an evidence inputs from concerned institutions such as universities, R&D institutions, and industries. Second, the process in making energy policy went through several stages and was not always in sequences, starting from problem identification, needs identification, advocacy, information gathering, policy drafting, and approval obtainment from the institutions concerned. Third, the most influential factor in the formulation of this energy policy is the factor of power and authority instead of knowledge and evidence. The limitations have demonstrated insufficient evidence in the policy-making. Finally, the paper suggests that a working group for data and information gathering should be created.

  18. The Experience and Impact of Contraceptive Stockouts Among Women, Providers and Policymakers in Two Districts of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindlay, Kate; Turyakira, Eleanor; Kyamwanga, Imelda T; Nickerson, Adrianne; Blanchard, Kelly

    2016-09-01

    Little is known about the impact of contraceptive stockouts on women and health care providers, or how policymakers perceive and handle such stockouts. In May-July 2015, a qualitative study on experiences of contraceptive stockouts was conducted in two districts of Uganda. It comprised three data collection components: eight focus groups with 50 women, 24 individual in-depth interviews with family planning service providers and facility managers, and 11 in-depth interviews with district-level policymakers and decision makers. Data analysis followed the content analysis approach. Contraceptive stockouts were common, particularly for long-term methods and oral contraceptives. For women, the consequences included stress, increased costs, domestic conflict, and unwanted or unplanned pregnancies. Providers reported emotional distress, blame from clients, deterioration of skills and lower demand for their services as a result of stockouts; they also felt unable to address stockouts under current supply systems. Despite the widespread prevalence and adverse impact of stockouts, policymakers reported being unaware of the scope of the problem. The findings suggest there is a critical need to raise awareness of the issue, reduce stockouts and mitigate their negative consequences. Efforts to eliminate stockouts should include addressing supply chain issues. Raising community awareness and engaging with men on family planning may be ways to deal with the consequences of stockouts.

  19. Recommendation Process in SR1 Web Document Recommender System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan MUNTEANU

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a recommender system for web documents (given as bookmarks. The system uses for classification a combination of content, event and collaborative filters and for recommendation a modified Pearson-r algorithm. The algorithm for recommendation is using not only the correlation between users but also the similarity between classes. Some experimental results that support this approach are also presented.

  20. Enhancing the contribution of research to health care policy-making: a case study of the Dutch Health Care Performance Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegger, Ingrid; Marks, Lisanne K; Janssen, Susan W J; Schuit, Albertine J; van Oers, Hans A M

    2016-01-01

    The Dutch Health Care Performance Report, issued by the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, aims to monitor health care performance in The Netherlands. Both the National Institute and the Ministry of Health wish to increase the contribution of the Report to health care policy-making. Our aim was to identify ways to achieve that. We used contribution mapping as a theoretical framework that recognizes alignment of research as crucial to managing contributions to policy-making. To investigate which areas need alignment efforts by researchers and/or policy-makers, we interviewed National Institute researchers and policy-makers from the Ministry of Health and assessed the process for developing the 2010 Report. We identified six areas where alignment is specifically relevant for enhancing the contributions of future versions of the Dutch Health Care Performance Report: well-balanced information for different ministerial directorates; backstage work; double role actors; reports of other knowledge institutes; data collection/generation and presentation forms. The contribution of health care performance reporting to policy-making is complex and requires continuous alignment efforts between researchers and policy-makers. These efforts should form an inseparable part of health care performance reporting and although this demands considerable resources, it is worth considering since it may pay back in better contributions to policy-making. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Translating disparities research to policy: a qualitative study of state mental health policymakers' perceptions of mental health care disparities report cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Anne; DeAngelo, Darcie; Alegría, Margarita; Cook, Benjamin L

    2014-11-01

    Report cards have been used to increase accountability and quality of care in health care settings, and to improve state infrastructure for providing quality mental health care services. However, to date, report cards have not been used to compare states on racial/ethnic disparities in mental health care. This qualitative study examines reactions of mental health care policymakers to a proposed mental health care disparities report card generated from population-based survey data of mental health and mental health care utilization. We elicited feedback about the content, format, and salience of the report card. Interviews were conducted with 9 senior advisors to state policymakers and 1 policy director of a national nongovernmental organization from across the United States. Four primary themes emerged: fairness in state-by-state comparisons; disconnect between the goals and language of policymakers and researchers; concerns about data quality; and targeted suggestions from policymakers. Participant responses provide important information that can contribute to making evidence-based research more accessible to policymakers. Further, policymakers suggested ways to improve the structure and presentation of report cards to make them more accessible to policymakers, and to foster equity considerations during the implementation of new health care legislation. To reduce mental health care disparities, effort is required to facilitate understanding between researchers and relevant stakeholders about research methods, standards for interpretation of research-based evidence, and its use in evaluating policies aimed at ameliorating disparities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Research Involving Children: Recommendations of the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsen, Albert R.

    1978-01-01

    The article summarizes the ten recommendations of the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research regarding ethical considerations involved in using children as experimental subjects. Journal availability: see EC 111 045. (DLS)

  3. Travels in Tartary : Decoding Ten Export Winter Landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, van der R.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese export paintings collection of the National Museum of Ethnology in Leiden includes ten winter views in Tartary painted on canvas. That these ten paintings have never before been studied as a group has inspired the present author to conduct research into their origins, the findings of

  4. Ten Things Every Professor Should Know about Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Kenneth; Dunlap, Joanna; Stevens, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    This article describes ten key assessment practices for advancing student learning that all professors should be familiar with and strategically incorporate in their classrooms and programs. Each practice or concept is explained with examples and guidance for putting it into practice. The ten are: learning outcomes, performance assessments,…

  5. TRANSCUTANEOUS ELECTRICAL NERVE-STIMULATION (TENS) IN RAYNAUDS-PHENOMENON

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MULDER, P; DOMPELING, EC; VANSLOCHTERENVANDERBOOR, JC; KUIPERS, WD; SMIT, AJ

    Transcutaneous nerve stimulation (TENS) has been described as resulting in vasodilatation. The effect of 2 Hz TENS of the right hand during forty-five minutes on skin temperature and plethysmography of the third digit of both hands and feet and on transcutaneous oxygen tension (TcpO2) of the right

  6. Recommendation systems in software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Robillard, Martin P; Walker, Robert J; Zimmermann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    With the growth of public and private data stores and the emergence of off-the-shelf data-mining technology, recommendation systems have emerged that specifically address the unique challenges of navigating and interpreting software engineering data.This book collects, structures and formalizes knowledge on recommendation systems in software engineering. It adopts a pragmatic approach with an explicit focus on system design, implementation, and evaluation. The book is divided into three parts: "Part I - Techniques" introduces basics for building recommenders in software engineering, including techniques for collecting and processing software engineering data, but also for presenting recommendations to users as part of their workflow.?"Part II - Evaluation" summarizes methods and experimental designs for evaluating recommendations in software engineering.?"Part III - Applications" describes needs, issues and solution concepts involved in entire recommendation systems for specific software engineering tasks, fo...

  7. Using TENS for pain control: the state of the evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Carol GT; Dailey, Dana L; Rakel, Barbara A; Sluka, Kathleen A

    2014-01-01

    Summary Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a nonpharmacological intervention that activates a complex neuronal network to reduce pain by activating descending inhibitory systems in the central nervous system to reduce hyperalgesia. The evidence for TENS efficacy is conflicting and requires not only description but also critique. Population-specific systemic reviews and meta-analyses are emerging, indicating both HF and LF TENS being shown to provide analgesia, specifically when applied at a strong, nonpainful intensity. The purpose of this article is to provide a critical review of the latest basic science and clinical evidence for TENS. Additional research is necessary to determine if TENS has effects specific to mechanical stimuli and/or beyond reduction of pain and will improve activity levels, function and quality of life. PMID:24953072

  8. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for fibromyalgia in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark I; Claydon, Leica S; Herbison, G Peter; Jones, Gareth; Paley, Carole A

    2017-10-09

    Fibromyalgia is characterised by persistent, widespread pain; sleep problems; and fatigue. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is the delivery of pulsed electrical currents across the intact surface of the skin to stimulate peripheral nerves and is used extensively to manage painful conditions. TENS is inexpensive, safe, and can be self-administered. TENS reduces pain during movement in some people so it may be a useful adjunct to assist participation in exercise and activities of daily living. To date, there has been only one systematic review in 2012 which included TENS, amongst other treatments, for fibromyalgia, and the authors concluded that TENS was not effective. To assess the analgesic efficacy and adverse events of TENS alone or added to usual care (including exercise) compared with placebo (sham) TENS; no treatment; exercise alone; or other treatment including medication, electroacupuncture, warmth therapy, or hydrotherapy for fibromyalgia in adults. We searched the following electronic databases up to 18 January 2017: CENTRAL (CRSO); MEDLINE (Ovid); Embase (Ovid); CINAHL (EBSCO); PsycINFO (Ovid); LILACS; PEDRO; Web of Science (ISI); AMED (Ovid); and SPORTDiscus (EBSCO). We also searched three trial registries. There were no language restrictions. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-randomised trials of TENS treatment for pain associated with fibromyalgia in adults. We included cross-over and parallel-group trial designs. We included studies that evaluated TENS administered using non-invasive techniques at intensities that produced perceptible TENS sensations during stimulation at either the site of pain or over nerve bundles proximal (or near) to the site of pain. We included TENS administered as a sole treatment or TENS in combination with other treatments, and TENS given as a single treatment or as a course of treatments. Two review authors independently determined study eligibility by assessing each record and

  9. Recommendation Sets and Choice Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viappiani, Paolo Renato; Boutilier, Craig

    2011-01-01

    Utility elicitation is an important component of many applications, such as decision support systems and recommender systems. Such systems query users about their preferences and offer recommendations based on the system's belief about the user's utility function. We analyze the connection between...... the problem of generating optimal recommendation sets and the problem of generating optimal choice queries, considering both Bayesian and regret-based elicitation. Our results show that, somewhat surprisingly, under very general circumstances, the optimal recommendation set coincides with the optimal query....

  10. Effect of burst TENS and conventional TENS combined with cryotherapy on pressure pain threshold: randomised, controlled, clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, L B; Josué, A M; Maia, P H B; Câmara, A E; Brasileiro, J S

    2015-06-01

    To assess the immediate effect of conventional and burst transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in combination with cryotherapy on pain threshold and tolerance in healthy individuals. Randomised, controlled trial. University laboratory. One hundred and twelve healthy women. Volunteers were allocated at random to seven groups (n=16): (1) control, (2) placebo TENS, (3) conventional TENS, (4) burst TENS, (5) cryotherapy, (6) cryotherapy in combination with burst TENS, and (7) cryotherapy in combination with conventional TENS. Pain threshold and tolerance were measured by applying a pressure algometer at the lateral epicondyle of the humerus, before and after each intervention. The primary outcome measure was pressure pain threshold. A significant increase in pain threshold and tolerance at the 5% level of significance was recorded as follows: burst TENS {pain threshold: mean difference 1.3 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4 to 1.2]; pain tolerance: mean difference 3.8 (95% CI 3.9 to 3.7)}, cryotherapy [pain threshold: mean difference 1.3 (95% CI 1.4 to 1.2); pain tolerance: mean difference 1.9 (95% CI 1.8 to 2.0)] and cryotherapy in combination with burst TENS [pain threshold: mean difference 2.6 (95% CI 2.4 to 2.8); pain tolerance: mean difference 4.9 (95% CI 5.0 to 4.8)]. Cryotherapy in combination with burst TENS provided greater analgesia compared with the other groups (Pcryotherapy in combination with burst TENS to reduce induced pain, and suggest a potentiating effect when these techniques are combined. No such association was found between cryotherapy and conventional TENS. Copyright © 2014 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Classification of Recommender Expertise in the Wikipedia Recommender System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian D.; Pilkauskas, Povilas; Lefévre, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    to the quality of articles. The Wikipedia Recommender System (WRS) was developed to help users determine the credibility of articles based on feedback from other Wikipedia users. The WRS implements a collaborative filtering system with trust metrics, i.e., it provides a rating of articles which emphasizes...... an evaluation of four existing knowledge classification schemes with respect to these requirements. This evaluation helped us identify a classification scheme, which we have implemented in the current version of the Wikipedia Recommender System....... feedback from recommenders that the user has agreed with in the past. This exposes the problem that most recommenders are not equally competent in all subject areas. The first WRS prototype did not include an evaluation of the areas of expertise of recommenders, so the trust metric used in the article...

  12. Classification of Recommender Expertise in the Wikipedia Recommender System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian D.; Pilkauskas, Povilas; Lefevre, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    to the quality of articles. The Wikipedia Recommender System (WRS) was developed to help users determine the credibility of articles based on feedback from other Wikipedia users. The WRS implements a collaborative filtering system with trust metrics, i.e., it provides a rating of articles "which emphasizes...... an evaluation of four existing knowledge classification schemes with respect to these requirements. This evaluation helped us identify a classification scheme, which we have implemented in the current version of the Wikipedia Recommender System....... feedback from recommenders that the user has agreed with in the past. This exposes the problem that most recommenders are not equally competent in all subject areas. The first WRS prototype did not include an evaluation of the areas of expertise of recommenders, so the trust metric used in the article...

  13. Implementing the "Ways of Knowing through the Realms of Meaning" for the Improvement of Ethical Conduct: Ten National Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Jennifer T.; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2007-01-01

    Ethical conduct should inspire a quality of behavior that exemplifies honor and dignity for oneself. In a school district, teachers, administrators, staff, and school board members should understand the importance of ethical conduct in the educational arena. An effective educational organization entails the need of individuals maintaining…

  14. Context-Aware Recommender Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adomavicius, Gediminas; Tuzhilin, Alexander

    The importance of contextual information has been recognized by researchers and practitioners in many disciplines, including e-commerce personalization, information retrieval, ubiquitous and mobile computing, data mining, marketing, and management. While a substantial amount of research has already been performed in the area of recommender systems, most existing approaches focus on recommending the most relevant items to users without taking into account any additional contextual information, such as time, location, or the company of other people (e.g., for watching movies or dining out). In this chapter we argue that relevant contextual information does matter in recommender systems and that it is important to take this information into account when providing recommendations. We discuss the general notion of context and how it can be modeled in recommender systems. Furthermore, we introduce three different algorithmic paradigms - contextual prefiltering, post-filtering, and modeling - for incorporating contextual information into the recommendation process, discuss the possibilities of combining several contextaware recommendation techniques into a single unifying approach, and provide a case study of one such combined approach. Finally, we present additional capabilities for context-aware recommenders and discuss important and promising directions for future research.

  15. USGEO DMWG Cloud Computing Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Beaujardiere, J.; McInerney, M.; Frame, M. T.; Summers, C.

    2017-12-01

    The US Group on Earth Observations (USGEO) Data Management Working Group (DMWG) has been developing Cloud Computing Recommendations for Earth Observations. This inter-agency report is currently in draft form; DMWG hopes to have released the report as a public Request for Information (RFI) by the time of AGU. The recommendations are geared toward organizations that have already decided to use the Cloud for some of their activities (i.e., the focus is not on "why you should use the Cloud," but rather "If you plan to use the Cloud, consider these suggestions.") The report comprises Introductory Material, including Definitions, Potential Cloud Benefits, and Potential Cloud Disadvantages, followed by Recommendations in several areas: Assessing When to Use the Cloud, Transferring Data to the Cloud, Data and Metadata Contents, Developing Applications in the Cloud, Cost Minimization, Security Considerations, Monitoring and Metrics, Agency Support, and Earth Observations-specific recommendations. This talk will summarize the recommendations and invite comment on the RFI.

  16. A Community-Driven Approach to Generate Urban Policy Recommendations for Obesity Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Díez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing research interest in targeting interventions at the neighborhood level to prevent obesity. Healthy urban environments require including residents’ perspectives to help understanding how urban environments relate to residents’ food choices and physical activity levels. We describe an innovative community-driven process aimed to develop environmental recommendations for obesity prevention. We conducted this study in a low-income area in Madrid (Spain, using a collaborative citizen science approach. First, 36 participants of two previous Photovoice projects translated their findings into policy recommendations, using an adapted logical framework approach. Second, the research team grouped these recommendations into strategies for obesity prevention, using the deductive analytical strategy of successive approximation. Third, through a nominal group session including participants, researchers, public health practitioners and local policy-makers, we discussed and prioritized the obesity prevention recommendations. Participants identified 12 policy recommendations related to their food choices and 18 related to their physical activity. The research team grouped these into 11 concrete recommendations for obesity prevention. The ‘top-three’ ranked recommendations were: (1 to adequate and increase the number of public open spaces; (2 to improve the access and cost of existing sports facilities and (3 to reduce the cost of gluten-free and diabetic products.

  17. Use of health systems and policy research evidence in the health policymaking in eastern Mediterranean countries: views and practices of researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Jardali Fadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited research exists on researchers' knowledge transfer and exchange (KTE in the eastern Mediterranean region (EMR. This multi-country study explores researchers' views and experiences regarding the role of health systems and policy research evidence in health policymaking in the EMR, including the factors that influence health policymaking, barriers and facilitators to the use of evidence, and the factors that increase researchers' engagement in KTE. Methods Researchers who published health systems and policy relevant research in 12 countries in the EMR (Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Sudan, Syria, and Yemen were surveyed. Descriptive analysis and Linear Mixed Regression Models were performed for quantitative sections and the simple thematic analysis approach was used for open-ended questions. Results A total of 238 researchers were asked to complete the survey (response rate 56%. Researchers indicated transferring results to other researchers (67.2% and policymakers in the government (40.5%. Less than one-quarter stated that they produced policy briefs (14.5%, disseminated messages that specified possible actions (24.4%, interacted with policymakers and stakeholders in priority-setting (16%, and involved them in their research (19.8%. Insufficient policy dialogue opportunities and collaboration between researchers and policymakers and stakeholders (67.9%, practical constraints to implementation (66%, non-receptive policy environment (61.3%, and politically sensitive findings (57.7% hindered the use of evidence. Factors that increase researchers' engagement in KTE activities in the region were associated with involving policymakers and stakeholders at various stages such as priority-setting exercises and provision of technical assistance. Conclusions Researchers in the EMR recognize the importance of using health systems evidence in health policymaking. Potential strategies to

  18. “What is the Spirit of this Gathering?” Indigenous Sport Policy-Makers and Self-Determination in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Braden P. Te Hiwi

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I examine how the process of Indigenous participation in policy-making pertaining to the development of federal sport policy in Canada is connected to Indigenous forms of self-determination. By conducting semi-structured interviews with six Indigenous sport policy-makers, I investigate how their respective thoughts, experiences, and actions shape their perspective on self-determination. My analysis shows that a focus on relationships was at the center of the interviewed Indig...

  19. Use of health systems and policy research evidence in the health policymaking in eastern Mediterranean countries: views and practices of researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Limited research exists on researchers' knowledge transfer and exchange (KTE) in the eastern Mediterranean region (EMR). This multi-country study explores researchers' views and experiences regarding the role of health systems and policy research evidence in health policymaking in the EMR, including the factors that influence health policymaking, barriers and facilitators to the use of evidence, and the factors that increase researchers' engagement in KTE. Methods Researchers who published health systems and policy relevant research in 12 countries in the EMR (Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Sudan, Syria, and Yemen) were surveyed. Descriptive analysis and Linear Mixed Regression Models were performed for quantitative sections and the simple thematic analysis approach was used for open-ended questions. Results A total of 238 researchers were asked to complete the survey (response rate 56%). Researchers indicated transferring results to other researchers (67.2%) and policymakers in the government (40.5%). Less than one-quarter stated that they produced policy briefs (14.5%), disseminated messages that specified possible actions (24.4%), interacted with policymakers and stakeholders in priority-setting (16%), and involved them in their research (19.8%). Insufficient policy dialogue opportunities and collaboration between researchers and policymakers and stakeholders (67.9%), practical constraints to implementation (66%), non-receptive policy environment (61.3%), and politically sensitive findings (57.7%) hindered the use of evidence. Factors that increase researchers' engagement in KTE activities in the region were associated with involving policymakers and stakeholders at various stages such as priority-setting exercises and provision of technical assistance. Conclusions Researchers in the EMR recognize the importance of using health systems evidence in health policymaking. Potential strategies to improve the use of

  20. Policymaking ‘under the radar’: a case study of pesticide regulation to prevent intentional poisoning in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Melissa; Zwi, Anthony B; Buckley, Nicholas A; Manuweera, Gamini; Fernando, Ravindra; Dawson, Andrew H; McDuie-Ra, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    Background Suicide in Sri Lanka is a major public health problem and in 1995 the country had one of the highest rates of suicide worldwide. Since then reductions in overall suicide rates have been largely attributed to efforts to regulate a range of pesticides. The evolution, context, events and implementation of the key policy decisions around regulation are examined. Methods This study was undertaken as part of a broader analysis of policy in two parts—an explanatory case study and stakeholder analysis. This article describes the explanatory case study that included an historical narrative and in-depth interviews. Results A timeline and chronology of policy actions and influence were derived from interview and document data. Fourteen key informants were interviewed and four distinct policy phases were identified. The early stages of pesticide regulation were dominated by political and economic considerations and strongly influenced by external factors. The second phase was marked by a period of local institution building, the engagement of local stakeholders, and expanded links between health and agriculture. During the third phase the problem of self-poisoning dominated the policy agenda and closer links between stakeholders, evidence and policymaking developed. The fourth and most recent phase was characterized by strong local capacity for policymaking, informed by evidence, developed in collaboration with a powerful network of stakeholders, including international researchers. Conclusions The policy response to extremely high rates of suicide from intentional poisoning with pesticides shows a unique and successful example of policymaking to prevent suicide. It also highlights policy action taking place ‘under the radar’, thus avoiding policy inertia often associated with reforms in lower and middle income countries. PMID:24362640

  1. Iran's health policymakers' views on barriers and facilitators of nurse prescribing in their context: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar Darvishpour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In most countries, one of the main reasons for developing more advanced roles for nurses is to improve access to care in the context of limited number of doctors. It is considered that the introduction of major policy initiatives, such as nurse prescribing, requires high-level discussion and policy development to ensure successful implementation. This study aimed to identify the barriers and facilitators of nurse prescribing based on policymakers' views in Iran. Materials and Methods: This qualitative study was based on conventional content analysis approach. A purposeful sample of 14 participants were recruited, including 6 members of the Nursing Board, 6 members of the Iranian Nursing Organization, and 2 senior employees of Iran's Ministry of Health and Medical Education. Data were gathered through in-depth semi-structured interviews. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Results: The four emerged categories as facilitators of nurse prescribing were labeled “positive views of health policymakers,” “human resources capabilities,” “non-medical prescribing experiences,” and “governmental and non-governmental organizational activities.” The four extracted categories as barriers of nurse prescribing were “socio-cultural factors,” “organizational factors,” “educational barriers,” and “human barriers.” Conclusions: Barriers and facilitating factors should be considered in order to bring about organizational policy changes and improve perspectives. Nurse prescribing requires the efforts of involved managers and authorities for development and modernization. The results of this study can serve as a compressed resource for policymakers and managers to identify the effective issues on nurse prescribing and can help them to plan for the implementation of nurse prescribing.

  2. Will dengue vaccines be used in the public sector and if so, how? Findings from an 8-country survey of policymakers and opinion leaders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don L Douglas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A face-to-face survey of 158 policymakers and other influential professionals was conducted in eight dengue-endemic countries in Asia (India, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam and Latin America (Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, Nicaragua to provide an indication of the potential demand for dengue vaccination in endemic countries, and to anticipate their research and other requirements in order to make decisions about the introduction of dengue vaccines. The study took place in anticipation of the licensure of the first dengue vaccine in the next several years. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted on an individual or small group basis with government health officials, research scientists, medical association officers, vaccine producers, local-level health authorities, and others considered to have a role in influencing decisions about dengue control and vaccines. Most informants across countries considered dengue a priority disease and expressed interest in the public sector use of dengue vaccines, with a major driver being the political pressure from the public and the medical community to control the disease. There was interest in a vaccine that protects children as young as possible and that can fit into existing childhood immunization schedules. Dengue vaccination in most countries surveyed will likely be targeted to high-risk areas and begin with routine immunization of infants and young children, followed by catch-up campaigns for older age groups, as funding permits. Key data requirements for decision-making were additional local dengue surveillance data, vaccine cost-effectiveness estimates, post-marketing safety surveillance data and, in some countries vaccine safety and immunogenicity data in the local population. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The lookout for the public sector use of dengue vaccines in the eight countries appears quite favorable. Major determinants of whether and when countries will

  3. Will Dengue Vaccines Be Used in the Public Sector and if so, How? Findings from an 8-country Survey of Policymakers and Opinion Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Don L.; DeRoeck, Denise A.; Mahoney, Richard T.; Wichmann, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Background A face-to-face survey of 158 policymakers and other influential professionals was conducted in eight dengue-endemic countries in Asia (India, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam) and Latin America (Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, Nicaragua) to provide an indication of the potential demand for dengue vaccination in endemic countries, and to anticipate their research and other requirements in order to make decisions about the introduction of dengue vaccines. The study took place in anticipation of the licensure of the first dengue vaccine in the next several years. Methods/Principal Findings Semi-structured interviews were conducted on an individual or small group basis with government health officials, research scientists, medical association officers, vaccine producers, local-level health authorities, and others considered to have a role in influencing decisions about dengue control and vaccines. Most informants across countries considered dengue a priority disease and expressed interest in the public sector use of dengue vaccines, with a major driver being the political pressure from the public and the medical community to control the disease. There was interest in a vaccine that protects children as young as possible and that can fit into existing childhood immunization schedules. Dengue vaccination in most countries surveyed will likely be targeted to high-risk areas and begin with routine immunization of infants and young children, followed by catch-up campaigns for older age groups, as funding permits. Key data requirements for decision-making were additional local dengue surveillance data, vaccine cost-effectiveness estimates, post-marketing safety surveillance data and, in some countries vaccine safety and immunogenicity data in the local population. Conclusions/Significance The lookout for the public sector use of dengue vaccines in the eight countries appears quite favorable. Major determinants of whether and when countries will introduce dengue vaccines

  4. Will dengue vaccines be used in the public sector and if so, how? Findings from an 8-country survey of policymakers and opinion leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Don L; DeRoeck, Denise A; Mahoney, Richard T; Wichmann, Ole

    2013-01-01

    A face-to-face survey of 158 policymakers and other influential professionals was conducted in eight dengue-endemic countries in Asia (India, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam) and Latin America (Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, Nicaragua) to provide an indication of the potential demand for dengue vaccination in endemic countries, and to anticipate their research and other requirements in order to make decisions about the introduction of dengue vaccines. The study took place in anticipation of the licensure of the first dengue vaccine in the next several years. Semi-structured interviews were conducted on an individual or small group basis with government health officials, research scientists, medical association officers, vaccine producers, local-level health authorities, and others considered to have a role in influencing decisions about dengue control and vaccines. Most informants across countries considered dengue a priority disease and expressed interest in the public sector use of dengue vaccines, with a major driver being the political pressure from the public and the medical community to control the disease. There was interest in a vaccine that protects children as young as possible and that can fit into existing childhood immunization schedules. Dengue vaccination in most countries surveyed will likely be targeted to high-risk areas and begin with routine immunization of infants and young children, followed by catch-up campaigns for older age groups, as funding permits. Key data requirements for decision-making were additional local dengue surveillance data, vaccine cost-effectiveness estimates, post-marketing safety surveillance data and, in some countries vaccine safety and immunogenicity data in the local population. The lookout for the public sector use of dengue vaccines in the eight countries appears quite favorable. Major determinants of whether and when countries will introduce dengue vaccines include whether WHO recommends the vaccines, their price, the

  5. Fake it till you make it: Policymaking and assisted human reproduction in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylis, Françoise; Downie, Jocelyn; Snow, Dave

    2014-06-01

    The Assisted Human Reproduction Act (AHR Act) came into effect in 2004. The AHR Act stipulates in s.12 that no reimbursement of expenditures incurred in the course of donating gametes, maintaining or transporting in vitro embryos, or providing surrogacy services is permitted, except in accordance with the regulations and with receipts. Ten years later, Health Canada still has not drafted the regulations governing reimbursement. Section 12 is therefore still not in force. Health Canada and others have asserted that there is a Health Canada policy on reimbursement and that reimbursement with receipts is legally permissible. We dispute the existence of such a policy and its legitimacy (if it exists). We also challenge the decision by Health Canada not to produce regulations and thereby make it possible for Parliament to bring s.12 into force. This intentional lack of action is worrisome on at least two fronts. First, it sidesteps the processes required for regulations and thereby ducks the Parliamentary oversight very deliberately built into the AHR Act. Second, it leaves Canadians who provide and who access assisted human reproduction uncertain about what is and is not permitted, and therefore fearful of, or at risk of, prosecution. We conclude that Health Canada should take the steps necessary to put regulations in front of Parliament so that Parliament will then be able to pass regulations and bring s.12 into force. Canadians should demand no less.

  6. Summer in the City - Assessing and Communicating the Richmond, VA Urban Heat Island to the Public and Policymakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, J. S.; Maurakis, E. G.; Shandas, V.

    2017-12-01

    The local impacts of global climate change are generally underestimated or misunderstood by the public and policymakers as far-off, future problems. However, differential and regional surface warming trends are exacerbated in urban areas due to the radiative properties of impervious surfaces like buildings and roads relative to natural landscapes. Decades of research illustrate that this unnatural radiative imbalance in the built environment gives rise to the well-studied urban heat island effect, whereby air temperatures in urban areas are several degrees warmer than in surrounding non-urbanized areas. In this way, the urban heat island effect presents a unique opportunity to highlight the human influence on Earth systems and at the same time mobilize local community-scale action to mitigate and become resilient to climate change impacts on tangible, experiential time scales. However, public stakeholders, city planners, and policymakers may view the urban heat island effect and its mitigation strategies through varying degrees of climatological, public health, and urban development knowledge and interest. This variation in stakeholder engagement highlights the need for individualized science communication strategies for each audience in order to maximize understanding of the scientific outcomes and tactics for mitigating the urban heat island effect. The City of Richmond, Virginia is currently developing a climate action plan as part of their greenhouse gas emission reduction initiative, RVAgreen 2050, and its recently announced "Richmond 300," a 20-year city development master plan. These initiatives provide the policy backdrop for a public and stakeholder education campaign centered on communicating urban heat island effects and resilience strategies. As such, the Science Museum of Virginia led the city's first urban heat island assessment using citizen science and leveraging a network of local university, non-profit, and city government stakeholders. Here, we

  7. The Impact of the New Nationalism and Identity Politics on Cultural Policy-Making In Europe and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duelund, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Fuelled by factors such as globalisation, European integration and migration, there is evidence of a resurgence of nationalism in Europe and beyond. This trend is being increasingly revitalised in national and regional cultural policy-making, often linked to a new focus on politics of national...... identity. At worst a future scenario of Europe might be an internationalization of nationalism which tends to colonize art, culture and "the whole way of life". To change this cultural lens requires a new narrative of Europe. It requires scientific cultural research, knowledge and insight, if the ghosts...

  8. The Negative Impact of Legislation Pitfalls on Meaningful Public Participation, Efficient Policy-Making and Effective Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana ALMĂȘAN

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on emphasizing howa variety of apparently irrelevant legislationimperfections may induce significant misunderstandingsregarding the real spirit of democraticgovernance, corrupting the practice of activecitizenship in the policy-making processes anddepriving the Romanian public administration ofan important and valuable instrument for efficientgovernance and implementation of sustainabledecisions. The authors chose to analyze aspectsof the related legislation, as it represents afundamental element needed for the developmentof active citizenship. This article is the result of alarger on-going research on the phenomena ofpublic participation and policy dialogue that aimsto provide a more accurate understanding ofactive citizenship mechanisms and to investigatethe existence of a deliberative conscience at thelevel of the Romanian society.

  9. Trading Justice for Security? UN Anti-Terrorism, Due Process Rights, and the Role of the Judiciary: Lessons for policymakers

    OpenAIRE

    Draghici, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this policy paper is to highlight the role\\ud of the judiciary in reconciling counter-terrorism strategies\\ud with human rights standards. Indeed, judicial assent\\ud to the excesses of policy-makers risks deepening the\\ud human rights crisis caused by the fight against apocalyptic\\ud terrorism. In the aftermath of the September 11, 2001\\ud terrorist attacks against the United States, the political\\ud climate has been dominated by security concerns. The\\ud United States has invo...

  10. Avoiding congestion in recommender systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaolong; Lü, Linyuan; Liu, Runran; Zhang, Jianlin

    2014-06-01

    Recommender systems use the historical activities and personal profiles of users to uncover their preferences and recommend objects. Most of the previous methods are based on objects’ (and/or users’) similarity rather than on their difference. Such approaches are subject to a high risk of increasingly exposing users to a narrowing band of popular objects. As a result, a few objects may be recommended to an enormous number of users, resulting in the problem of recommendation congestion, which is to be avoided, especially when the recommended objects are limited resources. In order to quantitatively measure a recommendation algorithm's ability to avoid congestion, we proposed a new metric inspired by the Gini index, which is used to measure the inequality of the individual wealth distribution in an economy. Besides this, a new recommendation method called directed weighted conduction (DWC) was developed by considering the heat conduction process on a user-object bipartite network with different thermal conductivities. Experimental results obtained for three benchmark data sets showed that the DWC algorithm can effectively avoid system congestion, and greatly improve the novelty and diversity, while retaining relatively high accuracy, in comparison with the state-of-the-art methods.

  11. Avoiding congestion in recommender systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Xiaolong; Lü, Linyuan; Liu, Runran; Zhang, Jianlin

    2014-01-01

    Recommender systems use the historical activities and personal profiles of users to uncover their preferences and recommend objects. Most of the previous methods are based on objects’ (and/or users’) similarity rather than on their difference. Such approaches are subject to a high risk of increasingly exposing users to a narrowing band of popular objects. As a result, a few objects may be recommended to an enormous number of users, resulting in the problem of recommendation congestion, which is to be avoided, especially when the recommended objects are limited resources. In order to quantitatively measure a recommendation algorithm's ability to avoid congestion, we proposed a new metric inspired by the Gini index, which is used to measure the inequality of the individual wealth distribution in an economy. Besides this, a new recommendation method called directed weighted conduction (DWC) was developed by considering the heat conduction process on a user–object bipartite network with different thermal conductivities. Experimental results obtained for three benchmark data sets showed that the DWC algorithm can effectively avoid system congestion, and greatly improve the novelty and diversity, while retaining relatively high accuracy, in comparison with the state-of-the-art methods. (paper)

  12. Ten new species of Daidalotarsonemus (Prostigmata: Tarsonemidae) from Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten new tarsonemid species of the genus Daidalotarsonemus found on native plants in Costa Rica are described herein: Daidalotarsonemus alas sp. n. Ochoa, Rezende & Lofego; Daidalotarsonemus azofeifai sp. n. Ochoa, Rezende & Lofego; Daidalotarsonemus bauchani sp. n. Rezende, Ochoa & Lofego; Daidalota...

  13. Ten-Competence: Life-Long Competence Development and Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koper, Rob; Specht, Marcus

    2006-01-01

    Koper, R., & Specht, M. (2008). Ten-Competence: Life-Long Competence Development and Learning. In M-A. Cicilia (Ed.), Competencies in Organizational e-learning: concepts and tools (pp. 234-252). Hershey: IGI-Global.

  14. Establishment and early persistence of ten forage legumes under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Establishment and early persistence of ten forage legumes under three grazing regimes in southern Mozambique. JP Muir. Abstract. Leucaena leucocephala, Clitoria ternatea, Macroptilium atropurpureum cv. Siratro, Cassia rotundifolia cv. Wynn, Macrotyloma axillare cv. Archer, Stylosanthes guianensis var. guianensis cv.

  15. Managing mountain hardwoods - a ten-year appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    George R., Jr. Trimble

    1961-01-01

    Ten years ago - in 1949 - four 5-acre plots were established on the Fernow Experimental Forest near Parsons, West Virginia, to show the effects upon mountain hardwoods of each of four management treatments.

  16. Litter decomposition and nutrient dynamics of ten selected tree ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Litter decomposition processes in tropical rainforests are still poorly understood. Leaf litter decomposition and nutrient dynamics of ten contrasting tree species, Entandraphragma utile, Guibourtia tessmannii, Klainedoxa gabonensis, Musanga cecropioides, Panda oleosa, Plagiostyles africana, Pterocarpus soyauxii, ...

  17. The new ICRP general recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Y.; Lochard, J.; Holm, L.E.; Niwa, O.; Ishigure, N.; Kosako, T.; Kai, M.

    2007-01-01

    The new draft ICRP recommendations was presented by the ICRP chair, Professor Lars-Eric Holm. His presentation was followed by presentations by Japanese members of the various (CRP committees, discussing their views of the draft recommendations based on their own technical experience. After these presentations, questions from the floor raised many of the key issues of the conference: dose constrains, the LNT hypothesis, dose bands, etc. This showed that the conference participants had carefully and completely read the draft, and were very interested in building a final ICRP recommendation that appropriately addresses all their concerns. These issues were also discussed throughout the entire conference. (author)

  18. European Dialogue Report. Lessons from ten low-carbon dialogues

    OpenAIRE

    Øye, Olav; Aelenei, Laura; Barkved, Line; Beaubien, Stan; Bertrand, Teresa; Cherbib, Miriame; Creamer, Emily; Engen, Sirin; Ernst, Anna; Gemeni, Vasiliki; Ha-Duong, Minh; Hrivnakova, Lucia; Hladik, Vit; Koukouzas, Nikolaos; Maynard, Carly

    2015-01-01

    The R&Dialogue project has facilitated ten low-carbon dialogues with representatives from energy, the low-carbon R&D community, social actors and others. In each of the ten countries involved, a ‘coalition of the willing’ explored the challenges and articulated their view on improving the dialogue. This European Dialogue Report is a collection of these experiences, and it reflects upon the themes emerging from those dialogues.

  19. Health worker and policy-maker perspectives on use of intramuscular artesunate for pre-referral and definitive treatment of severe malaria at health posts in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefyalew, Takele; Kebede, Zelalem; Getachew, Dawit; Mukanga, David; Awano, Tessema; Tekalegne, Agonafer; Batisso, Esey; Edossa, Wasihun; Mekonnen, Emebet; Tibenderana, James; Baba, Ebenezer Sheshi; Shumba, Constance; Nankabirwa, Joaniter I; Hamade, Prudence

    2016-10-18

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends injectable artesunate given either intravenously or by the intramuscular route for definitive treatment for severe malaria and recommends a single intramuscular dose of intramuscular artesunate or intramuscular artemether or intramuscular quinine, in that order of preference as pre-referral treatment when definitive treatment is not possible. Where intramuscular injections are not available, children under 6 years may be administered a single dose of rectal artesunate. Although the current malaria treatment guidelines in Ethiopia recommend intra-rectal artesunate or alternatively intramuscular artemether or intramuscular quinine as pre-referral treatment for severe malaria at the health posts, there are currently no WHO prequalified suppliers of intra-rectal artesunate and when available, its use is limited to children under 6 years of age leaving a gap for the older age groups. Intramuscular artesunate is not part of the drugs recommended for pre-referral treatment in Ethiopia. This study assessed the perspectives of health workers, and policy-makers on the use of intramuscular artesunate as a pre-referral and definitive treatment for severe malaria at the health post level. In-depth interviews were held with 101 individuals including health workers, malaria focal persons, and Regional Health Bureaus from Oromia and southern nations, nationalities, and peoples' region, as well as participants from the Federal Ministry of Health and development partners. An interview guide was used in the data collection and thematic content analysis was employed for analysis. Key findings from this study are: (1) provision of intramuscular artesunate as pre-referral and definitive treatment for severe malaria at health posts could be lifesaving; (2) with adequate training, and provision of facilities including beds, health posts can provide definitive treatment for severe malaria using intramuscular artesunate where referral is

  20. Health worker and policy-maker perspectives on use of intramuscular artesunate for pre-referral and definitive treatment of severe malaria at health posts in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takele Kefyalew

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization (WHO recommends injectable artesunate given either intravenously or by the intramuscular route for definitive treatment for severe malaria and recommends a single intramuscular dose of intramuscular artesunate or intramuscular artemether or intramuscular quinine, in that order of preference as pre-referral treatment when definitive treatment is not possible. Where intramuscular injections are not available, children under 6 years may be administered a single dose of rectal artesunate. Although the current malaria treatment guidelines in Ethiopia recommend intra-rectal artesunate or alternatively intramuscular artemether or intramuscular quinine as pre-referral treatment for severe malaria at the health posts, there are currently no WHO prequalified suppliers of intra-rectal artesunate and when available, its use is limited to children under 6 years of age leaving a gap for the older age groups. Intramuscular artesunate is not part of the drugs recommended for pre-referral treatment in Ethiopia. This study assessed the perspectives of health workers, and policy-makers on the use of intramuscular artesunate as a pre-referral and definitive treatment for severe malaria at the health post level. Methods In-depth interviews were held with 101 individuals including health workers, malaria focal persons, and Regional Health Bureaus from Oromia and southern nations, nationalities, and peoples’ region, as well as participants from the Federal Ministry of Health and development partners. An interview guide was used in the data collection and thematic content analysis was employed for analysis. Results Key findings from this study are: (1 provision of intramuscular artesunate as pre-referral and definitive treatment for severe malaria at health posts could be lifesaving; (2 with adequate training, and provision of facilities including beds, health posts can provide definitive treatment for severe

  1. RECOMMENDER SYSTEMS IN SOCIAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleomar Valois Batista Jr

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The continued and diversified growth of social networks has changed the way in which users interact with them. With these changes, what once was limited to social contact is now used for exchanging ideas and opinions, creating the need for new features. Users have so much information at their fingertips that they are unable to process it by themselves; hence, the need to develop new tools. Recommender systems were developed to address this need and many techniques were used for different approaches to the problem. To make relevant recommendations, these systems use large sets of data, not taking the social network of the user into consideration. Developing a recommender system that takes into account the social network of the user is another way of tackling the problem. The purpose of this project is to use the theory of six degrees of separation (Watts 2003 amongst users of a social network to enhance existing recommender systems.

  2. Disability: recommendations for eye programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In 2012, CBM’s Medical Eye Care Advisory Working Group met in Hyderabad, India to discuss the inclusion of people with disabilities in eye care.As a result of these discussions, recommendations were made.

  3. Strategic Arrivals Recommendation Tool Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During the conduct of a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) in 2012 and 2013, the Mosaic ATM team first developed the Strategic Arrivals Recommendation Tool concept, or...

  4. State geothermal commercialization programs in ten Rocky Mountain states. Semi-annual progress report, July-December 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, J.L. (comp.)

    1980-08-01

    The activities and findings of the ten state teams participating in the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range Regional Hydrothermal Commercialization Program for the period are described. A summary of the state projects, compilation of project accomplishments, summary of findings, and a description of the major conclusions and recommendations are presented. Also included are chapters on the commercialization activities carried out by individual teams in each state: Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New-Mexico, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. (MHR)

  5. Recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumeister, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses three book publications: C. Kerez: Uncertain Certainty, Tokyo, 2013 H. Hertzberger: Lessons for students in architecture, Rotterdam, 2006, (1991) A. Jorn: Om Formen, Silkeborg, 2014, (1958)...

  6. Hybrid context aware recommender systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rajshree; Tyagi, Jaya; Singh, Sandeep Kumar; Alam, Taj

    2017-10-01

    Recommender systems and context awareness is currently a vital field of research. Most hybrid recommendation systems implement content based and collaborative filtering techniques whereas this work combines context and collaborative filtering. The paper presents a hybrid context aware recommender system for books and movies that gives recommendations based on the user context as well as user or item similarity. It also addresses the issue of dimensionality reduction using weighted pre filtering based on dynamically entered user context and preference of context. This unique step helps to reduce the size of dataset for collaborative filtering. Bias subtracted collaborative filtering is used so as to consider the relative rating of a particular user and not the absolute values. Cosine similarity is used as a metric to determine the similarity between users or items. The unknown ratings are calculated and evaluated using MSE (Mean Squared Error) in test and train datasets. The overall process of recommendation has helped to personalize recommendations and give more accurate results with reduced complexity in collaborative filtering.

  7. Introduction on health recommender systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Bocanegra, C L; Sanchez-Laguna, F; Sevillano, J L

    2015-01-01

    People are looking for appropriate health information which they are concerned about. The Internet is a great resource of this kind of information, but we have to be careful if we don't want to get harmful info. Health recommender systems are becoming a new wave for apt health information as systems suggest the best data according to the patients' needs.The main goals of health recommender systems are to retrieve trusted health information from the Internet, to analyse which is suitable for the user profile and select the best that can be recommended, to adapt their selection methods according to the knowledge domain and to learn from the best recommendations.A brief definition of recommender systems will be given and an explanation of how are they incorporated in the health sector. A description of the main elementary recommender methods as well as their most important problems will also be made. And, to finish, the state of the art will be described.

  8. Emergency contraception in Nairobi, Kenya: knowledge, attitudes and practices among policymakers, family planning providers and clients, and university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muia, E; Ellertson, C; Lukhando, M; Flul, B; Clark, S; Olenja, J

    1999-10-01

    To gauge knowledge, attitudes, and practices about emergency contraception in Nairobi, Kenya, we conducted a five-part study. We searched government and professional association policy documents, and clinic guidelines and service records for references to emergency contraception. We conducted in-depth interviews with five key policymakers, and with 93 family planning providers randomly selected to represent both the public and private sectors. We also surveyed 282 family planning clients attending 10 clinics, again representing both sectors. Finally, we conducted four focus groups with university students. Although one specially packaged emergency contraceptive (Postinor levonorgestrel tablets) is registered in Kenya, the method is scarcely known or used. No extant policy or service guidelines address the method specifically, although revisions to several documents were planned. Yet policymakers felt that expanding access to emergency contraception would require few overt policy changes, as much of the guidance for oral contraception is already broad enough to cover this alternative use of those same commodities. Participants in all parts of the study generally supported expanded access to emergency contraception in Kenya. They did, however, want additional, detailed information, particularly about health effects. They also differed over exactly who should have access to emergency contraception and how it should be provided.

  9. Accessing Secondary Markets as a Capital Source for Energy Efficiency Finance Programs: Program Design Considerations for Policymakers and Administrators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Martin, E. Fadrhonc [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Thompson, P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Estimates of the total opportunity for investment in cost-effective energy efficiency in the United States are typically in the range of several hundred billion dollars (Choi Granade, et al., 2009 and Fulton & Brandenburg, 2012).1,2 To access this potential, many state policymakers and utility regulators have established aggressive energy efficiency savings targets. Current levels of taxpayer and utility bill-payer funding for energy efficiency is only a small fraction of the total investment needed to meet these targets (SEE Action Financing Solutions Working Group, 2013). Given this challenge, some energy efficiency program administrators are working to access private capital sources with the aim of amplifying the funds available for investment. In this context, efficient access to secondary market capital has been advanced as one important enabler of the energy efficiency industry “at scale.”3 The question of what role secondary markets can play in bringing energy efficiency to scale is largely untested despite extensive attention from media, technical publications, advocates, and others. Only a handful of transactions of energy efficiency loan products have been executed to date, and it is too soon to draw robust conclusions from these deals. At the same time, energy efficiency program administrators and policymakers face very real decisions regarding whether and how to access secondary markets as part of their energy efficiency deployment strategy.

  10. Applying policy network theory to policy-making in China: the case of urban health insurance reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Haitao; de Jong, Martin; Koppenjan, Joop

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we explore whether policy network theory can be applied in the People's Republic of China (PRC). We carried out a literature review of how this approach has already been dealt with in the Chinese policy sciences thus far. We then present the key concepts and research approach in policy networks theory in the Western literature and try these on a Chinese case to see the fit. We follow this with a description and analysis of the policy-making process regarding the health insurance reform in China from 1998 until the present. Based on this case study, we argue that this body of theory is useful to describe and explain policy-making processes in the Chinese context. However, limitations in the generic model appear in capturing the fundamentally different political and administrative systems, crucially different cultural values in the applicability of some research methods common in Western countries. Finally, we address which political and cultural aspects turn out to be different in the PRC and how they affect methodological and practical problems that PRC researchers will encounter when studying decision-making processes.

  11. Mitigation/adaptation and health: health policymaking in the global response to climate change and implications for other upstream determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Lindsay F

    2010-01-01

    The time is ripe for innovation in global health governance if we are to achieve global health and development objectives in the face of formidable challenges. Integration of global health concerns into the law and governance of other, related disciplines should be given high priority. This article explores opportunities for health policymaking in the global response to climate change. Climate change and environmental degradation will affect weather disasters, food and water security, infectious disease patterns, and air pollution. Although scientific research has pointed to the interdependence of the global environment and human health, policymakers have been slow to integrate their approaches to environmental and health concerns. A robust response to climate change will require improved integration on two fronts: health concerns must be given higher priority in the response to climate change and threats associated with climate change and environmental degradation must be more adequately addressed by global health law and governance. The mitigation/adaptation response paradigm developing within and beyond the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change provides a useful framework for thinking about global health law and governance with respect to climate change, environmental degradation, and possibly other upstream determinants of health as well. © 2010 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  12. Recommendations of the workshop on advanced geothermal drilling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glowka, D.A.

    1997-12-01

    At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Geothermal Technologies, Sandia National Laboratories convened a group of drilling experts in Berkeley, CA, on April 15-16, 1997, to discuss advanced geothermal drilling systems. The objective of the workshop was to develop one or more conceptual designs for an advanced geothermal drilling system that meets all of the criteria necessary to drill a model geothermal well. The drilling process was divided into ten essential functions. Each function was examined, and discussions were held on the conventional methods used to accomplish each function and the problems commonly encountered. Alternative methods of performing each function were then listed and evaluated by the group. Alternative methods considered feasible or at least worth further investigation were identified, while methods considered impractical or not potentially cost-saving were eliminated from further discussion. This report summarizes the recommendations of the workshop participants. For each of the ten functions, the conventional methods, common problems, and recommended alternative technologies and methods are listed. Each recommended alternative is discussed, and a description is given of the process by which this information will be used by the U.S. DOE to develop an advanced geothermal drilling research program.

  13. Maternal and infant nutritional supplementation practices in Ireland: implications for clinicians and policymakers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, R C

    2011-06-01

    This prospective Irish observational study examined maternal and infant nutritional supplement use. From an initial sample of 539 mothers recruited from the Coombe Women and Infants University Hospital in Dublin (during 2004-2006), 450 eligible mothers were followed up at 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum. Only 200 women (44.4%) complied with peri-conceptional folic acid at the recommended time with strong social patterning associated with its uptake. Almost 10% of the sample (n = 44) consumed a combined multivitamin and mineral supplement during pregnancy. A vitamin D-containing supplement was provided to only 5 (1.1%) and 15 (3.3%) infants at 6 weeks and 6 months, respectively. A national guideline that advises on adequate and safe use of both vitamin and multivitamin supplements during pregnancy with particular reference to vitamin A and D is warranted. Given the re-emergence of rickets in Ireland, and the reported morbidities associated with vitamin D insufficiency, promoting and monitoring compliance with 200 IU [5 microg] daily vitamin D supplements to all infants particularly those from higher risk groups from birth to 1 year, should be a public health priority.

  14. Telework rationale and implementation for people with disabilities: considerations for employer policymaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Nathan W; Linden, Maureen A; Bricout, John C; Baker, Paul M A

    2014-01-01

    Telework has been promoted as a viable workplace accommodation for people with disabilities since the 1990s, when information and communication technologies (ICT) had developed sufficiently to facilitate its widespread adoption. This initial research and accompanying policy recommendations were prescriptive in nature and frequently aimed at employers. This article adds to existing policy models for facilitating successful telework outcomes for people with disabilities. Drawing upon two studies by the Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center on Workplace Accommodations, we expound on employee-side considerations in the implementation of telework. Our policy model utilizes established typologies for policy evaluation to develop a process model that considers rationales and implementation factors for telework among people with physical disabilities. Telework may be used as an accommodation for disability, but employee rationales for telework are more complex, involving work-life balance, strategies for pain and fatigue not formally recognized as disability, and expediency in travel and transportation. Implementation of telework as a component of workplace operations is similarly multifaceted, involving non-technology accommodations to realize job restructuring left incomplete by telework. Our model grounds new empirical research in this area. We also renew our call for additional research on effective telework practices for people with disabilities.

  15. Patient and public involvement in hospital policy-making: Identifying key elements for effective participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malfait, S; Van Hecke, A; De Bodt, G; Palsterman, N; Eeckloo, K

    2018-02-27

    The involvement of patients and the public in healthcare decisions becomes increasingly important. Although patient involvement on the level of the individual patient-healthcare worker relationship is well studied, insight in the process of patient and public involvement on a more strategic level is limited. This study examines the involvement of patient and public (PPI) in decision-making concerning policy in six Flemish hospitals. The hospitals organized a stakeholder committee which advised the hospital on strategic policy planning. A three-phased mixed- methods study design with individual questionnaires (n = 69), observations (n = 10) and focus groups (n = 4) was used to analyze, summarize and integrate the findings. The results of this study indicate that: (1) PPI on hospital level should include the possibility to choose topics, like operational issues; (2) PPI-stakeholders should be able to have proper preparation; (3) PPI-stakeholders should be externally supported by a patient organization; (4) more autonomy should be provided for the stakeholder committee. Additionally, the study indicates that the influence of national legislation on stakeholder initiatives in different countries is limited. In combination with the growing importance of PPI and the fact that the recommendations presented are not claimed to be exhaustive, more transnational and conceptual research is needed in the future. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Iranian Nurses' Status in Policymaking for Nursing in Health System: A Qualitative Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali; Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad; Aarabi, Akram

    2015-01-01

    Presence of nurses in policy making will result improvement of nursing practice, and increase qualification of patients' care, but still few nurses are involved in policy debates and health reforms and their status in policy making for nursing is not clear. The aim of this study was to elucidate Iranian nurses' status in policy making for nursing in health system. This is a qualitative study. Using purposive sampling 22 participants were interviewed to gain deep understanding from the phenomenon of status of nurses in policy making. Of these 2 were not nurses but the members of Iran's council for health policy making. Data were analyzed by employing conventional content analysis. Nurses' status in policy making declared base on the implications of three main themes including "the policy making framework", "perceived status of nurses in policy making", and "the manner of nurses' participation in policy making". The conclusion of the present study is that Policy making for nursing is a subcategory of Iran's macro health policies. What made the status of nurses more efficient in policy making for nursing was their practice and rate of participation in the appointed positions and the society. Results of this study represented major points of weakness in nursing policies and some recommendations for modifications.

  17. Iranian Nurses’ Status in Policymaking for Nursing in Health System: A Qualitative Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali; Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad; Aarabi, Akram

    2015-01-01

    Presence of nurses in policy making will result improvement of nursing practice, and increase qualification of patients’ care, but still few nurses are involved in policy debates and health reforms and their status in policy making for nursing is not clear. The aim of this study was to elucidate Iranian nurses’ status in policy making for nursing in health system. This is a qualitative study. Using purposive sampling 22 participants were interviewed to gain deep understanding from the phenomenon of status of nurses in policy making. Of these 2 were not nurses but the members of Iran’s council for health policy making. Data were analyzed by employing conventional content analysis. Nurses’ status in policy making declared base on the implications of three main themes including “the policy making framework”, “perceived status of nurses in policy making”, and “the manner of nurses’ participation in policy making”. The conclusion of the present study is that Policy making for nursing is a subcategory of Iran’s macro health policies. What made the status of nurses more efficient in policy making for nursing was their practice and rate of participation in the appointed positions and the society. Results of this study represented major points of weakness in nursing policies and some recommendations for modifications. PMID:26089996

  18. Experiences and attitudes towards evidence-informed policy-making among research and policy stakeholders in the Canadian agri-food public health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, I; Gropp, K; Pintar, K; Waddell, L; Marshall, B; Thomas, K; McEwen, S A; Rajić, A

    2014-12-01

    Policy-makers working at the interface of agri-food and public health often deal with complex and cross-cutting issues that have broad health impacts and socio-economic implications. They have a responsibility to ensure that policy-making based on these issues is accountable and informed by the best available scientific evidence. We conducted a qualitative descriptive study of agri-food public health policy-makers and research and policy analysts in Ontario, Canada, to understand their perspectives on how the policy-making process is currently informed by scientific evidence and how to facilitate this process. Five focus groups of 3-7 participants and five-one-to-one interviews were held in 2012 with participants from federal and provincial government departments and industry organizations in the agri-food public health sector. We conducted a thematic analysis of the focus group and interview transcripts to identify overarching themes. Participants indicated that the following six key principles are necessary to enable and demonstrate evidence-informed policy-making (EIPM) in this sector: (i) establish and clarify the policy objectives and context; (ii) support policy-making with credible scientific evidence from different sources; (iii) integrate scientific evidence with other diverse policy inputs (e.g. economics, local applicability and stakeholder interests); (iv) ensure that scientific evidence is communicated by research and policy stakeholders in relevant and user-friendly formats; (V) create and foster interdisciplinary relationships and networks across research and policy communities; and (VI) enhance organizational capacity and individual skills for EIPM. Ongoing and planned efforts in these areas, a supportive culture, and additional education and training in both research and policy realms are important to facilitate evidence-informed policy-making in this sector. Future research should explore these findings further in other countries and contexts.

  19. Multinational evidence-based recommendations on how to investigate and follow-up undifferentiated peripheral inflammatory arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado, P; Castrejon, I; Katchamart, W

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop evidence-based recommendations on how to investigate and follow-up undifferentiated peripheral inflammatory arthritis (UPIA). METHODS: 697 rheumatologists from 17 countries participated in the 3E (Evidence, Expertise, Exchange) Initiative of 2008-9 consisting of three separate......, of which 250 were systematically reviewed. Ten multinational key recommendations about the investigation and follow-up of UPIA were formulated. One recommendation addressed differential diagnosis and investigations prior to establishing the operational diagnosis of UPIA, seven recommendations related......) and the final recommendation addressed monitoring of clinical disease activity in UPIA. CONCLUSIONS: Ten recommendations on how to investigate and follow-up UPIA in the clinical setting were developed. They are evidence-based and supported by a large panel of rheumatologists, thus enhancing their validity...

  20. Nonresponse Error in Mail Surveys: Top Ten Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette M. Daly

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Conducting mail surveys can result in nonresponse error, which occurs when the potential participant is unwilling to participate or impossible to contact. Nonresponse can result in a reduction in precision of the study and may bias results. The purpose of this paper is to describe and make readers aware of a top ten list of mailed survey problems affecting the response rate encountered over time with different research projects, while utilizing the Dillman Total Design Method. Ten nonresponse error problems were identified, such as inserter machine gets sequence out of order, capitalization in databases, and mailing discarded by postal service. These ten mishaps can potentiate nonresponse errors, but there are ways to minimize their frequency. Suggestions offered stem from our own experiences during research projects. Our goal is to increase researchers' knowledge of nonresponse error problems and to offer solutions which can decrease nonresponse error in future projects.

  1. The new ICRP general recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, Ch.; Kosako, T.; Kuniyoshi, H.; Kiryu, Y.; Choi, H.S.; Burns, P.A.; Pan, Z.Q.; Xia, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Regulatory views from Japan, South Korea, Australia, China and Indonesia were explained based on their regional context. Some issues, for example 'optimisation', 'dose constrains', 'natural radioactivity', were addressed from the viewpoint of how each country's current regulation system would adopt these new recommendations. It was noted that there would be a need for some flexibility in applying these new recommendations since different countries have different regulatory criteria and benchmarks as well different decision-making processes. It was also noted that definitions and terminologies should be given serious consideration with regard to non-English speaking countries to assure that the new ICRP recommendations are clearly understood, not misinterpreted, easily translated and finally applied in the field of radiation protection. In addition, some recent radiation protection activities, as well as views on utilisation of nuclear power in several countries were presented. (authors)

  2. Governance theory as a framework for empirical research. A case study on local environmental policy-making in Helsinki, Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toikka, A.

    2011-07-01

    Governance has been one of the most popular buzzwords in recent political science. As with any term shared by numerous fields of research, as well as everyday language, governance is encumbered by a jungle of definitions and applications. This work elaborates on the concept of network governance. Network governance refers to complex policy-making situations, where a variety of public and private actors collaborate in order to produce and define policy. Governance is processes of autonomous, self-organizing networks of organizations exchanging information and deliberating. Network governance is a theoretical concept that corresponds to an empirical phenomenon. Often, this phenomenon is used to describe a historical development: governance is often used to describe changes in political processes of Western societies since the 1980s. In this work, empirical governance networks are used as an organizing framework, and the concepts of autonomy, self-organization and network structure are developed as tools for empirical analysis of any complex decision-making process. This work develops this framework and explores the governance networks in the case of environmental policy-making in the City of Helsinki, Finland. The crafting of a local ecological sustainability programme required support and knowledge from all sectors of administration, a number of entrepreneurs and companies and the inhabitants of Helsinki. The policy process relied explicitly on networking, with public and private actors collaborating to design policy instruments. Communication between individual organizations led to the development of network structures and patterns. This research analyses these patterns and their effects on policy choice, by applying the methods of social network analysis. A variety of social network analysis methods are used to uncover different features of the networked process. Links between individual network positions, network subgroup structures and macro-level network

  3. A realist synthesis of the effect of social accountability interventions on health service providers' and policymakers' responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodenstein, Elsbet; Dieleman, Marjolein; Gerretsen, Barend; Broerse, Jacqueline Ew

    2013-11-07

    Accountability has center stage in the current post-Millennium Development Goals (MDG) debate. One of the effective strategies for building equitable health systems and providing quality health services is the strengthening of citizen-driven or social accountability processes. The monitoring of actions and decisions of policymakers and providers by citizens is regarded as a right in itself but also as an alternative to weak administrative accountability mechanisms, in particular in settings with poor governance. The effects of social accountability interventions are often based on assumptions and are difficult to evaluate because of their complex nature and context sensitivity. This study aims to review and assess the available evidence for the effect of social accountability interventions on policymakers' and providers' responsiveness in countries with medium to low levels of governance capacity and quality. For policymakers and practitioners engaged in health system strengthening, social accountability initiatives and rights-based approaches to health, the findings of this review may help when reflecting on the assumptions and theories of change behind their policies and interventions. Little is known about social accountability interventions, their outcomes and the circumstances under which they produce outcomes for particular groups or issues. In this study, social accountability interventions are conceptualized as complex social interventions for which a realist synthesis is considered the most appropriate method of systematic review. The synthesis is based on a preliminary program theory of social accountability that will be tested through an iterative process of primary study searches, data extraction, analysis and synthesis. Published and non-published (grey) quantitative and qualitative studies in English, French and Spanish will be included. Quality and validity will be enhanced by continuous peer review and team reflection among the reviewers. The

  4. Fabrication of ten-fold photonic quasicrystalline structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XiaoHong Sun

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Compared to periodic crystals, quasicrystals have higher point group symmetry and are more favorable in achieving complete band-gaps. In this report, a top-cut prism interferometer is designed to fabricate ten-fold photonic quasicrystalline structures. By optimizing the exposing conditions and material characteristics, appropriate quasicrystals have been obtained in the SU8 photoresist films. Atomic Force Microscopy and laser diffraction are used to characterize the fabricated structures. The measurement results show the consistence between the theoretical design and experiments. This will provide guidance for the large-area and fast production of ten-fold quasicrystalline structures with high quality.

  5. Time in powers of ten natural phenomena and their timescales

    CERN Document Server

    't Hooft, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    In this richly illustrated book, Nobel Laureate Gerard 't Hooft and Theoretical Physicist Stefan Vandoren describe the enormous diversity of natural phenomena that take place at different time scales. In the tradition of the bestseller Powers of Ten , the authors zoom in and out in time, each step with a factor of ten. Starting from one second, time scales are enlarged until processes are reached that take much longer than the age of the universe. After the largest possible eternities, the reader is treated to the shortest and fastest phenomena known. Then the authors increase with powers of t

  6. Dosimetry results for Big Ten and related benchmarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, G.E.; Gilliam, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    Measured average reaction cross sections for the Big Ten central flux spectrum are given together with calculated values based on the U.S. Evaluated Nuclear Data File ENDF/B-IV. Central reactivity coefficients for 233 U, 235 U, 239 Pu, 6 Li and 10 B are given to check consistency of bias between measured and calculated reaction cross sections for these isotopes. Spectral indexes for the Los Alamos 233 U, 235 U and 239 Pu metal critical assemblies are updated, utilizing the Big Ten measurements and interassembly calibrations, and their implications for inelastic scattering are reiterated

  7. Synthetic biology and intellectual property rights: six recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minssen, Timo; Rutz, Berthold; van Zimmeren, Esther

    2015-02-01

    On 26th November 2013, the Danish Agency for Science, Technology and Innovation organized an expert meeting on "Synthetic Biology & Intellectual Property Rights" in Copenhagen sponsored by the European Research Area Network in Synthetic Biology (ERASynBio). The meeting brought together ten experts from different countries with a variety of professional backgrounds to discuss emerging challenges and opportunities at the interface of synthetic biology and intellectual property rights. The aim of this article is to provide a summary of the major issues and recommendations discussed during the meeting. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Policy-Making Theory as an Analytical Framework in Policy Analysis: Implications for Research Design and Professional Advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    Policy studies are a recent addition to the American Physical Therapy Association's Research Agenda and are critical to our understanding of various federal, state, local, and organizational policies on the provision of physical therapist services across the continuum of care. Policy analyses that help to advance the profession's various policy agendas will require relevant theoretical frameworks to be credible. The purpose of this perspective article is to: (1) demonstrate the use of a policy-making theory as an analytical framework in a policy analysis and (2) discuss how sound policy analysis can assist physical therapists in becoming more effective change agents, policy advocates, and partners with other relevant stakeholder groups. An exploratory study of state agency policy responses to address work-related musculoskeletal disorders is provided as a contemporary example to illustrate key points and to demonstrate the importance of selecting a relevant analytical framework based on the context of the policy issue under investigation. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.

  9. Linking science more closely to policy-making: Global climate change and the national reorganization of science and technology policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasser, R.D.

    1994-04-01

    This paper examines the national trends behind recent efforts to link science and technology more closely to policy-making. It describes the politics surrounding the establishment of the National Science and Technology Council and its committee on Environment and Natural Resources (of which the global change program is a part). It discusses the evolution of the ``assessments`` function within the climate change program in general, and within the Department of Energy, in particular, and how the Clinton Administration`s approach to climate change ``assessments`` function within the climate change program in general, and within the Department of Energy, in particular, and how the Clinton Administration`s approach to climate change ``assessments`` differs from that of its predecessor. The paper concludes with a critique both of the national reorganization of science and technology policy and of the assessments component of the climate change program.

  10. Views of policymakers, healthcare workers and NGOs on HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP): a multinational qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelock, Ana; Eisingerich, Andreas B; Gomez, Gabriela B; Gray, Emily; Dybul, Mark R; Piot, Peter

    2012-01-01

    To examine policymakers and providers' views on pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and their willingness to support its introduction, to inform policy and practice in this emerging field. Semistructured qualitative interview study. Peru, Ukraine, India, Kenya, Uganda, Botswana and South Africa. 35 policymakers, 35 healthcare workers and 21 non-governmental organisation representatives involved in HIV prevention. Six themes emerged from the data: (1) perceived HIV prevention landscape: prevention initiatives needed to be improved and expanded; (2) PrEP awareness: 50 of 91 participants had heard of PrEP; (3) benefits of PrEP: one component of the combination prevention arsenal that could help prioritise HIV prevention, empower key populations and result in economic gains; (4) challenges of PrEP: regimen complexity, cost and cost-effectiveness, risk compensation, efficacy and effectiveness, stigmatisation and criminalisation, information and training and healthcare system capacity; (5) programmatic considerations: user eligibility, communication strategy, cost, distribution, medication and HIV testing compliance and (6) early versus late implementation: participants were divided as to whether they would support an early introduction of PrEP in their country or would prefer to wait until it has been successfully implemented in other countries, with around half of those we spoke to supporting each option. Very few said they would not support PrEP at all. Despite the multiple challenges identified, there was general willingness to support the introduction of PrEP. Yet, strengthening existing HIV prevention efforts was also deemed necessary. Our results suggest that an effective PrEP programme would be delivered in healthcare facilities and involve non-governmental organisations and the community and consider the needs of mobile populations. Comprehensive information packages and training for users and providers would be critical. The cost of PrEP would be affordable and

  11. Recommended Guidelines for PKU Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children's Bureau (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    A discussion of screening tests for phenylketonuria recommends and provides some data on two tests, lists five disadvantages of urine tests, and discusses three new tests. Also considered are the role of the central laboratory facility and seven suggestions for screening different types of infants at different times. Treatment or followup programs…

  12. Recommendations for open data science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gymrek, Melissa; Farjoun, Yossi

    2016-01-01

    Life science research increasingly relies on large-scale computational analyses. However, the code and data used for these analyses are often lacking in publications. To maximize scientific impact, reproducibility, and reuse, it is crucial that these resources are made publicly available and are fully transparent. We provide recommendations for improving the openness of data-driven studies in life sciences.

  13. ExpertFOAF recommends experts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iofcu, Tereza; Diederich, Joerg; Dolog, Peter

    2007-01-01

    recommender systems for finding users with similar interests and, hence, expertise in different domains. We consider a well-defined user profile to express best the user's current interests in a domain, where the domain (such as the research environment with students and professors) is defined by a collection...

  14. Towards a Legal Recommender System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkels, R.; Boer, A.; Vredebregt, B.; van Someren, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of ongoing research aimed at a legal recommender system where users of a legislative portal receive suggestions of other relevant sources of law, given a focus document. We describe how we make references in case law to legislation explicit and machine readable,

  15. Understanding the Organizational Nature of Student Persistence: Empirically-based Recommendations for Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Joseph B.

    2002-01-01

    Builds on the assumption that colleges and universities are organizations and subsequently that the organizational perspective provides important insights for improving retention on campuses. A review of existing organizational studies of undergraduate persistence serves as the basis for ten empirically-based recommendations for practice that are…

  16. Regulatory and Financial Reform of Federal Research Policy: Recommendations to the NRC Committee on Research Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of American Universities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    At the request of the National Research Council (NRC) Committee on Research Universities, the Council on Governmental Relations (COGR), the Association of American Universities (AAU), and the Association of Public and Land-grant Universities (APLU) have assembled a set of ten recommendations for regulatory reform that would improve research…

  17. A Design Taxonomy Utilizing Ten Major Evaluation Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Barry

    This paper discusses ten evaluation strategies selected on the basis of their general acceptance and their relatively unique approach to the field: (1) State, "Countenance of Evaluation"; (2) Stufflebeam, "Decision Centered Evaluation (CIPP)"; (3) Provus, "Discrepancy Evaluation"; (4) Scriven, "Goal Free Evaluation"; (5) Scriven, "Formative and…

  18. Closer to zero: Reflections on ten years of ART rollout

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To reflect upon ten years of antiretroviral therapy. (ART) rollout, one really should set the clock back a little further to see the massive impact of ART on our lives – for clinicians and patients alike. My own journey with HIV began in 1999 when, as a young doctor, I decided to venture into private practice with a local general ...

  19. Ten-year-olds' reflections on their life in preschool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström, Stig

    2016-01-01

    What do children think of their time in preschool? In the present study, twelve ten-year-old children collected data from their classmates. The children tend to remember their friends, and reflect on what games they played and with whom. Only about one in three respondents even mentioned the day...

  20. Phytochemical and Anticancer Studies on Ten Medicinal Plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten medicinal plants used in Nigerian ethno medicine were subjected to phytochemical and anticancer studies using established standard procedures. The result of the study revealed the presence of phytochemical constituents such as alkaloids, saponins, tannins and flavonoids. Anona muricata, Andrographis paniculata ...

  1. Lightcurve Analysis of Ten Asteroids from RMS Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Basil

    2018-04-01

    CCD images of ten asteroids were taken from 2017 August 24 to November 14 for the purpose of determining the asteroids' synodic rotation periods: 2353 Alva, 2440 Educatio, 2633 Bishop, 4911 Rosenzweig, (6490) 1991 NR2, (6693) 1986 CC2, (11745) 1999 NH3, (20885) 2000 WD2, (33982) 2000 NQ23, and (171576) 1999 VP11.

  2. Technical descriptions of ten irrigation technologies for conserving energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrer, B.J.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1983-05-01

    Technical description of ten technologies which were researched to save energy in irrigated agriculture are presented. These technologies are: well design and development ground water supply system optimization, column and pump redesign, variable-speed pumping, pipe network optimization, reduced-pressure center-pivot systems, low-energy precision application, automated gated-pipe system, computerized irrigation scheduling, and instrumented irrigation scheduling. (MHR)

  3. Reliability and validity of ten consumer activity trackers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Martijn de Groot; W.P. Krijnen; Thea J.M. Kooiman; Dr. C.P. van der Schans; Siska R. Sprenger; Manon L. Dontje

    2015-01-01

    Background: Activity trackers can potentially stimulate users to increase their physical activity behavior. The aim of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of ten consumer activity trackers for measuring step count in both laboratory and free-living conditions. Method: Healthy

  4. Ten years into the marshes – Hapalemur alaotrensis conservation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natural resource management problems typically involve a multitude of stakeholders with diverse sets of needs and interests, and often conflicting worldviews in an ... during the past ten years at Lake Alaotra, discussing the plan of action and challenges for environmental education, ecotourism and alternative livelihoods.

  5. The Texas Ten Percent Plan's Impact on College Enrollment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Lindsay; Martorell, Paco; McFarlin, Isaac, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    The Texas Ten Percent Plan (TTP) provides students in the top 10 percent of their high-school class with automatic admission to any public university in the state, including the two flagship schools, the University of Texas at Austin and Texas A&M. Texas created the policy in 1997 after a federal appellate court ruled that the state's previous…

  6. Ten Strengths of How Teachers Do Cooperative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaocbs, George M.

    2016-01-01

    Cooperative learning involves students in working together with peers to learn, to develop learning skills and to enjoy the learning process. This paper examines ten areas in which the author believes he and other teachers do cooperative learning well. These areas are: (1) keeping group size small, usually four or fewer; (2) encouraging students…

  7. Screening Of Ten Indian Medicinal Plants For Their Antibacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethanol and Aqueous extracts of ten Indian medicinal plants were tested for their antibacterial properties against Shigella sonei, S. boydi, S. flexeneri, S. dysenteriae and Escherechia coli with disc diffusion, well diffusion, and minimum inhibitory concentration methods. The results showed that the aqueous extract of the bulb ...

  8. Ten years of PPP in Belgium: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hurk, M.; van Garsse, S.; Verhoest, K.

    2015-01-01

    It has been more than ten years since Public-Private Partnership [ppp] began a strong revival in Belgium. On the brink of the 21st century, one could notice the first indications in that direction. As of 2013, ppp has developed into a well-embedded method for numerous infrastructure projects.

  9. Eight to ten years follow-up after carotid endarterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen Rathenborg, Lisbet; Sillesen, H; Schroeder, T

    1990-01-01

    Follow-up information was obtained on 185 patients who consecutively underwent carotid endarterectomy eight to ten years previously. Doppler ultrasound examination was performed in 59 patients who were still alive and living within 100 miles of the hospital. Using lifetable analysis, the annual r...

  10. Performance of ten Internet search engines in retrieving scientific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at investigating the information indexing and retrieval effectiveness and efficiency of ten selected search engines under different connection speeds at two University Libraries namely Sokoine National Agricultural Library (SNAL) at Sokoine University of Agriculture and University of Dar es Salaam Library ...

  11. 5 ten volle geïntegreerde woordeboeke / Fully Integrated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    Lexikos 11 (AFRILEX-reeks/series 11: 2001): 324-327. Pharos. Pharos Woordeboeke / Dictionaries 5 in 1: 5 ten volle geïntegreerde woordeboeke / Fully Integrated Dictionaries. Afrikaans-Engels / English-. Afrikaans 1. Groot Woordeboek / Major Dictionary 2. Tweetalige Frasewoor- deboek / Bilingual Phrase Dictionary 3.

  12. teristics of ten white-woolled sheep breeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Skin and wool samples of fully grown white-woolled rams of ten different sheep breeds were investigated. An index was con- structed according to which the breeds could be classified into three groups, taking 11 characteristics into consideration. This classification is discussed with reference to individual breeds.

  13. Quality assessment of ten brands of loperamide hydrochloride ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment involves analysis of ten (10) samples of loperamide hydrochloride capsules using HPLC and UV spectrophotometry. The samples were dissolved in dilute hydrochloric acid and ... using their various peak areas to calculate the actual content. Keywords: Loperamide hydrochloride, HPLC, UV Spectroscopy ...

  14. The Reality of Comenius Projects in Ten Catalan Educational Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez Colón-Plana, Mar

    2012-01-01

    This paper submits a qualitative study on different aspects of Comenius projects undertaken in ten educational centres in Catalonia during the academic year 07- 08. The objectives of this paper are to present these projects within the realities of particular school contexts, to emphasize the strengths and weaknesses of the projects, the…

  15. Does the Russian Economy Need Human Capital? Ten Doubts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimpelson, V. E.

    2016-01-01

    It is generally accepted that human capital is an important factor in economic growth, but its impact on growth depends on the demand for education and skills on the labor market. Demand for human capital is largely determined by the institutional environment that governs the basic conditions for economic activity. The author expresses ten doubts…

  16. Changes in users' Web search performance after ten years ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The changes in users' Web search performance using search engines over ten years was investigated in this study. Matched data obtained from samples in 2000 and 2010 were used for the comparative analysis. The patterns of Web search engine use suggested a dominance in using a particular search engine. Statistical ...

  17. Local Office Rent Dynamics: a tale of ten cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Brounen (Dirk); M.G.J. Jennen (Maarten)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis study applies rent adjustment models for ten major European office markets. We capture long-run equilibrium relationships of demand and supply variables and their short-term corrections in a two equation error correction model. We test whether the local nature of office markets

  18. Threat Barometer. Ten Years of Terrorist Threat Assessment Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, E.; Roy, de van Zuijdewijn J.

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, which was commissioned by the NCTV to mark the occasion of the conference “Threat Barometer. Ten years of Terrorist Threat Assessments for the Netherlands 2005-2015”, we address this and other aspects of the DTN and consider how this instrument has developed over the past decade. We

  19. Unified SU(4) color models in ten dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanlon, B.E.; Joshi, G.C.

    1992-01-01

    Some aspects of constructing unified models with SU(4) as the color group via a unifying group defined in ten dimensions are examined. Four dimensional theories are recovered using the Coset Space Dimensional Reduction scheme. Candidate models are considered in order to highlight some of the difficulties in constructing realistic four dimensional theories. 30 refs

  20. A Survey of Ten Money and Banking Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsler, Christine E.

    1985-01-01

    Ten college-level money and banking textbooks were arrayed along six continua representing professors' major preferences when choosing a text. The continua topics are theoretical approach, complexity of presentation, theory/institution mix, nuts and bolts explanations, organizational approach, and writing style. (RM)

  1. Analysis of ten years production trends of a Nigerian University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The annual feed allowances of the pigs were far below the annual feed requirements in quantitative and qualitative terms over the ten-year period. The highest feed consumption deficit was recorded in the 10th year and the least deficit in the first year. Because of continued increase in the cost of feeds coupled with ...

  2. “What is the Spirit of this Gathering?” Indigenous Sport Policy-Makers and Self-Determination in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braden P. Te Hiwi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I examine how the process of Indigenous participation in policy-making pertaining to the development of federal sport policy in Canada is connected to Indigenous forms of self-determination. By conducting semi-structured interviews with six Indigenous sport policy-makers, I investigate how their respective thoughts, experiences, and actions shape their perspective on self-determination. My analysis shows that a focus on relationships was at the center of the interviewed Indigenous sport policy-makers’ approaches to the promotion of Indigenous self-determination. Furthermore, the relational nature of Indigenous policy-makers’ identities was also central to their pursuit of self-determination. The promotion of family and community type relationships with government representatives could be used as an outcome of policy-making, in addition to traditional policy directives.

  3. Derisking Renewable Energy Investment. A Framework to Support Policymakers in Selecting Public Instruments to Promote Renewable Energy Investment in Developing Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waissbein, Oliver; Glemarec, Yannick; Bayraktar, Hande; Schmidt, Tobias S.

    2013-03-15

    This report introduces an innovative framework to assist policymakers to quantitatively compare the impact of different public instruments to promote renewable energy. The report identifies the need to reduce the high financing costs for renewable energy in developing countries as an important task for policymakers acting today. The framework is structured in four stages: (i) risk environment, (ii) public instruments, (iii) levelised cost and (iv) evaluation. To illustrate how the framework can support decision-making in practice, the report presents findings from illustrative case studies in four developing countries. It then draws on these results to discuss possible directions for enhancing public interventions to scale-up renewable energy investment. UNDP is also releasing a financial tool for policymakers to accompany the framework. The financial tool is available for download on the UNDP website.

  4. Legal aspects of storing CO2. Update and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-06-21

    CO2 emissions from energy production and consumption are a major contributor to climate change. Thus, stabilising CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere by reducing these emissions is an increasingly urgent international necessity. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) represents one of the most promising potential solutions to contain emissions resulting from continued use of coal and other fossil fuels. However, challenges such as a lack of legal and regulatory frameworks to guide near-term demonstration projects and long-term technology expansion must be addressed to facilitate the expanded use of CCS. In October 2006, the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (CSLF) convened with legal experts,to discuss the range of legal issues associated with expanded use of CCS and to identify ways to facilitate further CCS development and implementation Participants examined gaps and barriers to the deployment of CCS and identified recommendations to guide further development of appropriate legal and regulatory frameworks. This publication provides policymakers with a detailed summary of the main legal issues surrounding the CCS debate, including up-to-date background information, case studies and conclusions on the best legal and regulatory approaches to advance CCS. These strategies can be used to enable further development, deployment and demonstration of CCS technology, potentially an essential element in global efforts to mitigate climate change.

  5. A Flexible Electronic Commerce Recommendation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Songjie

    Recommendation systems have become very popular in E-commerce websites. Many of the largest commerce websites are already using recommender technologies to help their customers find products to purchase. An electronic commerce recommendation system learns from a customer and recommends products that the customer will find most valuable from among the available products. But most recommendation methods are hard-wired into the system and they support only fixed recommendations. This paper presented a framework of flexible electronic commerce recommendation system. The framework is composed by user model interface, recommendation engine, recommendation strategy model, recommendation technology group, user interest model and database interface. In the recommender strategy model, the method can be collaborative filtering, content-based filtering, mining associate rules method, knowledge-based filtering method or the mixed method. The system mapped the implementation and demand through strategy model, and the whole system would be design as standard parts to adapt to the change of the recommendation strategy.

  6. Use of health systems and policy research evidence in the health policymaking in eastern Mediterranean countries: views and practices of researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Lavis, John N; Ataya, Nour; Jamal, Diana

    2012-01-11

    Limited research exists on researchers' knowledge transfer and exchange (KTE) in the eastern Mediterranean region (EMR). This multi-country study explores researchers' views and experiences regarding the role of health systems and policy research evidence in health policymaking in the EMR, including the factors that influence health policymaking, barriers and facilitators to the use of evidence, and the factors that increase researchers' engagement in KTE. Researchers who published health systems and policy relevant research in 12 countries in the EMR (Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Sudan, Syria, and Yemen) were surveyed. Descriptive analysis and Linear Mixed Regression Models were performed for quantitative sections and the simple thematic analysis approach was used for open-ended questions. A total of 238 researchers were asked to complete the survey (response rate 56%). Researchers indicated transferring results to other researchers (67.2%) and policymakers in the government (40.5%). Less than one-quarter stated that they produced policy briefs (14.5%), disseminated messages that specified possible actions (24.4%), interacted with policymakers and stakeholders in priority-setting (16%), and involved them in their research (19.8%). Insufficient policy dialogue opportunities and collaboration between researchers and policymakers and stakeholders (67.9%), practical constraints to implementation (66%), non-receptive policy environment (61.3%), and politically sensitive findings (57.7%) hindered the use of evidence. Factors that increase researchers' engagement in KTE activities in the region were associated with involving policymakers and stakeholders at various stages such as priority-setting exercises and provision of technical assistance. Researchers in the EMR recognize the importance of using health systems evidence in health policymaking. Potential strategies to improve the use of research evidence emphasize two

  7. Evidence-based policymaking is not like evidence-based medicine, so how far should you go to bridge the divide between evidence and policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairney, Paul; Oliver, Kathryn

    2017-04-26

    There is extensive health and public health literature on the 'evidence-policy gap', exploring the frustrating experiences of scientists trying to secure a response to the problems and solutions they raise and identifying the need for better evidence to reduce policymaker uncertainty. We offer a new perspective by using policy theory to propose research with greater impact, identifying the need to use persuasion to reduce ambiguity, and to adapt to multi-level policymaking systems.We identify insights from secondary data, namely systematic reviews, critical analysis and policy theories relevant to evidence-based policymaking. The studies are drawn primarily from countries such as the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. We combine empirical and normative elements to identify the ways in which scientists can, do and could influence policy.We identify two important dilemmas, for scientists and researchers, that arise from our initial advice. First, effective actors combine evidence with manipulative emotional appeals to influence the policy agenda - should scientists do the same, or would the reputational costs outweigh the policy benefits? Second, when adapting to multi-level policymaking, should scientists prioritise 'evidence-based' policymaking above other factors? The latter includes governance principles such the 'co-production' of policy between local public bodies, interest groups and service users. This process may be based primarily on values and involve actors with no commitment to a hierarchy of evidence.We conclude that successful engagement in 'evidence-based policymaking' requires pragmatism, combining scientific evidence with governance principles, and persuasion to translate complex evidence into simple stories. To maximise the use of scientific evidence in health and public health policy, researchers should recognise the tendency of policymakers to base judgements on their beliefs, and shortcuts based on their emotions

  8. RARD: The Related-Article Recommendation Dataset

    OpenAIRE

    Beel, Joeran; Carevic, Zeljko; Schaible, Johann; Neusch, Gabor

    2017-01-01

    Recommender-system datasets are used for recommender-system evaluations, training machine-learning algorithms, and exploring user behavior. While there are many datasets for recommender systems in the domains of movies, books, and music, there are rather few datasets from research-paper recommender systems. In this paper, we introduce RARD, the Related-Article Recommendation Dataset, from the digital library Sowiport and the recommendation-as-a-service provider Mr. DLib. The dataset contains ...

  9. Cracked lifting lug welds on ten-ton UF{sub 6} cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorning, R.E. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Piketon, OH (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Ten-ton, Type 48X, UF{sub 6} cylinders are used at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant to withdraw enriched uranium hexafluoride from the cascade, transfer enriched uranium hexafluoride to customer cylinders, and feed enriched product to the cascade. To accomplish these activities, the cylinders are lifted by cranes and straddle carriers which engage the cylinder lifting lugs. In August of 1988, weld cracks on two lifting lugs were discovered during preparation to lift a cylinder. The cylinder was rejected and tagged out, and an investigating committee formed to determine the cause of cracking and recommend remedial actions. Further investigation revealed the problem may be general to this class of cylinder in this use cycle. This paper discusses the actions taken at the Portsmouth site to deal with the cracked lifting lug weld problem. The actions include inspection activities, interim corrective actions, metallurgical evaluation of cracked welds, weld repairs, and current monitoring/inspection program.

  10. Zastosowanie elektroterapii TENS w łagodzeniu bólu porodowego / Application of TENS electrotherapy in alleviating labour pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowa Magdalena

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Easing labour pain is an extremely important issue in obstetric practice. Various physiotherapy methods are increasingly often applied in obstetric practice. Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS aiming at central and peripheral modulation of pain sensation is one of them.

  11. Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) for cancer pain in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlow, Adam; Bennett, Michael I; Robb, Karen A; Johnson, Mark I; Simpson, Karen H; Oxberry, Stephen G

    2012-03-14

    Cancer-related pain is complex and multi-dimensional but the mainstay of cancer pain management has predominantly used a biomedical approach. There is a need for non-pharmacological and innovative approaches. Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation (TENS) may have a role in pain management but the effectiveness of TENS is currently unknown. This is an update of the original review published in Issue 3, 2008. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the effectiveness of TENS for cancer-related pain in adults. The initial review searched The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, AMED and PEDRO databases in April 2008. We performed an updated search of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PEDRO databases in November 2011. We included only randomised controlled trials (RCTS) investigating the use of TENS for the management of cancer-related pain in adults. The search strategy identified a further two studies for possible inclusion. One of the review authors screened each abstract using a study eligibility tool. Where eligibility could not be determined, a second author assessed the full paper. One author used a standardised data extraction sheet to collect information on the studies and independently assess the quality of the studies using the validated five-point Oxford Quality Scale. The small sample sizes and differences in patient study populations of the three included studies (two from the original review and a third included in this update) prevented meta-analysis. For the original review the search strategy identified 37 possible published studies; we divided these between two pairs of review authors who decided on study selection; all four review authors discussed and agreed final scores. Only one additional RCT met the eligibility criteria (24 participants) for this updated review. Although this was a feasibility study, not designed to investigate intervention effect, it suggested that TENS may improve bone pain on movement in a

  12. Scientific and educational recommender systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guseva, A. I.; Kireev, V. S.; Bochkarev, P. V.; Kuznetsov, I. A.; Philippov, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the questions associated with the use of reference systems in the preparation of graduates in physical function. The objective of this research is creation of model of recommender system user from the sphere of science and education. The detailed review of current scientific and social network for scientists and the problem of constructing recommender systems in this area. The result of this study is to research user information model systems. The model is presented in two versions: the full one - in the form of a semantic network, and short - in a relational form. The relational model is the projection in the form of semantic network, taking into account the restrictions on the amount of bonds that characterize the number of information items (research results), which interact with the system user.

  13. From micronutrient recommendations to policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timotijevic, Lada; Raats, Monique M.; Barnett, Julie

    2010-01-01

    the Eurreca network of excellence (commissioned by the European Commission), the research involved in-depth desk research of key documents and communication channels linked to the process of setting micronutrient recommendations across seven countries: the United Kingdom, Norway, Denmark, Germany, Spain......, the Czech Republic and Hungary. Results: Stakeholder engagement is recognized by most countries as an important aspect of the process of setting micronutrient recommendations and their translation into policy, although there is notable variation in the extent to which this has been achieved across the seven...... of involvement include historical sociopolitical context; the extent to which food and nutrition are key policy agenda; and the relative power of stakeholders in influencing food and nutrition policy....

  14. Finding and Recommending Scholarly Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Michael J.; Henneken, Edwin A.

    2014-05-01

    The rate at which scholarly literature is being produced has been increasing at approximately 3.5 percent per year for decades. This means that during a typical 40 year career the amount of new literature produced each year increases by a factor of four. The methods scholars use to discover relevant literature must change. Just like everybody else involved in information discovery, scholars are confronted with information overload. Two decades ago, this discovery process essentially consisted of paging through abstract books, talking to colleagues and librarians, and browsing journals. A time-consuming process, which could even be longer if material had to be shipped from elsewhere. Now much of this discovery process is mediated by online scholarly information systems. All these systems are relatively new, and all are still changing. They all share a common goal: to provide their users with access to the literature relevant to their specific needs. To achieve this each system responds to actions by the user by displaying articles which the system judges relevant to the user's current needs. Recently search systems which use particularly sophisticated methodologies to recommend a few specific papers to the user have been called "recommender systems". These methods are in line with the current use of the term "recommender system" in computer science. We do not adopt this definition, rather we view systems like these as components in a larger whole, which is presented by the scholarly information systems themselves. In what follows we view the recommender system as an aspect of the entire information system; one which combines the massive memory capacities of the machine with the cognitive abilities of the human user to achieve a human-machine synergy.

  15. Paris convention - Decisions, recommendations, interpretations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This booklet is published in a single edition in English and French. It contains decisions, recommendations and interpretations concerning the 1960 Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy adopted by the OECD Steering Committee and the OECD Council. All the instruments are set out according to the Article of the Convention to which they relate and explanatory notes are added where necessary [fr

  16. Carrying capacity of U.S. agricultural land: Ten diet scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian J. Peters

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Strategies for environmental sustainability and global food security must account for dietary change. Using a biophysical simulation model we calculated human carrying capacity under ten diet scenarios. The scenarios included two reference diets based on actual consumption and eight “Healthy Diet” scenarios that complied with nutritional recommendations but varied in the level of meat content. We considered the U.S. agricultural land base and accounted for losses, processing conversions, livestock feed needs, suitability of land for crops or grazing, and land productivity. Annual per capita land requirements ranged from 0.13 to 1.08 ha person-1 year-1 across the ten diet scenarios. Carrying capacity varied from 402 to 807 million persons; 1.3 to 2.6 times the 2010 U.S. population. Carrying capacity was generally higher for scenarios with less meat and highest for the lacto-vegetarian diet. However, the carrying capacity of the vegan diet was lower than two of the healthy omnivore diet scenarios. Sensitivity analysis showed that carrying capacity estimates were highly influenced by starting assumptions about the proportion of cropland available for cultivated cropping. Population level dietary change can contribute substantially to meeting future food needs, though ongoing agricultural research and sustainable management practices are still needed to assure sufficient production levels.

  17. Aggregated recommendation through random forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng-Ru; Min, Fan; He, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Aggregated recommendation refers to the process of suggesting one kind of items to a group of users. Compared to user-oriented or item-oriented approaches, it is more general and, therefore, more appropriate for cold-start recommendation. In this paper, we propose a random forest approach to create aggregated recommender systems. The approach is used to predict the rating of a group of users to a kind of items. In the preprocessing stage, we merge user, item, and rating information to construct an aggregated decision table, where rating information serves as the decision attribute. We also model the data conversion process corresponding to the new user, new item, and both new problems. In the training stage, a forest is built for the aggregated training set, where each leaf is assigned a distribution of discrete rating. In the testing stage, we present four predicting approaches to compute evaluation values based on the distribution of each tree. Experiments results on the well-known MovieLens dataset show that the aggregated approach maintains an acceptable level of accuracy.

  18. Childhood herpes zoster: A clustering of ten cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhu Smitha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Herpes zoster occurs due to reactivation of the latent varicella zoster virus and is usually a disease of the elderly. Childhood herpes zoster is believed to be rare, though recent studies suggest increasing incidence in children. Here we report ten cases of childhood herpes zoster, seven of which occurred within a short span of six months, at a tertiary care level hospital in Pokhara, Nepal. Only three of the ten children reported previous history of varicella infection and none was immunized against varicella. Though childhood herpes zoster accounted for less than 1% of the total zoster cases in the past, recent reports show an increase in the number of cases in apparently healthy children. So far, no studies have been done linking childhood herpes zoster with HIV, though there are many studies linking it with other immunocompromised conditions.

  19. Clinical alarm hazards: a "top ten" health technology safety concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, James P

    2012-01-01

    For the past several years ECRI Institute has published a list of Top Ten Health Technology Hazards. This list is based on ECRI's extensive research in health technology safety and on data provided to its problemreporting systems. For every year that the Top Ten list has been published, Alarm Hazards have been at or near the top of the list. Improving alarm safety requires a systematic review of a hospital's alarm-based technologies and analysis of alarm management policies like alarm escalation strategies and staffing patterns. It also requires careful selection of alarm setting criteria for each clinical care area. This article will overview the clinical alarm problems that have been identified through ECRI Institute's research and analysis of various problem reporting databases, including those operated by ECRI Institute. It will also highlight suggestions for improvement, particularly from a technology design and technology management perspective. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [THE TEN MOST CITED ARTICLES OF THE JOURNAL "NUTRICION HOSPITALARIA"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-López, Ángeles; González-Gallego, Javier; Sanz-Valero, Javier; Tuñón, María Jesús; García-De-Lorenzo, Abelardo; Culebras, Jesús M

    2015-12-01

    After 36 years of continued publication of the journal Nutrición Hospitalaria, a list with the ten most cited articles published in it is elaborated. The top ten most cited articles in the world literature and stratification according to language, English or Spanish, subject, or period of time published are also analyzed. Nutr Hosp is the most important Ibero latin American nutrition journal. Nutr Hosp published 369 items in 2014 gaining the fourth position among all the world's journals devoted to nutrition. Article publication in English, or simultaneously in Spanish and English and Open Access policy probably benefit the number of citations. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  1. Mid-term evaluation of ten National Research schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Göran; Dahl, Hanne Marlene; Gustafsson, Christina

    Preface by the Research Council of Norway : The scheme for national research schools (FORSKERSKOLER) was launched in 2008. The purpose of the scheme is to enhance the quality and raise the academic level of PhD education in Norway based on national networks of cooperating institutions. Since...... grant applications, monitoring the progress of the FORSKERSKOLER scheme and serving as the evaluation panel for the mid-term evaluation in 2013 and in 2016/2017. The task of the evaluation panel has been to: 1) evaluate the quality of and progress achieved by the ten research schools which were awarded...... the scheme was launched, the Research Council has issued three calls for proposals and allocated grants to a total of 22 national research schools. Five were started up in 2009, ten in 2013 and seven in 2015. A Nordic scientific programme committee was appointed in 2013, with responsibility for assessing...

  2. How green are the TEN-T core network corridors?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagakos, George; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    "Green corridors‟ is a concept introduced by the European Commission to enhance the provision of sustainable freight transport logistics services by concentrating freight traffic between major hubs and by relatively long distances. SuperGreen, a Coordination and Support Action aiming at further...... defining this concept, identified the characteristics that distinguish a green corridor from an otherwise efficient one. The main thesis of this paper is that the „core network corridors‟ of the new TEN-T guidelines exhibit all these qualities and the vision of a green corridor network in Europe is close...... to reality. To support this thesis, and in continuation of the work of SuperGreen, the paper examines the proposed new „guidelines‟ for the development of the TEN-T after presenting a brief history of transport network development in Europe....

  3. A chemical reaction in the movie The Ten Commandments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Pérez, José Pedro;

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of natural sciences in the second year of Secondary Education must be complemented with a visit to the laboratory, where experiments should be permormed. The curriculum emphasizes the initial basis of Chemistry and the study of reactions. In this paper we describe a laboratory experience, useful for understanding the concept of chemical change. Also, we present the hypothesis that a chemical reaction was used in the classic movie The Ten Commandments.

  4. The Ten Commandments tra Vecchio e Nuovo Testamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Berti Raffaele

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cecil B. DeMille adapted for the screen the biblical text of Exodus twice, and in both cases he devised sophisticated strategies for intersemiotic translation with the aim to create a great show for a popular Christian audience. This is the reason why The Ten Commandments cannot be considered a mere illustration of the biblical story but instead a complex fiction film, which uses the Bible only as a starting point.

  5. TEN KEY CONCEPTS AND THE SUCCESS OF ROMANIAN ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Mirela TOMESCU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on ten key concepts which influence the success of theorganizations at the beginning of XXI century. The great changes generatedby globalization determine firms to be more competitive. This means that wehave to focus on: mission, leadership, emotional intelligence, innovation,organizational culture, human resources, total quality management, ethics,conflict management, brand, and the value offered to the clients.

  6. Equivalence of ten different discounted cash flow valuation methods

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Pablo

    2004-01-01

    This paper shows that ten methods of company valuation using discounted cash flows (WACC; equity cash flow; capital cash flow; adjusted present value; residual income; EVA; business's risk-adjusted equity cash flow; business's risk-adjusted free cash flow; risk-free-adjusted equity cash flow; and risk-free-adjusted free cash flow) always give the same value when identical assumptions are used. This result is logical, since all the methods analyze the same reality using the same assumptions; t...

  7. Noble gases in ten stone meteorites from Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, H.W.; Schultz, L.

    1980-01-01

    The concentrations and isotopic composition of noble gases have been determined in all ten stone meteorites recovered in Antarctica during 1976-1977 by a U.S.-Japanese expedition. From a comparison of spallogenic and radiogenic gas components it is concluded that the chondrites Mt. Baldr (a) and Mt. Baldr (b) belong to the same fall but that all other stone meteorites are individual finds. (orig.)

  8. Assisted reproductive technologies in South Dakota: the first ten years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannian, John; Hansen, Keith

    2006-07-01

    One in six couples experience infertility. New assisted reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) have helped thousands of couples worldwide to have a family. IVF has been available in South Dakota for the past ten years. Improvements in the clinic and laboratory have led to better live birth rates and lower incidences of multiple pregnancies. Advances in technology will help even more people overcome fertility problems in the near future.

  9. Ten Challenges of the Amyloid Hypothesis of Alzheimer's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kepp, Kasper Planeta

    2017-01-01

    The inability to effectively halt or cure Alzheimer's disease (AD), exacerbated by the recent failures of high-profile clinical trials, emphasizes the urgent need to understand the complex biochemistry of this major neurodegenerative disease. In this paper, ten central, current challenges...... as a background model of the disease, unify our understanding of the interplay between genetic and non-genetic risk factors, and combine into one framework both the familial and sporadic forms of the disease....

  10. Anticholinesterase and Antityrosinase Activities of Ten Piper Species from Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Salleh, Wan Mohd Nuzul Hakimi Wan; Hashim, Nur Athirah; Ahmad, Farediah; Heng Yen, Khong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and antityrosinase activities of extracts from ten Piper species namely; P. caninum, P. lanatum, P. abbreviatum, P. aborescens, P. porphyrophyllum, P. erecticaule, P. ribesioides, P. miniatum, P. stylosum, and P. majusculum. Methods: Anticholinesterase and antityrosinase activities were evaluated against in vitro Ellman spectroscopy method and mushroom tyrosinase, respectively. Re...

  11. Elliot Lake uranium mine reclamation, the first ten years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    In 1989, Rio Algom Limited finalized its plans for the closure and subsequent decommissioning of two of its then three operating mines in Elliot Lake as a result of market conditions. These two mines closed in August 1990. These mine closures had significant impacts. The principal mining operations of Rio Algom at that time were still in Elliot Lake and had been the very foundation of the company for about 40 years. The business impact on the Corporation was regarded as possibly severe. The resultant layoff of over 1,500 long-term, highly qualified, skilled and well-paid employees, a devastating blow to the affected employees and their families, would have a significant financial impact on the municipal economy, particularly as this announcement was seen as the first step in the early closure of all four operating mines in the region. At that time there was little precedence for such a high profile mine closure program and consequently the many unknowns relating to the mine decommissioning process, legislative requirements and society's expectations resulted in a perception of a significant yet ill-defined liability. In this atmosphere of understandable company, stakeholder and public concern, Rio Algom Limited embarked on what has turned out to be a long, rigorous, challenging yet ultimately reasonable and rewarding process of progressive reclamation of all its Elliot Lake mines, some ten in total (nine uranium, one copper). Over the past ten years, reclamation of all ten mines has been successfully completed, some $70 m plus has been expended in direct site reclamation works and the workforce has been reduced from over 2,500 to just 4. After ten years, the focus of attention is now on the long-term care, maintenance, monitoring and reporting required for the decommissioned mine sites, and the accomplishment of this in the best interests of all the stakeholders. (author)

  12. Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) in dentistry: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Kasat, Vikrant O.; Gupta, Aditi; Ladda, Ruchi; Kathariya, Mitesh; Saluja, Harish; Farooqui, Anjum Ara

    2014-01-01

    Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) is a non-pharmacological method which is widely used by medical and paramedical professionals for the management of acute and chronic pain in a variety of conditions. Similarly, it can be utilized for the management of pain during various dental procedures as well as pain due to various conditions affecting maxillofacial region. This review aims to provide an insight into clinical research evidence available for the analgesic and non analgesic ...

  13. Constructing unified models based on E8 in ten dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapetanakis, D.

    1992-01-01

    We examine the virtues and difficulties of the attempts to construct realistic four-dimensional models from a gauge theory based on E 8 and defined in ten dimensions. The four-dimensional theories are obtained using the coset space dimensional reduction scheme. Some of our points and in particular the proposed mechanism for supersymmetry breaking might be useful in other dimensional reduction schemes. (orig.)

  14. Ten years campaign of Economical Heating: Successfull and educative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Brink, L.J.

    1992-01-01

    A review is given of the origin, the evolution and the results of the title campaign held by the natural gas and energy distribution companies in the Netherlands during the last ten years. The campaign is discussed against the background of the unique position of natural gas in the Netherlands within the context of the environmental protection activities of the energy distribution companies. 1 fig., 5 ills., 9 tabs

  15. Frictional amyloidosis in Oman - A study of ten cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mysore Venkataram

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Macular amyloidosis is an important cause for cutaneous pigmentation, the aetiology of which is poorly understood. Friction has recently been implicated the causation of early lesions, referred to as frictional amyloidosis. Confirmation of diagnosis by the detect on of amyloid using histochemical stains is inconsistent. Ten patients with pigmentation suggestive of macular amyloidosis were studied with detailed history, clinical examination, biopsy for histochemistry and electron microscopy. Nine out of ten patients had a history of prolonged friction with various objects such as bath sponges, brushes, towels, plant sticks and leaves. Amyloid was demonstrated by histochemical staining in only six out of ten cases. In the remaining four cases, amyloid was detected by electron microscopy. These consisted of aggregates of non-branching, extracellular, intertwining fibres measuring between 200-500 nm in length and between 20-25 nm in diameter. The study confirms the role of friction in the causation of this condition. Histochemical stains are not always successful in the detection of amyloid and electron microscopy is helpful for confirming its presence. The term frictional amyloidosis aptly describes the condition.

  16. Metateoretiese vertrekpunte ten opsigte van wetenskaplike navorsing in die Liturgiek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barend J. de Klerk

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Om die nuwe ontwikkelings in die Liturgiek grondig te kan beoordeel, moet na die metateoretiese onderbou van die verskillende standpunte gekyk word. Wanneer ’n navorser op die terrein van die Liturgiek nie hierdie wendings in sy metateoretiese vertrekpunte verreken nie, kan sodanige navorser of meegesleur word deur hierdie denkrigtings, of aan die ander kant, impulsief reaksionêr ’n onwetenskaplike oordeel daaroor uitspreek. Die navorsingsartikel het daarom ten doel om die eie reformatoriese metateoretiese vertrekpunte ten opsigte van die Liturgiek te probeer formuleer en om vas te stel wat die invloed daarvan is in die konteks van wendings in die denkklimaat asook die leefwêreld en kultuur waarin die wetenskaplike taak uitgevoer word. Hierdie navorsingsartikel het verder ten doel om ’n voorbeeld daar te stel hoe hierdie metateoretiese beskouing ’n navorsingsprojek kan stuur. Die wyse waarop God in die doop werksaam is en die effek daarvan op vergifnis en versoening in die Suid-Afrikaanse konteks, is die voorbeeld van hoe ’n navorsingsprojek in die wetenskap van die Liturgiek aangepak kan word.

  17. Ten-year scheme of network development - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    RTE, an independent subsidiary of EDF, is the French electricity transmission system operator. It is a public service company responsible for operating, maintaining and developing the high and extra high voltage network. It guarantees the reliability and proper operation of the power network. RTE transports electricity between electricity suppliers (French and European) and consumers, whether they are electricity distributors or industrial consumers directly connected to the transmission system. The mission of RTE is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. With the support of the government authorities, RTE prepares a ten-year scheme of network development in France; This document presents the main electricity transport infrastructures to foresee within the ten coming years and lists the network development investments which must be realised and implemented within 3 years. The document is updated each year and comes to complement at the national level the European ten year network development plan (TYNDP) and the European regional plans as provided for in the 2009/72/CE European directive

  18. Six to Ten Digits Multiplication Fun Learning Using Puppet Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islamiah Rosli, D.'oria; Ali, Azita; Peng, Lim Soo; Sujardi, Imam; Usodo, Budi; Adie Perdana, Fengky

    2017-01-01

    Logic and technical subjects require students to understand basic knowledge in mathematic. For instance, addition, minus, division and multiplication operations need to be mastered by students due to mathematic complexity as the learning mathematic grows higher. Weak foundation in mathematic also contribute to high failure rate in mathematic subjects in schools. In fact, students in primary schools are struggling to learn mathematic because they need to memorize formulas, multiplication or division operations. To date, this study will develop a puppet prototyping for learning mathematic for six to ten digits multiplication. Ten participants involved in the process of developing the prototype in this study. Students involved in the study were those from the intermediate class students whilst teachers were selected based on their vast knowledge and experiences and have more than five years of experience in teaching mathematic. Close participatory analysis will be used in the prototyping process as to fulfil the requirements of the students and teachers whom will use the puppet in learning six to ten digit multiplication in mathematic. Findings showed that, the students had a great time and fun learning experience in learning multiplication and they able to understand the concept of multiplication using puppet. Colour and materials of the puppet also help to attract student attention during learning. Additionally, students able to visualized and able to calculate accurate multiplication value and the puppet help them to recall in multiplying and adding the digits accordingly.

  19. Ten-year scheme of network development - 2013 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    RTE, an independent subsidiary of EDF, is the French electricity transmission system operator. It is a public service company responsible for operating, maintaining and developing the high and extra high voltage network. It guarantees the reliability and proper operation of the power network. RTE transports electricity between electricity suppliers (French and European) and consumers, whether they are electricity distributors or industrial consumers directly connected to the transmission system. The mission of RTE is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. With the support of the government authorities, RTE prepares a ten-year scheme of network development in France; This document presents the main electricity transport infrastructures to foresee within the ten coming years and lists the network development investments which must be realised and implemented within 3 years. The document is updated each year and comes to complement at the national level the European ten year network development plan (TYNDP) and the European regional plans as provided for in the 2009/72/CE European directive

  20. Daring to dream: reactions to tobacco endgame ideas among policy-makers, media and public health practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Nick

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco control strategies have mainly targeted reducing demand. Supply-side focused measures, though less familiar, deserve consideration, particularly to achieve 'endgame' tobacco control aims (e.g. achieving close to zero smoking prevalence. We explored attitudes towards supply-side focused 'endgame' tobacco control approaches and how they can be best communicated with senior policymakers, journalists, and public health practitioners. Methods We identified five supply-side focused approaches which could potentially lead to the tobacco endgame: two structural models and three discrete actions. The structural models were: (i a Nicotine Authority to coordinate tobacco control activities and regulate the nicotine/tobacco market for public health aims; and (ii a Tobacco Supply Agency acting as a monopoly purchaser of tobacco products and controlling the tobacco supply for public health aims. The actions were: (a allocating progressively reducing tobacco product import quotas (the 'sinking lid' until importation and commercial sale of tobacco products ceased; (b making tobacco companies responsible for reducing smoking prevalence with stringent financial penalties if targets were missed; and (c new laws to facilitate litigation against tobacco companies. These approaches were presented as means to achieve a tobacco free New Zealand by 2020 to 19 senior policymakers, journalists, and public health physicians in two focus groups and eight interviews, and their reactions sought. Results The tobacco-free vision was widely supported. Participants engaged fully with the proposed tobacco control approaches, which were viewed as interesting or even intriguing. Most supported increasing the focus on supply-side measures. Views differed greatly about the desirability, feasibility and likely effectiveness of each approach. Participants identified a range of potential barriers to implementation and challenges to successfully advocating and

  1. Knowledge brokering between researchers and policymakers in Fiji to develop policies to reduce obesity: a process evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waqa, Gade; Mavoa, Helen; Snowdon, Wendy; Moodie, Marj; Schultz, Jimaima; McCabe, Marita; Kremer, Peter; Swinburn, Boyd

    2013-07-01

    The importance of using research evidence in decisionmaking at the policy level has been increasingly recognized. However, knowledge brokering to engage researchers and policymakers in government and non-government organizations is challenging. This paper describes and evaluates the knowledge exchange processes employed by the Translational Research on Obesity Prevention in Communities (TROPIC) project that was conducted from July 2009 to April 2012 in Fiji. TROPIC aimed to enhance: the evidence-informed decisionmaking skills of policy developers; and awareness and utilization of local and other obesity-related evidence to develop policies that could potentially improve the nation's food and physical activity environments. The specific research question was: Can a knowledge brokering approach advance evidence-informed policy development to improve eating and physical activity environments in Fiji. The intervention comprised: recruiting organizations and individuals; mapping policy environments; analyzing organizational capacity and support for evidence-informed policymaking (EIPM); developing EIPM skills; and facilitating development of evidence-informed policy briefs. Flexible timetabling of activities was essential to accommodate multiple competing priorities at both individual and organizational levels. Process diaries captured the duration, frequency and type of each interaction and/or activity between the knowledge brokering team and participants or their organizations. Partnerships were formalized with high-level officers in each of the six participating organization. Participants (n = 49) developed EIPM skills (acquire, assess, adapt and apply evidence) through a series of four workshops and applied this knowledge to formulate briefs with ongoing one-to-one support from TROPIC team members. A total of 55% of participants completed the 12 to18 month intervention, and 63% produced one or more briefs (total = 20) that were presented to higher

  2. Clinical validation of a public health policy-making platform for hearing loss (EVOTION): protocol for a big data study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dritsakis, Giorgos; Kikidis, Dimitris; Koloutsou, Nina; Murdin, Louisa; Bibas, Athanasios; Ploumidou, Katherine; Laplante-Lévesque, Ariane; Pontoppidan, Niels Henrik; Bamiou, Doris-Eva

    2018-02-15

    The holistic management of hearing loss (HL) requires an understanding of factors that predict hearing aid (HA) use and benefit beyond the acoustics of listening environments. Although several predictors have been identified, no study has explored the role of audiological, cognitive, behavioural and physiological data nor has any study collected real-time HA data. This study will collect 'big data', including retrospective HA logging data, prospective clinical data and real-time data via smart HAs, a mobile application and biosensors. The main objective is to enable the validation of the EVOTION platform as a public health policy-making tool for HL. This will be a big data international multicentre study consisting of retrospective and prospective data collection. Existing data from approximately 35 000 HA users will be extracted from clinical repositories in the UK and Denmark. For the prospective data collection, 1260 HA candidates will be recruited across four clinics in the UK and Greece. Participants will complete a battery of audiological and other assessments (measures of patient-reported HA benefit, mood, cognition, quality of life). Patients will be offered smart HAs and a mobile phone application and a subset will also be given wearable biosensors, to enable the collection of dynamic real-life HA usage data. Big data analytics will be used to detect correlations between contextualised HA usage and effectiveness, and different factors and comorbidities affecting HL, with a view to informing public health decision-making. Ethical approval was received from the London South East Research Ethics Committee (17/LO/0789), the Hippokrateion Hospital Ethics Committee (1847) and the Athens Medical Center's Ethics Committee (KM140670). Results will be disseminated through national and international events in Greece and the UK, scientific journals, newsletters, magazines and social media. Target audiences include HA users, clinicians, policy-makers and the

  3. Educational Policy-Making in Post-Communist Ukraine as an Example of Emerging Governmentality: Discourse Analysis of Curriculum Choice and Assessment Policy Documents (1999-2003)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fimyar, Olena

    2008-01-01

    Educational policy-making in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) is still building upon the ambivalences and uncertainties of post-communist transformation. The international support, expertise and discourses--coupled with communist legacies, stalled democratic developments and national discourses--produce unique effects on education in…

  4. Globalization and Dual Modes of Higher Education Policymaking in France: Je T'aime Moi Non Plus. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.2.11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoareau, Cecile

    2011-01-01

    The French Government has had a paradoxical relationship with globalization. Globalization is perceived as both a threat to react against and a cradle for new policy ideas. French policymakers have a love-hate relationship with the European higher education reforms that started in the 1990s, a mixed sentiment that French singer Serge Gainsbourg…

  5. Map making and map use in a multi-actor context : Spatial visualizations and frame conflicts in regional policymaking in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carton, L.J.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis, the practice of map-making and map use is studied among actors involved in spatial planning and water management. The socio-technical mechanisms between knowlegde production and policymaking in Dutch regional planning make up the central object of study, with map images as observable

  6. The Career Education Policy Project (CEPP): Connecting Educators, Policymakers, and the Public. Annual Evaluation Report. Final Report, July 1, 1975-June 30, 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Jane

    To inform and interconnect educational practitioners, knowledge-makers, policymakers, and the consuming public around the issues and potential of career education, the Career Education Policy Project (CEEP) collaborated with several existing programs to expose out-of-town leaders of the career education movement to the federal policymaking…

  7. The Role of Evidence-Based Research in the Decision-Making Process as Perceived by Local Board of Education Policymakers in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoylman, Elizabeth Anne

    2017-01-01

    This non-experimental, descriptive study explored the perceptions of PK-12 policymakers in West Virginia regarding the sources of information they use in the decision-making process; whether and how evidence-based research is relied upon; whether evidence-based research is considered credible and usable; and what barriers, facilitators, and…

  8. Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market. What the Research Says For... Government & Policy-Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelahan, Leesa; Buchanan, John; Yu, Serena

    2015-01-01

    This summary brings together the relevant key findings for government and policy-makers from the research program "Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market." The program was comprised of three different strands: (1) pathways from VET in Schools, (2) pathways within and between vocational education and…

  9. Towards Information Enrichment through Recommendation Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Li-Tung; Xu, Yue; Li, Yuefeng; Nayak, Richi

    Nowadays most existing recommender systems operate in a single organisational basis, i.e. a recommender system recommends items to customers of one organisation based on the organisation's datasets only. Very often the datasets of a single organisation do not have sufficient resources to be used to generate quality recommendations. Therefore, it would be beneficial if recommender systems of different organisations with similar nature can cooperate together to share their resources and recommendations. In this chapter, we present an Ecommerce-oriented Distributed Recommender System (EDRS) that consists of multiple recommender systems from different organisations. By sharing resources and recommendations with each other, these recommenders in the distributed recommendation system can provide better recommendation service to their users. As for most of the distributed systems, peer selection is often an important aspect. This chapter also presents a recommender selection technique for the proposed EDRS, and it selects and profiles recommenders based on their stability, average performance and selection frequency. Based on our experiments, it is shown that recommenders' recommendation quality can be effectively improved by adopting the proposed EDRS and the associated peer selection technique.

  10. Solar Photovoltaic Energy Policy in Europe: Losing Sight of What is Right. Current Developments and Lessons Learned for Policy-makers and Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherrelle, Eid

    2012-01-01

    interesting to examine China and the United States in regard to PV manufacturing and installation capacity. China may be characterized by its high and early PV production, exporting almost 90% of its output. What will this and other developments mean for European PV industry and job creation? At present, the deployment of PV is under much discussion in many countries, within and outside of Europe. Changes in Feed-in-Tariffs (FIT) are following each other closely and motivations behind deployment are presently frequently discussed in the political sphere. Still, there are important points to consider. What are the costs of PV? How are the costs expected to decrease and how effective are current policies concerning PV penetration? Are these policies also effective in eventually reaching the CO 2 reduction targets? PV technologies are still developing and it is important to not be moved by assumptions on efficiencies or effectiveness of the technology. The aim of this report is to provide recommendations for the debate concerning PV deployment in Europe and to provide suggestions for both policy-makers and industry in- and outside of Europe. This is done by analyzing the main developments related to PV worldwide. The report will furthermore present technical developments of PV and will present a comparison in the international context with US and Asia. In Section 2, the position of PV policy is given within the EU renewable projections for 2020. Before continuing with the support policies for PV in Section 4, the main developments in PV technologies with definitions are provided in Section 3. Afterwards, case studies of the five major European countries with the largest European installed capacities in PV are presented with their efforts and policies associated to PV in Section 5. In Section 6, an evaluation of the European Policy is presented, after which a brief review of the US and China and their PV industries is given with their policy incentives to increase PV installation

  11. Physical Exercise and MS Recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, U; Ingemann-Hansen, T; Stenager, E

    2009-01-01

    The use of physical exercise programmes in the rehabilitation of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) has been a controversial issue for many years. During the last decade, however, evidence from a number of studies has suggested that exercise is a safe and efficient way to induce improvements...... in a number of physiological functions, which ultimately can lead to functional improvements that have a positive effect on a patients daily life. The purpose of this review is, based on the existing research, to provide clinicians with some easily administrable recommendations for the application of exercise...

  12. Dietetic recommendations in rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rosa Alhambra-Expósito

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic autoimmune disease that has a significant effect on patients’ physical, emotional, and social functioning. For decades, patients have used different diets to try to improve the symptoms of RA. The possible benefits of dietary therapy for rheumatoid arthritis are reviewed in this article. Nutritional objectives for RA, are to halt the loss of bone mass, promote healing of bone fractures and improving bone-associated inflammatory disorders and joints. In general, diets low in saturated fat, rich in polyunsaturated fats: omega 3 and omega 6, rich in complex carbohydrates and fiber are recommended.

  13. WRS: The Wikipedia Recommender System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefévre, Thomas; Jensen, Christian Damsgaard; Korsgaard, Thomas Rune

    In 2005, the Wikipedia became the most popular reference website on the Internet and it has continued to grow in size and popularity ever since. With the increasing reliance on the Wikipedia comes issues of the credibility and provenance of content. In order to address these issues, we have developed a Recommender System for the Wikipedia, which allows the users of the Wikipedia to rate articles in order to guide other users about the quality of articles. This rating system provides both an incentive for authors to improve articles and a quantifiable measure of the perceived quality of articles.

  14. Physical Exercise and MS Recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, U; Ingemann-Hansen, T; Stenager, E

    2009-01-01

    in a number of physiological functions, which ultimately can lead to functional improvements that have a positive effect on a patients daily life. The purpose of this review is, based on the existing research, to provide clinicians with some easily administrable recommendations for the application of exercise......The use of physical exercise programmes in the rehabilitation of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) has been a controversial issue for many years. During the last decade, however, evidence from a number of studies has suggested that exercise is a safe and efficient way to induce improvements...

  15. Hybrid employment recommendation algorithm based on Spark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuoquan; Lin, Yubei; Zhang, Xingming

    2017-08-01

    Aiming at the real-time application of collaborative filtering employment recommendation algorithm (CF), a clustering collaborative filtering recommendation algorithm (CCF) is developed, which applies hierarchical clustering to CF and narrows the query range of neighbour items. In addition, to solve the cold-start problem of content-based recommendation algorithm (CB), a content-based algorithm with users’ information (CBUI) is introduced for job recommendation. Furthermore, a hybrid recommendation algorithm (HRA) which combines CCF and CBUI algorithms is proposed, and implemented on Spark platform. The experimental results show that HRA can overcome the problems of cold start and data sparsity, and achieve good recommendation accuracy and scalability for employment recommendation.

  16. Recommender systems in knowledge-mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volna, Eva

    2017-07-01

    The subject of the paper is to analyse the possibilities of application of recommender systems in the field of data mining. The work focuses on three basic types of recommender systems (collaborative, content-based and hybrid). The goal of the article is to evaluate which of these three concepts of recommender systems provides forecast with the lowest error rate in the domain of recommending movies. This target is fulfilled by the practical part of the work - at first, the own recommender system was designed and created, capable of obtaining movies recommendation from the database based on the user's preferences. Next, we verified experimentally which recommender system produces more accurate results.

  17. ON OPERATION OF 740 M LONG FREIGHT TRAINS ON CZECH TEN-T RAILWAY NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Drábek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Regulation (EU No 1315/2013 defines actual scope of core and comprehensive TEN-T network, including both networks for railway freight transport. For the core network, possibility to operate 740 m long freight trains is required. The aim of this paper is to analyse availability of appropriate overtaking tracks for 740 m long freight trains. Due to ETCS braking curves and odometry, such trains, after ETCS implementation, will require 780-800 m long overtaking tracks. For practical reasons (e.g. bypass lines, whole Czech railway TEN-T network is analysed. The overtaking track, whose occupation means influence on scheduled traffic or threat to boarding passengers, are excluded. The data was collected from station schemes from Collection of Official Requisites for 2015/16 Timetable, issued by SŽDC, Czech state Infrastructure Manager. Most of appropriate tracks are over 800 m long, but their density in the network and in particular directions varies considerably. For freight traffic, gradient of the line is important, so in the resulting figure, there are marked significant peaks for particular lines as well. Czech TEN-T lines are further segmented on the basis of number of tracks and their traffic character. Then, specific issues on overtaking or crossing of 740 m long freight trains are discussed. As a conclusion, for long-term development of Czech TEN-T lines, targeted investment is recommended not only for passenger railway, but also for freight railway. An attractive capacity offer for railway undertakings, which can stimulate freight traffic on European Rail freight corridors, can be represented by network-bound periodic freight train paths with suitable long overtaking tracks outside bottlenecks. After the overtaking by passenger trains, a freight train should run without stop through large node station or a bottleneck area. Before the sections with high gradients, coupling of additional locomotives should be connected with the overtaking

  18. Variable implementation of good practice recommendations for the assessment and management of UK children with neurodisability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, L; Gibbs, J; Jolleff, N; Williams, J; McConachie, H; Parr, J R

    2015-11-01

    The aims of this study were to determine whether UK child development teams (CDTs) have implemented good practice recommendations for the co-ordinated assessment and support of children with neurodisability and to explore some of the factors associated with variations in good practice implementation. Surveys were sent to every UK CDT in 2009/2010. Responses about CDT provision and ways of working were compared with good practice recommendations from national policy documents and professional organizations. The extent to which CDTs in England and Wales met 11 selected good practice recommendations was scored; teams in Scotland and Northern Ireland were given a score out of 9 to reflect the optional use of the common assessment framework and early support materials in these countries. Responses were received from 225/240 (94%) UK CDTs. Thirty-seven per cent of CDTs in England and Wales had implemented nine or more of the 11 recommendations. Fifty-nine per cent of teams in Scotland and 78% of teams in Northern Ireland met between six and nine recommendations of good working practice. Higher levels of implementation of recommendations were found when the CDT had a Child Development Centre base and for teams who had received increased funding in the 5 years preceding the survey. There was considerable variability in the degree to which CDTs implemented good practice recommendations for the diagnosis and management of children with neurodisability. Evidence about child and parent satisfaction, and the effectiveness of CDT practices and provision, is required, so policymakers, healthcare commissioners and clinicians can provide the most appropriate services to children with neurodisability and their families. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Hypoalgesia in response to transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) depends on stimulation intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Fidelma; Leonard, Tracey; Hawthorne, Stephanie; Hughes, Ciara M; McCrum-Gardner, Evie; Johnson, Mark I; Rakel, Barbara A; Sluka, Kathleen A; Walsh, Deirdre M

    2011-08-01

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is an electrophysical modality used for pain management. This study investigated the dose response of different TENS intensities on experimentally induced pressure pain. One hundred and thirty TENS naïve healthy individuals (18-64 years old; 65 males, 65 females) were randomly allocated to 5 groups (n = 26 per group): Strong Non Painful TENS; Sensory Threshold TENS; Below Sensory Threshold TENS; No Current Placebo TENS; and Transient Placebo TENS. Active TENS (80 Hz) was applied to the forearm for 30 minutes. Transient Placebo TENS was applied for 42 seconds after which the current amplitude automatically reset to 0 mA. Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) were recorded from 2 points on the hand and forearm before and after TENS to measure hypoalgesia. There were significant differences between groups at both the hand and forearm (ANOVA; P = .005 and .002). At 30 minutes, there was a significant hypoalgesic effect in the Strong Non Painful TENS group compared to: Below Sensory Threshold TENS, No Current Placebo TENS and Transient Placebo TENS groups (P TENS and No Current Placebo TENS groups at the hand (P = .001). There was no significant difference between Strong Non Painful TENS and Sensory Threshold TENS groups. The area under the curve for the changes in PPT significantly correlated with the current amplitude (r(2) = .33, P = .003). These data therefore show that there is a dose-response effect of TENS with the largest effect occurring with the highest current amplitudes. This study shows a dose response for the intensity of TENS for pain relief with the strongest intensities showing the greatest effect; thus, we suggest that TENS intensity should be titrated to achieve the strongest possible intensity to achieve maximum pain relief. Copyright © 2011 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Ten years of human papilloma virus vaccination. From dermatology to oncology via the infectious diseases department].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraga-Llop, Fernando A

    2018-02-07

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) was first identified in dermatology, and it was subsequently demonstrated that is was required for the development of uterine cervical cancer and other tumours, after a persistent infection by any of its oncogenic genotypes. Ten years ago, the most common infections and cancers associated with HPV could be prevented by immunisation with 2vaccines, one bivalent, and another tetravalent, and having just marketed a nonavalent one. During the period 2007-2008, the HPV vaccine was included in the Autonomous Communities vaccination calendar, and it is the second vaccine, after that of Hepatitis B, that prevents cancer. In these 10 years that these vaccines have been available the knowledge has progressed and there have been significant advances in vaccination strategies, as well as in the indications and recommendations. These include, lowering the age in the vaccination schedule, prescribing of 2doses at 9 years and at 13-14 years, systematic vaccination of the male in some countries, immunisation of the woman after adolescence, implementation of vaccination programmes in developed countries, prevention of other cancers, recommendations for vaccinations for populations at high risk of HPV infection, scientific evidence on the impact and effectiveness of vaccination, and confirmation of the safety of these vaccines, with more than 270 million doses administered, as has already been observed in clinical trials. The role of health professionals is essential to achieve and maintain high vaccine coverage. Copyright © 2018. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.