WorldWideScience

Sample records for policymakers review measures

  1. Evidence-based policymaking: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Nortje

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The process of facilitating the uptake of evidence, for example, scientific research findings, into the policymaking process is multifaceted and thus complex. It is therefore important for scientists to understand this process in order to influence it more effectively. Similarly, policymakers need to understand the complexities of the scientific process to improve their interaction with the scientific sphere. This literature review addresses those factors that influence the uptake of scientific evidence into policymaking, the barriers to using science in policymaking, as well as recommendations for improved science–policymaking interaction. A visual diagram of the gears of a car is used to convey the message of the complexities around the engagement between science and policymaking. It is concluded that the issue of evidence-based policymaking remains unresolved and questions for future research on the science–policy interface are raised.

  2. Evidence based policy-making: A review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Strydom, FW

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The process of facilitating the uptake of evidence, for example, scientific research findings, into the policymaking process is multifaceted and thus complex. It is therefore important for scientists to understand this process in order to influence...

  3. Twelve myths about systematic reviews for health system policymaking rebutted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moat, Kaelan A; Lavis, John N; Wilson, Mike G; Røttingen, John-Arne; Bärnighausen, Till

    2013-01-01

    Systematic reviews are increasingly being viewed as important sources of information for policymakers who need to make decisions on different aspects of the health system, often under tight time constraints and with many factors competing for their attention. Unfortunately, a number of misconceptions, or 'myths', stand in the way of promoting their use. The belief that systematic review topics are not relevant to health systems policymaking, that they cannot be found quickly, and that they are not available in formats that are useful for policymakers are but three examples of such myths. This paper uses evidence drawn mainly from Health Systems Evidence, a continuously updated repository of syntheses of health systems research, to counter these and nine other common myths, with the aim of changing the constraining beliefs associated with them, while improving the prospects for the use of systematic reviews in health system policymaking.

  4. Do policy-makers find commissioned rapid reviews useful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Gabriel; Redman, Sally; Rudge, Sian; Haynes, Abby

    2018-02-26

    Rapid reviews are increasingly used by policy agencies to access relevant research in short timeframes. Despite the growing number of programmes, little is known about how rapid reviews are used by health policy agencies. This study examined whether and how rapid reviews commissioned using a knowledge brokering programme were used by Australian policy-makers. This study used interview data to examine the use of 139 rapid reviews by health policy agencies that were commissioned between 2006 and 2015. Transcripts were coded to identify how rapid reviews were used, the type of policy processes in which they were used, what evidence of use was provided and what reasons were given when rapid reviews were not used. Fisher's exact test was used to assess variation between types of agencies. Overall, 89% of commissioned rapid reviews were used by the commissioning agencies and 338 separate instances of use were identified, namely, on average, three uses per review. Policy-makers used reviews primarily to determine the details of a policy or programme, identify priorities for future action or investment, negotiate interjurisdictional decisions, evaluate alternative solutions for a policy problem, and communicate information to stakeholders. Some variation in use was observed across agencies. Reasons for non-use were related to changes in organisational structures, resources or key personnel in the commissioning agencies, or changes in the broader political environment. This study found that almost all rapid reviews had been used by the agencies who commissioned them, primarily in policy and programme development, agenda-setting, and to communicate information to stakeholders. Reviews were used mostly in instrumental and conceptual ways and there was little evidence of symbolic use. Variations in use were identified across agencies. The findings suggest that commissioned rapid reviews are an effective means of providing timely relevant research for use in policy processes

  5. Do evidence summaries increase policy-makers' use of evidence from systematic reviews: A systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkovic, Jennifer; Welch, Vivian; Tugwell, Peter

    2015-09-28

    Systematic reviews are important for decision-makers. They offer many potential benefits but are often written in technical language, are too long, and do not contain contextual details which makes them hard to use for decision-making. There are many organizations that develop and disseminate derivative products, such as evidence summaries, from systematic reviews for different populations or subsets of decision-makers. This systematic review will assess the effectiveness of systematic review summaries on increasing policymakers' use of systematic review evidence and to identify the components or features of these summaries that are most effective. We will include studies of policy-makers at all levels as well as health-system managers. We will include studies examining any type of "evidence summary," "policy brief," or other products derived from systematic reviews that present evidence in a summarized form. The primary outcomes are the following: (1) use of systematic review summaries decision-making (e.g., self-reported use of the evidence in policy-making, decision-making) and (2) policy-maker understanding, knowledge, and/or beliefs (e.g., changes in knowledge scores about the topic included in the summary). We will conduct a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomized controlled trials (NRCTs), controlled before-after studies (CBA), and interrupted time series (ITS) studies. The results of this review will inform the development of future systematic review summaries to ensure that systematic review evidence is accessible to and used by policy-makers making health-related decisions.

  6. Using media to impact health policy-making: an integrative systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou-Karroum, Lama; El-Jardali, Fadi; Hemadi, Nour; Faraj, Yasmine; Ojha, Utkarsh; Shahrour, Maher; Darzi, Andrea; Ali, Maha; Doumit, Carine; Langlois, Etienne V; Melki, Jad; AbouHaidar, Gladys Honein; Akl, Elie A

    2017-04-18

    Media interventions can potentially play a major role in influencing health policies. This integrative systematic review aimed to assess the effects of planned media interventions-including social media-on the health policy-making process. Eligible study designs included randomized and non-randomized designs, economic studies, process evaluation studies, stakeholder analyses, qualitative methods, and case studies. We electronically searched Medline, EMBASE, Communication and Mass Media Complete, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the WHO Global Health Library. We followed standard systematic review methodology for study selection, data abstraction, and risk of bias assessment. Twenty-one studies met our eligibility criteria: 10 evaluation studies using either quantitative (n = 7) or qualitative (n = 3) designs and 11 case studies. None of the evaluation studies were on social media. The findings of the evaluation studies suggest that media interventions may have a positive impact when used as accountability tools leading to prioritizing and initiating policy discussions, as tools to increase policymakers' awareness, as tools to influence policy formulation, as awareness tools leading to policy adoption, and as awareness tools to improve compliance with laws and regulations. In one study, media-generated attention had a negative effect on policy advocacy as it mobilized opponents who defeated the passage of the bills that the media intervention advocated for. We judged the confidence in the available evidence as limited due to the risk of bias in the included studies and the indirectness of the evidence. There is currently a lack of reliable evidence to guide decisions on the use of media interventions to influence health policy-making. Additional and better-designed, conducted, and reported primary research is needed to better understand the effects of media interventions, particularly social media, on health policy-making processes, and

  7. Conflicts of interest and critiques of the use of systematic reviews in policymaking: an analysis of opinion articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Strong opinions for or against the use of systematic reviews to inform policymaking have been published in the medical literature. The purpose of this paper was to examine whether funding sources and author financial conflicts of interest were associated with whether an opinion article was supportive or critical of the use of systematic reviews for policymaking. We examined the nature of the arguments within each article, the types of disclosures present, and whether these articles are being cited in the academic literature. Methods We searched for articles that expressed opinions about the use of systematic reviews for policymaking. We included articles that presented opinions about the use of systematic reviews for policymaking and categorized each article as supportive or critical of such use. We extracted all arguments regarding the use of systematic reviews from each article and inductively coded each as internal or external validity argument, categorized disclosed funding sources, conflicts of interest, and article types, and systematically searched for undisclosed financial ties. We counted the number of times each article has been cited in the “Web of Science.” We report descriptive statistics. Results Articles that were critical of the use of systematic reviews (n = 25) for policymaking had disclosed or undisclosed industry ties 2.3 times more often than articles that were supportive of the use (n = 34). We found that editorials, comments, letters, and perspectives lacked published disclosures nearly twice as often (60% v. 33%) as other types of articles. We also found that editorials, comments, letters, and perspectives were less frequently cited in the academic literature than other article types (median number of citations = 5 v. 19). Conclusions It is important to consider whether an article has industry ties when evaluating the strength of the argument for or against the use of systematic reviews for policymaking. We found that journal

  8. An integrative review on coping skills in nursing students: implications for policymaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrague, L J; McEnroe-Petitte, D M; Al Amri, M; Fronda, D C; Obeidat, A A

    2017-06-30

    This study critically appraised both quantitative and qualitative studies describing coping strategies utilized by nursing students when faced with stress. Stress in nursing students during clinical training is well documented in the nursing literature. The need to utilize positive-coping strategies is necessary to effectively deal with stress and its accompanying stressors. An integrative review method was used in this review. PsycINFO, PubMed, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), MEDLINE and Scopus were the databases used in searching for relevant literature using the following search terms; 'coping', 'nursing students', clinical training', 'ways of coping' and 'clinical practice'. A total of 27 studies published from 2001 to 2016 were included in this review. Findings demonstrated that nursing students utilized problem-focused coping strategies rather than emotion-focused coping strategies. Specific coping behaviours utilized included problem-solving behaviours, self-confident approaches and seeking of support from family and friends. The review contributes to the growing literature on coping strategies in nursing students and may have implications on nursing education and nursing policy. This review also demonstrated a scarcity of studies that links specific coping strategies to nursing school stressors and examines predictors of coping skills in nursing students. Institutionalization of structured student orientation programme, implementation of well-planned mentoring programmes and establishment of support unit/centres may be helpful in supporting nursing students during their clinical placement. By developing empirically based interventions, nursing faculty can assist nursing students in strengthening their positive-coping skills to effectively deal with various stressors encountered. © 2017 International Council of Nurses.

  9. Building the capacity of policy-makers and planners to strengthen mental health systems in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keynejad, Roxanne; Semrau, Maya; Toynbee, Mark; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Lund, Crick; Gureje, Oye; Ndyanabangi, Sheila; Courtin, Emilie; Abdulmalik, Jibril O; Alem, Atalay; Fekadu, Abebaw; Thornicroft, Graham; Hanlon, Charlotte

    2016-10-21

    Little is known about the interventions required to build the capacity of mental health policy-makers and planners in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We conducted a systematic review with the primary aim of identifying and synthesizing the evidence base for building the capacity of policy-makers and planners to strengthen mental health systems in LMICs. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Knowledge, Web of Science, Scopus, CINAHL, LILACS, ScieELO, Google Scholar and Cochrane databases for studies reporting evidence, experience or evaluation of capacity-building of policy-makers, service planners or managers in mental health system strengthening in LMICs. Reports in English, Spanish, Portuguese, French or German were included. Additional papers were identified by hand-searching references and contacting experts and key informants. Database searches yielded 2922 abstracts and 28 additional papers were identified. Following screening, 409 full papers were reviewed, of which 14 fulfilled inclusion criteria for the review. Data were extracted from all included papers and synthesized into a narrative review. Only a small number of mental health system-related capacity-building interventions for policy-makers and planners in LMICs were described. Most models of capacity-building combined brief training with longer term mentorship, dialogue and/or the establishment of networks of support. However, rigorous research and evaluation methods were largely absent, with studies being of low quality, limiting the potential to separate mental health system strengthening outcomes from the effects of associated contextual factors. This review demonstrates the need for partnership approaches to building the capacity of mental health policy-makers and planners in LMICs, assessed rigorously against pre-specified conceptual frameworks and hypotheses, utilising longitudinal evaluation and mixed quantitative and qualitative approaches.

  10. Building the capacity of policy-makers and planners to strengthen mental health systems in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne Keynejad

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the interventions required to build the capacity of mental health policy-makers and planners in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. We conducted a systematic review with the primary aim of identifying and synthesizing the evidence base for building the capacity of policy-makers and planners to strengthen mental health systems in LMICs. Methods We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Knowledge, Web of Science, Scopus, CINAHL, LILACS, ScieELO, Google Scholar and Cochrane databases for studies reporting evidence, experience or evaluation of capacity-building of policy-makers, service planners or managers in mental health system strengthening in LMICs. Reports in English, Spanish, Portuguese, French or German were included. Additional papers were identified by hand-searching references and contacting experts and key informants. Database searches yielded 2922 abstracts and 28 additional papers were identified. Following screening, 409 full papers were reviewed, of which 14 fulfilled inclusion criteria for the review. Data were extracted from all included papers and synthesized into a narrative review. Results Only a small number of mental health system-related capacity-building interventions for policy-makers and planners in LMICs were described. Most models of capacity-building combined brief training with longer term mentorship, dialogue and/or the establishment of networks of support. However, rigorous research and evaluation methods were largely absent, with studies being of low quality, limiting the potential to separate mental health system strengthening outcomes from the effects of associated contextual factors. Conclusions This review demonstrates the need for partnership approaches to building the capacity of mental health policy-makers and planners in LMICs, assessed rigorously against pre-specified conceptual frameworks and hypotheses, utilising longitudinal evaluation and mixed

  11. Effectiveness of centre-based childcare interventions in increasing child physical activity: a systematic review and meta-analysis for policymakers and practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, M; Jones, J; Yoong, S; Wiggers, J; Wolfenden, L

    2016-05-01

    The review describes the effectiveness of physical activity interventions implemented in centre-based childcare services and (i) examines characteristics of interventions that may influence intervention effects; (ii) describes the effects of pragmatic interventions and non-pragmatic interventions; (iii) assesses adverse effects; and (iv) describes cost-effectiveness of interventions Data sources were Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, ERIC, CINAHL, SCOPUS and SPORTDISCUS. Studies selected included randomized controlled trials conducted in centre-based childcare including an intervention to increase objectively measured physical activity in children aged less than 6 years. Data were converted into standardized mean difference (SMD) and analysed using a random effects model. Overall interventions significantly improved child physical activity (SMD 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.12-0.76). Significant effects were found for interventions that included structured activity (SMD 0.53; 95% CI: 0.12-0.94), delivery by experts (SMD 1.26; 95% CI: 0.20-2.32) and used theory (SMD 0.76; 95% CI: 0.08-1.44). Non-pragmatic (SMD 0.80; 95% CI: 0.12-1.48) but not pragmatic interventions (SMD 0.10; 95% CI:-0.13-0.33) improved child physical activity. One trial reported adverse events, and no trials reported cost data. Intervention effectiveness varied according to intervention and trial design characteristics. Pragmatic trials were not effective, and information on cost and adverse effects was lacking. Evidence gaps remain for policymakers and practitioners regarding the effectiveness and feasibility of childcare-based physical activity interventions. © 2016 World Obesity.

  12. Disorganized attachment in infancy : a review of the phenomenon and its implications for clinicians and policy-makers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granqvist, Pehr; Sroufe, L. Alan; Dozier, Mary; Hesse, Erik; Steele, Miriam; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Solomon, Judith; Schuengel, Carlo; Fearon, Pasco; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Steele, Howard; Cassidy, Jude; Carlson, Elizabeth; Madigan, Sheri; Jacobvitz, Deborah; Foster, Sarah; Behrens, Kazuko; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Gribneau, Naomi; Spangler, Gottfried; Ward, Mary J.; True, Mary; Spieker, Susan; Reijman, Sophie; Reisz, Samantha; Tharner, Anne; Nkara, Frances; Goldwyn, Ruth; Sroufe, June; Pederson, David; Pederson, Deanne; Weigand, Robert; Siegel, Daniel; Dazzi, Nino; Bernard, Kristin; Fonagy, Peter; Waters, Everett; Toth, Sheree; Cicchetti, Dante; Zeanah, Charles H.; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen; Main, Mary; Duschinsky, Robbie

    2017-01-01

    Disorganized/Disoriented (D) attachment has seen widespread interest from policy makers, practitioners, and clinicians in recent years. However, some of this interest seems to have been based on some false assumptions that (1) attachment measures can be used as definitive assessments of the

  13. Disorganized attachment in infancy: a review of the phenomenon and its implications for clinicians and policy-makers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granqvist, P. (Pehr); Sroufe, L.A. (L. Alan); Dozier, M. (Mary); Hesse, E. (Erik); Steele, M. (Miriam); M.H. van IJzendoorn (Rien); Solomon, J. (Judith); C. Schuengel (Carlo); Fearon, P. (Pasco); M.J. Bakermans-Kranenburg (Marian); Steele, H. (Howard); Cassidy, J. (Jude); Carlson, E. (Elizabeth); Madigan, S. (Sheri); Jacobvitz, D. (Deborah); Foster, S. (Sarah); Behrens, K. (Kazuko); Rifkin-Graboi, A. (Anne); Gribneau, N. (Naomi); Spangler, G. (Gottfried); Ward, M.J. (Mary J); True, M. (Mary); Spieker, S. (Susan); Reijman, S. (Sophie); Reisz, S. (Samantha); A. Tharner (Anne); Nkara, F. (Frances); Goldwyn, R. (Ruth); Sroufe, J. (June); Pederson, D. (David); Pederson, D. (Deanne); Weigand, R. (Robert); Siegel, D. (Daniel); Dazzi, N. (Nino); Bernard, K. (Kristin); P. Fonagy (Peter); Waters, E. (Everett); Toth, S. (Sheree); Cicchetti, D. (Dante); Zeanah, C.H. (Charles H); Lyons-Ruth, K. (Karlen); Main, M. (Mary); Duschinsky, R. (Robbie)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractDisorganized/Disoriented (D) attachment has seen widespread interest from policy makers, practitioners, and clinicians in recent years. However, some of this interest seems to have been based on some false assumptions that (1) attachment measures can be used as definitive assessments of

  14. Connectivity measures: a review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kindlmann, Pavel; Burel, F.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 1 (2008), s. 879-890 ISSN 0921-2973 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6087301 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Conservation biology * Habitat fragmentation * Landscape connectivity * Measures * Species extinction Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.453, year: 2008

  15. Intersectionality in European Union policymaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lombardo, Emanuela; Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    2016-01-01

    Inclusiveness of different social groups and responsiveness to the needs of increasingly diverse societies are key criteria for policy analysts to assess the quality of public policies. We argue that an intersectional approach attentive to the interaction of gender with other inequalities...... is particularly apt to deal with equality and diversity in policymaking. By analysing a selection of European Union policy documents on gender-based violence in the period 2000–2014, we attend to the question of what intersectionality can bring to policymaking in terms of strengthening inclusiveness and address...

  16. Macroeconomic models, forecasting, and policymaking

    OpenAIRE

    Pescatori, Andrea; Zaman, Saeed

    2011-01-01

    Models of the macroeconomy have gotten quite sophisticated, thanks to decades of development and advances in computing power. Such models have also become indispensable tools for monetary policymakers, useful both for forecasting and comparing different policy options. Their failure to predict the recent financial crisis does not negate their use, it only points to some areas that can be improved.

  17. Interdisciplinary Approach to the Study of Evolution of Humanities : Reviewing The History of Translation Movement in the Context of Public Policy-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Shah Abadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It is about forty years that some of Iran’s policy makers and experts in social and human sciences are of the opinion that there should be an evolution in humanities. They are of the view that principles and basic assumptions of current humanities are in conflict with Islamic framework and consequently these doctrines are not appropriate to address local issues of Islamic countries. Since the Islamic Revolution of Iran of 1979, any change in these doctrines has been a matter of debate. But we need a new plan for making a change in our policies. Applying interdisciplinary approach permit us to find a new way for policy making in society. History is full of lessons to guide us in our present situations. Therefore, by taking into account, the sociology of science and issues of policy-making, we study the Translation Movement. This article shows the transfer and transformation of Greek philosophy to Islamic philosophy in 7- 10 A.D. in Islamic civilization and also proposes an alternative approach for the policy makers. We identify actors of transferring knowledge, scientific translators and the Abbasid State. Research model of this paper has been chosen from the sociology of science and also makes use of "Implication Research Methodology” with regard to history. Our suggestion is "Transformational Translation (Transforlation " that includes selecting best texts, translations, correction, explanation, criticism and innovation. Accordingly, policies should be revised after identifying discipline on Transforlation Chain and structures and human resources have to be formalized on the basis of revised policies.

  18. A review of Health Technology Assessment (HTA) recommendations for drug therapies issued between 2007 and 2009 and their impact on policymaking processes in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolasa, Katarzyna; Schubert, Sebastian; Manca, Andrea; Hermanowski, Tadeusz

    2011-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to critically review and analyze the Polish Health Technology Assessment (AHTAPol) agency's health technology drug recommendations (HTA activity), in order to ascertain to what extent HTA findings have been incorporated into national drug reimbursement decisions (HTA impact). HTA recommendations issued between 2007 and 2009 were studied. Positive recommendations were classified into three categories: recommendations with major restrictions; minor restrictions; and without restrictions. Definitions of clinical and non-clinical reasons were drawn ups for negative recommendations. The study examined how many different drug technologies assessed by AHTAPol were included in reimbursement lists. In terms of HTA activity, 63 negative and 83 positive HTA recommendations were issued. While clinical arguments were the most prevalent reason for negative HTA recommendations, major restrictions were most common in the positive guidance group. In terms of HTA impact, the results revealed 30 drugs with positive HTA recommendations and four with negative HTA recommendations were included on the reimbursement lists. Most of AHTAPol's recommendations have a positive outcome for the drug being appraised. The study revealed room for further enhancement of HTA impact. Three key areas that need future attention were identified: consistency, credibility; and pragmatism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Maritime Governance and Policy-Making

    CERN Document Server

    Roe, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A close analysis of the framework of existing governance and the existing jurisdictional arrangements for shipping and ports reveals that while policy-making is characterized by national considerations through flags, institutional representation at all jurisdictions and the inviolability of the state, the commercial, financial, legal and operational environment of the sector is almost wholly global. This governance mismatch means that in practice the maritime industry can avoid policies which it dislikes by trading nations off against one another, while enjoying the freedoms and benefits of a globalized economy. A Post-modern interpretation of this globalized society prompts suggestions for change in maritime policy-making so that the governance of the sector better matches more closely the environment in which shipping and ports operate. Maritime Governance and Policy-Making is a controversial commentary on the record of policy-making in the maritime sector and assesses whether the reason for continued polic...

  20. Instruments Measuring Integrated Care: A Systematic Review of Measurement Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    BAUTISTA, MARY ANN C.; NURJONO, MILAWATY; DESSERS, EZRA; VRIJHOEF, HUBERTUS JM

    2016-01-01

    Policy Points: Investigations on systematic methodologies for measuring integrated care should coincide with the growing interest in this field of research.A systematic review of instruments provides insights into integrated care measurement, including setting the research agenda for validating available instruments and informing the decision to develop new ones.This study is the first systematic review of instruments measuring integrated care with an evidence synthesis of the measurement properties.We found 209 index instruments measuring different constructs related to integrated care; the strength of evidence on the adequacy of the majority of their measurement properties remained largely unassessed. Context Integrated care is an important strategy for increasing health system performance. Despite its growing significance, detailed evidence on the measurement properties of integrated care instruments remains vague and limited. Our systematic review aims to provide evidence on the state of the art in measuring integrated care. Methods Our comprehensive systematic review framework builds on the Rainbow Model for Integrated Care (RMIC). We searched MEDLINE/PubMed for published articles on the measurement properties of instruments measuring integrated care and identified eligible articles using a standard set of selection criteria. We assessed the methodological quality of every validation study reported using the COSMIN checklist and extracted data on study and instrument characteristics. We also evaluated the measurement properties of each examined instrument per validation study and provided a best evidence synthesis on the adequacy of measurement properties of the index instruments. Findings From the 300 eligible articles, we assessed the methodological quality of 379 validation studies from which we identified 209 index instruments measuring integrated care constructs. The majority of studies reported on instruments measuring constructs related to care

  1. Enhancing health policymakers' information literacy knowledge and skill for policymaking on control of infectious diseases of poverty in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ezeoha, Abel Ebeh; Uro-Chukwu, Henry; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla; Ogbu, Ogbonnaya; Onwe, Friday; Edoga, Chima

    2015-01-01

    In Nigeria, one of the major challenges associated with evidence-to-policy link in the control of infectious diseases of poverty (IDP), is deficient information literacy knowledge and skill among policymakers. There is need for policymakers to acquire the skill to discover relevant information, accurately evaluate retrieved information and to apply it correctly. To use information literacy tool of International Network for Availability of Scientific Publications (INASP) to enhance policymakers' knowledge and skill for policymaking on control of IDP in Nigeria. Modified "before and after" intervention study design was used in which outcomes were measured on target participants both before the intervention is implemented and after. This study was conducted in Ebonyi State, south-eastern Nigeria and participants were career health policy makers. A two-day health-policy information literacy training workshop was organized to enhance participants" information literacy capacity. Topics covered included: introduction to information literacy; defining information problem; searching for information online; evaluating information; science information; knowledge sharing interviews; and training skills. A total of 52 policymakers attended the workshop. The pre-workshop mean rating (MNR) of knowledge and capacity for information literacy ranged from 2.15-2.97, while the post-workshop MNR ranged from 3.34-3.64 on 4-point scale. The percentage increase in MNR of knowledge and capacity at the end of the workshop ranged from 22.6%-55.3%. The results of this study suggest that through information literacy training workshop policy makers can acquire the knowledge and skill to identify, capture and share the right kind of information in the right contexts to influence relevant action or a policy decision.

  2. Policy-making in the European Union

    CERN Document Server

    Pollack, Mark A; Young, Alasadair R

    2015-01-01

    Constantly evolving, and with far-reaching implications, European Union policy-making is of central importance to the politics of the European Union. From defining the processes, institutions and modes through which policy-making operates, the text moves on to situate individual policies within these modes, detail their content, and analyse how they are implemented, navigating policy in all its complexities. The first part of the text examines processes, institutions, and the theoretical and analytical underpinnings of policy-making, while the second part considers a wide range of policy areas, from economics to the environment, and security to the single market. Throughout the text, theoretical approaches sit side by side with the reality of key events in the EU, including enlargement, the ratification of the Lisbon Treaty, and the financial crisis and resulting euro area crisis, exploring what determines how policies are made and implemented. In the final part, the editors consider trends in EU policy-makin...

  3. Optimal Degrees of Transparency in Monetary Policymaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    According to most academics and policymakers, transparency in monetary policymaking is desirable. I examine this proposition in a small theoretical model emphasizing forward-looking private sector behavior. Transparency makes it easier for price setters to infer the central bank's future policy...... intentions, thereby making current inflation more responsive to policy actions. This induces the central bank to pay more attention to inflation rather than output gap stabilization. Then, transparency may be disadvantageous. It may actually be a policy-distorting straitjacket if the central bank enjoys low...

  4. A review on electromagnetics (EM) exposure measurement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EM exposure in the range of non-ionizing radiations (NIR) which falls in the radio frequency up to 3GHz is mainly sourced from mobile phone base stations, broadcast towers and radar facilities. This reviews based on previous researcher obtained results and methods in order to determine the best technique to measure the ...

  5. Education Policy-Making and Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Greg; Cook, Ian

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the global policy convergence toward high-stakes testing in schools and the use of test results to "steer at a distance", particularly as it applies to policy-makers' promise to improve teacher quality. Using Deleuze's three syntheses of time in the context of the Australian policy blueprint Quality Education, this…

  6. Promoting Research for Policymaking under Decentralization in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Today, regional governments account for the majority of public investment, but show limited capacity to cope with the responsibility. Moreover, capacity for research and evidence based policymaking remains weak outside Lima. This grant will allow the Consortium for Economic and Social Research (CIES - Consorcio de ...

  7. Instruments Measuring Integrated Care: A Systematic Review of Measurement Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Mary Ann C; Nurjono, Milawaty; Lim, Yee Wei; Dessers, Ezra; Vrijhoef, Hubertus Jm

    2016-12-01

    Policy Points: Investigations on systematic methodologies for measuring integrated care should coincide with the growing interest in this field of research. A systematic review of instruments provides insights into integrated care measurement, including setting the research agenda for validating available instruments and informing the decision to develop new ones. This study is the first systematic review of instruments measuring integrated care with an evidence synthesis of the measurement properties. We found 209 index instruments measuring different constructs related to integrated care; the strength of evidence on the adequacy of the majority of their measurement properties remained largely unassessed. Integrated care is an important strategy for increasing health system performance. Despite its growing significance, detailed evidence on the measurement properties of integrated care instruments remains vague and limited. Our systematic review aims to provide evidence on the state of the art in measuring integrated care. Our comprehensive systematic review framework builds on the Rainbow Model for Integrated Care (RMIC). We searched MEDLINE/PubMed for published articles on the measurement properties of instruments measuring integrated care and identified eligible articles using a standard set of selection criteria. We assessed the methodological quality of every validation study reported using the COSMIN checklist and extracted data on study and instrument characteristics. We also evaluated the measurement properties of each examined instrument per validation study and provided a best evidence synthesis on the adequacy of measurement properties of the index instruments. From the 300 eligible articles, we assessed the methodological quality of 379 validation studies from which we identified 209 index instruments measuring integrated care constructs. The majority of studies reported on instruments measuring constructs related to care integration (33%) and patient

  8. Environmental Measurements Laboratory program review, December 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volchok, H.L.; de Planque, G.

    1984-03-01

    This volume contains all of the written material that was submitted to the panel of Reviewers in advance of a Program Review conducted by the US Department of Energy, Office of Health and Environmental Research at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) December 7-9, 1983. In addition to a general introduction there are nineteen papers grouped into the five broad program categories covering all of the scientific and engineering projects of the Laboratory: Natural Radioactivity and Radiation, Anthropogenic Radioactivity and Radiation, Non-nuclear, Quality Assurance, and Development and Support. These short articles, for the most part, focus on the rationale for EML's involvement in each project, emphasizing their relevance to the EML and Department of Energy missions. Project results and their interpretation were presented at the Review and can be found in the material referenced in this volume

  9. A review of social inclusion measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Tim; Nicholas, Angela; Pirkis, Jane

    2013-10-01

    Social inclusion is crucial to mental health and well-being and is emphasised in Australia's Fourth National Mental Health Plan. There is a recognition that a measure of social inclusion would complement the suite of outcome measures that is currently used in public sector mental health services. This paper is an initial scope of candidate measures of social inclusion and considers their suitability for this purpose. We identified potential measures through searches of PsycINFO and Medline and a more general Internet search. We extracted descriptive and evaluative information on each measure identified and compared this information with a set of eight criteria. The criteria related to the measure's inclusion of four domains of social inclusion outlined in Australia's Fourth National Mental Health Plan, its usability within the public mental health sector and its psychometric properties. We identified 10 candidate measures of social inclusion: the Activity and Participation Questionnaire (APQ-6); the Australian Community Participation Questionnaire (ACPQ); the Composite Measure of Social Inclusion (CMSI); the EMILIA Project Questionnaire (EPQ); the Evaluating Social Inclusion Questionnaire (ESIQ); the Inclusion Web (IW); the Social and Community Opportunities Profile (SCOPE); the Social Inclusion Measure (SIM); the Social Inclusion Questionnaire (SIQ); and the Staff Survey of Social Inclusion (SSSI). After comparison with the eight review criteria, we determined that the APQ-6 and the SCOPE-short form show the most potential for further testing. Social inclusion is too important not to measure. This discussion of individual-level measures of social inclusion provides a springboard for selecting an appropriate measure for use in public sector mental health services. It suggests that there are two primary candidates, but neither of these is quite fit-for-purpose in their current form. Further exploration will reveal whether one of these is suitable, whether another

  10. Measures of Financial Capacity: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghesquiere, Angela R; McAfee, Caitlin; Burnett, Jason

    2017-05-23

    Capacity to manage finances and make financial decisions can affect risk for financial exploitation and is often the basis for legal determinations of conservatorship/guardianship. Several structured assessments of financial capacity have been developed, but have not been compared regarding their focus, validity, or reliability. Therefore, we conducted a review of financial capacity measures to examine these factors. We searched electronic databases, reference lists in identified articles, conference proceedings and other grey literature for measures of financial capacity. We then extracted data on the length and domains of each measure, the population for which they were intended, and their validity and reliability. We identified 10 structured measures of financial capacity. Most measures could be completed in 25-30 min, and were designed to be administered to older adults with some level of cognitive impairment. Reliability and validity were high for most. Measurement of financial capacity is complex and multidimensional. When selecting a measure of financial capacity, consideration should be made of the population of focus and the domains of capacity to be assessed. More work is needed on the cultural sensitivity of financial capacity measures, their acceptability, and their use in clinical work. Better understanding of when, and to whom, to administer different financial capacity measures could enhance the ability to accurately detect those suffering from impaired financial capacity, and prevent related negative outcomes like financial exploitation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Measuring inconsistency in research ethics committee review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trace, Samantha; Kolstoe, Simon Erik

    2017-11-28

    The review of human participant research by Research Ethics Committees (RECs) or Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) is a complex multi-faceted process that cannot be reduced to an algorithm. However, this does not give RECs/ IRBs permission to be inconsistent in their specific requirements to researchers or in their final opinions. In England the Health Research Authority (HRA) coordinates 67 committees, and has adopted a consistency improvement plan including a process called "Shared Ethical Debate" (ShED) where multiple committees review the same project. Committee reviews are compared for consistency by analysing the resulting minutes. We present a description of the ShED process. We report an analysis of minutes created by research ethics committees participating in two ShED exercises, and compare them to minutes produced in a published "mystery shopper" exercise. We propose a consistency score by defining top themes for each exercise, and calculating the ratio between top themes and total themes identified by each committee for each ShED exercise. Our analysis highlights qualitative differences between the ShED 19, ShED 20 and "mystery shopper" exercises. The quantitative measure of consistency showed only one committee across the three exercises with more than half its total themes as top themes (ratio of 0.6). The average consistency scores for the three exercises were 0.23 (ShED19), 0.35 (ShED20) and 0.32 (mystery shopper). There is a statistically significant difference between the ShED 19 exercise, and the ShED 20 and mystery shopper exercises. ShED exercises are effective in identifying inconsistency between ethics committees and we describe a scoring method that could be used to quantify this. However, whilst a level of inconsistency is probably inevitable in research ethics committee reviews, studies must move beyond the ShED methodology to understand why inconsistency occurs, and what an acceptable level of inconsistency might be.

  12. Measurement properties of instruments assessing permanent functional impairment of the spine: a systematic review protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trask, Catherine M; Boden, Catherine; Bath, Brenna; Hendrick, Paul; Clay, Lynne; Zeng, Xiaoke; Milosavljevic, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Permanent functional impairment (PFI) of the spine is a rating system used by compensation authorities, such as workers compensation boards, to establish an appropriate level of financial compensation for persistent loss of function. Determination of PFI of the spine is commonly based on the assessment of spinal movement combined with other measures of physical and functional impairments; however, the reliability and validity of the measurement instruments used for these evaluations have yet to be established. The aim of this study is to systematically review and synthesise the literature concerning measurement properties of the various and different instruments used for assessing PFI of the spine. Methods Three conceptual groups of terms (1) PFI, (2) spinal disorder and (3) measurement properties will be combined to search Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, Scopus, PEDro, OTSeeker and Health and Safety Science Abstracts. We will examine peer-reviewed, full-text articles over the full available date range. Two reviewers will independently screen citations (title, abstract and full text) and perform data extraction. Included studies will be appraised as to their methodological quality using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments criteria. Findings will be summarised and presented descriptively, with meta-analysis pursued as appropriate. Ethics and dissemination This review will summarise the current level of evidence of measurement properties of instruments used for assessing PFI of the spine. Findings of this review may be applicable to clinicians, policy-makers, workers’ compensation boards, other insurers and health and safety organisations. The findings will likely provide a foundation and direction for future research priorities for assessing spinal PFI. PROSPERO registration number CRD42017060390. PMID:29374671

  13. PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT IN HIGHER EDUCATION: LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Ioana COSTE

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Significant actions have been taken to define the concept of performance measurement. Many researchers have been discussing and developing this topic. Also, not only in the recent literature are many studies regarding the topic, but now are more than ever. At international level, International Public Sector Accounting Standard Board took the decision to develop a framework for reporting service performance measurement that focuses on meeting the needs of intended users. In this way, around the world, will be a uniform understanding and applicability for performance measurement. This paper analyzes the concept of performance measurement. The main objective of the paper is to do a review of the definitions received by the concept in time, thus a qualitative approach will be used. Furthermore, this paper tries to examine the changes which occurred in public universities due to the budget constraints. Performance measurement plays a central role because, in this way, universities prove their accountability and to show the way in which they have value the money.

  14. An assessment of policymakers' engagement initiatives to promote ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An assessment of policymakers' engagement initiatives to promote evidence informed health policy making in Nigeria. ... efforts and various initiatives that have been undertaken to deliberately engage policymakers and other stakeholders in the health sector in Nigeria for the promotion of evidence informed policymaking.

  15. Improving Nigerian health policymakers' capacity to access and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nigeria, the lack of adequate capacity on the use of ICT by health sector policymakers constitutes a major impediment to the uptake of research evidence into the policymaking process. The objective of this study was to improve the knowledge and capacity of policymakers to access and utilize policy relevant evidence.

  16. Transforming Government's Policy-making Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Johnston

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We have seen a lot of very welcome progress in terms of making it easier for citizens to input their views into government policy-making processes. However, governments and citizens are now in a similar situation – after a burst of initial enthusiasm, they are not sure what to do next. Governments have struggled to get the mass participation they would like and where significant participation has occurred, have had difficulty integrating it effectively into existing decision-making processes. Citizens have been unsure what to make of this new apparent openness and where they have engaged, have found it hard to know what difference their input made. The solution is to focus on using technology to make existing policy processes more transparent and more participative rather than creating separate e-participation initiatives. The challenge for governments is to open up the whole of the policy process and be prepared to flag up very clearly and explicitly the difference citizen input made. The challenge for e-democracy advocates is to convince policymakers that their ideas can improve the existing policy process rather than simply generating more inputs into it.

  17. A review on creatinine measurement techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohabbati-Kalejahi, Elham; Azimirad, Vahid; Bahrami, Manouchehr; Ganbari, Ahmad

    2012-08-15

    This paper reviews the entire recent global tendency for creatinine measurement. Creatinine biosensors involve complex relationships between biology and micro-mechatronics to which the blood is subjected. Comparison between new and old methods shows that new techniques (e.g. Molecular Imprinted Polymers based algorithms) are better than old methods (e.g. Elisa) in terms of stability and linear range. All methods and their details for serum, plasma, urine and blood samples are surveyed. They are categorized into five main algorithms: optical, electrochemical, impedometrical, Ion Selective Field-Effect Transistor (ISFET) based technique and chromatography. Response time, detection limit, linear range and selectivity of reported sensors are discussed. Potentiometric measurement technique has the lowest response time of 4-10 s and the lowest detection limit of 0.28 nmol L(-1) belongs to chromatographic technique. Comparison between various techniques of measurements indicates that the best selectivity belongs to MIP based and chromatographic techniques. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Measures of psychological acculturation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsudaira, Tomomi

    2006-09-01

    This article reviews conceptual and methodological issues in the measurement of psychological acculturation. The major issues involve the question of dimensionality and the assessment of specific domains of cultural change. Bidimensional scales that cover both overt and internal domains are more informative for the assessment of general levels of psychological acculturation. The validity of such scales must be examined in terms of the actual exposure of individuals to and involvement in each culture, and the influence of sociocultural factors on the course of acculturation. The parallel application of qualitative and quantitative methods may be useful for validity studies. The complementary use of emic and etic approaches will enhance the psychometric soundness of acculturation scales.

  19. Social Cost Benefit Analysis for Environmental Policy-Making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Zeeuw, A.; In t Veld, R.; Van Soest, D.; Meuleman, L.; Hoogewoning, P.

    2008-01-01

    Review of the theoretical literature and the current debate on the valuation of environmental goods and services, on the discounting of future benefits and costs, and on how social cost benefit analysis (SCBAs) can be integrated in the policy and decision making process. It is concluded that SCBA can be a good decision support method in environmental policy-making if it is transparent and if all impacts are taken into account. Furthermore, the SCBA process should be participative, and politicians must be prepared to take responsibility for the assumptions behind the SCBA, including the assumptions on valuation and on the discount rate. Such a political role makes each SCBA a unique product of a politically responsible actor, and makes it possible for other stakeholders to have calculated an alternative SCBA based on their own assumptions. This Background Study also contains the proceedings of the international SCBA conference organised by RMNO on 16-17 January 2008

  20. Judicial policy-making and Europeanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2011-01-01

    , against the preferences of the member governments. It finds that the principle of proportionality constitutes a most powerful means for the European Court to strike the balance between supranational principles and national policy conditions and administrative discretion. While the Court has previously......Judicial policy-making is having an increasing impact on political domains traditionally guarded by national sovereignty. This paper examines how the European judiciary has expanded Community competences into the policy domains of welfare and immigration, followed by subsequent Europeanization...... been cautious to apply the principle beyond economic law, it no longer treads as reluctantly, instead generally limiting the inner core of national policy control, i.e. the capacity of the national executive to detail, condition and administer national policies in almost all domains....

  1. China's Policymaking for Regional Economic Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Yang

    the influence of competing domestic interests, protectionist and conservative forces vis-a-vis liberal and reformist forces; government agencies, ministries and national commissions, local governments; and different ideas on China's foreign economic policy. In doing so, she also provides interesting comparisons...... between China and other countries in international negotiations. Her invesitgation offers a fresh look into China, its changing decision-making under different generations of leadership, and the basis for its current and potential contribution to international economic cooperation.......Yang Jiang opens the black box of China's policymaking for free trade agreements and key regional financial initiatives. Using first-hand interview data, she sheds light on the key trends of China's trade and financial politics after its WTO entry in 2001. In particular, she highlights...

  2. Improving policy implementation through collaborative policymaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansell, Christopher; Sørensen, Eva; Torfing, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    We offer a fresh perspective on implementation problems by suggesting that collaborative policy design and adaptive policy implementation will help public policy makers to improve policy execution. Classical implementation theories have focused too narrowly on administrative stumbling blocks and ...... collaborative policymaking and adaptive policy implementation might work in theory and practice......We offer a fresh perspective on implementation problems by suggesting that collaborative policy design and adaptive policy implementation will help public policy makers to improve policy execution. Classical implementation theories have focused too narrowly on administrative stumbling blocks...... and New Public Management has reinforced the split between politics and administration. Attempts to improve policy implementation must begin by looking at policy design, which can be improved through collaboration and deliberation between upstream and downstream actors. We provide a broad overview of how...

  3. Entrepreneurship development policymaking factors: An exploratory survey of tourism in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Jafari Moghaddam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Widespread presence of small and medium enterprise (SME and entrepreneurial businesses (EB as well as governments' key role in tourism sphere, especially in developing countries. As a result, the importance of policymaking in SME and EB has been growing through last decade. This study is trying to identify and prioritize the factors influencing SME and EB policy in Iran tourism scope. For this research, data were collected via exploratory mixed method in two steps. Firstly, qualitative techniques such as literature review has been done to find all scholarly work and then using qualitative content analysis, factors influencing SME policy in tourism has been identified. In second step, quantitative methods, namely survey and Statistical techniques were used for analysis. Population of this study comprised policymaking and tourism entrepreneurship experts of Iran. The survey results showed there were 40 variables into six factors under two main dimensions influence on SME and EB. Factors identified in this study can be used to formulate macro policies in the tourism industry and national policymakers can utilize these concepts for entrepreneurship and SME's development in tourism. This research contributes to the existing literature in the field of entrepreneurship policymaking by introduce a systematic framework. This new framework can provide better insights and inform thinking in the area of entrepreneurship policymaking.

  4. The clean development mechanism and urban air pollution A handbook for policymakers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefevre, T.; Todoc, J.L.; Thiansathit, W. [Centre for Energy Environment Resources Development CEERD, Bangkok (Thailand); Gomez Caldes, N.; Claude Labriet, M. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambiantales Tecnologicas, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Bakker, S.J.A.; Smekens, K.E.L. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Li, Sun; Leteng, Lin [Energy Research Institute of Shandong Academy of Sciences SDERI, Jinan, Shandong (China); Dass, A.; Bordoloi, A. [Winrock International India, Haryana (India); Haq, G.; Schwela, D. [Stockholm Environment Institute SEI, University of York, York (United Kingdom); Rahmah, A.; Salim, N. [Yayasan Pelangi Indonesia, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2008-01-15

    Urban air pollution is a serious health problem in large Asian cities. Often policymakers in those cities are not sufficiently equipped with budget or capacity to address urban air pollution. The clean development mechanism (CDM) could provide finance for air pollution reduction if the measures taken also reduce greenhouse gases. Indeed, there is room for synergy, as there is often a strong sectoral overlap between sources of air pollution and sources of greenhouse gases. This handbook is based on the results an EU Asia Pro Eco co-funded project 'CURB-AIR: CDM and urban air pollution: partnerships enhancing synergies in urban air and health in Kyoto mechanisms'. The CURB-AIR project intends to pave the way for projects that both improve air quality and reduce greenhouse gases emissions. The handbook aims to be a guide for policymakers, civil servants and anyone who is interested in the issue of CDM, urban air pollution and climate change. The Handbook consists of five chapters. Chapter 1 reviews the key issues of the synergy between air pollution, CDM, and climate change. Chapter 2 provides an overview of the various steps which constitute the CDM process. Chapter 3 examines the different types of CDM methodologies that could be applied to projects that contribute to improving urban air quality. Chapter 4 presents four case studies that examine the CDM methodological issues of urban projects that both improve air quality and reduce greenhouse gases emissions. Finally, Chapter 5 highlights the key conclusions with regard to the synergy between CDM and urban air pollution.

  5. Knowledge and power in policy-making for child survival in Niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalglish, Sarah L; Rodríguez, Daniela C; Harouna, Abdoutan; Surkan, Pamela J

    2017-03-01

    Calls to enhance the use of scientific evidence in international health and development policy have increased in recent years; however, analytic frameworks for understanding evidence use focus narrowly on scientific research and were created using data and observations nearly exclusively from Western countries. We examine processes of health policy development in a case study of Niger, a low-income West African country that adopted integrated community case management of childhood illness (iCCM) beginning in 2007, resulting in measurable declines in child mortality. Data collection included in-depth interviews with policy actors in Niger (N = 32), document review (N = 103) and direct observation of policy forums (N = 3). Data analysis used process tracing methodology and applied an Aristotelian definition of "knowledge" as 1) episteme (facts), 2) techne (skills) and 3) phronesis (practical wisdom), while also using a critical perspective to understand issues of power. We found sharp differentials in policy-makers' possession and use of codified forms of knowledge (episteme), with Nigerien policy officers' access highly mediated by actors at international agencies. Government policy-makers possessed skills and capacities (techne) to negotiate with donors and deliberate and weigh conflicting considerations; however they lacked capacity and resources to formally evaluate and document programs and thus reliably draw lessons from them. Practical wisdom (phronesis) emerged as key to the iCCM policy enterprise, particularly among Nigerien government actors, who used logical and ethical arguments to make decisions later found to be critical to iCCM's success. While codified knowledge confers power on members of policy discussions who can access it, this represents only one form of knowledge used in the policy process and perhaps not the most important. Future research on evidence-based policy should use broader definitions of evidence or knowledge, examine on how

  6. Screening radon risks: A methodology for policymakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisinger, D.S.; Simmons, R.A.; Lammering, M.; Sotiros, R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides an easy-to-use screening methodology to estimate potential excess lifetime lung cancer risk resulting from indoor radon exposure. The methodology was developed under U.S. EPA Office of Policy, Planning, and Evaluation sponsorship of the agency's Integrated Environmental Management Projects (IEMP) and State/Regional Comparative Risk Projects. These projects help policymakers understand and use scientific data to develop environmental problem-solving strategies. This research presents the risk assessment methodology, discusses its basis, and identifies appropriate applications. The paper also identifies assumptions built into the methodology and qualitatively addresses methodological uncertainties, the direction in which these uncertainties could bias analyses, and their relative importance. The methodology draws from several sources, including risk assessment formulations developed by the U.S. EPA's Office of Radiation Programs, the EPA's Integrated Environmental Management Project (Denver), the International Commission on Radiological Protection, and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. When constructed as a spreadsheet program, the methodology easily facilitates analyses and sensitivity studies (the paper includes several sensitivity study options). The methodology will be most helpful to those who need to make decisions concerning radon testing, public education, and exposure prevention and mitigation programs.26 references

  7. Measuring inconsistency in research ethics committee review

    OpenAIRE

    Trace, Samantha; Kolstoe, Simon Erik

    2017-01-01

    Background The review of human participant research by Research Ethics Committees (RECs) or Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) is a complex multi-faceted process that cannot be reduced to an algorithm. However, this does not give RECs/ IRBs permission to be inconsistent in their specific requirements to researchers or in their final opinions. In England the Health Research Authority (HRA) coordinates 67 committees, and has adopted a consistency improvement plan including a process called “Sha...

  8. Public Policy-Making in Contemporary Ethiopia | Abebe | Africa Insight

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article draws attention to the perennial problems and salient features of public policy-making in contemporary Ethiopia, namely, the imbalance between policy-making institutions and policy benefi ciaries, and how these have infl uenced policy formulation and implementation from 1991 to 2004. Drawing from interviews ...

  9. What Policymakers Can Do to Make Education Inclusive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijl, Sip Jan; Frissen, Paul H. A.

    Inclusive education challenges all schools to cater for a wider range of students. This implies that schools and teachers have to change. This literature study analyses how, if at all, policymakers can bring about changes in schools. Specific steering concepts of policymakers, whose interventions

  10. The Policymaking, Institutional and Administrative Practices of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article documents the predominant policymaking, institutional and administrative practices of what came to be known as the Dergue regime that ruled Ethiopia from 1974 to 1991. It identifies and describes the key institutional, individual and group players that had exclusive claim over the public policymaking process ...

  11. Enhancing the Capacity of Policy-Makers to Develop Evidence-Informed Policy Brief on Infectious Diseases of Poverty in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chigozie Jesse Uneke

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The lack of effective use of research evidence in policy-making is a major challenge in most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. There is need to package research data into effective policy tools that will help policy-makers to make evidence-informed policy regarding infectious diseases of poverty (IDP. The objective of this study was to assess the usefulness of training workshops and mentoring to enhance the capacity of Nigerian health policy-makers to develop evidence-informed policy brief on the control of IDP. Methods A modified “before and after” intervention study design was used in which outcomes were measured on the target participants both before the intervention is implemented and after. A 4-point Likert scale according to the degree of adequacy; 1 = “grossly inadequate,” 4 = “very adequate” was employed. The main parameter measured was participants’ perceptions of their own knowledge/understanding. This study was conducted at subnational level and the participants were the career health policy-makers drawn from Ebonyi State in the South-Eastern Nigeria. A oneday evidence-to-policy workshop was organized to enhance the participants’ capacity to develop evidence-informed policy brief on IDP in Ebonyi State. Topics covered included collaborative initiative; preparation and use of policy briefs; policy dialogue; ethics in health policy-making; and health policy and politics. Results The preworkshop mean of knowledge and capacity ranged from 2.49-3.03, while the postworkshop mean ranged from 3.42–3.78 on 4-point scale. The percentage increase in mean of knowledge and capacity at the end of the workshop ranged from 20.10%–45%. Participants were divided into 3 IDP mentorship groups (malaria, schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis [LF] and were mentored to identify potential policy options/recommendations for control of the diseases for the policy briefs. These policy options were subjected to research

  12. Measurement Properties of Outcome Measures for Vitiligo A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijman, C.; Homan, M.W.L.; Limpens, J.; Veen, W.; Wolkerstorfer, A.; Terwee, C.B.; Spuls, P.I.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To summarize and critically appraise the evidence on the measurement properties of clinician-, patient-, and observer-reported outcomes, measuring any construct of interest in patients with all types of vitiligo. Data Sources: Electronic databases including PubMed (1948 to July 2011),

  13. Measurement properties of outcome measures for vitiligo. A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijman, Charlotte; Linthorst Homan, May W.; Limpens, Jacqueline; van der Veen, Wietze; Wolkerstorfer, Albert; Terwee, Caroline B.; Spuls, Phyllis I.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To summarize and critically appraise the evidence on the measurement properties of clinician-, patient-, and observer-reported outcomes, measuring any construct of interest in patients with all types of vitiligo. DATA SOURCES Electronic databases including PubMed (1948 to July 2011), OVID

  14. Measurement Properties of Instruments for Measuring of Lymphedema: Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hidding, J.T.; Viehoff, P.B.; Beurskens, C.H.G.; Laarhoven, H.W. van; Sanden, M.W. van der; Wees, P.J. van der

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lymphedema is a common complication of cancer treatment, resulting in swelling and subjective symptoms. Reliable and valid measurement of this side effect of medical treatment is important. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to provide best evidence regarding which measurement

  15. Stakeholder Partnerships as Collaborative Policymaking: Evaluation Criteria Applied to Watershed Management in California and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, William D.; Pelkey, Neil W.; Sabatier, Paul A.

    2002-01-01

    Public policymaking and implementation in the United States are increasingly handled through local, consensus-seeking partnerships involving most affected stakeholders. This paper formalizes the concept of a stakeholder partnership, and proposes techniques for using interviews, surveys, and documents to measure each of six evaluation criteria.…

  16. Waste receiving and processing drum weight measurement uncertainty review findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LANE, M.P.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of reviewing the weight scale operation at the WRAP facility was to determine the uncertainty associated with weight measurements. Weight measurement uncertainty is needed to support WRAP Nondestructive Examination (NDE) and Non-destructive Assay (NDA) analysis

  17. Review of measures to control radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindon, T.N.

    1980-03-01

    Methods used in Canada and the U.S.A. to overcome problems in the control of radiation, to prescribe standards and to ensure that compliance with the standards is achieved are reviewed. The relevant Acts and Regulations are outlined. Options which could be applied in Australia for effecting better control of radiation are suggested

  18. Outcome Measures in Tele-Rehabilitation and Virtual Reality for Stroke Survivors: Protocol for a Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veras, Mirella; Kairy, Dahlia; Rogante, Marco; Giacomozzi, Claudia

    2015-05-17

    Despite the increased interest about tele-rehabilitation, virtual reality and outcome measures for stroke rehabilitation, surprisingly little research has been done to map and summarize the most common outcome measures used in tele-rehabilitation. For this review, we propose to conduct a systematic search of the literature that reports outcome measures used in tele-rehabilitation or virtual reality for stroke rehabilitation. Specific objectives include: 1) to identify the outcome measures used in tele-rehabilitation studies; 2) to describe the psychometric properties of the outcome measures in the included studies; 3) to describe which parts of the International Classification of Functioning are measured in the studies. we will conduct a comprehensive search of relevant electronic databases (e.g., PUBMED, CINAHL, EMBASE, PSYCOINFO, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trial and PEDRO). The scoping review will include all study designs. Two reviewers will pilot-test the data extraction forms and will independently screen all the studies and extract the data. Disagreements about inclusion or exclusion will be resolved by consensus or by consulting a third reviewer. The results will be synthesized and reported considering the implications of the findings within the clinical practice and policy context. Dissemination: we anticipate that this scoping review will contribute to inform researchers and end-users (ie, clinicians and policy-makers), regarding the most appropriate outcome measures for tele-rehabilitation or virtual reality as well as help to identify gaps in current measures. Results will be disseminated through reports and open access journals, conference presentations, as well as newsletters, podcasts and meetings targeting all the relevant stakeholders.

  19. EEO Review : youth employment measures, 2010 - Malta

    OpenAIRE

    Debono, Manwel

    2010-01-01

    This report explores youth employment measures in Malta. It outlines the trends in youth employment. Then it examines measures taken to promote youth employment, focusing on school education and training policies, labour market and employment-related policies, and access to benefits. Finally, the report focuses on the roles of labour market actors in the promotion of youth employment.

  20. Measuring the Balance Control System – Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Jančová

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Past studies of postural control during standing have employed wide range of procedures including the outcome measures use to quantify postural control, the duration of the sample collected, sampling frequency and methods for data processing. Due to these differences there remains little, if any, common grounds for comparisons between studies to establish a concrete understanding of the features and bouns which characterize normal healthy postural control. This article deals with terms such as reliability and repeatability of stabilometric measurements, stabilometric data quantification and analysis. To clear up those terms is suggested, by the author of this paper, very important. The stabilometric measurements remain, nevertheless, different when dealing with aging adults. Though, we notes some alterations of the aging systems, this article is not entirely dedicated to the seniors population. Measurements of COP and technical notes remain the main axis of present paper.

  1. Review of air flow measurement techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McWilliams, Jennifer

    2002-12-01

    Airflow measurement techniques are necessary to determine the most basic of indoor air quality questions: ''Is there enough fresh air to provide a healthy environment for the occupants of the building?'' This paper outlines airflow measurement techniques, but it does not make recommendations for techniques that should be used. The airflows that will be discussed are those within a room or zone, those between rooms or zones, such as through doorways (open or closed) or passive vents, those between the building and outdoors, and those through mechanical air distribution systems. Techniques that are highlighted include particle streak velocimetry, hot wire anemometry, fan pressurization (measuring flow at a given pressure), tracer gas, acoustic methods for leak size determination, the Delta Q test to determine duct leakage flows, and flow hood measurements. Because tracer gas techniques are widely used to measure airflow, this topic is broken down into sections as follows: decay, pulse injection, constant injection, constant concentration, passive sampling, and single and multiple gas measurements for multiple zones.

  2. HIV/AIDS Policy-Making in Iran: Part 2- from Formulation to Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Khodayari Zarnaq

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Achieving an appropriate policy needs an in-depth and comprehensive understanding of policy-making process. This study aimed to analyze HIV/AIDS policy-making process in Iran. Material and Methods: This is a qualitative/exploratory study. Data were collected through document review and semi-structured interview. Non-probability sampling was used for selecting documents and research participants. We used framework analysis approach assisted by MAXQDA for analyzing qualitative data. Results: AIDS policy is formulated in two specific ways within national work group in the format of national strategic plan and drug damage reduction committee. The main problem of the policy process is fragmentation and lack of comprehensiveness. Country approach of the policy implementation is top-down. The main duty of country committee and its sub-committees facing with some challenges is generating interaction between the relevant organizations. Despite the specific structure of evaluation process, it suffers from challenges such as lack of required implementation power, lack of resource anticipation, weakness in systematic and comprehensiveness evaluation and not-enough cooperation among plan’s stakeholders. Conclusion: It is obvious that policy-making in this area is completely governmental and the role of non-governmental organizations and civil servants is neglected. It seems that reform in AIDS policy-making structure and process can solve most of the problems of implementation, monitoring and evaluation.

  3. A systematic review of health care efficiency measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, Peter S; de Vries, Han; Romley, John; Wang, Margaret C; Chen, Susan S; Shekelle, Paul G; McGlynn, Elizabeth A

    2009-06-01

    To review and characterize existing health care efficiency measures in order to facilitate a common understanding about the adequacy of these methods. Review of the MedLine and EconLit databases for articles published from 1990 to 2008, as well as search of the "gray" literature for additional measures developed by private organizations. We performed a systematic review for existing efficiency measures. We classified the efficiency measures by perspective, outputs, inputs, methods used, and reporting of scientific soundness. We identified 265 measures in the peer-reviewed literature and eight measures in the gray literature, with little overlap between the two sets of measures. Almost all of the measures did not explicitly consider the quality of care. Thus, if quality varies substantially across groups, which is likely in some cases, the measures reflect only the costs of care, not efficiency. Evidence on the measures' scientific soundness was mostly lacking: evidence on reliability or validity was reported for six measures (2.3 percent) and sensitivity analyses were reported for 67 measures (25.3 percent). Efficiency measures have been subjected to few rigorous evaluations of reliability and validity, and methods of accounting for quality of care in efficiency measurement are not well developed at this time. Use of these measures without greater understanding of these issues is likely to engender resistance from providers and could lead to unintended consequences.

  4. Sustainability Reporting as a Challenge for Performance Measurement: Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Klovienė, Lina; Speziale, Maria Teresa

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a systematic literature review of scientific works on the integration of performance measurement (PM) and sustainability reporting (SR) applying content analysis. The research question is how performance measurement system (PMS) could help to ensure an effective sustainability reporting. The literature review shows the relationship between PMS and sustainability reporting in terms of integrated purpose, measurements and actors/ownership in supporting the decision-ma...

  5. The anatomy of EU policy-making: Appointing the experts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Field

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available At 38,000, the total number of staff at the European Commission is relatively small for a body representing half a billion citizens. Likewise, the 3,500 strong research and statistical team is modest in size given that it operates across the Directorates General and other services. In order to assist policy-makers, the Commission supplements this research base by using outside expertise to advise at all stages of the policy-making process. For many years, those who observe the European Union’s institutions have recognised that this use of outside expertise to assist with the shaping of policy presents a potential democratic shortfall. The 2001 White Paper on Governance acknowledged that the line between expertise and political authority had become blurred and that, increasingly, the public questioned the independence of expert advice. The following year, the Commission published its first set of guidelines on the collection and use of expertise, listing ‘openness’ as one of three core principles. Despite considerable changes that have occurred in the transparency landscape in the intervening period, the Commission’s commitment to this core principle of expertise remains. This article investigates the measures the Commission introduced specifically to facilitate this openness. Applying a structure-agency approach, the article characterises an expert group as a ‘community of knowledge’ and contrasts the transparency of the Commission’s formal appointment procedures with the less visible but frequently used informal measures through which individuals are identified and approached. Based on a recent and highly relevant case, the article employs data gathered from the near contemporaneous accounts of expert group members and Commission officials. It finds that the reported appointment processes do not reflect the widespread incidence of individuals selected based on previous contact or personal recommendation and argues that this may

  6. Review of SQUID Sensors for Measuring Magnetocardiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. H.; Kim, J. M.; Yu, K. K.; Kim, K.; Kwon, H. [Brain and Cognition Measurement Lab, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    Measurement of magnetic signals generated from electric activity of myocardium provides useful information for the functional diagnosis of heart diseases. Key technical component of the magnetocardiography (MCG) technology is SQUID. To measure MCG signals with high signal-to-noise ratio, sensitive SQUID magnetic field sensors are needed. Present magnetic field sensors based on Nb SQUIDs have field sensitivity good enough to measure most of MCG signals. However, for accurate measurement of fine signal pattern or detection of local atrial fibrillation signals, we may need higher field sensitivity. In addition to field sensitivity, economic aspect of the SQUID system is also important. To simplify the SQUID readout electronics, the output voltage or flux-to-voltage transfer of SQUID should be large enough so that direct measurement of SQUID output can be done using room-temperature preamplifiers. Double relaxation oscillation SQUID (DROS), having about 10 times larger flux-to-voltage transfers than those of DC-SQUIDs, was shown to be a good choice to make the electronics compact. For effective cancellation of external noise inside a thin economic shielded room, first-order axial gradiometer with high balance, simple structure and long-baseline is needed. We developed a technology to make the axial gradiometer compact using direct bonding of superconductive wires between pickup coil and input coil. Conventional insert has mechanical support to hold the gradiometer array, and the dewar neck has equal diameter with the dewar bottom. Boiling of the liquid He can generate mechanical vibrations in the gradiometer array due to mechanical connection structure. Elimination of the mechanical support, and direct mounting of the gradiometer array into the dewar bottom can reduce the dewar neck diameter, resulting in the reduction of liquid He consumption.

  7. BOOK REVIEW Quantum Measurement and Control Quantum Measurement and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Claus

    2010-12-01

    In the last two decades there has been an enormous progress in the experimental investigation of single quantum systems. This progress covers fields such as quantum optics, quantum computation, quantum cryptography, and quantum metrology, which are sometimes summarized as `quantum technologies'. A key issue there is entanglement, which can be considered as the characteristic feature of quantum theory. As disparate as these various fields maybe, they all have to deal with a quantum mechanical treatment of the measurement process and, in particular, the control process. Quantum control is, according to the authors, `control for which the design requires knowledge of quantum mechanics'. Quantum control situations in which measurements occur at important steps are called feedback (or feedforward) control of quantum systems and play a central role here. This book presents a comprehensive and accessible treatment of the theoretical tools that are needed to cope with these situations. It also provides the reader with the necessary background information about the experimental developments. The authors are both experts in this field to which they have made significant contributions. After an introduction to quantum measurement theory and a chapter on quantum parameter estimation, the central topic of open quantum systems is treated at some length. This chapter includes a derivation of master equations, the discussion of the Lindblad form, and decoherence - the irreversible emergence of classical properties through interaction with the environment. A separate chapter is devoted to the description of open systems by the method of quantum trajectories. Two chapters then deal with the central topic of quantum feedback control, while the last chapter gives a concise introduction to one of the central applications - quantum information. All sections contain a bunch of exercises which serve as a useful tool in learning the material. Especially helpful are also various separate

  8. Looking for Trouble: A Policymaker's Guide to Biosensing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Armstrong, Robert; Coomber, Patricia; Prior, Stephen; Dincher, Ashley

    2004-01-01

    .... This primer is written for the non-technical policymaker and is designed to assist him or her in reaching important decisions regarding how best to help provide early warning of a biological attack...

  9. Advancing Evidence Based Policymaking and Regulation to Ensure ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ? Rapports. Research, capacity-building, advocacy and dissemination by LIRNEasia : advancing evidence-based policymaking and regulation in the emerging Asia-Pacific to ensure greater participation in ICTs (Phase II); final technical report ...

  10. Electrophysiological measurements of spectral sensitivities: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.D. DeVoe

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Spectral sensitivities of visual systems are specified as the reciprocals of the intensities of light (quantum fluxes needed at each wavelength to elicit the same criterion amplitude of responses. This review primarily considers the methods that have been developed for electrophysiological determinations of criterion amplitudes of slow-wave responses from single retinal cells. Traditional flash methods can require tedious dark adaptations and may yield erroneous spectral sensitivity curves which are not seen in such modifications as ramp methods. Linear response methods involve interferometry, while constant response methods involve manual or automatic adjustments of continuous illumination to keep response amplitudes constant during spectral scans. In DC or AC computerized constant response methods, feedback to determine intensities at each wavelength is derived from the response amplitudes themselves. Although all but traditional flash methods have greater or lesser abilities to provide on-line determinations of spectral sensitivities, computerized constant response methods are the most satisfactory due to flexibility, speed and maintenance of a constant adaptation level

  11. Forest carbon calculators: a review for managers, policymakers, and educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harold S.J. Zald; Thomas A. Spies; Mark E. Harmon; Mark J. Twery

    2016-01-01

    Forests play a critical role sequestering atmospheric carbon dioxide, partially offsetting greenhouse gas emissions, and thereby mitigating climate change. Forest management, natural disturbances, and the fate of carbon in wood products strongly influence carbon sequestration and emissions in the forest sector. Government policies, carbon offset and trading programs,...

  12. Strengthening the framework for independence of science in policymaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, A.; Phartiyal, P.; Halpern, M.; Goldman, G. T.; Reed, G.

    2016-12-01

    The "independence" of scientific advice—shorthand for the safeguards that are needed to ensure that scientific evidence that informs policy proposals stems from a valid and credible scientific process—is crucial to better policy decisions and public faith in public policy decisions. To the public, and often policy-makers, the process of developing, refereeing, and synthesizing science is often opaque, confusing, and underappreciated. At the same time, calls for disclosure of real or perceived conflicts of interest and for greater public access to scientific information and data are increasing. Further, vested interests routinely produce their own analyses, which often do not meet acceptable standards, to justify their own ends or a particular pre-determined policy position for economic, political, ideological, or other gains. These are not speculative concerns. For example, conflict of interest disclosure is often incomplete and inconsistently enforced. Peer review, even in the academic community, has been compromised or circumvented in too many cases. Scientific misconduct and research integrity in several fields have become high-profile scandals. Scientific integrity policies in government agencies are not fully implemented. A decline in public funding of research makes private-public partnerships more commonplace, and sometimes, those partnerships allow funders to unduly influence faculty appointment, curricula, and research. In this complicated landscape, a coherent, publicly credible and acceptable framework to assure that scientific advice is independent is sorely needed. Such a framework must incorporate best practices such as peer review; disclosure of conflicts; public availability of research findings, methodology and data; reproducibility of results; scientific freedom to publish; and deterrents against scientific misconduct. The framework would be broadly applicable across many technical fields and sectors. Here we delve into each of these elements

  13. Measurement of patient satisfaction with community pharmacy services: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik Panvelkar, Pradnya; Saini, Bandana; Armour, Carol

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this review is to conduct an in-depth analysis of the available literature in order to identify and evaluate studies measuring patient satisfaction with pharmacy services delivered by pharmacists in a community setting. An extensive literature search was conducted in five databases (Medline, Scopus, Embase, Psychinfo, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts) using the search terms "patient/client/consumer satisfaction" AND "community pharmacy/pharmacies" AND "pharmacy service/pharmaceutical services/pharmacy program/intervention/intervention studies". Only those articles where the main focus was measuring patient satisfaction with services delivered in community pharmacies were included in the review. Patient satisfaction was explored with three different levels of pharmacy services -- general services, intervention services and cognitive services. Twenty-four articles measuring patient satisfaction with community pharmacy services were retrieved. Of these, eleven measured patient satisfaction with general services, six measured satisfaction with intervention services and seven measured satisfaction with cognitive services. The majority of studies reviewed had adopted and measured satisfaction as a multidimensional construct. None of the studies reviewed tested any theoretical models of satisfaction. Further a lack of consistent instruments measuring patient satisfaction was observed, with most of the reviewed studies using self developed, non-validated or ad hoc instruments with items from various previously published papers. The review also observed high levels of patient satisfaction with pharmacy services be they general, intervention or cognitive services. This review found that patient satisfaction has been measured within the community pharmacy context to a certain degree. Further research is needed to develop and test instruments based on theoretical frameworks, to test satisfaction pre and post hoc and in well designed randomized controlled

  14. Bioenergy production and sustainable development: science base for policymaking remains limited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo-Abad, Carmenza; Althaus, Hans-Jörg; Berndes, Göran; Bolwig, Simon; Corbera, Esteve; Creutzig, Felix; Garcia-Ulloa, John; Geddes, Anna; Gregg, Jay S; Haberl, Helmut; Hanger, Susanne; Harper, Richard J; Hunsberger, Carol; Larsen, Rasmus K; Lauk, Christian; Leitner, Stefan; Lilliestam, Johan; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Muys, Bart; Nordborg, Maria; Ölund, Maria; Orlowsky, Boris; Popp, Alexander; Portugal-Pereira, Joana; Reinhard, Jürgen; Scheiffle, Lena; Smith, Pete

    2017-03-01

    The possibility of using bioenergy as a climate change mitigation measure has sparked a discussion of whether and how bioenergy production contributes to sustainable development. We undertook a systematic review of the scientific literature to illuminate this relationship and found a limited scientific basis for policymaking. Our results indicate that knowledge on the sustainable development impacts of bioenergy production is concentrated in a few well-studied countries, focuses on environmental and economic impacts, and mostly relates to dedicated agricultural biomass plantations. The scope and methodological approaches in studies differ widely and only a small share of the studies sufficiently reports on context and/or baseline conditions, which makes it difficult to get a general understanding of the attribution of impacts. Nevertheless, we identified regional patterns of positive or negative impacts for all categories - environmental, economic, institutional, social and technological. In general, economic and technological impacts were more frequently reported as positive, while social and environmental impacts were more frequently reported as negative (with the exception of impacts on direct substitution of GHG emission from fossil fuel). More focused and transparent research is needed to validate these patterns and develop a strong science underpinning for establishing policies and governance agreements that prevent/mitigate negative and promote positive impacts from bioenergy production.

  15. Measurement properties of questionnaires measuring continuity of care: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijen, A.A.; Heinst, C.W.; Schellevis, F.G.; Bosch, W.J.H.M. van den; Laar, F.A. van de; Terwee, C.B.; Schers, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Continuity of care is widely acknowledged as a core value in family medicine. In this systematic review, we aimed to identify the instruments measuring continuity of care and to assess the quality of their measurement properties. Methods: We did a systematic review using the PubMed,

  16. Measurement Properties of Questionnaires Measuring Continuity of Care: A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijen, A.A.; Heinst, C.W.; Schellevis, F.G.; van den Bosch, W.J.H.M.; van de Laar, F.A.; Terwee, C.B.; Schers, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Continuity of care is widely acknowledged as a core value in family medicine. In this systematic review, we aimed to identify the instruments measuring continuity of care and to assess the quality of their measurement properties. Methods: We did a systematic review using the PubMed,

  17. Measurement properties of questionnaires measuring continuity of care: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijen, A.A.; Heinst, C.W.; Schellevis, F.G.; Bosch, W.J.H.M. van den; Laar, F.A. van de; Terwee, C.B.; Schers, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Continuity of care is widely acknowledged as a core value in family medicine. In this systematic review, we aimed to identify the instruments measuring continuity of care and to assess the quality of their measurement properties. METHODS: We did a systematic review using the PubMed,

  18. e-Health readiness assessment factors and measuring tools: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusif, Salifu; Hafeez-Baig, Abdul; Soar, Jeffrey

    2017-11-01

    The evolving, adoption and high failure nature of health information technology (HIT)/IS/T systems requires effective readiness assessment to avert increasing failures while increasing system benefits. However, literature on HIT readiness assessment is myriad and fragmented. This review bares the contours of the available literature concluding in a set of manageable and usable recommendations for policymakers, researchers, individuals and organizations intending to assess readiness for any HIT implementation. Identify studies, analyze readiness factors and offer recommendations. Published articles 1995-2016 were searched using Medline/PubMed, Cinahl, Web of Science, PsychInfo, ProQuest. Studies were included if they were assessing IS/T/mHealth readiness in the context of HIT. Articles not written in English were excluded. Themes that emerged in the process of the data synthesis were thematically analysed and interpreted. Analyzed themes were found across 63 articles. In accordance with their prevalence of use, they included but not limited to "Technological readiness", 30 (46%); "Core/Need/Motivational readiness", 23 (37%); "Acceptance and use readiness", 19 (29%); "Organizational readiness", 20 (21%); "IT skills/Training/Learning readiness" (18%), "Engagement readiness", 16 (24%) and "Societal readiness" (14%). Despite their prevalence in use, "Technological readiness", "Motivational readiness" and "Engagement readiness" all had myriad and unreliable measuring tools. Core readiness had relatively reliable measuring tools, which repeatedly been used in various readiness assessment studies CONCLUSION: Thus, there is the need for reliable measuring tools for even the most commonly used readiness assessment factors/constructs: Core readiness, Engagement and buy-ins readiness, Technological readiness and IT Skills readiness as this could serve as an immediate step in conducting effective/reliable e-Health readiness assessment, which could lead to reduced HIT

  19. Gsm Networks: A Review Of Security Threats And Mitigation Measures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gsm Networks: A Review Of Security Threats And Mitigation Measures. ... Information Manager (The) ... This paper investigates the security measures used in GSM networks which include Authentication, Encryption, Equipment Identification and Subscriber Identity Confidentiality, as well as the manifestation of network ...

  20. Review of Brookhaven nuclear transparency measurements in (p,2p ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Review of Brookhaven nuclear transparency measurements in (p,2p) reactions at large Q. 2. ALAN S CARROLL. Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA. Abstract. In this contribution we summarize the results of two experiments to measure the trans- parency of nuclei in ...

  1. A review of definitions and measures of system resilience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, Seyedmohsen; Barker, Kash; Ramirez-Marquez, Jose E.

    2016-01-01

    Modeling and evaluating the resilience of systems, potentially complex and large-scale in nature, has recently raised significant interest among both practitioners and researchers. This recent interest has resulted in several definitions of the concept of resilience and several approaches to measuring this concept, across several application domains. As such, this paper presents a review of recent research articles related to defining and quantifying resilience in various disciplines, with a focus on engineering systems. We provide a classification scheme to the approaches in the literature, focusing on qualitative and quantitative approaches and their subcategories. Addressed in this review are: an extensive coverage of the literature, an exploration of current gaps and challenges, and several directions for future research. - Highlights: • A comprehensive review of definitions and measures of system resilience. • Focus given to resilience in engineering systems is provided. • Nearly 150 articles across several domains are reviewed. • Future directions in resilience research are discussed.

  2. Policy-Making in Unemployment Services:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caswell, Dorte; Høybye-Mortensen, Matilde

    labelled neoliberal paternalism (Soss et al., 2011a). The focus of this article is one such punitive method: the use of economic sanctions towards cash benefit recipients in Denmark. These sanctions are implemented in ways that enable performance measurements of the welfare providers. Punitive sanctions...... have gained more political legitimacy and are being more widely used as a tool to improve the willingness of the unemployed clients to participate in activities under the canopy of active labour market policy. This does not only affect unemployed people, who are highly employable, but also those who...

  3. Satisfaction measurement instruments for healthcare service users: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Renato Santos de; Bourliataux-Lajoinie, Stephane; Martins, Mônica

    2015-01-01

    Patient satisfaction surveys can be an interesting way to improve quality and discuss the concept of patient-centered care. This study aimed to conduct a systematic review of the validated patient satisfaction measurement instruments applied in healthcare. The systematic review searched the MEDLINE/PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, Scopus and Web of Knowledge. The search strategy used the terms: "Patient Satisfaction" AND "Patient centered care" AND "Healthcare survey OR Satisfaction questionnaire" AND...

  4. Involvement of external stakeholders in local health policymaking process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eklund Karlsson, Leena; Jakobsen, Mette Winge; Winblad Heiberg, Malin

    2017-01-01

    Collaboration between research and policy is an essential element for knowledge-based public health. However, only half of the Danish municipalities have experience with collaborating with researchers or other stakeholders. Through content analysis of interviews and policy documents the study...... explores the involvement of external stakeholders in local health policymaking and public officials’ perceptions on involving them. Main involvement was through a personal contact or through a regular hearing. The purpose of involvement was mostly tactical or to solve problems. Politicians had substantial...... influence on the involvement of external stakeholders, allowing only a few to contribute in a closed policymaking process....

  5. Measuring Consumer Engagement: A Review of Tools and Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Laurie M; Brindis, Claire D; Hughes, Dana; Kennedy, Caitlin E; Schmidt, Laura A

    2017-08-02

    Consumer engagement is increasingly emphasized in healthcare initiatives and has been a priority in healthcare reforms. Consumer engagement takes multiple forms, including increased involvement of consumers in their own care, in organizational design, and in broader policy decision-making processes. Determining the effectiveness of such involvement requires both effective measurement and empirical study, both of which have yet to be standardized or fully explored. In this review, we examine both existing measurement tools for consumer engagement and current empirical knowledge regarding the outcomes associated with each of three levels of consumer engagement. Although measurement and results at the level of direct care are more established, measurement of consumer engagement, let alone its effects at the organizational design or policy level, is less well developed. Building on our review, we make suggestions for how to fill the current gaps in understanding the measurement and outcomes of consumer engagement.

  6. Measures of Competitive Intensity – Analysis Based on Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Kwieciński

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To systematize the existing approaches and tools used for measuring competitive intensity. Methodology: Systematic literature review along with critical literature review. Findings: Identifcation of two main approaches to measuring competition intensity: the frst pertains to research based on experts’ opinions and involves the use of questionnaires (primary sources, while the second is based on structural variables used with a variety of indexes (secondary sources. In addition, variables applied for the purpose of measuring the intensity of competition are divided into structural and behavioural. Research implications: Research implications are two-fold. Firstly, a distinction is made between various types of existing approaches to measuring competitive intensity. Secondly, research is carried out, inter alia, with regard to the actual object of certain measures, as opposed to their object stemming from commonly accepted defnitions. Practical implications: The issue of measuring competition intensity occupies a prominent place in the discussion on the effectiveness of inter-organizational relationships. The fndings outlined in this paper may help managers to develop/adopt the right approach supporting their strategic decisions. Originality: The paper provides a complex review of the existing methods and measures of competitive intensity. It systematizes recent knowledge about competitive intensity measurements.

  7. The global stock of research evidence relevant to health systems policymaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael G; Moat, Kaelan A; Lavis, John N

    2013-09-04

    Policymakers and stakeholders need immediate access to many types of research evidence to make informed decisions about the full range of questions that may arise regarding health systems. We examined all types of research evidence about governance, financial and delivery arrangements, and implementation strategies within health systems contained in Health Systems Evidence (HSE) (http://www.healthsystemsevidence.org). The research evidence types include evidence briefs for policy, overviews of systematic reviews, systematic reviews of effects, systematic reviews addressing other questions, systematic reviews in progress, systematic reviews being planned, economic evaluations, and health reform and health system descriptions. Specifically, we describe their distribution across health system topics and domains, trends in their production over time, availability of supplemental content in various languages, and the extent to which they focus on low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), as well as (for systematic reviews) their methodological quality and the availability of user-friendly summaries. As of July 2013, HSE contained 2,629 systematic reviews of effects (of which 501 are Cochrane reviews), 614 systematic reviews addressing other questions, 283 systematic reviews in progress, 186 systematic reviews being planned, 140 review-derived products (evidence briefs and overviews of systematic reviews), 1,669 economic evaluations, 1,092 health reform descriptions, and 209 health system descriptions. Most systematic reviews address topics related to delivery arrangements (n = 2,663) or implementation strategies (n = 1,653) with far fewer addressing financial (n = 241) or governance arrangements (n = 231). In addition, 2,928 systematic reviews have been quality appraised with moderate AMSTAR ratings found for reviews addressing governance (5.6/11), financial (5.9/11), and delivery (6.3/11) arrangements and implementation strategies (6.5/11); 1,075 systematic reviews

  8. A review of instruments developed to measure food neophobia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsbo-Svendsen, Marie; Frøst, Michael Bom; Olsen, Annemarie

    2017-01-01

    Food choices are influenced by an individual's attitude towards foods. Food neophobia may be associated with less variety of diets, inadequate nutrient intake and high product failure rate for new food products entering the market. To quantify the extent of these challenges, instruments to measure...... the food neophobia in different target groups are needed. Several such instruments with significantly different measurement outcomes and procedures have been developed. This review provides an overview and discusses strengths and weaknesses of these instruments...

  9. Stewart's maxims: eight "do's" for successfully communicating silviculture to policymakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. E. Stewart

    1997-01-01

    Technical specialists may experience difficulties in presenting information to non-technical policymakers and having that information used. Eight maxims are discussed that should help the silviculturist successfully provide technical information to non-technical audiences so that it will be considered in the formulation of policy.

  10. Advancing Evidence Based Policymaking and Regulation to Ensure ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Advancing Evidence Based Policymaking and Regulation to Ensure Greater Participation in ICTs (LIRNEasia Phase II). Significant strides have been made in closing the digital divide in Asia, mainly due to the proliferation of mobile telephones. Close to a billion people, some among the poorest segments of society, have ...

  11. Governance and political consumerism in Finnish energy policy-making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruostetsaari, Ilkka [University of Turku, Turku (Finland)

    2009-01-15

    The research task in the study was, firstly, to analyse citizens' perceptions of the power structure underlying Finnish energy policy-making. Secondly, we analysed the role of civil society in the energy sector, addressing the question whether Finns feel that they can influence energy policy-making as citizens through general elections (civic participation) or as consumers via their own consumption choices (political consumerism). Methodologically, the study was based on postal survey conducted in 2007 among a random sample representing 18-75-year-old Finns (N=4000). According to the views expressed, the innermost core of the influence structure of Finland's energy policy-making today comprises only the Cabinet and Parliament, while the second circle is composed of energy-producer firms and big firms. The European Union, the Ministry of the Environment and the Ministry of Trade and Industry belong to the third circle of influence. The power relations in Finland's energy sector have continued particularly stable since the late 1980s despite the liberalization and globalization of the energy markets. In order to influence energy policy-making, citizens consider their own consumption choices more useful than voting in elections or contacts with MPs, authorities and energy-producing companies. The least useful devices are radical environmental activism and participation in mass demonstrations. (author)

  12. Monetary union without fiscal coordination may discipline policymakers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; Bovenberg, A.L.

    1995-01-01

    We show that, with benevolent policymakers and fiscal leadership, monetary unification reduces inflation, taxes and public spending. These disciplining effects of a monetary union, which rise with the number of fiscal players in the union, are likely to raise welfare. Joining an optimally designed

  13. A dual justification for science-based policy-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, David Budtz

    2014-01-01

    Science-based policy-making has grown ever more important in recent years, in parallel with the dramatic increase in the complexity and uncertainty of the ways in which science and technology interact with society and economy at the national, regional and global level. Installing a proper framewo...

  14. Use of research evidence in policymaking in three Danish municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Mette Winge; Lau, Cathrine Juel; Skovgaard, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    This article analyses the use of research evidence (RE) in three policy processes, at the local level, dealing with physical activity. We analysed an extensive number of policy documents and a total of 14 interviews with policymakers. Results show an unsystematic way of using RE, where demographic...

  15. Power, Politics and Transnational Policy-Making in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutsios, Stavros

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the relation between power and politics under the conditions of economic globalisation and transnational policy-making in education. The paper argues that power lies not only with the producers of the dominant educational discourse nor simply with the very discourse which is circulated and reproduced in national legislations,…

  16. Education Hubs and Talent Development: Policymaking and Implementation Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jack T.

    2014-01-01

    The discourse on the internationalization of higher education emphasizes revenue generation while neglecting other diverse rationales pursued by governments and institutions. For countries that are seeking to venture into a knowledge economy or accrue greater competitive advantages under globalization, many policymakers view cross-border higher…

  17. Democratization and Participation: National Education Policy-Making in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredua-Kwarteng, Eric

    2016-01-01

    This is Ghanaian case study that focuses on widening participation in national education policy-making via a social justice panel. It analyses the narratives of two former members of the Ghana Education Reform Committee and focus-groups interviews of ordinary Ghanaians. While the narratives of commission members are in favour of maintaining the…

  18. Governance and political consumerism in Finnish energy policy-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruostetsaari, Ilkka

    2009-01-01

    The research task in the study was, firstly, to analyse citizens' perceptions of the power structure underlying Finnish energy policy-making. Secondly, we analysed the role of civil society in the energy sector, addressing the question whether Finns feel that they can influence energy policy-making as citizens through general elections (civic participation) or as consumers via their own consumption choices (political consumerism). Methodologically, the study was based on postal survey conducted in 2007 among a random sample representing 18-75-year-old Finns (N=4000). According to the views expressed, the innermost core of the influence structure of Finland's energy policy-making today comprises only the Cabinet and Parliament, while the second circle is composed of energy-producer firms and big firms. The European Union, the Ministry of the Environment and the Ministry of Trade and Industry belong to the third circle of influence. The power relations in Finland's energy sector have continued particularly stable since the late 1980s despite the liberalization and globalization of the energy markets. In order to influence energy policy-making, citizens consider their own consumption choices more useful than voting in elections or contacts with MPs, authorities and energy-producing companies. The least useful devices are radical environmental activism and participation in mass demonstrations

  19. Monetary union without fiscal coordination may discipline policymakers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; Bovenberg, A.L.

    1998-01-01

    With benevolent policymakers and fiscal leadership, monetary unification reduces inflation, taxes, and public spending. These disciplining effects of a monetary union, which become stronger if the number of participants in the union increases, are likely to raise welfare. Two types of arrangements

  20. A Review and Analysis of Selected School Climate Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Jacob; Preston, Angela I.; Algozzine, Bob; Algozzine, Kate; Cusumano, Dale

    2018-01-01

    Although it is widely agreed that there is no universally accepted definition for school climate, most professionals ground it in shared beliefs, values, and attitudes reflecting the quality and character of life in schools. In this article, we review and analyze measures accessible to school personnel charged with documenting and monitoring…

  1. Workplace Discrimination, Prejudice, and Diversity Measurement: A Review of Instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkard, Alan W.; Boticki, Michael A.; Madson, Michael B.

    2002-01-01

    Critically reviews diversity measures in terms of item development, psychometric evidence, and utility for counseling and development: Workplace Prejudice/Discrimination Inventory, Attitudes toward Diversity Scale; Organizational Diversity Inventory, Workforce Diversity Questionnaire, Perceived Occupational Opportunity Scale-Form B, and Perceived…

  2. climate change: causes, effects and mitigation measures-a review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BARTH EKWUEME

    The sun is known to be the source of energy for the planet's climate system. .... At the top: the contraction process, Source: WIKIPEDIA. Source. The ECONOMIST. CLIMATE CHANGE: CAUSES, EFFECTS AND MITIGATION MEASURES-A REVIEW. 473 .... complex trade-off exists between expanding agriculture and keeping ...

  3. Measuring the "triple aim" in transition care: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Megan; McManus, Margaret; White, Patience; Davidson, Laurie

    2014-12-01

    Without adequate support, adolescents transitioning from the pediatric to the adult health care system are at increased risk for poor health outcomes. Numerous interventions attempt to improve this transition, yet few comprehensively evaluate efficacy. To advance evaluation methods and ultimately the quality of transition services, it is necessary to understand the current state of health care transition measurement. This study examines and categorizes transition measures by using the "Triple Aim" framework of experience of care, population health, and cost of care. Ovid Medline and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature were searched for articles published between 1995 and 2013. Two reviewers independently screened studies and included those that evaluated the impact of a health care transition intervention. Measures were subsequently classified according to population health, experience of care, and costs of care. Of the 2282 studies initially identified, 33 met inclusion criteria. Population health measures were used in 27 studies, with disease-specific measures collected most frequently. Fifteen studies measured cost, most often service utilization. Eight studies measured experience of care, with satisfaction assessed most commonly. Only 3 studies examined all 3 domains of the "Triple Aim." Transition interventions described in the gray literature were not reviewed. Transition programs are inconsistently evaluated in terms of their impact on population health, patient experience, and cost. To demonstrate improvement in the transition from pediatric to adult health care, a more robust and consistent set of measures is needed. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. Measuring Comorbidity in Cardiovascular Research: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harleah G. Buck

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Everything known about the roles, relationships, and repercussions of comorbidity in cardiovascular disease is shaped by how comorbidity is currently measured. Objectives. To critically examine how comorbidity is measured in randomized controlled trials or clinical trials and prospective observational studies in acute myocardial infarction (AMI, heart failure (HF, or stroke. Design. Systematic review of studies of hospitalized adults from MEDLINE CINAHL, PsychINFO, and ISI Web of Science Social Science databases. At least two reviewers screened and extracted all data. Results. From 1432 reviewed abstracts, 26 studies were included (AMI , HF , stroke . Five studies used an instrument to measure comorbidity while the remaining used the presence or absence of an unsubstantiated list of individual diseases. Comorbidity data were obtained from 1–4 different sources with 35% of studies not reporting the source. A year-by-year analysis showed no changes in measurement. Conclusions. The measurement of comorbidity remains limited to a list of conditions without stated rationale or standards increasing the likelihood that the true impact is underestimated.

  5. Systematic Review of Self-Report Family Assessment Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Elena; Carr, Alan

    2016-03-01

    A systematic review of self-report family assessment measures was conducted with reference to their psychometric properties, clinical utility and theoretical underpinnings. Eight instruments were reviewed: The McMaster Family Assessment Device (FAD); Circumplex Model Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales (FACES); Beavers Systems Model Self-Report Family Inventory (SFI); Family Assessment Measure III (FAM III); Family Environment Scale (FES); Family Relations Scale (FRS); and Systemic Therapy Inventory of Change (STIC); and the Systemic Clinical Outcome Routine Evaluation (SCORE). Results indicated that five family assessment measures are suitable for clinical use (FAD, FACES-IV, SFI, FAM III, SCORE), two are not (FES, FRS), and one is a new system currently under-going validation (STIC). © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  6. An audience research study to disseminate evidence about comprehensive state mental health parity legislation to US State policymakers: protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purtle, Jonathan; Lê-Scherban, Félice; Shattuck, Paul; Proctor, Enola K; Brownson, Ross C

    2017-06-26

    A large proportion of the US population has limited access to mental health treatments because insurance providers limit the utilization of mental health services in ways that are more restrictive than for physical health services. Comprehensive state mental health parity legislation (C-SMHPL) is an evidence-based policy intervention that enhances mental health insurance coverage and improves access to care. Implementation of C-SMHPL, however, is limited. State policymakers have the exclusive authority to implement C-SMHPL, but sparse guidance exists to inform the design of strategies to disseminate evidence about C-SMHPL, and more broadly, evidence-based treatments and mental illness, to this audience. The aims of this exploratory audience research study are to (1) characterize US State policymakers' knowledge and attitudes about C-SMHPL and identify individual- and state-level attributes associated with support for C-SMHPL; and (2) integrate quantitative and qualitative data to develop a conceptual framework to disseminate evidence about C-SMHPL, evidence-based treatments, and mental illness to US State policymakers. The study uses a multi-level (policymaker, state), mixed method (QUAN→qual) approach and is guided by Kingdon's Multiple Streams Framework, adapted to incorporate constructs from Aarons' Model of Evidence-Based Implementation in Public Sectors. A multi-modal survey (telephone, post-mail, e-mail) of 600 US State policymakers (500 legislative, 100 administrative) will be conducted and responses will be linked to state-level variables. The survey will span domains such as support for C-SMHPL, knowledge and attitudes about C-SMHPL and evidence-based treatments, mental illness stigma, and research dissemination preferences. State-level variables will measure factors associated with C-SMHPL implementation, such as economic climate and political environment. Multi-level regression will determine the relative strength of individual- and state

  7. Everyday memory measures in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dasNair, Roshan; Griffiths, Holly; Clarke, Sara; Methley, Abigail; Kneebone, Ian; Topcu, Gogem

    2018-03-02

    Everyday memory is one of the most affected cognitive functions in multiple sclerosis (MS). Assessing everyday memory problems is crucial for monitoring the impact of memory deficits on individuals' day-to-day lives and evaluating the effectiveness of interventions that aim to improve cognitive functions. The aim of this systematic review was to identify the research literature on everyday memory measures used with people with MS, describe the types of measures used, and summarise their psychometric properties. Empirical studies of cognitive function in MS using standardised everyday memory measures were included. Online databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, Embase) and Google Scholar were searched. Forty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. A total of 12 measures were identified, with varied uses and administration methods. The majority of papers did not report any psychometric properties for MS populations. The few papers that did, reported that the measures have good reliability and appear to have good face, concurrent, and ecological validity, but these need to be evaluated further. This review presents researchers and clinicians with an overview of the various everyday memory measures used in studies with people with MS, to help them choose the appropriate measure for their evaluations.

  8. Similarity Measure for Molecular Structure: A Brief Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bero, S. A.; Muda, A. K.; Choo, Y. H.; Muda, N. A.; Pratama, S. F.

    2017-09-01

    Similarity or distance measures have been used widely to calculate the similarity or dissimilarity between two samples of dataset. Cheminformatics is known as the domain that dealing with chemical information and both similarity and distance coefficient have been an important role for matching, searching and classification of chemical information. There are various types of similarity/distance coefficient used in molecular structure similarity searching. Generally, the calculation using similarity/distance coefficient is focusing more on 2-dimensional (2D) rather than 3-dimensional (3D) structure. In this paper, the popular similarity/distance coefficients for molecular structure will be reviewed together with the review on 3D molecular structure.

  9. Discriminant analysis for repeated measures data: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Lix

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Discriminant analysis (DA encompasses procedures for classifying observations into groups (i.e., predictive discriminative analysis and describing the relative importance of variables for distinguishing amongst groups (i.e., descriptive discriminative analysis. In recent years, a number of developments have occurred in DA procedures for the analysis of data from repeated measures designs. Specifically, DA procedures have been developed for repeated measures data characterized by missing observations and/or unbalanced measurement occasions, as well as high-dimensional data in which measurements are collected repeatedly on two or more variables. This paper reviews the literature on DA procedures for univariate and multivariate repeated measures data, focusing on covariance pattern and linear mixed-effects models. A numeric example illustrates their implementation using SAS software.

  10. Measures for Predictors of Innovation Adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chor, Ka Ho Brian; Wisdom, Jennifer P.; Olin, Su-Chin Serene; Hoagwood, Kimberly E.; Horwitz, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Building on a narrative synthesis of adoption theories by Wisdom et al. (2013), this review identifies 118 measures associated with the 27 adoption predictors in the synthesis. The distribution of measures is uneven across the predictors and predictors vary in modifiability. Multiple dimensions and definitions of predictors further complicate measurement efforts. For state policymakers and researchers, more effective and integrated measurement can advance the adoption of complex innovations such as evidence-based practices. PMID:24740175

  11. Measures for Predictors of Innovation Adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chor, Ka Ho Brian; Wisdom, Jennifer P; Olin, Su-Chin Serene; Hoagwood, Kimberly E; Horwitz, Sarah M

    2015-09-01

    Building on a narrative synthesis of adoption theories by Wisdom et al. (2013), this review identifies 118 measures associated with the 27 adoption predictors in the synthesis. The distribution of measures is uneven across the predictors and predictors vary in modifiability. Multiple dimensions and definitions of predictors further complicate measurement efforts. For state policymakers and researchers, more effective and integrated measurement can advance the adoption of complex innovations such as evidence-based practices.

  12. Measuring social exclusion in healthcare settings: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Patrick; O'Donovan, Diarmuid; Elmusharaf, Khalifa

    2018-02-02

    Social exclusion is a concept that has been widely debated in recent years; a particular focus of the discussion has been its significance in relation to health. The meanings of the phrase "social exclusion", and the closely associated term "social inclusion", are contested in the literature. Both of these concepts are important in relation to health and the area of primary healthcare in particular. Thus, several tools for the measurement of social exclusion or social inclusion status in health care settings have been developed. A scoping review of the peer-reviewed and grey literature was conducted to examine tools developed since 2000 that measure social exclusion or social inclusion. We focused on those measurement tools developed for use with individual patients in healthcare settings. Efforts were made to obtain a copy of each of the original tools, and all relevant background literature. All tools retrieved were compared in tables, and the specific domains that were included in each measure were tabulated. Twenty-two measurement tools were included in the final scoping review. The majority of these had been specifically developed for the measurement of social inclusion or social exclusion, but a small number were created for the measurement of other closely aligned concepts. The majority of the tools included were constructed for engaging with patients in mental health settings. The tools varied greatly in their design, the scoring systems and the ways they were administered. The domains covered by these tools varied widely and some of the tools were quite narrow in the areas of focus. A review of the definitions of both social inclusion and social exclusion also revealed the variations among the explanations of these complex concepts. There are several definitions of both social inclusion and social exclusion in use and they differ greatly in scope. While there are many tools that have been developed for measuring these concepts in healthcare settings, these

  13. [Measurement model of carbon emission from forest fire: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hai-Qing; Wei, Shu-Jing; Jin, Sen; Sun, Long

    2012-05-01

    Forest fire is the main disturbance factor for forest ecosystem, and an important pathway of the decrease of vegetation- and soil carbon storage. Large amount of carbonaceous gases in forest fire can release into atmosphere, giving remarkable impacts on the atmospheric carbon balance and global climate change. To scientifically and effectively measure the carbonaceous gases emission from forest fire is of importance in understanding the significance of forest fire in the carbon balance and climate change. This paper reviewed the research progress in the measurement model of carbon emission from forest fire, which covered three critical issues, i. e., measurement methods of forest fire-induced total carbon emission and carbonaceous gases emission, affecting factors and measurement parameters of measurement model, and cause analysis of the uncertainty in the measurement of the carbon emissions. Three path selections to improve the quantitative measurement of the carbon emissions were proposed, i. e., using high resolution remote sensing data and improving algorithm and estimation accuracy of burned area in combining with effective fuel measurement model to improve the accuracy of the estimated fuel load, using high resolution remote sensing images combined with indoor controlled environment experiments, field measurements, and field ground surveys to determine the combustion efficiency, and combining indoor controlled environment experiments with field air sampling to determine the emission factors and emission ratio.

  14. Traceability of On-Machine Tool Measurement: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unai Mutilba

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, errors during the manufacturing process of high value components are not acceptable in driving industries such as energy and transportation. Sectors such as aerospace, automotive, shipbuilding, nuclear power, large science facilities or wind power need complex and accurate components that demand close measurements and fast feedback into their manufacturing processes. New measuring technologies are already available in machine tools, including integrated touch probes and fast interface capabilities. They provide the possibility to measure the workpiece in-machine during or after its manufacture, maintaining the original setup of the workpiece and avoiding the manufacturing process from being interrupted to transport the workpiece to a measuring position. However, the traceability of the measurement process on a machine tool is not ensured yet and measurement data is still not fully reliable enough for process control or product validation. The scientific objective is to determine the uncertainty on a machine tool measurement and, therefore, convert it into a machine integrated traceable measuring process. For that purpose, an error budget should consider error sources such as the machine tools, components under measurement and the interactions between both of them. This paper reviews all those uncertainty sources, being mainly focused on those related to the machine tool, either on the process of geometric error assessment of the machine or on the technology employed to probe the measurand.

  15. Traceability of On-Machine Tool Measurement: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutilba, Unai; Gomez-Acedo, Eneko; Kortaberria, Gorka; Olarra, Aitor; Yagüe-Fabra, Jose A

    2017-07-11

    Nowadays, errors during the manufacturing process of high value components are not acceptable in driving industries such as energy and transportation. Sectors such as aerospace, automotive, shipbuilding, nuclear power, large science facilities or wind power need complex and accurate components that demand close measurements and fast feedback into their manufacturing processes. New measuring technologies are already available in machine tools, including integrated touch probes and fast interface capabilities. They provide the possibility to measure the workpiece in-machine during or after its manufacture, maintaining the original setup of the workpiece and avoiding the manufacturing process from being interrupted to transport the workpiece to a measuring position. However, the traceability of the measurement process on a machine tool is not ensured yet and measurement data is still not fully reliable enough for process control or product validation. The scientific objective is to determine the uncertainty on a machine tool measurement and, therefore, convert it into a machine integrated traceable measuring process. For that purpose, an error budget should consider error sources such as the machine tools, components under measurement and the interactions between both of them. This paper reviews all those uncertainty sources, being mainly focused on those related to the machine tool, either on the process of geometric error assessment of the machine or on the technology employed to probe the measurand.

  16. Measuring treatment outcomes in gambling disorders: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Dylan; Keen, Brittany; Entwistle, Gavin; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2018-03-01

    Considerable variation of outcome variables used to measure recovery in the gambling treatment literature has precluded effective cross-study evaluations and hindered the development of best-practice treatment methodologies. The aim of this systematic review was to describe current diffuse concepts of recovery in the gambling field by mapping the range of outcomes and measurement strategies used to evaluate treatments, and to identify more commonly accepted indices of recovery. A systematic search of six academic databases for studies evaluating treatments (psychological and pharmacological) for gambling disorders with a minimum 6-month follow-up. Data from eligible studies were tabulated and analysis conducted using a narrative approach. Guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) were adhered to. Thirty-four studies were reviewed systematically (RCTs = 17, comparative designs = 17). Sixty-three different outcome measures were identified: 25 (39.7%) assessed gambling-specific constructs, 36 (57.1%) assessed non-gambling specific constructs, and two instruments were used across both categories (3.2%). Self-report instruments ranged from psychometrically validated to ad-hoc author-designed questionnaires. Units of measurement were inconsistent, particularly in the assessment of gambling behaviour. All studies assessed indices of gambling behaviour and/or symptoms of gambling disorder. Almost all studies (n = 30; 88.2%) included secondary measures relating to psychiatric comorbidities, psychological processes linked to treatment approach, or global functioning and wellbeing. In research on gambling disorders, the incorporation of broader outcome domains that extend beyond disorder-specific symptoms and behaviours suggests a multi-dimensional conceptualization of recovery. Development of a single comprehensive scale to measure all aspects of gambling recovery could help to facilitate uniform reporting practices

  17. A Systematic Review of the Measurement of Sustainable Diets123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoey, Lesli; Blesh, Jennifer; Miller, Laura; Green, Ashley; Shapiro, Lilly Fink

    2016-01-01

    Sustainability has become an integral consideration of the dietary guidelines of many countries in recent decades. However, a lack of clear metrics and a shared approach to measuring the multiple components of sustainable diets has hindered progress toward generating the evidence needed to ensure the credibility of new guidelines. We performed a systematic literature review of empirical research studies on sustainable diets to identify the components of sustainability that were measured and the methods applied to do so. Two independent reviewers systematically searched 30 databases and other sources with the use of a uniform set of search terms and a priori exclusion criteria. In total, 113 empirical studies were included in the final review. Nearly all of the studies were focused on high-income countries. Although there was substantial heterogeneity in the components of sustainability measured, the estimated greenhouse gas emissions (GHGEs) of various dietary patterns were by far most commonly measured (n = 71 studies). Estimating the GHGEs of foods through various stages of production, use, and recycling with the use of the Life Cycle Assessment approach was the most common method applied to measure the environmental impacts of diets (n = 49 studies). Many components of sustainable diets identified in existing conceptual frameworks are disproportionately underrepresented in the empirical literature, as are studies that examine consumer demand for sustainable dietary alternatives. The emphasis in the literature on high-income countries also overlooks the production and dietary alternatives most relevant to low- and middle-income countries. We propose 3 methodological and measurement approaches that would both improve the global relevance of our understanding of sustainable diets and attend more completely to the existing multidimensional, multiscale conceptual framing of sustainable diets. PMID:27422501

  18. Norwegian environmental policy-making and the role of NGOs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rommetvedt, Hilmar; Farsund, Arild Aurvaag; Melberg, Kjersti

    1997-12-31

    This publication examines the role of pressure groups and their influence in the environmental policy-making processes in Norway. Fields concerned in this connection are in which ways do environmental and industrial organizations influence political authorities, and what kind of impact do the different organizations have on the processes mentioned. The publication presents firstly a classification of different types of relations between organized interests and public authorities, and of the different methods used to influence policy-making. Based on this classification and more general developmental trends in Norwegian politics, the publication then gives an elaboration of some hypotheses regarding environmental and industrial organizations and their influence on environmental policy. The validity of these hypotheses is examined through empirical data from surveys and case-studies. 27 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  19. Contested meanings of inclusiveness, accountability and transparency in trade policymaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Malcolm

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Inclusiveness, accountability and transparency carry different meanings in the context of different public policy processes, and for different stakeholder groups engaged in those processes. In particular, civil society has had a substantial role in conceptualising these meanings in internet governance policy spaces, but a much reduced rule in their explication in trade policymaking. It will be argued that greater support for trade policymaking could arise from a project to reconcile civil society’s expectations of the inclusiveness, accountability and transparency of trade negotiations with the political realities of the trade negotiator, while at the same time enhancing negotiators’ appreciation of the metrics that civil society stakeholders will use in assessing trade negotiations, especially those that relate to the internet.

  20. Conceptualizing performance of nursing care as a prerequisite for better measurement: a systematic and interpretive review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the critical role of nursing care in determining high-performing healthcare delivery, performance science in this area is still at an early stage of development and nursing’s contribution most often remains invisible to policy-makers and managers. The objectives of this study were: 1) to develop a theoretically based framework to conceptualize nursing care performance; 2) to analyze how the different components of the framework have been operationalized in the literature; and 3) to develop a pool of indicators sensitive to various aspects of nursing care that can be used as a basis for designing a performance measurement system. Methods We carried out a systematic review of published literature across three databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL), focusing on literature between 1990 and 2008. Screening of 2,103 papers resulted in final selection of 101 papers. A detailed template was used to extract the data. For the analysis, we used the method of interpretive synthesis, focusing first on 31 papers with theoretical or conceptual frameworks; the remaining 70 articles were used to strengthen and consolidate the findings. Results Current conceptualizations of nursing care performance mostly reflect a system perspective that builds on system theory, Donabedian’s earlier works on healthcare organization, and Parsons’ theory of social action. Drawing on these foundational works and the evidence collated, the Nursing Care Performance Framework (NCPF) we developed conceptualizes nursing care performance as resulting from three nursing subsystems that operate together to achieve three key functions: (1) acquiring, deploying and maintaining nursing resources, (2) transforming nursing resources into nursing services, and (3) producing changes in patients’ conditions. Based on the literature review, these three functions are operationalized through 14 dimensions that cover 51 variables. The NCPF not only specifies core aspects of nursing performance

  1. Technocracy in Economic Policy-Making in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid, Khadijah Md; Abidin, Mahani Zainal

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the role of the technocracy in economic policy-making in Malaysia. The analysis was conducted across two phases, namely the period before and after the 1997/98 economic and financial crises, and during the premiership of four prime ministers namely Tun Razak, Dr Mahathir, Abdullah Ahmad Badawi, and Najib Razak. It is claimed that the technocrats played an important role in helping the political leadership achieve their objectives. The article traces the changing fortu...

  2. Measures of Cultural Competence in Nurses: An Integrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collette Loftin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is limited literature available identifying and describing the instruments that measure cultural competence in nursing students and nursing professionals. Design. An integrative review was undertaken to identify the characteristics common to these instruments, examine their psychometric properties, and identify the concepts these instruments are designed to measure. Method. There were eleven instruments identified that measure cultural competence in nursing. Of these eleven instruments, four had been thoroughly tested in either initial development or in subsequent testing, with developers providing extensive details of the testing. Results. The current literature identifies that the instruments to assess cultural competence in nurses and nursing students are self-administered and based on individuals' perceptions. The instruments are commonly utilized to test the effectiveness of educational programs designed to increase cultural competence. Conclusions. The reviewed instruments measure nurses’ self-perceptions or self-reported level of cultural competence but offer no objective measure of culturally competent care from a patient’s perspective which can be problematic. Comparison of instruments reveals that they are based on a variety of conceptual frameworks and that multiple factors should be considered when deciding which instrument to use.

  3. Measures of Cultural Competence in Nurses: An Integrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background. There is limited literature available identifying and describing the instruments that measure cultural competence in nursing students and nursing professionals. Design. An integrative review was undertaken to identify the characteristics common to these instruments, examine their psychometric properties, and identify the concepts these instruments are designed to measure. Method. There were eleven instruments identified that measure cultural competence in nursing. Of these eleven instruments, four had been thoroughly tested in either initial development or in subsequent testing, with developers providing extensive details of the testing. Results. The current literature identifies that the instruments to assess cultural competence in nurses and nursing students are self-administered and based on individuals' perceptions. The instruments are commonly utilized to test the effectiveness of educational programs designed to increase cultural competence. Conclusions. The reviewed instruments measure nurses' self-perceptions or self-reported level of cultural competence but offer no objective measure of culturally competent care from a patient's perspective which can be problematic. Comparison of instruments reveals that they are based on a variety of conceptual frameworks and that multiple factors should be considered when deciding which instrument to use. PMID:23818818

  4. A Psychometric Review of Measures Assessing Discrimination Against Sexual Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Todd G; Bishop, C J; Morrison, Melanie A; Parker-Taneo, Kandice

    2016-08-01

    Discrimination against sexual minorities is widespread and has deleterious consequences on victims' psychological and physical wellbeing. However, a review of the psychometric properties of instruments measuring lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) discrimination has not been conducted. The results of this review, which involved evaluating 162 articles, reveal that most have suboptimal psychometric properties. Specifically, myriad scales possess questionable content validity as (1) items are not created in collaboration with sexual minorities; (2) measures possess a small number of items and, thus, may not sufficiently represent the domain of interest; and (3) scales are "adapted" from measures designed to examine race- and gender-based discrimination. Additional limitations include (1) summed scores are computed, often in the absence of scale score reliability metrics; (2) summed scores operate from the questionable assumption that diverse forms of discrimination are necessarily interrelated; (3) the dimensionality of instruments presumed to consist of subscales is seldom tested; (4) tests of criterion-related validity are routinely omitted; and (5) formal tests of measures' construct validity are seldom provided, necessitating that one infer validity based on the results obtained. The absence of "gold standard" measures, the attendant difficulty in formulating a coherent picture of this body of research, and suggestions for psychometric improvements are noted.

  5. RESIDUAL LIMB VOLUME CHANGE: SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF MEASUREMENT AND MANAGEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, JE; Fatone, S

    2014-01-01

    Management of residual limb volume affects decisions regarding timing of fit of the first prosthesis, when a new prosthetic socket is needed, design of a prosthetic socket, and prescription of accommodation strategies for daily volume fluctuations. The purpose of this systematic review was to assess what is known about measurement and management of residual limb volume change in persons with lower-limb amputation. Publications that met inclusion criteria were grouped into three categories: (I) descriptions of residual limb volume measurement techniques; (II) studies on people with lower-limb amputation investigating the effect of residual limb volume change on clinical care; and (III) studies of residual limb volume management techniques or descriptions of techniques for accommodating or controlling residual limb volume. The review showed that many techniques for the measurement of residual limb volume have been described but clinical use is limited largely because current techniques lack adequate resolution and in-socket measurement capability. Overall, there is limited evidence regarding the management of residual limb volume, and the evidence available focuses primarily on adults with trans-tibial amputation in the early post-operative phase. While we can draw some insights from the available research about residual limb volume measurement and management, further research is required. PMID:22068373

  6. Big Data for Public Health Policy-Making: Policy Empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mählmann, Laura; Reumann, Matthias; Evangelatos, Nikolaos; Brand, Angela

    2018-04-04

    Digitization is considered to radically transform healthcare. As such, with seemingly unlimited opportunities to collect data, it will play an important role in the public health policy-making process. In this context, health data cooperatives (HDC) are a key component and core element for public health policy-making and for exploiting the potential of all the existing and rapidly emerging data sources. Being able to leverage all the data requires overcoming the computational, algorithmic, and technological challenges that characterize today's highly heterogeneous data landscape, as well as a host of diverse regulatory, normative, governance, and policy constraints. The full potential of big data can only be realized if data are being made accessible and shared. Treating research data as a public good, creating HDC to empower citizens through citizen-owned health data, and allowing data access for research and the development of new diagnostics, therapies, and public health policies will yield the transformative impact of digital health. The HDC model for data governance is an arrangement, based on moral codes, that encourages citizens to participate in the improvement of their own health. This then enables public health institutions and policymakers to monitor policy changes and evaluate their impact and risk on a population level. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Communicating space weather to policymakers and the wider public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Bárbara

    2014-05-01

    As a natural hazard, space weather has the potential to affect space- and ground-based technological systems and cause harm to human health. As such, it is important to properly communicate this topic to policymakers and the general public alike, informing them (without being unnecessarily alarmist) about the potential impact of space-weather phenomena and how these can be monitored and mitigated. On the other hand, space weather is related to interesting phenomena on the Sun such as coronal-mass ejections, and incorporates one of the most beautiful displays in the Earth and its nearby space environment: aurora. These exciting and fascinating aspects of space weather should be cultivated when communicating this topic to the wider public, particularly to younger audiences. Researchers have a key role to play in communicating space weather to both policymakers and the wider public. Space scientists should have an active role in informing policy decisions on space-weather monitoring and forecasting, for example. And they can exercise their communication skills by talking about space weather to school children and the public in general. This presentation will focus on ways to communicate space weather to wider audiences, particularly policymakers. It will also address the role researchers can play in this activity to help bridge the gap between the space science community and the public.

  8. Measurement Properties of the Central Sensitization Inventory: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scerbo, Thomas; Colasurdo, Joseph; Dunn, Sally; Unger, Jacob; Nijs, Jo; Cook, Chad

    2017-08-29

    Central sensitization (CS) is a phenomenon associated with several medical diagnoses, including postcancer pain, low back pain, osteoarthritis, whiplash, and fibromyalgia. CS involves an amplification of neural signaling within the central nervous system that results in pain hypersensitivity. The purpose of this systematic review was to gather published studies of a widely used outcome measure (the Central Sensitization Inventory [CSI]), determine the quality of evidence these publications reported, and examine the measurement properties of the CSI. Four databases were searched for publications from 2011 (when the CSI was developed) to July 2017. The Consensus-Based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) checklist was applied to evaluate methodological quality and risk of bias. In instances when COSMIN did not offer a scoring system for measurement properties, qualitative analyses were performed. Fourteen studies met inclusion criteria. Quality of evidence examined with the COSMIN checklist was determined to be good to excellent for all studies for their respective measurement property reports. Interpretability measures were consistent when publications were analyzed qualitatively, and construct validity was strong when examined alongside other validated measures relating to CS. An assessment of the published measurement studies of the CSI suggest the tool generates reliable and valid data that quantify the severity of several symptoms of CS. © 2017 World Institute of Pain.

  9. Measuring physical activity and sedentary behaviour at work: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Retamal, Marcelo; Hinckson, Erica A

    2011-01-01

    To identify methods used to assess physical activity and sedentary behaviour at the workplace and review the validity and reliability of these measures. Databases were searched for relevant published articles including MEDLINE, SPORT Discus, ProQuest and Google Scholar. Keywords used were physical-activity, workplace, sedentary-behaviour, measurement and questionnaire. Studies included were original, written in English, published between 1990 and 2009, and focused on validated physical activity and sedentary behaviour measures at work. Eleven papers were identified in which three used criterion standards, three objective measures, and five subjective measures. The most common method of data collection was through self-report, surveys or questionnaires. Physical activity measured with motion sensors, ranged from 4,422 to 10,334 steps/day (pedometers) and sedentary time ranged from 1.8 to 6 hours/day (h/d) (accelerometers). Self-report measures provided information relevant to the perception of physical activity at work (∼ 0.5 h/d), sitting time (> 3 h/d) and calculated energy expenditure (< 800 kcal/d). Physical activity levels at work were low while sedentary behaviour was high. This was largely a function of occupation (white-collar vs. blue-collar). None of the studies assessed validity or reliability of measures used however, instruments as assessed by others showed moderate to strong validity and reliability values.

  10. Improving Nigerian health policymakers' capacity to access and utilize policy relevant evidence: outcome of information and communication technology training workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ezeoha, Abel Ebeh; Uro-Chukwu, Henry; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla; Ogbu, Ogbonnaya; Onwe, Friday; Edoga, Chima

    2015-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) tools are known to facilitate communication and processing of information and sharing of knowledge by electronic means. In Nigeria, the lack of adequate capacity on the use of ICT by health sector policymakers constitutes a major impediment to the uptake of research evidence into the policymaking process. The objective of this study was to improve the knowledge and capacity of policymakers to access and utilize policy relevant evidence. A modified "before and after" intervention study design was used in which outcomes were measured on the target participants both before the intervention is implemented and after. A 4-point likert scale according to the degree of adequacy; 1 = grossly inadequate, 4 = very adequate was employed. This study was conducted in Ebonyi State, south-eastern Nigeria and the participants were career health policy makers. A two-day intensive ICT training workshop was organized for policymakers who had 52 participants in attendance. Topics covered included: (i). intersectoral partnership/collaboration; (ii). Engaging ICT in evidence-informed policy making; use of ICT for evidence synthesis; (iv) capacity development on the use of computer, internet and other ICT. The pre-workshop mean of knowledge and capacity for use of ICT ranged from 2.19-3.05, while the post-workshop mean ranged from 2.67-3.67 on 4-point scale. The percentage increase in mean of knowledge and capacity at the end of the workshop ranged from 8.3%-39.1%. Findings of this study suggest that policymakers' ICT competence relevant to evidence-informed policymaking can be enhanced through training workshop.

  11. Business process performance measurement: a structured literature review of indicators, measures and metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Looy, Amy; Shafagatova, Aygun

    2016-01-01

    Measuring the performance of business processes has become a central issue in both academia and business, since organizations are challenged to achieve effective and efficient results. Applying performance measurement models to this purpose ensures alignment with a business strategy, which implies that the choice of performance indicators is organization-dependent. Nonetheless, such measurement models generally suffer from a lack of guidance regarding the performance indicators that exist and how they can be concretized in practice. To fill this gap, we conducted a structured literature review to find patterns or trends in the research on business process performance measurement. The study also documents an extended list of 140 process-related performance indicators in a systematic manner by further categorizing them into 11 performance perspectives in order to gain a holistic view. Managers and scholars can consult the provided list to choose the indicators that are of interest to them, considering each perspective. The structured literature review concludes with avenues for further research.

  12. Head-Impact-Measurement Devices: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Kathryn L; Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M; Broglio, Steven P

    2017-03-01

    With an estimated 3.8 million sport- and recreation-related concussions occurring annually, targeted prevention and diagnostic methods are needed. Biomechanical analysis of head impacts may provide quantitative information that can inform both prevention and diagnostic strategies. To assess available head-impact devices and their clinical utility. We performed a systematic search of the electronic database PubMed for peer-reviewed publications, using the following phrases: accelerometer and concussion, head impact telemetry, head impacts and concussion and sensor, head impacts and sensor, impact sensor and concussion, linear acceleration and concussion, rotational acceleration and concussion, and xpatch concussion. In addition to the literature review, a Google search for head impact monitor and concussion monitor yielded 15 more devices. Included studies were performed in vivo, used commercially available devices, and focused on sport-related concussion. One author reviewed the title and abstract of each study for inclusion and exclusion criteria and then reviewed each full-text article to confirm inclusion criteria. Controversial articles were reviewed by all authors to reach consensus. In total, 61 peer-reviewed articles involving 4 head-impact devices were included. Participants in boxing, football, ice hockey, soccer, or snow sports ranged in age from 6 to 24 years; 18% (n = 11) of the studies included female athletes. The Head Impact Telemetry System was the most widely used device (n = 53). Fourteen additional commercially available devices were presented. Measurements collected by impact monitors provided real-time data to estimate player exposure but did not have the requisite sensitivity to concussion. Proper interpretation of previously reported head-impact kinematics across age, sport, and position may inform future research and enable staff clinicians working on the sidelines to monitor athletes. However, head-impact-monitoring systems have limited

  13. Motivation Measures in Sport: A Critical Review and Bibliometric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Rachel B.; Herring, Matthew P.; Campbell, Mark J.

    2017-01-01

    Motivation is widely-researched, in both sport psychology and other fields. As rigorous measurement is essential to understanding this latent construct, a critical appraisal of measurement instruments is needed. Thus, the purpose of this review was to evaluate the six most highly cited motivation measures in sport. Peer-reviewed articles published prior to August 2016 were searched to identify the six most highly cited motivation questionnaires in sport: Sport Motivation Scale (SMS), Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI), Situational Motivational Scale (SIMS), Perceptions of Success Questionnaire (POSQ), Behavioural Regulation in Sport Questionnaire (BRSQ), and Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ). The questionnaires were then evaluated and discussed in four sections: Development, Reliability, Correlates, and Summary. Bibliometric data were also calculated (average weighted impact factor) and assessed (e.g., citations per year) to evaluate the impact of the use of each questionnaire. Despite some variance in their psychometric properties, conceptualization, structure, and utility, the six questionnaires are psychometrically strong instruments for quantifying motivation that are widely supported in the literature. Bibliometric analyses suggested that the IMI ranks first and the SMS ranks sixth according to the average weighted impact factors of their original publications. Consideration of each questionnaire's psychometric strengths/limitations, and conceptualization of motivation in the context of specific research questions should guide researchers in selecting the most appropriate instrument to measure motivation in sport. The average weighted impact factor of each questionnaire is a useful value to consider as well. With these points in mind, recommendations are provided. PMID:28337165

  14. A REVIEW OF COLOR MEASURMENTS IN THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRAD Raluca

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Color is an important factor in the evaluation of aesthetic appearance and functionality of many products, but especially of textile industry ones. In textiles production process, color can be assessed in different stages: the selection of raw materials, the incoming item tests, the preparation of dyeing ingredients, the crocking resistance testing, the color fastness and in all stages, the quality control. Color evaluation can be done visually or using specialized test instruments such as colorimeters or spectrometers, therefore a high accuracy of measurements must be achieved. Standards describe different procedures and testing techniques depending on the product type and the quality level required by the customer. The paper presents the most common systems of color representation and communication, measurement methods and techniques, and standards that define them. The CIE color representation systems have been reviewed, together with the measurement methods offering the repeatability of the process. Most of the standards have been issued in US, but several European and International are stating the color assessment process. We have also conducted a review of latest published papers in the topic of color measurement, comparison and match. Several image processing applications algorithms offers new opportunities for computer assisted evaluation and control of textile color properties.

  15. Measurement Properties of Questionnaires Measuring Continuity of Care: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uijen, Annemarie A.; Heinst, Claire W.; Schellevis, Francois G.; van den Bosch, Wil J.H.M.; van de Laar, Floris A.; Terwee, Caroline B.; Schers, Henk J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Continuity of care is widely acknowledged as a core value in family medicine. In this systematic review, we aimed to identify the instruments measuring continuity of care and to assess the quality of their measurement properties. Methods We did a systematic review using the PubMed, Embase and PsycINFO databases, with an extensive search strategy including ‘continuity of care’, ‘coordination of care’, ‘integration of care’, ‘patient centered care’, ‘case management’ and its linguistic variations. We searched from 1995 to October 2011 and included articles describing the development and/or evaluation of the measurement properties of instruments measuring one or more dimensions of continuity of care (1) care from the same provider who knows and follows the patient (personal continuity), (2) communication and cooperation between care providers in one care setting (team continuity), and (3) communication and cooperation between care providers in different care settings (cross-boundary continuity). We assessed the methodological quality of the measurement properties of each instrument using the COSMIN checklist. Results We included 24 articles describing the development and/or evaluation of 21 instruments. Ten instruments measured all three dimensions of continuity of care. Instruments were developed for different groups of patients or providers. For most instruments, three or four of the six measurement properties were assessed (mostly internal consistency, content validity, structural validity and construct validity). Six instruments scored positive on the quality of at least three of six measurement properties. Conclusions Most included instruments have problems with either the number or quality of its assessed measurement properties or the ability to measure all three dimensions of continuity of care. Based on the results of this review, we recommend the use of one of the four most promising instruments, depending on the target

  16. Measurement properties of questionnaires measuring continuity of care: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uijen, Annemarie A; Heinst, Claire W; Schellevis, Francois G; van den Bosch, Wil J H M; van de Laar, Floris A; Terwee, Caroline B; Schers, Henk J

    2012-01-01

    Continuity of care is widely acknowledged as a core value in family medicine. In this systematic review, we aimed to identify the instruments measuring continuity of care and to assess the quality of their measurement properties. We did a systematic review using the PubMed, Embase and PsycINFO databases, with an extensive search strategy including 'continuity of care', 'coordination of care', 'integration of care', 'patient centered care', 'case management' and its linguistic variations. We searched from 1995 to October 2011 and included articles describing the development and/or evaluation of the measurement properties of instruments measuring one or more dimensions of continuity of care (1) care from the same provider who knows and follows the patient (personal continuity), (2) communication and cooperation between care providers in one care setting (team continuity), and (3) communication and cooperation between care providers in different care settings (cross-boundary continuity). We assessed the methodological quality of the measurement properties of each instrument using the COSMIN checklist. We included 24 articles describing the development and/or evaluation of 21 instruments. Ten instruments measured all three dimensions of continuity of care. Instruments were developed for different groups of patients or providers. For most instruments, three or four of the six measurement properties were assessed (mostly internal consistency, content validity, structural validity and construct validity). Six instruments scored positive on the quality of at least three of six measurement properties. Most included instruments have problems with either the number or quality of its assessed measurement properties or the ability to measure all three dimensions of continuity of care. Based on the results of this review, we recommend the use of one of the four most promising instruments, depending on the target population Diabetes Continuity of Care Questionnaire, Alberta

  17. Measurement properties of questionnaires measuring continuity of care: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie A Uijen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Continuity of care is widely acknowledged as a core value in family medicine. In this systematic review, we aimed to identify the instruments measuring continuity of care and to assess the quality of their measurement properties. METHODS: We did a systematic review using the PubMed, Embase and PsycINFO databases, with an extensive search strategy including 'continuity of care', 'coordination of care', 'integration of care', 'patient centered care', 'case management' and its linguistic variations. We searched from 1995 to October 2011 and included articles describing the development and/or evaluation of the measurement properties of instruments measuring one or more dimensions of continuity of care (1 care from the same provider who knows and follows the patient (personal continuity, (2 communication and cooperation between care providers in one care setting (team continuity, and (3 communication and cooperation between care providers in different care settings (cross-boundary continuity. We assessed the methodological quality of the measurement properties of each instrument using the COSMIN checklist. RESULTS: We included 24 articles describing the development and/or evaluation of 21 instruments. Ten instruments measured all three dimensions of continuity of care. Instruments were developed for different groups of patients or providers. For most instruments, three or four of the six measurement properties were assessed (mostly internal consistency, content validity, structural validity and construct validity. Six instruments scored positive on the quality of at least three of six measurement properties. CONCLUSIONS: Most included instruments have problems with either the number or quality of its assessed measurement properties or the ability to measure all three dimensions of continuity of care. Based on the results of this review, we recommend the use of one of the four most promising instruments, depending on the target population

  18. Clustering Measurements of broad-line AGNs: Review and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Krumpe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite substantial effort, the precise physical processes that lead to the growth of super-massive black holes in the centers of galaxies are still not well understood. These phases of black hole growth are thought to be of key importance in understanding galaxy evolution. Forthcoming missions such as eROSITA, HETDEX, eBOSS, BigBOSS, LSST, and Pan-STARRS will compile by far the largest ever Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs catalogs which will allow us to measure the spatial distribution of AGNs in the universe with unprecedented accuracy. For the first time, AGN clustering measurements will reach a level of precision that will not only allow for an alternative approach to answering open questions in AGN and galaxy co-evolution but will open a new frontier, allowing us to precisely determine cosmological parameters. This paper reviews large-scale clustering measurements of broad line AGNs. We summarize how clustering is measured and which constraints can be derived from AGN clustering measurements, we discuss recent developments, and we briefly describe future projects that will deliver extremely large AGN samples which will enable AGN clustering measurements of unprecedented accuracy. In order to maximize the scientific return on the research fields of AGN and galaxy evolution and cosmology, we advise that the community develops a full understanding of the systematic uncertainties which will, in contrast to today’s measurement, be the dominant source of uncertainty.

  19. Etched track radiometers in radon measurements: a review

    CERN Document Server

    Nikolaev, V A

    1999-01-01

    Passive radon radiometers, based on alpha particle etched track detectors, are very attractive for the assessment of radon exposure. The present review considers various devices used for measurement of the volume activity of radon isotopes and their daughters and determination of equilibrium coefficients. Such devices can be classified into 8 groups: (i) open or 'bare' detectors, (ii) open chambers, (iii) sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn chambers with an inlet filter, (iv) advanced sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn radiometers, (v) multipurpose radiometers, (vi) radiometers based on a combination of etched track detectors and an electrostatic field, (vii) radiometers based on etched track detectors and activated charcoal and (viii) devices for the measurement of radon isotopes and/or radon daughters by means of track parameter measurements. Some of them such as the open detector and the chamber with an inlet filter have a variety of modifications and are applied widely both in geophysical research and radon dosimetric surveys. At the...

  20. Concepts and measures of patient empowerment: a comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Garcimartín Cerezo

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE Analyze the definitions and dimensions of empowerment. Identify the strengths and weaknesses of empowerment measures based on the conceptual model. METHOD This was a comprehensive literature review of publications on the MEDLINE and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL databases. RESULTS Twenty-nine articles were selected. Seventeen definitions and seven dimensions of empowerment, and 10 empowerment measures were selected. Empowerment can be seen as an enabling process involving a shift in the balance of power, or as an outcome of this process. The dimensions reflect outcome indicators, such as participation in decision-making and control, and process indicators, such as knowledge acquisition and coping skills. Six of the tools analyzed by this study could be said to provide a robust measure of patient empowerment. CONCLUSION we propose a definition of empowerment that helps to deepen understanding of the term and, therefore, its operationalization.

  1. Measuring quality of life among people living with HIV: a systematic review of reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Vanessa; Clatworthy, Jane; Harding, Richard; Whetham, Jennifer

    2017-11-15

    A systematic review of reviews was conducted to identify and appraise brief measures of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) that have been used in peer-reviewed research with people living with HIV. The review was conducted in two stages: 1) search of electronic databases to identify systematic reviews of tools used to measure HRQoL in adults living with HIV, published since the year 2000; 2) selection of HRQol scales from those identified in the reviews. Inclusion criteria included scales that could be self-administered in 10 min or less, covering at least 3 domains of quality of life (physical function, social/role function and mental/emotional function). For generic scales, inclusion criteria included the availability of normative data while for HIV-specific scales, patient input into the development of the scale was required. Ten reviews met the inclusion criteria. Nine generic scales met the inclusion criteria: the EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D); Health Utilities Index; McGill Quality of Life questionnaire; Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) Short Form (SF)-12; SF-36; World Health Organisation Quality of Life (WHOQOL- BREF), Questions of Life Satisfaction (FLZM) and SF-20. Available psychometric data supported the EQ-5D and SF-36. Seven HIV-specific scales met the inclusion criteria: the AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG)-21; HIV-QL-31; MOS-HIV; Multidimensional Quality of Life Questionnaire for Persons with HIV/AIDS (MQOL-HIV), PROQOL-HIV, Symptom Quality of Life Adherence (HIV-SQUAD) and the WHOQOL-HIV BREF. Of the HIV -specific measures, the MOS-HIV was considered to have the most well-established psychometric properties, however limitations identified in the reviews included insufficient input from people living with HIV in the development of the scale, cross-cultural relevance and continued applicability. Two relatively new measures, the WHOQOL-HIV BREF and PROQOL-HIV, were considered to have promising psychometric properties and may have

  2. Health Reporting in Print Media in Lebanon: Evidence, Quality and Role in Informing Policymaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Bou Karroum, Lama; Bawab, Lamya; Kdouh, Ola; El-Sayed, Farah; Rachidi, Hala; Makki, Malak

    2015-01-01

    Media plays a vital role in shaping public policies and opinions through disseminating health-related information. This study aims at exploring the role of media in informing health policies in Lebanon, identifying the factors influencing health reporting and investigating the role of evidence in health journalism and the quality of health reporting. It also identifies strategies to enhance the use of evidence in health journalism and improve the quality of health reporting. Media analysis was conducted to assess the way media reports on health-related issues and the quality of reporting using a quality assessment tool. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted with 27 journalists, researchers and policymakers to explore their perception on the role of media in health policymaking and the factors influencing health reporting. In addition, a validation workshop was conducted. Out of 1,279 health-related news articles identified, 318 articles used certain type of evidence to report health issues 39.8% of which relied on experts' opinions as their source of evidence while only 5.9% referenced peer-reviewed research studies. The quality of health reporting was judged to be low based on a quality assessment tool consisting of a set of ten criteria. Journalists raised concerns about issues impeding them from referring to evidence. Journalists also reported difficulties with the investigative health journalism. Policymakers and researchers viewed media as an important tool for evidence-informed health policies, however, serious concerns were voiced in terms of the current practice and capacities. Our study provides a structured reflection on the role of media and the factors that influence health reporting including context-specific strategies that would enhance the quality and promote the use of evidence in health reporting. In the light of the political changes in many Middle Eastern countries, findings from this study can contribute to redefining the role of media

  3. Health Reporting in Print Media in Lebanon: Evidence, Quality and Role in Informing Policymaking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadi El-Jardali

    Full Text Available Media plays a vital role in shaping public policies and opinions through disseminating health-related information. This study aims at exploring the role of media in informing health policies in Lebanon, identifying the factors influencing health reporting and investigating the role of evidence in health journalism and the quality of health reporting. It also identifies strategies to enhance the use of evidence in health journalism and improve the quality of health reporting.Media analysis was conducted to assess the way media reports on health-related issues and the quality of reporting using a quality assessment tool. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted with 27 journalists, researchers and policymakers to explore their perception on the role of media in health policymaking and the factors influencing health reporting. In addition, a validation workshop was conducted.Out of 1,279 health-related news articles identified, 318 articles used certain type of evidence to report health issues 39.8% of which relied on experts' opinions as their source of evidence while only 5.9% referenced peer-reviewed research studies. The quality of health reporting was judged to be low based on a quality assessment tool consisting of a set of ten criteria. Journalists raised concerns about issues impeding them from referring to evidence. Journalists also reported difficulties with the investigative health journalism. Policymakers and researchers viewed media as an important tool for evidence-informed health policies, however, serious concerns were voiced in terms of the current practice and capacities.Our study provides a structured reflection on the role of media and the factors that influence health reporting including context-specific strategies that would enhance the quality and promote the use of evidence in health reporting. In the light of the political changes in many Middle Eastern countries, findings from this study can contribute to redefining

  4. Event- and interval-based measurement of stuttering: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Ana Rita S; Jesus, Luis M T; Hall, Andreia; Leahy, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Event- and interval-based measurements are two different ways of computing frequency of stuttering. Interval-based methodology emerged as an alternative measure to overcome problems associated with reproducibility in the event-based methodology. No review has been made to study the effect of methodological factors in interval-based absolute reliability data or to compute the agreement between the two methodologies in terms of inter-judge, intra-judge and accuracy (i.e., correspondence between raters' scores and an established criterion). To provide a review related to reproducibility of event-based and time-interval measurement, and to verify the effect of methodological factors (training, experience, interval duration, sample presentation order and judgment conditions) on agreement of time-interval measurement; in addition, to determine if it is possible to quantify the agreement between the two methodologies The first two authors searched for articles on ERIC, MEDLINE, PubMed, B-on, CENTRAL and Dissertation Abstracts during January-February 2013 and retrieved 495 articles. Forty-eight articles were selected for review. Content tables were constructed with the main findings. Articles related to event-based measurements revealed values of inter- and intra-judge greater than 0.70 and agreement percentages beyond 80%. The articles related to time-interval measures revealed that, in general, judges with more experience with stuttering presented significantly higher levels of intra- and inter-judge agreement. Inter- and intra-judge values were beyond the references for high reproducibility values for both methodologies. Accuracy (regarding the closeness of raters' judgements with an established criterion), intra- and inter-judge agreement were higher for trained groups when compared with non-trained groups. Sample presentation order and audio/video conditions did not result in differences in inter- or intra-judge results. A duration of 5 s for an interval appears to be

  5. Wind measurements for wind energy applications. A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, N.G.

    1994-01-01

    A review is given of the error sources and uncertainties in cup and sonic anemometry. In both cases the effects of the tower, boom and other mounting arrangements, as well as the siting of the anemometer, should be considered carefully. Cup anemometer measurements are inherently biased due...... to the turbulent nature of the wind, but these errors can be neglected in many applications if a well-designed, fast-responding anemometer is used. The response characteristics of sonic anemometers are fairly complicated. Based on wind tunnel investigations and field comparisons some of the associated errors...

  6. Measuring breath acetone for monitoring fat loss: Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Joseph C

    2015-12-01

    Endogenous acetone production is a by-product of the fat metabolism process. Because of its small size, acetone appears in exhaled breath. Historically, endogenous acetone has been measured in exhaled breath to monitor ketosis in healthy and diabetic subjects. Recently, breath acetone concentration (BrAce) has been shown to correlate with the rate of fat loss in healthy individuals. In this review, the measurement of breath acetone in healthy subjects is evaluated for its utility in predicting fat loss and its sensitivity to changes in physiologic parameters. BrAce can range from 1 ppm in healthy non-dieting subjects to 1,250 ppm in diabetic ketoacidosis. A strong correlation exists between increased BrAce and the rate of fat loss. Multiple metabolic and respiratory factors affect the measurement of BrAce. BrAce is most affected by changes in the following factors (in descending order): dietary macronutrient composition, caloric restriction, exercise, pulmonary factors, and other assorted factors that increase fat metabolism or inhibit acetone metabolism. Pulmonary factors affecting acetone exchange in the lung should be controlled to optimize the breath sample for measurement. When biologic factors are controlled, BrAce measurement provides a non-invasive tool for monitoring the rate of fat loss in healthy subjects. © 2015 The Authors Obesity published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Obesity Society (TOS).

  7. Measurement properties of patient reported outcome measures for spondyloarthritis: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Png, Kelly; Kwan, Yu Heng; Leung, Ying Ying; Phang, Jie Kie; Lau, Jia Qi; Lim, Ka Keat; Chew, Eng Hui; Low, Lian Leng; Tan, Chuen Seng; Thumboo, Julian; Fong, Warren; Østbye, Truls

    2018-03-21

    This systematic review aimed to identify studies investigating measurement properties of patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) for spondyloarthritis (SpA), and to evaluate their methodological quality and level of evidence relating to the measurement properties of PROMs. This systematic review was guided by the preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis (PRISMA). Articles published before 30 June 2017 were retrieved from PubMed ® , Embase ® , and PsychINFO ® (Ovid). Methodological quality and level of evidence were evaluated according to recommendations from the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN). We identified 60 unique PROMs from 125 studies in 39 countries. Twenty-one PROMs were validated for two or more SpA subtypes. The literature examined hypothesis testing (82.4%) most frequently followed by reliability (60.0%). A percentage of 77.7% and 42.7% of studies that assessed PROMs for hypothesis testing and reliability, respectively had "fair" or better methodological quality. Among the PROMs identified, 41.7% were studied in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) only and 23.3% were studied in psoriatic arthritis (PsA) only. The more extensively assessed PROMs included the ankylosing spondylitis quality of life (ASQoL) and bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index (BASFI) for ankylosing spondylitis, and the psoriatic arthritis quality of life questionnaire (VITACORA-19) for psoriatic arthritis. This study identified 60 unique PROMs through a systematic review and synthesized evidence of the measurement properties of the PROMs. There is a lack of validation of PROMs for use across SpA subtypes. Future studies may consider validating PROMs for use across different SpA subtypes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The nuclear controversy: unequal competition in public policy-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderson, I.

    1980-05-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction; some epistemological problems; energy policy-making and the energy crisis; the nuclear controversy - substantive issues (the need for nuclear power; the desirability of nuclear power (safety of nuclear power; cost of nuclear power; nuclear power and weapons proliferation; nuclear power and civil liberties; some other aspects of nuclear power development); conclusion); the dominance of pro-nuclear thinking; conclusion and prospects. Appendix A describes the structure of the UK nuclear industry and its European connections. (U.K.)

  9. Strategic information for industrial policy-making in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonod, P.F.

    1990-05-01

    The practice shows that many crucial decisions for industrialization in developing countries have been taken based on incomplete information. For strategic decisions an incomplete information may have catastrophic consequences. The function of policy-making is defined as the process by which the information generated/or used in a particular context is reevaluated in a different context in order to formulate/or execute a policy of alternative decisions. It follows that the industrial information must be presented in such a manner to allow a reevaluation and alternative decisions. 30 notes

  10. ESA-SSA Review of Space Weather Measurement Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luntama, Juha-Pekka; Glover, Alexi; Hilgers, Alain

    2012-07-01

    The ESA Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Preparatory Programme was started in 2009. The objective of the programme is to support the European independent utilisation of and access to space. The first phase of the ESA SSA system development will be finished in 2012 and the next phase is foreseen to be started after the ESA Ministerial Council meeting in November 2012. The definition of measurement requirements for the Space Weather Segment (SWE) of the ESA SSA system has been based on the space weather service requirements defined the by expected users of the system. This document, SSA SWE Customer Requirements Document (CRD), has been defined in a iterative process together with the members of the SSA User Representative Group (URG) and the delegates representing the European states participating the programme. Based on the SWE CRD, ESA with the support of the European industry has produced two documents: SSA SWE System Requirements Document (SRD) and SSA SWE Product Specification (PS). SWE PS contains the requirements for the measurements data required by the SSA SWE system. The SWE PS document has been recently rigorously reviewed by the SSA URG in the framework of the SSA System Requirements Review (SRR). The support provided by the Steering Board of the ESA Space Weather Working Team (SWWT) in this review was extremely useful. The members of the SWWT SB representing the scientific community and the provisional service providers were able to give very detailed comments regarding the measurement requirements for accuracy, cadence, timeliness, etc. As these parameters will be provisional design and cost drivers for the ESA SSA system, definition of the appropriate values at this point in the programme is crucial. This paper provides an overview of the measurement requirements for the SWE Segment of the ESA SSA Programme. The paper discusses the requirement definition process, the customer and service provider inputs, and the critical requirements as they have

  11. Well-being measurement and the WHO health policy Health 2010: systematic review of measurement scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindert, Jutta; Bain, Paul A; Kubzansky, Laura D; Stein, Claudia

    2015-08-01

    Subjective well-being (SWB) contributes to health and mental health. It is a major objective of the new World Health Organization health policy framework, 'Health 2020'. Various approaches to defining and measuring well-being exist. We aimed to identify, map and analyse the contents of self-reported well-being measurement scales for use with individuals more than 15 years of age to help researchers and politicians choose appropriate measurement tools. We conducted a systematic literature search in PubMed for studies published between 2007 and 2012, with additional hand-searching, to identify empirical studies that investigated well-being using a measurement scale. For each eligible study, we identified the measurement tool and reviewed its components, number of items, administration time, validity, reliability, responsiveness and sensitivity. The literature review identified 60 unique measurement scales. Measurement scales were either multidimensional (n = 33) or unidimensional (n = 14) and assessed multiple domains. The most frequently encountered domains were affects (39 scales), social relations (17 scales), life satisfaction (13 scales), physical health (13 scales), meaning/achievement (9 scales) and spirituality (6 scales). The scales included between 1 and 100 items; the administration time varied from 1 to 15 min. Well-being is a higher order construct. Measures seldom reported testing for gender or cultural sensitivity. The content and format of scales varied considerably. Effective monitoring and comparison of SWB over time and across geographic regions will require further work to refine definitions of SWB. We recommend concurrent evaluation of at least three self-reported SWB measurement scales, including evaluation for gender or cultural sensitivity. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  12. Public, private and personal: qualitative research on policymakers' opinions on smokefree interventions to protect children in 'private' spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouch, Gareth; Thomson, George; Wilson, Nick; Hudson, Sheena; Edwards, Richard; Gifford, Heather; Lanumata, Tolotea

    2010-12-31

    Governments use law to constrain aspects of private activities for purposes of protecting health and social wellbeing. Policymakers have a range of perceptions and beliefs about what is public or private. An understanding of the possible drivers of policymaker decisions about where government can or should intervene for health is important, as one way to better guide appropriate policy formation. Our aim was to identify obstacles to, and opportunities for, government smokefree regulation of private and public spaces to protect children. In particular, to seek policymaker opinions on the regulation of smoking in homes, cars and public parks and playgrounds in a country with incomplete smokefree laws (New Zealand). Case study, using structured interviews to ask policymakers (62 politicians and senior officials) about their opinions on new smokefree legislation for public and private places. Supplementary data was obtained from the Factiva media database, on the views of New Zealand local authority councillors about policies for smokefree outdoor public places. Overall, interviewees thought that government regulation of smoking in private places was impractical and unwise. However, there were some differences on what was defined as 'private', particularly for cars. Even in public parks, smoking was seen by some as a 'personal' decision, and unlikely to be amenable to regulation. Most participants believed that educative, supportive and community-based measures were better and more practical means of reducing smoking in private places, compared to regulation. The constrained view of the role of regulation of smoking in public and private domains may be in keeping with current political discourse in New Zealand and similar Anglo-American countries. Policy and advocacy options to promote additional smokefree measures include providing a better voice for childrens' views, increasing information to policymakers about the harms to children from secondhand smoke and the

  13. Public, private and personal: Qualitative research on policymakers' opinions on smokefree interventions to protect children in 'private' spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwards Richard

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Governments use law to constrain aspects of private activities for purposes of protecting health and social wellbeing. Policymakers have a range of perceptions and beliefs about what is public or private. An understanding of the possible drivers of policymaker decisions about where government can or should intervene for health is important, as one way to better guide appropriate policy formation. Our aim was to identify obstacles to, and opportunities for, government smokefree regulation of private and public spaces to protect children. In particular, to seek policymaker opinions on the regulation of smoking in homes, cars and public parks and playgrounds in a country with incomplete smokefree laws (New Zealand. Methods Case study, using structured interviews to ask policymakers (62 politicians and senior officials about their opinions on new smokefree legislation for public and private places. Supplementary data was obtained from the Factiva media database, on the views of New Zealand local authority councillors about policies for smokefree outdoor public places. Results Overall, interviewees thought that government regulation of smoking in private places was impractical and unwise. However, there were some differences on what was defined as 'private', particularly for cars. Even in public parks, smoking was seen by some as a 'personal' decision, and unlikely to be amenable to regulation. Most participants believed that educative, supportive and community-based measures were better and more practical means of reducing smoking in private places, compared to regulation. Conclusions The constrained view of the role of regulation of smoking in public and private domains may be in keeping with current political discourse in New Zealand and similar Anglo-American countries. Policy and advocacy options to promote additional smokefree measures include providing a better voice for childrens' views, increasing information to

  14. Public, private and personal: Qualitative research on policymakers' opinions on smokefree interventions to protect children in 'private' spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Governments use law to constrain aspects of private activities for purposes of protecting health and social wellbeing. Policymakers have a range of perceptions and beliefs about what is public or private. An understanding of the possible drivers of policymaker decisions about where government can or should intervene for health is important, as one way to better guide appropriate policy formation. Our aim was to identify obstacles to, and opportunities for, government smokefree regulation of private and public spaces to protect children. In particular, to seek policymaker opinions on the regulation of smoking in homes, cars and public parks and playgrounds in a country with incomplete smokefree laws (New Zealand). Methods Case study, using structured interviews to ask policymakers (62 politicians and senior officials) about their opinions on new smokefree legislation for public and private places. Supplementary data was obtained from the Factiva media database, on the views of New Zealand local authority councillors about policies for smokefree outdoor public places. Results Overall, interviewees thought that government regulation of smoking in private places was impractical and unwise. However, there were some differences on what was defined as 'private', particularly for cars. Even in public parks, smoking was seen by some as a 'personal' decision, and unlikely to be amenable to regulation. Most participants believed that educative, supportive and community-based measures were better and more practical means of reducing smoking in private places, compared to regulation. Conclusions The constrained view of the role of regulation of smoking in public and private domains may be in keeping with current political discourse in New Zealand and similar Anglo-American countries. Policy and advocacy options to promote additional smokefree measures include providing a better voice for childrens' views, increasing information to policymakers about the harms to

  15. HIV/AIDS policy-making in Kyrgyzstan: a stakeholder analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancker, Svetlana; Rechel, Bernd

    2015-02-01

    Kyrgyzstan has adopted a number of policy initiatives to deal with an accelerating HIV/AIDS epidemic. This article explores the main actors in HIV/AIDS policy-making, their interests, support and involvement and their current ability to set the agenda and influence the policy-making process. Fifty-four semi-structured interviews were conducted in the autumn of 2011, complemented by a review of policy documents and secondary sources on HIV/AIDS in Kyrgyzstan. We found that most stakeholders were supportive of progressive HIV/AIDS policies, but that their influence levels varied considerably. Worryingly, several major state agencies exhibited some resistance or lack of initiative towards HIV/AIDS policies, often prompting international agencies and local NGOs to conceptualize and drive appropriate policies. We conclude that, without clear vision and leadership by the state, the sustainability of the national response will be in question. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2013; all rights reserved.

  16. The Role of Higher Education in National Quality Infrastructure Policy-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Ruso

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to raise awareness of the importance of the policy makers’ knowledge and expertise about quality infrastructure (QI for the successful policy-making. This article, which addresses the role of higher education in Serbian quality infrastructure policy-making, is an analysis of QI related contents of higher education institution curriculum. The target institutions are public faculties from whose official websites the data were collected. Depending on the keywords, the analysis was performed in order to classify the faculties into three categories. After reviewing the 307 subject titles and descriptions of undergraduate courses, the results show that the concepts of QI are widely recognized as an important and popular topic. The analysis of the QI adoption and diffusion indicates that although some of the faculties might be ‘leaders’ in a particular dimension, they still do not necessarily fall into the ‘leader’ category. JEL Classification:I21, I23, H54, L15

  17. Food parenting: a selective review of current measurement and an empirical examination to inform future measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musher-Eizenman, Dara R; Kiefner, Allison

    2013-08-01

    Interactions between parents and children in regard to food are an important part of the development of food preferences and intake patterns for children. The measurement of this complex and multidimensional construct is very challenging. This article examines the current status of measurement in this domain in a selective review, considers qualitative input from parents and adolescents in an empirical examination of the topic, and makes concrete recommendations for the future. Qualitatively, there were important differences between what the adolescents reported that their parents did to impact their eating habits, what parents of younger children report they currently do, and what researchers typically measure in research on parental feeding practices. On the basis of these empirical findings and our review of the literature, we recommend that food parenting be measured on three levels: Feeding styles (e.g., authoritative), food parenting practices (e.g., restriction), and specific feeding behaviors (e.g., putting food out of the child's reach). Specific recommendations for future study are given for each level of measurement.

  18. The effects of corporate restructuring on hospital policymaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, J A; Morlock, L L; Gifford, B D

    1988-06-01

    Hospital corporate restructuring is the segmentation of assets or functions of the hospital into separate corporations. While these functions are almost always legally separated from the hospital, their impact on hospital policymaking may be far more direct. This study examines the effects of corporate restructuring by community hospitals on the structure, composition, and activity of hospital governing boards. In general, we expect that the policymaking function of the hospital will change to adapt to the multicorporate structure implemented under corporate restructuring, as well as the overlapping boards and diversified business responsibilities of the new corporate entity. Specifically, we hypothesize that the hospital board under corporate restructuring will conform more to the "corporate" model found in the business/industrial sector and less to the "philanthropic" model common to most community hospitals to date. Analysis of survey data from 1,037 hospitals undergoing corporate restructuring from 1979-1985 and a comparison group of 1,883 noncorporately restructured hospitals suggests general support for this hypothesis. Implications for health care governance and research are discussed.

  19. Implementation research evidence uptake and use for policy-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panisset Ulysses

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A major obstacle to the progress of the Millennium Development Goals has been the inability of health systems in many low- and middle-income countries to effectively implement evidence-informed interventions. This article discusses the relationships between implementation research and knowledge translation and identifies the role of implementation research in the design and execution of evidence-informed policy. After a discussion of the benefits and synergies needed to translate implementation research into action, the article discusses how implementation research can be used along the entire continuum of the use of evidence to inform policy. It provides specific examples of the use of implementation research in national level programmes by looking at the scale up of zinc for the treatment of childhood diarrhoea in Bangladesh and the scaling up of malaria treatment in Burkina Faso. A number of tested strategies to support the transfer of implementation research results into policy-making are provided to help meet the standards that are increasingly expected from evidence-informed policy-making practices.

  20. The effects of corporate restructuring on hospital policymaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, J A; Morlock, L L; Gifford, B D

    1988-01-01

    Hospital corporate restructuring is the segmentation of assets or functions of the hospital into separate corporations. While these functions are almost always legally separated from the hospital, their impact on hospital policymaking may be far more direct. This study examines the effects of corporate restructuring by community hospitals on the structure, composition, and activity of hospital governing boards. In general, we expect that the policymaking function of the hospital will change to adapt to the multicorporate structure implemented under corporate restructuring, as well as the overlapping boards and diversified business responsibilities of the new corporate entity. Specifically, we hypothesize that the hospital board under corporate restructuring will conform more to the "corporate" model found in the business/industrial sector and less to the "philanthropic" model common to most community hospitals to date. Analysis of survey data from 1,037 hospitals undergoing corporate restructuring from 1979-1985 and a comparison group of 1,883 noncorporately restructured hospitals suggests general support for this hypothesis. Implications for health care governance and research are discussed. PMID:3384671

  1. REVIEW ARTICLE: Emission measurement techniques for advanced powertrains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Masayuki

    2000-10-01

    Recent developments in high-efficiency low-emission powertrains require the emission measurement technologies to be able to detect regulated and unregulated compounds with very high sensitivity and a fast response. For example, levels of a variety of nitrogen compounds and sulphur compounds should be analysed in real time in order to develop aftertreatment systems to decrease emission of NOx for the lean burning powertrains. Also, real-time information on the emission of particulate matter for the transient operation of diesel engines and direct injection gasoline engines is invaluable. The present paper reviews newly introduced instrumentation for such emission measurement that is demanded for the developments in advanced powertrain systems. They include Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and fast response flame ionization detection. In addition, demands and applications of the fuel reformer developments for fuel cell electric vehicles are discussed. Besides the detection methodologies, sample handling techniques for the measurement of concentrations emitted from low emission vehicles for which the concentrations of the pollutants are significantly lower than the concentrations present in ambient air, are also described.

  2. Outcome measures in acute gout: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbeth, Nicola; Zhong, Cathy S; Grainger, Rebecca; Khanna, Dinesh; Khanna, Puja P; Singh, Jasvinder A; McQueen, Fiona M; Taylor, William J

    2014-03-01

    Five core domains have been endorsed by Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) for acute gout: pain, joint swelling, joint tenderness, patient global assessment, and activity limitation. We evaluated instruments for these domains according to the OMERACT filter: truth, feasibility, and discrimination. A systematic search strategy for instruments used to measure the acute gout core domains was formulated. For each method, articles were assessed by 2 reviewers to summarize information according to the specific components of the OMERACT filter. Seventy-seven articles and abstracts met the inclusion criteria. Pain was most frequently reported (76 studies, 20 instruments). The pain instruments used most often were 100 mm visual analog scale (VAS) and 5-point Likert scale. Both methods have high feasibility, face and content validity, and within- and between-group discrimination. Four-point Likert scales assessing index joint swelling and tenderness have been used in numerous acute gout studies; these instruments are feasible, with high face and content validity, and show within- and between-group discrimination. Five-point Patient Global Assessment of Response to Treatment (PGART) scales are feasible and valid, and show within- and between-group discrimination. Measures of activity limitations were infrequently reported, and insufficient data were available to make definite assessments of the instruments for this domain. Many different instruments have been used to assess the acute gout core domains. Pain VAS and 5-point Likert scales, 4-point Likert scales of index joint swelling and tenderness and 5-point PGART instruments meet the criteria for the OMERACT filter.

  3. Measurements of Gluconeogenesis and Glycogenolysis: A Methodological Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Stephanie T; Chacko, Shaji K; Sunehag, Agneta L; Haymond, Morey W

    2015-12-01

    Gluconeogenesis is a complex metabolic process that involves multiple enzymatic steps regulated by myriad factors, including substrate concentrations, the redox state, activation and inhibition of specific enzyme steps, and hormonal modulation. At present, the most widely accepted technique to determine gluconeogenesis is by measuring the incorporation of deuterium from the body water pool into newly formed glucose. However, several techniques using radioactive and stable-labeled isotopes have been used to quantitate the contribution and regulation of gluconeogenesis in humans. Each method has its advantages, methodological assumptions, and set of propagated errors. In this review, we examine the strengths and weaknesses of the most commonly used stable isotopes methods to measure gluconeogenesis in vivo. We discuss the advantages and limitations of each method and summarize the applicability of these measurements in understanding normal and pathophysiological conditions. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  4. The measurement of collaboration within healthcare settings: a systematic review of measurement properties of instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Stephen John; Stern, Cindy; Robertson-Malt, Suzanne

    2016-04-01

    There is a growing call by consumers and governments for healthcare to adopt systems and approaches to care to improve patient safety. Collaboration within healthcare settings is an important factor for improving systems of care. By using validated measurement instruments a standardized approach to assessing collaboration is possible, otherwise it is only an assumption that collaboration is occurring in any healthcare setting. The objective of this review was to evaluate and compare measurement properties of instruments that measure collaboration within healthcare settings, specifically those which have been psychometrically tested and validated. Participants could be healthcare professionals, the patient or any non-professional who contributes to a patient's care, for example, family members, chaplains or orderlies. The term participant type means the designation of any one participant; for example 'nurse', 'social worker' or 'administrator'. More than two participant types was mandatory. The focus of this review was the validity of tools used to measure collaboration within healthcare settings. The types of studies considered for inclusion were validation studies, but quantitative study designs such as randomized controlled trials, controlled trials and case studies were also eligible for inclusion. Studies that focused on Interprofessional Education, were published as an abstract only, contained patient self-reporting only or were not about care delivery were excluded. The outcome of interest was validation and interpretability of the instrument being assessed and included content validity, construct validity and reliability. Interpretability is characterized by statistics such as mean and standard deviation which can be translated to a qualitative meaning. The search strategy aimed to find both published and unpublished studies. A three-step search strategy was utilized in this review. The databases searched included PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, Cochrane Central

  5. Measuring elderly dysphagic patients' performance in eating--a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tina; Kjaersgaard, Annette; Faber, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. This review aims to identify psychometrically robust assessment tools suitable for measuring elderly dysphagic patients' performance in eating for use in clinical practice and research. Method. Electronic databases, related citations and references were searched to identify assessment...... tools integrating the complexity of the eating process. Papers were selected according to criteria defined a priori. Data were extracted regarding characteristics of the assessment tools and the evidence of reliability, validity and responsiveness. Quality appraisal was undertaken using developed...... of neurological and geriatric conditions. The rigor of the assessment tools' psychometric properties varied from no evidence available to excellent evidence. Only two assessment tools were rated adequate to excellent. Conclusion. ‘The Minimal Eating Observation Form-Version II’ to be used for screening and ‘The...

  6. Systematic review of cardiac output measurements by echocardiography vs. thermodilution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wetterslev, Mik; Møller-Sørensen, Hasse; Johansen, Rasmus Rothmann

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Echocardiography is frequently used in the hemodynamic evaluation of critically ill patients, but inaccurate measurements may lead to wrong clinical decisions. The aim of our systematic review was to investigate the interchangeability of echocardiography with thermodilution technique...... of the studies assessed left-sided heart structures and the majority had small bias, wide limits of agreement, and high percentage error between echocardiography and thermodilution. In only two of the 24 studies the precision of each technique (echocardiography and thermodilution) was assessed before comparing...... them. In the single study evaluating trending ability using valid methodology, agreement was observed between echocardiography and thermodilution in detecting the directional changes in cardiac output, but the magnitude of changes varied considerably. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of studies comparing...

  7. Sorption isotherms: A review on physical bases, modeling and measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limousin, G. [Atomic Energy Commission, Tracers Technology Laboratory, 38054 Grenoble Cedex (France) and Laboratoire d' etude des Transferts en Hydrologie et Environnement (CNRS-INPG-IRD-UJF), BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex (France)]. E-mail: guillaumelimousin@yahoo.fr; Gaudet, J.-P. [Laboratoire d' etude des Transferts en Hydrologie et Environnement (CNRS-INPG-IRD-UJF), BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex (France); Charlet, L. [Laboratoire de Geophysique Interne et Techtonophysique - CNRS-IRD-LCPC-UJF-Universite de Savoie, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex (France); Szenknect, S. [Atomic Energy Commission, Tracers Technology Laboratory, 38054 Grenoble Cedex (France); Barthes, V. [Atomic Energy Commission, Tracers Technology Laboratory, 38054 Grenoble Cedex (France); Krimissa, M. [Electricite de France, Division Recherche et Developpement, Laboratoire National d' Hydraulique et d' Environnement - P78, 6 quai Watier, 78401 Chatou (France)

    2007-02-15

    The retention (or release) of a liquid compound on a solid controls the mobility of many substances in the environment and has been quantified in terms of the 'sorption isotherm'. This paper does not review the different sorption mechanisms. It presents the physical bases underlying the definition of a sorption isotherm, different empirical or mechanistic models, and details several experimental methods to acquire a sorption isotherm. For appropriate measurements and interpretations of isotherm data, this review emphasizes 4 main points: (i) the adsorption (or desorption) isotherm does not provide automatically any information about the reactions involved in the sorption phenomenon. So, mechanistic interpretations must be carefully verified. (ii) Among studies, the range of reaction times is extremely wide and this can lead to misinterpretations regarding the irreversibility of the reaction: a pseudo-hysteresis of the release compared with the retention is often observed. The comparison between the mean characteristic time of the reaction and the mean residence time of the mobile phase in the natural system allows knowing if the studied retention/release phenomenon should be considered as an instantaneous reversible, almost irreversible phenomenon, or if reaction kinetics must be taken into account. (iii) When the concentration of the retained substance is low enough, the composition of the bulk solution remains constant and a single-species isotherm is often sufficient, although it remains strongly dependent on the background medium. At higher concentrations, sorption may be driven by the competition between several species that affect the composition of the bulk solution. (iv) The measurement method has a great influence. Particularly, the background ionic medium, the solid/solution ratio and the use of flow-through or closed reactor are of major importance. The chosen method should balance easy-to-use features and representativity of the studied

  8. Measuring the outcome of biomedical research: a systematic literature review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédérique Thonon

    Full Text Available There is an increasing need to evaluate the production and impact of medical research produced by institutions. Many indicators exist, yet we do not have enough information about their relevance. The objective of this systematic review was (1 to identify all the indicators that could be used to measure the output and outcome of medical research carried out in institutions and (2 enlist their methodology, use, positive and negative points.We have searched 3 databases (Pubmed, Scopus, Web of Science using the following keywords: [Research outcome* OR research output* OR bibliometric* OR scientometric* OR scientific production] AND [indicator* OR index* OR evaluation OR metrics]. We included articles presenting, discussing or evaluating indicators measuring the scientific production of an institution. The search was conducted by two independent authors using a standardised data extraction form. For each indicator we extracted its definition, calculation, its rationale and its positive and negative points. In order to reduce bias, data extraction and analysis was performed by two independent authors.We included 76 articles. A total of 57 indicators were identified. We have classified those indicators into 6 categories: 9 indicators of research activity, 24 indicators of scientific production and impact, 5 indicators of collaboration, 7 indicators of industrial production, 4 indicators of dissemination, 8 indicators of health service impact. The most widely discussed and described is the h-index with 31 articles discussing it.The majority of indicators found are bibliometric indicators of scientific production and impact. Several indicators have been developed to improve the h-index. This indicator has also inspired the creation of two indicators to measure industrial production and collaboration. Several articles propose indicators measuring research impact without detailing a methodology for calculating them. Many bibliometric indicators identified

  9. A review of direct experimental measurements of detachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boedo, J.; McLean, A. G.; Rudakov, D. L.; Watkins, J. G.

    2018-04-01

    Detached divertor plasmas feature strong radial and parallel gradients of density, temperature, electric fields and flow over the divertor volume and therefore, sampling the divertor plasma directly provides crucial knowledge to the interpretation and modeling efforts. We review the contribution of diagnostics that directly sample the plasma to the advancement of knowledge of the physics of detachment and detached divertors, such as the characteristics of the various regimes, discovery and quantification of drifts and identification of convection of heat and particles. We focus on wall probes, scanning probes, retarding field analyzers and Thomson scattering in the divertor region and also include the contribution of measurements away from the divertor that provide insight on how divertor detachment affects core, edge or pedestal conditions. Wall probes are critical as they can be installed in closed volumes of difficult access to other diagnostics and measure plasma parameters at the divertor structures, which define the plasma boundary conditions and where detachment effects are more likely to be strongest.

  10. Review and interpretation of recent cosmic ray beryllium isotope measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buffington, A.

    1978-01-01

    Be 10 has long been of interest for cosmic ray propagation, because its radioactive decay half-life is well matched to the expected cosmic ray age. Recent beryllium isotope measurements from satellites and balloons have covered an energy range from about 30 to 300 MeV/nucleon/sup 1-3/. At the lowest energies, most of the Be 10 is absent, indicating a cosmic ray lifetime of order 2 x 10 7 years and the rather low average density of 0.2 atoms/cc traversed by the cosmic rays. At higher energies, a greater proportion of Be 10 is observed, indicating a somewhat shorter lifetime. These experiments will be reviewed and then compared with a new experiment covering from 100 to 1000 Mev/nucleon 4 . Although improved experiments will be necessary to realize the full potential of cosmic ray beryllium isotope measurements, these first results are already disclosing interesting and unexpected facts about cosmic ray acceleration and propagation

  11. Measurement of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D: A historical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Le Goff

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The constantly increasing requests for the measurement of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D over the last years has led reagent manufacturers to market different automated and semi-automated methods, that being unfortunately not fully harmonized, yield different results. Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS2 has more recently been introduced. This approach allows the distinction between the two forms of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and to measure other metabolites. This approach also requires harmonization to curtail the differences between the different analytical methods. To meet this requirement, the American National Institutes of Health (NIH, the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC in Atlanta, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST and the vitamin D Reference laboratory of Ghent University have pooled their expertise to develop a standardization program.This article reviews the main elements and the difficulties of the automated and semi-automated methods for 25-hydroxyvitamin D, from sample preparation to the analytical phase, as well as those related to mass spectrometry. It also emphasizes the need for standardization to better define the clinical decision thresholds of vitamin D nutritional status. Keywords: Vitamin D, 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol, 25-Hydroxyergocalciferol, HPLC, Mass spectrometry, Immunoassays

  12. A Policymaker's Guide to Scaling Home Energy Upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeBaron, Robin [Home Performance Coalition, Moon, PA (United States); Saul-Rinaldi, Kara [Home Performance Coalition, Moon, PA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    There has never been a better time to launch initiatives to promote residential energy efficiency savings. Over the past several decades, residential retrofit programs have demonstrated that energy efficiency measures contribute to achieving multiple benefits, including but not limited to reductions in home energy consumption, stabilization improvements for the grid by shaving peak loads, saving consumers millions on utility bills, and significantly reducing carbon emissions. Although a number of barriers to widespread uptake of home energy upgrades persist, the lessons learned as a result of the 2009 stimulus funding1 have resulted in a set of policy approaches that create new strategies for taking residential energy efficiency to scale.2 The identification of these approaches is well timed; energy efficiency is often the least expensive and most cost effective way to comply with a variety of federal, state and local policies. This Guide is designed to help state and local policymakers to take full advantage of new policy developments by providing them with a comprehensive set of tools to support launching or accelerating residential energy efficiency programs. It is written primarily for state and local policymakers, including state and local executives, legislators, public utility commissioners, and the staff who advise them.

  13. A systematic review of measurement properties of patient reported outcome measures in psoriatic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Pil; Klokker, Louise; Orbai, Ana Maria

    2018-01-01

    review. Forty-four instruments and a total of 89 scales were analyzed. PROMs measuring COS domains with at least fair quality evidence for good validity and reliability (and no evidence for poor properties) included the Stockerau Activity Score for PsA (German), Psoriasis Symptom Inventory, visual...... analogue scale for Patient Global, 36 Item Short Form Health Survey Physical Function subscale, Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index, PsA Impact of Disease questionnaire, PsA Quality of Life questionnaire, VITACORA-19, Functional Assessment...

  14. Concepts and measures of patient empowerment: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezo, Paloma Garcimartín; Juvé-Udina, Maria-Eulália; Delgado-Hito, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Analyze the definitions and dimensions of empowerment. Identify the strengths and weaknesses of empowerment measures based on the conceptual model. This was a comprehensive literature review of publications on the MEDLINE and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) databases. Twenty-nine articles were selected. Seventeen definitions and seven dimensions of empowerment, and 10 empowerment measures were selected. Empowerment can be seen as an enabling process involving a shift in the balance of power, or as an outcome of this process. The dimensions reflect outcome indicators, such as participation in decision-making and control, and process indicators, such as knowledge acquisition and coping skills. Six of the tools analyzed by this study could be said to provide a robust measure of patient empowerment. we propose a definition of empowerment that helps to deepen understanding of the term and, therefore, its operationalization. Analizar definiciones y dimensiones de empoderamiento. Identificar fortalezas y debilidades de los instrumentos de medida de empoderamiento respecto al modelo conceptual. Revisión integrativa de la literatura en las bases de datos MEDLINE y Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL). Fueram seleccionados 29 artículos . Se identificaron 17 definiciones, 7 propuestas de dimensiones y 10 instrumentos de medida. Empoderamiento puede ser un proceso de capacitación o habilitación en el que se transfiere el poder de un individuo a otro, o bien un resultado producto de ese proceso. Las dimensiones reflejan indicadores de resultados como son la participación en la toma de decisiones y tomar el control, e indicadores relativos al proceso como son la adquisición de conocimientos y las habilidades de afrontamiento. De los instrumentos analizados seis son los instrumentos que presentan mayor robustez. Se propone una definición de empoderamiento que puede ayudar a mejorar la comprensión del t

  15. An integrative review: Developing and measuring creativity in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xing; Yang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Xue; Zang, Yuli

    2018-03-01

    To analyze and synthesise the existing evidence on creativity in nursing. An integrative review. A systematic search was conducted using seven English databases (PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Cochrane, EBSCO, Wiley, and Medline) and the top three best Chinese databases (CNKI, Wanfang Data, and VIP). The combined keywords, creativity and nursing/nurse, were used to search for relevant journal articles that were written in English or Chinese from January 1995 to December 2016. The components of articles, i.e. title, abstract, full-text and the cited reference, were screened, filtered, evaluated and recorded according to the PRISMA statements and Joanna Briggs Institute Checklists. Thematic analysis was performed to synthesise evidence from the full-texts of studies. Fifteen quantitative and seven qualitative studies were included in this review. A joyful affective perspective enriched the conceptualization of creativity in nursing. Many intrinsic factors (e.g. learning styles, thinking styles, intrinsic passion, interest in nursing and achievement motivation) or extrinsic factors (mostly workplace problems and nurses' shortage) could influence nurses' and nursing students' creativity. Artistic expressions (e.g. painting, music, and pottery), self-directed learning and group/team work were reported to have a positive effect on creativity enhancement. None of existing instruments can adequately measure nurses' or nursing students' creativity. The concept of creativity requires an explicit definition, which is essential to the development and evaluation of creativity in nursing education and practice. Many factors influencing nurses' and nursing students' creativity can be implemented to achieve positive outcomes through efforts at artistic expressions, self-directed learning and teamwork. An instrument with satisfactory psychometric properties should be available for monitoring creativity development among nurses and nursing students. Copyright © 2017

  16. Reviewer Integration and Performance Measurement for Malware Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Brad; Kantchelian, Alex; Tschantz, Michael Carl; Afroz, Sadia; Bachwani, Rekha; Faizullabhoy, Riyaz; Huang, Ling; Shankar, Vaishaal; Wu, Tony; Yiu, George; Joseph, Anthony D.; Tygar, J. D.

    2015-01-01

    We present and evaluate a large-scale malware detection system integrating machine learning with expert reviewers, treating reviewers as a limited labeling resource. We demonstrate that even in small numbers, reviewers can vastly improve the system's ability to keep pace with evolving threats. We conduct our evaluation on a sample of VirusTotal submissions spanning 2.5 years and containing 1.1 million binaries with 778GB of raw feature data. Without reviewer assistance, we achieve 72% detecti...

  17. Environmental policy-making in a difficult context: motorized two-wheeled vehicle emissions in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badami, Madhav G.

    2004-01-01

    Motor vehicle activity is growing rapidly in India and other less-industrialized countries in Asia. This growth is contributing to serious health and welfare effects due to vehicle emissions, and energy insecurity, acidification and climate change. This paper applies the problem-structuring tools of 'value-focused thinking' to inform policy-making and implementation related to this complex problem in a difficult context, with specific reference to motorized two-wheeled vehicles, which play an important role in transport air pollution but also provide affordable mobility to millions with few other attractive options. The paper describes the process used to elicit and structure objectives and measures, based on interviews conducted by the author, and demonstrates how the objectives and measures can be used to more effectively characterize policy impacts, and create policy packages that have a better chance of long-term success

  18. Virginia policymakers' views on the value of visual arts education at the high school level

    OpenAIRE

    Goodwin, Daisy Wilson

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out from Virginia policymakers their feelings toward visual arts education as a required subject at the high school level by answering the following questions: (1) How do policymakers and gatekeepers see the value of visual arts education as a required subject on the high school level? (2) What is the attitude of Virginia policymakers and gatekeepers towards the importance of issues pertaining to the framing of a visual arts education p...

  19. Challenges to pharmaceutical policymaking: lessons from Australia's national medicines policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipworth, Wendy; Doran, Evan; Kerridge, Ian; Day, Richard

    2014-05-01

    National medicines policies (NMP) provide a means for governments to achieve their objectives in relation to pharmaceuticals and other medicines. This research aimed to identify challenges to implementing the objectives of the Australian NMP from the perspective of key stakeholders. In 2012 and 2103, we conducted 30 semistructured interviews with stakeholders involved in the discovery, clinical testing, regulation and funding of medicines in Australia. We asked participants to describe their careers and to give their opinions on specific issues surrounding drug development, clinical research, regulation and subsidisation in Australia. Data were analysed using Morse's outline of the cognitive basis of qualitative research and Charmaz's outline of data analysis in grounded theory. The initial phase of 'open coding' revealed findings that could be mapped to three of the four objectives of the NMP. We then conducted 'focussed coding' for themes relevant to these objectives. Participants identified many issues relevant to the ongoing evolution of the NMP, relating primarily to ongoing tensions between the commercial objective of ensuring a viable medicines industry, and the non-commercial objectives of ensuring that medicines are safe, effective and affordable. There were also several other challenges identified to the achievement of both the commercial and non-commercial objectives of the NMP. These included limits to government funding, globalisation, consumer advocacy, changing scientific paradigms and new information technologies. There are many issues that need to be addressed if policymakers are to achieve the best outcomes from the NMP. Tensions between the commercial and non-commercial objectives of the NMP suggest the need to ensure that one stakeholder group's imperatives do not stifle those of other groups. At the same time, there are several emerging issues that are likely to concern all stakeholders equally, and these are both challenges and opportunities

  20. Increasing Perceived Emergency Preparedness by Participatory Policy-Making (Think-Tanks).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adini, Bruria; Israeli, Avi; Bodas, Moran; Peleg, Kobi

    2018-02-20

    The study aimed to examine impact of think-tanks designed to create policies for emerging threats on medical teams' perceptions of individual and systemic emergency preparedness. Multi-professional think-tanks were established to design policies for potential attacks on civilian communities. In total, 59 multi-sector health care managers participated in think-tanks focused on: (a) primary care services in risk zones; (b) hospital care; (c) casualty evacuation policies; (d) medical services to special-needs populations; and (e) services in a "temporary military-closed zone." Participants rotated systematically between think-tanks. Perceived individual and systemic emergency preparedness was reviewed pre-post participation in think-tanks. A significant increase in perceived emergency preparedness pre-post-think-tanks was found in 8/10 elements including in perceived individual role proficiency (3.71±0.67 vs 4.60±0.53, respectively; P<0.001) and confidence in colleagues' proficiency during crisis (3.56±0.75 vs 4.37±0.61, respectively; P<0.001). Individual preparedness and role perception correlates with systemic preparedness and proficiency in risk assessment. Participation in policy-making impacts on individuals' perceptions of empowerment including trust in colleagues' capacities, but does not increase confidence in a system's preparedness. Field and managerial officials should be involved in policy-making processes, as a means to empower health care managers and improve interfaces and self-efficacy that are relevant to preparedness and response for crises. (Disaster Med Public Health Prepardness. 2018;page 1 of 6).

  1. A multistage crucible of revision and approval shapes IPCC policymaker summaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, Katharine J; Freeman, Patrick T; Mastrandrea, Michael D; Field, Christopher B

    2016-08-01

    Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) member governments approve each report's summary for policymakers (SPM) by consensus, discussing and agreeing on each sentence in a plenary session with scientist authors. A defining feature of IPCC assessment, the governmental approval process builds joint ownership of current knowledge by scientists and governments. The resulting SPM revisions have been extensively discussed in anecdotes, interviews, and perspectives, but they have not been comprehensively analyzed. We provide an in-depth evaluation of IPCC SPM revisions, establishing an evidential basis for understanding their nature. Revisions associated with governmental review and approval generally expand SPMs, with SPM text growing by 17 to 53% across recent assessment reports. Cases of high political sensitivity and failure to reach consensus are notable exceptions, resulting in SPM contractions. In contrast to recent claims, we find that IPCC SPMs are as readable, for multiple metrics of reading ease, as other professionally edited assessment summaries. Across reading-ease metrics, some SPMs become more readable through governmental review and approval, whereas others do not. In an SPM examined through the entire revision process, most revisions associated with governmental review and approval occurred before the start of the government-approval plenary session. These author revisions emphasize clarity, scientific rigor, and explanation. In contrast, the subsequent plenary revisions place greater emphasis especially on policy relevance, comprehensiveness of examples, and nuances of expert judgment. Overall, the value added by the IPCC process emerges in a multistage crucible of revision and approval, as individuals together navigate complex science-policy terrain.

  2. The Inclusion of the Lived Experience of Disability in Policymaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laufey Löve

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the process under way in Iceland to align national law with the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, focusing on the Convention’s call for the active involvement of disabled people and their representative organizations in policy and decision making on matters that affect them. The paper draws on comments submitted by Icelandic DPOs on draft legislation intended to replace the existing law on services for disabled people, focusing on comments relating to their ability to participate in and affect the policymaking process. Furthermore, it draws on interviews with leaders of representative organizations of disabled people that solicited their views on the issue. The findings indicate that there is a reluctance on behalf of Icelandic authorities to make changes to the established process, which limits the active participation of disabled people and their representative organizations. The draft legislation has neither been revised to include provisions for expanding the participation of DPOs in policy and decision making, nor to ensure that disabled people themselves participate in the process.

  3. Measuring non-technical skills in medical emergency care: a review of assessment measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Cooper

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Simon Cooper1, Ruth Endacott2, Robyn Cant11School of Nursing and Midwifery, Monash University, Gippsland Campus, Churchill, Victoria, Australia; 2School of Nursing and Midwifery, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth UKAim: To review the literature on non-technical skills and assessment methods relevant to emergency care.Background: Non-technical skills (NTS include leadership, teamwork, decision making and situation awareness, all of which have an impact on healthcare outcomes. Significant concerns have been raised about the rates of adverse medical events, many of which are attributed to NTS failures.Methods: Ovid, Medline, ProQUEST, PsycINFO and specialty websites were searched for NTS measures using applicable access strategies, inclusion and exclusion criteria. Publications identified were assessed for relevance.Results: A range of non-technical skill measures relevant to emergency care was identified: leadership (n = 5, teamwork (n = 7, personality/behavior (n = 3 and situation awareness tools (n = 1. Of these, 9 have been used with emergency care populations/clinicians. All had varying degrees of reliability and validity. In the last decade there has been some development of teamwork measures specific to emergency care with a predominantly global and collective rating of broad skills.Conclusion: A variety of non-technical skill measures are available; only a few have been used in the emergency care arena. There is a need for an increase in the focused assessment of teamwork skills for a greater understanding of team performance to enhance patient safety in medical emergency care.Keywords: non-technical skills, teamwork, medical emergency, standards

  4. Measures of Consumer Satisfaction in Social Welfare and Behavioral Health: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Mark W.; Wu, Shiyou

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the origins, conceptual bases, psychometric properties, and limitations of consumer satisfaction measures in social welfare and behavioral health. Based on a systematic review of research reports published between 2003 and 2013, we identify 58 consumer satisfaction measures. On average, these measures have acceptable…

  5. Support Mechanisms for Evidence-Based Policy-Making in Education. Eurydice Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riiheläinen, Jari Matti; Böhm, Franziska

    2017-01-01

    The report describes the mechanisms and practices that support evidence-based policy-making in the education sector in Europe. It comparatively looks at institutions and practices in evidence-based policy-making, as well as the accessibility, and mediation, of evidence. The report presents more detailed information on each individual country, with…

  6. The Impact of School Culture on Schools' Pupil Well-Being Policy-Making Capacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gasse, Roos; Vanhoof, Jan; Van Petegem, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Pupil well-being has been an important topic in educational research for some time. Differences between schools in their influence on the well-being of their pupils are attributed to the policy-making capacities of the school. Little is known about schools' policy-making capacities with regard to pupil well-being, and the impact of school culture…

  7. Practicing Community Engagement: Engaging contradictions in inclusion and exclusion in collaborative planning and policymaking

    OpenAIRE

    Bredow, Victoria Ann Lowerson

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes community engagement practices as a fundamental feature of democracy, planning, and policymaking processes. Multiple disciplines, including public policy, planning, and public health, understand community engagement as a mechanism to make planning, policymaking, and research processes and their outcomes more democratic, effective, and sustainable. Yet scholars, practitioners, and community residents continue to observe and experience difficulty collaborating in the ...

  8. Educational Policymaking and the Methodology of Positive Economics: A Theoretical Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilead, Tal

    2014-01-01

    By critically interrogating the methodological foundations of orthodox economic theory, Tal Gilead challenges the growing conviction in educational policymaking quarters that, being more scientific than other forms of educational investigation, inquiries grounded in orthodox economics should provide the basis for educational policymaking. He…

  9. The Employability Skills of Business Graduates in Syria: Do Policymakers and Employers Speak the Same Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoubi, Rami M.; Alzarif, Kahla; Khalifa, Bayan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to compare the desired employability skills of business graduates in Syria from the perspective of both higher education policymakers and employers in the private sector. Design/Methodology/Approach: Interviews were conducted with 12 higher education policymakers and managers from the business sector. Content…

  10. Influenza vaccination policy-making processes in France and The Netherlands: framework and determinants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, M.L.; Perrier, L.; Paget, W.J.; Mosnier, A.; Buthion, V.; Cohen, J.M.; Späth, H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Target groups for seasonal influenza vaccination are nationally defined based on several factors. However, few studies have explored the policy-making processes at the country-level. We investigated key differences in the policy-making process for the development of vaccination

  11. Surface energy balance measurements in the Mexico City: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejeda Martinez, A. [Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico); Jauregui Ostos, E. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-01-01

    During the last decade of the 20th Century, diverse campaigns for measuring the atmospheric energy balance were performed in downtown Mexico City (School of Mines and Preparatory School No. 7), in the southern suburbs (University Reserve) and in the surrounding rural areas (Plan Texcoco), in addition to a campaign carried out in 1985 in the Tacubaya district, a suburban western peripheral site. The objective was to obtain data for a better understanding of the climatic alterations due to urbanization, particularly to describe the role that the modification of the natural ground cover has played as a result of paving and the construction of urban canyons. In this paper, a review of these campaigns is presented. Energy partitioning in some areas (Tacubaya and Preparatory School No.7) is similar to that observed in urban centers of middle latitudes, whereas the major contrast was observed between Texcoco, with maximum energy consumption through evaporation, and School of Mines, where the latent heat is as low as in a desert. From the values of the correlations among the different components of energy balance, it may be possible to attempt the modeling of the diverse components of energy balance by means of regression equations starting from the net radiation. Those same coefficients distinguish the type of environment: urban, suburban or rural. [Spanish] Las primeras mediciones de balance energetico en la Ciudad de Mexico se realizaron en 1985 en un suburbio al poniente de la ciudad (el observatorio de Tacubaya). Ya en la decada de los anos noventa del siglo XX, dichas observaciones se multiplicaron tanto en el centro historico (antigua Escuela de Minas y en el edificio de la Preparatoria No. 7), como en otros sitios al sur (en terrenos de Ciudad Universitaria) y en la periferia rural (Plan Texcoco). El proposito de estas mediciones ha sido tener un mejor entendimiento de las alteraciones climaticas debidas a la urbanizacion. En este trabajo se presenta una revision

  12. Transport policy-making and planning Javanese cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitriou, H.

    1995-12-31

    Based on findings of field studies in five Javanese cities in Indonesia, this paper looks at a hierarchy of settlements and investigates what aspects of urban development and the transport sector most influences transport policy-making and planning in the country. The paper highlights the presence of a community hierarchy within these settlements with consonant trip-making patterns and the widespread mis-use of certain transport modes. The paper cross-relates observed transport problems and policy issues diagnosed from the five Javanese cities with an earlier prepared national agenda of urban transport policy issues and problems. This is done with a view to arriving at more sensitive policy and planning responses nationwide for cities of different kinds in Indonesia. The paper commences with an explanation of the settlement hierarchy and community structure employed by Indonesian government planners. An attempt is then made to relate this hierarchy and structure to the five cities studied. Within this context, factors affecting urban transport are discussed and tabulated against the above cities settlement hierarchy. These include aspects of: settlement size, structure and area; settlement development policy, urban for, density and topography; and travel and transport characteristics. An attempt is made to match this settlement hierarchy (and its constituent community structure) with a conceptualized hierarchy of transport modes, simultaneously investigating: the relationship between urban communities and assigned road hierarchies; community-based travel demand and trip-making characteristics; and the relationship between travel, speed and distance. From this an assessment is made of the performance and current use and mis-use of such transport modes.

  13. Quality Measures in Orthopaedic Sports Medicine: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Geoffrey D; Greenberg, Daniel R; Dragoo, Jason L; Safran, Marc R; Kamal, Robin N

    2017-10-01

    To report the current quality measures that are applicable to orthopaedic sports medicine physicians. Six databases were searched with a customized search term to identify quality measures relevant to orthopaedic sports medicine surgeons: MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, the National Quality Forum (NQF) Quality Positioning System (QPS), the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) National Quality Measures Clearinghouse (NQMC), the Physician Quality Reporting System (PQRS) database, and the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) website. Results were screened by 2 Board-certified orthopaedic surgeons with fellowship training in sports medicine and dichotomized based on sports medicine-specific or general orthopaedic (nonarthroplasty) categories. Hip and knee arthroplasty measures were excluded. Included quality measures were further categorized based on Donabedian's domains and the Center for Medicare and Medicaid (CMS) National Quality Strategy priorities. A total of 1,292 quality measures were screened and 66 unique quality measures were included. A total of 47 were sports medicine-specific and 19 related to the general practice of orthopaedics for a fellowship-trained sports medicine specialist. Nineteen (29%) quality measures were collected within PQRS, with 5 of them relating to sports medicine and 14 relating to general orthopaedics. AAOS Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs) comprised 40 (60%) of the included measures and were all within sports medicine. Five (8%) additional measures were collected within AHRQ and 2 (3%) within NQF. Most quality measures consist of process rather than outcome or structural measures. No measures addressing concussions were identified. There are many existing quality measures relating to the practice of orthopaedic sports medicine. Most quality measures are process measures described within PQRS or AAOS CPGs. Knowledge of quality measures are important as they may be used to improve care, are increasingly being used to

  14. Introducing the therapy outcome measure for AAC services in the context of a review of other measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enderby, Pam

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of outcome measures in improving Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) services, reviews existing methods and introduces a new approach. Three methods were used in this study. 1. A literature review identifying outcome measures used in AAC research. 2. A questionnaire to AAC services in the UK which aimed to identify the objectives of their services and the outcome measures commonly used. 3. A working group of AAC experts provided additional information and interpretation. Central properties and conceptual framework were considered. The literature review and questionnaire identified 23 outcome measures none of which cover the conceptual frameworks associated with all of the overall objectives of AAC provision. The review has informed the further development of a particular outcome measure the AAC Therapy Outcome Measure (AAC TOM) ensuring that basic principles of the International Classification of Functioning (ICF-WHO) are retained and the measure can be used in benchmarking. An outcome measure needs to reflect change associated with service delivery. AAC services endeavour to impact on all of the domains of the ICF. A new measure is required in order to reflect the nature of these services. This article introduces an outcome measure which is in the process of being trialled by some services in the UK.

  15. Systematic review of measurement properties of patient-reported outcome measures used in patients undergoing hip and knee arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris K

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Kristina Harris,1 Jill Dawson,2 Elizabeth Gibbons,2 Chris R Lim,1 David J Beard,1 Raymond Fitzpatrick,2 Andrew J Price1 1Nuffield Department of Orthopedics, Rheumatology and Musculoskeletal Sciences, 2Nuffield Department of Population Health (HSRU, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK Objectives: To identify patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs that have been developed and/or used with patients undergoing hip or knee replacement surgery and to provide a shortlist of the most promising generic and condition-specific instruments. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was performed to identify measures used in patients undergoing hip and knee replacement and extract and evaluate information on their methodological quality. Results: Thirty-two shortlisted measures were reviewed for the quality of their measurement properties. On the basis of the review criteria, the measures with most complete evidence to date are the Oxford Hip Score (OHS (for patients undergoing hip replacement surgery and the Oxford Knee Score (OKS, with OKS-Activity and Participation Questionnaire (for patients undergoing knee replacement surgery. Conclusion: A large number of these instruments lack essential evidence of their measurement properties (eg, validity, reliability, and responsiveness in specific populations of patients. Further research is required on almost all of the identified measures. The best-performing condition-specific PROMs were the OKS, OHS, and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index. The best-performing generic measure was the Short Form 12. Researchers can use the information presented in this review to inform further psychometric studies of the reviewed measures. Keywords: knee, hip, patient-reported outcome measures, systematic review, measurement properties, validity, reliability.

  16. Stakeholders Analysis of Policy-Making Process: The Case of Timber Legality Policy on Private Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulyaningrum Mulyaningrum

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to identify and measure the relationships among stakeholders that influence the process of policy-making in defining legality of timber from private forests. The study focuses on the policy-making process of the Ministry of Forestry Regulation P.38/Menhut-II/2009 on Standard and Guidelines for Assessment of Sustainable Forest Management Performance and Timber Legality Verification of Concessionaire or of the Private Forest License Holder as the subject that has been implemented in several private forest management units as follow: Giri Mukti Wana Tirta in Lampung, Koperasi Serba Usaha APIK in Bali, Koperasi Hutan Jaya Lestari in South East Sulawesi, and Koperasi Wana Lestari Menoreh Kulonprogo in Yogyakarta. This research used a qualitative approach and the analysis method used in this research is a modified-stakeholder analysis that developed by ODA (1995, Reitbergen et al. (1998, and Mayer (2005. The stakeholder analysis shows that the interests and influences do not consider private forest farmers as primary stakeholder during  the process of policy formulation.  The strong national and international interests, supported by high authority could not be influnced by the role of the NGOs and academicians. The imbalance of responsibilities, rights, and revenues that was experienced by  farmers as the manager of private forest when started implementing the policy was more as burdens, it means implementation of the policy was more as burdens. Strong relationships between the Ministry of Forestry with the state as a core could not empower the relationship with private forest farmers. As result, policy assumptions cannot be implemented properly.Keywords: policy making process, timber legality, private forest, stakeholder.DOI: 10.7226/jtfm.19.2.156

  17. A Systematic Review of HIV/AIDS Knowledge Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Anne K.; Admiraal, Kristen R.

    2012-01-01

    HIV/AIDS knowledge measures are widely used to determine the efficacy of HIV/AIDS prevention and education efforts. While much research has looked at the interventions, less attention has been paid to the quality of the measures themselves. Objectives: (a) To identify HIV/AIDS knowledge measures created for use with adults; (b) to determine the…

  18. Evidence-based policymaking is not like evidence-based medicine, so how far should you go to bridge the divide between evidence and policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairney, Paul; Oliver, Kathryn

    2017-04-26

    There is extensive health and public health literature on the 'evidence-policy gap', exploring the frustrating experiences of scientists trying to secure a response to the problems and solutions they raise and identifying the need for better evidence to reduce policymaker uncertainty. We offer a new perspective by using policy theory to propose research with greater impact, identifying the need to use persuasion to reduce ambiguity, and to adapt to multi-level policymaking systems.We identify insights from secondary data, namely systematic reviews, critical analysis and policy theories relevant to evidence-based policymaking. The studies are drawn primarily from countries such as the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. We combine empirical and normative elements to identify the ways in which scientists can, do and could influence policy.We identify two important dilemmas, for scientists and researchers, that arise from our initial advice. First, effective actors combine evidence with manipulative emotional appeals to influence the policy agenda - should scientists do the same, or would the reputational costs outweigh the policy benefits? Second, when adapting to multi-level policymaking, should scientists prioritise 'evidence-based' policymaking above other factors? The latter includes governance principles such the 'co-production' of policy between local public bodies, interest groups and service users. This process may be based primarily on values and involve actors with no commitment to a hierarchy of evidence.We conclude that successful engagement in 'evidence-based policymaking' requires pragmatism, combining scientific evidence with governance principles, and persuasion to translate complex evidence into simple stories. To maximise the use of scientific evidence in health and public health policy, researchers should recognise the tendency of policymakers to base judgements on their beliefs, and shortcuts based on their emotions

  19. Measuring radon in soil gas and groundwaters: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Papastefanou

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Instruments for the measurements of radon and its decay products in earthquake research are based mostly on the detection of alpha particles. The devices and methods used depend on whether the techniques measure radon or radon decay products, and the duration of the measurements, of which there are three types: i grab or instantaneous, ii integrating and iii continuous. Other criteria used in the design of these instruments are field measurements applicability, portability, convenience and reliability. With the recent increased demand for radon and radon decay products measurements, instruments development has focused on the design of appropriate devices for short-term measurements, as well as on more complex and sophisticated instruments for long-term measurements used in radon research for geophysical, geochemical and hydrological studies.

  20. An international review of patient safety measures in radiotherapy practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiq, Jesmin; Barton, Michael; Noble, Douglas; Lemer, Claire; Donaldson, Liam J.

    2009-01-01

    Errors from radiotherapy machine or software malfunction usually are well documented as they affect hundreds of patients, whereas random errors affecting individual patients are more difficult to be discovered and prevented. Although major clinical radiotherapy incidents have been reported, many more have remained unrecognised or have not been reported. The literature in this field is limited as it is mostly published as a result of investigation of major errors. We present a review of radiotherapy incidents internationally with the aim of identifying the domains where most errors occur through extensive review and synthesis of published reports, unpublished 'Grey literature' and departmental incident data. Our review of radiotherapy-related events in the last three decades (1976-2007) identified more than seven thousand (N = 7741) incidents and near misses. Three thousand one hundred and twenty-five incidents reported patient harm of variable intensity ranging from underdose increasing the risk of recurrence, to overdose causing toxicity, and even death for 1% (N = 38); 4616 events were near misses with no recognisable patient harm. Based on our review, a radiotherapy risk profile has been published by the WHO World Alliance for Patient Safety that highlights the role of communication, training and strict adherence to guidelines/protocols in improving the safety of radiotherapy process.

  1. Wellness: A Review of Theory and Measurement for Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscoe, Lauren J.

    2009-01-01

    Wellness is considered the paradigm of counseling and development (J. E. Myers, 1991, 1992). However, researchers have failed to agree on a definition or on the dimensional structure of wellness. Furthermore, existing quantitative wellness instruments are inadequate for capturing the complexity of wellness. The author reviews wellness theory and…

  2. A systematic literature review of reviews on techniques for physical activity measurement in adults: a DEDIPAC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, Kieran P; Szeklicki, Robert; Minetto, Marco Alessandro; Murphy, Marie H; Polito, Angela; Ghigo, Ezio; van der Ploeg, Hidde; Ekelund, Ulf; Maciaszek, Janusz; Stemplewski, Rafal; Tomczak, Maciej; Donnelly, Alan E

    2018-02-08

    The links between increased participation in Physical Activity (PA) and improvements in health are well established. As this body of evidence has grown, so too has the search for measures of PA with high levels of methodological effectiveness (i.e. validity, reliability and responsiveness to change). The aim of this "review of reviews" was to provide a comprehensive overview of the methodological effectiveness of currently employed measures of PA, to aid researchers in their selection of an appropriate tool. A total of 63 review articles were included in this review, and the original articles cited by these reviews were included in order to extract detailed information on methodological effectiveness.Self-report measures of PA have been most frequently examined for methodological effectiveness, with highly variable findings identified across a broad range of behaviours. The evidence-base for the methodological effectiveness of objective monitors, particularly accelerometers/activity monitors, is increasing, with lower levels of variability observed for validity and reliability when compared to subjective measures. Unfortunately, responsiveness to change across all measures and behaviours remains under-researched, with limited information available.Other criteria beyond methodological effectiveness often influence tool selection, including cost and feasibility. However, researchers must be aware of the methodological effectiveness of any measure selected for use when examining PA. Although no "perfect" tool for the examination of PA in adults exists, it is suggested that researchers aim to incorporate appropriate objective measures, specific to the behaviours of interests, when examining PA in free-living environments.

  3. The Measurement of Fish Size by Machine Vision - A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, Mingming; Yu, Helong; Li, Daoliang

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Aquatic products are becoming increasingly popular because of their high nutritional value. Size information is an important parameter that can be used to measure the growth, weight, gender, grading and even species identification of fish. However, size information is a highly tedious and inefficient measure when conducted manually through traditional methods. Machine vision is a non-destructive, economic, rapid and efficient tool; hence, it is suitable to measure fish...

  4. Connecting Students and Policymakers through Science and Service-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    their findings to the non-profit partner and make policy recommendations to legislators in Capitol Hill visits. The projects have been highly impactful as a form of community science, creating passionate science advocacy among non-majors, improving collaborations with community partners, and spurring action by federal policymakers.

  5. Patient-reported depression measures in cancer: a meta-review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakefield, C.E.; Butow, P.N.; Aaronson, N.K.; Hack, T.F.; Hulbert-Williams, N.J.; Jacobsen, P.B.

    2015-01-01

    The patient-reported depression measures that perform best in oncology settings have not yet been identified. We did a meta-review to integrate the findings of reviews of more than 50 depression measures used in adults with, or recovering from, any type of cancer. We searched Medline, PsycINFO,

  6. Measuring salt consumption to guide behavior change in applied settings: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkington, Sandra R; Roussos, Stergios

    2008-01-01

    A critical review of the accuracy of salt consumption measurement can enhance future dietary sodium interventions. A review of the measures of salt consumption was conducted with a focus on the measurement that may facilitate behavior modification. Measures were critiqued for factors known to threaten the validity of behavioral measurement in applied settings. The review included observational, interventional, and measurement studies that used at least one measure of behavior indicative of salt consumption. Eighteen articles were retrieved by examining their definitions of salt consumption to ensure a measurement of behavior and a discussion of factors known to influence behavior and its measurement. Articles meeting the above criteria were critically reviewed for factors related to a valid measurement of behavior: participant and setting characteristics, measurement definitions, and measurement procedures. The results indicate that imprecise definitions of salt consumption and insensitive measurement tools limit valid measurement of salt-eating behaviors. Further research is needed to improve the specificity of measures of behaviors that are indicative of salt consumption and to produce tools that clinicians and patients may use for more accurate, and possibly real-time, salt consumption measurement. The increasing burden of cardiovascular disease in the aging U.S. population demands better methods to assess and subsequently control salt consumption in applied settings.

  7. Emergency petroleum conservation: a review and analysis of selected measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boercker, F.D.; Balasubramaniam, M.; Hull, E.; Savadelis, J.; Valentini, J.J.

    1980-01-01

    ORNL was asked by the Economic Regulatory Administration to (1) collect, screen, and recommend a limited number of emergency measures that might conserve petroleum in residential and commercial buildings and in commercial transportation and (2) provide a detailed analysis of the energy savings and the economic and environmental impacts associated with restricting the hours of operation of commercial buildings. A total of 41 emergency measures were identified that might conserve petroleum, and these were reduced to a list of five that seemed most promising. Analysis of the measure to restrict hours of operation for commercial buildings shows that it might save 4 to 6% of annual commercial building energy use. The type of fuel conserved would vary widely from region to region, and appreciable negative economic impacts would result from implementing the measure.

  8. Measuring capacity building in communities: a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liberato Selma C

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although communities have long been exhorted to make efforts to enhance their own health, such approaches have often floundered and resulted in little or no health benefits when the capacity of the community has not been adequately strengthened. Thus being able to assess the capacity building process is paramount in facilitating action in communities for social and health improvement. The current review aims to i identify all domains used in systematically documented frameworks developed by other authors to assess community capacity building; and ii to identify the dimensions and attributes of each of the domains as ascribed by these authors and reassemble them into a comprehensive compilation. Methods Relevant published articles were identified through systematic electronic searches of selected databases and the examination of the bibliographies of retrieved articles. Studies assessing capacity building or community development or community participation were selected and assessed for methodological quality, and quality in relation to the development and application of domains which were identified as constituents of community capacity building. Data extraction and analysis were undertaken using a realist synthesis approach. Results Eighteen articles met the criteria for this review. The various domains to assess community capacity building were identified and reassembled into nine comprehensive domains: "learning opportunities and skills development", "resource mobilization", "partnership/linkages/networking", "leadership", "participatory decision-making", "assets-based approach", "sense of community", "communication", and "development pathway". Six sub-domains were also identified: "shared vision and clear goals", "community needs assessment", "process and outcome monitoring", "sustainability", "commitment to action" and "dissemination". Conclusions The set of domains compiled in this review serve as a foundation for

  9. House dust mite control measures for asthma: systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C.; Johansen, Helle Krogh

    2008-01-01

    The major allergen in house dust comes from mites. We performed a systematic review of the randomized trials that had assessed the effects of reducing exposure to house dust mite antigens in the homes of people with mite-sensitive asthma, and had compared active interventions with placebo...... improved (relative risk 1.01, 95% CI 0.80-1.27), asthma symptom scores (standardized mean difference -0.04, 95% CI -0.15 to 0.07) or in medication usage (standardized mean difference -0.06, 95% CI -0.18 to 0.07). Chemical and physical methods aimed at reducing exposure to house dust mite allergens cannot...

  10. Aerosol light absorption and its measurement: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moosmueller, H.; Chakrabarty, R.K.; Arnott, W.P.

    2009-01-01

    Light absorption by aerosols contributes to solar radiative forcing through absorption of solar radiation and heating of the absorbing aerosol layer. Besides the direct radiative effect, the heating can evaporate clouds and change the atmospheric dynamics. Aerosol light absorption in the atmosphere is dominated by black carbon (BC) with additional, significant contributions from the still poorly understood brown carbon and from mineral dust. Sources of these absorbing aerosols include biomass burning and other combustion processes and dust entrainment. For particles much smaller than the wavelength of incident light, absorption is proportional to the particle volume and mass. Absorption can be calculated with Mie theory for spherical particles and with more complicated numerical methods for other particle shapes. The quantitative measurement of aerosol light absorption is still a challenge. Simple, commonly used filter measurements are prone to measurement artifacts due to particle concentration and modification of particle and filter morphology upon particle deposition, optical interaction of deposited particles and filter medium, and poor angular integration of light scattered by deposited particles. In situ methods measure particle absorption with the particles in their natural suspended state and therefore are not prone to effects related to particle deposition and concentration on filters. Photoacoustic and refractive index-based measurements rely on the heating of particles during light absorption, which, for power-modulated light sources, causes an acoustic signal and modulation of the refractive index in the air surrounding the particles that can be quantified with a microphone and an interferometer, respectively. These methods may suffer from some interference due to light-induced particle evaporation. Laser-induced incandescence also monitors particle heating upon absorption, but heats absorbing particles to much higher temperatures to quantify BC mass

  11. Measured moisture in buildings and adverse health effects: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendell, Mark J; Macher, Janet M; Kumagai, Kazukiyo

    2018-04-23

    It has not yet been possible to quantify dose-related health risks attributable to indoor dampness or mold (D/M), to support the setting of health-related limits for D/M. An overlooked target for assessing D/M is moisture in building materials, the critical factor allowing microbial growth. A search for studies of quantified building moisture and occupant health effects identified three eligible studies. Two studies assessed associations between measured wall moisture content and respiratory health in the UK. Both reported dose-related increases in asthma exacerbation with higher measured moisture, with one study reporting an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 7.0 for night-time asthma symptoms with higher bedroom moisture. The third study assessed relationships between infrared camera-determined wall moisture and atopic dermatitis in South Korea, reporting an adjusted OR of 14.5 for water-damaged homes and moderate or severe atopic dermatitis. Measuring building moisture has, despite extremely limited available findings, potential promise for detecting unhealthy D/M in homes and merits more research attention. Further research to validate these findings should include measured "water activity," which directly assesses moisture availability for microbial growth. Ultimately, evidence-based, health-related thresholds for building moisture, across specific materials and measurement devices, could better guide assessment and remediation of D/M in buildings. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. A realist synthesis of the effect of social accountability interventions on health service providers' and policymakers' responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodenstein, Elsbet; Dieleman, Marjolein; Gerretsen, Barend; Broerse, Jacqueline Ew

    2013-11-07

    Accountability has center stage in the current post-Millennium Development Goals (MDG) debate. One of the effective strategies for building equitable health systems and providing quality health services is the strengthening of citizen-driven or social accountability processes. The monitoring of actions and decisions of policymakers and providers by citizens is regarded as a right in itself but also as an alternative to weak administrative accountability mechanisms, in particular in settings with poor governance. The effects of social accountability interventions are often based on assumptions and are difficult to evaluate because of their complex nature and context sensitivity. This study aims to review and assess the available evidence for the effect of social accountability interventions on policymakers' and providers' responsiveness in countries with medium to low levels of governance capacity and quality. For policymakers and practitioners engaged in health system strengthening, social accountability initiatives and rights-based approaches to health, the findings of this review may help when reflecting on the assumptions and theories of change behind their policies and interventions. Little is known about social accountability interventions, their outcomes and the circumstances under which they produce outcomes for particular groups or issues. In this study, social accountability interventions are conceptualized as complex social interventions for which a realist synthesis is considered the most appropriate method of systematic review. The synthesis is based on a preliminary program theory of social accountability that will be tested through an iterative process of primary study searches, data extraction, analysis and synthesis. Published and non-published (grey) quantitative and qualitative studies in English, French and Spanish will be included. Quality and validity will be enhanced by continuous peer review and team reflection among the reviewers. The

  13. Measures of short-term memory: a historical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, John T E

    2007-07-01

    Following Ebbinghaus (1885/1964), a number of procedures have been devised to measure short-term memory using immediate serial recall: digit span, Knox's (1913) cube imitation test and Corsi's (1972) blocks task. Understanding the cognitive processes involved in these tasks was obstructed initially by the lack of a coherent concept of short-term memory and later by the mistaken assumption that short-term and long-term memory reflected distinct processes as well as different kinds of experimental task. Despite its apparent conceptual simplicity, a variety of cognitive mechanisms are responsible for short-term memory, and contemporary theories of working memory have helped to clarify these. Contrary to the earliest writings on the subject, measures of short-term memory do not provide a simple measure of mental capacity, but they do provide a way of understanding some of the key mechanisms underlying human cognition.

  14. Measures of satisfaction with care during labour and birth: a comparative review

    OpenAIRE

    Sawyer, Alexandra; Ayers, Susan; Abbott, Jane; Gyte, Gillian; Rabe, Heike; Duley, Leila

    2013-01-01

    Background\\ud Satisfaction is the one of the most frequently reported outcome measures for quality of care. Assessment of satisfaction with maternity services is crucial, and psychometrically sound measures are needed if this is to inform health practices. This paper comparatively reviews current measures of satisfaction with care during labour and birth.\\ud \\ud Methods\\ud A review of the literature was conducted. Studies were located through computerised databases and hand searching referenc...

  15. Measures of upper limb function for people with neck pain: a systematic review of measurement and practical properties (protocol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alreni, Ahmad Salah Eldin; Harrop, Deborah; Gumber, Anil; McLean, Sionnadh

    2015-04-07

    Upper limb disability is a common musculoskeletal condition frequently associated with neck pain. Recent literature has reported the need to utilise validated upper limb outcome measures in the assessment and management of patients with neck pain. However, there is a lack of clear guidance about the suitability of available measures, which may impede utilisation. This review will identify all available measures of upper limb function developed for use in neck pain patients and evaluate their measurement and practical properties in order to identify those measures that are most appropriate for use in clinical practice and research. This review will be performed in two phases. Phase one will identify all measures used to assess upper limb function for patients with neck pain. Phase two will identify all available studies of the measurement and practical properties of identified instrument. The COnsensus-based Standards for selection of health Measurement INstrument (COSMIN) will be used to evaluate the methodological quality of the included studies. To ensure methodological rigour, the findings of this review will be reported in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guideline. Optimal management of patients with neck pain should incorporate upper limb rehabilitation. The findings of this study will assist clinicians who seek to utilise suitable and accurate measures to assess upper limb function for a patient with neck pain. In addition, the findings of this study may suggest new research directions to support the development of upper limb outcome measures for patients with neck pain. PROSPERO CRD42015016624.

  16. 75 FR 71317 - Fundamental Principles and Policymaking Criteria for Partnerships With Faith-Based and Other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ... Agency; (xi) the Administrator of the Small Business Administration; (xii) the Administrator of the... Homeland Security; (xii) the Environmental Protection Agency; (xiii) the Small Business Administration... Part IV The President Executive Order 13559--Fundamental Principles and Policymaking Criteria for...

  17. NSSS aging review: critical systems operating measures and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quero, J.R.

    1985-05-01

    How long the nuclear plants can get. In this question we can find three main aspects: Economic - Licensing - and Technical ones. The final answer to this question will include compulsory elements coming from these three areas, each of them being a deciding factor. The presentation is focused on the technical aspect; but before a few comments are done on economic and licensing factors. Then, some particular technical items dealing with aging or life time of our nuclear plants are reviewed: electrical equipment, heat exchangers (steam generators), wear: primary pump, embrittlement: Reactor Pressure Vessel (Austeno-ferritic parts), fatigue (Thermo-hydraulic transients). By the way, some information about how this problem is handled, at the present time, explicitely or implicitely in France are given

  18. A Review of Disintegration Mechanisms and Measurement Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markl, Daniel; Zeitler, J Axel

    2017-05-01

    Pharmaceutical solid dosage forms (tablets or capsules) are the predominant form to administer active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) to the patient. Tablets are typically powder compacts consisting of several different excipients in addition to the API. Excipients are added to a formulation in order to achieve the desired fill weight of a dosage form, to improve the processability or to affect the drug release behaviour in the body. These complex porous systems undergo different mechanisms when they come in contact with physiological fluids. The performance of a drug is primarily influenced by the disintegration and dissolution behaviour of the powder compact. The disintegration process is specifically critical for immediate-release dosage forms. Its mechanisms and the factors impacting disintegration are discussed and methods used to study the disintegration in-situ are presented. This review further summarises mathematical models used to simulate disintegration phenomena and to predict drug release kinetics.

  19. Review : Hydraulic head measurements - New technologies, classic pitfalls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, E.A.P.; Von Asmuth, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    The hydraulic head is one of the most important metrics in hydrogeology as it underlies the interpretation of groundwater flow, the quantification of aquifer properties and the calibration of flow models. Heads are determined based on water-level measurements in wells and piezometers. Despite the

  20. A review of international sources for road safety measures assessment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yannis, G. Weijermars, W. & Kauppila, J.

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency assessment of road safety measures is considered to be an extremely useful tool in decision making; in particular, cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analyses are carried out in several countries, in a more or less systematic way. The objective of this paper is to present findings

  1. Exploring health researchers’ perceptions of policymaking in Argentina: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corluka, Adrijana; Hyder, Adnan A; Winch, Peter J; Segura, Elsa

    2014-01-01

    Much of the published research on evidence-informed health policymaking in low- and middle-income countries has focused on policymakers, overlooking the role of health researchers in the research-to-policy process. Through 20 semi-structured, in-depth qualitative interviews conducted with researchers in Argentina’s rural northwest and the capital of Buenos Aires, we explore the perspectives, experiences and attitudes of Argentine health researchers regarding the use and impact of health research in policymaking in Argentina. We find that the researcher, and the researcher’s function of generating evidence, is nested within a broader complex system that influences the researcher’s interaction with policymaking. This system comprises communities of practice, government departments/civil society organizations, bureaucratic processes and political governance and executive leadership. At the individual level, researcher capacity and determinants of research availability also play a role in contributing to evidence-informed policymaking. In addition, we find a recurrent theme around ‘lack of trust’ and explore the role of trust within a research system, finding that researchers’ distrust towards policymakers and even other researchers are linked inextricably to the sociopolitical history of Argentina, which contributes to shaping researchers’ identities in opposition to policymakers. For policymakers, national research councils and funders of national health research systems, this article provides a deeper understanding of researchers’ perceptions which can help inform and improve programme design when developing interventions to enhance research utilization and develop equitable and rational health policies. For donors and development agencies interested in health research capacity building and achieving development goals, this research demonstrates a need for investment in building research capacity and training health researchers to interact with the

  2. Exploring health researchers' perceptions of policymaking in Argentina: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corluka, Adrijana; Hyder, Adnan A; Winch, Peter J; Segura, Elsa

    2014-09-01

    Much of the published research on evidence-informed health policymaking in low- and middle-income countries has focused on policymakers, overlooking the role of health researchers in the research-to-policy process. Through 20 semi-structured, in-depth qualitative interviews conducted with researchers in Argentina's rural northwest and the capital of Buenos Aires, we explore the perspectives, experiences and attitudes of Argentine health researchers regarding the use and impact of health research in policymaking in Argentina. We find that the researcher, and the researcher's function of generating evidence, is nested within a broader complex system that influences the researcher's interaction with policymaking. This system comprises communities of practice, government departments/civil society organizations, bureaucratic processes and political governance and executive leadership. At the individual level, researcher capacity and determinants of research availability also play a role in contributing to evidence-informed policymaking. In addition, we find a recurrent theme around 'lack of trust' and explore the role of trust within a research system, finding that researchers' distrust towards policymakers and even other researchers are linked inextricably to the sociopolitical history of Argentina, which contributes to shaping researchers' identities in opposition to policymakers. For policymakers, national research councils and funders of national health research systems, this article provides a deeper understanding of researchers' perceptions which can help inform and improve programme design when developing interventions to enhance research utilization and develop equitable and rational health policies. For donors and development agencies interested in health research capacity building and achieving development goals, this research demonstrates a need for investment in building research capacity and training health researchers to interact with the public policy

  3. Private sector involvement in science and innovation policy-making in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Annamária Inzelt

    2008-01-01

    The overall thrust of this paper is that policy learning is enhanced by the participation of private business. It is assumed that business involvement would suggest abundant opportunities for policy learning and transfer. The empirical part of this paper investigates private sector involvement in science, technology and innovation (STI) policy-making in a transition economy (Hungary). Private sector involvement in Hungarian STI policy-making is investigated in terms of the stages and types of...

  4. A review of physical activity measures used among U.S. Latinos: Guidelines for developing culturally appropriate measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Suzanna M.; Ainsworth, Barbara E.; Elder, John

    2013-01-01

    As the U.S. population continues to grow and diversify, there is a need for progressive physical activity measurement and cross-cultural research. Studies suggest that U.S.-Latinos are among the most sedentary of ethnic groups compared to others; however, study findings may be biased given that some measures may not be culturally sensitive for assessing behaviors that are not characterized as leisure time physical activity. The primary objective of this review was to identify and evaluate measures used to quantify physical activity among U.S. Latinos. A review of the literature was performed and studies examining levels of physical activity among Spanish and English speaking Latinos were documented. This process involved identifying existing guidelines for the purpose of culturally adapting and/or translating [into Spanish] physical activity measures for the Latino population. These guidelines were used as the minimal criteria for the evaluation of the 13 identified measures of physical activity. Of these 13 measures, four were available in English and nine were available in Spanish. One English measure met the guidelines for being culturally adapted for assessing physical activity among Latinos. There were no Spanish measures that met all the guidelines for physical activity assessment among Spanish speaking Latinos. Lastly, the identified guidelines for developing culturally appropriate measures were improved to advance physical activity measurement among ethnic and cultural groups. Future research should merit the use of culturally appropriate guidelines to increase the understanding of physical activity patterns in the U.S. PMID:18855091

  5. Research, evidence and policymaking: the perspectives of policy actors on improving uptake of evidence in health policy development and implementation in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orem, Juliet Nabyonga; Mafigiri, David Kaawa; Marchal, Bruno; Ssengooba, Freddie; Macq, Jean; Criel, Bart

    2012-02-09

    Use of evidence in health policymaking plays an important role, especially in resource-constrained settings where informed decisions on resource allocation are paramount. Several knowledge translation (KT) models have been developed, but few have been applied to health policymaking in low income countries. If KT models are expected to explain evidence uptake and implementation, or lack of it, they must be contextualized and take into account the specificity of low income countries for example, the strong influence of donors. The main objective of this research is to elaborate a Middle Range Theory (MRT) of KT in Uganda that can also serve as a reference for other low- and middle income countries. This two-step study employed qualitative approaches to examine the principal barriers and facilitating factors to KT. Step 1 involved a literature review and identification of common themes. The results informed the development of the initial MRT, which details the facilitating factors and barriers to KT at the different stages of research and policy development. In Step 2, these were further refined through key informant interviews with policymakers and researchers in Uganda. Deductive content and thematic analysis was carried out to assess the degree of convergence with the elements of the initial MRT and to identify other emerging issues. Review of the literature revealed that the most common emerging facilitating factors could be grouped under institutional strengthening for KT, research characteristics, dissemination, partnerships and political context. The analysis of interviews, however, showed that policymakers and researchers ranked institutional strengthening for KT, research characteristics and partnerships as the most important. New factors emphasized by respondents were the use of mainstreamed structures within MoH to coordinate and disseminate research, the separation of roles between researchers and policymakers, and the role of the community and civil

  6. Research, evidence and policymaking: the perspectives of policy actors on improving uptake of evidence in health policy development and implementation in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orem Juliet

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of evidence in health policymaking plays an important role, especially in resource-constrained settings where informed decisions on resource allocation are paramount. Several knowledge translation (KT models have been developed, but few have been applied to health policymaking in low income countries. If KT models are expected to explain evidence uptake and implementation, or lack of it, they must be contextualized and take into account the specificity of low income countries for example, the strong influence of donors. The main objective of this research is to elaborate a Middle Range Theory (MRT of KT in Uganda that can also serve as a reference for other low- and middle income countries. Methods This two-step study employed qualitative approaches to examine the principal barriers and facilitating factors to KT. Step 1 involved a literature review and identification of common themes. The results informed the development of the initial MRT, which details the facilitating factors and barriers to KT at the different stages of research and policy development. In Step 2, these were further refined through key informant interviews with policymakers and researchers in Uganda. Deductive content and thematic analysis was carried out to assess the degree of convergence with the elements of the initial MRT and to identify other emerging issues. Results Review of the literature revealed that the most common emerging facilitating factors could be grouped under institutional strengthening for KT, research characteristics, dissemination, partnerships and political context. The analysis of interviews, however, showed that policymakers and researchers ranked institutional strengthening for KT, research characteristics and partnerships as the most important. New factors emphasized by respondents were the use of mainstreamed structures within MoH to coordinate and disseminate research, the separation of roles between researchers and

  7. Trade policy governance: What health policymakers and advocates need to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarman, Holly

    2017-11-01

    Trade policies affect determinants of health as well as the options and resources available to health policymakers. There is therefore a need for health policymakers and related stakeholders in all contexts to understand and connect with the trade policymaking process. This paper uses the TAPIC (transparency, accountability, participation, integrity, capacity) governance framework to analyze how trade policy is commonly governed. I conclude that the health sector is likely to benefit when transparency in trade policymaking is increased, since trade negotiations to date have often left out health advocates and policymakers. Trade policymakers and negotiators also tend to be accountable to economic and trade ministries, which are in turn accountable to economic and business interests. Neither tend to appreciate the health consequences of trade and trade policies. Greater accountability to health ministries and interests, and greater participation by them, could improve the health effects of trade negotiations. Trade policies are complex, requiring considerable policy capacity to understand and influence. Nevertheless, investing in understanding trade can pay off in terms of managing future legal risks. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Asthma Disparity Photovoice: The Discourses of Black Adolescent and Public Health Policymakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Agnew, Robin Andrew

    2018-03-01

    Policies in U.S. public schools that address asthma management for Black adolescents may not sufficiently transform sociocultural determinants of disparities. A critical analysis of public health policy maker and adolescent discourses on asthma management using an ecological framework could inform policy development. This study describes the discourses of asthma management disparities of school and other public health policymakers and Black adolescents with asthma during a statewide asthma planning activity. I conducted a qualitative critical discourse analysis on transcripts and phototexts from a photovoice project with Black adolescents with asthma (n = 19), an asthma-planning meeting with school and public health policymakers (n = 12), and an observation of a photovoice dissemination event that included the same adolescents and policymakers. Policymakers did not discuss sociocultural discourses concerning asthma management disparities such as racism and discrimination, but the adolescents did. The only shared discourses between adolescents and policymakers were on the management of indoor environments, health care quality, inadequate housing, and outdoor air pollution. Including Black adolescents in policymaking activities concerning asthma management disparities furthers the identification of differing and shared discourses. School policies should include multilevel strategies that address structural inequities. Photovoice presents an opportunity for including the voice of marginalized youth in policy-planning processes.

  9. Measuring Spirituality and Religiosity in Clinical Settings: A Scoping Review of Available Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Austin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Numerous measures exist that assess dimensions of spirituality and religiosity in health, theological and social settings. In this review, we aim to identify and evaluate measures assessing factors relating to spirituality and religiosity in clinical settings. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed, EMBASE and PsycINFO databases with search terms relating to spirituality, religiosity that also included well-being, needs, distress and beliefs used in self-reporting and clinician-administered measures. Only articles relating to the validation and subsequent administration of measures used in clinical settings were eligible for review. Results: Of 75 measures selected for initial screening, 25 had been validated and used in clinical settings and were reviewed for this study. Most measures were validated in oncological and palliative care settings where the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy Spiritual Well-being (FACIT-Sp12 and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Spiritual, Religious and Personal Beliefs (WHOQOL-SRPB were most validated and frequently used. Only six measures were found that assessed spiritual distress and/or the needs of which only two had been investigated more than twice. Two measures assessing spirituality and religious beliefs in healthcare staff were also reviewed. Conclusions: This review provides a current summary of measures evaluating several dimensions of spirituality and religiosity used in clinical settings. Currently there is a lack of reliable measures evaluating spiritual needs and distress.

  10. Epicardial Fat: Definition, Measurements and Systematic Review of Main Outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertaso, Angela Gallina; Bertol, Daniela; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Foppa, Murilo

    2013-01-01

    Epicardial fat (EF) is a visceral fat deposit, located between the heart and the pericardium, which shares many of the pathophysiological properties of other visceral fat deposits, It also potentially causes local inflammation and likely has direct effects on coronary atherosclerosis. Echocardiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have been used to evaluate EF, but variations between methodologies limit the comparability between these modalities. We performed a systematic review of the literature finding associations of EF with metabolic syndrome and coronary artery disease. The summarization of these associations is limited by the heterogeneity of the methods used and the populations studied, where most of the subjects were at high cardiovascular disease risk. EF is also associated with other known factors, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, age and hypertension, which makes the interpretation of its role as an independent risk marker intricate. Based on these data, we conclude that EF is a visceral fat deposit with potential implications in coronary artery disease. We describe the reference values of EF for the different imaging modalities, even though these have not yet been validated for clinical use. It is still necessary to better define normal reference values and the risk associated with EF to further evaluate its role in cardiovascular and metabolic risk assessment in relation to other criteria currently used

  11. Epicardial Fat: Definition, Measurements and Systematic Review of Main Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertaso, Angela Gallina [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde: Cardiologia e Ciências Cardiovasculares - Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Bertol, Daniela [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Epidemiologia - Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Foppa, Murilo, E-mail: mfoppa@cardiol.br [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde: Cardiologia e Ciências Cardiovasculares - Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Programa de Pós-Graduação em Epidemiologia - Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2013-07-15

    Epicardial fat (EF) is a visceral fat deposit, located between the heart and the pericardium, which shares many of the pathophysiological properties of other visceral fat deposits, It also potentially causes local inflammation and likely has direct effects on coronary atherosclerosis. Echocardiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have been used to evaluate EF, but variations between methodologies limit the comparability between these modalities. We performed a systematic review of the literature finding associations of EF with metabolic syndrome and coronary artery disease. The summarization of these associations is limited by the heterogeneity of the methods used and the populations studied, where most of the subjects were at high cardiovascular disease risk. EF is also associated with other known factors, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, age and hypertension, which makes the interpretation of its role as an independent risk marker intricate. Based on these data, we conclude that EF is a visceral fat deposit with potential implications in coronary artery disease. We describe the reference values of EF for the different imaging modalities, even though these have not yet been validated for clinical use. It is still necessary to better define normal reference values and the risk associated with EF to further evaluate its role in cardiovascular and metabolic risk assessment in relation to other criteria currently used.

  12. SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed health Policymaking (STP) 14: Organising and using policy dialogues to support evidence-informed policymaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavis, John N; Boyko, Jennifer A; Oxman, Andrew D; Lewin, Simon; Fretheim, Atle

    2009-12-16

    This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. Policy dialogues allow research evidence to be considered together with the views, experiences and tacit knowledge of those who will be involved in, or affected by, future decisions about a high-priority issue. Increasing interest in the use of policy dialogues has been fuelled by a number of factors: 1. The recognition of the need for locally contextualised 'decision support' for policymakers and other stakeholders 2. The recognition that research evidence is only one input into the decision-making processes of policymakers and other stakeholders 3. The recognition that many stakeholders can add significant value to these processes, and 4. The recognition that many stakeholders can take action to address high-priority issues, and not just policymakers. In this article, we suggest questions to guide those organising and using policy dialogues to support evidence-informed policymaking. These are: 1. Does the dialogue address a high-priority issue? 2. Does the dialogue provide opportunities to discuss the problem, options to address the problem, and key implementation considerations? 3. Is the dialogue informed by a pre-circulated policy brief and by a discussion about the full range of factors that can influence the policymaking process? 4. Does the dialogue ensure fair representation among those who will be involved in, or affected by, future decisions related to the issue? 5. Does the dialogue engage a facilitator, follow a rule about not attributing comments to individuals, and not aim for consensus? 6. Are outputs produced and follow-up activities undertaken to support action?

  13. Review of recent heavy flavor measurements in STAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lomnitz Michael R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy-ion collisions at RHIC provide a unique environment to study the behavior of nuclear matter under extreme conditions. In particular, heavy quarks, which are produced during the early stages of a collision, provide an exceptional probe in understanding the hot and dense medium created in such collisions. The Heavy Flavor Tracker and Muon Telescope Detector at the STAR experiment at RHIC have been successfully installed since early 2014 and have significantly improved the experimental capabilities in measuring both open and hidden heavy flavor hadrons in heavy-ion collisions. We present an overview of recent heavy flavor results obtained at STAR using these two dedicated detectors.

  14. Review of recent heavy flavor measurements in STAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnitz, Michael R.

    2017-12-01

    Heavy-ion collisions at RHIC provide a unique environment to study the behavior of nuclear matter under extreme conditions. In particular, heavy quarks, which are produced during the early stages of a collision, provide an exceptional probe in understanding the hot and dense medium created in such collisions. The Heavy Flavor Tracker and Muon Telescope Detector at the STAR experiment at RHIC have been successfully installed since early 2014 and have significantly improved the experimental capabilities in measuring both open and hidden heavy flavor hadrons in heavy-ion collisions. We present an overview of recent heavy flavor results obtained at STAR using these two dedicated detectors.

  15. Measures of Social and Emotional Skills for Children and Young People: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Neil; Kalambouka, Afroditi; Wigelsworth, Michael; Lendrum, Ann; Deighton, Jessica; Wolpert, Miranda

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the findings of a systematic review of measures of social and emotional skills for children and young people. The growing attention to this area in recent years has resulted in the development of a large number of measures to aid in the assessment of children and young people. These measures vary on a number of variables…

  16. Applying policy network theory to policy-making in China: the case of urban health insurance reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Haitao; de Jong, Martin; Koppenjan, Joop

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we explore whether policy network theory can be applied in the People's Republic of China (PRC). We carried out a literature review of how this approach has already been dealt with in the Chinese policy sciences thus far. We then present the key concepts and research approach in policy networks theory in the Western literature and try these on a Chinese case to see the fit. We follow this with a description and analysis of the policy-making process regarding the health insurance reform in China from 1998 until the present. Based on this case study, we argue that this body of theory is useful to describe and explain policy-making processes in the Chinese context. However, limitations in the generic model appear in capturing the fundamentally different political and administrative systems, crucially different cultural values in the applicability of some research methods common in Western countries. Finally, we address which political and cultural aspects turn out to be different in the PRC and how they affect methodological and practical problems that PRC researchers will encounter when studying decision-making processes.

  17. A Review of Online Partial Discharge Measurement of Large Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanlin Luo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Online partial discharge (PD measurements have long been used as an effective means to assess the condition of the stator windings of large generators. An increase in the use of PD online measurement systems during the last decade is evident. Improvements in the detection capabilities are partly the reason for the increased popularity. Another reason has been the development of digital signal processing techniques. In addition, rapid progress is being made in automated single PD source classification. However, there are still some factors hindering wider application of the system, such as the complex PD mechanism and PD pulse propagation in stator windings, the presence of detrimental noise and disturbances on-site, and multiple PD sources occurring simultaneously. To avoid repetition of past work and to provide an overview for fresh researchers in this area, this paper presents a comprehensive survey of the state-of-the-art knowledge on PD mechanism, PD pulse propagation in stator windings, PD signal detection methods and signal processing techniques. Areas for further research are also presented.

  18. The Measurement of Classroom Management Self-Efficacy: A Review of Measurement Instrument Development and Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Sue Catherine; Stephenson, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Teachers' self-efficacy (SE) in their classroom management capabilities is thought to be an important factor in teachers' overall judgements of their teaching SE. Low SE in classroom management has been linked to teacher attrition and burnout, and reduced student learning outcomes. This article provides the first comprehensive review of classroom…

  19. Direct and indirect measurements relevant to the assessment of fatigue of the respiratory muscles - review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuraszkiewicz, Bożena

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to present selected tests available with the potential to detect the development of respiratory muscle fatigue in normal subjects and patients. All reviewed techniques represent a part of a variety of measures and indices, which have been employed to assess this complex process at the present time.

  20. The reliability and measurement error of protractor-based goniometry of the fingers: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, Y.E. van; Fink, A.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.; Speksnijder, C.M.

    2017-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: The purpose was to review the available literature for evidence on the reliability and measurement error of protractor-based goniometry assessment of the finger joints. METHODS: Databases were searched for articles with key words "hand,"

  1. The reliability and measurement error of protractor-based goniometry of the fingers : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kooij, Yara E.; Fink, Alexandra; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W.; Speksnijder, Caroline M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304821535

    2017-01-01

    Study Design: Systematic review. Purpose of the Study: The purpose was to review the available literature for evidence on the reliability and measurement error of protractor-based goniometry assessment of the finger joints. Methods: Databases were searched for articles with key words "hand,"

  2. Experiences of mental illness stigma, prejudice and discrimination: a review of measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background There has been a substantial increase in research on mental illness related stigma over the past 10 years, with many measures in use. This study aims to review current practice in the survey measurement of mental illness stigma, prejudice and discrimination experienced by people who have personal experience of mental illness. We will identify measures used, their characteristics and psychometric properties. Method A narrative literature review of survey measures of mental illness stigma was conducted. The databases Medline, PsychInfo and the British Nursing Index were searched for the period 1990-2009. Results 57 studies were included in the review. 14 survey measures of mental illness stigma were identified. Seven of the located measures addressed aspects of perceived stigma, 10 aspects of experienced stigma and 5 aspects of self-stigma. Of the identified studies, 79% used one of the measures of perceived stigma, 46% one of the measures of experienced stigma and 33% one of the measures of self-stigma. All measures presented some information on psychometric properties. Conclusions The review was structured by considering perceived, experienced and self stigma as separate but related constructs. It provides a resource to aid researchers in selecting the measure of mental illness stigma which is most appropriate to their purpose. PMID:20338040

  3. Experiences of mental illness stigma, prejudice and discrimination: a review of measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement Sarah

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a substantial increase in research on mental illness related stigma over the past 10 years, with many measures in use. This study aims to review current practice in the survey measurement of mental illness stigma, prejudice and discrimination experienced by people who have personal experience of mental illness. We will identify measures used, their characteristics and psychometric properties. Method A narrative literature review of survey measures of mental illness stigma was conducted. The databases Medline, PsychInfo and the British Nursing Index were searched for the period 1990-2009. Results 57 studies were included in the review. 14 survey measures of mental illness stigma were identified. Seven of the located measures addressed aspects of perceived stigma, 10 aspects of experienced stigma and 5 aspects of self-stigma. Of the identified studies, 79% used one of the measures of perceived stigma, 46% one of the measures of experienced stigma and 33% one of the measures of self-stigma. All measures presented some information on psychometric properties. Conclusions The review was structured by considering perceived, experienced and self stigma as separate but related constructs. It provides a resource to aid researchers in selecting the measure of mental illness stigma which is most appropriate to their purpose.

  4. Acoustic doppler methods for remote measurements of ocean flows - a review

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.

    The evolution of acoustic doppler methods for remote measurements of ocean flows has been briefly reviewed in historical perspective. Both Eulerian and profiling methods have been discussed. Although the first acoustic Doppler current meter has been...

  5. Book Review Measuring Birds – Vögel vermessen By Siegfried Eck ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book Review Measuring Birds – Vögel vermessen By Siegfried Eck, Jürgen Fiebig, Wolfgang Fiedler, Iris Heynen, Bernd Nicolai, Till Töpfer, Renate van den Elzen, Raffael Winkler and Friederike Woog (2011)

  6. Radon decay product in-door behaviour - parameter, measurement method, and model review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scofield, P.

    1988-01-01

    This report reviews parameters used to characterize indoor radon daughter behavior and concentrations. Certain parameters that affect indoor radon daughter concentrations are described and the values obtained experimentally or theoretically are summarized. Radon daughter measurement methods are reviewed, such as, PAEC, unattached daughters, particle size distributions, and plateout measurement methods. In addition, certain radon pressure driven/diffusion models and indoor radon daughter models are briefly described. (orig.)

  7. Oncology Section EDGE Task Force on Urogenital Cancer: A Systematic Review of Clinical Measures for Incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, Alicia; Harrington, Shana E; Hill, Alexandra; Roscow, Amanda; Alappattu, Meryl

    2017-07-01

    Compared to the general population, women and men with urogenital and colorectal cancer experience higher rates of urinary and fecal incontinence. Although a variety of measures exist to assess these areas, currently, there are no guidelines recommending which outcomes rehabilitation professionals should administer to examine these impairments in those with cancer. To identify outcome measures for assessing urinary and fecal incontinence and evaluate their psychometric data and applicability to the cancer population. Multiple electronic databases (CINAHL, Medline, PsycInfo) were reviewed using specific search terms to locate articles that identify outcome measures assessing urinary and fecal incontinence. As part of a larger effort to identify outcome measures for both incontinence and sexual dysfunction, 1118 articles were initially identified, 228 articles were reviewed, and 37 outcome measures were selected for analysis, 13 of which were related to urinary and fecal incontinence. Each incontinence outcome measure was independently reviewed and rated by two reviewers using the Cancer EDGE Task Force Outcome Measure Rating Form. Any discrepancies between reviewers were discussed and an overall recommendation for each outcome measure was made using the 4-point Cancer EDGE Task Force Rating Scale. The Task Force was able to highly recommend 1 measure addressing urinary incontinence (American Urological Association Symptom Index) and 2 measures assessing both urinary and fecal incontinence (Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory - Short Form, Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire - Short Form). The Task Force also recommended two measures of urinary incontinence that demonstrated strong psychometric properties, but had not yet been evaluated in the cancer population (Incontinence Quality of Life Questionnaire, International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire - Short Form). The Task Force was unable to recommend any measures that solely addressed fecal incontinence. Five

  8. Monitoring the athlete training response: subjective self-reported measures trump commonly used objective measures: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Anna E; Main, Luana C; Gastin, Paul B

    2016-03-01

    Monitoring athlete well-being is essential to guide training and to detect any progression towards negative health outcomes and associated poor performance. Objective (performance, physiological, biochemical) and subjective measures are all options for athlete monitoring. We systematically reviewed objective and subjective measures of athlete well-being. Objective measures, including those taken at rest (eg, blood markers, heart rate) and during exercise (eg, oxygen consumption, heart rate response), were compared against subjective measures (eg, mood, perceived stress). All measures were also evaluated for their response to acute and chronic training load. The databases Academic search complete, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus and PubMed were searched in May 2014. Fifty-six original studies reported concurrent subjective and objective measures of athlete well-being. The quality and strength of findings of each study were evaluated to determine overall levels of evidence. Subjective and objective measures of athlete well-being generally did not correlate. Subjective measures reflected acute and chronic training loads with superior sensitivity and consistency than objective measures. Subjective well-being was typically impaired with an acute increase in training load, and also with chronic training, while an acute decrease in training load improved subjective well-being. This review provides further support for practitioners to use subjective measures to monitor changes in athlete well-being in response to training. Subjective measures may stand alone, or be incorporated into a mixed methods approach to athlete monitoring, as is current practice in many sport settings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. The measurement of poverty in psychiatric epidemiology in LMICs: critical review and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Sara; Lund, Crick; Kakuma, Ritsuko

    2012-09-01

    Studies exploring the relationship between poverty and mental health in low and middle income countries (LMICs) have produced somewhat conflicting results. This has partly been attributed to poorly operationalized and oversimplified poverty measures. This paper has two aims: (1) to review how socio-economic outcomes in psychiatric epidemiology in LMICs are measured; (2) based on this review, to provide a set of generic recommendations for measuring poverty in psychiatric epidemiology in LMIC. This is relevant for mental health researchers, and for practitioners and policy makers who use mental health research findings. This review was part of a broader systematic review examining the association between poverty and mental illness. An analytic framework was developed to examine the definition and measurement of poverty in these studies. The majority of studies provided no definition for the concept of poverty being used, and very few measured poverty through standardized or validated methods. Many poverty indicators were broken down into extremely open-ended and vague categories, with no details on how the parameters were defined or derived, and no documentation of the time period and unit of analysis for which the poverty variable was measured. This review revealed that using poverty as an indicator in mental health research in LMIC is still in its infancy, with much room for improvement. The implications of poor measurement of poverty in psychiatric epidemiology are discussed. The recommendations provided will hopefully help researchers in psychiatric epidemiology use the concept of poverty in a much more critical, systematic and appropriate manner.

  10. Review on common calibration and measurement practises for measuring gears on CMMs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sammatini-Malberg, Maria-Pia; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    , in order to give an overview of the improvements achieved in the last 25 years. Special attention is paid to gear metrology on coordinate measuring machines (CMMs). Calibration chains for the major gear geometrical quantities developed by Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) as well as their recent...... thickness measurement. Its main characteristic is the replacement of the teeth with gauge blocks, in order to achieve direct traceability of the chordal tooth thickness...

  11. Patient reported outcome measures for measuring dignity in palliative and end of life care: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Bridget; Flemming, Kate; Narayanasamy, Melanie Jay; Coole, Carolyn; Hardy, Beth

    2017-08-22

    Patient reported outcome measures are frequently used standard questionnaires or tools designed to collect information from patients regarding their health status and care. Their use enables accurate and relevant insight into changes in health, quality of life, and symptom severity to be acquired. The purpose of this scoping review was to identify PROMs that had been subject to rigorous development and were suitable for use in palliative and end of life care for clinical practice and/or research purposes. The review had a specific focus on measures which could be used to assess perceptions of dignity in these contexts. A scoping review of English-language papers published between 2005 and 2015. Searches were devised in conjunction with an information science specialist and were undertaken in Medline; PsycINFO; EMBASE; CINAHL; Social Science Citation Index; ASSIA; CENTRAL; CDSR; DARE; HTA; Oxford PROM Bibliography; PROQOLID, using dignity related terms such as personhood; dignity or dignified; patient-centred care; which were linked (via the Boolean operator "AND") to care-related terms such as terminal care; hospice care; palliative care; end of life. Papers were assessed against inclusion criteria and appraised for quality. The search strategy produced an initial 7845 articles. After three rounds of eligibility assessment, eight articles discussing eight patients reported outcome measures were found to meet the inclusion criteria and were included in the final review. These underwent a thorough critical appraisal process. All seven studies were empirical research focused on the development and testing of a PROM. The eight patient reported outcome measures had all undergone some psychometric testing, and covered dignity aspects suggesting that they could be considered for use for research purposes to assess dignity. There were also indications that some could be implemented into a clinical setting. However, each measure had limitations and scope for further

  12. Research Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serig, Dan, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This research review is dedicated to the memory of William Safire (1929-2009). A visionary leader, Safire brought other visionaries, researchers, educators, artists, and policymakers together to explore the confluence of arts education and neuroscience. He fostered the new field of neuroeducation in his work as chair of The Dana Foundation in…

  13. Measuring domestic water use: a systematic review of methodologies that measure unmetered water use in low-income settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamason, Charlotte C; Bessias, Sophia; Villada, Adriana; Tulsiani, Suhella M; Ensink, Jeroen H J; Gurley, Emily S; Mackie Jensen, Peter Kjaer

    2016-11-01

    To present a systematic review of methods for measuring domestic water use in settings where water meters cannot be used. We systematically searched EMBASE, PubMed, Water Intelligence Online, Water Engineering and Development Center, IEEExplore, Scielo, and Science Direct databases for articles that reported methodologies for measuring water use at the household level where water metering infrastructure was absent or incomplete. A narrative review explored similarities and differences between the included studies and provide recommendations for future research in water use. A total of 21 studies were included in the review. Methods ranged from single-day to 14-consecutive-day visits, and water use recall ranged from 12 h to 7 days. Data were collected using questionnaires, observations or both. Many studies only collected information on water that was carried into the household, and some failed to mention whether water was used outside the home. Water use in the selected studies was found to range from two to 113 l per capita per day. No standardised methods for measuring unmetered water use were found, which brings into question the validity and comparability of studies that have measured unmetered water use. In future studies, it will be essential to define all components that make up water use and determine how they will be measured. A pre-study that involves observations and direct measurements during water collection periods (these will have to be determined through questioning) should be used to determine optimal methods for obtaining water use information in a survey. Day-to-day and seasonal variation should be included. A study that investigates water use recall is warranted to further develop standardised methods to measure water use; in the meantime, water use recall should be limited to 24 h or fewer. © 2016 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Economics for assisting policy-makers to take decisions about new and endemic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, T E

    2017-04-01

    Animal health policy-makers are frequently faced with making decisions concerning the control and exclusion of diseases in livestock and wildlife populations. Economics is one of the tools they have to aid their decision-making. It can enable them to make objective decisions based on the expected costs and benefits of their policy. In addition, economics can help them determine both the distribution impact and the indirect impact of their decisions. However, economics is only one of many tools available to policy-makers, who also need to consider non-economic outcomes in their decision-making process. While there are sophisticated epidemic and economic (epinomic) models that are available to help evaluate complex problems, these models typically require extensive data and well-trained analysts to run and interpret their results. In addition, effective communication between analysts and policy-makers is important to ensure that results are clearly conveyed to the policy-makers. This may be facilitated by early and continued discussions between these two potentially disparate groups. If successfully performed and communicated, economic analyses may present valuable information to policy-makers, enabling them to not only better understand the economic implications of their policy, but also to communicate the policy to relevant stakeholders, further ensuring their likelihood of participating in the planned policy and hence increasing its likelihood of success.

  15. The Assessment of School Climate: Review and Appraisal of Published Student-Report Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramelow, Daniela; Currie, Dorothy; Felder-Puig, Rosemarie

    2015-01-01

    School climate measurement is a long-standing topic in educational research. This review article provides an overview and appraisal of school climate measures published between 2003 and 2013 in scientific journals. A search for published school climate instruments for secondary school students was made in three databases. Twelve articles meeting…

  16. Voice-Related Patient-Reported Outcome Measures: A Systematic Review of Instrument Development and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, David O.; Daniero, James J.; Hovis, Kristen L.; Sathe, Nila; Jacobson, Barbara; Penson, David F.; Feurer, Irene D.; McPheeters, Melissa L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to perform a comprehensive systematic review of the literature on voice-related patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures in adults and to evaluate each instrument for the presence of important measurement properties. Method: MEDLINE, the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and the Health…

  17. Parent report measures of infant and toddler social-emotional development: A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Maiken; Niss, NK; Julian, MM

    2017-01-01

    data are available through manuals, not peer-reviewed journals. Although all measures show acceptable reliability, the most comprehensive and psychometrically sound measures are the Ages and Stages Questionnaires: Social-Emotional – 2, Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment, Brief Infant...

  18. Self-Report Measures of Parent-Adolescent Attachment and Separation-Individuation: A Selective Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Frederick G.; Gover, Mark R.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews and critiques three self-report measures of parent-adolescent attachment (Parental Bonding Instrument, Parental Attachment Questionnaire, Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment) and three self-report measures of parent-adolescent separation-individuation (Psychological Separation Inventory, Personal Authority in the Family System…

  19. Measurement of Habitual Physical Activity Performance in Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clanchy, Kelly M.; Tweedy, Sean M.; Boyd, Roslyn

    2011-01-01

    Aim: This systematic review compares the validity, reliability, and clinical use of habitual physical activity (HPA) performance measures in adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Measures of HPA across Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I-V for adolescents (10-18y) with CP were included if at least 60% of items…

  20. A Critical Review of Theories and Measures of Ethics-Related Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weichun; Zheng, Xiaoming; Riggio, Ronald E; Zhang, Xi

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reviews the different theoretical perspectives and measurements of ethics-related leadership models, including ethical leadership, transformational leadership, authentic leadership, servant leadership, spiritual leadership, and a virtues-based approach to leadership ethics. The similarities and differences among these theoretical models and measures to ethics-related leadership are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  1. Measuring Diversity in Higher Education Institutions: A Review of Literature and Empirical Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiputera, Ferdi; De Witte, Kristof; Groot, Wim; van den Brink, Henriëtte Maassen

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews studies on diversity in higher education institutions and suggests empirical approaches to measure diversity. "Diversity" in this paper refers to the internal and external differences among academic programs and institutions. As the empirical literature is relatively salient about how to measure diversity in higher…

  2. A Systematic Review of Psychometric Evaluation of Motivational Interviewing Integrity Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Lloyd; Turner, Fiona

    2009-01-01

    The Motivational Interviewing Skills Code (MISC) has been developed to measure motivational interviewing skill, but a need has been identified for more economical instruments. This study expands on a previous systematic review by Madson and Campbell (2006) and examines the extent to which motivational interviewing integrity measures other than the…

  3. A Review of Acculturation Measures and Their Utility in Studies Promoting Latino Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Phyllis M.; Pomery, Elizabeth A.; Latimer, Amy E.; Martinez, Josefa L.; Salovey, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The authors reviewed the acculturation literature with the goal of identifying measures used to assess acculturation in Hispanic populations in the context of studies of health knowledge, attitudes, and behavior change. Twenty-six acculturation measures were identified and summarized. As the Hispanic population continues to grow in the United…

  4. To measure or not to measure? Reviewing the assessment of spirituality and religion in health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Kathryn A; Skevington, Suzanne M

    2007-03-01

    Measures of quality of life have not conventionally or routinely included concepts of spirituality, religion, or existential wellbeing. Although spirituality has been seen as irrelevant, or difficult to measure, a growing body of peer-reviewed articles point to a positive and important relationship between spiritual beliefs and other domains of quality of life in health. Following a discussion of current theoretical issues surrounding the inclusion of these generic concepts, we select and review seven quality-of-life assessments in health that provide a spiritual and/or religious dimension, and evaluate each in psychometric terms. Such information could be useful to clinicians working in chronic illness, surgery and terminal care, who seek concept clarification before using an assessment that includes a spiritual domain.

  5. A review on measuring methods of gas-liquid flow rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minemura, Kiyoshi; Yamashita, Masato

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a review on the state of current measuring techniques for gas-liquid multiphase flow rates. After briefly discussing the basic idea on measuring methods for single-phase and two-phase flows, existing methods for the two-phase flow rates are classified into several types, that is, with or without a homogenizing device, single or combined method of several techniques, with intrusive or non-intrusive sensors, and physical or software method. Each methods are comparatively reviewed in view of measuring accuracy and manageability. Its scope also contains the techniques developed for petroleum-gas-water flow rates. (author)

  6. Preventing Smog Crisis: New Thinking for Energy Policy-Making in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Dong, Liang

    2015-01-01

    environmental-friendly guidance, financial support and drafted strict regulations to guide the recycling of straw. However, many farmers in China still chose the cheapest and crudest way to dispose of straw, burning it rather than recycling for sustainable use, e.g. power generation, bioethanol production...... to give enough financial support to the farmers for straw recycling due to the limited fiscal budget. What is more, the farmers will also suffer from declining soil fertility without burning straw. Therefore, the policies for promoting biomass to energy face a bottleneck and innovative policies design...... represent the stakeholders in policy-making; (2) the policy-making cannot achieve democratic or judicial decision-making. The purpose of energy policy-making is to promote the industry development, and the stakeholders are the key actors in the value chain. The experts in China are usually top scholars...

  7. A Biological Security Motivation System for Potential Threats: Are There Implications for Policy-Making?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Z Woody

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Research indicates that there is a specially adapted, hard-wired brain circuit, the security motivation system, which evolved to manage potential threats, such as the possibility of contamination or predation. The existence of this system may have important implications for policy-making related to security. The system is sensitive to partial, uncertain cues of potential danger, detection of which activates a persistent, potent motivational state of wariness or anxiety. This state motivates behaviours to probe the potential danger, such as checking, and to correct for it, such as washing. Engagement in these behaviours serves as the terminating feedback for the activation of the system. Because security motivation theory makes predictions about what kinds of stimuli activate security motivation and what conditions terminate it, the theory may have applications both in understanding how policy-makers can best influence others, such as the public, and also in understanding the behavior of policy-makers themselves.

  8. Assessing the Process of Retirement: a Cross-Cultural Review of Available Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafalski, Julia C; Noone, Jack H; O'Loughlin, Kate; de Andrade, Alexsandro L

    2017-06-01

    Retirement research is now expanding beyond the post-World War II baby boomers' retirement attitudes and plans to include the nature of their workforce exit and how successfully they adjust to their new life. These elements are collectively known as the process of retirement. However, there is insufficient research in developing countries to inform the management of their ageing populations regarding this process. This review aims to facilitate national and cross-cultural research in developing and non-English speaking countries by reviewing the existing measures of the retirement process published in English and Portuguese. The review identified 28 existing measures assessing retirement attitudes, planning, decision making, adjustment and satisfaction with retirement. Information on each scale's item structure, internal reliability, grammatical structure and evidence of translations to other languages is presented. Of the 28 measures, 20 assessed retirement attitudes, plans and decision-making, 5 assessed adjustment to retirement and only two assessed retirement satisfaction. Only eight of the 28 scales had been translated into languages other than English. There is scope to translate measures of retirement attitudes and planning into other languages. However there is a paucity of translated measures of retirement decision-making and adjustment, and measures of retirement satisfaction in general. Within the limitations of this review, researchers are provided with the background to decide between translating existing measures or developing of more culturally appropriate assessment tools for addressing their research questions.

  9. Are there valid proxy measures of clinical behaviour? a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaner Eileen FS

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate measures of health professionals' clinical practice are critically important to guide health policy decisions, as well as for professional self-evaluation and for research-based investigation of clinical practice and process of care. It is often not feasible or ethical to measure behaviour through direct observation, and rigorous behavioural measures are difficult and costly to use. The aim of this review was to identify the current evidence relating to the relationships between proxy measures and direct measures of clinical behaviour. In particular, the accuracy of medical record review, clinician self-reported and patient-reported behaviour was assessed relative to directly observed behaviour. Methods We searched: PsycINFO; MEDLINE; EMBASE; CINAHL; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; science/social science citation index; Current contents (social & behavioural med/clinical med; ISI conference proceedings; and Index to Theses. Inclusion criteria: empirical, quantitative studies; and examining clinical behaviours. An independent, direct measure of behaviour (by standardised patient, other trained observer or by video/audio recording was considered the 'gold standard' for comparison. Proxy measures of behaviour included: retrospective self-report; patient-report; or chart-review. All titles, abstracts, and full text articles retrieved by electronic searching were screened for inclusion and abstracted independently by two reviewers. Disagreements were resolved by discussion with a third reviewer where necessary. Results Fifteen reports originating from 11 studies met the inclusion criteria. The method of direct measurement was by standardised patient in six reports, trained observer in three reports, and audio/video recording in six reports. Multiple proxy measures of behaviour were compared in five of 15 reports. Only four of 15 reports used appropriate statistical methods to compare measures. Some direct

  10. Consumer-based brand equity conceptualization and measurement:a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Christodoulides, George; de Chernatony, Leslie

    2010-01-01

    Although there is a large body of research on brand equity, little in terms of a literature review has been published on this since Feldwick’s (1996) paper. To address this gap, this paper brings together the scattered literature on consumer based brand equity’s conceptualisation and measurement. Measures of consumer based brand equity are classified as either direct or indirect. Indirect measures assess consumer-based brand equity through its demonstrable dimensions and are superior from a d...

  11. Measuring Outcomes in Adult Weight Loss Studies That Include Diet and Physical Activity: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Millstein, Rachel A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Measuring success of obesity interventions is critical. Several methods measure weight loss outcomes but there is no consensus on best practices. This systematic review evaluates relevant outcomes (weight loss, BMI, % body fat, and fat mass) to determine which might be the best indicator(s) of success. Methods. Eligible articles described adult weight loss interventions that included diet and physical activity and a measure of weight or BMI change and body composition change. Resu...

  12. A Review of Acculturation Measures and Their Utility in Studies Promoting Latino Health

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, Phyllis M.; Pomery, Elizabeth A.; Latimer, Amy E.; Martinez, Josefa L.; Salovey, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The authors reviewed the acculturation literature with the goal of identifying measures used to assess acculturation in Hispanic populations in the context of studies of health knowledge, attitudes, and behavior change. Twenty-six acculturation measures were identified and summarized. As the Hispanic population continues to grow in the United States, there is a need to develop rigorous acculturation measures that include health indicators. Findings suggest that multidimensional acculturation ...

  13. An overview of the United States government's space and science policy-making process

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    A brief overview of the basic elements of the US space and science policy-making apparatus will be presented, focussing on insights into the interactions among the principal organizations, policy-making bodies and individual participants and their respective impact on policy outcomes. Several specific examples will be provided to illustrate the points made, and in the conclusion there will be some observations on current events in the US that may shape the outcome for the near-term future of US space and science policy in several areas.

  14. The true cost of electric power. Summary for policymakers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burtraw, Dallas; Knupnick, Alan [Resources for the Future, Washington, DC (United States). Center for Energy Economics and Policy

    2012-06-15

    This report examines the various methods that have been used to measure 'true' costs of electricity generation technologies and looks at how such estimates can be used in company decision-making and public policy to ensure that investments are directed at the electricity generation methods with the lowest true costs to investors and society. In some geographic areas, adequate data and methods exist to make a solid estimate of the total social costs of energy production. In those places where the data or methods (or both) are less robust, it is possible to use a benefits transfer approach that still gives stakeholders important guidance about the scale of the true costs of their investments and to get started in formulating policies to incorporate those costs into the market price.

  15. Measuring Restriction Sizes Using Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Martin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews a new concept in magnetic resonance as applied to cellular and biological systems. Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging can be used to infer information about restriction sizes of samples being measured. The measurements rely on the apparent diffusion coefficient changing with diffusion times as measurements move from restricted to free diffusion regimes. Pulsed gradient spin echo (PGSE measurements are limited in the ability to shorten diffusion times and thus are limited in restriction sizes which can be probed. Oscillating gradient spin echo (OGSE measurements could provide shorter diffusion times so smaller restriction sizes could be probed.

  16. Clinical measurement of range of motion. Review of goniometry emphasizing reliability and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajdosik, R L; Bohannon, R W

    1987-12-01

    Clinical measurement of range of motion is a fundamental evaluation procedure with ubiquitous application in physical therapy. Objective measurements of ROM and correct interpretation of the measurement results can have a substantial impact on the development of the scientific basis of therapeutic interventions. The purpose of this article is to review the related literature on the reliability and validity of goniometric measurements of the extremities. Special emphasis is placed on how the reliability of goniometry is influenced by instrumentation and procedures, differences among joint actions and body regions, passive versus active measurements, intratester versus intertester measurements, and different patient types. Our discussion of validity encourages objective interpretation of the meaning of ROM measurements in light of the purposes and the limitations of goniometry. We conclude that clinicians should adopt standardized methods of testing and should interpret and report goniometric results as ROM measurements only, not as measurements of factors that may affect ROM.

  17. Systematic review of tools to measure outcomes for young children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConachie, Helen; Parr, Jeremy R; Glod, Magdalena; Hanratty, Jennifer; Livingstone, Nuala; Oono, Inalegwu P; Robalino, Shannon; Baird, Gillian; Beresford, Bryony; Charman, Tony; Garland, Deborah; Green, Jonathan; Gringras, Paul; Jones, Glenys; Law, James; Le Couteur, Ann S; Macdonald, Geraldine; McColl, Elaine M; Morris, Christopher; Rodgers, Jacqueline; Simonoff, Emily; Terwee, Caroline B; Williams, Katrina

    2015-06-01

    The needs of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are complex and this is reflected in the number and diversity of outcomes assessed and measurement tools used to collect evidence about children's progress. Relevant outcomes include improvement in core ASD impairments, such as communication, social awareness, sensory sensitivities and repetitiveness; skills such as social functioning and play; participation outcomes such as social inclusion; and parent and family impact. To examine the measurement properties of tools used to measure progress and outcomes in children with ASD up to the age of 6 years. To identify outcome areas regarded as important by people with ASD and parents. The MeASURe (Measurement in Autism Spectrum disorder Under Review) research collaboration included ASD experts and review methodologists. We undertook systematic review of tools used in ASD early intervention and observational studies from 1992 to 2013; systematic review, using the COSMIN checklist (Consensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments) of papers addressing the measurement properties of identified tools in children with ASD; and synthesis of evidence and gaps. The review design and process was informed throughout by consultation with stakeholders including parents, young people with ASD, clinicians and researchers. The conceptual framework developed for the review was drawn from the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, including the domains 'Impairments', 'Activity Level Indicators', 'Participation', and 'Family Measures'. In review 1, 10,154 papers were sifted - 3091 by full text - and data extracted from 184; in total, 131 tools were identified, excluding observational coding, study-specific measures and those not in English. In review 2, 2665 papers were sifted and data concerning measurement properties of 57 (43%) tools were extracted from 128 papers. Evidence for the measurement properties of the reviewed

  18. Southeast Alaska Acoustic Measurement Facility (SEAFAC) environmental data base review, evaluation, and upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, J.A.; Skalski, J.R.; Faulkner, L.L.; Rodman, C.W.; Carlile, D.W.; Ecker, R.M.; Nicholls, A.K.; Ramsdell, J.V.; Scott, M.J.

    1986-04-01

    This report summarizes the principal issues of public concern, the adequacy of the environmental data base to answer the issues of concern, and the additional data collection required to support a National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) review of the proposed Southeast Alaska Acoustic Measurement Facility (SEAFAC). The report is based on a review of the readily available environmental literature and a site visit. Representatives of local, state, and federal agencies were also interviewed for their personal insights and concerns not discovered during the literature review.

  19. Instruments to assess self-care among healthy children: A systematic review of measurement properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urpí-Fernández, Ana-María; Zabaleta-Del-Olmo, Edurne; Montes-Hidalgo, Javier; Tomás-Sábado, Joaquín; Roldán-Merino, Juan-Francisco; Lluch-Canut, María-Teresa

    2017-12-01

    To identify, critically appraise and summarize the measurement properties of instruments to assess self-care in healthy children. Assessing self-care is a proper consideration for nursing practice and nursing research. No systematic review summarizes instruments of measurement validated in healthy children. Psychometric review in accordance with the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) panel. MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web of Science and Open Grey were searched from their inception to December 2016. Validation studies with a healthy child population were included. Search was not restricted by language. Two reviewers independently assessed the methodological quality of included studies using the COSMIN checklist. Eleven studies were included in the review assessing the measurement properties of ten instruments. There was a maximum of two studies per instrument. None of the studies evaluated the properties of test-retest reliability, measurement error, criterion validity and responsiveness. Internal consistency and structural validity were rated as "excellent" or "good" in four studies. Four studies were rated as "excellent" in content validity. Cross-cultural validity was rated as "poor" in the two studies (three instruments) which cultural adaptation was carried out. The evidence available does not allow firm conclusions about the instruments identified in terms of reliability and validity. Future research should focus on generate evidence about a wider range of measurement properties of these instruments using a rigorous methodology, as well as instrument testing on different countries and child population. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Measuring and reporting quality of life outcomes in clinical trials in cystic fibrosis: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hart Anna

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Good quality clinical trials are essential to inform the best cystic fibrosis (CF management and care, by determining and comparing the effectiveness of new and existing therapies and drug delivery systems. The formal inclusion of quality of life (QoL as an outcome measure in CF clinical trials is becoming more common. Both an appropriate QoL measure and sound methodology are required in order to draw valid inferences about treatments and QoL. A review was undertaken of randomised controlled trials in cystic fibrosis where QoL was measured. EMBASE, MEDLINE and ISI Web of Science were searched to locate all full papers in the English language reporting randomised controlled trials in cystic fibrosis, published between January 1991 and December 2004. All Cochrane reviews published before December 2004 were hand searched. Papers were included if the authors had reported that they had measured QoL or well being in the trial. 16 trials were identified. The interventions investigated were: antibiotics (4; home versus hospital administration of antibiotics (1; steroids (1; mucolytic therapies (6; exercise (3 and pancreatic enzymes (1. Not one trial evaluated in this review provided conclusive results concerning QoL. This review highlights many of the pitfalls of QoL measurement in CF clinical trials and provides constructive information concerning the design and reporting of trials measuring QoL.

  1. Systematic Review of the Measurement Properties of Tools Used to Measure Behaviour Problems in Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanratty, Jennifer; Livingstone, Nuala; Robalino, Shannon; Terwee, Caroline B.; Glod, Magdalena; Oono, Inalegwu P.; Rodgers, Jacqui; Macdonald, Geraldine; McConachie, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Background Behaviour problems are common in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). There are many different tools used to measure behavior problems but little is known about their validity for the population. Objectives To evaluate the measurement properties of behaviour problems tools used in evaluation of intervention or observational research studies with children with ASD up to the age of six years. Methods Behaviour measurement tools were identified as part of a larger, two stage, systematic review. First, sixteen major electronic databases, as well as grey literature and research registers were searched, and tools used listed and categorized. Second, using methodological filters, we searched for articles examining the measurement properties of the tools in use with young children with ASD in ERIC, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO. The quality of these papers was then evaluated using the COSMIN checklist. Results We identified twelve tools which had been used to measure behaviour problems in young children with ASD, and fifteen studies which investigated the measurement properties of six of these tools. There was no evidence available for the remaining six tools. Two questionnaires were found to be the most robust in their measurement properties, the Child Behavior Checklist and the Home Situations Questionnaire—Pervasive Developmental Disorders version. Conclusions We found patchy evidence on reliability and validity, for only a few of the tools used to measure behaviour problems in young children with ASD. More systematic research is required on measurement properties of tools for use in this population, in particular to establish responsiveness to change which is essential in measurement of outcomes of intervention. PROSPERO Registration Number CRD42012002223 PMID:26659821

  2. Factors that encourage and discourage policy-making to prevent childhood obesity: Experience in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkow, Lainie; Jones-Smith, Jesse; Walters, Hannah J; O'Hara, Marguerite; Bleich, Sara N

    2016-12-01

    Policy-makers throughout the world seek to address childhood obesity prevention, yet little is known about factors that influence policy-makers' decisions on this topic. From September 2014 to April 2015, we conducted 43 semi-structured interviews about factors that encourage and discourage policy-makers' support for childhood obesity prevention policies. We interviewed policy-makers (n = 12) and two other groups engaged with childhood obesity prevention policies: representatives of non-governmental organizations (n = 24) and academics (n = 7). Factors that encourage policy-makers' support for childhood obesity prevention policies included: positive impact on government finances, an existing evidence base, partnerships with community-based collaborators, and consistency with policy-makers' priorities. Factors that discourage policy-makers' support included the following: perceptions about government's role, food and beverage industry opposition, and policy-makers' beliefs about personal responsibility. As public health practitioners, advocates, and others seek to advance childhood obesity prevention in the U.S. and elsewhere, the factors we identified offer insights into ways to frame proposed policies and strategies to influence policy-makers.

  3. Review on recent research progress on laser power measurement based on light pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, WenChang; Zhou, Pu

    2018-03-01

    Accurate measuring the laser power is one of the most important issue to evaluate the performance of high power laser. For the time being, most of the demonstrated technique could be attributed to direct measuring route. Indirect measuring laser power based on light pressure, which has been under intensive investigation, has the advantages such as fast response, real-time measuring and high accuracy, compared with direct measuring route. In this paper, we will review several non-traditional methods based on light pressure to precisely measure the laser power proposed recently. The system setup, measuring principle and scaling methods would be introduced and analyzed in detail. We also compare the benefit and the drawback of these methods and analyze the uncertainties of the measurements.

  4. A systematic review and content analysis of bullying and cyber-bullying measurement strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M; Martell, Brandi N; Holland, Kristin M; Westby, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Bullying has emerged as a behavior with deleterious effects on youth; however, prevalence estimates vary based on measurement strategies employed. We conducted a systematic review and content analysis of bullying measurement strategies to gain a better understanding of each strategy including behavioral content. Multiple online databases (i.e., PsychInfo, MedLine, ERIC) were searched to identify measurement strategies published between 1985 and 2012. Included measurement strategies assessed bullying behaviors, were administered to respondents with ages of 12 to 20, were administered in English, and included psychometric data. Each publication was coded independently by two study team members with a pre-set data extraction form, who subsequently met to discuss discrepancies. Forty-one measures were included in the review. A majority used differing terminology; student self-report as primary reporting method; and included verbal forms of bullying in item content. Eleven measures included a definition of bullying, and 13 used the term "bullying" in the measure. Very few definitions or measures captured components of bullying such as repetition, power imbalance, aggression, and intent to harm. Findings demonstrate general inconsistency in measurement strategies on a range of issues, thus, making comparing prevalence rates between measures difficult.

  5. What is the possibility of citizens to achieve influence on practical policymaking?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Didde Cramer

    What is the possibility of citizens to achieve influence on practical policymaking? The purpose of my thesis is to examine the relationship between the front line employees and the citizens in the practical policy making. The study aims to have it out with an almost one-sided focus on front emplo...

  6. The Role of Standards in eco-innovation: Lessons for Policymakers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollebergh, H.R.J.; Werf, van der E.

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to help policymakers identify how standards can contribute to the effective and cost-efficient development and deployment of eco-innovations (innovations that reduce environmental impacts). To this end, we argue that the general perception among environmental economists that

  7. Pharmaceutical companies' role in state vaccination policymaking: the case of human papillomavirus vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Michelle M; Abiola, Sara; Colgrove, James

    2012-05-01

    We sought to investigate roles that Merck & Co Inc played in state human papillomavirus (HPV) immunization policymaking, to elicit key stakeholders' perceptions of the appropriateness of these activities, and to explore implications for relationships between health policymakers and industry. We used a series of state case studies combining data from key informant interviews with analysis of media reports and archival materials. We interviewed 73 key informants in 6 states that were actively engaged in HPV vaccine policy deliberations. Merck promoted school-entry mandate legislation by serving as an information resource, lobbying legislators, drafting legislation, mobilizing female legislators and physician organizations, conducting consumer marketing campaigns, and filling gaps in access to the vaccine. Legislators relied heavily on Merck for scientific information. Most stakeholders found lobbying by vaccine manufacturers acceptable in principle, but perceived that Merck had acted too aggressively and nontransparently in this case. Although policymakers acknowledge the utility of manufacturers' involvement in vaccination policymaking, industry lobbying that is overly aggressive, not fully transparent, or not divorced from financial contributions to lawmakers risks undermining the prospects for legislation to foster uptake of new vaccines.

  8. Discourses, Decisions, Designs: "Special" Education Policy-Making in New South Wales, Scotland, Finland and Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Pei Wen; Graham, Linda J.

    2017-01-01

    This comparative analysis investigates the influence of neo-liberal and inclusive discourses in "special" education policy-making in New South Wales, Scotland, Finland and Malaysia. The centrality of competition, selectivity and accountability in the discourses used in New South Wales and Malaysia suggests a system preference for…

  9. Crossroads of Crisis: Forces at Play in the Policy-Making Arena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Addison S.

    1976-01-01

    The following forces that play on policymaking are examined: Social and cultural influences, the caste system with its attendant anxiety to conform, warring between equals, the competitive spirit unleased. On the question of what should be incorporated in policy, the author states that vocational educators should look inwardly and seek to make…

  10. Co-designing collaboration: Using a partnership framework for shared policymaking in geriatric networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, E.; Baur, V.; de Wit, M.P.T.; Wilbrink, N.; Abma, T.

    2015-01-01

    Involving older people in policymaking is an emerging trend. In the literature no studies were found on the macro-level development of partnerships between older people and professionals in healthcare policy. The purpose of this article is to explore the potential of a partnership framework as part

  11. Accounting for Co-Teaching: A Guide for Policymakers and Developers of Value-Added Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, Eric; Walsh, Elias

    2015-01-01

    We outline the options available to policymakers for addressing co-teaching in a value-added model. Building on earlier work, we propose an improvement to a method of accounting for co-teaching that treats co-teachers as teams, with each teacher receiving equal credit for co-taught students. Hock and Isenberg (2012) described a method known as the…

  12. Environmental Pollution Control Policy-Making: An Analysis of Elite Perceptions and Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, Phillip; Greig, William H.

    1974-01-01

    This article is based on an analysis of the perceptions and preferences of elite groups concerning environmental pollution control policy making. Results showed that although the groups agreed that present methods were inadequate, they were, nevertheless, unable to agree upon the nature of a future policy-making system. (MA)

  13. Determinants of health policy impact: comparative results of a European policymaker study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rütten, A.; Lüschen, G.; Lengerke, T. von; Abel, T.; Kannas, L.; Rodríguez Diaz, J.A.; Vinck, J.; Zee, J. van der

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This article will use a new theoretical framework for the analysis of health policy impact introduced by Rutten et al. (2003). In particular, it will report on a comparative European study of policymakers' perception and evaluation of specific determinants of the policy impact, both in

  14. The Political Implications of Performance Management and Evidence-Based Policymaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafillou, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few decades performance management (PM) has invaded the public sector in most Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. More recently, we have seen increasing demands for evidence-based policymaking (EP). This article critically discusses the political...

  15. Using Knowledge of the Past to Improve Education Today: US Education History and Policy-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinovskis, Maris A.

    2015-01-01

    Early American historians provided the public and policy-makers with information about US history that provided both entertainment and policy suggestions. As American historians became more professionalised in the early twentieth century, they concentrated more on their own scholarly concerns and less on policy-relevant writings. In recent…

  16. Teacher Education Research and Education Policy-Makers: An Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Simone

    2016-01-01

    As teacher educators, we want our research to be influential in contributing to educational policy and practice, but there remains little understanding about ways in which teacher educators might more productively engage with each other and policy-makers so as to maximise their research impact. Drawing on an empirical study and policy document…

  17. Policy-maker attitudes to the ageing of the HIV cohort in Botswana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although there has been some realization of this development at international level, no clear defined intervention strategy has been established in many highly affected countries. Therefore we ... Conclusions: HIV among older adults remains a low priority among policy-makers in Botswana but is at least now on the agenda.

  18. The African diaspora’s public participation in policy-making concerning Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norglo, Benhardt Edem Kofi; Goris, Margriet; Lie, Rico; Ong’ayo, Antony Otieno

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the involvement of African diaspora organizations in Dutch and European policy-making concerning Africa. It addresses the extent to which their inclusion or exclusion in public policy processes in their destination countries is likely to impact (development) policies relating to

  19. Public debate and policy-making on family migration in the Netherlands, 1960-1995

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonjour, S.; Schrover, M.

    2015-01-01

    Is ‘public opinion’ systematically opposed to immigration? And has this pushed policymakers to implement restrictive migration policies? To answer these questions, we investigate the impact of public opinion, as expressed in media debates, on the making of family migration policies in the

  20. Ingredients for Good Health Policy-Making: Incorporating Power and Politics into the Mix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusra Shawar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Eggs, flour, sugar, butter, baking soda, milk, and vanilla extract—all ingredients necessary to make a delicious cake. Similarly, good health policy-making can only be successfully pursued and understood by accounting for all of its basic ingredients, including the role of politics and power. Otherwise, the result is simply not good.

  1. Promoting Children's Public Participation in Policy-Making through Achievement-Oriented Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwandure, Calvin; Mayekiso, Thokozile

    2013-01-01

    This theoretical paper looked at the possibility of incorporating the social learning concept of achievement-oriented behaviour in promoting children's public participation in policy-making in the educational system. The paper highlighted how the concepts of public participation and achievement-oriented education could be used in the governance of…

  2. Intellectual Property Rights for Plant Breeding and Rural Development : Challenges for Agricultural Policymakers

    OpenAIRE

    Tripp, Rob; Louwaars, Niels; Eaton, Derek

    2006-01-01

    Although many developing countries have drafted legislation to address plant variety protection (PVP) requirements, relatively few have begun to implement PVP, and little guidance is available on appropriate strategies. This note looks at some of the key decisions facing agricultural policymakers in establishing a PVP regime, examines the implementation of PVP, assesses some of the impacts...

  3. Intellectual property rights for plant breeding and rural development: challenges for agriculture policymakers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tripp, R.; Eaton, D.J.F.; Louwaars, N.P.

    2006-01-01

    Although many developing countries have drafted legislation to address plant variety protection (PVP) requirements, relatively few have begun to implement PVP, and little guidance is available on appropriate strategies. This note looks at some of the key decisions facing agricultural policymakers in

  4. Myths and Facts Regarding Second Language Acquisition in Early Childhood: Recommendations for Policymakers, Administrators, and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soonhyang; Plotka, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood teachers play a key role in addressing the needs of young English Language Learners, and a vast body of research is dedicated to assessing best practices for teachers. However, less research addressing the role of policymakers, program directors and administrators is available. Although teachers can make a difference in the lives…

  5. Creating Adaptive Policies: A Guide for Policy-making in an ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-01-01

    Jan 1, 2009 ... Today's policy-maker has a tough job to do. Policies that cannot perform effectively under today's complex, dynamic, and uncertain conditions run the risk of not achieving their intended purpose. Instead of helping, they may actually hinder the ability of individuals, communities, and businesses to cope with ...

  6. Measuring Body Composition in Individuals with Intellectual Disability: A Scoping Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Faith Casey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Research shows obesity to be more prevalent amongst individuals with intellectual disability (ID making correct measurement of body composition crucial. This study reviewed the validity and reliability of methods used for assessing body composition in individuals with ID. Methods. Authors conducted electronic searches through PubMed (1990 to present and PsycINFO (1990 to present and assessed relevant articles independently based on scoping review guidelines. Reviewers included primary research related to the validity and reliability of body composition measures on individuals with ID. Results. Searches identified six articles assessing body composition methods used on individuals with ID including body mass index (BMI, skinfold thickness, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA, waist circumference, tibia length, and anthropometric girth measurements. BMI and waist circumference appear suitable measures but skinfold thickness measurements may not be advisable due to participants' noncompliance resulting in a lack of precision and inaccurate results. Conclusions. The current literature contains too few well-conducted studies to determine the precision and validity of body composition measures on individuals with ID. There may be a need to devise further regression equations that apply to individuals with specific types of ID in order to increase the reliability and validity of body composition measurements.

  7. A systematic review of instruments that measure attitudes toward homosexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Jeremy A; Robinson, Beatrice Bean E; Coleman, Eli; Bockting, Walter O

    2013-01-01

    Scientific interest in the measurement of homophobia and internalized homophobia has grown over the past 30 years, and new instruments and terms have emerged. To help researchers with the challenging task of identifying appropriate measures for studies in sexual-minority health, we reviewed measures of homophobia published in the academic literature from 1970 to 2012. Instruments that measured attitudes toward male homosexuals/homosexuality or measured homosexuals' internalized attitudes toward homosexuality were identified using measurement manuals and a systematic review. A total of 23 instruments met criteria for inclusion, and their features were summarized and compared. All 23 instruments met minimal criteria for adequate scale construction, including scale development, sampling, reliability, and evidence of validity. Validity evidence was diverse and was categorized as interaction with gay men, HIV/AIDS variables, mental health, and conservative religious or political beliefs. Homophobia was additionally correlated with authoritarianism and bias, gender ideology, gender differences, and reactions to homosexual stimuli. Internalized homophobia was validated by examining relationships with disclosing one's homosexuality and level of homosexual identity development. We hope this review will make the process of instrument selection more efficient by allowing researchers to easily locate, evaluate, and choose the proper measure based on their research question and population of interest.

  8. Positive psychology outcome measures for family caregivers of people living with dementia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfeld, Jacki; Stoner, Charlotte R; Wenborn, Jennifer; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra; Moniz-Cook, Esme; Orrell, Martin

    2017-08-01

    Family caregivers of people living with dementia can have both positive and negative experiences of caregiving. Despite this, existing outcome measures predominately focus on negative aspects of caregiving such as burden and depression. This review aimed to evaluate the development and psychometric properties of existing positive psychology measures for family caregivers of people living with dementia to determine their potential utility in research and practice. A systematic review of positive psychology outcome measures for family caregivers of people with dementia was conducted. The databases searched were as follows: PsychINFO, CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PubMed. Scale development papers were subject to a quality assessment to appraise psychometric properties. Twelve positive outcome measures and six validation papers of these scales were identified. The emerging constructs of self-efficacy, spirituality, resilience, rewards, gain, and meaning are in line with positive psychology theory. There are some robust positive measures in existence for family caregivers of people living with dementia. However, lack of reporting of the psychometric properties hindered the quality assessment of some outcome measures identified in this review. Future research should aim to include positive outcome measures in interventional research to facilitate a greater understanding of the positive aspects of caregiving and how these contribute to well-being.

  9. Anthropometric Measurements and Dental Caries in Children: A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling-Wei; Wong, Hai Ming; Peng, Si-Min; McGrath, Colman P

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in childhood over time (life-course studies). The aim of this review was to identify and systematically review the evidence of the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in childhood over time. PubMed, Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Knowledge, the Cochrane Library, and 6 other databases were searched to identify effective articles. A systematic approach involving critical appraisal was conducted to examine the relation between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in preschool- and school-aged populations from longitudinal studies. An initial search identified 1338 studies, with 59 potentially effective studies (κ = 0.82) and 17 effective studies (κ = 0.88). The quality of reporting among the studies ranged from 19.5 to 30.0 according to the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) criteria. Among the effective studies, 2 studies in which caries was used to predict anthropometric measurements consistently found an inverse association and 15 studies in which anthropometric measurements were used to predict caries were inconsistent, with results appearing to be influenced by nonuniformity of assessments, setting, and procedure of measurements; age and ethnicity of participants; and confounders of dental caries. In conclusion, among >1000 studies identified, 17 informed this systematic review. The quality of reporting of these studies varied considerably. Evidence of the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries is conflicting and remains inconclusive. PMID:25593143

  10. Acceptability of financial incentives for health behaviour change to public health policymakers: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma L. Giles

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Providing financial incentives contingent on healthy behaviours is one way to encourage healthy behaviours. However, there remains substantial concerns with the acceptability of health promoting financial incentives (HPFI. Previous research has studied acceptability of HPFI to the public, recipients and practitioners. We are not aware of any previous work that has focused particularly on the views of public health policymakers. Our aim was to explore the views of public health policymakers on whether or not HPFI are acceptable; and what, if anything, could be done to maximise acceptability of HPFI. Methods We recruited 21 local, regional and national policymakers working in England via gatekeepers and snowballing. We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with participants exploring experiences of, and attitudes towards, HPFI. We analysed data using the Framework approach. Results Public health policymakers working in England acknowledged that HPFI could be a useful behaviour change tool, but were not overwhelmingly supportive of them. In particular, they raised concerns about effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, potential ‘gaming’, and whether or not HPFI address the underlying causes of unhealthy behaviours. Shopping voucher rewards, of smaller value, targeted at deprived groups were particularly acceptable to policymakers. Participants were particularly concerned about the response of other stakeholders to HPFI – including the public, potential recipients, politicians and the media. Overall, the interviews reflected three tensions. Firstly, a tension between wanting to trust individuals and promote responsibility; and distrust around the potential for ‘gaming the system’. Secondly, a tension between participants’ own views about HPFI; and their concerns about the possible views of other stakeholders. Thirdly, a tension between participants’ personal distaste of HPFI; and their professional view that

  11. Acceptability of financial incentives for health behaviour change to public health policymakers: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Emma L; Sniehotta, Falko F; McColl, Elaine; Adams, Jean

    2016-09-15

    Providing financial incentives contingent on healthy behaviours is one way to encourage healthy behaviours. However, there remains substantial concerns with the acceptability of health promoting financial incentives (HPFI). Previous research has studied acceptability of HPFI to the public, recipients and practitioners. We are not aware of any previous work that has focused particularly on the views of public health policymakers. Our aim was to explore the views of public health policymakers on whether or not HPFI are acceptable; and what, if anything, could be done to maximise acceptability of HPFI. We recruited 21 local, regional and national policymakers working in England via gatekeepers and snowballing. We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with participants exploring experiences of, and attitudes towards, HPFI. We analysed data using the Framework approach. Public health policymakers working in England acknowledged that HPFI could be a useful behaviour change tool, but were not overwhelmingly supportive of them. In particular, they raised concerns about effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, potential 'gaming', and whether or not HPFI address the underlying causes of unhealthy behaviours. Shopping voucher rewards, of smaller value, targeted at deprived groups were particularly acceptable to policymakers. Participants were particularly concerned about the response of other stakeholders to HPFI - including the public, potential recipients, politicians and the media. Overall, the interviews reflected three tensions. Firstly, a tension between wanting to trust individuals and promote responsibility; and distrust around the potential for 'gaming the system'. Secondly, a tension between participants' own views about HPFI; and their concerns about the possible views of other stakeholders. Thirdly, a tension between participants' personal distaste of HPFI; and their professional view that they could be a valuable behaviour change tool. There are aspects of

  12. How Noninvasive Haemoglobin Measurement with Pulse CO-Oximetry Can Change Your Practice: An Expert Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Lindner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Trauma related haemorrhagic anaemia is rarely diagnosed by physical examination alone but typically includes measurement of blood haemoglobin, one of the most frequently ordered laboratory tests. Recently, noninvasive technologies have been developed that allow haemoglobin to be measured immediately without the need for intravenous access or having to take venous, arterial, or capillary blood. Moreover, with these technologies haemoglobin can be continuously measured in patients with active bleeding, to guide the start and stop of blood transfusions and to detect occult bleeding. Recent studies on the accuracy of the devices showed promising results in terms of accuracy of hemoglobin measurement compared to laboratory determination. The present review gives an overview on the technology itself and reviews the current literature on the subject.

  13. In Situ Stress Measurement Techniques on Li-ion Battery Electrodes: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximing Cheng

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Li-ion batteries experience mechanical stress evolution due in part to Li intercalation into and de-intercalation out of the electrodes, ultimately resulting in performance degradation. In situ measurements of electrode stress can be used to analyze stress generation factors, verify mechanical deformation models, and validate degradation mechanisms. They can also be embedded in Li-ion battery management systems when stress sensors are either implanted in electrodes or attached on battery surfaces. This paper reviews in situ measurement methods of electrode stress based on optical principles, including digital image correlation, curvature measurement, and fiber optical sensors. Their experimental setups, principles, and applications are described and contrasted. This literature review summarizes the current status of these stress measurement methods for battery electrodes and discusses recent developments and trends.

  14. WOMEN’S AUTONOMY AND THE FAMILY IN RECENT ROMANIAN POLICY-MAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALICE IANCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In my paper I aim to provide an analysis of the relation between women’s autonomy and the family in Romanian recent policy-making. I will focus primarily on policies developed by the Romanian state after Romania’s integration in the European Union with regards to the family and family-related policy domains. My analysis will focus on several variables: 1. the theoretical instruments available for analyzing women’s autonomy in relation to state policies 2. the understanding of the family in Romanian policy-making 3. the interplay between women’s autonomy and the family and how policy-making influences the relation between the two. The analysis will take into consideration the specific Romanian socio-political context in terms of economic conditions, ideological influences and gender relations. Political theory is no stranger to the issue of individual autonomy. In my paper I will focus on recent feminist political theories on gendered accounts of autonomy. These accounts modify the understanding of autonomy and focus on conditions and aspects of autonomy relevant to women’s lives and experiences. The current financial crisis and recent developments in Romanian policy-making will be analyzed in terms of how they affect women’s autonomy. Since much of Romanian policy-making still avoids including gender and gender relations into its explicit justifications, provisions and evaluation, referring to the family as a basic social unit, the gendered consequences for women’s autonomy of such an approach need to be understood and acknowledged. In my analysis I will use both Romanian and European recent policy papers, as well as recent data obtained through social research.

  15. Review of cosmic background radiation spectrum measurements: limits on distortions, energy release, and cosmological processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smoot, G.F.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews the three major cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) spectrum measurement programs conducted and published since the last (XVII) IAU General Assembly. The results are consistent with a Planckian spectrum with temperature 2.72 +- 0.03 K spanning a wavelength range of 0.1 to 12 cm. Limits on possible distortions and implications are outlined. Ongoing and future measurements are discussed

  16. A systematic review evaluating the psychometric properties of measures of social inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, Reinie; Milbourn, Ben; Martin, Robyn; Buchanan, Angus; Chung, Donna; Speyer, Renée

    2017-01-01

    Improving social inclusion opportunities for population health has been identified as a priority area for international policy. There is a need to comprehensively examine and evaluate the quality of psychometric properties of measures of social inclusion that are used to guide social policy and outcomes. To conduct a systematic review of the literature on all current measures of social inclusion for any population group, to evaluate the quality of the psychometric properties of identified measures, and to evaluate if they capture the construct of social inclusion. A systematic search was performed using five electronic databases: CINAHL, PsycINFO, Embase, ERIC and Pubmed and grey literature were sourced to identify measures of social inclusion. The psychometric properties of the social inclusion measures were evaluated against the COSMIN taxonomy of measurement properties using pre-set psychometric criteria. Of the 109 measures identified, twenty-five measures, involving twenty-five studies and one manual met the inclusion criteria. The overall quality of the reviewed measures was variable, with the Social and Community Opportunities Profile-Short, Social Connectedness Scale and the Social Inclusion Scale demonstrating the strongest evidence for sound psychometric quality. The most common domain included in the measures was connectedness (21), followed by participation (19); the domain of citizenship was covered by the least number of measures (10). No single instrument measured all aspects within the three domains of social inclusion. Of the measures with sound psychometric evidence, the Social and Community Opportunities Profile-Short captured the construct of social inclusion best. The overall quality of the psychometric properties demonstrate that the current suite of available instruments for the measurement of social inclusion are promising but need further refinement. There is a need for a universal working definition of social inclusion as an overarching

  17. National and Regional Surveys of Radon Concentration in Dwellings. Review of Methodology and Measurement Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Reliable, comparable and 'fit for purpose' results are essential requirements for any decision based on analytical measurements. For the analyst, the availability of tested and validated sampling and analytical procedures is an extremely important tool for carrying out such measurements. For maximum utility, such procedures should be comprehensive, clearly formulated and readily available to both the analyst and the customer for reference. In the specific case of radon surveys, it is very important to design a survey in such a way as to obtain results that can reasonably be considered representative of a population. Since 2004, the Environment Programme of the IAEA has included activities aimed at the development of a set of procedures for the measurement of radionuclides in terrestrial environmental samples. The development of radon measurement procedures for national and regional surveys started with the collection and review of more than 160 relevant scientific papers. On the basis of this review, this publication summarizes the methodology and the measurement techniques suitable for a population representative national or regional survey on radon concentration in the indoor air of dwellings. The main elements of the survey design are described and discussed, such as the sampling scheme, the protocols, the questionnaire and the data analysis, with particular attention to the potential biases that can affect the representativeness of the results. Moreover, the main measurement techniques suitable for national surveys on indoor radon are reviewed, with particular attention to the elements that can affect the precision and accuracy of the results

  18. A critical review of wetland greenhouse gas measurement techniques and scaling considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, S. T.; Krauss, K. W.; Stagg, C. L.; Neubauer, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    The role of wetlands in terrestrial greenhouse gas fluxes is disproportionately large compared to the relatively small terrestrial area they encompass. There is an established and growing interest in accurately measuring these fluxes, and extrapolating inferences to larger spatial scales. However, a lack of uniformity in measurement approaches impedes progress because it is a challenge to synthesize data, parameterize models, and develop generalizable concepts from disparate data. Furthermore, pairing different methods can result in double-accounting and other aggregation errors. Our objective is to review gas flux measurement techniques and synthesize concepts, factors, and constraints associated with measuring and scaling greenhouse gas fluxes. This work will contribute to a conceptual framework designed to aid in the collection and use of gas flux data obtained by different methods. This review focuses specifically on wetlands which have both distinct transport processes and a unique biogeochemical environment, causing gas fluxes that are not prominent in other terrestrial or aquatic systems. We review techniques and implications of measuring at different steps along the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum; an emphasis of this work is identifying pathways and transit times for different fluxes in different wetland hydrogeomorphic settings. Measurement location along the path from source to atmosphere connotes the spatial and temporal scales at which a technique is applied, the spatiotemporal representation, and the factors that constrain extrapolation.

  19. A Review of Techniques to Measure Protein Sorption to Soft Contact Lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Brad; Forrest, James A; Jones, Lyndon

    2017-09-01

    To compare and critically evaluate a variety of techniques to measure the quantity and biological activity of protein sorption to contact lenses over short time periods. A literature review was undertaken investigating the major techniques to measure protein sorption to soft contact lens materials, with specific reference to measuring protein directly on lenses using in situ, ex situ, protein structural, and biological activity techniques. The use of in situ techniques to measure protein quantity provides excellent sensitivity, but many are not directly applicable to contact lenses. Many ex situ techniques struggle to measure all sorbed proteins, and these measurements can have significant signal interference from the lens materials themselves. Techniques measuring the secondary and tertiary structures of sorbed proteins have exhibited only limited success. There are a wide variety of techniques to measure both the amount of protein and the biological activity of protein sorbed to soft contact lens materials. To measure the mass of protein sorbed to soft contact lenses (not just thin films) over short time periods, the method of choice should be I radiolabeling. This technique is sensitive enough to measure small amounts of deposited protein, provided steps are taken to limit and measure any interaction of the iodine tracer with the materials. To measure the protein activity over short time periods, the method of choice should be to measure the biological function of sorbed proteins. This may require new methods or adaptations of existing ones.

  20. Trismus following different treatment modalities for head and neck cancer: a systematic review of subjective measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Sook Y; Mcleod, Robert W J; Elhassan, Hassan A

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this review was to compare systematically the subjective measure of trismus between different interventions to treat head and neck cancer, particularly those of the oropharynx. Using The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Guidelines, Six databases were searched for the text using various terms which include "oropharyngeal/head and neck cancer", "trismus/mouth opening" and the various treatment modalities. Included in the review were clinical studies (> or =10 patients). Three observers independently assessed the papers identified. Among the six studies reviewed, five showed a significantly worst outcome with regard to the quality-of-life questionnaire scores for a radiotherapy or surgery and radiotherapy (RT) ± chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy when compared to surgery alone. Only one study showed no significant difference between surgery alone and other treatment modalities. Subjective quality-of-life measures are a concurrent part of modern surgical practice. Although subjective measures were utilised to measure post operative trismus successfully, there was no consensus as to which treatment modality had overall better outcomes, with conflicting studies in keeping with the current debate in this field. Larger and higher quality studies are needed to compare all three treatment modalities.

  1. Measuring Physical Activity in Children and Youth Living with Intellectual Disabilities: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinckson, Erica Aneke; Curtis, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Accurate assessment of physical activity is necessary in determining levels of physical activity in children living with intellectual disability (ID) and assessing effectiveness of intervention programmes. A systematic review of measures of physical activity in children with ID was undertaken using the PRISMA guidelines. MEDLINE-PubMed, Scopus,…

  2. Review on an Advanced High-Temperature Measurement Technology: The Optical Fiber Thermometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. B. Yu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical fiber thermometry technology for high-temperature measurement is briefly reviewed in this paper. The principles, characteristics, recent progresses and advantages of the technology are described. Examples of using the technology are introduced. Many blackbody, infrared, and fluorescence optical thermometers are developed for practical applications.

  3. Measuring the Friendships of Young Children with Disabilities: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Lori E.; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe what has been learned over the past 35+ years of research on the friendships of young children with disabilities. An extensive literature review was conducted to critically examine the purposes that guided the friendship studies, the methods used to measure friendships, and the major findings of these…

  4. Measurement of availability and accessibility of food among youth : a systematic review of methodological studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebremariam, Mekdes K; Vaqué-Crusellas, Cristina; Andersen, Lene F; Stok, F Marijn|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/318869705; Stelmach-Mardas, Marta; Brug, Johannes; Lien, Nanna

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Comprehensive and psychometrically tested measures of availability and accessibility of food are needed in order to explore availability and accessibility as determinants and predictors of dietary behaviors. The main aim of this systematic review was to update the evidence regarding the

  5. Measuring Person-Centered Care: A Critical Comparative Review of Published Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edvardsson, David; Innes, Anthea

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of the study: To present a critical comparative review of published tools measuring the person-centeredness of care for older people and people with dementia. Design and Methods: Included tools were identified by searches of PubMed, Cinahl, the Bradford Dementia Group database, and authors' files. The terms "Person-centered,"…

  6. Physical Activity Measurement Instruments for Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capio, Catherine M.; Sit, Cindy H. P.; Abernethy, Bruce; Rotor, Esmerita R.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This paper is a systematic review of physical activity measurement instruments for field-based studies involving children with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Database searches using PubMed Central, MEDLINE, CINAHL Plus, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and PEDro located 12 research papers, identifying seven instruments that met the inclusion…

  7. A review of the current literature on aetiology and measurement methods of halitosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, A.M. van den; Feenstra, L.; Baat, C. de

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This work reviews the current knowledge of aetiology and measurement methods of halitosis. DATA: Halitosis is an unpleasant or offensive odour emanating from the breath. The condition is multifactorial and may involve both oral and non-oral conditions. SOURCES: A private, monthly with

  8. Return of normal gait as an outcome measurement in acl reconstructed patients : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Gokeler; K.E. Webster; Anne Benjaminse; L. Schot; C.F. van Eck; E. Otten

    2013-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND: Current clinical outcome measurements may overestimate the long term success of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). There is a need to understand biomechanics of the knee joint during daily activities. This systematic review provides a comprehensive overview of the

  9. A systematic review of maternal smoking during pregnancy and fetal measurements with meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abraham, M. (Miriam); Alramadhan, S. (Salem); A. Iñiguez (Andrés); L. Duijts (Liesbeth); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); Dekker, H.T.D. (Herman T. Den); Crozier, S. (Sarah); N. Godfrey; Hindmarsh, P. (Peter); Vik, T. (Torstein); Jacobsen, G.W. (Geir W.); W. Hanke (Wojciech); Sobala, W. (Wojciech); M.P. Devereux (Michael ); S. Turner (Steve)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground Maternal smoking during pregnancy is linked to reduced birth weight but the gestation at onset of this relationship is not certain. We present a systematic review of the literature describing associations between maternal smoking during pregnancy and ultrasound measurements of

  10. Patient-Reported Outcome Measures in Upper Airway-Related Dyspnea: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noud, Meaghan; Hovis, Kristen; Gelbard, Alexander; Sathe, Nila A; Penson, David F; Feurer, Irene D; McPheeters, Melissa L; Francis, David O

    2017-08-01

    Patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures address the need for patient-centered data and are now used in diverse clinical, research, and policy pursuits. They are important in conditions causing upper airway-related dyspnea in which the patient's reported experience and physiological data can be discrepant. To perform a systematic review of the literature on upper airway dyspnea-related PRO measures and to rigorously evaluate each measure's developmental properties, validation, and applicability. This study strictly adhered to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. MEDLINE via the PubMed interface, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and the Health and Psychosocial Instruments (HaPI) database were searched using relevant vocabulary terms and key terms related to PRO measures and upper airway-related dyspnea. Three investigators performed abstract review, and 2 investigators independently performed full-text review by applying an established checklist to evaluate the conceptual model, content validity, reliability, construct validity, scoring and interpretability, and respondent burden and presentation of each identified instrument. The initial literature search was conducted in November 2014 and was updated in April 2016. Of 1269 studies reviewed, 3 upper airway-related dyspnea PRO measures met criteria for inclusion. One PRO measure was designed de novo to assess upper airway-related dyspnea symptoms and monitor treatment outcomes, while 2 were adapted from established instruments designed for lower airway disease. Measurement properties and psychometric characteristics differed, and none met all checklist criteria. Two met a criterion in each of 7 domains evaluated. Two demonstrated test-retest and internal consistency reliability, and 2 showed that their scores were responsive to change. Thematic deficiencies in current upper airway-related dyspnea PRO measures are lack of patient

  11. Parent report measures of infant and toddler social-emotional development: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontoppidan, Maiken; Niss, Nete K; Pejtersen, Jan H; Julian, Megan M; Væver, Mette S

    2017-04-01

    Identifying young children at risk for socio-emotional developmental problems at an early stage, to prevent serious problems later in life, is crucial. Therefore, we need high quality measures to identify those children at risk for social-emotional problems who require further evaluation and intervention. To systematically identify parent report measures of infant and toddler (0-24 months) social-emotional development for use in primary care settings. We conducted a systematic review applying a narrative synthesis approach. We searched Medline, PsychInfo, Embase and SocIndex for articles published from 2008 through September 2015 to identify parent-report measures of infant and toddler social-emotional development. Data on the characteristics of the measures, including psychometric data, were collected. Based on 3310 screened articles, we located 242 measures that were screened for eligibility. In all 18 measures of infant and toddler social-emotional development were included. Ten of the measures were developed specifically for measuring social-emotional development, and eight were measures including subscales of social-emotional development. The measures varied with respect to, e.g. the time of publication, number of items, age span, cost and amount of psychometric data available. Several measures of infant and toddler social-emotional development have been developed within the last decade. The majority of psychometric data are available through manuals, not peer-reviewed journals. Although all measures show acceptable reliability, the most comprehensive and psychometrically sound measures are the Ages and Stages Questionnaires: Social-Emotional-2, Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment, Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment and Child Behaviour Checklist 1½-5. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Review of Evaluation, Measurement and Verification Approaches Used to Estimate the Load Impacts and Effectiveness of Energy Efficiency Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messenger, Mike; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Golemboski, Bill; Goldman, Charles A.; Schiller, Steven R.

    2010-04-14

    Public and private funding for end-use energy efficiency actions is expected to increase significantly in the United States over the next decade. For example, Barbose et al (2009) estimate that spending on ratepayer-funded energy efficiency programs in the U.S. could increase from $3.1 billion in 2008 to $7.5 and 12.4 billion by 2020 under their medium and high scenarios. This increase in spending could yield annual electric energy savings ranging from 0.58% - 0.93% of total U.S. retail sales in 2020, up from 0.34% of retail sales in 2008. Interest in and support for energy efficiency has broadened among national and state policymakers. Prominent examples include {approx}$18 billion in new funding for energy efficiency programs (e.g., State Energy Program, Weatherization, and Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grants) in the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Increased funding for energy efficiency should result in more benefits as well as more scrutiny of these results. As energy efficiency becomes a more prominent component of the U.S. national energy strategy and policies, assessing the effectiveness and energy saving impacts of energy efficiency programs is likely to become increasingly important for policymakers and private and public funders of efficiency actions. Thus, it is critical that evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) is carried out effectively and efficiently, which implies that: (1) Effective program evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) methodologies and tools are available to key stakeholders (e.g., regulatory agencies, program administrators, consumers, and evaluation consultants); and (2) Capacity (people and infrastructure resources) is available to conduct EM&V activities and report results in ways that support program improvement and provide data that reliably compares achieved results against goals and similar programs in other jurisdictions (benchmarking). The National Action Plan for Energy

  13. A Systematic Review of Quantitative Resilience Measures for Water Infrastructure Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sangmin; Lee, Seungyub; Judi, David R.; Parvania, Masood; Goharian, Erfan; McPherson, Timothy N.; Burian, Steven J.

    2018-02-07

    Over the past few decades, the concept of resilience has emerged as an important consideration in the planning and management of water infrastructure systems. Accordingly, various resilience measures have been developed for the quantitative evaluation and decision-making of systems. There are, however, numerous considerations and no clear choice of which measure, if any, provides the most appropriate representation of resilience for a given application. This study provides a critical review of quantitative approaches to measure the resilience of water infrastructure systems, with a focus on water resources and distribution systems. A compilation of 11 criteria evaluating 21 selected resilience measures addressing major features of resilience is developed using the Axiomatic Design process. Existing gaps of resilience measures are identified based on the review criteria. The results show that resilience measures have generally paid less attention to cascading damage to interrelated systems, rapid identification of failure, physical damage of system components, and time variation of resilience. Concluding the paper, improvements to resilience measures are recommended. The findings contribute to our understanding of gaps and provide information to help further improve resilience measures of water infrastructure systems.

  14. A Systematic Review of Quantitative Resilience Measures for Water Infrastructure Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangmin Shin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, the concept of resilience has emerged as an important consideration in the planning and management of water infrastructure systems. Accordingly, various resilience measures have been developed for the quantitative evaluation and decision-making of systems. There are, however, numerous considerations and no clear choice of which measure, if any, provides the most appropriate representation of resilience for a given application. This study provides a critical review of quantitative approaches to measure the resilience of water infrastructure systems, with a focus on water resources and distribution systems. A compilation of 11 criteria evaluating 21 selected resilience measures addressing major features of resilience is developed using the Axiomatic Design process. Existing gaps of resilience measures are identified based on the review criteria. The results show that resilience measures have generally paid less attention to cascading damage to interrelated systems, rapid identification of failure, physical damage of system components, and time variation of resilience. Concluding the paper, improvements to resilience measures are recommended. The findings contribute to our understanding of gaps and provide information to help further improve resilience measures of water infrastructure systems.

  15. Skin Temperature Measurement Using Contact Thermometry: A Systematic Review of Setup Variables and Their Effects on Measured Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braid A. MacRae

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Skin temperature (Tskin is commonly measured using Tskin sensors affixed directly to the skin surface, although the influence of setup variables on the measured outcome requires clarification.Objectives: The two distinct objectives of this systematic review were (1 to examine measurements from contact Tskin sensors considering equilibrium temperature and temperature disturbance, sensor attachments, pressure, environmental temperature, and sensor type, and (2 to characterise the contact Tskin sensors used, conditions of use, and subsequent reporting in studies investigating sports, exercise, and other physical activity.Data sources and study selection: For the measurement comparison objective, Ovid Medline and Scopus were used (1960 to July 2016 and studies comparing contact Tskin sensor measurements in vivo or using appropriate physical models were included. For the survey of use, Ovid Medline was used (2011 to July 2016 and studies using contact temperature sensors for the measurement of human Tskinin vivo during sport, exercise, and other physical activity were included.Study appraisal and synthesis methods: For measurement comparisons, assessments of risk of bias were made according to an adapted version of the Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias tool. Comparisons of temperature measurements were expressed, where possible, as mean difference and 95% limits of agreement (LoA. Meta-analyses were not performed due to the lack of a common reference condition. For the survey of use, extracted information was summarised in text and tabular form.Results: For measurement comparisons, 21 studies were included. Results from these studies indicated minor (<0.5°C to practically meaningful (>0.5°C measurement bias within the subgroups of attachment type, applied pressure, environmental conditions, and sensor type. The 95% LoA were often within 1.0°C for in vivo studies and 0.5°C for physical models. For the survey of use, 172 studies

  16. Instruments for measuring meaningful learning in healthcare students: a systematic psychometric review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadorin, Lucia; Bagnasco, Annamaria; Tolotti, Angela; Pagnucci, Nicola; Sasso, Loredana

    2016-09-01

    To identify, evaluate and describe the psychometric properties of instruments that measure learning outcomes in healthcare students. Meaningful learning is an active process that enables a wider and deeper understanding of concepts. It is the result of an interaction between new and prior knowledge and produces a long-standing change in knowledge and skills. In the field of education, validated and reliable instruments for assessing meaningful learning are needed. A psychometric systematic review. MEDLINE CINAHL, SCOPUS, ERIC, Cochrane Library, Psychology & Behavioural Sciences Collection Database from 1990-December 2013. Using pre-determined inclusion criteria, three reviewers independently identified studies for full-text review. Then they extracted data for quality appraisal and graded instrument validity using the Consensus-based Standards for the selection of the health status Measurement INstruments checklist and the Psychometric Grading Framework. Of the 57 studies identified for full-text review, 16 met the inclusion criteria and 13 different instruments were assessed. Following quality assessment, only one instrument was considered of good quality but it measured meaningful learning only in part; the others were either fair or poor. The Psychometric Grading Framework indicated that one instrument was weak, while the others were very weak. No instrument displayed adequate validity. The systematic review produced a synthesis of the psychometric properties of tools that measure learning outcomes in students of healthcare disciplines. Measuring learning outcomes is very important when educating health professionals. The identified tools may constitute a starting point for the development of other assessment tools. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. A systematic review of alcohol screening and assessment measures for young people: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toner, Paul; Böhnke, Jan R; McCambridge, Jim

    2017-06-06

    Alcohol consumption creates a significant public health burden, and young people who drink alcohol place themselves at risk of harm. Expert guidance and reviews have highlighted the pressing need for reliable and valid, age-appropriate alcohol screening and assessment measures for young people. The proposed systematic review will evaluate existing alcohol screening and assessment measures for young people aged 24 and under. Six electronic databases will be searched for published and grey literature. In addition, reverse and forward citation searching and consultation with experts will be performed. Three sets of search terms will be combined, including alcohol use/problems, young people and validation studies. The titles and abstracts of reports from the searches will be screened, and potentially relevant full-text reports will be retrieved and independently assessed for inclusion by two reviewers based on prespecified criteria. Discrete validation studies within included reports will then be assessed for eligibility. There will be an a priori basic quality threshold for predictive validity, internal and test-retest for studies to warrant full data extraction. Studies above the quality threshold will be assessed for quality using the modified consensus-based standards for the selection of health measurement instruments checklist and a quality assessment tool for diagnostic accuracy studies. This review will highlight the best performing measures both for screening and assessment based on their psychometric properties and the quality of the validation studies supporting their use. Providing clear guidance on which existing measures perform best to screen and assess alcohol use and problems in young people will inform policy, practice and decision-making, and clarify the need for further research. International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews, CRD42016053330. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article

  18. Functional Measures for Fall Risk in the Acute Care Setting: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Alaina M; Siu, Ka-Chun; Honaker, Julie A

    2017-04-01

    This review explores the evidence pertaining to the use of functional ability measures for fall risk in the acute care setting. We included studies from six bibliographic databases that investigated fall risk functional ability measures in hospitalized older adults (≥55 years). We utilized the following search terms: acute care, subacute care, critical care, inpatient, fall, and fall prevention. Nineteen articles met the inclusion criteria. Timed "Up and Go" (TUG) was identified as a feasible fall risk functional ability measure for clinicians; it demonstrated clinical performance of fair sensitivity (56%-68%) and good specificity (74%-80%). Clinical performance of other measures (Berg Balance Scale and Functional Reach test) was not as favorable as the TUG. Functional ability measures are underutilized in the acute care setting, potentially due to limited knowledge and training on administration. Combining functional measures with subjective screening tools may optimize performance and accuracy of identifying fall risk identification.

  19. Measures of satisfaction with care during labour and birth: a comparative review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Satisfaction is the one of the most frequently reported outcome measures for quality of care. Assessment of satisfaction with maternity services is crucial, and psychometrically sound measures are needed if this is to inform health practices. This paper comparatively reviews current measures of satisfaction with care during labour and birth. Methods A review of the literature was conducted. Studies were located through computerised databases and hand searching references of identified articles and reviews. Inclusion criteria were that the questionnaire was a multi-item scale of satisfaction with care during labour and birth, and some form of psychometric information (either information about questionnaire construction, or reliability, or validity) had to be reported. Results Nine questionnaires of satisfaction with care during labour and birth were identified. Instruments varied in psychometric properties and dimensions. Most described questionnaire construction and tested some form of reliability and validity. Measures were generally not based on the main theoretical models of satisfaction and varied in scope and application to different types of samples (e.g. satisfaction following caesarean section). For an in-depth measure of satisfaction with intrapartum care, the Intrapartal-Specific Quality from the Patient’s Perspective questionnaire (QPP-I) is recommended. Brief measures with good reliability and validity are provided by the Six Simple Questions (SSQ) or Perceptions of Care Adjective Checklist (PCACL-R). Conclusions Despite the interest in measures of satisfaction there are only a small number of validated measures of satisfaction with care during labour and birth. It is important that brief, reliable and valid measures are available for use in general and specific populations in order to assist research and inform practice. PMID:23656701

  20. Patient empowerment: a systematic review of questionnaires measuring empowerment in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskildsen, Nanna Bjerg; Joergensen, Clara Ruebner; Thomsen, Thora Grothe; Ross, Lone; Dietz, Susanne Malchau; Groenvold, Mogens; Johnsen, Anna Thit

    2017-02-01

    There is an increased attention to and demand for patient empowerment in cancer treatment and follow-up programs. Patient empowerment has been defined as feeling in control of or having mastery in relation to cancer and cancer care. This calls for properly developed questionnaires assessing empowerment from the user perspective. The aim of this review was to identify questionnaires and subscales measuring empowerment and manifestations of empowerment among cancer patients. We conducted a systematic search of the PubMed, PsycINFO and CINAHL databases. Empowerment and multiple search terms associated with empowerment were included. We included peer-reviewed articles published in English, which described questionnaires measuring empowerment or manifestations of empowerment in a cancer setting. In addition, the questionnaire had to be a patient-reported outcome measure for adult cancer patients. Database searches identified 831 records. Title and abstract screening resulted in 482 records being excluded. The remaining 349 full text articles were retrieved and assessed for eligibility. This led to the inclusion of 33 individual instruments measuring empowerment and manifestations of empowerment. Of these, only four were specifically developed to measure empowerment, and two were originally developed for the cancer setting, whereas the remaining two were developed elsewhere, but adapted to the cancer setting. The other 29 questionnaires were not intended to measure the concept of empowerment, but focused on patient-centered care, patient competence, self-efficacy, etc. However, they were included because part of the instrument (at least five items) was considered to measure empowerment or manifestations of empowerment. Our study provides an overview of the available questionnaires, which can be used by researchers and practitioners who wish to measure the concept of empowerment among cancer patients. Very few questionnaires were explicitly developed to explore

  1. Measures of Transport-Related Social Exclusion: A Critical Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Kamruzzaman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative measures of transport disadvantage are reviewed in this paper from the perspective of their effectiveness to investigate social exclusion. The effectiveness is assessed using criteria derived through a review of the concepts of transport disadvantage and social exclusion and their operationalisation. The specified criteria are related to issues of spatial (e.g., urban accessibility, and public transport accessibility, temporal (e.g., public transport availability, and facility opening hours, and social attributes of travel and activity participation (e.g., personal mobility, and disability. Four groups of transport disadvantage measures are identified and evaluated. These include deprivation-based measures, mobility-based measures, accessibility-based measures, and activity-based measures. The review suggests that although the first three categories of measures have traditionally been used to identify transport disadvantage, they do not satisfy issues surrounding activity participation—the key outcome of social exclusion. The activity space concept is a way in which these issues can be incorporated, as it is a measure of the outcomes of activity participation and their associated travel to that activity. Participation in an activity means that an individual has overcome the spatial, temporal and social barriers of travel for that activity. The research using the activity space concept has, however, inadequately identified individual travel and activity participation. This has been due to a separate application of a range of different indicators to assess activity space size. These indicators are by their nature multidimensional—e.g., area visited, distance travelled, and number of activity sites visited. Although each indicator represents a specific qualitative/quantitative aspect of travel and activity participation, researchers have treated these indicators in an isolated manner to identify transport disadvantage and

  2. Policymaking as a Multi-Layered Activity. A Case Study from the Higher Education Sector in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljosland, Ragnhild

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with policymaking in the higher education sector as an activity which happens on many levels, with many and varying interests involved. As the present thematic issue highlights, language is present in higher education policymaking, whether explicitly or implicitly. This special issue's initial claim is that "Policy is what…

  3. The world’s citizens get involved in global policymaking : global resistance, global public participation, and global democracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkers, O.

    2016-01-01

    The central question of this contribution is how international policymakers – mostly States - ought to respond to global protests. There are essentially three ways for them to respond. First, they can refuse these critical world’s citizens the possibility to take part in authoritative policymaking

  4. Measures of psychological stress and physical health in family caregivers of stroke survivors: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saban, Karen L; Sherwood, Paula R; DeVon, Holli A; Hynes, Denise M

    2010-06-01

    Studies have demonstrated that the stress of family caregiving places caregivers at risk for developing depression, poor quality of life, and health problems. The purpose of this review was to identify the ways in which variables are operationalized in studies addressing psychological stressors and physical health of family caregivers of stroke survivors. The adapted Pittsburgh Mind-Body Center model provides the organizing conceptual framework for this literature review. A literature search for relevant articles was conducted using Ovid Medline, PsycINFO, and Ovid Nursing Database for the period of July 1999 through June 2009 using the following search terms: caregiver (or family caregiver), stroke, stress, and health. Articles were included if they met the following inclusionary criteria: (a) written in English, (b) published in peer-reviewed journal, (c) focused on adults who were caring for an adult who experienced stroke, (d) included measures of stress and physical health or health-related quality of life, and (e) primarily used quantitative research methods. Twenty-four articles were identified that met the inclusion criteria. Findings related to the variables included in the adapted Pittsburgh Mind-Body Center model are discussed. Variables were not well defined, a wide array of measurement instruments were used, and measures were taken at broadly divergent time frames following stroke. Future research guided by a theoretical framework, consistent measures of variables, and standardized measurement time points would allow for better comparison of findings across studies, thus enabling clinicians to better understand the health risks of family caregivers.

  5. Determination of the transfer function for optical surface topography measuring instruments—a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foreman, Matthew R; Török, Peter; Giusca, Claudiu L; Leach, Richard K; Coupland, Jeremy M

    2013-01-01

    A significant number of areal surface topography measuring instruments, largely based on optical techniques, are commercially available. However, implementation of optical instrumentation into production is currently difficult due to the lack of understanding of the complex interaction between the light and the component surface. Studying the optical transfer function of the instrument can help address this issue. Here a review is given of techniques for the measurement of optical transfer functions. Starting from the basis of a spatially coherent, monochromatic confocal scanning imaging system, the theory of optical transfer functions in three-dimensional (3D) imaging is presented. Further generalizations are reviewed allowing the extension of the theory to the description of conventional and interferometric 3D imaging systems. Polychromatic transfer functions and surface topography measurements are also discussed. Following presentation of theoretical results, experimental methods to measure the optical transfer function of each class of system are presented, with a focus on suitable methods for the establishment of calibration standards in 3D imaging and surface topography measurements. (topical review)

  6. Review of ultraviolet damage threshold measurements at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowdermilk, W.H.; Milam, D.

    1984-01-01

    The results of damage threshold measurements made at LLNL using ultraviolet wavelength laser pulses are reviewed. Measurements were made with pulses from a krypton fluoride laser with wavelength of 248 nm and pulse duration of 20 ns and with Nd-glass laser pulses converted to the third harmonic wavelength of 355 nm with duration of 0.6 ns. Measurements are presented for transparent window materials, crystals and harmonic generation, single layer dielectric films of oxide and fluoride materials and multilayer high reflectivity and antireflective coatings

  7. Review of ultraviolet damage threshold measurements at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowdermilk, W.H.; Milam, D.

    1984-01-01

    The results of damage threshold measurements made at LLNL using ultraviolet wavelength laser pulses are reviewed. Measurements were made with pulses from a krypton fluoride laser with wavelength of 248 nm and pulse duration of 20 ns and with Nd-glass laser pulses converted to the third harmonic wavelength of 355 nm with duration of 0.6 ns. Measurements are presented for transparent window materials, crystals and harmonic generation, single layer dielectric films of oxide and fluoride materials and multilayer high reflectivity and antireflective coatings.

  8. Quality assessment of radiological measurements of trochlear dysplasia; a literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paiva, Mathias; Blønd, Lars; Hölmich, Per

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: To make a systematic review with quality assessments of the known measurements used to describe trochlear dysplasia. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted in the databases PubMed and Embase using the search string "trochlea dysplasia OR trochlear dysplasia". Papers were...... and the ventral trochlea prominence also had high ratings. CONCLUSION: Thirty-three unique measurements were identified with the lateral trochlea inclination as the highest rated measurement by the expert panel, and it is recommended for use in assessment of trochlear dysplasia. The crossing sign, the trochlea...

  9. Fiber-Optic Sensors for Measurements of Torsion, Twist and Rotation: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budinski, Vedran; Donlagic, Denis

    2017-01-01

    Optical measurement of mechanical parameters is gaining significant commercial interest in different industry sectors. Torsion, twist and rotation are among the very frequently measured mechanical parameters. Recently, twist/torsion/rotation sensors have become a topic of intense fiber-optic sensor research. Various sensing concepts have been reported. Many of those have different properties and performances, and many of them still need to be proven in out-of-the laboratory use. This paper provides an overview of basic approaches and a review of current state-of-the-art in fiber optic sensors for measurements of torsion, twist and/or rotation. PMID:28241510

  10. Nuclear instrumentation and measurement: a review based on the ANIMMA conferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giot, Michel; Vermeeren, Ludo; Lyoussi, Abdallah; Reynard-Carette, Christelle; Lhuillier, Christian; Mégret, Patrice; Deconinck, Frank; Gonçalves, Bruno Soares

    2017-12-01

    The ANIMMA conferences offer a unique opportunity to discover research carried out in all fields of nuclear measurements and instrumentation with applications extending from fundamental physics to fission and fusion reactors, medical imaging, environmental protection and homeland security. After four successful editions of the Conference, it was decided to prepare a review based to a large extent but not exclusively on the papers presented during the first four editions of the conference. This review is organized according to the measurement methodologies: neutronic, photonic, thermal, acoustic and optical measurements, as well as medical imaging and specific challenges linked to data acquisition and electronic hardening. The paper describes the main challenges justifying research in these different areas, and summarizes the recent progress reported. It offers researchers and engineers a way to quickly and efficiently access knowledge in highly specialized areas.

  11. Nuclear instrumentation and measurement: a review based on the ANIMMA conferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giot Michel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ANIMMA conferences offer a unique opportunity to discover research carried out in all fields of nuclear measurements and instrumentation with applications extending from fundamental physics to fission and fusion reactors, medical imaging, environmental protection and homeland security. After four successful editions of the Conference, it was decided to prepare a review based to a large extent but not exclusively on the papers presented during the first four editions of the conference. This review is organized according to the measurement methodologies: neutronic, photonic, thermal, acoustic and optical measurements, as well as medical imaging and specific challenges linked to data acquisition and electronic hardening. The paper describes the main challenges justifying research in these different areas, and summarizes the recent progress reported. It offers researchers and engineers a way to quickly and efficiently access knowledge in highly specialized areas.

  12. A systematic review of hospital accreditation: the challenges of measuring complex intervention effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubakk, Kirsten; Vist, Gunn E; Bukholm, Geir; Barach, Paul; Tjomsland, Ole

    2015-07-23

    The increased international focus on improving patient outcomes, safety and quality of care has led stakeholders, policy makers and healthcare provider organizations to adopt standardized processes for evaluating healthcare organizations. Accreditation and certification have been proposed as interventions to support patient safety and high quality healthcare. Guidelines recommend accreditation but are cautious about the evidence, judged as inconclusive. The push for accreditation continues despite sparse evidence to support its efficiency or effectiveness. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library using Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) indexes and keyword searches in any language. Studies were assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool and AMSTAR framework. 915 abstracts were screened and 20 papers were reviewed in full in January 2013. Inclusion criteria included studies addressing the effect of hospital accreditation and certification using systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, observational studies with a control group, or interrupted time series. Outcomes included both clinical outcomes and process measures. An updated literature search in July 2014 identified no new studies. The literature review uncovered three systematic reviews and one randomized controlled trial. The lone study assessed the effects of accreditation on hospital outcomes and reported inconsistent results. Excluded studies were reviewed and their findings summarized. Accreditation continues to grow internationally but due to scant evidence, no conclusions could be reached to support its effectiveness. Our review did not find evidence to support accreditation and certification of hospitals being linked to measurable changes in quality of care as measured by quality metrics and standards. Most studies did not report intervention context, implementation, or cost. This might reflect the challenges in assessing complex, heterogeneous interventions such as accreditation and

  13. A systematic review of the Tardieu Scale for the measurement of spasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugh, A B; Pandyan, A D; Johnson, G R

    2006-08-15

    The Tardieu Scale has been suggested a more appropriate clinical measure of spasticity than the Ashworth or modified Ashworth Scales. It appears to adhere more closely to Lance's definition of spasticity as it involves assessment of resistance to passive movement at both slow and fast speeds. To review the available literature in which the Tardieu Scale has been used or discussed as a measure of spasticity, with a view to determining its validity and reliability. A systematic review of all literature found related to the Tardieu Scale (keywords: Tardieu scale, spasticity) from Pubmed and Ovid databases, including medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, Journals at Ovid full text, EBM reviews and Cochrane database of systematic reviews. Hand searching was also used to track the source literature. In theory, we can acknowledge that the Tardieu Scale does, in fact, adhere more closely to Lance's definition of spasticity. However, there is a dearth of literature investigating validity and reliability of the scale. Some studies have identified the Tardieu Scale to be more sensitive than other measures, to change following treatment with botulinum toxin. Further studies need to be undertaken to clarify the validity and reliability of the scale for a variety of muscle groups in adult neurological patients.

  14. Measuring Outcomes in Adult Weight Loss Studies That Include Diet and Physical Activity: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel A. Millstein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Measuring success of obesity interventions is critical. Several methods measure weight loss outcomes but there is no consensus on best practices. This systematic review evaluates relevant outcomes (weight loss, BMI, % body fat, and fat mass to determine which might be the best indicator(s of success. Methods. Eligible articles described adult weight loss interventions that included diet and physical activity and a measure of weight or BMI change and body composition change. Results. 28 full-text articles met inclusion criteria. Subjects, settings, intervention lengths, and intensities varied. All studies measured body weight (−2.9 to −17.3 kg, 9 studies measured BMI (−1.1 to −5.1 kg/m2, 20 studies measured % body fat (−0.7 to −10.2%, and 22 studies measured fat mass (−0.9 to −14.9 kg. All studies found agreement between weight or BMI and body fat mass or body fat % decreases, though there were discrepancies in degree of significance between measures. Conclusions. Nearly all weight or BMI and body composition measures agreed. Since body fat is the most metabolically harmful tissue type, it may be a more meaningful measure of health change. Future studies should consider primarily measuring % body fat, rather than or in addition to weight or BMI.

  15. Measuring Childhood Adversity in Life Course Cardiovascular Research: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, Allison A; Holdsworth, Elizabeth; Ryan, Margaret; Tracy, Melissa

    2017-05-01

    Identifying the life course health effects of childhood adversity is a burgeoning area of research, particularly in relation to cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, adversity measurement varies widely across studies, which may hamper our ability to make comparisons across studies and identify mechanisms linking adversity to CVD. The purposes of this review are to summarize adversity measurement approaches in the context of CVD, identify gaps, and make recommendations for future research. PubMed and PsycINFO searches were conducted through June 2016. Studies were selected if CVD end point or predisease risk markers were investigated in association with a measure of childhood adversity. Forty-three studies were reviewed. A meta-analysis was not conducted because of the variation in exposures and outcomes assessed. Adversity measurement was heterogeneous across studies. Metrics included different sets of adverse events, relational factors, and socioeconomic indicators. Thirty-seven percent measured childhood adversity prospectively, 23% examined a CVD end point, and 77% treated adversity as an unweighted summary score. Despite the heterogeneity in measurement, most studies found a positive association between childhood adversity and CVD risk, and the association seems to be dose-response. The literature on childhood adversity and CVD would benefit from improving consistency of measurement, using weighted adversity composites, modeling adversity trajectories over time, and considering socioeconomic status as an antecedent factor instead of a component part of an adversity score. We suggest conceptual and analytic strategies to enhance, refine, and replicate the observed association between childhood adversity and CVD risk.

  16. A systematic review of the literature on safety measures to prevent railway suicides and trespassing accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havârneanu, Grigore M; Burkhardt, Jean-Marie; Paran, Françoise

    2015-08-01

    This review covers a central aspect in railway safety which is the prevention of suicides and trespassing accidents. The paper attempts to answer the following research question: 'What measures are available to reduce railway suicide and trespass, and what is the evidence for their effectiveness?' The review is based on 139 relevant publications, ranging from 1978 to 2014. The analysis aimed to identify the past and current trend in the prevention practice by looking both quantitatively and qualitatively at the recommended measures. According to the results, there has been a constant focus on suicide prevention, and only relatively recent interest in trespass countermeasures. The content analysis revealed 19 main preventative categories which include more than 100 specific measures. We identified 16 common categories against railway suicide and trespass, and 3 categories of specific measures to prevent suicide. There are only 22 studies which provide empirical support for the effectiveness of measures. Actual combinations of measures are barely evaluated, but several challenges emerge from the literature. The discussion focuses on the need for a unified approach to suicide and trespass prevention, and on the importance to consider the effect mechanism of the measures in order to design better interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 'Measuring' Physical Literacy and Related Constructs: A Systematic Review of Empirical Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lowri C; Bryant, Anna S; Keegan, Richard J; Morgan, Kevin; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Jones, Anwen M

    2018-03-01

    The concept of physical literacy has received increased research and international attention recently. Where intervention programs and empirical research are gaining momentum, their operationalizations differ significantly. The objective of this study was to inform practice in the measure/assessment of physical literacy via a systematic review of research that has assessed physical literacy (up to 14 June, 2017). Five databases were searched using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses for Protocols guidelines, with 32 published articles meeting the inclusion criteria. English-language, peer-reviewed published papers containing empirical studies of physical literacy were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Qualitative methods included: (1) interviews; (2) open-ended questionnaires; (3) reflective diaries; (4) focus groups; (5) participant observations; and (6) visual methods. Quantitative methods included: (1) monitoring devices (e.g., accelerometers); (2) observations (e.g., of physical activity or motor proficiency); (3) psychometrics (e.g., enjoyment, self-perceptions); (4) performance measures (e.g., exergaming, objective times/distances); (5) anthropometric measurements; and (6) one compound measure. Of the measures that made an explicit distinction: 22 (61%) examined the physical domain, eight (22%) the affective domain; five (14%) the cognitive domain; and one (3%) combined three domains (physical, affective, and cognitive) of physical literacy. Researchers tended to declare their philosophical standpoint significantly more in qualitative research compared with quantitative research. Current research adopts diverse often incompatible methodologies in measuring/assessing physical literacy. Our analysis revealed that by adopting simplistic and linear methods, physical literacy cannot be measured/assessed in a traditional/conventional sense. Therefore, we recommend that researchers are more creative in developing

  18. Measures of outdoor play and independent mobility in children and youth: A methodological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Bree; Stone, Michelle R

    2015-09-01

    Declines in children's outdoor play have been documented globally, which are partly due to heightened restrictions around children's independent mobility. Literature on outdoor play and children's independent mobility is increasing, yet no paper has summarized the various methodological approaches used. A methodological review could highlight most commonly used measures and comprehensive research designs that could result in more standardized methodological approaches. Methodological review. A standardized protocol guided a methodological review of published research on measures of outdoor play and children's independent mobility in children and youth (0-18 years). Online searches of 8 electronic databases were conducted and studies included if they contained a subjective/objective measure of outdoor play or children's independent mobility. References of included articles were scanned to identify additional articles. Twenty-four studies were included on outdoor play, and twenty-three on children's independent mobility. Study designs were diverse. Common objective measures included accelerometry, global positioning systems and direct observation; questionnaires, surveys and interviews were common subjective measures. Focus groups, activity logs, monitoring sheets, travel/activity diaries, behavioral maps and guided tours were also utilized. Questionnaires were used most frequently, yet few studies used the same questionnaire. Five studies employed comprehensive, mixed-methods designs. Outdoor play and children's independent mobility have been measured using a wide variety of techniques, with only a few studies using similar methodologies. A standardized methodological approach does not exist. Future researchers should consider including both objective measures (accelerometry and global positioning systems) and subjective measures (questionnaires, activity logs, interviews), as more comprehensive designs will enhance understanding of each multidimensional construct

  19. Review of the ITER diagnostics suite for erosion, deposition, dust and tritium measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichle, R., E-mail: roger.reichle@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Andrew, P. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Bates, P. [F4E, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Barcelona (Spain); Bede, O.; Casal, N.; Choi, C.H.; Barnsley, R. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Damiani, C. [F4E, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Barcelona (Spain); Bertalot, L. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Dubus, G. [F4E, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Barcelona (Spain); Ferreol, J.; Jagannathan, G.; Kocan, M.; Leipold, F.; Lisgo, S.W.; Martin, V.; Palmer, J.; Pearce, R. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Philipps, V. [Institut für Energieforschung – Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Association EURATOM – Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Pitts, R.A. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); and others

    2015-08-15

    Dust and tritium inventories in the vacuum vessel have upper limits in ITER that are set by nuclear safety requirements. Erosion, migration and re-deposition of wall material together with fuel co-deposition will be largely responsible for these inventories. The diagnostic suite required to monitor these processes, along with the set of the corresponding measurement requirements is currently under review given the recent decision by the ITER Organization to eliminate the first carbon/tungsten (C/W) divertor and begin operations with a full-W variant Pitts et al. [1]. This paper presents the result of this review as well as the status of the chosen diagnostics.

  20. Ergonomic risk and preventive measures of musculoskeletal disorders in the dentistry environment: an umbrella review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sio, Simone; Traversini, Veronica; Rinaldo, Francesca; Colasanti, Valerio; Buomprisco, Giuseppe; Perri, Roberto; Mormone, Federica; La Torre, Giuseppe; Guerra, Fabrizio

    2018-01-01

    Dental practitioners are exposed to different occupational hazards during the course of their professional activity, such as physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic factors. The ergonomic hazards, caused by strained posture and prolonged repetitive movements, can induce musculoskeletal disorders. It occurs in 54-93% of dental professionals and involve the spine, shoulder and hand-wrist tract. Through a systematic review of international literature, we analyzed specific ergonomic risk factors and preventive measures of musculoskeletal disorders in professional dental activity. This systematic review is coherent with the PRISMA statement. The scientific research on the major online databases was based on the following keywords: dentist, prevention, ergonomic, dentistry, musculoskeletal, neck pain, posture, ergonomics, work and occupational. The studies included in this review focus on disorders related to ergonomics and on the most effective preventive measures to be adopted. No restrictions were applied for language or publication type. We excluded reports not related to ergonomic prevention in dentistry, reports of minor academic significance, editorial articles, individual contributions, and studies published in scientific conferences. Online research indicated 4188 references: PubMed (2919), Scopus (1257) e Cochrane Library (12). We excluded 3012 of these, because they were unrelated to ergonomics theme and 187 due to duplication. From the remaining 989 studies, 960 papers did not meet inclusion criteria and they were excluded. Therefore, we analyzed 29 articles, including 16 narrative reviews and 13 original article. The main risk factor for the development of musculoskeletal disorders found in our analysis is static posture adopted during work, highlighted in 87.5% of reviews and 84% of original articles. With regard to preventive measures, 75% of the reviews highlighted the importance of stretching after each working session and at the end of the working day

  1. Ergonomic risk and preventive measures of musculoskeletal disorders in the dentistry environment: an umbrella review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone De Sio

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Dental practitioners are exposed to different occupational hazards during the course of their professional activity, such as physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic factors. The ergonomic hazards, caused by strained posture and prolonged repetitive movements, can induce musculoskeletal disorders. It occurs in 54–93% of dental professionals and involve the spine, shoulder and hand-wrist tract. Through a systematic review of international literature, we analyzed specific ergonomic risk factors and preventive measures of musculoskeletal disorders in professional dental activity. Methods This systematic review is coherent with the PRISMA statement. The scientific research on the major online databases was based on the following keywords: dentist, prevention, ergonomic, dentistry, musculoskeletal, neck pain, posture, ergonomics, work and occupational. The studies included in this review focus on disorders related to ergonomics and on the most effective preventive measures to be adopted. No restrictions were applied for language or publication type. We excluded reports not related to ergonomic prevention in dentistry, reports of minor academic significance, editorial articles, individual contributions, and studies published in scientific conferences. Results Online research indicated 4188 references: PubMed (2919, Scopus (1257 e Cochrane Library (12. We excluded 3012 of these, because they were unrelated to ergonomics theme and 187 due to duplication. From the remaining 989 studies, 960 papers did not meet inclusion criteria and they were excluded. Therefore, we analyzed 29 articles, including 16 narrative reviews and 13 original article. The main risk factor for the development of musculoskeletal disorders found in our analysis is static posture adopted during work, highlighted in 87.5% of reviews and 84% of original articles. With regard to preventive measures, 75% of the reviews highlighted the importance of stretching after each

  2. Book Review: The Software IP Detective's Handbook: Measurement, Comparison, and Infringement Detections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Barrett

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Zeidman, B. (2011. The Software IP Detective's Handbook: Measurement, Comparison, and Infringement Detection. Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc. 480 pages, ISBN-10: 0137035330;ISBN-13: 978-0137035335, US$49.99.Reviewed by Diane Barrett, American Military University.Do not the book title fool you into thinking that the book is only for those looking to detect software infringement detection. It is a comprehensive look at software intellectual property. The book covers a wide range of topics and has something to offer for just about everyone from lawyers to programmers.(see PDF for full review

  3. Measures of readiness for cognitive behavioural therapy in people with intellectual disability: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, Joshua; Charlesworth, Georgina; Scior, Katrina

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is a promising treatment for mental health problems in people with intellectual disabilities but some may not be suited or ready. This review critically evaluates the quality and utility of measures of CBT readiness in people with intellectual disabilities. Twelve studies of six measures based on three aspects of CBT readiness were identified through systematic review. Across measures, measurement quality was largely poor or un-assessed. Only one study evaluated measurement change over the course of CBT. Not all participants with intellectual disabilities could 'pass' readiness measures and performance may be affected by levels of language and cognitive functioning. There was some evidence that CBT readiness is trainable with brief interventions. Before using readiness measures in a clinical context, further work is needed to extend initial evidence on recognising cognitive mediation as a CBT readiness ability. Given the lack of consensus as to the definition of CBT readiness and the heterogeneity of CBT interventions, future research could also focus on developing readiness measures using a bottom up approach, developing measures within the context of CBT interventions themselves, before further refining and establishing their psychometric properties. This paper is the first to systematically review measures of skills thought necessary to be ready for cognitive behavioural therapy in intellectual disabilities. The findings suggest that while readiness skills may be trainable with brief interventions, the available measures of these skills have not been fully evaluated for quality. Levels of functioning on these measures have yet to be established relative to those without intellectual disabilities and critically, there is very little evidence as to whether these skills are important in cognitive behavioural therapy process and outcome. We suggest that future research could focus on those constructs where there is preliminary

  4. Measurement of activities and participation for children with cerebral palsy: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozkalne Z.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Effective assessment of outcomes in children with chronic health conditions is important to monitor their progress, evaluate interventions, and guide health policy. There is a limitation of the measures currently available for evaluating activities and participation in children with cerebral palsy according to Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health – Children & Youth Version (ICF-CY. The aim: On the ground of an available scientific literature, to identify and to analyze measures of activities and participation for paediatric patients with cerebral palsy. Materials and methods: A systematic search was performed in data basis EBSCO (Medline, Science Direct and Cochrane Library. On the ground of the previously conducted scientific research work publications, the identified evaluative measures were reviewed for their characteristics, psychometric properties of reliability and/or validity and analyzed for their utility. Their accordance to the activities and participation domains of the ICF-CY was identified and the practical use of the evaluative measures was proposed. Results and conclusion: 28 measures were identified; 15 were systematically reviewed and analyzed. Measures that assess only activities are found to be seven, only participation – two, and both activities and participation are assessed by six measures. When relating the measures to the domains of ICF-CY, the most appropriate for measuring activities is ASKp, participation – Life-H for Children, whereas for activities and participation – PEDI and COPM. The identified and analyzed measures reflect different activities and participation domains of ICF-CY; therefore, the choice and the practical use of the certain measure depend on the aim of the assessment.

  5. Views of policymakers, healthcare workers and NGOs on HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP): a multinational qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelock, Ana; Eisingerich, Andreas B; Gomez, Gabriela B; Gray, Emily; Dybul, Mark R; Piot, Peter

    2012-01-01

    To examine policymakers and providers' views on pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and their willingness to support its introduction, to inform policy and practice in this emerging field. Semistructured qualitative interview study. Peru, Ukraine, India, Kenya, Uganda, Botswana and South Africa. 35 policymakers, 35 healthcare workers and 21 non-governmental organisation representatives involved in HIV prevention. Six themes emerged from the data: (1) perceived HIV prevention landscape: prevention initiatives needed to be improved and expanded; (2) PrEP awareness: 50 of 91 participants had heard of PrEP; (3) benefits of PrEP: one component of the combination prevention arsenal that could help prioritise HIV prevention, empower key populations and result in economic gains; (4) challenges of PrEP: regimen complexity, cost and cost-effectiveness, risk compensation, efficacy and effectiveness, stigmatisation and criminalisation, information and training and healthcare system capacity; (5) programmatic considerations: user eligibility, communication strategy, cost, distribution, medication and HIV testing compliance and (6) early versus late implementation: participants were divided as to whether they would support an early introduction of PrEP in their country or would prefer to wait until it has been successfully implemented in other countries, with around half of those we spoke to supporting each option. Very few said they would not support PrEP at all. Despite the multiple challenges identified, there was general willingness to support the introduction of PrEP. Yet, strengthening existing HIV prevention efforts was also deemed necessary. Our results suggest that an effective PrEP programme would be delivered in healthcare facilities and involve non-governmental organisations and the community and consider the needs of mobile populations. Comprehensive information packages and training for users and providers would be critical. The cost of PrEP would be affordable and

  6. A brief review of measurements of electroweak bosons at the LHCb experiment in LHC Run 1

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00340962

    2016-09-15

    The LHCb experiment is one of four major experiments at the LHC. Despite being designed for the study of beauty and charm particles, it has made important contributions in other areas, such as the production and decay of $W$ and $Z$ bosons. Such measurements can be used to study and constrain parton distribution functions, as well as to test perturbative quantum chromodynamics in hard scattering processes. The angular structure of $Z$ boson decays to leptons can also be studied and used to measure the weak mixing angle. The phase space probed by LHCb is particularly sensitive to this quantity, and the LHCb measurement using the dimuon final state is currently the most precise determination of $\\sin^2\\theta^\\text{lept.}_\\text{eff.}$ at the LHC. LHCb measurements made using data collected during the first period of LHC operations (LHC Run 1) are discussed in this review. The article also considers the potential impact of related future measurements.

  7. Review of geotechnical measurement techniques for a nuclear waste repository in bedded salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    This report presents a description of geotechnical measurement techniques that can provide the data necessary for safe development - i.e., location, design, construction, operation, decommissioning and abandonment - of a radioactive waste repository in bedded salt. Geotechnical data obtained by a diversity of measurement techniques are required during all phases of respository evolution. The techniques discussed in this report are grouped in the following categories: geologic, geophysical and geodetic; rock mechanics; hydrologic, hydrogeologic and water quality; and thermal. The major contribution of the report is the presentation of extensive tables that provide a review of available measurement techniques for each of these categories. The techniques are also discussed in the text to the extent necessary to describe the measurements and associated instruments, and to evaluate the applicability or limitations of the method. More detailed discussions of thermal phenomena, creep laws and geophysical methods are contained in the appendices; references to detailed explanations of measurement techniques and instrumentation are inluded throughout the report.

  8. Review of geotechnical measurement techniques for a nuclear waste repository in bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    This report presents a description of geotechnical measurement techniques that can provide the data necessary for safe development - i.e., location, design, construction, operation, decommissioning and abandonment - of a radioactive waste repository in bedded salt. Geotechnical data obtained by a diversity of measurement techniques are required during all phases of respository evolution. The techniques discussed in this report are grouped in the following categories: geologic, geophysical and geodetic; rock mechanics; hydrologic, hydrogeologic and water quality; and thermal. The major contribution of the report is the presentation of extensive tables that provide a review of available measurement techniques for each of these categories. The techniques are also discussed in the text to the extent necessary to describe the measurements and associated instruments, and to evaluate the applicability or limitations of the method. More detailed discussions of thermal phenomena, creep laws and geophysical methods are contained in the appendices; references to detailed explanations of measurement techniques and instrumentation are inluded throughout the report

  9. Theoretical framework and methodological development of common subjective health outcome measures in osteoarthritis: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston Marie

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Subjective measures involving clinician ratings or patient self-assessments have become recognised as an important tool for the assessment of health outcome. The value of a health outcome measure is usually assessed by a psychometric evaluation of its reliability, validity and responsiveness. However, psychometric testing involves an accumulation of evidence and has recognised limitations. It has been suggested that an evaluation of how well a measure has been developed would be a useful additional criteria in assessing the value of a measure. This paper explored the theoretical background and methodological development of subjective health status measures commonly used in osteoarthritis research. Fourteen subjective health outcome measures commonly used in osteoarthritis research were examined. Each measure was explored on the basis of their i theoretical framework (was there a definition of what was being assessed and was it part of a theoretical model? and ii methodological development (what was the scaling strategy, how were the items generated and reduced, what was the response format and what was the scoring method?. Only the AIMS, SF-36 and WHOQOL defined what they were assessing (i.e. the construct of interest and no measure assessed was part of a theoretical model. None of the clinician report measures appeared to have implemented a scaling procedure or described the rationale for the items selected or scoring system. Of the patient self-report measures, the AIMS, MPQ, OXFORD, SF-36, WHOQOL and WOMAC appeared to follow a standard psychometric scaling method. The DRP and EuroQol used alternative scaling methods. The review highlighted the general lack of theoretical framework for both clinician report and patient self-report measures. This review also drew attention to the wide variation in the methodological development of commonly used measures in OA. While, in general the patient self-report measures had good methodological

  10. Parameters and Measures in Assessment of Motor Learning in Neurorehabilitation; A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishov, Nataliya; Melzer, Itshak; Bar-Haim, Simona

    2017-01-01

    Upper limb function, essential for daily life, is often impaired in individuals after stroke and cerebral palsy (CP). For an improved upper limb function, learning should occur, and therefore training with motor learning principles is included in many rehabilitation interventions. Despite accurate measurement being an important aspect for examination and optimization of treatment outcomes, there are no standard algorithms for outcome measures selection. Moreover, the ability of the chosen measures to identify learning is not well established. We aimed to review and categorize the parameters and measures utilized for identification of motor learning in stroke and CP populations. PubMed, Pedro, and Web of Science databases were systematically searched between January 2000 and March 2016 for studies assessing a form of motor learning following upper extremity training using motor control measures. Thirty-two studies in persons after stroke and 10 studies in CP of any methodological quality were included. Identified outcome measures were sorted into two categories, "parameters," defined as identifying a form of learning, and "measures," as tools measuring the parameter. Review's results were organized as a narrative synthesis focusing on the outcome measures. The included studies were heterogeneous in their study designs, parameters and measures. Parameters included adaptation ( n = 6), anticipatory control ( n = 2), after-effects ( n = 3), de-adaptation ( n = 4), performance ( n = 24), acquisition ( n = 8), retention ( n = 8), and transfer ( n = 14). Despite motor learning theory's emphasis on long-lasting changes and generalization, the majority of studies did not assess the retention and transfer parameters. Underlying measures included kinematic analyses in terms of speed, geometry or both ( n = 39), dynamic metrics, measures of accuracy, consistency, and coordination. There is no exclusivity of measures to a specific parameter. Many factors affect task performance

  11. A content review of cognitive process measures used in pain research within adult populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, M A; Lang, C P; Newton-John, T R O; Ehde, D M; Jensen, M P

    2017-01-01

    Previous research suggests that measures of cognitive process may be confounded by the inclusion of items that also assess cognitive content. The primary aims of this content review were to: (1) identify the domains of cognitive processes assessed by measures used in pain research; and (2) determine if pain-specific cognitive process measures with adequate psychometric properties exist. PsychInfo, CINAHL, PsycArticles, MEDLINE, and Academic Search Complete databases were searched to identify the measures of cognitive process used in pain research. Identified measures were double coded and the measure's items were rated as: (1) cognitive content; (2) cognitive process; (3) behavioural/social; and/or (4) emotional coping/responses to pain. A total of 319 scales were identified; of these, 29 were coded as providing an un-confounded assessment of cognitive process, and 12 were pain-specific. The cognitive process domains assessed in these measures are Absorption, Dissociation, Reappraisal, Distraction/Suppression, Acceptance, Rumination, Non-Judgment, and Enhancement. Pain-specific, un-confounded measures were identified for: Dissociation, Reappraisal, Distraction/Suppression, and Acceptance. Psychometric properties of all 319 scales are reported in supplementary material. To understand the importance of cognitive processes in influencing pain outcomes as well as explaining the efficacy of pain treatments, valid and pain-specific cognitive process measures that are not confounded with non-process domains (e.g., cognitive content) are needed. The findings of this content review suggest that future research focused on developing cognitive process measures is critical in order to advance our understanding of the mechanisms that underlie effective pain treatment. Many cognitive process measures used in pain research contain a 'mix' of items that assess cognitive process, cognitive content, and behavioural/emotional responses. Databases searched: PsychInfo, CINAHL, Psyc

  12. Instruments measuring meaningful learning in undergraduate healthcare students: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnasco, Annamaria; Cadorin, Lucia; Tolotti, Angela; Pagnucci, Nicola; Rocco, Gennaro; Sasso, Loredana

    2015-03-01

    To establish the psychometric properties of instruments to measure learning outcomes in healthcare students. Meaningful learning is an active process that promotes a wider and deeper understanding of concepts. It is the result of an interaction between new and previous knowledge. Meaningful learning produces a long-term change in knowledge and skills, which is underpinned by willingness to learn and experience and it is exclusively built by the learner. Systematic psychometric review protocol developed from Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care guidance. Searches of MEDLINE, CINAHL, SCOPUS, ERIC, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, Psychology & Behavioral Sciences Collection Database between 1990-2013. Selected studies will be evaluated with the Consensus-based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist. Funding for the review was confirmed on January 2011 by the Centre of Excellence for Nursing Scholarship in Rome. The systematic review will produce a synthesis of the data related to the instruments that measure learning outcomes. These data will help us decide which tools to use and identify the state of knowledge in this field. Measuring learning outcomes is very important for the large amount of human and financial resources employed in educating and training health professionals and this requires reliable and valid instruments. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. An integrative research review of instruments measuring religious involvement: implications for nursing research with African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokel, Melissa Jennifer; Shellman, Juliette M

    2013-01-01

    Many instruments in which religious involvement is measured often (a) contain unclear, poorly developed constructs; (b) lack methodological rigor in scale development; and (c) contain language and content culturally incongruent with the religious experiences of diverse ethnic groups. The primary aims of this review were to (a) synthesize the research on instruments designed to measure religious involvement, (b) evaluate the methodological quality of instruments that measure religious involvement, and (c) examine these instruments for conceptual congruency with African American religious involvement. An updated integrative research review method guided the process (Whittemore & Knafl, 2005). 152 articles were reviewed and 23 articles retrieved. Only 3 retained instruments were developed under methodologically rigorous conditions. All 3 instruments were congruent with a conceptual model of African American religious involvement. The Fetzer Multidimensional Measure of Religious Involvement and Spirituality (FMMRS; Idler et al., 2003) was found to have favorable characteristics. Further examination and psychometric testing is warranted to determine its acceptability, readability, and cultural sensitivity in an African American population.

  14. [Do you measure gait speed in your daily clinical practice? A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inzitari, Marco; Calle, Alicia; Esteve, Anna; Casas, Álvaro; Torrents, Núria; Martínez, Nicolás

    Gait speed (GS), measured at usual pace, is an easy, quick, reliable, non-expensive and informative measurement. With a standard chronometer, like those that currently found in mobile phones, and with two marks on the floor, trained health professionals obtain a more objective and quick measurement compared with many geriatric scales used in daily practice. GS is one of the pillars of the frailty phenotype, and is closely related to sarcopenia. It is a powerful marker of falls incidence, disability and death, mostly useful in the screening of older adults that live in the community. In recent years, the evidence is reinforcing the usefulness of GS in acute care and post-surgical patients. Its use in patients with cognitive impairment is suggested, due to the strong link between cognitive and physical function. Although GS meets the criteria for a good geriatric screening tool, it is not much used in clinical practice. Why? This review has different aims: (i)disentangling the relationship between GS and frailty; (ii)reviewing the protocols to measure GS and the reference values; (iii)reviewing the evidence in different clinical groups (older adults with frailty, with cognitive impairment, with cancer or other pathologies), and in different settings (community, acute care, rehabilitation), and (iv)speculating about the reasons for its poor use in clinical practice and about the gaps to be filled. Copyright © 2016 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Qualities, teaching, and measurement of compassion in nursing: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Mark; Gurbutt, Russell; Carson, Jerome

    2018-04-01

    Compassion has global implications for nursing care. However, failure to provide compassionate care is reported by patients. Nursing and nurse education have been scrutinized about the impact training can have on student's compassion. Furthermore, there is a paucity of standardised measures to assess levels of nurses' compassion. To identify (1) the qualities of a compassionate nurse, (2) how compassion is taught to nursing students, and (3) the instruments used to measure compassion in nursing. Systematic literature review. CINHAL, EBSCO, SCOPUS, PubMed, Ovid Nursing. A systematic review of published research was conducted with. No limitations in the search timeframe were used. Articles were included if they were (1) nurses (2) nursing students (3) educators and (4) patient groups, (5) written in English. Articles that were, peer reviewed, research articles, or articles grounded in evidence based practice were also included. Fourteen studies (6 UK, 3 USA, 2 Canada, 1 Korea, 1 Thailand, and 1 Netherlands) identified eleven characteristics of a compassionate nurse. Two UK and one Australian study investigated teaching compassion to nursing students. Four articles reported on instruments used to measure compassion in nursing. Three were American, and one Korean. This review identified only 21 papers overall. Several qualities of a compassionate nurse were found. In addition, few studies have explored how compassion is taught to nursing students. Also, there are a limited number of instruments for measuring compassion in nursing. More research is needed in nurse education to develop a teaching approach and psychometric measure for nurses' compassion. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Reproducibility of rehabilitative ultrasound imaging for the measurement of abdominal muscle activity: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Leonardo Oliveira Pena; Maher, Chris G; Latimer, Jane; Smeets, Rob J E M

    2009-08-01

    Rehabilitative ultrasound imaging (RUSI) measures of abdominal wall muscles are used to indirectly measure muscle activity. These measures are used to identify suitable patients and to monitor progress of motor control exercise treatment of people with low back pain. The purpose of this study was to systematically review reproducibility studies of RUSI for measuring thickness of abdominal wall muscles. Eligible studies were identified via searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL. The authors also searched personal files and tracked references of the retrieved studies via the Web of Science Index. Studies involving any type of reliability and or agreement of any type of ultrasound measurements (B or M mode) for any of the abdominal wall muscles were selected. Two independent reviewers extracted data and assessed methodological quality. Due to heterogeneity of the studies' designs, pooling the data for a meta-analysis was not possible. Twenty-one studies were included, and these studies were typically of low quality and studied subjects who were healthy rather than people seeking care for low back pain. The studies reported good to excellent reliability for single measures of thickness and poor to good reliability for measures of thickness change (reflecting the muscle activity). Interestingly, no studies checked reliability of measures of the difference in thickness changes over time (representing improvement or deterioration in muscle activity). The current evidence of the reproducibility of RUSI for measuring abdominal muscle activity is based mainly on studies with suboptimal designs and the study of people who were healthy. The critical question of whether RUSI provides reliable measures of improvement in abdominal muscle activity remains to be evaluated.

  17. Components of Standing Postural Control Evaluated in Pediatric Balance Measures: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibley, Kathryn M; Beauchamp, Marla K; Van Ooteghem, Karen; Paterson, Marie; Wittmeier, Kristy D

    2017-10-01

    To identify measures of standing balance validated in pediatric populations, and to determine the components of postural control captured in each tool. Electronic searches of MEDLINE, Embase, and CINAHL databases using key word combinations of postural balance/equilibrium, psychometrics/reproducibility of results/predictive value of tests, and child/pediatrics; gray literature; and hand searches. Inclusion criteria were measures with a stated objective to assess balance, with pediatric (≤18y) populations, with at least 1 psychometric evaluation, with at least 1 standing task, with a standardized protocol and evaluation criteria, and published in English. Two reviewers independently identified studies for inclusion. There were 21 measures included. Two reviewers extracted descriptive characteristics, and 2 investigators independently coded components of balance in each measure using a systems perspective for postural control, an established framework for balance in pediatric populations. Components of balance evaluated in measures were underlying motor systems (100% of measures), anticipatory postural control (72%), static stability (62%), sensory integration (52%), dynamic stability (48%), functional stability limits (24%), cognitive influences (24%), verticality (9%), and reactive postural control (0%). Assessing children's balance with valid and comprehensive measures is important for ensuring development of safe mobility and independence with functional tasks. Balance measures validated in pediatric populations to date do not comprehensively assess standing postural control and omit some key components for safe mobility and independence. Existing balance measures, that have been validated in adult populations and address some of the existing gaps in pediatric measures, warrant consideration for validation in children. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Measuring attitudes towards the dying process: A systematic review of tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groebe, Bernadette; Strupp, Julia; Eisenmann, Yvonne; Schmidt, Holger; Schlomann, Anna; Rietz, Christian; Voltz, Raymond

    2018-01-01

    At the end of life, anxious attitudes concerning the dying process are common in patients in Palliative Care. Measurement tools can identify vulnerabilities, resources and the need for subsequent treatment to relieve suffering and support well-being. To systematically review available tools measuring attitudes towards dying, their operationalization, the method of measurement and the methodological quality including generalizability to different contexts. Systematic review according to the PRISMA Statement. Methodological quality of tools assessed by standardized review criteria. MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PsyndexTests and the Health and Psychosocial Instruments were searched from their inception to April 2017. A total of 94 identified studies reported the development and/or validation of 44 tools. Of these, 37 were questionnaires and 7 alternative measurement methods (e.g. projective measures). In 34 of 37 questionnaires, the emotional evaluation (e.g. anxiety) towards dying is measured. Dying is operationalized in general items ( n = 20), in several specific aspects of dying ( n = 34) and as dying of others ( n = 14). Methodological quality of tools was reported inconsistently. Nine tools reported good internal consistency. Of 37 tools, 4 were validated in a clinical sample (e.g. terminal cancer; Huntington disease), indicating questionable generalizability to clinical contexts for most tools. Many tools exist to measure attitudes towards the dying process using different endpoints. This overview can serve as decision framework on which tool to apply in which contexts. For clinical application, only few tools were available. Further validation of existing tools and potential alternative methods in various populations is needed.

  19. The reliability and measurement error of protractor-based goniometry of the fingers: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kooij, Yara E; Fink, Alexandra; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W; Speksnijder, Caroline M

    Systematic review PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: The purpose was to review the available literature for evidence on the reliability and measurement error of protractor-based goniometry assessment of the finger joints. Databases were searched for articles with key words "hand," "goniometry," "reliability," and derivatives of these terms. Assessment of the methodological quality was carried out using the Consensus-Based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments checklist. Two independent reviewers performed a best evidence synthesis based on criteria proposed by Terwee et al (2007). Fifteen articles were included. One article was of fair methodological quality, and 14 articles were of poor methodological quality. An acceptable level for reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient > 0.70 or Pearson's correlation > 0.80) was reported in 1 study of fair methodological quality and in 8 articles of low methodological quality. Because the minimal important change was not calculated in the articles, there was an unknown level of evidence for the measurement error. Further research with adequate sample sizes should focus on reference outcomes for different patient groups. For valid therapy evaluation, it is important to know if the change in range of motion reflects a real change of the patient or if this is due to the measurement error of the goniometer. Until now, there is insufficient evidence to establish this cut-off point (the smallest detectable change). Following the Consensus-Based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments criteria, there was limited level of evidence for an acceptable reliability in the dorsal measurement method and unknown level of evidence for the measurement error. 2a. Copyright © 2017 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Design Concepts and Design Practices in Policy-Making and Public Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junginger, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    National governments around the globe are actively seeking new ways to engage in social innovation and are investing in innovation labs and innovation centers where methods and principles of design are now being explored and applied to problems of transforming and innovating the public sector (cf...... that could “achieve more humanizing outcomes” (Lynch 1965) and meaningfully transform government. Problem-solving design is then contrasted with design as inquiry. The paper concludes that a more sophisticated understanding of design concepts, methods and practices in policy-making is a condition......: US Personnel Department; National University in Australia; SITRA in Finland; Mindlab in Denmark and the Innovation & Improvement in the NHS in the UK). They are part of an effort to bring in new design approaches to policy-making and policy-implementation that promise to innovate and transform...

  1. European policymaking on the tobacco advertising ban: the importance of escape routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamini, Sandra; Versluis, Esther; Maarse, Hans

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the European Union policymaking process regarding tobacco advertising. While others already highlighted the importance of intergovernmental bargaining between member states to explain the outcome of the tobacco advertising case, the main aim of this article is to identify the use of escape routes by the Commission, the European Parliament, the Council and interest groups that played an important role in overcoming the deadlock. When looking at the different institutions that structure policymaking, we argue that indeed focusing on escape routes provides a clear insight in the process and in what strategies were necessary to 'make Europe work'. In the end, it appears to be a combination of escape routes that resulted in the final decision.

  2. The role of policy-making and planning cultures for sustainable transport?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Jahn

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the potential role of culture in relation to policy-making and planning activities, exemplified through a discussion on how it may influence sustainable transport policy and planning. It is recognised that discourses and institutions play an essential part in framing problems...... and barriers. In conclusion, a culture focus recognises diversity inside and outside normal policy and planning settings and procedures and attempts to bring different cultures to interact and to learn from each other. A transport policy-making and planning process based in a culture approach may illuminate...... a so-called ‘value-action gap’ concerning the possibility of more sustainable transportation. A closer cultural interaction may point out some of the divides between professionals on how to deal with transportenvironment issues. Moreover, a more culturally oriented deliberation would provide room...

  3. Developing a policy game intervention to enhance collaboration in public health policymaking in three European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spitters, H P E M; van Oers, J A M; Sandu, P

    2017-01-01

    of the policy game ‘In2Action’ within a real-life setting of public health policymaking networks in the Netherlands, Denmark and Romania. METHODS: The development of the policy game intervention consisted of three phases, pre intervention, designing the game intervention and tailoring the intervention. RESULTS......BACKGROUND: One of the key elements to enhance the uptake of evidence in public health policies is stimulating cross-sector collaboration. An intervention stimulating collaboration is a policy game. The aim of this study was to describe the design and methods of the development process......: In2Action was developed as a role-play game of one day, with main focus to develop in collaboration a cross-sector implementation plan based on the approved strategic local public health policy. CONCLUSIONS: This study introduced an innovative intervention for public health policymaking. It described...

  4. Unravelling networks in local public health policymaking in three European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spitters, Hilde P.E.M.; Lau, Cathrine J; Sandu, Petru

    2017-01-01

    -world policymaking processes will help reveal the complexity of a network of stakeholders. Therefore, the main objectives were to unravel the stakeholder network in the policy process by conducting three systems analyses, and to increase insight into the similarities and differences in the policy processes...... of driving forces underlying the relations between stakeholders were formal relations, informal interaction and knowledge exchange. Conclusions: A systems analysis providing detailed descriptions of positions and relations in the stakeholder network in local level HEPA policymaking is rather unique...... in this area. The analyses are useful when a need arises for increased interaction, collaboration and use of knowledge between stakeholders in the local HEPA network, as they provide an overview of the stakeholders involved and their mutual relations. This information can be an important starting point...

  5. Health economics research into supporting carers of people with dementia: A systematic review of outcome measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Advisory bodies, such as the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) in the UK, advocate using preference based instruments to measure the quality of life (QoL) component of the quality-adjusted life year (QALY). Cost per QALY is used to determine cost-effectiveness, and hence funding, of interventions. QALYs allow policy makers to compare the effects of different interventions across different patient groups. Generic measures may not be sensitive enough to fully capture the QoL effects for certain populations, such as carers, so there is a need to consider additional outcome measures, which are preference based where possible to enable cost-effectiveness analysis to be undertaken. This paper reviews outcome measures commonly used in health services research and health economics research involving carers of people with dementia. An electronic database search was conducted in PubMed, Medline, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycINFO, the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED), Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) and Health Technology Assessment database. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they included an outcome measure for carers of people with dementia. 2262 articles were identified. 455 articles describing 361 studies remained after exclusion criteria were applied. 228 outcome measures were extracted from the studies. Measures were categorised into 44 burden measures, 43 mastery measures, 61 mood measures, 32 QoL measures, 27 social support and relationships measures and 21 staff competency and morale measures. The choice of instrument has implications on funding decisions; therefore, researchers need to choose appropriate instruments for the population being measured and the type of intervention undertaken. If an instrument is not sensitive enough to detect changes in certain populations, the effect of an intervention may be underestimated, and hence

  6. Health economics research into supporting carers of people with dementia: A systematic review of outcome measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Carys

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Advisory bodies, such as the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE in the UK, advocate using preference based instruments to measure the quality of life (QoL component of the quality-adjusted life year (QALY. Cost per QALY is used to determine cost-effectiveness, and hence funding, of interventions. QALYs allow policy makers to compare the effects of different interventions across different patient groups. Generic measures may not be sensitive enough to fully capture the QoL effects for certain populations, such as carers, so there is a need to consider additional outcome measures, which are preference based where possible to enable cost-effectiveness analysis to be undertaken. This paper reviews outcome measures commonly used in health services research and health economics research involving carers of people with dementia. An electronic database search was conducted in PubMed, Medline, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL, PsycINFO, the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE and Health Technology Assessment database. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they included an outcome measure for carers of people with dementia. 2262 articles were identified. 455 articles describing 361 studies remained after exclusion criteria were applied. 228 outcome measures were extracted from the studies. Measures were categorised into 44 burden measures, 43 mastery measures, 61 mood measures, 32 QoL measures, 27 social support and relationships measures and 21 staff competency and morale measures. The choice of instrument has implications on funding decisions; therefore, researchers need to choose appropriate instruments for the population being measured and the type of intervention undertaken. If an instrument is not sensitive enough to detect changes in certain populations, the effect of an intervention may be

  7. Reliability of Performance-Based Clinical Measurements to Assess Shoulder Girdle Kinematics and Positioning: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'hondt, Norman E; Kiers, Henri; Pool, Jan J M; Hacquebord, Sijmen T; Terwee, Caroline B; Veeger, Dirkjan H E J

    2017-01-01

    Deviant shoulder girdle movement is suggested as an eminent factor in the etiology of shoulder pain. Reliable measurements of shoulder girdle kinematics are a prerequisite for optimizing clinical management strategies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability, measurement error, and internal consistency of measurements with performance-based clinical tests for shoulder girdle kinematics and positioning in patients with shoulder pain. The MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and SPORTDiscus databases were systematically searched from inception to August 2015. Articles published in Dutch, English, or German were included if they involved the evaluation of at least one of the measurement properties of interest. Two reviewers independently evaluated the methodological quality per studied measurement property with the 4-point-rating scale of the COSMIN (COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments) checklist, extracted data, and assessed the adequacy of the measurement properties. Forty studies comprising more than 30 clinical tests were included. Actual reported measurements of the tests were categorized into: (1) positional measurement methods, (2) measurement methods to determine dynamic characteristics, and (3) tests to diagnose impairments of shoulder girdle function. Best evidence synthesis of the tests was performed per measurement for each measurement property. All studies had significant limitations, including incongruence between test description and actual reported measurements and a lack of reporting on minimal important change. In general, the methodological quality of the selected studies was fair to poor. High-quality evidence indicates that measurements obtained with the Modified Scapular Assistance Test are not reliable for clinical use. Sound recommendations for the use of other tests could not be made due to inadequate evidence. Across studies, diversity in description, performance, and interpretation of similar

  8. Review and evaluation of performance measures for survival prediction models in external validation settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Shafiqur; Ambler, Gareth; Choodari-Oskooei, Babak; Omar, Rumana Z

    2017-04-18

    When developing a prediction model for survival data it is essential to validate its performance in external validation settings using appropriate performance measures. Although a number of such measures have been proposed, there is only limited guidance regarding their use in the context of model validation. This paper reviewed and evaluated a wide range of performance measures to provide some guidelines for their use in practice. An extensive simulation study based on two clinical datasets was conducted to investigate the performance of the measures in external validation settings. Measures were selected from categories that assess the overall performance, discrimination and calibration of a survival prediction model. Some of these have been modified to allow their use with validation data, and a case study is provided to describe how these measures can be estimated in practice. The measures were evaluated with respect to their robustness to censoring and ease of interpretation. All measures are implemented, or are straightforward to implement, in statistical software. Most of the performance measures were reasonably robust to moderate levels of censoring. One exception was Harrell's concordance measure which tended to increase as censoring increased. We recommend that Uno's concordance measure is used to quantify concordance when there are moderate levels of censoring. Alternatively, Gönen and Heller's measure could be considered, especially if censoring is very high, but we suggest that the prediction model is re-calibrated first. We also recommend that Royston's D is routinely reported to assess discrimination since it has an appealing interpretation. The calibration slope is useful for both internal and external validation settings and recommended to report routinely. Our recommendation would be to use any of the predictive accuracy measures and provide the corresponding predictive accuracy curves. In addition, we recommend to investigate the characteristics

  9. Obesity prevention programs and policies: practitioner and policy-maker perceptions of feasibility and effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Verity; McNeilly, Briohny; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2013-09-01

    The aims of this study were to map obesity prevention activity being implemented by government, non-government, and community-based organizations; to determine practitioner and policy-maker perceptions of the feasibility and effectiveness of a range of evidence-based obesity prevention strategies; and to determine practitioner and policy-maker perceptions of preferred settings for obesity prevention strategies. This study involved a cross-sectional survey of 304 public health practitioners and policy-makers from government, non-government, and community organizations across Victoria, Australia. Participants reported their organizations' current obesity prevention programs and policies, their own perceptions of the feasibility and effectiveness of strategies to prevent obesity and their preferred settings for obesity prevention. Thirty-nine percent had an obesity prevention policy, and 92% were implementing obesity prevention programs. The most common programs focused on education, skill-building, and increasing access to healthy eating/physical activity opportunities. School curriculum-based initiatives, social support for physical activity, and family-based programs were considered the most effective strategies, whereas curriculum-based initiatives, active after-school programs, and providing access to and information about physical activity facilities were deemed the most feasible strategies. Schools were generally perceived as the most preferred setting for obesity prevention. Many organizations had obesity prevention programs, but far fewer had obesity prevention policies. Current strategies and those considered feasible and effective are often mismatched with the empirical literature. Systems to ensure better alignment between researchers, practitioners, and policy-makers, and identifying effective methods of translating empirical evidence into practice and policy are required. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  10. The global stock of research evidence relevant to health systems policymaking

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Michael G; Moat, Kaelan A; Lavis, John N

    2013-01-01

    Background: Policymakers and stakeholders need immediate access to many types of research evidence to make informed decisions about the full range of questions that may arise regarding health systems. Methods: We examined all types of research evidence about governance, financial and delivery arrangements, and implementation strategies within health systems contained in Health Systems Evidence (HSE) (http://www.healthsystemsevidence.org). The research evidence types include evidence briefs fo...

  11. Environmental policy-making networks and the future of the Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Lemos, Maria Carmen; Roberts, J. Timmons

    2008-01-01

    This article examines four periods of environmental policy-making in the Amazonian region of Brazil. It specifically analyses the role of pro-environment and pro-development policy networks in affecting policy design and implementation. It argues that the efforts of environmentalist networks trying to advocate or block relative developmentalist policies in the Amazon depend on three critical factors - whether they are able to attract the support of elites (or at least block their developmenta...

  12. Intellectual property rights for plant breeding and rural development: challenges for agriculture policymakers

    OpenAIRE

    Tripp, R.; Eaton, D.J.F.; Louwaars, N.P.

    2006-01-01

    Although many developing countries have drafted legislation to address plant variety protection (PVP) requirements, relatively few have begun to implement PVP, and little guidance is available on appropriate strategies. This note looks at some of the key decisions facing agricultural policymakers in establishing a PVP regime, examines the implementation of PVP, assesses some of the impacts and limitations of PVP regimes, and identifies policy priorities that complement the establishment of IP...

  13. Towards better metrics and policymaking for seed system development: Insights from Asia's seed industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielman, David J; Kennedy, Adam

    2016-09-01

    Since the 1980s, many developing countries have introduced policies to promote seed industry growth and improve the delivery of modern science to farmers, often with a long-term goal of increasing agricultural productivity in smallholder farming systems. Public, private, and civil society actors involved in shaping policy designs have, in turn, developed competing narratives around how best to build an innovative and sustainable seed system, each with varying goals, values, and levels of influence. Efforts to strike a balance between these narratives have often played out in passionate discourses surrounding seed rules and regulations. As a result, however, policymakers in many countries have expressed impatience with the slow progress on enhancing the contribution of a modern seed industry to the overarching goal of increasing agricultural productivity growth. One reason for this slow progress may be that policymakers are insufficiently cognizant of the trade-offs associated with rules and regulations required to effectively govern a modern seed industry. This suggests the need for new data and analysis to improve the understanding of how seed systems function. This paper explores these issues in the context of Asia's rapidly growing seed industry, with illustrations from seed markets for maize and several other crops, to highlight current gaps in the metrics used to analyze performance, competition, and innovation. The paper provides a finite set of indicators to inform policymaking on seed system design and monitoring, and explores how these indicators can be used to inform current policy debates in the region.

  14. Communicating Program Outcomes to Encourage Policymaker Support for Evidence-Based State Tobacco Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison M. Schmidt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use, the leading cause of preventable death in the U.S., can be reduced through state-level tobacco prevention and cessation programs. In the absence of research about how to communicate the need for these programs to policymakers, this qualitative study aimed to understand the motivations and priorities of policymakers in North Carolina, a state that enacted a strong tobacco control program from 2003–2011, but drastically reduced funding in recent years. Six former legislators (three Democrats, three Republicans and three lobbyists for health organizations were interviewed about their attitudes towards tobacco use, support of state-funded programs, and reactions to two policy briefs. Five themes emerged: (1 high awareness of tobacco-related health concerns but limited awareness of program impacts and funding, (2 the primacy of economic concerns in making policy decisions, (3 ideological differences in views of the state’s role in tobacco control, (4 the impact of lobbyist and constituent in-person appeals, and (5 the utility of concise, contextualized data. These findings suggest that building relationships with policymakers to communicate ongoing program outcomes, emphasizing economic data, and developing a constituent advocacy group would be valuable to encourage continued support of state tobacco control programs.

  15. Developing a policy game intervention to enhance collaboration in public health policymaking in three European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitters, H P E M; van Oers, J A M; Sandu, P; Lau, C J; Quanjel, M; Dulf, D; Chereches, R; van de Goor, L A M

    2017-12-19

    One of the key elements to enhance the uptake of evidence in public health policies is stimulating cross-sector collaboration. An intervention stimulating collaboration is a policy game. The aim of this study was to describe the design and methods of the development process of the policy game ‘In2Action’ within a real-life setting of public health policymaking networks in the Netherlands, Denmark and Romania. The development of the policy game intervention consisted of three phases, pre intervention, designing the game intervention and tailoring the intervention. In2Action was developed as a role-play game of one day, with main focus to develop in collaboration a cross-sector implementation plan based on the approved strategic local public health policy. This study introduced an innovative intervention for public health policymaking. It described the design and development of the generic frame of the In2Action game focusing on enhancing collaboration in local public health policymaking networks. By keeping the game generic, it became suitable for each of the three country cases with only minor changes. The generic frame of the game is expected to be generalizable for other European countries to stimulate interaction and collaboration in the policy process.

  16. Clinic consortia media advocacy capacity: partnering with the media and increasing policymaker awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Annette; Geierstanger, Sara; Brindis, Claire; McConnel, Coline

    2010-04-01

    Media advocacy is a popular means of crafting and disseminating messages broadly and has been used by advocates to increase policymaker and public awareness of key health policy issues, such as the large number of uninsured. Some media advocacy activities are more effective than others, however, requiring increased sensitivity to the media environment and adequate resources and expertise. This article describes the results of media advocacy activities undertaken by 19 clinic consortia funded under The California Endowment's Clinic Consortia Policy and Advocacy Program from 2002 to 2006. The consortia used different media advocacy strategies and venues, including newspaper, television, radio, video, brochures, newsletters, and websites. The findings indicate that consortia may have influenced the media agenda and increased the likelihood of securing coverage of key issues, such as the role of clinics in supporting the health care safety net. There is evidence that suggests that clinic consortia media advocacy activities, such as front-page coverage in local and major daily newspapers, increased public and policymaker awareness of key clinic policy issues. Although grantees rated media advocacy overall as less effective than other advocacy activities and few reported that it had directly achieved a policy change or increased funding to clinics, nearly all thought it was effective in increasing policymaker awareness. We conclude that media advocacy is a useful tool for partnering with the media and increasing stakeholder awareness more broadly, but it should not be solely relied upon to achieve a policy change.

  17. Psychometric properties of carer-reported outcome measures in palliative care: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Charlotte TJ; Boulton, Mary; Adams, Astrid; Wee, Bee; Peters, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Background: Informal carers face many challenges in caring for patients with palliative care needs. Selecting suitable valid and reliable outcome measures to determine the impact of caring and carers’ outcomes is a common problem. Aim: To identify outcome measures used for informal carers looking after patients with palliative care needs, and to evaluate the measures’ psychometric properties. Design: A systematic review was conducted. The studies identified were evaluated by independent reviewers (C.T.J.M., M.B., M.P.). Data regarding study characteristics and psychometric properties of the measures were extracted and evaluated. Good psychometric properties indicate a high-quality measure. Data sources: The search was conducted, unrestricted to publication year, in the following electronic databases: Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, PubMed, PsycINFO, Social Sciences Citation Index and Sociological Abstracts. Results: Our systematic search revealed 4505 potential relevant studies, of which 112 studies met the inclusion criteria using 38 carer measures for informal carers of patients with palliative care needs. Psychometric properties were reported in only 46% (n = 52) of the studies, in relation to 24 measures. Where psychometric data were reported, the focus was mainly on internal consistency (n = 45, 87%), construct validity (n = 27, 52%) and/or reliability (n = 14, 27%). Of these, 24 measures, only four (17%) had been formally validated in informal carers in palliative care. Conclusion: A broad range of outcome measures have been used for informal carers of patients with palliative care needs. Little formal psychometric testing has been undertaken. Furthermore, development and refinement of measures in this field is required. PMID:26407683

  18. Contact and non-contact ultrasonic measurement in the food industry: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Khairi, Mohd Taufiq; Ibrahim, Sallehuddin; Md Yunus, Mohd Amri; Faramarzi, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    The monitoring of the food manufacturing process is vital since it determines the safety and quality level of foods which directly affect the consumers’ health. Companies which produce high quality products will gain trust from consumers. This factor helps the companies to make profits. The use of efficient and appropriate sensors for the monitoring process can also reduce cost. The food assessing process based on an ultrasonic sensor has attracted the attention of the food industry due to its excellent capabilities in several applications. The utilization of low or high frequencies for the ultrasonic transducer has provided an enormous benefit for analysing, modifying and guaranteeing the quality of food. The contact and non-contact ultrasonic modes for measurement also contributed significantly to the food processing. This paper presents a review of the application of the contact and non-contact mode of ultrasonic measurement focusing on safety and quality control areas. The results from previous researches are shown and elaborated. (topical review)

  19. A systematic review of maternal confidence for physiologic birth: characteristics of prenatal care and confidence measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Melissa D; Saftner, Melissa A; Larson, Bridget; Weinfurter, Elizabeth V

    2014-01-01

    Because a focus on physiologic labor and birth has reemerged in recent years, care providers have the opportunity in the prenatal period to help women increase confidence in their ability to give birth without unnecessary interventions. However, most research has only examined support for women during labor. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the research literature for information about prenatal care approaches that increase women's confidence for physiologic labor and birth and tools to measure that confidence. Studies were reviewed that explored any element of a pregnant woman's interaction with her prenatal care provider that helped build confidence in her ability to labor and give birth. Timing of interaction with pregnant women included during pregnancy, labor and birth, and the postpartum period. In addition, we looked for studies that developed a measure of women's confidence related to labor and birth. Outcome measures included confidence or similar concepts, descriptions of components of prenatal care contributing to maternal confidence for birth, and reliability and validity of tools measuring confidence. The search of MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases provided a total of 893 citations. After removing duplicates and articles that did not meet inclusion criteria, 6 articles were included in the review. Three relate to women's confidence for labor during the prenatal period, and 3 describe tools to measure women's confidence for birth. Research about enhancing women's confidence for labor and birth was limited to qualitative studies. Results suggest that women desire information during pregnancy and want to use that information to participate in care decisions in a relationship with a trusted provider. Further research is needed to develop interventions to help midwives and physicians enhance women's confidence in their ability to give birth and to develop a tool to measure confidence for use during prenatal care. © 2014 by

  20. Preparing the prescription: a review of the aim and measurement of social referral programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempel, Emily S; Wilson, Emma N; Durrant, Hannah; Barnett, Julie

    2017-10-12

    Our aim is to review, and qualitatively evaluate, the aims and measures of social referral programmes. Our first objective is to identify the aims of social referral initiatives. Our second objective is to identify the measures used to evaluate whether the aims of social referral were met. Literature review. Social referral programmes, also called social prescribing and emergency case referral, link primary and secondary healthcare with community services, often under the guise of decreasing health system costs. Following the PRISMA guidelines, we undertook a literature review to address that aim. We searched in five academic online databases and in one online non-academic search engine, including both academic and grey literature, for articles referring to 'social prescribing' or 'community referral'. We identified 41 relevant articles and reports. After extracting the aims, measures and type of study, we found that most social referral programmes aimed to address a wide variety of system and individual health problems. This included cost savings, resource reallocation and improved mental, physical and social well-being. Across the 41 studies and reports, there were 154 different kinds of measures or methods of evaluation identified. Of these, the most commonly used individual measure was the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale, used in nine studies and reports. These inconsistencies in aims and measures used pose serious problems when social prescribing and other referral programmes are often advertised as a solution to health services-budgeting constraints, as well as a range of chronic mental and physical health conditions. We recommend researchers and local community organisers alike to critically evaluate for whom, where and why their social referral programmes 'work'. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Evaluating the Psychometric Quality of Social Skills Measures: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, Reinie; Speyer, Renée; Chen, Yu-Wei; Wilkes-Gillan, Sarah; Brown, Ted; Bourke-Taylor, Helen; Doma, Kenji; Leicht, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Impairments in social functioning are associated with an array of adverse outcomes. Social skills measures are commonly used by health professionals to assess and plan the treatment of social skills difficulties. There is a need to comprehensively evaluate the quality of psychometric properties reported across these measures to guide assessment and treatment planning. To conduct a systematic review of the literature on the psychometric properties of social skills and behaviours measures for both children and adults. A systematic search was performed using four electronic databases: CINAHL, PsycINFO, Embase and Pubmed; the Health and Psychosocial Instruments database; and grey literature using PsycExtra and Google Scholar. The psychometric properties of the social skills measures were evaluated against the COSMIN taxonomy of measurement properties using pre-set psychometric criteria. Thirty-Six studies and nine manuals were included to assess the psychometric properties of thirteen social skills measures that met the inclusion criteria. Most measures obtained excellent overall methodological quality scores for internal consistency and reliability. However, eight measures did not report measurement error, nine measures did not report cross-cultural validity and eleven measures did not report criterion validity. The overall quality of the psychometric properties of most measures was satisfactory. The SSBS-2, HCSBS and PKBS-2 were the three measures with the most robust evidence of sound psychometric quality in at least seven of the eight psychometric properties that were appraised. A universal working definition of social functioning as an overarching construct is recommended. There is a need for ongoing research in the area of the psychometric properties of social skills and behaviours instruments.

  2. Evaluating the Psychometric Quality of Social Skills Measures: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinie Cordier

    Full Text Available Impairments in social functioning are associated with an array of adverse outcomes. Social skills measures are commonly used by health professionals to assess and plan the treatment of social skills difficulties. There is a need to comprehensively evaluate the quality of psychometric properties reported across these measures to guide assessment and treatment planning.To conduct a systematic review of the literature on the psychometric properties of social skills and behaviours measures for both children and adults.A systematic search was performed using four electronic databases: CINAHL, PsycINFO, Embase and Pubmed; the Health and Psychosocial Instruments database; and grey literature using PsycExtra and Google Scholar. The psychometric properties of the social skills measures were evaluated against the COSMIN taxonomy of measurement properties using pre-set psychometric criteria.Thirty-Six studies and nine manuals were included to assess the psychometric properties of thirteen social skills measures that met the inclusion criteria. Most measures obtained excellent overall methodological quality scores for internal consistency and reliability. However, eight measures did not report measurement error, nine measures did not report cross-cultural validity and eleven measures did not report criterion validity.The overall quality of the psychometric properties of most measures was satisfactory. The SSBS-2, HCSBS and PKBS-2 were the three measures with the most robust evidence of sound psychometric quality in at least seven of the eight psychometric properties that were appraised. A universal working definition of social functioning as an overarching construct is recommended. There is a need for ongoing research in the area of the psychometric properties of social skills and behaviours instruments.

  3. What has been measured in sense of direction questionnaires? : A bibliographic review

    OpenAIRE

    内藤, 健一; ナイトウ, ケンイチ; Kenichi , NAITO

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviewed studies that reported on sense of direction questionnaires in terms of their construct processes, the contents of their sub-scales, and their relations to spatial tasks. In the construct processes, the number of items used in pilot studies was small. In the contents of subscales, it was common among studies to possess sub-scales which measured awareness of orientation, and memory for usual spatial behavior. In the relations to spatial tasks, the relation between sense of d...

  4. Measuring Spirituality as a Universal Human Experience: A Review of Spirituality Questionnaires

    OpenAIRE

    Jager Meezenbroek, Eltica; Garssen, Bert; Berg, Machteld; Dierendonck, Dirk; Visser, Adriaan; Schaufeli, Wilmar

    2012-01-01

    textabstractSpirituality is an important theme in health research, since a spiritual orientation can help people to cope with the consequences of a serious disease. Knowledge on the role of spirituality is, however, limited, as most research is based on measures of religiosity rather than spirituality. A questionnaire that transcends specific beliefs is a prerequisite for quantifying the importance of spirituality among people who adhere to a religion or none at all. In this review, we discus...

  5. A review of the methods to measure the ion temperature in a tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurro Hernandez, B.; Perez-Navarro Gomez, A.

    1976-01-01

    The most important methods to measure the ion temperatu--re in a Tokamak plasma are reviewed, e.g. energy analysis of the fast neutrals which leave out the plasma, Doppler broadening of the emision spectral lines and fusion neutron analysis. It is discussed their bounds so as the advantages and drawbacks of each one. Other methods of some interest in the future are outlined. (author) [es

  6. External validation of a measurement tool to assess systematic reviews (AMSTAR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverley J Shea

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thousands of systematic reviews have been conducted in all areas of health care. However, the methodological quality of these reviews is variable and should routinely be appraised. AMSTAR is a measurement tool to assess systematic reviews. METHODOLOGY: AMSTAR was used to appraise 42 reviews focusing on therapies to treat gastro-esophageal reflux disease, peptic ulcer disease, and other acid-related diseases. Two assessors applied the AMSTAR to each review. Two other assessors, plus a clinician and/or methodologist applied a global assessment to each review independently. CONCLUSIONS: The sample of 42 reviews covered a wide range of methodological quality. The overall scores on AMSTAR ranged from 0 to 10 (out of a maximum of 11 with a mean of 4.6 (95% CI: 3.7 to 5.6 and median 4.0 (range 2.0 to 6.0. The inter-observer agreement of the individual items ranged from moderate to almost perfect agreement. Nine items scored a kappa of >0.75 (95% CI: 0.55 to 0.96. The reliability of the total AMSTAR score was excellent: kappa 0.84 (95% CI: 0.67 to 1.00 and Pearson's R 0.96 (95% CI: 0.92 to 0.98. The overall scores for the global assessment ranged from 2 to 7 (out of a maximum score of 7 with a mean of 4.43 (95% CI: 3.6 to 5.3 and median 4.0 (range 2.25 to 5.75. The agreement was lower with a kappa of 0.63 (95% CI: 0.40 to 0.88. Construct validity was shown by AMSTAR convergence with the results of the global assessment: Pearson's R 0.72 (95% CI: 0.53 to 0.84. For the AMSTAR total score, the limits of agreement were -0.19+/-1.38. This translates to a minimum detectable difference between reviews of 0.64 'AMSTAR points'. Further validation of AMSTAR is needed to assess its validity, reliability and perceived utility by appraisers and end users of reviews across a broader range of systematic reviews.

  7. External validation of a measurement tool to assess systematic reviews (AMSTAR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Beverley J; Bouter, Lex M; Peterson, Joan; Boers, Maarten; Andersson, Neil; Ortiz, Zulma; Ramsay, Tim; Bai, Annie; Shukla, Vijay K; Grimshaw, Jeremy M

    2007-12-26

    Thousands of systematic reviews have been conducted in all areas of health care. However, the methodological quality of these reviews is variable and should routinely be appraised. AMSTAR is a measurement tool to assess systematic reviews. AMSTAR was used to appraise 42 reviews focusing on therapies to treat gastro-esophageal reflux disease, peptic ulcer disease, and other acid-related diseases. Two assessors applied the AMSTAR to each review. Two other assessors, plus a clinician and/or methodologist applied a global assessment to each review independently. The sample of 42 reviews covered a wide range of methodological quality. The overall scores on AMSTAR ranged from 0 to 10 (out of a maximum of 11) with a mean of 4.6 (95% CI: 3.7 to 5.6) and median 4.0 (range 2.0 to 6.0). The inter-observer agreement of the individual items ranged from moderate to almost perfect agreement. Nine items scored a kappa of >0.75 (95% CI: 0.55 to 0.96). The reliability of the total AMSTAR score was excellent: kappa 0.84 (95% CI: 0.67 to 1.00) and Pearson's R 0.96 (95% CI: 0.92 to 0.98). The overall scores for the global assessment ranged from 2 to 7 (out of a maximum score of 7) with a mean of 4.43 (95% CI: 3.6 to 5.3) and median 4.0 (range 2.25 to 5.75). The agreement was lower with a kappa of 0.63 (95% CI: 0.40 to 0.88). Construct validity was shown by AMSTAR convergence with the results of the global assessment: Pearson's R 0.72 (95% CI: 0.53 to 0.84). For the AMSTAR total score, the limits of agreement were -0.19+/-1.38. This translates to a minimum detectable difference between reviews of 0.64 'AMSTAR points'. Further validation of AMSTAR is needed to assess its validity, reliability and perceived utility by appraisers and end users of reviews across a broader range of systematic reviews.

  8. Monitoring and Predicting Railway Noise and its Large-Scale Impact on the Environment; a Tool for Policy-Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, G.

    1996-05-01

    The social pressure to decrease noise nuisance caused by rail transport lines is growing rapidly. The solutions realized by the railway companies are often only effective locally and are specified without taking note of future European transport flows. In order to evolve their new policy the Dutch Railway company (NS) is developing a special purpose Geographical Information System. By means of this system it is possible to calculate the acoustic consequences of different future plans on a national or international scale. The input parameters of the system are the number of trains to be expected on the different lines, train speeds, train types, the noise nuisance law concerned, and the amount of sound reduction on specific trains and tracks. The acoustic consequences are quantified either as costs for noise barriers and sound-insulating measures in houses or as the area or number of people living within one specific equal noise level contour. The system gives policy-makers insight into the effects of certain sound reduction measures, of changes in the noise nuisance law and future transport flows. Results of studies show that the system can be a useful aid when making choices between investing in certain acoustic measures to be taken at the source or taking measures along the propagation path. In addition the system is useful as a monitoring system. Thus it is possible to quantify the effects of policy implementation and independent developments.

  9. Differential absorption and Raman lidar for water vapor profile measurements - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, William B.

    1991-01-01

    Differential absorption lidar and Raman lidar have been applied to the range-resolved measurements of water vapor density for more than 20 years. Results have been obtained using both lidar techniques that have led to improved understanding of water vapor distributions in the atmosphere. This paper reviews the theory of the measurements, including the sources of systematic and random error; the progress in lidar technology and techniques during that period, including a brief look at some of the lidar systems in development or proposed; and the steps being taken to improve such lidar systems.

  10. Exposure measurement of aflatoxins and aflatoxin metabolites in human body fluids. A short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Yin-Hui; Latiff, Aishah A; Ahmad, Nurul Izzah; Rosma, Ahmad

    2012-05-01

    Aflatoxins are highly toxic secondary fungal metabolites mainly produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Human exposure to aflatoxins may result directly from ingestion of contaminated foods, or indirectly from consumption of foods from animals previously exposed to aflatoxins in feeds. This paper focuses on exposure measurement of aflatoxins and aflatoxin metabolites in various human body fluids. Research on different metabolites present in blood, urine, breast milk, and other human fluids or tissues including their detection techniques is reviewed. The association between dietary intake of aflatoxins and biomarker measurement is also highlighted. Finally, aspects related to the differences between aflatoxin determination in food versus the biomarker approach are discussed.

  11. Review of Nuclear Heating Measurement by Calorimetry in France and USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynard-Carette, C.; Kohse, G.; Brun, J.; Carette, M.; Volte, A.; Lyoussi, A.

    2018-01-01

    This paper gives a short review of sensors dedicated to measuring nuclear heating rate inside fission reactors in France and USA and especially inside Material Testing Reactors. These sensors correspond to heat flow calorimeters composed of a single calorimetric cell or of two calorimetric cells at least with a reference cell to obtain a differential calorimeter. The aim of this paper is to present the common running principle of these sensors and their own special characteristics through their design, calibration methods, and in-pile measurement techniques, and to describe multi-sensor probes including calorimeters.

  12. Review of Micro/Nano Nondestructive Evaluation Technique (II): Measurement of Acoustic Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chung Seok; Park, Ik Keun

    2012-01-01

    The present paper reviews the micro and nano nondestructive evaluation(NDE) technique that is possible to investigate the surface and measure the acoustic properties. The technical theory, features and applications of the ultrasonic atomic force microscopy(UAFM) and scanning acoustic microscopy(SAM) are illustrated. Especially, these technologies are possible to evaluate the mechanical properties in micro/nano structure and surface through the measurement of acoustic properties in addition to the observation of surface and subsurface. Consequently, it is thought that technique developments and applications of these micro/nano NDE in advanced industrial parts together with present nondestructive industry are widely possible hereafter.

  13. Glutathione in the human brain: Review of its roles and measurement by magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Caroline D; Williams, Stephen R

    2017-07-15

    We review the transport, synthesis and catabolism of glutathione in the brain as well as its compartmentation and biochemistry in different brain cells. The major reactions involving glutathione are reviewed and the factors limiting its availability in brain cells are discussed. We also describe and critique current methods for measuring glutathione in the human brain using magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and review the literature on glutathione measurements in healthy brains and in neurological, psychiatric, neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental conditions In summary: Healthy human brain glutathione concentration is ∼1-2 mM, but it varies by brain region, with evidence of gender differences and age effects; in neurological disease glutathione appears reduced in multiple sclerosis, motor neurone disease and epilepsy, while being increased in meningiomas; in psychiatric disease the picture is complex and confounded by methodological differences, regional effects, length of disease and drug-treatment. Both increases and decreases in glutathione have been reported in depression and schizophrenia. In Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment there is evidence for a decrease in glutathione compared to age-matched healthy controls. Improved methods to measure glutathione in vivo will provide better precision in glutathione determination and help resolve the complex biochemistry of this molecule in health and disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Local hemostatic measures in anticoagulated patients undergoing oral surgery: a systematized literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Wildson Gurgel Costa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To conduct a systematized review of the literature about the main local hemostatic measures to control postoperative bleeding in anticoagulated patients. METHODS: A systematized review of literature was performed in the electronic database Medline (PubMed without restriction of the publication date. The eligibility criteria were studies involving maintenance of the anticoagulant therapy, prospective studies, retrospective studies, randomized clinical trials, controlled clinical studies, comparative studies, multicentric studies or case-control studies. Studies discontinuing anticoagulant therapy, case reports, literature reviews, in vitro studies, animal experiments and articles written in language not compatible with the search strategy adopted in this work were excluded. RESULTS: Twenty-four articles that met the adopted eligibility criteria were selected, enrolling 3891 subjects under anticoagulant therapy. A total of 171 cases of hemorrhage was observed. Tranexamic acid was the main local hemostatic measure used to controlling of postoperative bleeding. CONCLUSION: The local hemostatic measures proved to be effective according to previously published studies. Nevertheless, further clinical studies should be conducted to confirm this effectiveness.

  15. Measuring culture: a critical review of acculturation and health in Asian immigrant populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salant, Talya; Lauderdale, Diane S

    2003-07-01

    The number of studies examining how acculturation affects the health of Asian immigrants has increased in recent years. The proliferation of studies reflects the growing size and heterogeneity of Asian immigrant populations in the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom. This paper compares various approaches to acculturation within the health literature on Asian immigrants by reviewing the literature in three-health domains (1) mental health (2) physical health and (3) health services use. The review critically examines the conceptualizations and measures of acculturation in these three domains and presents major findings. We observe that measurement difficulties posed by the experiences of heterogeneous Asian groups compound theoretical and disciplinary disparities between acculturation instruments. The extent to which conceptual and methodological critiques of acculturation studies in Hispanic populations apply to studies of Asian populations is also discussed. The critical review thus provides insights into the diverse ways that the relationship between culture and health is measured in this complicated and growing literature.

  16. Electrocortical measures of information processing biases in social anxiety disorder: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrewijn, Anita; Schmidt, Louis A; Westenberg, P Michiel; Tang, Alva; van der Molen, Melle J W

    2017-10-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by information processing biases, however, their underlying neural mechanisms remain poorly understood. The goal of this review was to give a comprehensive overview of the most frequently studied EEG spectral and event-related potential (ERP) measures in social anxiety during rest, anticipation, stimulus processing, and recovery. A Web of Science search yielded 35 studies reporting on electrocortical measures in individuals with social anxiety or related constructs. Social anxiety was related to increased delta-beta cross-frequency correlation during anticipation and recovery, and information processing biases during early processing of faces (P1) and errors (error-related negativity). These electrocortical measures are discussed in relation to the persistent cycle of information processing biases maintaining SAD. Future research should further investigate the mechanisms of this persistent cycle and study the utility of electrocortical measures in early detection, prevention, treatment and endophenotype research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Noise measurement in NICUs and incubators with newborns: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Maria de Fátima Hasek; Di Piero, Karina Chamma; Ramos, Eloane Gonçalves; Souza, Márcio Nogueira de; Dutra, Maria Virgínia P

    2011-01-01

    This systematic literature review evaluated the methodological quality of studies measuring noise in neonatal intensive care units. A manual and also electronic search in the Medline, Scielo, Lilacs, BDENF, WHOLIS, BDTD, Science Direct, NCBI and Scirus databases resulted in 40 studies that met the criterion "measuring noise in neonatal units and/or incubators". Experts in neonatology and acoustics validated the critical analysis instrument, which obtained a mean = 7.9 (SD=1.3). The inter-observer reliability in 18 articles resulted in an Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.89 (CI 0.75-0.95). The quality indicators were 50% better in those studies that measured noise only in the unit's environment and associated measuring strategies to the physical area. The results showed great methodological variability, which hindered comparability and raised the probability of bias. The conditions required to ensure internal and external validity were observed in few studies.

  18. Surface roughness: A review of its measurement at micro-/nano-scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yuxuan; Xu, Jian; Buchanan, Relva C.

    2018-01-01

    The measurement of surface roughness at micro-/nano-scale is of great importance to metrological, manufacturing, engineering, and scientific applications given the critical roles of roughness in physical and chemical phenomena. The surface roughness of materials can significantly change the way of how they interact with light, phonons, molecules, and so forth, thus surface roughness ultimately determines the functionality and property of materials. In this short review, the techniques of measuring micro-/nano-scale surface roughness are discussed with special focus on the limitations and capabilities of each technique. In addition, the calculations of surface roughness and their theoretical background are discussed to offer readers a better understanding of the importance of post-measurement analysis. Recent progress on fractal analysis of surface roughness is discussed to shed light on the future efforts in surface roughness measurement.

  19. Measurement of soil lead bioavailability and influence of soil types and properties: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Kaihong; Dong, Zhaomin; Wijayawardena, M A Ayanka; Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravi; Semple, Kirk

    2017-10-01

    Lead (Pb) is a widespread heavy metal which is harmful to human health, especially to young children. To provide a human health risk assessment that is more relevant to real conditions, Pb bioavailability in soils is increasingly employed in the assessment procedure. Both in vivo and in vitro measurements for lead bioavailability are available. In vivo models are time- consuming and expensive, while in vitro models are rapid, economic, reproducible, and reliable while involving more uncertainties. Uncertainties in various measurements create difficulties in accurately predicting Pb bioavailability, resulting in the unnecessary remediation of sites. In this critical review, we utilised available data from in vivo and in vitro studies to identify the key parameters influencing the in vitro measurements, and presented uncertainties existing in Pb bioavailability measurements. Soil type, properties and metal content are reported to influence lead bioavailability; however, the differences in methods for assessing bioavailability and the differences in Pb source limit one's ability to conduct statistical analyses on influences of soil factors on Pb bioavailability. The information provided in the review is fundamentally useful for the measurement of bioavailability and risk assessment practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A Review of Surface Deformation and Strain Measurement Using Two-Dimensional Digital Image Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoo Sze-Wei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the full-field optical measurement methods, the Digital Image Correlation (DIC is one of the techniques which has been given particular attention. Technically, the DIC technique refers to a non-contact strain measurement method that mathematically compares the grey intensity changes of the images captured at two different states: before and after deformation. The measurement can be performed by numerically calculating the displacement of speckles which are deposited on the top of object’s surface. In this paper, the Two-Dimensional Digital Image Correlation (2D-DIC is presented and its fundamental concepts are discussed. Next, the development of the 2D-DIC algorithms in the past 33 years is reviewed systematically. The improvement of 2DDIC algorithms is presented with respect to two distinct aspects: their computation efficiency and measurement accuracy. Furthermore, analysis of the 2D-DIC accuracy is included, followed by a review of the DIC applications for two-dimensional measurements.

  1. Ocean Wind and Wave Measurements Using X-Band Marine Radar: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimin Huang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ocean wind and wave parameters can be measured by in-situ sensors such as anemometers and buoys. Since the 1980s, X-band marine radar has evolved as one of the remote sensing instruments for such purposes since its sea surface images contain considerable wind and wave information. The maturity and accuracy of X-band marine radar wind and wave measurements have already enabled relevant commercial products to be used in real-world applications. The goal of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of the state of the art algorithms for ocean wind and wave information extraction from X-band marine radar data. Wind measurements are mainly based on the dependence of radar image intensities on wind direction and speed. Wave parameters can be obtained from radar-derived wave spectra or radar image textures for non-coherent radar and from surface radial velocity for coherent radar. In this review, the principles of the methodologies are described, the performances are compared, and the pros and cons are discussed. Specifically, recent developments for wind and wave measurements are highlighted. These include the mitigation of rain effects on wind measurements and wave height estimation without external calibrations. Finally, remaining challenges and future trends are discussed.

  2. Determination of the transfer function for optical surface topography measuring instruments—a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Matthew R.; Giusca, Claudiu L.; Coupland, Jeremy M.; Török, Peter; Leach, Richard K.

    2013-05-01

    A significant number of areal surface topography measuring instruments, largely based on optical techniques, are commercially available. However, implementation of optical instrumentation into production is currently difficult due to the lack of understanding of the complex interaction between the light and the component surface. Studying the optical transfer function of the instrument can help address this issue. Here a review is given of techniques for the measurement of optical transfer functions. Starting from the basis of a spatially coherent, monochromatic confocal scanning imaging system, the theory of optical transfer functions in three-dimensional (3D) imaging is presented. Further generalizations are reviewed allowing the extension of the theory to the description of conventional and interferometric 3D imaging systems. Polychromatic transfer functions and surface topography measurements are also discussed. Following presentation of theoretical results, experimental methods to measure the optical transfer function of each class of system are presented, with a focus on suitable methods for the establishment of calibration standards in 3D imaging and surface topography measurements.

  3. Review of quality measures of the most integrated health care settings for children and the need for improved measures: recommendations for initial core measurement set for CHIPRA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Scot B; Co, John Patrick T; Homer, Charles J

    2011-01-01

    To identify, assess, and make recommendations for inclusion of measures that assess the domain of "most integrated health care setting," with a specific focus on measures of the medical home, one particular mechanism for integrating care, to identify gaps in measurement; and to make recommendations for new measure development. We developed a conceptual framework for care integration and reviewed literature on measures assessing the presence and quality of the medical home to determine their validity, reliability, and feasibility as a proxy for care integration. We identified 2 broad approaches to assessing the extent to which patients receive care that fulfills the aims of the medical home: 1) organizational assessment of practice systems and processes thought associated with achieving these desired aims (viz, the National Committee for Quality Assurance Physician Practice Connections-Patient Centered Medical Home measure and the Medical Home Index, and 2) direct assessment by patients/families of their experience of care in targeted dimensions. Based on concerns about the absence of reliability data and the feasibility of applying the practice audit/self-assessment approach on a population level for the purpose of state reporting, as well as the limited data linking performance on the specific measures with important child outcomes, we did not recommend any of the measures of organizational assessments of practice systems for inclusion in the core set as an indicator of care integration. In contrast, measures of the medical home based on items from the National Survey of Child Health on a population level of or the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems for practice- and state-level assessment are more feasible, have known reliability and performance characteristics, and more closely reflect the aims of the medical home, including care integration. Measures of health care integration as captured by the experience of care in a medical home can best

  4. Review of drive symmetry measurement and control experiments on the Nova laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, J.M.; Hauer, A.A.; Delamater, N.D.

    1994-01-01

    Symmetric radiation drive is required for achieving ignition in laboratory experiments. Over the last two years, concerted series of drive symmetry experiments have been performed on the Nova laser system. The goals of this work were to develop measurements techniques and to apply them to symmetry variation and control experiments. The emphasis in this initial work has been on time integrated measurements (integrated over the laser drive pulse). The authors have also begun work on methods for time resolved measurements. Most of their work used the symmetry signature impressed on the compressed core of a capsule imploded in a hohlraum (cylindrical canister) environment. X-ray imaging of this core provides a mapping that can be compared with theoretical modeling and related to a specific amount of drive asymmetry. This method is indirect and they have taken great care in understanding the formation of the symmetry signature and in its comparison with simulations. A review of drive symmetry measurement and control experiments is presented, including data from time integrated and time resolved measurements; these measurements are also compared to modeling. Under carefully controlled conditions results from symmetry measurements (and from other auxiliary measurements) are reproducible, and indicate that aspects of implosions symmetry can be controlled

  5. A systematic review of patient-reported outcome measures in paediatric otolaryngology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J; Powell, S; Robson, A

    2018-01-01

    Recently, there has been increased emphasis on the development and application of patient-reported outcome measures. This drive to assess the impact of illness or interventions, from the patient's perspective, has resulted in a greater number of available questionnaires. The importance of selecting an appropriate patient-reported outcome measure is specifically emphasised in the paediatric population. The literature on patient-reported outcome measures used in paediatric otolaryngology was reviewed. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using the databases Medline, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and PsycInfo, using the terms: 'health assessment questionnaire', 'structured questionnaire', 'questionnaire', 'patient reported outcome measures', 'PROM', 'quality of life' or 'survey', and 'children' or 'otolaryngology'. The search was limited to English-language articles published between 1996 and 2016. The search yielded 656 articles, of which 63 were considered relevant. This included general paediatric patient-reported outcome measures applied to otolaryngology, and paediatric otolaryngology disease-specific patient-reported outcome measures. A large collection of patient-reported outcome measures are described in the paediatric otolaryngology literature. Greater standardisation of the patient-reported outcome measures used in paediatric otolaryngology would assist in pooling of data and increase the validation of tools used.

  6. Implementing energy conservation strategies in energy materials transport: U. S. Department of Energy and other government agency policy-making mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertram, K. M.

    1978-11-01

    This report defines policy-making channels within Federal agencies for the strategy implementation efforts of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project entitled ''Development and Implementation of Strategies to Conserve Energy in Energy Materials Transport and Through Modal Shifts.'' The report's research involved review and analysis of government-agency policy-making mechanisms. Research methods included interviews with 36 regulatory officials, and review of pertinent legislative, organizational and other technical materials. Emphasis was placed upon relevant Federal agencies and summary treatment given other federal, state, and local agencies. In addition to DOE, the ICC, DOT, DOI, EPA, and Council on Environmental Quality were found to be highly important to the implementation of strategies developed during this project. Brief case studies were also made of states and localities which have had significant effects upon energy materials transport systems. The main findings of the report are that two primary channels exist for effecting this project's policy-oriented strategies: inputs to legislation and inducement of regulatory involvements. In addition, interviews with Federal agency officials during the research produced two significant suggestions for implementing strategies--to hold internal DOE and inter-agency briefings.

  7. A systematic review of instruments for measuring outcomes in economic evaluation within aged care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulamu, Norma B; Kaambwa, Billingsley; Ratcliffe, Julie

    2015-11-09

    This paper describes the methods and results of a systematic review to identify instruments used to measure quality of life outcomes in older people. The primary focus of the review was to identify instruments suitable for application with older people within economic evaluations conducted in the aged care sector. Online databases searched were PubMed, Medline, Scopus, and Web of Science, PsycInfo, CINAHL, Embase and Informit. Studies that met the following criteria were included: 1) study population exclusively above 65 years of age 2) measured health status, health related quality of life or quality of life outcomes more broadly through use of an instrument developed for this purpose, 3) used a generic preference based instrument or an older person specific preference based or non-preference based instrument or both, and 4) published in journals in the English language after 2000. The most commonly applied generic preference based instrument in both the community and residential aged care context was the EuroQol - 5 Dimensions (EQ-5D), followed by the Adult Social Care Outcomes Toolkit (ASCOT) and the Health Utilities Index (HUI2/3). The most widely applied older person specific instrument was the ICEpop CAPability measure for Older people (ICECAP-O) in both community and residential aged care. In the absence of an ideal instrument for incorporating into economic evaluations in the aged care sector, this review recommends the use of a generic preference based measure of health related quality of life such as the EQ-5D to obtain quality adjusted life years, in combination with an instrument that has a broader quality of life focus like the ASCOT, which was designed specifically for evaluating interventions in social care or the ICECAP-O, a capability measure for older people.

  8. An integrative review of self-efficacy measurement instruments in youth with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasbach, Lisa; Jenkins, Carolyn; Laffel, Lori

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the extant literature on instruments used to measure self-efficacy in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and their caregivers and to critically evaluate these measurements. An integrative review (2003-2013) was conducted searching PsycINFO, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and US National Library of Medicine PubMed service (PubMed) databases using key words diabetes, type 1 diabetes, and self-efficacy. The authors reviewed the resulting 294 references for inclusion criteria of (a) sample of youth with T1DM or sample of caregivers of youth with T1DM, (b) description of the self-efficacy instrument as primary research, and (c) the instrument measured self-efficacy specifically related to diabetes management. Forty-five articles out of the initial 294 met criteria. Of the 45 articles, 10 different self-efficacy instruments were identified. The primary theoretical framework used was Bandura's social cognitive theory and model of self-efficacy. Most participants were white middle-class T1DM youth. Evaluations to assess validity often were not reported; however, a majority of studies reported high internal consistency of the instruments. Sample homogeneity could limit the applicability of results to certain patient populations. Further psychometric analysis, including validity assessments, should be conducted in more diverse samples. Development of valid and reliable instruments for measuring self-efficacy that are sensitive to change across a wider caregiver base over time is necessary. While this review examined reliable and valid instruments used in research, future opportunities include evaluation of measuring self-efficacy in T1DM youth exposed to recent advances in diabetes management technologies. © 2014 The Author(s).

  9. Measuring Nanomaterial Release from Carbon Nanotube Composites: Review of the State of the Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, Stacey; Wohlleben, Wendel; Doa, Maria; Nowack, Bernd; Clancy, Shaun; Canady, Richard; Maynard, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Hazard studies of “as-produced” nanomaterials are increasingly available, yet a critical gap exists in exposure science that may impede safe development of nanomaterials. The gap is that we do not understand what is actually released because nanomaterials can change when released in ways that are not understood. We also generally do not have methods capable of quantitatively measuring what is released to support dose assessment. This review presents a case study of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for the measurement challenge to bridge this gap. As the use and value of MWCNTs increases, methods to measure what is released in ways relevant to risk evaluation are critically needed if products containing these materials are to be economically, environmentally, and socially sustainable. This review draws on the input of over 50 experts engaged in a program of workshops and technical report writing to address the release of MWCNTs from nanocomposite materials across their life cycle. The expert analyses reveals that new and sophisticated methods are required to measure and assess MWCNT exposures for realistic exposure scenarios. Furthermore, method requirements vary with the materials and conditions of release across life cycle stages of products. While review shows that the likelihood of significant release of MWCNTs appears to be low for many stages of composite life cycle, measurement methods are needed so that exposures from MWCNT-composites are understood and managed. In addition, there is an immediate need to refocus attention from study of “as-produced” nanomaterials to coordinated research on actual release scenarios. (paper)

  10. Measuring hip muscle strength in patients with femoroacetabular impingement and other hip pathologies: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayne, E; Memarzadeh, A; Raut, P; Arora, A; Khanduja, V

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature on measurement of muscle strength in patients with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and other pathologies and to suggest guidelines to standardise protocols for future research in the field. The Cochrane and PubMed libraries were searched for any publications using the terms 'hip', 'muscle', 'strength', and 'measurement' in the 'Title, Abstract, Keywords' field. A further search was performed using the terms 'femoroacetabular' or 'impingement'. The search was limited to recent literature only. A total of 29 articles were reviewed to obtain information on a number of variables. These comprised the type of device used for measurement, rater standardisation, the type of movements tested, body positioning and comparative studies of muscle strength in FAI versus normal controls. The studies found that hip muscle strength is lower in patients with FAI; this is also true for the asymptomatic hip in patients with FAI. Current literature on this subject is limited and examines multiple variables. Our recommendations for achieving reproducible results include stabilising the patient, measuring isometric movements and maximising standardisation by using a single tester and familiarising the participants with the protocol. Further work must be done to demonstrate the reliability of any new testing method.Cite this article: E. Mayne, A. Memarzadeh, P. Raut, A. Arora, V. Khanduja. Measuring hip muscle strength in patients with femoroacetabular impingement and other hip pathologies: A systematic review. Bone Joint Res 2017;6:66-72. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.61.BJR-2016-0081. © 2017 Khanduja et al.

  11. Frailty measurement and outcomes in interventional studies: protocol for a systematic review of randomised control trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shears, Melissa; McGolrick, Danielle; Waters, Braden; Jakab, Marnie; Boyd, J Gordon; Muscedere, John

    2017-12-26

    Frailty is associated with reduced functional capacity, decreased resistance to stressors and is predictive of a range of adverse health outcomes, including dependency, hospitalisation and mortality. Early identification of frailty may prevent, reduce and postpone adverse health outcomes. However, there is a need for additional evidence to guide decision-making for the care of frail patients since frail persons are frequently excluded from studies, the differential impact of frailty is often not examined in clinical trials and few large-scale clinical trials examining frail cohorts have been conducted. Randomised control trials (RCTs) published to date have used a diverse range of definitions of frailty, as well as a variety of outcome measures. The objective of this systematic review is to comprehensively characterise the frail populations enrolled and the end points reported in frailty RCTs. We will identify all RCTs reporting on the outcome of interventions in adult (age ≥18 years) frail populations as defined by authors, in all settings of care. Databases will include MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycInfo, Global Health, the Joanna Briggs database and Cochrane Library. Two reviewers will independently determine trial eligibility. For each included trial, we will conduct duplicate independent data extraction, inter-rater reliability, risk of bias assessment and evaluation of the quality of the evidence using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations approach. This systematic review will comprehensively identify RCTs including frail patients to identify how frailty is measured and which outcomes are reported. The results of this systematic review may inform clinicians caring for persons with frailty, facilitate conduct of future RCTs and inform future efforts to develop common data elements and core outcomes for frailty studies. Our findings will be disseminated through conference presentation and publication in peer-reviewed journals

  12. Conceptualization and Measurement of Coping During Adolescence: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this review was to examine the conceptualization and measurement of coping in adolescent research. Design A review of the literature published and abstracted in four scientific databases was undertaken between July 2008 and June 2009 with the following key words: adolescent(s), cope/coping, stress(ors), and adaptation/psychological. Methods A total of 367 articles were initially identified, and review of published abstracts yielded 104 empirical articles to retrieve and examine more closely for inclusion. Criteria for inclusion in the review were that the study (a) measured coping, (b) presented original data, (c) primarily targeted adolescent participants, (d) was reported in English, and (e) was published between 1998 and June 2009. Fifty-nine subsequent articles were organized using a matrix approach that facilitated cross-study comparisons of purpose, sample, and dependent variables. Findings Fewer than half of the studies reviewed included a specific statement defining coping. Instead, many authors described coping in the context of stress response by identifying particular types or ways of coping or naming specific coping strategies used. The theoretical frameworks guiding examination of coping varied across studies. A range of measures, congruent with adolescent developmental processes, were used to assess adolescent coping. A wide range of stress-related risks or conditions were examined, including psychological stressors such as eating disorders, suicidal ideation, and depression; physical stressors such as chronic illness, HIV infection, sports participation, violence, or sexual abuse; familial stressors such as domestic violence or interparental conflict; social stressors such as romantic relationships or difficulties in settings such as school, prison, or a homeless shelter; and societal stressors such as discrimination. Conclusions Coping is an important construct in understanding how adolescents react to the extensive stressors

  13. Psychometric Properties of Patient-Facing eHealth Evaluation Measures: Systematic Review and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Bonnie J; Turvey, Carolyn L; Nazi, Kim M; Holman, John E; Hogan, Timothy P; Shimada, Stephanie L; Kennedy, Diana R

    2017-10-11

    Significant resources are being invested into eHealth technology to improve health care. Few resources have focused on evaluating the impact of use on patient outcomes A standardized set of metrics used across health systems and research will enable aggregation of data to inform improved implementation, clinical practice, and ultimately health outcomes associated with use of patient-facing eHealth technologies. The objective of this project was to conduct a systematic review to (1) identify existing instruments for eHealth research and implementation evaluation from the patient's point of view, (2) characterize measurement components, and (3) assess psychometrics. Concepts from existing models and published studies of technology use and adoption were identified and used to inform a search strategy. Search terms were broadly categorized as platforms (eg, email), measurement (eg, survey), function/information use (eg, self-management), health care occupations (eg, nurse), and eHealth/telemedicine (eg, mHealth). A computerized database search was conducted through June 2014. Included articles (1) described development of an instrument, or (2) used an instrument that could be traced back to its original publication, or (3) modified an instrument, and (4) with full text in English language, and (5) focused on the patient perspective on technology, including patient preferences and satisfaction, engagement with technology, usability, competency and fluency with technology, computer literacy, and trust in and acceptance of technology. The review was limited to instruments that reported at least one psychometric property. Excluded were investigator-developed measures, disease-specific assessments delivered via technology or telephone (eg, a cancer-coping measure delivered via computer survey), and measures focused primarily on clinician use (eg, the electronic health record). The search strategy yielded 47,320 articles. Following elimination of duplicates and non

  14. A Review of Quality Measures for Assessing the Impact of Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs in Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpan, Mary Richard; Ahmad, Raheelah; Shebl, Nada Atef; Ashiru-Oredope, Diane

    2016-01-13

    The growing problem of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has led to calls for antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASP) to control antibiotic use in healthcare settings. Key strategies include prospective audit with feedback and intervention, and formulary restriction and preauthorization. Education, guidelines, clinical pathways, de-escalation, and intravenous to oral conversion are also part of some programs. Impact and quality of ASP can be assessed using process or outcome measures. Outcome measures are categorized as microbiological, patient or financial outcomes. The objective of this review was to provide an overview of quality measures for assessing ASP and the reported impact of ASP in peer-reviewed studies, focusing particularly on patient outcomes. A literature search of papers published in English between 1990 and June 2015 was conducted in five databases using a combination of search terms. Primary studies of any design were included. A total of 63 studies were included in this review. Four studies defined quality metrics for evaluating ASP. Twenty-one studies assessed the impact of ASP on antimicrobial utilization and cost, 25 studies evaluated impact on resistance patterns and/or rate of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Thirteen studies assessed impact on patient outcomes including mortality, length of stay (LOS) and readmission rates. Six of these 13 studies reported non-significant difference in mortality between pre- and post-ASP intervention, and five reported reductions in mortality rate. On LOS, six studies reported shorter LOS post intervention; a significant reduction was reported in one of these studies. Of note, this latter study reported significantly (p evaluation. The choice of metrics is influenced by data and resource availability. Controlling for confounders must be considered in the design of evaluation studies to adequately capture the impact of ASP and it is important for unintended consequences to be considered. This review

  15. A systematic review of the extent and measurement of healthcare provider racism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradies, Yin; Truong, Mandy; Priest, Naomi

    2014-02-01

    Although considered a key driver of racial disparities in healthcare, relatively little is known about the extent of interpersonal racism perpetrated by healthcare providers, nor is there a good understanding of how best to measure such racism. This paper reviews worldwide evidence (from 1995 onwards) for racism among healthcare providers; as well as comparing existing measurement approaches to emerging best practice, it focuses on the assessment of interpersonal racism, rather than internalized or systemic/institutional racism. The following databases and electronic journal collections were searched for articles published between 1995 and 2012: Medline, CINAHL, PsycInfo, Sociological Abstracts. Included studies were published empirical studies of any design measuring and/or reporting on healthcare provider racism in the English language. Data on study design and objectives; method of measurement, constructs measured, type of tool; study population and healthcare setting; country and language of study; and study outcomes were extracted from each study. The 37 studies included in this review were almost solely conducted in the U.S. and with physicians. Statistically significant evidence of racist beliefs, emotions or practices among healthcare providers in relation to minority groups was evident in 26 of these studies. Although a number of measurement approaches were utilized, a limited range of constructs was assessed. Despite burgeoning interest in racism as a contributor to racial disparities in healthcare, we still know little about the extent of healthcare provider racism or how best to measure it. Studies using more sophisticated approaches to assess healthcare provider racism are required to inform interventions aimed at reducing racial disparities in health.

  16. Psycho-oncology assessment in Chinese populations: a systematic review of quality of life and psychosocial measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, M K; Chambers, S K; Shum, D; Ip, D; Dunn, J

    2016-09-01

    This systematic review describes psychosocial and quality of life (QOL) measures used in psycho-oncology research with cancer patients and caregivers in China. Medline and PsycINFO databases were searched (1980-2014). Studies reviewed met the following criteria: English language; peer-reviewed; sampled Chinese cancer patients/caregivers; developed, validated or assessed psychometric properties of psychosocial or QOL outcome measures; and reported validation data. The review examined characteristics of measures and participants, translation and cultural adaptation processes and psychometric properties of the measures. Ninety five studies met review criteria. Common characteristics of studies reviewed were they: assessed primarily QOL measures, sampled patients with breast, colorectal, or head and neck cancer, and validated existing measures (>80%) originating in North America or Europe. Few studies reported difficulties translating measures. Regarding psychometric properties of the measures >50% of studies reported subscale reliabilities adaptation and psychometric testing of psychosocial measures is needed. Developing support structures for translating and validating psychosocial measures would enable this and ensure Chinese psycho-oncology clinical practice and research keeps pace with international focus on patient reported outcome measures and data management. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The sustainability and performance measurement on supply chain in services industry: A literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leksono, Eko Budi; Suparno, Vanany, Iwan

    2017-11-01

    The services industry growth has been significant relation with economic growth. A new paradigm is needed for services sector development. The supply chain and performance measurement able to sustain of services industry growth. The supply chain implementation in the services industry called service supply chain (SSC). The globalization and stakeholder pressure makes operation of SSC should more attention to sustainability issue which consists of economic, social and environment simultaneously on SSC. Furthermore, services industry can develop by implementation of the sustainable SSC and its performance measurement. The sustainable SSC implementation can minimize of negative operation effect to environment and social, and maximize of profit. Sustainable service supply chain performance measurements (SSSCPM) are still less explored. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature in the field SSC, SSSC, SSC performance measurement (SSCPM) and SSSCPM for identification of the SSSCPM frameworks and indicators. Beside, the result of review able to look opportunities for develop a new framework for SSSCPM at the operational level, tactical and strategic, multiplayer and close loop, the effectiveness of the integration and development of modeling and simulation for evaluation in the future.

  18. Measuring Light at Night and Melatonin Levels in Shift Workers: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Claudia M; Figueiro, Mariana G

    2017-07-01

    Shift work, especially that involving rotating and night shifts, is associated with an increased risk of diseases, including cancer. Attempts to explain the association between shift work and cancer in particular have focused on the processes of melatonin production and suppression. One hypothesis postulates that exposure to light at night (LAN) suppresses melatonin, whose production is known to slow the development of cancerous cells, while another proposes that circadian disruption associated with shift work, and not just LAN, increases health risks. This review focuses on six studies that employed quantitative measurement of LAN and melatonin levels to assess cancer risks in shift workers. These studies were identified via searching the PubMed database for peer-reviewed, English-language articles examining the links between shift work, LAN, and disease using the terms light at night, circadian disruption, health, risk, cancer, shift work, or rotating shift. While the results indicate a growing consensus on the relationship between disease risks (particularly cancer) and circadian disruption associated with shift work, the establishment of a direct link between LAN and disease has been impeded by contradictory studies and a lack of consistent, quantitative methods for measuring LAN in the research to date. Better protocols for assessing personal LAN exposure are required, particularly those employing calibrated devices that measure and sample exposure to workplace light conditions, to accurately assess LAN's effects on the circadian system and disease. Other methodologies, such as measuring circadian disruption and melatonin levels in the field, may also help to resolve discrepancies in the findings.

  19. A Systematic Review of Patient-Reported Outcome Measures Following Transsexual Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, M; Cogliandro, A; Di Stefano, N; Tambone, V; Persichetti, P

    2017-06-01

    The aims of our study were to identify studies that evaluated patient satisfaction after transsexual surgery, analyze existing questionnaires, and summarize their development, psychometric properties, and content. A systematic review of the English-language literature was performed. Patient-reported outcome measures designed to assess patient satisfaction and quality of life following transsexual surgery were identified. Qualifying instruments were assessed for content and adherence to international guidelines for development and validation. From 796 articles, 19 studies had sufficient data and met the inclusion criteria. Included were a total of 2299 patients and 17 patient-reported outcome measures: 10 generic instruments that assessed quality of life, 4 specific for female genital or sexual satisfaction, 2 specific for transsexual body image or gender dysphoria, and 1 specific for plastic surgery. The questionnaires were analyzed by reviewers to assess the adherence to the rules of the US FDA and the Scientific Advisory Committee of the Medical Outcomes Trust. We identified 17 individual questionnaires that were included. All measures were limited by either their development, their validation, or their content. There is a need for a new self-assessment tool, which should include functional, psychorelational, and cosmetic components, to measure satisfaction and quality of life of patients who have undergone transsexual surgery. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  20. A Systematic Review of Insulin Adherence Measures in Patients with Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolpe, Samuel; Kroes, Michel A; Webb, Neil; Wisniewski, Tami

    2016-11-01

    Diabetes care is associated with a considerable burden to the health care system in the United States, and measuring the quality of health care is an important development goal of the Department of Health and Human Services and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Diabetes is a priority disease within the National Quality Strategy and should therefore remain a focus in the measurement of health care quality. Despite the importance of measuring quality in diabetes care management, no quality measure is currently associated with adherence to insulin treatment, and measuring adherence to insulin is known to be complicated. To (a) identify methods to measure insulin adherence in patients with diabetes and (b) evaluate whether identified methods could be considered for testing as a quality measure. Systematic searches were conducted in the online electronic databases Embase, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Library, supplemented with additional manual searches to identify publications on insulin adherence from the year 2000 onward. Identified citations were screened for relevance against predefined eligibility criteria, and methods to measure adherence to insulin were extracted from relevant studies into data extraction tables. Methods were critiqued on the feasibility for consideration as a quality measure. Seventy-eight publications met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Included studies reported various indirect methods to measure adherence to insulin, using prescription claims or self-report questionnaires. Commonly reported methods included the (adjusted) medication possession ratio, proportion of days covered, persistence, daily average consumption, and the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale. All types of identified methods were associated with measuring challenges varying from accuracy of estimated adherence, complexity of data collection, absence of validated threshold for good adherence, and reliability of adherence outcomes. Without additional

  1. Measuring mental health in Indigenous young people: a review of the literature from 1998-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Anna; Andersen, Melanie; Redman, Sally; Dadds, Mark; D'Este, Catherine; Daniels, John; Eades, Sandra; Raphael, Beverley

    2014-04-01

    Indigenous young people are disproportionately exposed to risk factors for poor mental health. Methodologically rigorous research will be critical in the development and evaluation of prevention and treatment programs. Research examining the mental health of Indigenous young people may have been undermined by poor measurement. The extent to which research has used measures with adequate psychometrics is unknown. MEDLINE, PsychINFO and PUBMED databases, were systematically searched to identify papers published between 1998-2008 measuring the mental health of Indigenous young people from Australia, Canada, New Zealand or the US. Data extracted included type of mental health instrument, psychometric analyses reported and results. Fifty-four relevant studies were identified. Seventy-nine mental health instruments were used, and 18% were bespoke. Only 14% of instruments had been validated for the relevant Indigenous population. Few studies reported assessment of the reliability or validity of instruments. Data about both the reliability and validity of 10 measures were reported. None of the measures met the standards set by the review. Evidence of at least one type of reliability and validity was demonstrated for six measures. From 1998-2008 few studies of mental health in Indigenous young people used measurement instruments with previously determined reliability and validity.

  2. Identifying GIS measures of the physical activity built environment through a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ebonee N; Ambs, A M H; Reedy, Jill; Bowles, Heather R

    2011-01-01

    Examining relationships between features of the built environment and physical activity is achievable with geographic information systems technology (GIS). The purpose of this paper is to review the literature to identify GIS measures that can be considered for inclusion in national public health surveillance efforts. In the absence of a universally agreed upon framework that integrates physical, social, and cultural aspects of the environment, we used a multidimensional model of access to synthesize the literature. We identified 29 studies published between 2005 and 2009 with physical activity outcomes that included 1 or more built environment variables measured using GIS. We sorted built environment measures into 5 dimensions of access: accessibility, availability, accommodation, affordability, and acceptability. Geospatial land-use data, street network data, environmental audits, and commercial databases can be used to measure the availability, accessibility, and accommodation dimensions of access. Affordability and acceptability measures rely on census and self-report data. GIS measures have been included in studies investigating the built environment and physical activity, although few have examined more than 1 construct of access. Systematic identification and collection of relevant GIS measures can facilitate collaboration and accelerate the advancement of research on the built environment and physical activity.

  3. A review of metabolism of labeled glucoses for use in measuring glucose recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, R.W.; Young, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    The fate of tritium from each carbon of D-glucose and the metabolism of L-glucose and 2-deoxy-D-glucose are known. Differences in metabolism of labeled glucoses can be used to quantify physical and chemical recycling of glucose. Only physical recycling is measured by [1- 3 H]-L-glucose, whereas [U- 14 C]-D-glucose measures total recycling. The difference between [1- 3 H]-L-glucose and [U- 14 C]-D-glucose, therefore, is chemical recycling. Recycling from extracellular binding sites and hepatic glucose 6-phosphate can be measured by difference between [1,2- 3 H]-2-deoxy-D-glucose and [1- 3 H]-L-glucose, and the difference in irreversible loss of the two will measure extrahepatic uptake of D-glucose. Recycling via Cori-alanine cycle plus CO 2 is the difference in irreversible loss measured by using [6- 3 H]-glucose and [U- 14 C]-D-glucose. Recycling via the hexose monophosphate pathway can be determined by difference in irreversible loss between [1- 3 H]-D-glucose and [6- 3 H]-D-glucose. Recycling via CO 2 and glycerol must be measured directly with [U- 14 C]glucose, bicarbonate, and glycerol. Recycling via hepatic glycogen can be estimated by subtracting all other measured chemical recycling from total chemical recycling. This review describes means to quantify glucose recycling in vivo, enabling studies of mechanisms for conservation and utilization of glucose. 54 references

  4. Turbidimeter Design and Analysis: A Review on Optical Fiber Sensors for the Measurement of Water Turbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Zubir Bin MatJafri

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Turbidimeters operate based on the optical phenomena that occur when incident light through water body is scattered by the existence of foreign particles which are suspended within it. This review paper elaborates on the standards and factors that may influence the measurement of turbidity. The discussion also focuses on the optical fiber sensor technologies that have been applied within the lab and field environment and have been implemented in the measurement of water turbidity and concentration of particles. This paper also discusses and compares results from three different turbidimeter designs that use various optical components. Mohd Zubir and Bashah and Daraigan have introduced a design which has simple configurations. Omar and MatJafri, on the other hand, have established a new turbidimeter design that makes use of optical fiber cable as the light transferring medium. The application of fiber optic cable to the turbidimeter will present a flexible measurement technique, allowing measurements to be made online. Scattered light measurement through optical fiber cable requires a highly sensitive detector to interpret the scattered light signal. This has made the optical fiber system have higher sensitivity in measuring turbidity compared to the other two simple turbidimeters presented in this paper. Fiber optic sensors provide the potential for increased sensitivity over large concentration ranges. However, many challenges must be examined to develop sensors that can collect reliable turbidity measurements in situ.

  5. Systematic review of self-concept measures for primary school aged children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Sau Kuan; Johnston, Leanne M

    2013-10-01

    This study involved a systematic review aimed to identify self-concept measures that provided published psychometrics for primary school aged children (8-12 years) with cerebral palsy (CP). Six electronic databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES and Web of Science) were searched to identify assessments that (1) measured self-concept; (2) in children aged 8-12 years; (3) with CP; (4) with psychometrics available. The Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) checklist was used to evaluate psychometric properties and the CanChild Outcome Measure Rating Form was used to evaluate clinical utility. Search yielded 271 papers, of which five met inclusion criteria. These papers reported five measures of self-concept with psychometric properties for the target population: the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Index, Self-Description Questionnaire-I, Self-Perception Profile for Children (original) and two separate modifications of the Self-Perception Profile for Children. Currently, no self-concept measures published in English had sufficient psychometric data for children with CP. The Self-Description Questionnaire-I and the Self-Perception Profile for Children were promising options. Further research is required (a) to determine self-concept construct components important for children with CP and (b) to examine the relative strength, validity, reliability and clinical utility of self-concept measures for the target population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Measuring and influencing physical activity with smartphone technology: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bort-Roig, Judit; Gilson, Nicholas D; Puig-Ribera, Anna; Contreras, Ruth S; Trost, Stewart G

    2014-05-01

    Rapid developments in technology have encouraged the use of smartphones in physical activity research, although little is known regarding their effectiveness as measurement and intervention tools. This study systematically reviewed evidence on smartphones and their viability for measuring and influencing physical activity. Research articles were identified in September 2013 by literature searches in Web of Knowledge, PubMed, PsycINFO, EBSCO, and ScienceDirect. The search was restricted using the terms (physical activity OR exercise OR fitness) AND (smartphone* OR mobile phone* OR cell phone*) AND (measurement OR intervention). Reviewed articles were required to be published in international academic peer-reviewed journals, or in full text from international scientific conferences, and focused on measuring physical activity through smartphone processing data and influencing people to be more active through smartphone applications. Two reviewers independently performed the selection of articles and examined titles and abstracts to exclude those out of scope. Data on study characteristics, technologies used to objectively measure physical activity, strategies applied to influence activity; and the main study findings were extracted and reported. A total of 26 articles (with the first published in 2007) met inclusion criteria. All studies were conducted in highly economically advantaged countries; 12 articles focused on special populations (e.g. obese patients). Studies measured physical activity using native mobile features, and/or an external device linked to an application. Measurement accuracy ranged from 52 to 100% (n = 10 studies). A total of 17 articles implemented and evaluated an intervention. Smartphone strategies to influence physical activity tended to be ad hoc, rather than theory-based approaches; physical activity profiles, goal setting, real-time feedback, social support networking, and online expert consultation were identified as the most useful

  7. Evidence-to-policy gap on hepatitis A vaccine adoption in 6 countries: Literature vs. policymakers' beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Sachiko; Privor-Dumm, Lois A; Nanni, Angeline; Durden, Emily; Maiese, Brett A; Nwankwo, Chizoba U; Brodovicz, Kimberly G; Acosta, Camilo J; Foley, Kathleen A

    2014-07-07

    National vaccine adoption decisions may be better understood by linking multiple data sources. When examining countries' decisions to adopt the hepatitis A vaccine, applying multiple research methods can facilitate assessments of gaps between evidence and policy. We conducted a literature review on hepatitis A and stakeholder interviews about decisions to adopt the vaccine in six countries (Chile, India, South Korea, Mexico, Russia, and Taiwan). A systematic literature review was conducted across five literature databases. The review identified and abstracted 340 articles, supplemented by internet search. In addition, we interviewed 62 experts and opinion leaders on hepatitis A and/or vaccines. Data from the two sources were analyzed to identify gaps around epidemiologic data, economic data, and barriers/facilitators of hepatitis A vaccine adoption. Epidemiologic data gaps were found in Chile and Russia, where stakeholders believed data to be more solid than the literature documented. Economic data on hepatitis A was found to be weak across all countries despite stakeholders' agreement on its importance. Barriers and facilitators of vaccine adoption such as political will, prioritization among vaccines, and global or local recommendations were discussed more by stakeholders than the literature. Stakeholders in India and Mexico were not concerned with the lack of data, despite growing recognition in the literature of the epidemiological transition and threat of outbreaks. Triangulation of results from two methods captured a richer story behind vaccine adoption decisions for hepatitis A. The discrepancy between policymakers' beliefs and existing data suggest a decline in priority of hepatitis A or weak investment in data collection. Filling the confirmed data gaps in seroprevalence or economic data is important to help guide policy decisions. Greater communication of the risk of hepatitis A and the benefits of the vaccine may help countries undergoing the

  8. Assessment of questionnaires measuring quality of life in infertile couples: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Seyyed Abbas; Masoumi, Seyyedeh Zahra; Keramat, Afsaneh; Pooralajal, Jalal; Shobeiri, Fatemeh

    2013-07-01

    Infertility has potentially inappropriate effects on quality of life in infertile couples. Various general and specific questionnaires have been structured for assessing different aspects of quality of life in infertile men, women, or couples. The present systematic review was designed to assess these questionnaires and also identify different factors affecting infertile couples based on the aforesaid questionnaires. The research strategy involved general and specific terms in relation to couples's infertility and their quality of life. A review was done for studies published from 1982 to 2012 that were indexed in Medline, ISI Web of Science and Scopus as well as abstract books on this subject. We also corresponded with the authors of the references in related studies for introducing more resources and references. In all reviewed studies, different aspects of the quality of life in couples were evaluated including sexual, psychological, social, communicational, environmental, occupational, medical, as well as economical ones. In total, after initial screening of all studies, 10 general and 2 specific questionnaires were retrieved. Although no meta-analysis was found in the review, infertility had a negative effect on quality of life in couples. This study revealed that some general questionnaires such as SF-36 and WHO-QOL were mostly used for assessing quality of life in infertile couples and some specific questionnaires such as FERTI-QoL and Fertility Problem Inventory were rarely used. Thus, it seems that the evaluation of quality of life in infertile couples needs valid instruments for measurement.

  9. Child and adolescent self-report symptom measurement in pediatric oncology research: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Laura C; McFatrich, Molly; Lucas, Nicole; Walker, Jennifer S; Withycombe, Janice S; Hinds, Pamela S; Sung, Lillian; Tomlinson, Deborah; Freyer, David R; Mack, Jennifer W; Baker, Justin N; Reeve, Bryce B

    2018-02-01

    Previous work in pediatric oncology has found that clinicians and parents tend to under-report the frequency and severity of treatment-related symptoms compared to child self-report. As such, there is a need to identify high-quality self-report instruments to be used in pediatric oncology research studies. This study's objective was to conduct a systematic literature review of existing English language instruments used to measure self-reported symptoms in children and adolescents undergoing cancer treatment. A comprehensive literature search was conducted in MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO to identify relevant articles published through November 10, 2016. Using pre-specified inclusion/exclusion criteria, six trained reviewers carefully screened abstracts and full-text articles for eligibility. There were 7738 non-duplicate articles identified in the literature search. Forty articles met our eligibility criteria, and within these articles, there were 38 self-report English symptom instruments. Most studies evaluated only cross-sectional psychometric properties, such as reliability or validity. Ten studies assessed an instrument's responsiveness or ability to detect changes in symptoms over time. Eight instruments met our criteria for use in future longitudinal pediatric oncology studies. This systematic review aids pediatric oncology researchers in identifying and selecting appropriate symptom measures with strong psychometric evidence for their studies. Enhancing the child's voice in pediatric oncology research studies allows us to better understand the impact of cancer and its treatment on the lives of children.

  10. Fogwater deposition modeling for terrestrial ecosystems: A review of developments and measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katata, Genki

    2014-07-01

    Recent progress in modeling fogwater (and low cloud water) deposition over terrestrial ecosystems during fogwater droplet interception by vegetative surfaces is reviewed. Several types of models and parameterizations for fogwater deposition are discussed with comparing assumptions, input parameter requirements, and modeled processes. The relationships among deposition velocity of fogwater (Vd) in model results, wind speed, and plant species structures associated with literature values are gathered for model validation. Quantitative comparisons between model results and observations in forest environments revealed differences as large as 2 orders of magnitude, which are likely caused by uncertainties in measurement techniques over heterogeneous landscapes. Results from the literature review show that Vd values ranged from 2.1 to 8.0 cm s-1 for short vegetation, whereas Vd = 7.7-92 cm s-1 and 0-20 cm s-1 for forests measured by throughfall-based methods and the eddy covariance method, respectively. This review also discusses the current understanding of the impacts of fogwater deposition on atmosphere-land interactions and over complex terrain based on results from numerical studies. Lastly, future research priorities in innovative modeling and observational approaches for model validation are outlined.

  11. Radon Measurements in Egypt using passive etched track detectors. A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomaa, M.A.; Hussein, A.S.; El-Arabi, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Radon and its progeny may cause serious radiation harm to human health such as lung cancer and other types. Radon measurements based on alpha particles etched track detectors (LR-115, CR-39) are very attractive for assessment of radon exposure. This is due to their high sensitivity, low cost, easy to handle and retain a permanent record of data. Also these detectors can incorporate the effects of seasonal and diurnal fluctuation of radon activity concentrations due to physical, geological and meteorological factors. The present review is based mainly on the topic of passive etched track detectors for the measurements of radon in Egypt in the recent years. Published papers includes the measurements of radon in dwellings, working places, Cairo Metro stations, ancient Pharaonic places and uranium exploration galleries as well as assessment of radon in drinking water

  12. Measuring Soil Water Potential for Water Management in Agriculture: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bittelli

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil water potential is a soil property affecting a large variety of bio-physical processes, such as seed germination, plant growth and plant nutrition. Gradients in soil water potential are the driving forces of water movement, affecting water infiltration, redistribution, percolation, evaporation and plants’ transpiration. The total soil water potential is given by the sum of gravity, matric, osmotic and hydrostatic potential. The quantification of the soil water potential is necessary for a variety of applications both in agricultural and horticultural systems such as optimization of irrigation volumes and fertilization. In recent decades, a large number of experimental methods have been developed to measure the soil water potential, and a large body of knowledge is now available on theory and applications. In this review, the main techniques used to measure the soil water potential are discussed. Subsequently, some examples are provided where the measurement of soil water potential is utilized for a sustainable use of water resources in agriculture.

  13. What Do We Mean by Physician Wellness? A Systematic Review of Its Definition and Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Keri J S; Trockel, Mickey T; Khan, Christina T; Raj, Kristin S; Murphy, Mary Lou; Bohman, Bryan; Frank, Erica; Louie, Alan K; Roberts, Laura Weiss

    2018-02-01

    Physician wellness (well-being) is recognized for its intrinsic importance and impact on patient care, but it is a construct that lacks conceptual clarity. The authors conducted a systematic review to characterize the conceptualization of physician wellness in the literature by synthesizing definitions and measures used to operationalize the construct. A total of 3057 references identified from PubMed, Web of Science, and a manual reference check were reviewed for studies that quantitatively assessed the "wellness" or "well-being" of physicians. Definitions of physician wellness were thematically synthesized. Measures of physician wellness were classified based on their dimensional, contextual, and valence attributes, and changes in the operationalization of physician wellness were assessed over time (1989-2015). Only 14% of included papers (11/78) explicitly defined physician wellness. At least one measure of mental, social, physical, and integrated well-being was present in 89, 50, 49, and 37% of papers, respectively. The number of papers operationalizing physician wellness using integrated, general-life well-being measures (e.g., meaning in life) increased [X 2  = 5.08, p = 0.02] over time. Changes in measurement across mental, physical, and social domains remained stable over time. Conceptualizations of physician wellness varied widely, with greatest emphasis on negative moods/emotions (e.g., burnout). Clarity and consensus regarding the conceptual definition of physician wellness is needed to advance the development of valid and reliable physician wellness measures, improve the consistency by which the construct is operationalized, and increase comparability of findings across studies. To guide future physician wellness assessments and interventions, the authors propose a holistic definition.

  14. Biosecurity measures for backyard poultry in developing countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conan, Anne; Goutard, Flavie Luce; Sorn, San; Vong, Sirenda

    2012-12-07

    Poultry represents an important sector in animal production, with backyard flocks representing a huge majority, especially in the developing countries. In these countries, villagers raise poultry to meet household food demands and as additional sources of incomes. Backyard production methods imply low biosecurity measures and high risk of infectious diseases, such as Newcastle disease or zoonosis such as Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI).We reviewed literature on biosecurity practices for prevention of infectious diseases, and published recommendations for backyard poultry and assessed evidence of their impact and feasibility, particularly in developing countries. Documents were sourced from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) website, and from Pubmed and Google databases. A total of 62 peer-reviewed and non-referred documents were found, most of which were published recently (after 2004) and focused on HPAI/H5N1-related biosecurity measures (64%). Recommendations addressed measures for flock management, feed and water management, poultry trade and stock change, poultry health management and the risk to humans. Only one general guideline was found for backyard poultry-related biosecurity; the other documents were drawn up for specific developing settings and only engaged their authors (e.g. consultants). These national guidelines written by consultants generated recommendations regarding measures derived from the highest standards of commercial poultry production. Although biosecurity principles of isolation and containment are described in most documents, only a few documents were found on the impact of measures in family poultry settings and none gave any evidence of their feasibility and effectiveness for backyard poultry. Given the persistent threat posed by HPAI/H5N1 to humans in developing countries, our findings highlight the importance of encouraging applied research toward identifying sustained and adapted biosecurity measures for

  15. GIS measured environmental correlates of active school transport: a systematic review of 14 studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Bonny Yee-Man; Faulkner, Guy; Buliung, Ron

    2011-05-06

    Emerging frameworks to examine active school transportation (AST) commonly emphasize the built environment (BE) as having an influence on travel mode decisions. Objective measures of BE attributes have been recommended for advancing knowledge about the influence of the BE on school travel mode choice. An updated systematic review on the relationships between GIS-measured BE attributes and AST is required to inform future research in this area. The objectives of this review are: i) to examine and summarize the relationships between objectively measured BE features and AST in children and adolescents and ii) to critically discuss GIS methodologies used in this context. Six electronic databases, and websites were systematically searched, and reference lists were searched and screened to identify studies examining AST in students aged five to 18 and reporting GIS as an environmental measurement tool. Fourteen cross-sectional studies were identified. The analyses were classified in terms of density, diversity, and design and further differentiated by the measures used or environmental condition examined. Only distance was consistently found to be negatively associated with AST. Consistent findings of positive or negative associations were not found for land use mix, residential density, and intersection density. Potential modifiers of any relationship between these attributes and AST included age, school travel mode, route direction (e.g., to/from school), and trip-end (home or school). Methodological limitations included inconsistencies in geocoding, selection of study sites, buffer methods and the shape of zones (Modifiable Areal Unit Problem [MAUP]), the quality of road and pedestrian infrastructure data, and school route estimation. The inconsistent use of spatial concepts limits the ability to draw conclusions about the relationship between objectively measured environmental attributes and AST. Future research should explore standardizing buffer size, assess the

  16. A systematic review of maternal smoking during pregnancy and fetal measurements with meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Abraham

    Full Text Available Maternal smoking during pregnancy is linked to reduced birth weight but the gestation at onset of this relationship is not certain. We present a systematic review of the literature describing associations between maternal smoking during pregnancy and ultrasound measurements of fetal size, together with an accompanying meta-analysis.Studies were selected from electronic databases (OVID, EMBASE and Google Scholar that examined associations between maternal smoking or smoke exposure and antenatal fetal ultrasound measurements. Outcome measures were first, second or third trimester fetal measurements.There were 284 abstracts identified, 16 papers were included in the review and the meta-analysis included data from eight populations. Maternal smoking was associated with reduced second trimester head size (mean reduction 0.09 standard deviation (SD [95% CI 0.01, 0.16] and femur length (0.06 [0.01, 0.10] and reduced third trimester head size (0.18 SD [0.13, 0.23], femur length (0.27 SD [0.21, 0.32] and estimated fetal weight (0.18 SD [0.11, 0.24]. Higher maternal cigarette consumption was associated with a lower z score for head size in the second (mean difference 0.09 SD [0, 0.19] and third (0.15 SD [0.03, 0.26] trimesters compared to lower consumption. Fetal measurements were not reduced for those whose mothers quit before or after becoming pregnant compared to mothers who had never smoked.Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with reduced fetal measurements after the first trimester, particularly reduced head size and femur length. These effects may be attenuated if mothers quit or reduce cigarette consumption during pregnancy.

  17. Volatile organic compounds in indoor air: A review ofconcentrations measured in North America since 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ATHodgson@lbl.gov

    2003-04-01

    Central tendency and upper limit concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measured in indoor air are summarized and reviewed. Data were obtained from published cross-sectional studies of residential and office buildings conducted in North America from 1990through the present. VOC concentrations in existing residences reported in 12 studies comprise the majority of the data set. Central tendency and maximum concentrations are compared between new and existing residences and between existing residences and office buildings. Historical changes in indoor VOC concentrations since the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 are explored by comparing the current data set with two published reviews of previous data obtained primarily in the 1980s. These historical comparisons suggest average indoor concentrations of some toxic air contaminants, such as 1,1,1-trichloroethane have decreased.

  18. The Effects of Policy Knowledge on Attitudes and Behaviors towards Participation in Educational Policy-Making among Parents: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-wen

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a study designed to examine the relations between knowledge, attitude and behavior towards educational policy-making. Understanding parents' knowledge in terms of attitude is important to predict behavior for participation in educational policy-making. Factors affecting parental participation in educational policy-making are…

  19. Measuring nanoparticles size distribution in food and consumer products: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzolai, L; Gilliland, D; Rossi, F

    2012-08-01

    Nanoparticles are already used in several consumer products including food, food packaging and cosmetics, and their detection and measurement in food represent a particularly difficult challenge. In order to fill the void in the official definition of what constitutes a nanomaterial, the European Commission published in October 2011 its recommendation on the definition of 'nanomaterial'. This will have an impact in many different areas of legislation, such as the European Cosmetic Products Regulation, where the current definitions of nanomaterial will come under discussion regarding how they should be adapted in light of this new definition. This new definition calls for the measurement of the number-based particle size distribution in the 1-100 nm size range of all the primary particles present in the sample independently of whether they are in a free, unbound state or as part of an aggregate/agglomerate. This definition does present great technical challenges for those who must develop valid and compatible measuring methods. This review will give an overview of the current state of the art, focusing particularly on the suitability of the most used techniques for the size measurement of nanoparticles when addressing this new definition of nanomaterials. The problems to be overcome in measuring nanoparticles in food and consumer products will be illustrated with some practical examples. Finally, a possible way forward (based on the combination of different measuring techniques) for solving this challenging analytical problem is illustrated.

  20. Fissile material holdup measurement systems: an historical review of hardware and software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Jeffrey Allen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Smith, Steven E [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rowe, Nathan C [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of fissile material holdup is accomplished by passively measuring the energy-dependent photon flux and/or passive neutron flux emitted from the fissile material deposited within an engineered process system. Both measurement modalities--photon and neutron--require the implementation of portable, battery-operated systems that are transported, by hand, from one measurement location to another. Because of this portability requirement, gamma-ray spectrometers are typically limited to inorganic scintillators, coupled to photomultiplier tubes, a small multi-channel analyzer, and a handheld computer for data logging. For neutron detection, polyethylene-moderated, cadmium-back-shielded He-3 thermal neutron detectors are used, coupled to nuclear electronics for supplying high voltage to the detector, and amplifying the signal chain to the scaler for counting. Holdup measurement methods, including the concept of Generalized Geometry Holdup (GGH), are well presented by T. Douglas Reilly in LA-UR-07-5149 and P. Russo in LA-14206, yet both publications leave much of the evolutionary hardware and software to the imagination of the reader. This paper presents an historical review of systems that have been developed and implemented since the mid-1980s for the nondestructive assay of fissile material, in situ. Specifications for the next-generation holdup measurements systems are conjectured.

  1. Measurement of obesity prevention in childcare settings: A systematic review of current instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanhope, Kaitlyn K; Kay, Christi; Stevenson, Beth; Gazmararian, Julie A

    The incidence of childhood obesity is highest among children entering kindergarten. Overweight and obesity in early childhood track through adulthood. Programs increasingly target children in early life for obesity prevention. However, the published literature lacks a review on tools available for measuring behaviour and environmental level change in child care. The objective is to describe measurement tools currently in use in evaluating obesity-prevention in preschool-aged children. Literature searches were conducted in PubMed using the keywords "early childhood obesity," "early childhood measurement," "early childhood nutrition" and "early childhood physical activity." Inclusion criteria included a discussion of: (1) obesity prevention, risk assessment or treatment in children ages 1-5 years; and (2) measurement of nutrition or physical activity. One hundred thirty-four publications were selected for analysis. Data on measurement tools, population and outcomes were abstracted into tables. Tables are divided by individual and environmental level measures and further divided into physical activity, diet and physical health outcomes. Recommendations are made for weighing advantages and disadvantages of tools. Despite rising numbers of interventions targeting obesity-prevention and treatment in preschool-aged children, there is no consensus for which tools represent a gold standard or threshold of accuracy. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Measuring emotion regulation and emotional expression in breast cancer patients: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Tânia; Tavares, Rita; Schulz, Marc S; Matos, Paula Mena

    2016-02-01

    The important role of emotion regulation and expression in adaptation to breast cancer is now widely recognized. Studies have shown that optimal emotion regulation strategies, including less constrained emotional expression, are associated with better adaptation. Our objective was to systematically review measures used to assess the way women with breast cancer regulate their emotions. This systematic review was conducted in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Nine different databases were searched. Data were independently extracted and assessed by two researchers. English-language articles that used at least one instrument to measure strategies to regulate emotions in women with breast cancer were included. Of 679 abstracts identified 59 studies were deemed eligible for inclusion. Studies were coded regarding their objectives, methods, and results. We identified 16 instruments used to measure strategies of emotion regulation and expression. The most frequently employed instrument was the Courtauld Emotional Control Scale. Few psychometric proprieties other than internal consistency were reported for most instruments. Many studies did not include important information regarding descriptive characteristics and psychometric properties of the instruments used. The instruments used tap different aspects of emotion regulation. Specific instruments should be explored further with regard to content, validity, and reliability in the context of breast cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Conceptualization and Measurement of Comorbidity: A Review of the Interprofessional Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salimah H. Meghani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Chronic medical conditions often occur in combination. Understanding underlying mechanisms causing diseases and their interactions may make it possible to address multiple complex conditions with single or consolidated treatment approaches and improve patients’ health outcomes while reducing costs. Objectives. We present a synthesis of the current interprofessional discourse on the issues surrounding comorbidities. Methods. A targeted review of the literature was conducted using published editorials, commentaries, and review articles. Results. Errors in conceptualization and measurement plague our current understanding of comorbidities. Two potential paths to generating knowledge involve the use of etiological or epidemiological approach. An etiological approach investigates the risk factors and underlying mechanisms potentially leading to consolidation of diagnosis and treatments. Because of the rudimentary stage of knowledge development in this area, this approach will require time and significant research investments. In contrast, the epidemiological approach relies on statistical identification of disease entities that cooccur beyond random chance; this approach carries an accompanying risk of diagnostic and treatment proliferation. Discussion. The concept of comorbidity, its nature, and measurement is in need of meaningful debate by the scientific and clinical communities. Recommendations in the domains of conceptualization, research, and measurement are discussed.

  4. Measuring teamwork in health care settings: a review of survey instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Melissa A; Nembhard, Ingrid M; Edmondson, Amy C

    2015-04-01

    Teamwork in health care settings is widely recognized as an important factor in providing high-quality patient care. However, the behaviors that comprise effective teamwork, the organizational factors that support teamwork, and the relationship between teamwork and patient outcomes remain empirical questions in need of rigorous study. To identify and review survey instruments used to assess dimensions of teamwork so as to facilitate high-quality research on this topic. We conducted a systematic review of articles published before September 2012 to identify survey instruments used to measure teamwork and to assess their conceptual content, psychometric validity, and relationships to outcomes of interest. We searched the ISI Web of Knowledge database, and identified relevant articles using the search terms team, teamwork, or collaboration in combination with survey, scale, measure, or questionnaire. We found 39 surveys that measured teamwork. Surveys assessed different dimensions of teamwork. The most commonly assessed dimensions were communication, coordination, and respect. Of the 39 surveys, 10 met all of the criteria for psychometric validity, and 14 showed significant relationships to nonself-report outcomes. Evidence of psychometric validity is lacking for many teamwork survey instruments. However, several psychometrically valid instruments are available. Researchers aiming to advance research on teamwork in health care should consider using or adapting one of these instruments before creating a new one. Because instruments vary considerably in the behavioral processes and emergent states of teamwork that they capture, researchers must carefully evaluate the conceptual consistency between instrument, research question, and context.

  5. Oscillometric and auscultatory blood pressure measurement methods in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncombe, Stephanie L; Voss, Christine; Harris, Kevin C

    2017-02-01

    The phase-out of mercury from clinical settings calls for valid alternatives to assess blood pressure (BP) in children. Aneroid devices provide a mercury-free alternative to BP measurements by auscultation, whereas oscillometric (automated) devices are increasingly becoming the norm in clinical practice due to their ease of use. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the accuracy of oscillometric and aneroid BP devices compared with the mercury sphygmomanometer for the measurement of BP in children. We systematically searched four electronic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and Web of Science) and relevant journals for eligible articles published before 30 July 2015. We screened 1415 articles, and two authors independently reviewed 92 full-text articles. We included 29 articles (38 studies) with 26 879 children. Random-effects model meta-analyses revealed that oscillometric devices yield higher measurements of SBP than auscultation with a mercury sphygmomanometer (pooled effect estimate 2.53 mmHg; 95% CI 0.57-4.50; P devices and found comparable results. Oscillometric devices may serve as a suitable alternative to auscultation for initial BP screening in the pediatric population.

  6. Daring to dream: reactions to tobacco endgame ideas among policy-makers, media and public health practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Nick

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco control strategies have mainly targeted reducing demand. Supply-side focused measures, though less familiar, deserve consideration, particularly to achieve 'endgame' tobacco control aims (e.g. achieving close to zero smoking prevalence. We explored attitudes towards supply-side focused 'endgame' tobacco control approaches and how they can be best communicated with senior policymakers, journalists, and public health practitioners. Methods We identified five supply-side focused approaches which could potentially lead to the tobacco endgame: two structural models and three discrete actions. The structural models were: (i a Nicotine Authority to coordinate tobacco control activities and regulate the nicotine/tobacco market for public health aims; and (ii a Tobacco Supply Agency acting as a monopoly purchaser of tobacco products and controlling the tobacco supply for public health aims. The actions were: (a allocating progressively reducing tobacco product import quotas (the 'sinking lid' until importation and commercial sale of tobacco products ceased; (b making tobacco companies responsible for reducing smoking prevalence with stringent financial penalties if targets were missed; and (c new laws to facilitate litigation against tobacco companies. These approaches were presented as means to achieve a tobacco free New Zealand by 2020 to 19 senior policymakers, journalists, and public health physicians in two focus groups and eight interviews, and their reactions sought. Results The tobacco-free vision was widely supported. Participants engaged fully with the proposed tobacco control approaches, which were viewed as interesting or even intriguing. Most supported increasing the focus on supply-side measures. Views differed greatly about the desirability, feasibility and likely effectiveness of each approach. Participants identified a range of potential barriers to implementation and challenges to successfully advocating and

  7. Structural analysis of health-relevant policy-making information exchange networks in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contandriopoulos, Damien; Benoît, François; Bryant-Lukosius, Denise; Carrier, Annie; Carter, Nancy; Deber, Raisa; Duhoux, Arnaud; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Larouche, Catherine; Leclerc, Bernard-Simon; Levy, Adrian; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Maximova, Katerina; McGrail, Kimberlyn; Nykiforuk, Candace; Roos, Noralou; Schwartz, Robert; Valente, Thomas W; Wong, Sabrina; Lindquist, Evert; Pullen, Carolyn; Lardeux, Anne; Perroux, Melanie

    2017-09-20

    Health systems worldwide struggle to identify, adopt, and implement in a timely and system-wide manner the best-evidence-informed-policy-level practices. Yet, there is still only limited evidence about individual and institutional best practices for fostering the use of scientific evidence in policy-making processes The present project is the first national-level attempt to (1) map and structurally analyze-quantitatively-health-relevant policy-making networks that connect evidence production, synthesis, interpretation, and use; (2) qualitatively investigate the interaction patterns of a subsample of actors with high centrality metrics within these networks to develop an in-depth understanding of evidence circulation processes; and (3) combine these findings in order to assess a policy network's "absorptive capacity" regarding scientific evidence and integrate them into a conceptually sound and empirically grounded framework. The project is divided into two research components. The first component is based on quantitative analysis of ties (relationships) that link nodes (participants) in a network. Network data will be collected through a multi-step snowball sampling strategy. Data will be analyzed structurally using social network mapping and analysis methods. The second component is based on qualitative interviews with a subsample of the Web survey participants having central, bridging, or atypical positions in the network. Interviews will focus on the process through which evidence circulates and enters practice. Results from both components will then be integrated through an assessment of the network's and subnetwork's effectiveness in identifying, capturing, interpreting, sharing, reframing, and recodifying scientific evidence in policy-making processes. Knowledge developed from this project has the potential both to strengthen the scientific understanding of how policy-level knowledge transfer and exchange functions and to provide significantly improved advice

  8. Measurement of disordered eating in bariatric surgery candidates: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Katrina; Brennan, Leah

    2015-01-01

    Symptoms of disordered eating are common among patients seeking bariatric surgery, and assessment of eating pathology is typical in pre-surgical evaluations. A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the definitions, diagnostic criteria and measures used to assess disordered eating in adults seeking bariatric surgery. The review identified 147 articles featuring 34 questionnaires and 45 interviews used in pre-surgical assessments. The Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns Revised and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM were the most frequently used questionnaire and interview respectively. Variations to pre-surgical diagnostic criteria included changes to the frequency and duration criteria for binge eating, and inconsistent use of disordered eating definitions (e.g., grazing). Results demonstrate a paucity of measures designed specifically for an obese sample, and only 24% of questionnaires and 4% of interviews used had any reported psychometric evaluation in bariatric surgery candidates. The psychometric data available suggest that interview assessments are critical for accurately identifying binge episodes and other diagnostic information, while self-report questionnaires may be valuable for providing additional information of clinical utility (e.g., severity of eating, shape and weight-related concerns). Findings highlight the need for consensus on disordered eating diagnostic criteria and psychometric evaluation of measures to determine whether existing measures provide a valid assessment of disordered eating in this population. Consistent diagnosis and the use of validated measures will facilitate accurate identification of disordered eating in the pre-surgical population to enable assessment of suitability for surgery and appropriate targeting of treatment for disordered eating to optimise treatment success. Copyright © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Policy responses to problematic video game use: A systematic review of current measures and future possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Király, Orsolya; Griffiths, Mark D; King, Daniel L; Lee, Hae-Kook; Lee, Seung-Yup; Bányai, Fanni; Zsila, Ágnes; Takacs, Zsofia K; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2017-09-01

    Background and aims Empirical research into problematic video game playing suggests that overuse might cause functional and psychological impairments for a minority of gamers. Therefore, the need for regulation in the case of video games (whether governmental or self-imposed) has arisen but has only been implemented in a few countries around the world, and predominantly in Asia. This paper provides a systematic review of current and potential policies addressing problematic gaming. Methods After conducting a systematic search in the areas of prevention, treatment, and policy measures relating to problematic Internet and video game use, papers were selected that targeted problematic gaming policies (N = 12; six in English and six in Korean). These papers served as the basis of this review. Results Policies were classified into three major groups: (i) policy measures limiting availability of video games (e.g., shutdown policy, fatigue system, and parental controls), (ii) measures aiming to reduce risk and harm (e.g., warning messages), and (iii) measures taken to provide help services for gamers. Beyond the attempt to classify the current and potential policy measures, the authors also tried to evaluate their efficiency theoretically and (if data were available) empirically. Discussion and conclusions Overall, it appears that although several steps have been taken to address problematic video game playing, most of these steps were not as effective as expected, or had not been evaluated empirically for efficacy. The reason for this may lie in the fact that the policies outlined only addressed or influenced specific aspects of the problem instead of using a more integrative approach.

  10. Oncology Section EDGE Task Force on Cancer: A systematic review of patient-reported measures for sexual dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alappattu, Meryl; Harrington, Shana E; Hill, Alexandra; Roscow, Amanda; Jeffrey, Alicia

    2017-07-01

    Sexual dysfunction is an important and infrequently addressed issue in patients with cancer. To identify self-report measures for assessing sexual dysfunction and to evaluate their psychometric properties and relevance to patients with cancer. Multiple electronic databases (CINAHL, Medline, PsycInfo) were reviewed using specific search terms to locate articles that identify self-report measures assessing sexual dysfunction. From the 1118 articles reviewed, 21 measures were selected for analysis. Each measure was independently reviewed and rated by two reviewers using the Cancer EDGE Task Force Outcome Measure Rating Form. Any discrepancies between reviewers were discussed and an overall recommendation for each measure was made using the 4-point Cancer EDGE Task Force Rating Scale. Based on the psychometric properties and relevance to patients with cancers, we highly recommend the following four measures: Sexual Function - Vaginal Changes Questionnaire; International Index of Erectile Function; Erection Hardness Score; Sexual Health Inventory for Men (aka International Index of Erectile Function-5). We recommend one measure, the Sexual Interest and Desire Inventory. We are unable to recommend eight measures based on limited psychometric information and/or clinical utility. Finally, we do not recommend an additional eight measures. Five of the 21 sexual dysfunction measures demonstrated satisfactory psychometric properties and application to the cancer population and are thereby recommended for clinical use in patients with cancer.

  11. Policy-making in science policy: The ‘OECD model’ unveiled

    OpenAIRE

    HENRIQUES Luisa; LARÉDO Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Version auteur consultable sur Internet : https://www.escholar.manchester.ac.uk/jrul/item/?pid=uk-ac-man-scw:172889; International audience; This article addresses the issue of the development of national science policies in OECD countries in the 1960s. It argues that the Organisation for Economic and Co-operation and Development (OECD) acted as a policy innovator playing a central role in the development and adoption of what we call the "OECD model of science policy-making". Through a detail...

  12. Why the media matters in a warming world: A guide for policymakers in the global South

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanahan, Mike

    2011-06-15

    Climate change journalism can protect people and promote sustainable development — but only if it is accurate, timely and relevant. Strengthening the media's capacity to cover climate change can help countries to plan and implement domestic policies that work on the ground, while also meeting their international obligations. Policymakers have a huge role to play: by improving the media's access to locally relevant policy information; supporting journalists to report from rural areas and international meetings; engaging the media in policy and planning processes; and working to improve their own media literacy and ability to communicate clearly on climate change.

  13. Participation, public policy-making, and legitimacy in the EU Voluntary Partnership Agreement process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wodschow, Astrid; Nathan, Iben; Cerutti, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses how participatory policy-making processes such as the Voluntary Partnership Agreement (VPA) negotiations are and should be organised to foster political legitimacy and support. The VPAs are bilateral agreements between the European Union (EU) and timber producing countries....... VPAs constitute a cornerstone in EU's Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT) programme, the most important tool for the EU to address illegal logging problems. The EU requires that national VPA negotiations include participation by the relevant stakeholders. Based on primary data, we...

  14. Clinical measures of balance in people with type two diabetes: A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, C J; Knight, T; Binns, E; Ihaka, B; O'Brien, D

    2017-10-01

    Approximately 422 million people have diabetes mellitus worldwide, with the majority diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The complications of diabetes mellitus include diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and retinopathy, both of which can lead to balance impairments. Balance assessment is therefore an integral component of the clinical assessment of a person with T2DM. Although there are a variety of balance measures available, it is uncertain which measures are the most appropriate for this population. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review on clinical balance measures used with people with T2DM and DPN. Databases searched included: CINAHL plus, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, Dentistry and Oral Sciences source, and SCOPUS. Key terms, inclusion and exclusion criteria were used to identify appropriate studies. Identified studies were critiqued using the Downs and Black appraisal tool. Eight studies were included, these studies incorporated a total of ten different clinical balance measures. The balance measures identified included the Dynamic Balance Test, balance walk, tandem and unipedal stance, Functional Reach Test, Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction and Balance, Berg Balance Scale, Tinetti Performance-Oriented Mobility Assessment, Activity-Specific Balance Confidence Scale, Timed Up and Go test, and the Dynamic Gait Index. Numerous clinical balance measures were used for people with T2DM. However, the identified balance measures did not assess all of the systems of balance, and most had not been validated in a T2DM population. Therefore, future research is needed to identify the validity of a balance measure that assesses these systems in people with T2DM. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Health related quality of life measures in Arabic speaking populations: a systematic review on cross-cultural adaptation and measurement properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Sayah, Fatima; Ishaque, Sana; Lau, Darren; Johnson, Jeffrey A

    2013-02-01

    This systematic review was conducted to identify generic health related quality of life (HRQL) measures translated into Arabic, and evaluate their cross-cultural adaptation and measurement properties. Six databases were searched, relevant journals were hand searched, and reference lists of included studies were reviewed. Previously established criteria were used to evaluate the cross-cultural adaptation of the identified instruments and their measurement properties. Twenty studies that reported the Arabic translations and adaptations of HRQL measures and/or their measurement properties were included in this review. The identified instruments were SF-36, RAND-36, WHOQOL-Bref, COOP/WONCA charts, EQ-5D, and QLI. Cross-cultural adaptations of all measures were of moderate to good quality, and evaluation of measurement properties was limited due to insufficiency of evidence. Based on cross-cultural adaptation evaluation, each instrument is more applicable to the population for whom it was adapted, and to other Arabic populations of similar culture and language specific idioms. This review facilitates the selection among existing Arabic versions of generic HRQL for use in particular Arabic countries. However, each of the translated versions requires further investigation of measurement properties before more concrete recommendations could be made.

  16. A Systematic Review of Tools to Measure Respiratory Rate in Order to Identify Childhood Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Amy Sarah; Lenahan, Jennifer L; Izadnegahdar, Rasa; Ansermino, J Mark

    2018-05-01

    Pneumonia is the leading infectious cause of death in children worldwide, with most deaths occurring in developing countries. Measuring respiratory rate is critical to the World Health Organization's guidelines for diagnosing childhood pneumonia in low-resource settings, yet it is difficult to accurately measure. We conducted a systematic review to landscape existing respiratory rate measurement technologies. We searched PubMed, Embase, and Compendex for studies published through September 2017 assessing the accuracy of respiratory rate measurement technologies in children. We identified 16 studies: 2 describing manual devices and 14 describing automated devices. Although both studies describing manual devices took place in low-resource settings, all studies describing automated devices were conducted in well-resourced settings. Direct comparison between studies was complicated by small sample size, absence of a consistent reference standard, and variations in comparison methodology. There is an urgent need for affordable and appropriate innovations that can reliably measure a child's respiratory rate in low-resource settings. Accelerating development or scale-up of these technologies could have the potential to advance childhood pneumonia diagnosis worldwide.

  17. Measurement of flying and diving metabolic rate in wild animals: Review and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Kyle H

    2016-12-01

    Animals' abilities to fly long distances and dive to profound depths fascinate earthbound researchers. Due to the difficulty of making direct measurements during flying and diving, many researchers resort to modeling so as to estimate metabolic rate during each of those activities in the wild, but those models can be inaccurate. Fortunately, the miniaturization, customization and commercialization of biologgers has allowed researchers to increasingly follow animals on their journeys, unravel some of their mysteries and test the accuracy of biomechanical models. I provide a review of the measurement of flying and diving metabolic rate in the wild, paying particular attention to mass loss, doubly-labelled water, heart rate and accelerometry. Biologgers can impact animal behavior and influence the very measurements they are designed to make, and I provide seven guidelines for the ethical use of biologgers. If biologgers are properly applied, quantification of metabolic rate across a range of species could produce robust allometric relationships that could then be generally applied. As measuring flying and diving metabolic rate in captivity is difficult, and often not directly translatable to field conditions, I suggest that applying multiple techniques in the field to reinforce one another may be a viable alternative. The coupling of multi-sensor biologgers with biomechanical modeling promises to improve precision in the measurement of flying and diving metabolic rate in wild animals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Accuracy of Blood Pressure Measurement Devices in Pregnancy: A Systematic Review of Validation Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Natalie A; Woolley, Jonathan J; Cleary, Kirsten Lawrence; Falzon, Louise; Alpert, Bruce S; Oparil, Suzanne; Cutter, Gary; Wapner, Ronald; Muntner, Paul; Tita, Alan T; Shimbo, Daichi

    2018-02-01

    The accurate measurement of blood pressure (BP) in pregnancy is essential to guide medical decision making that affects both mother and fetus. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the accuracy of ambulatory, home, and clinic BP measurement devices in pregnant women. We searched Ovid MEDLINE, The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, CINAHL EBSCO, ClinicalTrials.gov, International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and dabl from inception through August 3, 2017 for articles that assessed the validity of an upper arm BP measurement device against a mercury sphygmomanometer in pregnant women. Two independent investigators determined eligibility, extracted data, and adjudicated protocol violations. From 1798 potential articles identified, 41, that assessed 28 devices, met the inclusion criteria. Most articles (n=32) followed a standard or modified American National Standards Institute/Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation/International Organization for Standardization, British Hypertension Society, or European Society of Hypertension validation protocol. Several articles described the results of validation studies performed on >1 device (n=7) or in >1 population of pregnant women (n=12), comprising 64 pairwise validity assessments. The device was validated in 61% (32 of 52) of studies which used a standard or modified protocol. Only 34% (11 of 32) of the studies wherein the device was successfully validated were performed without a protocol violation. Given the implications of inaccurate BP measurement in pregnant women, healthcare providers should be aware of and try to use the BP measurement devices which have been properly validated in this population. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. A REVIEW ON LEGAL TRACEABILITY OF GNSS MEASUREMENTS IN THE MALAYSIAN CADASTRAL PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gill

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available As the dependency on Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS in surveying has been growing over the years, the need for legal traceability of GNSS measurements has become a significant matter. In Malaysia, with the advent of the Malaysia Real-time Kinematic Network (MyRTKnet, GNSS surveying has revolutionised land survey and mapping. Correspondingly, the Department of Survey and Mapping Malaysia (DSMM amended and published standard regulations and guidelines concerning cadastral survey, i.e., Cadastral Survey Regulations 2009, to include GNSS measurements. However, these regulations and guidelines has not comprehensively incorporated legal traceability of GNSS measurements; which is a prerequisite for cadastral surveys as it requires reliable and conclusive evidence for issues such as boundary disputes. The first objective of this paper is to review and discuss the legal traceability of GNSS measurements. Secondly, it will highlight the current practice and issues, i.e., with regard to legal traceability, within the present Malaysian cadastral regulation and guidelines, in relation to the prevalently adopted Network RTK (N-RTK technique, GNSS instrument calibrations, and reference stations’ accuracy. Lastly, a rudimentary best practice guideline for GNSS surveying in cadastral survey for Malaysia is proposed. It is expected that this paper will contribute to the implementation of a best practice guideline, which is inclusive of legal traceability of GNSS measurements, for the Malaysian cadastral practice.

  20. Review of measurements of the RF spectrum of radiation from lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, D. M.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements reported in the literature of the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation from lightning in the frequency range from 1 kHz to 1 GHz are reviewed. Measurements have been made either by monitoring the power received at individual frequencies using a narrow bandwidth recording device tuned to the frequencies under investigation or by recording the transient (time dependent) radiation with a wide bandwidth device and then Fourier transforming the waveform to obtain a spectrum. Measurements of the first type were made extensively in the 1950's and 1960's and several composite spectra have been deduced by normalizing the data of different investigators to common units of bandwidth and distance. The composite spectra tend to peak near 5 kHz and then decrease roughly as (frequency) to the -1, up to nearly 100 MHz where scatter in the data make the behavior uncertain. Measurements of the second type have been reported for return strokes, the stepped leader and for some intracloud processes. The spectrum of first return strokes obtained in this manner is very similar to the composite spectra obtained from the narrow-band measurements.

  1. A Scoping Review of Self-Report Measures of Aggression and Bullying for Use With Preadolescent Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Helen J; Kendall, Garth E; Burns, Sharyn K; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A

    2017-02-01

    Bullying in schools is a major health concern throughout the world, contributing to poor educational and mental health outcomes. School nurses are well placed to facilitate the implementation and evaluation of bullying prevention strategies. To evaluate the effect of such strategies, it is necessary to measure children's behavior over time. This scoping review of instruments that measure the self-report of aggressive behavior and bullying by children will inform the evaluation of bullying interventions. This review aimed to identify validated instruments that measure aggression and bullying among preadolescent children (age 8-12). The review was part of a larger study that sought to differentiate bullying from aggressive behavior by measuring the self-report of power imbalance between the aggressor and the child being bullied. The measurement of power imbalance was therefore a key aspect of the scoping review.

  2. Generic health literacy measurement instruments for children and adolescents: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okan, Orkan; Lopes, Ester; Bollweg, Torsten Michael; Bröder, Janine; Messer, Melanie; Bruland, Dirk; Bond, Emma; Carvalho, Graça S; Sørensen, Kristine; Saboga-Nunes, Luis; Levin-Zamir, Diane; Sahrai, Diana; Bittlingmayer, Uwe H; Pelikan, Jürgen M; Thomas, Malcolm; Bauer, Ullrich; Pinheiro, Paulo

    2018-01-22

    Health literacy is an important health promotion concern and recently children and adolescents have been the focus of increased academic attention. To assess the health literacy of this population, researchers have been focussing on developing instruments to measure their health literacy. Compared to the wider availability of instruments for adults, only a few tools are known for younger age groups. The objective of this study is to systematically review the field of generic child and adolescent health literacy measurement instruments that are currently available. A systematic literature search was undertaken in five databases (PubMed, CINAHL, PsycNET, ERIC, and FIS) on articles published between January 1990 and July 2015, addressing children and adolescents ≤18 years old. Eligible articles were analysed, data was extracted, and synthesised according to review objectives. Fifteen generic health literacy measurement instruments for children and adolescents were identified. All, except two, are self-administered instruments. Seven are objective measures (performance-based tests), seven are subjective measures (self-reporting), and one uses a mixed-method measurement. Most instruments applied a broad and multidimensional understanding of health literacy. The instruments were developed in eight different countries, with most tools originating in the United States (n = 6). Among the instruments, 31 different components related to health literacy were identified. Accordingly, the studies exhibit a variety of implicit or explicit conceptual and operational definitions, and most instruments have been used in schools and other educational contexts. While the youngest age group studied was 7-year-old children within a parent-child study, there is only one instrument specifically designed for primary school children and none for early years. Despite the reported paucity of health literacy research involving children and adolescents, an unexpected number of health

  3. Measurement of pH, exudate composition and temperature in wound healing: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, G; Moore, Z; O'Connor, T

    2017-07-02

    To assess the potential of measurements of pH, exudate composition and temperature in wounds to predict healing outcomes and to identify the methods that are employed to measure them. A systematic review based on the outcomes of a search strategy of quantitative primary research published in the English language was conducted. Inclusion criteria limited studies to those involving in vivo and human participants with an existing or intentionally provoked wound, defined as 'a break in the epithelial integrity of the skin', and excluded in vitro and animal studies. Data synthesis and analysis was performed using structured narrative summaries of each included study arranged by concept, pH, exudate composition and temperature. The Evidence Based Literature (EBL) Critical Appraisal Checklist was implemented to appraise the quality of the included studies. A total of 23 studies, three for pH (mean quality score 54.48%), 12 for exudate composition (mean quality score 46.54%) and eight for temperature (mean quality score 36.66%), were assessed as eligible for inclusion in this review. Findings suggest that reduced pH levels in wounds, from alkaline towards acidic, are associated with improvements in wound condition. Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP), neutrophil elastase (NE) and albumin, in descending order, were the most frequently measured analytes in wounds. MMP-9 emerged as the analyte which offers the most potential as a biomarker of wound healing, with elevated levels observed in acute or non-healing wounds and decreasing levels in wounds progressing in healing. Combined measures of different exudate components, such as MMP/TIMP ratios, also appeared to offer substantial potential to indicate wound healing. Finally, temperature measurements are highest in non-healing, worsening or acute wounds and decrease as wounds progress towards healing. Methods used to measure pH, exudate composition and

  4. Prognostic value of epicardial fat volume measurements by computed tomography: a systematic review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spearman, James V.; Krazinski, Aleksander W. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Renker, Matthias [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Giessen University, Department of Internal Medicine I, Cardiology/Angiology, Giessen (Germany); Schoepf, U.J. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Charleston, SC (United States); Herbert, Teri L. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Library Science and Informatics, Charleston, SC (United States); De Cecco, Carlo N. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University of Rome ' Sapienza' - Polo Pontino, Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Pathology, Latina (Italy); Nietert, Paul J. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Public Health Sciences, Charleston, SC (United States); Meinel, Felix G. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    To perform a systematic review of the growing body of literature evaluating the prognostic value of epicardial fat volume (EFV) quantified by cross-sectional imaging. Two independent reviewers performed systematic searches on both PubMed and Scopus using search terms developed with a medical librarian. Peer-reviewed articles were selected based on the inclusion of outcome data, utilization of epicardial fat volume and sufficient reporting for analysis. A total of 411 studies were evaluated with nine studies meeting the inclusion criteria. In all, the studies evaluated 10,252 patients. All nine studies were based on CT measurements. Seven studies evaluated the prognostic value of EFV unadjusted for calcium score, and six of these studies found a significant association between EFV and clinical outcomes. Seven studies evaluated the incremental value of EFV beyond calcium scoring, and six of these studies found a significant association. The majority of studies suggest that EFV quantification is significantly associated with clinical outcomes and provides incremental prognostic value over coronary artery calcium scoring. Future research should use a binary cutoff of 125 mL for evaluation of EFV to provide consistency with other research. (orig.)

  5. Prognostic value of epicardial fat volume measurements by computed tomography: a systematic review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spearman, James V.; Krazinski, Aleksander W.; Renker, Matthias; Schoepf, U.J.; Herbert, Teri L.; De Cecco, Carlo N.; Nietert, Paul J.; Meinel, Felix G.

    2015-01-01

    To perform a systematic review of the growing body of literature evaluating the prognostic value of epicardial fat volume (EFV) quantified by cross-sectional imaging. Two independent reviewers performed systematic searches on both PubMed and Scopus using search terms developed with a medical librarian. Peer-reviewed articles were selected based on the inclusion of outcome data, utilization of epicardial fat volume and sufficient reporting for analysis. A total of 411 studies were evaluated with nine studies meeting the inclusion criteria. In all, the studies evaluated 10,252 patients. All nine studies were based on CT measurements. Seven studies evaluated the prognostic value of EFV unadjusted for calcium score, and six of these studies found a significant association between EFV and clinical outcomes. Seven studies evaluated the incremental value of EFV beyond calcium scoring, and six of these studies found a significant association. The majority of studies suggest that EFV quantification is significantly associated with clinical outcomes and provides incremental prognostic value over coronary artery calcium scoring. Future research should use a binary cutoff of 125 mL for evaluation of EFV to provide consistency with other research. (orig.)

  6. The Measurement of Maximal (Anaerobic Power Output on a Cycle Ergometer: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarak Driss

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The interests and limits of the different methods and protocols of maximal (anaerobic power ( assessment are reviewed: single all-out tests versus force-velocity tests, isokinetic ergometers versus friction-loaded ergometers, measure of during the acceleration phase or at peak velocity. The effects of training, athletic practice, diet and pharmacological substances upon the production of maximal mechanical power are not discussed in this review mainly focused on the technical (ergometer, crank length, toe clips, methodological (protocols and biological factors (muscle volume, muscle fiber type, age, gender, growth, temperature, chronobiology and fatigue limiting in cycling. Although the validity of the Wingate test is questionable, a large part of the review is dedicated to this test which is currently the all-out cycling test the most often used. The biomechanical characteristics specific of maximal and high speed cycling, the bioenergetics of the all-out cycling exercises and the influence of biochemical factors (acidosis and alkalosis, phosphate ions… are recalled at the beginning of the paper. The basic knowledge concerning the consequences of the force-velocity relationship upon power output, the biomechanics of sub-maximal cycling exercises and the study on the force-velocity relationship in cycling by Dickinson in 1928 are presented in Appendices.

  7. Impact Strength of Natural Fibre Composites Measured by Different Test Methods: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navaranjan Namasivayam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Different types of impact test methods have been used in recent years to measure the impact resistance of natural fibre composites (NFCs. After reviewing the literature, the impact resistance of flax, hemp, sisal, wood and jute fibre composites that were measured using different test methods have been compared and discussed. It has been learned that the test methods were selected for research interest, industry requirement or availability of test equipment. Each method had its own advantages and limitations. The result from a particular test could be compared but not with the result from other test methods. Most impact test methods were developed for testing ductile-brittle transition of metals. However, each NFC has a different morphology and cannot be comparable to metals in failure mode and energy absorption characteristic during an impact test. A post evaluation of morphology of an NFC sample after an impact test is important to characterise the material.

  8. Measurement properties of existing clinical assessment methods evaluating scapular positioning and function. A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Camilla Marie; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Lund, Hans

    motion analysis) is rarely available in the clinic, the clinician needs applicable assessment tools to characterise scapular alterations.The aims were to compile a schematic overview of the available clinical scapular assessment methods and critically appraise the methodological quality of the involved...... studies.MethodsA systematic, computer-assisted literature search using Medline, CINAHL, SportDiscus and EMBASE was performed from inception to October 2013. Reference lists in articles were also screened for publications. The overall method used in this review can be divided into four steps: 1) Compile...... an exhaustive list of scapular assessment methods on the basis of an initial search; 2) Additionally search for studies including clinimetric outcome measures of the identified assessment methods; 3) Critically appraise the methodological quality of the identified measurement properties in each study; and 4...

  9. Quality of vision in refractive and cataract surgery, indirect measurers: review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parede, Taís Renata Ribeira; Torricelli, André Augusto Miranda; Mukai, Adriana; Vieira Netto, Marcelo; Bechara, Samir Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Visual acuity is the measurement of an individual's ability to recognize details of an object in a space. Visual function measurements in clinical ophthalmology are limited by factors such as maximum contrast and so it might not adequately reflect the real vision conditions at that moment as well as the subjective aspects of the world perception by the patient. The objective of a successful vision-restoring surgery lies not only in gaining visual acuity lines, but also in vision quality. Therefore, refractive and cataract surgeries have the responsibility of achieving quality results. It is difficult to define quality of vision by a single parameter, and the main functional-vision tests are: contrast sensitivity, disability glare, intraocular stray light and aberrometry. In the current review the different components of the visual function are explained and the several available methods to assess the vision quality are described.

  10. Quality of vision in refractive and cataract surgery, indirect measurers: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taís Renata Ribeira Parede

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Visual acuity is the measurement of an individual's ability to recognize details of an object in a space. Visual function measurements in clinical ophthalmology are limited by factors such as maximum contrast and so it might not adequately reflect the real vision conditions at that moment as well as the subjective aspects of the world perception by the patient. The objective of a successful vision-restoring surgery lies not only in gaining visual acuity lines, but also in vision quality. Therefore, refractive and cataract surgeries have the responsibility of achieving quality results. It is difficult to define quality of vision by a single parameter, and the main functional-vision tests are: contrast sensitivity, disability glare, intraocular stray light and aberrometry. In the current review the different components of the visual function are explained and the several available methods to assess the vision quality are described.