WorldWideScience

Sample records for policy-makers government agencies

  1. The Role of Policy Makers and Institutions in the Energy Sector: The Case of Energy Infrastructure Governance in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Edomah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on investigating the linkages and consequences of the policy decision process in the governance of energy infrastructure in Nigeria. It attempts to gain a better understanding of the role of policy makers and institutions in the provision of energy infrastructure in Nigeria. Using a combination of semi-structured interviews and documentary evidences from published literature, this study reveals three essential areas where the policy-making processes (and therefore policy makers intervene in the provision of energy infrastructure. These are: (1 granting access to historical data; (2 regulations; and (3 permitting/issuance of licenses. This study also reveals three major unintended consequences of the policy decision processes and institutions in the governance of energy infrastructure provisions in Nigeria, which are: (1 government financing corruption in the energy sector; (2 economic delusion; and (3 uncontrolled growth in energy demand driven more by export and not local internal demand.

  2. Demographic indicators of trust in federal, state and local government: implications for Australian health policy makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Samantha B; Mamerow, Loreen; Taylor, Anne W; Henderson, Julie; Ward, Paul R; Coveney, John

    2013-02-01

    To provide baseline findings regarding Australians' trust in federal, state and local government. A computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) survey was administrated during October to December 2009 to a random sample (n=1109) across Australia (response rate 41.2%). Binary logistic regression analyses were carried out by means of SPSS. Age, household size, household income, IRSD and ARIA were found to be significant indicators for trust in federal, state and local government. Trust in state government is lower for older respondents and respondents living in inner and outer regional areas. Trust in local council is lower in respondents living in inner regional areas, respondents living in disadvantaged areas, and respondents in the income bracket of $60001 to $100000. Trust in federal government is lower for older respondents and respondents living in disadvantaged areas. Of note is diminished trust in government among older, regional and lower income ($30001-$60000) respondents. Trust in all levels of government was found to be the lowest in population groups that are identified by empirical research and media to have the poorest access to government services. As a consequence, improved access to services for these populations may increase trust in health policy. Increased trust in health governance may in turn, ensure effective dissemination and implementation of health policies and that existing inequities are not perpetuated through distrust of health information and policy initiatives.

  3. Technology assessment in Australia : the case for a formal agency to improve advice to policy makers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russell, A. Wendy; Vanclay, Frank M.; Salisbury, Janet G.; Aslin, Heather J.

    The pace and reach of technological change has led to calls for better technology policy and governance to improve social outcomes. Technology assessment can provide information and processes to improve technology policy. Having conducted a review of international best practice, we established a set

  4. THE VITAL IMPORTANCE OF PROVIDING SOUND SCIENTIFIC ADVICE TO POLICY MAKERS IN GOVERNMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Pearson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an idea of the scope of professional activity of scientists working in the field of biosafety in terms of providing timely and effective advice for politicians and diplomats in the government. It should be acknowledged that politicians and diplomats are also involved in a varying degree with biosafety issues such as toxicological and biological weapons, formulated in the relevant Convention: Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention. However taking into account their professional interests, they mightn’t have appropriate information on relevant events in these and other activities. The value of these activities of qualified scientists knowing the latest information in the field of biosafety is difficult to overestimate, as they have the possibility to analyze any situation on the range of relevant activities and use their knowledge to make informed proposals which could be acceptable for their co-worker scientists in other areas of biological science. For highly qualified scientists such activities appeared to be effective, it is a vital aspect of their professional activity, because such scientists are able to provide scientific advice, analyze and summarize relevant scientific aspects on a specific topic of interest for politicians and diplomats. Such an analysis should include identification of key elements that are relevant to a given scientific problem and should be formulated so as the consequences of the various elements of the Convention were clearly appreciated and understood by politicians and diplomats. In other words, the rele vant scientific aspects should be analyzed, summarized and presented in the context of the Convention, together with suggestions on what steps in this direction should be taken by politicians and diplomats.

  5. Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market. What the Research Says For... Government & Policy-Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelahan, Leesa; Buchanan, John; Yu, Serena

    2015-01-01

    This summary brings together the relevant key findings for government and policy-makers from the research program "Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market." The program was comprised of three different strands: (1) pathways from VET in Schools, (2) pathways within and between vocational education and…

  6. Handbook - TRACE-ing human trafficking : Handbook for policy makers, law enforcement agencies and civil society organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, Conny; Pijnenburg, Annick

    2016-01-01

    Human trafficking is one of the largest criminal enterprises in the world. It is a multi-billiondollar crime of global scale. This is because human trafficking as a criminal enterprise continues to evolve as a high profit-low risk business for perpetrators and challenges policy makers, law

  7. Engaging with Policy Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, R.; Miller, S.; Heward, A.

    2011-10-01

    The need to engage with Europe's policy makers is more crucial now than ever. MEPs' understanding of the contribution and importance of planetary science to European research, industry, culture, education and job-creation may have major implications for both the direction of research and future funding for Europe's planetary science community. The mid-term review of the European Commission's Seventh Framework Programme is currently in progress and these discussions will feed into the drafting of Framework Eight. With space-going nations around the world redefining priorities, Europe may have an opportunity to take a lead in planetology on a global scale. This should be taken into account when considering planetology within the frameworks of the European Space Policy. This panel discussion, hosted by Dr Robert Massey, Deputy Executive of the Royal Astronomical Session, will look at engaging with policy makers from the point of view of those working in the European Parliament, European Commission, industry, as well as the planetary community.

  8. Policy makers are from Saturn,..citizens are from Uranus….: Involving citizens in environmental governance in the Drentsche Aa area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bommel, S.; Turnhout, E.; Aarts, M.N.C.; Boonstra, F.G.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated, theoretically as well as empirically, the relationship between public support for nature conservation policy - in the sense of citizen involvement - and governance in Dutch nature policy practices. It involved an in-depth case study of the relation between citizen

  9. 'A preferred consultant and partner to the Royal Government, NGOs, and the community': British American Tobacco's access to policy-makers in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Ross; Collin, Jeff

    2017-04-01

    British American Tobacco Cambodia (BATC) has dominated the country's tobacco market since its launch in 1996. Aggressive marketing in a weak regulatory environment and strategies to influence tobacco control policy have contributed to an emerging tobacco-related public health crisis. Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents, issues of BATC's in-house newsletter, civil society reports and media demonstrate that BATC officials have successfully sought to align the company with Cambodia's increasingly controversial political and business leadership that is centred around the Cambodian People's Party with the aim of gaining access to policy-makers and influencing the policy process. Connections to the political elite have resulted in official recognition of the company's ostensible contribution to Cambodia's economic and social development and, more significantly, provided BATC with opportunities to petition policy-makers and to dilute tobacco control regulation. Corporate promotion of its contribution to Cambodia's economic and social development is at odds with its determined efforts to thwart public health regulation and Cambodia's compliance with the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  10. The Governance of Multi-Use Platforms at Sea for Energy Production and Aquaculture: Challenges for Policy Makers in European Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Stuiver

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available European seas are encountering an upsurge in competing marine activities and infrastructures. Traditional exploitation such as fisheries, tourism, transportation, and oil production are accompanied by new sustainable economic activities such as offshore windfarms, aquaculture, and tidal and wave energy. One proposed solution to overcome possible competing claims at sea lies in combining these economic activities as part of Multi-Use Platforms at Sea (MUPS. MUPS can be understood as areas at sea, designated for a combination of activities, either completely integrated in a platform or in shared marine space. MUPS can potentially benefit from each other in terms of infrastructure, maintenance, etc. Developing MUPS in the marine environment demands adequate governance. In this article, we investigate four European sites to find out how governance arrangements may facilitate or complicate MUPs. In particular, we apply a framework specifying policy, economic, social, technical, environmental, and legal (PESTEL factors to explore governance arrangements in four case study sites in different sea basins around Europe (the Mediterranean Sea, the Atlantic Ocean, the North Sea, and the Baltic Sea. The article concludes with policy recommendations on a governance regime for facilitating the development of MUPS in the future.

  11. Why We Need to Have Broad-Based Societal Discussions of the Governance of Geoengineering, at national and international levels, starting with scientists and increasingly with policy makers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbar, A. D.; Rowan, L. R.; Field, L. A.; Keith, D.; Robock, A.; Anbar, A. D.; van der Pluijm, B.; Pasztor, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Paris Agreement aims to limit the global temperature rise to 1.5 to 2°C above preindustrial temperature, but achieving this goal requires much higher levels of mitigation than currently planned. This challenge has focused greater attention on climate geoengineering approaches, as part of an overall response starting with radical mitigation. Geoengineering cannot address climate change on its own, but some scientists say that it could delay or reduce the overshoot. In so doing, we may expose the world to other serious risks. There is , however, no comprehensive international framework for governing these emerging technologies. Carbon dioxide removal technologies can have serious environmental, social and economic impacts, which need to be addressed. The largest immediate risk, however, could be the unilateral deployment of solar engineering by one country, a small group of countries, or a wealthy individual. The real or perceived impacts of deployment, including geopolitical reactions, could further destabilize a world already going through rapid change. Effective global governance frameworks could reduce this risk. SRM research is in its infancy. The real challenges are not technical, but pertain to ethics and governance. Should there be a strategic research programme, coupled with a global agreement to prohibit deployment unless and until certain risks and governance questions are adequately addressed? How would the world's governments determine if the potential global benefit of geoengineering is worth the risks to certain regions? How should trans-border and trans-generational issues be addressed? How would governance frameworks withstand geopolitical changes over decades or more of deployment? How might such technologies be developed and deployed without undermining political will to cut emissions? The world is heading to an increasingly risky future and is unprepared to address the institutional and governance challenges posed by these technologies

  12. Green buildings in Malaysia towards greener environment: challenges for policy makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaida, M. S.; Tan, K. L.; Leong, Y. P.

    2013-06-01

    The launch of the National Green Technology Policy (NGTP) in 2009 is a manifesto of the government's seriousness in implementing "green" initiatives for the country. Specifically for buildings, the government promotes the application of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) and the application of green building index. With the introduction of Low Carbon Cities Framework, Green Pass, Green Neighbourhood, Green Building Index by various agencies and organisations in Malaysia, it is time to look back and see how all these tools could come together. This paper attempts to identify the challenges in harmonising the green initiatives for policy makers toward greener environment for sustainability.

  13. Communicating the Needs of Climate Change Policy Makers to Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; Escobar, Vanessa M.; Lovell, Heather

    2012-01-01

    This chapter will describe the challenges that earth scientists face in developing science data products relevant to decision maker and policy needs, and will describe strategies that can improve the two-way communication between the scientist and the policy maker. Climate change policy and decision making happens at a variety of scales - from local government implementing solar homes policies to international negotiations through the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Scientists can work to provide data at these different scales, but if they are not aware of the needs of decision makers or understand what challenges the policy maker is facing, they are likely to be less successful in influencing policy makers as they wished. This is because the science questions they are addressing may be compelling, but not relevant to the challenges that are at the forefront of policy concerns. In this chapter we examine case studies of science-policy partnerships, and the strategies each partnership uses to engage the scientist at a variety of scales. We examine three case studies: the global Carbon Monitoring System pilot project developed by NASA, a forest biomass mapping effort for Silvacarbon project, and a forest canopy cover project being conducted for forest management in Maryland. In each of these case studies, relationships between scientists and policy makers were critical for ensuring the focus of the science as well as the success of the decision-making.

  14. GOVERNING HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS IN SINGAPORE: AN AGENCY FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choon-Yin Sam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available It is widely known that governments are changing their relationships with public sector organizations with the aim of improving public sector efficiency and effectiveness. The conceptual understanding of government control and governance approaches in state-owned higher education institutions (HEIs is, however, less well understood. Undoubtedly, question of the extent of autonomy and control of higher education institutions is of significant interest to administrators and policy-makers. This paper reviews the reforms undertaken by the Singapore government in HEIs especially the university sector. The agency framework is applied to assess the internal and external monitoring mechanisms aimed to protect the interest of the public. The paper finds that there is still much state presence and intervention in HEIs’ activities despite the government’s attempt to develop autonomous universities. Strengthening the corporate governance standard of the HEIs will offer a useful means to increase the willingness of the government to give more control to the HEI administrators.

  15. Do policy-makers find commissioned rapid reviews useful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Gabriel; Redman, Sally; Rudge, Sian; Haynes, Abby

    2018-02-26

    Rapid reviews are increasingly used by policy agencies to access relevant research in short timeframes. Despite the growing number of programmes, little is known about how rapid reviews are used by health policy agencies. This study examined whether and how rapid reviews commissioned using a knowledge brokering programme were used by Australian policy-makers. This study used interview data to examine the use of 139 rapid reviews by health policy agencies that were commissioned between 2006 and 2015. Transcripts were coded to identify how rapid reviews were used, the type of policy processes in which they were used, what evidence of use was provided and what reasons were given when rapid reviews were not used. Fisher's exact test was used to assess variation between types of agencies. Overall, 89% of commissioned rapid reviews were used by the commissioning agencies and 338 separate instances of use were identified, namely, on average, three uses per review. Policy-makers used reviews primarily to determine the details of a policy or programme, identify priorities for future action or investment, negotiate interjurisdictional decisions, evaluate alternative solutions for a policy problem, and communicate information to stakeholders. Some variation in use was observed across agencies. Reasons for non-use were related to changes in organisational structures, resources or key personnel in the commissioning agencies, or changes in the broader political environment. This study found that almost all rapid reviews had been used by the agencies who commissioned them, primarily in policy and programme development, agenda-setting, and to communicate information to stakeholders. Reviews were used mostly in instrumental and conceptual ways and there was little evidence of symbolic use. Variations in use were identified across agencies. The findings suggest that commissioned rapid reviews are an effective means of providing timely relevant research for use in policy processes

  16. Stakeholder involvement: views from a policy maker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    In 1999 powers and responsibilities were devolved from the UK government to the new devolved administrations in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. This paper deals with the issue of radioactive waste management in the Scottish context as, following devolution, responsibility for radioactive waste management in Scotland is a devolved responsibility of the Scottish Parliament. The founding principles of the Scottish Parliament are: Openness and participation, Accountability, Power sharing, Equal opportunities. The government of Scotland is known as the Scottish Executive and has 22 Ministers covering a wide range of devolved responsibilities including: wider environmental matters, health, socioeconomic, skills and education. The Scottish Ministers also have specific responsibility in legislation regarding the governance of the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA). Scotland also has its own agencies to deliver his government policies, such as the Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA) and enterprise and skills delivery bodies. There is a high level of interest in nuclear and radioactive waste issues in Scotland as Scotland has both civil nuclear and defense sites around the country which generate radioactive waste. Alongside this is its close proximity to the largest nuclear site in the UK: Sellafield

  17. Providing Climate Policy Makers With a Strong Scientific Base (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struzik, E.

    2009-12-01

    Scientists can and should inform public policy decisions in the Arctic. But the pace of climate change in the polar world has been occurring far more quickly than most scientists have been able to predict. This creates problems for decision-makers who recognize that difficult management decisions have to be made in matters pertaining to wildlife management, cultural integrity and economic development. With sea ice melting, glaciers receding, permafrost thawing, forest fires intensifying, and disease and invasive species rapidly moving north, the challenge for scientists to provide climate policy makers with a strong scientific base has been daunting. Clashing as this data sometimes does with the “traditional knowledge” of indigenous peoples in the north, it can also become very political. As a result the need to effectively communicate complex data is more imperative now than ever before. Here, the author describes how the work of scientists can often be misinterpreted or exploited in ways that were not intended. Examples include the inappropriate use of scientific data in decision-making on polar bears, caribou and other wildlife populations; the use of scientific data to debunk the fact that greenhouse gases are driving climate change, and the use of scientific data to position one scientist against another when there is no inherent conflict. This work will highlight the need for climate policy makers to increase support for scientists working in the Arctic, as well as illustrate why it is important to find new and more effective ways of communicating scientific data. Strategies that might be considered by granting agencies, scientists and climate policy decision-makers will also be discussed.

  18. Obesity prevention programs and policies: practitioner and policy-maker perceptions of feasibility and effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Verity; McNeilly, Briohny; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2013-09-01

    The aims of this study were to map obesity prevention activity being implemented by government, non-government, and community-based organizations; to determine practitioner and policy-maker perceptions of the feasibility and effectiveness of a range of evidence-based obesity prevention strategies; and to determine practitioner and policy-maker perceptions of preferred settings for obesity prevention strategies. This study involved a cross-sectional survey of 304 public health practitioners and policy-makers from government, non-government, and community organizations across Victoria, Australia. Participants reported their organizations' current obesity prevention programs and policies, their own perceptions of the feasibility and effectiveness of strategies to prevent obesity and their preferred settings for obesity prevention. Thirty-nine percent had an obesity prevention policy, and 92% were implementing obesity prevention programs. The most common programs focused on education, skill-building, and increasing access to healthy eating/physical activity opportunities. School curriculum-based initiatives, social support for physical activity, and family-based programs were considered the most effective strategies, whereas curriculum-based initiatives, active after-school programs, and providing access to and information about physical activity facilities were deemed the most feasible strategies. Schools were generally perceived as the most preferred setting for obesity prevention. Many organizations had obesity prevention programs, but far fewer had obesity prevention policies. Current strategies and those considered feasible and effective are often mismatched with the empirical literature. Systems to ensure better alignment between researchers, practitioners, and policy-makers, and identifying effective methods of translating empirical evidence into practice and policy are required. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  19. Assessment of policy makers' individual and organizational capacity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An evidence to policy self-assessment questionnaire was used to assess the capacity of forty MNCH policy makers to acquire, assess, adapt and apply research evidence for policy making. Results: Low mean ratings were observed ranging from 2.68-3.53 on a scale of 5 for knowledge about initiating/conducting research ...

  20. Assessment of policy makers' individual and organizational capacity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-03

    Sep 3, 2017 ... research and capacity to assess authenticity, validity, reliability, relevance and applicability of research evidence and for organiza- ... Conclusion: There is need to institute policy makers' capacity development programmes to improve evidence-informed poli- ..... designing of research methodology; writing of ...

  1. Policy-makers' views on impact of specialist and advanced practitioner roles in Ireland: the SCAPE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begley, Cecily; Murphy, Kathy; Higgins, Agnes; Cooney, Adeline

    2014-05-01

    To ascertain and explore the views held by key healthcare policy-makers on the impact of clinical specialist and advanced practice nursing and midwifery roles. Specialist and advanced practice roles are common world-wide and were introduced in Ireland in 2000. After experiencing these roles for a decade, the views of healthcare policy-makers were sought as part of a national evaluation. A qualitative, descriptive design was used. Following ethical approval, 12 policy-makers were interviewed in 2010, using a six-part interview schedule. Policy-makers believed that specialist and advanced practice roles resulted in better continuity of care, improved patient/client outcomes and a more holistic approach. These clinicians were also said to be leading guideline development, new initiatives in care, education of staff, audit and policy development. They lacked administrative support and research time. Budget cuts and a government-applied recruitment moratorium were said to hamper the development of specialist/advanced practice roles. Healthcare policy-makers believe that specialists and advanced practitioners contribute to higher quality patient/client care, particularly at a strategic level. These roles could make an important contribution to future health service developments, particularly in relation to chronic-disease management and community care, where more advanced practitioner posts are required. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Discretionary authority and prioritizing in government agencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schinkel, M.P.; Tóth, L.; Tuinstra, J.

    2014-01-01

    Government agencies typically have a certain freedom to choose among different possible courses of action. This paper studies agency decision-making on priorities in a principal-agent framework with multi-tasking. The agency head (the principal) has discretion over part of the agency's budget to

  3. Taking Legislators to the Field: Communicating with Policy Makers about Natural Resource Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawin, R. S.; Buchanan, R. C.

    2006-12-01

    Policy makers are among the most important audiences for scientific information. In particular, legislators, legislative staff, governmental agency staff, business leaders, environmental leaders, and others need accurate, objective natural-resource information to make policy decisions. This audience is busy and difficult to reach with technical information. As part of its public outreach program, the Kansas Geological Survey (a division of the University of Kansas) communicates directly with policy makers through an annual field conference. Operated since 1995, the conference presents information by combining field experiences, presentations by experts, and participant interaction. The primary objective is to give policy makers first-hand, unbiased information about the state's natural resource issues. The field conference takes policy makers to locations where natural resources are produced or used, or where there are important environmental issues, introducing them to experts and others who carry out (or are affected by) their decisions. The conference consists of three days of site visits, presentations, hands-on activities, and panel discussions. Participation is by invitation. Participants pay a small fee, but most costs are covered by co-sponsors, usually other state or local agencies, that are recruited to help defray expenses. Participants receive a guidebook before the trip. Travel is by chartered bus; lodging and meals are provided. Conferences have focused on topics (such as energy or water) or regions of the state. The most recent conference focused on cross-boundary issues and included stops in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri. Written, post-conference evaluations are extremely positive. Legislators report that they regularly use conference information and contacts during the law-making process; conference information played a direct role in decisions related to underground natural-gas storage rules, water-rights by-back legislation, and sand and gravel

  4. Transparency in Nigeria's public pharmaceutical sector: perceptions from policy makers

    OpenAIRE

    Garuba, Habibat A; Kohler, Jillian C; Huisman, Anna M

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Pharmaceuticals are an integral component of health care systems worldwide, thus, regulatory weaknesses in governance of the pharmaceutical system negatively impact health outcomes especially in developing countries 1. Nigeria is one of a number of countries whose pharmaceutical system has been impacted by corruption and has struggled to curtail the production and trafficking of substandard drugs. In 2001, the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (N...

  5. Tree agency and urban forest governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konijnendijk, Cecil Cornelis

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The role of urban forests and urban trees in creating vibrant and resilient cities is widely recognised. Urban forest governance as the strategic decision and rule making for urban tree resources is no longer solely the domain of governmental actors, but occurs rather often as network...... governance also involving businesses and civic society. However, governance theory usually does not consider the role of non-human agency, which can be considered problematic due to, for example, the important role of urban trees in place making. The purpose of this paper is to provide further insight...... into the importance of considering tree agency in governance. Design/methodology/approach – Taking an environmental governance and actor network theory perspective, the paper presents a critical view of current urban forest governance, extending the perspective to include not only a wide range of human actors...

  6. The bioeconomy, the challenge of the century for policy makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philp, Jim

    2018-01-25

    During the Industrial Revolution, it became clear that wood was unsuited as an energy source for industrial production, especially iron smelting. However, the transition to coal was the effort of decades. Similarly, the transition from coal to oil was neither a smooth nor rapid process. The transition to an energy and materials production regime based on renewable resources can similarly be expected to be fraught with many setbacks and obstacles, technically and politically. Those earlier transitions, however, were not complicated by the so-called grand challenges faced today. Above energy security and food and water security lurks climate change. Some events of 2015 have politically legitimised climate change and its mitigation, and 2016 saw the world finally sworn to action. The bioeconomy holds some of the answers to the economic challenges thrown up by mitigating climate change while maintaining growth and societal wellbeing. For bioeconomy policy makers, the future is complex and multi-faceted. The issues start in regions and extend to global reach. It is hard to quantify what is going to be the most difficult of challenges. However, one of the visions for the bioeconomy, that of distributed manufacturing in small- and medium-scale integrated biorefineries flies in the face of the current reality of massive fossil fuel and petrochemical economies of scale, married to gargantuan fossil fuel consumption subsidies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Barriers to optimizing investments in the built environment to reduce youth obesity: policy-maker perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jill L; MacKay, Kathryn C; Manuel, Patricia M; McHugh, Tara-Leigh F

    2010-01-01

    To identify factors which limit the ability of local governments to make appropriate investments in the built environment to promote youth health and reduce obesity outcomes in Atlantic Canada. Policy-makers and professionals participated in focus groups to discuss the receptiveness of local governments to introducing health considerations into decision-making. Seven facilitated focus groups involved 44 participants from Atlantic Canada. Thematic discourse analysis of the meeting transcripts identified systemic barriers to creating a built environment that fosters health for youth aged 12-15 years. Participants consistently identified four categories of barriers. Financial barriers limit the capacities of local government to build, maintain and operate appropriate facilities. Legacy issues mean that communities inherit a built environment designed to facilitate car use, with inadequate zoning authority to control fast food outlets, and without the means to determine where schools are built or how they are used. Governance barriers derive from government departments with distinct and competing mandates, with a professional structure that privileges engineering, and with funding programs that encourage competition between municipalities. Cultural factors and values affect outcomes: people have adapted to car-oriented living; poverty reduces options for many families; parental fears limit children's mobility; youth receive limited priority in built environment investments. Participants indicated that health issues have increasing profile within local government, making this an opportune time to discuss strategies for optimizing investments in the built environment. The focus group method can foster mutual learning among professionals within government in ways that could advance health promotion.

  8. Literacy and life skills education for vulnerable youth: What policy makers can do

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Anna Caroline; Yorozu, Rika; Medel-Añonuevo, Carolyn

    2014-04-01

    In countries with a high concentration of youth with low literacy levels, the policy and programming task related to education and training is particularly daunting. This note briefly presents policies and practices which have been put in place to provide vulnerable youth with literacy and life skills education. It is based on a multi-country research study undertaken by the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning (UIL) in cooperation with the Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada (DFATD Canada; previously Canadian International Development Agency, CIDA), and on subsequent policy dialogue forums with policy makers, practitioners, researchers and youth representatives held in Africa, the Arab region and Asia. Built on this review of existing policies and their implementation, this note provides lessons for innovative practices and suggests six concrete ways to address the needs of vulnerable youth through literacy and life skills education.

  9. Marginal Propensity to Consume in Hungary: The long-term versus Short-term Challenges to Policy Makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Write

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study uses Hungarian quarterly data from the International Monetary Fund to estimate a distributed lag model whose coefficients allow derivation of the short-run and long-run marginal propensities to consume.  MPCs are main factors determining the consumption, investment, government spending, and export and import multipliers of the economy.  Hungary's economy has stagnated and its policy makers are exploring new ways to manage its economy.  Our model reveals that the numerical value of Hungarian short-run marginal propensity to consume (MPC is 0.4081181655 and the long-run MPC is 0.9458619.  These results are consistent with the corresponding figures in emerging and advanced economies.  These derived MPCs suggest that Hungarian economic policy makers should use fiscal instruments to bring these macroeconomic variables back to their long-term trend effectively

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY CAREERS IN GOVERNMENT AGENCIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Careers in chemistry and chemistry related fields can be very rewarding and enriching. Being an environmental chemist for a government agency requires a broad background in the field of chemistry. A knowledge of the operation of several analytical and preparatory instruments is...

  11. Transparency in Nigeria's public pharmaceutical sector: perceptions from policy makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohler Jillian C

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pharmaceuticals are an integral component of health care systems worldwide, thus, regulatory weaknesses in governance of the pharmaceutical system negatively impact health outcomes especially in developing countries 1. Nigeria is one of a number of countries whose pharmaceutical system has been impacted by corruption and has struggled to curtail the production and trafficking of substandard drugs. In 2001, the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC underwent an organizational restructuring resulting in reforms to reduce counterfeit drugs and better regulate pharmaceuticals 2. Despite these changes, there is still room for improvement. This study assessed the perceived level of transparency and potential vulnerability to corruption that exists in four essential areas of Nigeria's pharmaceutical sector: registration, procurement, inspection (divided into inspection of ports and of establishments, and distribution. Methods Standardized questionnaires were adapted from the World Health Organization assessment tool and used in semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders in the public and private pharmaceutical system. The responses to the questions were tallied and converted to scores on a numerical scale where lower scores suggested greater vulnerability to corruption and higher scores suggested lower vulnerability. Results The overall score for Nigeria's pharmaceutical system was 7.4 out of 10, indicating a system that is marginally vulnerable to corruption. The weakest links were the areas of drug registration and inspection of ports. Analysis of the qualitative results revealed that the perceived level of corruption did not always match the qualitative evidence. Conclusion Despite the many reported reforms instituted by NAFDAC, the study findings suggest that facets of the pharmaceutical system in Nigeria remain fairly vulnerable to corruption. The most glaring deficiency seems to be the

  12. Transparency in Nigeria's public pharmaceutical sector: perceptions from policy makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garuba, Habibat A; Kohler, Jillian C; Huisman, Anna M

    2009-10-29

    Pharmaceuticals are an integral component of health care systems worldwide, thus, regulatory weaknesses in governance of the pharmaceutical system negatively impact health outcomes especially in developing countries 1. Nigeria is one of a number of countries whose pharmaceutical system has been impacted by corruption and has struggled to curtail the production and trafficking of substandard drugs. In 2001, the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) underwent an organizational restructuring resulting in reforms to reduce counterfeit drugs and better regulate pharmaceuticals 2. Despite these changes, there is still room for improvement. This study assessed the perceived level of transparency and potential vulnerability to corruption that exists in four essential areas of Nigeria's pharmaceutical sector: registration, procurement, inspection (divided into inspection of ports and of establishments), and distribution. Standardized questionnaires were adapted from the World Health Organization assessment tool and used in semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders in the public and private pharmaceutical system. The responses to the questions were tallied and converted to scores on a numerical scale where lower scores suggested greater vulnerability to corruption and higher scores suggested lower vulnerability. The overall score for Nigeria's pharmaceutical system was 7.4 out of 10, indicating a system that is marginally vulnerable to corruption. The weakest links were the areas of drug registration and inspection of ports. Analysis of the qualitative results revealed that the perceived level of corruption did not always match the qualitative evidence. Despite the many reported reforms instituted by NAFDAC, the study findings suggest that facets of the pharmaceutical system in Nigeria remain fairly vulnerable to corruption. The most glaring deficiency seems to be the absence of conflict of interest guidelines which, if present and

  13. Transparency in Nigeria's public pharmaceutical sector: perceptions from policy makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garuba, Habibat A; Kohler, Jillian C; Huisman, Anna M

    2009-01-01

    Background Pharmaceuticals are an integral component of health care systems worldwide, thus, regulatory weaknesses in governance of the pharmaceutical system negatively impact health outcomes especially in developing countries [1]. Nigeria is one of a number of countries whose pharmaceutical system has been impacted by corruption and has struggled to curtail the production and trafficking of substandard drugs. In 2001, the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) underwent an organizational restructuring resulting in reforms to reduce counterfeit drugs and better regulate pharmaceuticals [2]. Despite these changes, there is still room for improvement. This study assessed the perceived level of transparency and potential vulnerability to corruption that exists in four essential areas of Nigeria's pharmaceutical sector: registration, procurement, inspection (divided into inspection of ports and of establishments), and distribution. Methods Standardized questionnaires were adapted from the World Health Organization assessment tool and used in semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders in the public and private pharmaceutical system. The responses to the questions were tallied and converted to scores on a numerical scale where lower scores suggested greater vulnerability to corruption and higher scores suggested lower vulnerability. Results The overall score for Nigeria's pharmaceutical system was 7.4 out of 10, indicating a system that is marginally vulnerable to corruption. The weakest links were the areas of drug registration and inspection of ports. Analysis of the qualitative results revealed that the perceived level of corruption did not always match the qualitative evidence. Conclusion Despite the many reported reforms instituted by NAFDAC, the study findings suggest that facets of the pharmaceutical system in Nigeria remain fairly vulnerable to corruption. The most glaring deficiency seems to be the absence of conflict of

  14. Towards a lean-government using new IT-architectures for compliance monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bharosa, N; Hulstijn, J; Janssen, MFWHA; Tan, Y; van Wijk, R; de Winne, N; Estevez E. and Janssen, M.

    2011-01-01

    Recent turmoil in financial markets has invoked governments to monitor activities and transactions in the private sector more strictly. At the same time, policy makers strive to cut back on government spending by reducing the size of government agencies. These contradicting developments require

  15. Origins of executive pay & corporate governance reform codes : Essays on an institutional approach to corporate governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Typically corporate governance is analyzed and understood on the basis of agency theory. This theory is not only the dominant one in academic research, it is also understood as the dominant lens by which policy makers and practitioners ought to see the field. Nevertheless, in order to provide more

  16. Mobile Learning Research: The Focus for Policy-Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traxler, John

    2016-01-01

    Mobile learning has moved in the last decade from being a small, scattered research interest to being viewed by many international agencies as a way of delivering their humanitarian missions to the developing contexts of the global South. This paper explores and documents fundamental concepts and concerns that characterize or perhaps jeopardise…

  17. Sustainable development - the challange for Irish economic policy-makers

    OpenAIRE

    McCoy, Daniel A.

    1993-01-01

    The Barrington prize lecture 1992/1993 Sustainable development has become a key phrase during the last decade in development and environmental literature. Governments and international bodies have adopted the goal of sustainable development with surprising alacrity since the concept was brought to prominence in the early 1980s by the World Conservation Strategy. The concept became enshrined by the influential 1987 report of the World Commission on Environment and Development...

  18. It's All in the Lens: Differences in Views on Obesity Prevention between Advocates and Policy Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ellen; Nguyen, Leah; Kong, Jooyoung; Brownson, Ross C.; Bailey, Jessica H.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background: Intervention strategies to reduce obesity include policy and environmental changes that are designed to provide opportunities, support, and cues to help people develop healthier behaviors. Policy changes at the state level are one way to influence access, social norms, and opportunities for better nutrition and increased physical activity among the population. Methods: Ten states were selected for a broad variance in obesity rates and number of enacted obesity prevention policies during the years of 2006–2009. Within the selected states, a purely qualitative study of attitudes of childhood obesity policy using semistructured telephone interviews was conducted. Interviews were conducted with state policy makers who serve on public health committees. A set of six states that had more than eight childhood obesity policies enacted were selected for subsequent qualitative interviews with a convenience sample of well-established advocates. Results: Policy makers in states where there was more childhood obesity policy action believed in the evidence behind obesity policy proposals. Policy makers also varied in the perception of obesity as a constituent priority. The major differences between advocates and policy makers included a disconnect in information dissemination, opposition, and effectiveness of these policies. Conclusions: The findings from this study show differences in perceptions among policy makers in states with a greater number of obesity prevention bills enacted. There are differences among policy makers and advocates regarding the role and effectiveness of state policy on obesity prevention. This presents an opportunity for researchers and practitioners to improve communication and translation of evidence to policy makers, particularly in states with low legislation. PMID:22799551

  19. Resilience by Design: Bringing Science to Policy Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lucile M.

    2015-01-01

    No one questions that Los Angeles has an earthquake problem. The “Big Bend” of the San Andreas fault in southern California complicates the plate boundary between the North American and Pacific plates, creating a convergent component to the primarily transform boundary. The Southern California Earthquake Center Community Fault Model has over 150 fault segments, each capable of generating a damaging earthquake, in an area with more than 23 million residents (Fig. 1). A Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) analysis of the expected losses from all future earthquakes in the National Seismic Hazard Maps (Petersen et al., 2014) predicts an annual average of more than $3 billion per year in the eight counties of southern California, with half of those losses in Los Angeles County alone (Federal Emergency Management Agency [FEMA], 2008). According to Swiss Re, one of the world’s largest reinsurance companies, Los Angeles faces one of the greatest risks of catastrophic losses from earthquakes of any city in the world, eclipsed only by Tokyo, Jakarta, and Manila (Swiss Re, 2013).

  20. Experiences with a dialogue process between policy makers and global modellers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Daalen, C.E.; Thissen, W.A.H.; Berk, M.M.

    1998-01-01

    Between 1995 and 1997, a series of five workshops, henceforth called the Delft process, took place with the aim to explore and enhance use of the IMAGE 2 model to support international climate negotiations. The IMAGE 2 model is a multi-disciplinary, integrated model designed to simulate the dynamics of the global society-biosphere-climate system. The workshops facilitated a dialogue between policy makers and scientists involved in the development and applications of the IMAGE 2 model. In this way, policy makers would benefit from the policy makers on how to improve the policy relevance of the IMAGE 2 model. The evaluation at the end of the workshop series showed that participants have used information from the workshop at international negotiation conferences and in preparation of policy documents. The process shows that creating a forum for direct science-policy interactions can be very useful and productive, and has confirmed the importance of creating an open and constructive atmosphere between policy makers, and between policy makers and analysts, to enhance utilisation of scientific knowledge. The authors' analysis also suggests that many factors have to be 'in the right position at the right time and place' to achieve such a success, and that it is difficult to prevent the occurrence of biases in processes like this. 33 refs

  1. Economics for assisting policy-makers to take decisions about new and endemic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, T E

    2017-04-01

    Animal health policy-makers are frequently faced with making decisions concerning the control and exclusion of diseases in livestock and wildlife populations. Economics is one of the tools they have to aid their decision-making. It can enable them to make objective decisions based on the expected costs and benefits of their policy. In addition, economics can help them determine both the distribution impact and the indirect impact of their decisions. However, economics is only one of many tools available to policy-makers, who also need to consider non-economic outcomes in their decision-making process. While there are sophisticated epidemic and economic (epinomic) models that are available to help evaluate complex problems, these models typically require extensive data and well-trained analysts to run and interpret their results. In addition, effective communication between analysts and policy-makers is important to ensure that results are clearly conveyed to the policy-makers. This may be facilitated by early and continued discussions between these two potentially disparate groups. If successfully performed and communicated, economic analyses may present valuable information to policy-makers, enabling them to not only better understand the economic implications of their policy, but also to communicate the policy to relevant stakeholders, further ensuring their likelihood of participating in the planned policy and hence increasing its likelihood of success.

  2. Is Twitter a forum for disseminating research to health policy makers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapp, Julie M; Hensel, Brian; Schnoring, Kyle T

    2015-12-01

    Findings from scientific research largely remain inside the scientific community. Research scientists are being encouraged to use social media, and especially Twitter, for dissemination of evidence. The potential for Twitter to narrow the gap on evidence translated into policy presents new opportunities. We explored the innovative question of the feasibility of Twitter as a tool for the scientific community to disseminate to and engage with health policy makers for research impact. We created a list of federal "health policy makers." In December 2014, we identified members using several data sources, then collected and summarized their Twitter usage data. Nearly all health policy makers had Twitter accounts. Their communication volume varied broadly. Policy makers are more likely to push information via Twitter than engage with constituents, although usage varied broadly. Twitter has the potential to aid the scientific community in dissemination of health-related research to health policy makers, after understanding how to effectively (and selectively) use Twitter. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Local Government Strategy Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    An overview for policy makers and program implementers of greenhouse gas emissions reduction strategies that local governments can use to achieve economic, environmental, social, and human health benefits.

  4. Public and policy maker support for point-of-sale tobacco policies in New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Carol L; Juster, Harlan R; Dench, Daniel; Willett, Jeffrey; Curry, Laurel E

    2014-01-01

    To compare public and policy maker support for three point-of-sale tobacco policies. Two cross-sectional surveys--one of the public from the New York Adult Tobacco Survey and one of policy makers from the Local Opinion Leader Survey; both collected and analyzed in 2011. Tobacco control programs focus on educating the public and policy makers about tobacco control policy solutions. Six hundred seventy-six county-level legislators in New York's 62 counties and New York City's five boroughs (response rate: 59%); 7439 New York residents aged 18 or older. Landline response rates: 20.2% to 22%. Cell phone response rates: 9.2% to 11.1%. Gender, age, smoking status, presence of a child aged 18 years or younger in the household, county of residence, and policy maker and public support for three potential policy solutions to point-of-sale tobacco marketing. t-tests to compare the demographic makeup for the two samples. Adjusted Wald tests to test for differences in policy support between samples. The public was significantly more supportive of point-of-sale policy solutions than were policy makers: cap on retailers (48.0% vs. 19.2%, respectively); ban on sales at pharmacies (49.1% vs. 38.8%); and ban on retailers near schools (53.3% vs. 42.5%). cross-sectional data, sociodemographic differences, and variations in item wording. Tobacco control programs need to include information about implementation, enforcement, and potential effects on multiple constituencies (including businesses) in their efforts to educate policy makers about point-of-sale policy solutions.

  5. Ciclovía initiatives: engaging communities, partners, and policy makers along the route to success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieff, Susan G; Hipp, J Aaron; Eyler, Amy A; Kim, Mi-Sook

    2013-01-01

    Recent efforts to increase physical activity through changes to the built environment have led to strategies and programs that use existing public space, including bicycle lanes, temporary parks, and the ciclovia initiative (scheduled events in which streets are closed to motorized vehicles and opened for recreational activities) popularized in South America. This article describes and compares the processes and structures involved in developing and implementing a ciclovia-type program in 2 US urban contexts: San Francisco, California, and St Louis, Missouri. Considering the current growth of and interest in ciclovia initiatives, important outcomes, lessons learned are offered for application in other, similar settings. Primary sources from both initiatives and from published research on ciclovias constitute the body of evidence and include year-end reports, grant applications, meeting minutes, budgets, published ciclovia guidelines, evaluation studies and Web sites, media sources, and interviews and personal communication with the organizers. Primary source documents were reviewed and included in this analysis if they offered information on 3 grounded questions: What processes were used in developing the initiative? What are the current structures and practices used in implementation of initiatives? What are important lessons learned and best practices from initiatives for recommendations to stakeholders and policy makers in other contexts? Among the categories compared, the structures and processes for implementation regarding buy-in and city department collaboration, route selection, programming, partnerships, media promotion, community outreach, and merchant support were relatively similar among the 2 initiatives. The categories that differed included staffing and volunteer engagement and funding. Buy-in from community partners, merchants, residents, and city agencies is critical for a positive experience in developing and implementing ciclovia-type initiatives

  6. Spatial Knowledge Infrastructures - Creating Value for Policy Makers and Benefits the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, L. M.

    2016-12-01

    The spatial data infrastructure is arguably one of the most significant advancements in the spatial sector. It's been a game changer for governments, providing for the coordination and sharing of spatial data across organisations and the provision of accessible information to the broader community of users. Today however, end-users such as policy-makers require far more from these spatial data infrastructures. They want more than just data; they want the knowledge that can be extracted from data and they don't want to have to download, manipulate and process data in order to get the knowledge they seek. It's time for the spatial sector to reduce its focus on data in spatial data infrastructures and take a more proactive step in emphasising and delivering the knowledge value. Nowadays, decision-makers want to be able to query at will the data to meet their immediate need for knowledge. This is a new value proposal for the decision-making consumer and will require a shift in thinking. This paper presents a model for a Spatial Knowledge Infrastructure and underpinning methods that will realise a new real-time approach to delivering knowledge. The methods embrace the new capabilities afforded through the sematic web, domain and process ontologies and natural query language processing. Semantic Web technologies today have the potential to transform the spatial industry into more than just a distribution channel for data. The Semantic Web RDF (Resource Description Framework) enables meaning to be drawn from data automatically. While pushing data out to end-users will remain a central role for data producers, the power of the semantic web is that end-users have the ability to marshal a broad range of spatial resources via a query to extract knowledge from available data. This can be done without actually having to configure systems specifically for the end-user. All data producers need do is make data accessible in RDF and the spatial analytics does the rest.

  7. Social Media for Local Government Agencies

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Sam

    2015-01-01

    With more and more people communicating online, many local agencies are making the shift to include social media as part of their outreach efforts. This session will include a breakdown of the most common social me­dia networks used by local agencies, ideas for useful and engaging content, and a discussion of best practices for social media communications. Examples will be drawn from other local agency success stories, including local agencies within Indiana.

  8. Patron Time-Use May Be an Effective Metric for Presenting Library Value to Policy Makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Glusker

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To test a metric for library use, that could be comparable to metrics used by competing government departments, for ease of understanding by policy makers. Design – Four types of data were collected and used: Time-diaries, exit surveys, gate counts, and circulation statistics. Setting – A large public library in British Columbia, Canada. Subjects – Time-diary subjects were 445 patrons checking out materials; exit survey subjects were 185 patrons leaving the library. Methods – A paper-based time diary, prototypes of which were tested, was given to patrons who checked out library materials during a one-week period. These patrons were charged with recording the use of the checked-out items during the entire three-week loan period. From this information, the average number of hours spent with various types of loaned material (print and audio/DVD was calculated. The average number of hours spent per item type was then applied to the circulation statistics for those items, across a month, to get a total of hours spent using all circulated material during that month. During the same one-week period of time-diary distribution, exit surveys were conducted by library staff with patrons leaving the library, asking them how long they had spent in the library during their current visit. The average number of minutes per visit was calculated and then applied to the gate count for the month, to get a total number of minutes/hours spent “resident” in the library that month. Adding the totals, a grand total of patron time-use hours was calculated. A monetary value was applied per hour, using the results of a contingent valuation study from Missoula, Montana (Dalenberg et al., 2004, in order to convert hours of library benefit into a dollar figure. Main Results – There was a 24% response rate for the time diaries (106/445. The diary entries yielded an average of 3.5 hours of time-use per print item, and 1.9 hours per DVD. The range for

  9. Turkey's Educational Policies in Central Asia and Caucasia: Perceptions of Policy Makers and Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcali, Pinar; Engin-Demir, Cennet

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the educational policies of Turkey in Central Asia and Caucasia in the post-Soviet era in terms of their successes and failures as perceived by some of the relevant professional policy makers in this field as well as experts from various think-tank institutions in Turkey who are interested in the region.…

  10. EDUsummIT : A Global Knowledge Building Community for Educational Researchers, Practitioners, and Policy Makers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lai, K.-W.; Voogt, J.; Knezek, G.; Gibson, D.

    2016-01-01

    The International Summit on Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Education (EDUsummIT) is a global knowledge building community of researchers, educational practitioners, and policy makers aiming to create and disseminate ideas and knowledge to promote the integration of ICT in

  11. Canadian policy makers' views on pharmaceutical reimbursement contracts involving confidential discounts from drug manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Steven G; Thomson, Paige A; Daw, Jamie R; Friesen, Melissa K

    2013-10-01

    Pharmaceutical policy makers are increasingly negotiating reimbursement contracts that include confidential price terms that may be affected by drug utilization volumes, patterns, or outcomes. Though such contracts may offer a variety of benefits, including the ability to tie payment to the actual performance of a product, they may also create potential policy challenges. Through telephone interviews about this type of contract, we studied the views of officials in nine of ten Canadian provinces. Use of reimbursement contracts involving confidential discounts is new in Canada and ideas about power and equity emerged as cross-cutting themes in our interviews. Though confidential rebates can lower prices and thereby increase coverage of new medicines, several policy makers felt they had little power in the decision to negotiate rebates. Study participants explained that the recent rise in the use of rebates had been driven by manufacturers' pricing tactics and precedent set by other jurisdictions. Several policy makers expressed concerns that confidential rebates could result in inter-jurisdictional inequities in drug pricing and coverage. Policy makers also noted un-insured and under-insured patients must pay inflated "list prices" even if rebates are negotiated by drug plans. The establishment of policies for disciplined negotiations, inter-jurisdictional cooperation, and provision of drug coverage for all citizens are potential solutions to the challenges created by this new pharmaceutical pricing paradigm. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. High salt meals in staff canteens of salt policy makers: observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brewster, L. M.; Berentzen, C. A.; van Montfrans, G. A.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the salt content of hot meals served at the institutions of salt policy makers in the Netherlands. Observational study. 18 canteens at the Department of Health, the Health Council, the Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority, university hospitals, and affiliated non-university

  13. Globalization, Wages and the Quality of Jobs : Lessons for Policy Makers

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    This note summarizes the results and describes the policy implications of the recently published book globalization, wages, and the quality of jobs that evaluates some of the effects of trade and foreign investment on workers. This book contains a framework for analysis, a literature review, and five country studies that provide the foundation for three main lessons for policy makers that ...

  14. Bioenergy, Land Use Change and Climate Change Mitigation. Report for Policy Advisors and Policy Makers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berndes, Goran [Chalmers Univ. of Technology (Sweden); Bird, Nell [Joanneum Research (Austria); Cowle, Annette [National Centre for Rural Greenhouse Gas Research (Australia)

    2010-07-01

    The report addresses a much debated issue - bioenergy and associated land use change, and how the climate change mitigation from use of bioenergy can be influenced by greenhouse gas emissions arising from land use change. The purpose of the report was to produce an unbiased, authoritative statement on this topic aimed especially at policy advisors and policy makers.

  15. Teacher Education Research and Education Policy-Makers: An Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Simone

    2016-01-01

    As teacher educators, we want our research to be influential in contributing to educational policy and practice, but there remains little understanding about ways in which teacher educators might more productively engage with each other and policy-makers so as to maximise their research impact. Drawing on an empirical study and policy document…

  16. Policy-maker attitudes to the ageing of the HIV cohort in Botswana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although there has been some realization of this development at international level, no clear defined intervention strategy has been established in many highly affected countries. Therefore we ... Conclusions: HIV among older adults remains a low priority among policy-makers in Botswana but is at least now on the agenda.

  17. Social values and solar energy policy: the policy maker and the advocate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shama, A.; Jacobs, K.

    1980-07-01

    Solar energy policy makers and advocates have significantly different hierarchies (clusters) of values upon which they evaluate the adoption of solar technologies. Content analysis, which examines the frequency with which policy makers identify different types of values, indicates that they hold economic values to be of primary importance. Environmental, social, and national security values are also substantial elements of the policy makers' value clusters associated with solar energy. This finding is confirmed by a qualitative analysis of policy makers' values. Advocates, on the other hand, assign almost equal weights (33%) to economic values and social values, slightly less weight to environmental values, and significant attention to ethical and security values as well. These results of frequency analysis are made somewhat more complicated by a qualitative interpretation of the advocates' positions. As part of their more holistic approach, several of the advocates indicated that all values discussed by them are instrumental toward achieving higher-order, ethical and environmental values. In addition, our preliminary investigation indicates that neither group is entirely homogeneous. Testing this and other propositions, as well as obtaining a similar picture of the values which the public associates with solar energy, are topics of future research.

  18. Creating a High-Skills Society during Recession: Issues for Policy Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotakopoulos, Antonios

    2015-01-01

    The present study looks at the skill formation policies adopted by policy makers in Greece in order to create a high-skills society. It examines empirically the demand side of the skill creation process within 300 small enterprises in order to understand how far supply-side measures have influenced the demand for well-trained staff within small…

  19. EDUsummIT: A Global Knowledge Building Community for Educational Researchers, Practitioners, and Policy Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kwok-Wing; Voogt, Joke; Knezek, Gerald; Gibson, David

    2016-01-01

    The International Summit on Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Education (EDUsummIT) is a global knowledge building community of researchers, educational practitioners, and policy makers aiming to create and disseminate ideas and knowledge to promote the integration of ICT in education. Four EDUsummITs have been convened in The…

  20. Communicating Scientific Findings to Lawyers, Policy-Makers, and the Public (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W.; Velsko, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    This presentation will summarize the authors' collaborative research on inferential errors, bias and communication difficulties that have arisen in the area of WMD forensics. This research involves analysis of problems that have arisen in past national security investigations, interviews with scientists from various disciplines whose work has been used in WMD investigations, interviews with policy-makers, and psychological studies of lay understanding of forensic evidence. Implications of this research for scientists involved in nuclear explosion monitoring will be discussed. Among the issues covered will be: - Potential incompatibilities between the questions policy makers pose and the answers that experts can provide. - Common misunderstandings of scientific and statistical data. - Advantages and disadvantages of various methods for describing and characterizing the strength of scientific findings. - Problems that can arise from excessive hedging or, alternatively, insufficient qualification of scientific conclusions. - Problems that can arise from melding scientific and non-scientific evidence in forensic assessments.

  1. Unmanned Aircraft Systems for Emergency Management: A Guide for Policy Makers and Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-29

    Printing Office, 2011), 46. 92 artificial intelligence into unmanned operations continues to advance, future research should include an examination of...is unlimited UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS FOR EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT: A GUIDE FOR POLICY MAKERS AND PRACTITIONERS by Darren E. Price March 2016...DATE March 2016 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS FOR EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT

  2. Engaging policy makers in road safety research in Malaysia: a theoretical and contextual analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Nhan T; Hyder, Adnan A; Kulanthayan, Subramaniam; Singh, Suret; Umar, R S Radin

    2009-04-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a growing public health problem that must be addressed through evidence-based interventions including policy-level changes such as the enactment of legislation to mandate specific behaviors and practices. Policy makers need to be engaged in road safety research to ensure that road safety policies are grounded in scientific evidence. This paper examines the strategies used to engage policy makers and other stakeholder groups and discusses the challenges that result from a multi-disciplinary, inter-sectoral collaboration. A framework for engaging policy makers in research was developed and applied to describe an example of collective road safety research in Malaysia. Key components of this framework include readiness, assessment, planning, implementation/evaluation, and policy development/sustainability. The case study of a collaborative intervention trial for the prevention of motorcycle crashes and deaths in Malaysia serves as a model for policy engagement by road safety and injury researchers. The analytic description of this research process in Malaysia demonstrates that the framework, through its five stages, can be used as a tool to guide the integration of needed research evidence into policy for road safety and injury prevention.

  3. Factors that explain how policy makers distribute resources to mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Patrick W; Watson, Amy C

    2003-04-01

    Advocates hope to influence the resource allocation decisions of legislators and other policy makers to capture more resources for mental health programs. Findings from social psychological research suggest factors that, if pursued, may improve advocacy efforts. In particular, allocation decisions are affected by policy makers' perceptions of the scarcity of resources, effectiveness of specific programs, needs of people who have problems that are served by these programs, and extent of personal responsibility for these problems. These perceptions are further influenced by political ideology. Conservatives are motivated by a tendency to punish persons who are perceived as having personal responsibility for their problems by withholding resources, whereas liberals are likely to avoid tough allocation decisions. Moreover, these perceptions are affected by political accountability, that is, whether politicians perceive that their constituents will closely monitor their decisions. Just as the quality of clinical interventions improves when informed by basic research on human behavior, the efforts of mental health advocates will be advanced when they understand the psychological forces that affect policy makers' decisions about resources.

  4. Policy maker and provider knowledge and attitudes regarding the provision of emergency contraceptive pills within Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansana Visanou

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Ministry of Health (MOH launched the National Reproductive Health Policy in 2005, which included recommendations regarding the use of emergency contraceptive pills (ECP. However, ECP have not yet been introduced officially in the public sector of the Lao PDR. Thus, their availability is limited. Understanding the knowledge of ECP and attitudes about their provision, barriers to use, and availability among health providers and policy makers is essential to successfully incorporate ECP into reproductive health services. Methods Qualitative research methods using in-depth interviews were employed to collect data from policy makers and health providers (auxiliary medical staff, nurses, and medical doctors. Altogether, 10 policy makers, 22 public providers, and 10 providers at private clinics were interviewed. Content analysis was applied to analyze the transcribed data. Results The majority of policy makers and health care providers had heard about ECP and supported their introduction in the public sector. However, their knowledge was poor, many expressed inconsistent attitudes, and their ability to meet the demand of potential users is limited. Conclusions There is a need to train health providers and policy makers on emergency contraception and improve their knowledge about ECP, especially regarding the correct timing of use and the availability of methods. In addition, the general public must be informed of the attributes, side effects, and availability of ECP, and policy makers must facilitate the approval of ECP by the Lao Food and Drug Administration. These interventions could lead to increased access to and demand for ECP.

  5. Lessons learnt for Public Policy Maker from Relocation of Tsunami Affected Villagers in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamthonkiat, Daroonwan; Thuy Vu, Tuong

    2013-04-01

    facilities such as water, electricity and dumping area were not enough supported in some donated areas. 3)A lot of fishermen had turned to wage-earners or unfamiliar jobs to earn for their living. Some were jobless more than a year after relocation because of less skill for other jobs, high competition for less vacancies and no capital to start their small business. 4)After a few years of relocation and adaptation in the donated houses, we found that old and young generation became a major residence while much of the working generation fishermen went back to their villages for their fishing career. Some of them leaved the right of living in the donated houses by renting out to non-tsunami impact people or leaving their houses abandoned. As a lesson learnt from the relocation of the tsunami impact villagers in Thailand during 2005 - 2010, we could summarize some critical concerns for government policy makers as listed; 1)The government may support the certificate of the ownership or title deed with some conditions to the villagers who occupied on their lands before the conservative zones were announced. They should have the right to stay further and do eco-friendly activities for earning their lives. The villagers have no right to transfer the title deed or certificate to the third parties. Only eco-friendly equipments are permitted for fishing in this area. 2)After relocation to the higher ground, basic facilities (such as water, electricity and dumping area) should be sufficiently furnished. 3)Not only skill practicing for career options should be supported, finding job vacancy should run in parallel to ensure that the tsunami impact villagers can afford their living. 4)For reducing the right transfer or leaving the donated houses abandoned, annual or continuous survey to these residences should be conducted by government sectors until 80% of them had settled on their careers and adaptations. Location analysis should be conducted before construction of houses for disaster

  6. Moving towards tangible decision-making tools for policy makers: Measuring and monitoring energy access provision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhanot, Jaya; Jha, Vivek

    2012-01-01

    Access to energy services has been recognised as central to achieving economic growth and sustainable development. However, almost 1.3 billion people in the world still lack access to electricity and 2.7 billion lack access to clean cooking facilities. In this backdrop, the issue of energy access is receiving more interest than ever before and this has brought to the fore, the need for a robust decision support tool for policy makers to measure the progress of energy access provision and also to provide direction for future policy making. The paper studies existing definitions of energy access and identifies the key requirements for an appropriate decision-making tool to measure and monitor energy access provision. In this context the paper assesses the strengths and weaknesses of the metrics currently being used to measure energy access in policy, as well as of contemporary monitoring and evaluation frameworks being used in other sectors. Based on these insights, a dashboard of indicators is proposed as an alternate decision support tool for policy makers to measure energy access. The paper concludes with a discussion on what is needed to operationalise this proposed framework. - Highlights: ► No one indicator or metric can successfully capture progress on energy access. ► A service oriented approach is necessary to measure energy access. ► Socio-economic and political contexts influence success of energy access policies.

  7. An integrated assessment of climate change impacts for Athens- relevance to stakeholders and policy makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakopoulos, C.; Hatzaki, M.; Kostopoulou, E.; Varotsos, K.

    2010-09-01

    Analysing climate change and its impact needs a production of relevant elements for policy making that can be very different from the parameters considered by climate experts. In the framework of EU project CIRCE, a more realistic approach to match stakeholders and policy-makers demands is attempted. For this reason, within CIRCE selected case studies have been chosen that will provide assessments that can be integrated in practical decision making. In this work, an integrated assessment of climate change impacts on several sectors for the urban site of Athens in Greece is presented. The Athens urban case study has been chosen since it provides excellent opportunities for using an integrated approach across multiple temporal and spatial scales and sectors. In the spatial dimension, work extends from the inner city boundaries to the surrounding mountains and forests. In the temporal dimension, research ranges from the current observed time period (using available meteorological and sector data) to future time periods using data from several climate change projections. In addition, a multi-sector approach to climate change impacts is adopted. Impacts sectors covered range from direct climate impacts on natural ecosystems (such as flash floods, air pollution and forest fire risk) to indirect impacts resulting from combined climate-social-economic linkages (such as energy demand, tourism and health). Discussion of impact sector risks and adaptation measures are also exploited. Case-study work on impact sector risk to climate change is of particular interest to relevant policy makers and stakeholders, communication with who is ensured through a series of briefing notes and information sheets and through regional workshops.

  8. Water bodies typology system: a Chilean case of scientific stakeholders and policy makers dialogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Fuster

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this project was to obtain a scientists-validated Typology System, which would allow to classify the surface waters bodies in Chile and, therefore, to facilitate the environmental institutional water management in the country. For this, during the years 2009 and 2011, a Typology System for the surface freshwater bodies was developed for Chile based on the methodology described by the Water Framework Directive of the European Union, which was adapted to local features through the knowledge of limnologist experts in the country, as well as policy makers' experience and their management requirements . In a first stage, national ecoregions were developed and abiotic variables were defined to compose the Typology System. The resulted Typology System for lakes and rivers was generated following an a priori and top down approach to difference biocenosis, based on geomorphologic, hydrologic and physic criteria. In a second stage, the proposed Typology System was validated by experts and policy makers, in which process new arrangements were included in the system. The working methodology used for both stages was bibliographic review, interviews to local experts in biocenosis and workshops. It is specially highlighted the participative processes and discussions in which all the agents involved were present, all of which resulted in the creation of a valid system from a scientific point of view and a product that is applicable to the necessities of the environmental institutions of the country. This work represents a successful experience in the improvement of the communication between scientists and politicians in Chile, which is a relevant factor for the elaboration of more efficient and effective environmental policies, integrating not only management and economic issues, but also more technical aspects that can influence in the final success of any long term strategy. For this reason, the replication of this kind of experiences, as well as

  9. Knowledge and Attitudes of a Number of Iranian Policy-makers towards Abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourieh, Shamshiri-Milani; Abolghasem, Pourreza; Feizollah, Akbari

    2010-10-01

    Unsafe and illegal abortions are the third leading cause of maternal death. It affects physical, emotional and social health of women and their families. Abortion is a multi-dimensional phenomenon with several social, legal, and religious implications. The views of policy-makers affect the approach to abortion in every society. Understanding the attitudes and knowledge of high-ranking decision makers towards abortion was the purpose of this study. A qualitative research was implemented by carrying out individual interviews with 29 out of a selection of 80 presidents of medical sciences universities, senior executive managers in the legal system, forensic medicine and decision-makers in the health system and a number of top Muslim clerics, using a semi-structured questionnaire for data gathering. Content analysis revealed the results. There were considerable unwillingness and reluctance among the interviewees to participate in the study. The majority of participants fairly knew about the prevalence of illegal abortions and their complications. There was strong agreement on abortion when health of the mother or the fetus was at risk. Abortion for reproductive health reasons was supported by a minority of the respondents. The majority of them disagreed with abortion when pregnancy was the result of a rape, temporary marriage or out of wedlock affairs. Making decision for abortion by the pregnant mother, as a matter of her right, did not gain too much approval. It seemed that physical health of the mother or the fetus was of more importance to the respondents than their mental or social health. The mother's hardship was not any indication for induced abortion in the viewpoints of the interviewed policy-makers. Strengthening family planning programs, making appropriate laws in lines with religious orders and advocacy programs targeting decision makers are determined as strategies for improving women's health rights.

  10. Timely injection of knowledge when interacting with stakeholders and policy makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouma, Johan

    2015-04-01

    Timely injection of knowledge when interacting with stakeholders and policy makers. J.Bouma Em. Prof. Soil Science, Wageningen University, the Netherlands During the last decade, the spectacular development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has strongly increased the accessible amount of data and information for stakeholders and policy makers and the science community is struggling to adjust to these developments. In the Netherlands not only industry has now a major impact on the research agenda but this is now to be extended to citizens at large. Rather than complain about an apparent "gap" between science and society and wrestle with the challenge to bridge it in a rather reactive manner, the science community would be well advised to initiate a proactive approach, showing that knowledge implies a deep understanding of issues and processes that does not necessarily follow from having data and information. The "gap" certainly applies to soil research in the context of sustainable development where many often well informed stakeholders are involved with widely different opinions, norms and values. Changes are suggested in the manner in which we frame our work: (i) longer involvement with projects from initiation to implementation in practice; (ii) active role of "knowledge brokers" who inject the right type of knowledge during the entire project run in a joint-learning mode, and (iii) not proposing new research from a science perspective but demonstrating a clear need because existing knowledge is inadequate. Yet more conceptual discussions about e.g. inter- and transdisciplinarity, worrysome soil degradation and lack of professional recognition are less meaningful than specific case studies demonstrating the crucial role of soil science when analysing land-based environmental problems. New narratives are needed instead of statistics, openness to learn from best practices and pilot projects as a necessary next step beyond awareness raising. Soil

  11. 41 CFR 301-10.262 - How will my agency authorize travel on Government aircraft?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... agency authorize travel on Government aircraft? Your agency will authorize your travel on Government...-use travel; or (2) You are not an agency head, and your agency head has determined in writing that all... official or his/her principal deputy in the agency sponsoring your travel must authorize you to fly on...

  12. Lessons from Oil Pollution Research: Consensus, Controversy, and Education of Policy Makers and the Public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, J. W.

    2007-12-01

    Controversies concerning scientific research findings, consensus of a majority of expert scientists, and attempts by vested interest groups to offer alternative interpretations from the consensus with the goal of influencing policy makers" and the public's understanding is not a new phenomenon with respect to complex environmental issues. For example, controversies about new scientific research findings from studies of oil spills and other aspects of petroleum and petroleum refined product inputs, fates and effects in the marine environment intensified in the late 1960s to early 1970s and continues today as evidenced by ongoing debates surrounding the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill. This paper provides an overview of the interactions between authentic new scientific findings with respect to oil pollution in the marine environment in the late 1960s and early 1970s, the consensus gained in the ensuing years by continued research, and through various science - policy processes, and a spectrum of concomitant public education efforts. Lessons learned from this ongoing process may be instructive to current debates in other arenas of environmental science.

  13. Reproductive tourism in Argentina: clinic accreditation and its implications for consumers, health professionals and policy makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elise; Behrmann, Jason; Martin, Carolina; Williams-Jones, Bryn

    2010-08-01

    A subcategory of medical tourism, reproductive tourism has been the subject of much public and policy debate in recent years. Specific concerns include: the exploitation of individuals and communities, access to needed health care services, fair allocation of limited resources, and the quality and safety of services provided by private clinics. To date, the focus of attention has been on the thriving medical and reproductive tourism sectors in Asia and Eastern Europe; there has been much less consideration given to more recent 'players' in Latin America, notably fertility clinics in Chile, Brazil, Mexico and Argentina. In this paper, we examine the context-specific ethical and policy implications of private Argentinean fertility clinics that market reproductive services via the internet. Whether or not one agrees that reproductive services should be made available as consumer goods, the fact is that they are provided as such by private clinics around the world. We argue that basic national regulatory mechanisms are required in countries such as Argentina that are marketing fertility services to local and international publics. Specifically, regular oversight of all fertility clinics is essential to ensure that consumer information is accurate and that marketed services are safe and effective. It is in the best interests of consumers, health professionals and policy makers that the reproductive tourism industry adopts safe and responsible medical practices.

  14. [Social participation in health: user community leaders, managers and policy makers in Colombia. A qualitative view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado Gallego, María Eugenia; Vázquez Navarrete, María Luisa; Zapata Bermúdez, Yolanda; Hernán García, Mariano

    2005-01-01

    Health sector reforms taking place in Colombia during the Nineties included policies to promote social participation in the health system, which is considered essential to its functioning. The aim of this article is to analyse the meaning and the significance of participation in health for the different social actors involved in implementing policies in Colombia. A qualitative, descriptive, exploratory study was carried out using focal groups (FG) and semi-structured individual interviews (I) of the different social actors: 210 users (FG), 40 community leaders (FG), 3 policy makers (E) and 36 healthcare professionals (E). A carried out analysis was content up of the contents. The study area corresponded to the municipalities of Tulua and Palmira in Colombia. The concept of participation was interpreted differently depending on the actor studied: for users and leaders the concept referred to contributing ideas, presence in social spaces, solidarity and frequently, and use of the health services. Healthcare professionals considered the activities carried out by institutions together with the community as social participation, the use of services and affiliation to the health system. Policy markers considered participation to concern evaluation and control of the health services by the community, to improve its quality. The different concepts of participation reveal dif ferences between the content of the policy and how it is understood and interpreted by the different social actors in their interaction with the health services. These different perspectives must be taken into account to develop a link between society and the health services.

  15. Disorganized attachment in infancy : a review of the phenomenon and its implications for clinicians and policy-makers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granqvist, Pehr; Sroufe, L. Alan; Dozier, Mary; Hesse, Erik; Steele, Miriam; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Solomon, Judith; Schuengel, Carlo; Fearon, Pasco; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Steele, Howard; Cassidy, Jude; Carlson, Elizabeth; Madigan, Sheri; Jacobvitz, Deborah; Foster, Sarah; Behrens, Kazuko; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Gribneau, Naomi; Spangler, Gottfried; Ward, Mary J.; True, Mary; Spieker, Susan; Reijman, Sophie; Reisz, Samantha; Tharner, Anne; Nkara, Frances; Goldwyn, Ruth; Sroufe, June; Pederson, David; Pederson, Deanne; Weigand, Robert; Siegel, Daniel; Dazzi, Nino; Bernard, Kristin; Fonagy, Peter; Waters, Everett; Toth, Sheree; Cicchetti, Dante; Zeanah, Charles H.; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen; Main, Mary; Duschinsky, Robbie

    2017-01-01

    Disorganized/Disoriented (D) attachment has seen widespread interest from policy makers, practitioners, and clinicians in recent years. However, some of this interest seems to have been based on some false assumptions that (1) attachment measures can be used as definitive assessments of the

  16. Disorganized attachment in infancy: a review of the phenomenon and its implications for clinicians and policy-makers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granqvist, P. (Pehr); Sroufe, L.A. (L. Alan); Dozier, M. (Mary); Hesse, E. (Erik); Steele, M. (Miriam); M.H. van IJzendoorn (Rien); Solomon, J. (Judith); C. Schuengel (Carlo); Fearon, P. (Pasco); M.J. Bakermans-Kranenburg (Marian); Steele, H. (Howard); Cassidy, J. (Jude); Carlson, E. (Elizabeth); Madigan, S. (Sheri); Jacobvitz, D. (Deborah); Foster, S. (Sarah); Behrens, K. (Kazuko); Rifkin-Graboi, A. (Anne); Gribneau, N. (Naomi); Spangler, G. (Gottfried); Ward, M.J. (Mary J); True, M. (Mary); Spieker, S. (Susan); Reijman, S. (Sophie); Reisz, S. (Samantha); A. Tharner (Anne); Nkara, F. (Frances); Goldwyn, R. (Ruth); Sroufe, J. (June); Pederson, D. (David); Pederson, D. (Deanne); Weigand, R. (Robert); Siegel, D. (Daniel); Dazzi, N. (Nino); Bernard, K. (Kristin); P. Fonagy (Peter); Waters, E. (Everett); Toth, S. (Sheree); Cicchetti, D. (Dante); Zeanah, C.H. (Charles H); Lyons-Ruth, K. (Karlen); Main, M. (Mary); Duschinsky, R. (Robbie)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractDisorganized/Disoriented (D) attachment has seen widespread interest from policy makers, practitioners, and clinicians in recent years. However, some of this interest seems to have been based on some false assumptions that (1) attachment measures can be used as definitive assessments of

  17. A Framework for Using Qualitative Research To Inform Policy-Makers and Empower Practitioners: Lessons from Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneveld, Ward; Craig, Helen

    National education policy reforms often do not translate into changes at the classroom level. This paper presents a conceptual framework developed for Sub-Saharan Africa to assist policy-makers in bridging the gap between school practice and national policies. It also describes how the framework was applied to current school-improvement efforts in…

  18. What Can Instructors and Policy Makers Learn about Web-Supported Learning through Web-Usage Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Anat; Nachmias, Rafi

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on a Web-log based tool for evaluating pedagogical processes occurring in Web-supported academic instruction and students' attitudes. The tool consists of computational measures which demonstrate what instructors and policy makers can learn about Web-supported instruction through Web-usage mining. The tool can provide different…

  19. “What is the Spirit of this Gathering?” Indigenous Sport Policy-Makers and Self-Determination in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braden P. Te Hiwi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I examine how the process of Indigenous participation in policy-making pertaining to the development of federal sport policy in Canada is connected to Indigenous forms of self-determination. By conducting semi-structured interviews with six Indigenous sport policy-makers, I investigate how their respective thoughts, experiences, and actions shape their perspective on self-determination. My analysis shows that a focus on relationships was at the center of the interviewed Indigenous sport policy-makers’ approaches to the promotion of Indigenous self-determination. Furthermore, the relational nature of Indigenous policy-makers’ identities was also central to their pursuit of self-determination. The promotion of family and community type relationships with government representatives could be used as an outcome of policy-making, in addition to traditional policy directives.

  20. Global Assessment of Methane Gas Hydrates: Outreach for the public and policy makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, Yannick

    2010-05-01

    The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), via its official collaborating center in Norway, GRID-Arendal, is in the process of implementing a Global Assessment of Methane Gas Hydrates. Global reservoirs of methane gas have long been the topic of scientific discussion both in the realm of environmental issues such as natural forces of climate change and as a potential energy resource for economic development. Of particular interest are the volumes of methane locked away in frozen molecules known as clathrates or hydrates. Our rapidly evolving scientific knowledge and technological development related to methane hydrates makes these formations increasingly prospective to economic development. In addition, global demand for energy continues, and will continue to outpace supply for the foreseeable future, resulting in pressure to expand development activities, with associated concerns about environmental and social impacts. Understanding the intricate links between methane hydrates and 1) natural and anthropogenic contributions to climate change, 2) their role in the carbon cycle (e.g. ocean chemistry) and 3) the environmental and socio-economic impacts of extraction, are key factors in making good decisions that promote sustainable development. As policy makers, environmental organizations and private sector interests seek to forward their respective agendas which tend to be weighted towards applied research, there is a clear and imminent need for a an authoritative source of accessible information on various topics related to methane gas hydrates. The 2008 United Nations Environment Programme Annual Report highlighted methane from the Arctic as an emerging challenge with respect to climate change and other environmental issues. Building upon this foundation, UNEP/GRID-Arendal, in conjunction with experts from national hydrates research groups from Canada, the US, Japan, Germany, Norway, India and Korea, aims to provide a multi-thematic overview of the key

  1. Beyond spinal manipulation: should Medicare expand coverage for chiropractic services? A review and commentary on the challenges for policy makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whedon, James M; Goertz, Christine M; Lurie, Jon D; Stason, William B

    2013-12-01

    documentation practices; and additional rigorous efficacy/effectiveness research and clinical studies for chiropractic services need to be performed. Research of chiropractic services should target the triple aim of high-quality care, affordability, and improved health. The barriers that were identified in this study can be addressed. To overcome these barriers, the chiropractic profession and individual physicians must assume responsibility for correcting deficiencies in compliance and documentation; further research needs to be done to evaluate chiropractic services; and effectiveness of extended episodes of preventive chiropractic care should be rigorously evaluated. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services policies related to chiropractic reimbursement should be reexamined using the same standards applicable to other health care providers. The integration of chiropractic physicians as fully engaged Medicare providers has the potential to enhance the capacity of the Medicare workforce to care for the growing population. We recommend that Medicare policy makers consider limited expansion of Medicare coverage to include, at a minimum, reimbursement for evaluation and management services by chiropractic physicians.

  2. Beyond spinal manipulation: should Medicare expand coverage for chiropractic services? A review and commentary on the challenges for policy makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whedon, James M.; Goertz, Christine M.; Lurie, Jon D.; Stason, William B.

    2013-01-01

    efforts to improve claims and documentation practices; and additional rigorous efficacy/effectiveness research and clinical studies for chiropractic services need to be performed. Research of chiropractic services should target the triple aim of high-quality care, affordability, and improved health. Conclusions The barriers that were identified in this study can be addressed. To overcome these barriers, the chiropractic profession and individual physicians must assume responsibility for correcting deficiencies in compliance and documentation; further research needs to be done to evaluate chiropractic services; and effectiveness of extended episodes of preventive chiropractic care should be rigorously evaluated. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services policies related to chiropractic reimbursement should be reexamined using the same standards applicable to other health care providers. The integration of chiropractic physicians as fully engaged Medicare providers has the potential to enhance the capacity of the Medicare workforce to care for the growing population. We recommend that Medicare policy makers consider limited expansion of Medicare coverage to include, at a minimum, reimbursement for evaluation and management services by chiropractic physicians. PMID:25067927

  3. Communicating Geosciences with Policy-makers: a Grand Challenge for Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, W. J.; Walls, M. R.; Boland, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Geoscientists interested in the broader societal impacts of their research can make a meaningful contribution to policy making in our changing world. Nevertheless, policy and public decision making are the least frequently cited Broader Impacts in proposals and funded projects within NSF's Geosciences Directorate. Academic institutions can play a lead role by introducing this societal dimension of our profession to beginning students, and by enabling interdisciplinary research and promoting communication pathways for experienced career geoscientists. Within the academic environment, the public interface of the geosciences can be presented through curriculum content and creative programs. These include undergraduate minors in economics or public policy designed for scientists and engineers, and internships with policy makers. Federal research institutions and other organizations provide valuable policy-relevant experiences for students. Academic institutions have the key freedom of mission to tackle interdisciplinary research challenges at the interface of geoscience and policy. They develop long-standing relationships with research partners, including national laboratories and state geological surveys, whose work may support policy development and analysis at local, state, regional, and national levels. CSM's Payne Institute for Earth Resources awards mini-grants for teams of researchers to develop collaborative research efforts between engineering/science and policy researchers. Current work in the areas of nuclear generation and the costs of climate policy and on policy alternatives for capturing fugitive methane emissions are examples of work at the interface between the geosciences and public policy. With academic engagement, geoscientists can steward their intellectual output when non-scientists translate geoscience information and concepts into action through public policies.

  4. The Policy Maker's Anguish: Regulating Personal Data Behavior Between Paradoxes and Dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compañó, Ramón; Lusoli, Wainer

    Regulators in Europe and elsewhere are paying great attention to identity, privacy and trust in online and converging environments. Appropriate regulation of identity in a ubiquitous information environment is seen as one of the major drivers of the future Internet economy. Regulation of personal identity data has come to the fore including mapping conducted on digital personhood by the OECD; work on human rights and profiling by the Council of Europe andmajor studies by the European Commission with regard to self-regulation in the privacy market, electronic identity technical interoperability and enhanced safety for young people. These domains overlap onto an increasingly complex model of regulation of individuals' identity management, online and offline. This chapter argues that policy makers struggle to deal with issues concerning electronic identity, due to the apparently irrational and unpredictable behavior of users when engaging in online interactions involving identity management. Building on empirical survey evidence from four EU countries, we examine the first aspect in detail - citizens' management of identity in a digital environment. We build on data from a large scale (n = 5,265) online survey of attitudes to electronic identity among young Europeans (France, Germany, Spain, UK) conducted in August 2008. The survey asked questions about perceptions and acceptance of risks, general motivations, attitudes and behaviors concerning electronic identity. Four behavioral paradoxes are identified in the analysis: a privacy paradox (to date well known), but also a control paradox, a responsibility paradox and an awareness paradox. The chapter then examines the paradoxes in relation of three main policy dilemmas framing the debate on digital identity. The paper concludes by arguing for an expanded identity debate spanning policy circles and the engineering community.

  5. 38 CFR 1.506 - Disclosure of records to Federal Government departments, State unemployment compensation agencies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal Government departments, State unemployment compensation agencies, and the Office of Servicemembers....506 Disclosure of records to Federal Government departments, State unemployment compensation agencies... official purposes by any department or other agency of the U.S. Government or any state unemployment...

  6. Perspectives of policy-makers and stakeholders about health care waste management in community-based care in South Africa: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangulu, Lydia; Akintola, Olagoke

    2017-04-19

    In South Africa, a new primary health care (PHC) re-engineering initiative aims to scale up the provision of community-based care (CBC). A central element in this initiative is the use of outreach teams comprising nurses and community health workers to provide care to the largely poor and marginalised communities across the country. The provision of care will inevitably lead to an increase in the amount of health care waste (HCW) generated in homes and suggests the need to pay more attention to the HCW that emanates from homes where there is care of a patient. CBC in South Africa is guided by the home-based care policy. However, this policy does not deal with issues about how HCW should be managed in CBC. This study sought to explore health care waste management (HCWM) in CBC in South Africa from the policy-makers' and stakeholders' perspective. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 9 policy-makers and 21 stakeholders working in 29 communities in Durban, South Africa. Interviews were conducted in English; were guided by an interview guide with open-ended questions. Data was analysed thematically. The Durban Solid waste (DSW) unit of the eThekwini municipality is responsible for overseeing all waste management programmes in communities. Lack of segregation of waste and illegal dumping of waste were the main barriers to proper management practices of HCW at household level while at the municipal level, corrupt tender processes and inadequate funding for waste management programmes were identified as the main barriers. In order to address these issues, all the policy-makers and stakeholders have taken steps to collaborate and develop education awareness programmes. They also liaise with various government offices to provide resources aimed at waste management programmes. HCW is generated in CBC and it is poorly managed and treated as domestic waste. With the rollout of the new primary health care model, there is a greater need to consider HCWM in CBC. There

  7. Examining the policy climate for HIV prevention in the Caribbean tourism sector: a qualitative study of policy makers in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Mark B; Reyes, Armando Matiz; Connolly, Maureen; Natsui, Shaw; Puello, Adrian; Chapman, Helena

    2012-05-01

    The Caribbean has the highest prevalence rates of HIV/AIDS outside sub-Saharan Africa, and a broad literature suggests an ecological association between tourism areas and sexual vulnerability. Tourism employees have been shown to engage in high rates of sexual risk behaviours. Nevertheless, no large-scale or sustained HIV prevention interventions have been conducted within the tourism industry. Policy barriers and resources are under-studied. In order to identify the policy barriers and resources for HIV prevention in the tourism sector, our research used a participatory approach involving a multisectoral coalition of representatives from the tourism industry, government, public health and civil society in the Dominican Republic. We conducted 39 in-depth semi-structured interviews with policy makers throughout the country focusing on: prior experiences with HIV prevention policies and programmes in the tourism sector; barriers and resources for such policies and programmes; and future priorities and recommendations. Findings suggest perceptions among policy makers of barriers related to the mobile nature of tourism employees; the lack of centralized funding; fear of the 'image problem' associated with HIV; and the lack of multisectoral policy dialogue and collaboration. Nevertheless, prior short-term experiences and changing attitudes among some private sector tourism representatives suggest emerging opportunities for policy change. We argue that the time is ripe for dialogue across the public-private divide in order to develop regulatory mechanisms, joint responsibilities and centralized funding sources to ensure a sustainable response to the HIV-tourism linkage. Policy priorities should focus on incorporating HIV prevention as a component of occupational health; reinforcing workers' health care rights as guaranteed by existing law; using private sector tourism representatives who support HIV prevention as positive role models for national campaigns; and

  8. The challenge of bridging the gap between researchers and policy makers: experiences of a Health Policy Research Group in engaging policy makers to support evidence informed policy making in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Onwujekwe, Obinna; Mbachu, Chinyere; Okwuosa, Chinenye; Etiaba, Enyi; Nyström, Monica E; Gilson, Lucy

    2016-11-04

    Getting research into policy and practice (GRIPP) is a process of going from research evidence to decisions and action. To integrate research findings into the policy making process and to communicate research findings to policymakers is a key challenge world-wide. This paper reports the experiences of a research group in a Nigerian university when seeking to 'do' GRIPP, and the important features and challenges of this process within the African context. In-depth interviews were conducted with nine purposively selected policy makers in various organizations and six researchers from the universities and research institute in a Nigerian who had been involved in 15 selected joint studies/projects with Health Policy Research Group (HPRG). The interviews explored their understanding and experience of the methods and processes used by the HPRG to generate research questions and research results; their involvement in the process and whether the methods were perceived as effective in relation to influencing policy and practice and factors that influenced the uptake of research results. The results are represented in a model with the four GRIPP strategies found: i) stakeholders' request for evidence to support the use of certain strategies or to scale up health interventions; ii) policymakers and stakeholders seeking evidence from researchers; iii) involving stakeholders in designing research objectives and throughout the research process; and iv) facilitating policy maker-researcher engagement in finding best ways of using research findings to influence policy and practice and to actively disseminate research findings to relevant stakeholders and policymakers. The challenges to research utilization in health policy found were to address the capacity of policy makers to demand and to uptake research, the communication gap between researchers, donors and policymakers, the management of the political process of GRIPP, the lack of willingness of some policy makers to use

  9. Priorities of Municipal Policy Makers in Relation to Physical Activity and the Built Environment: A Latent Class Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Monica L; Goins, Karin Valentine; Anatchkova, Milena; Brownson, Ross C; Evenson, Kelly; Maddock, Jay; Clausen, Kristian E; Lemon, Stephenie C

    2016-01-01

    To examine policy makers' public policy priorities related to physical activity and the built environment, identify classes of policy makers based on priorities using latent class analysis, and assess factors associated with class membership. Cross-sectional survey data from municipal officials in 94 cities and towns across 6 US states were analyzed. Participants (N = 423) were elected or appointed municipal officials spanning public health, planning, transportation/public works, community and economic development, parks and recreation, and city management. Participants rated the importance of 11 policy areas (public health, physical activity, obesity, economic development, livability, climate change, air quality, natural resource conservation, traffic congestion, traffic safety, and needs of vulnerable populations) in their daily job responsibilities. Latent class analysis was used to determine response patterns and identify distinct classes based on officials' priorities. Logistic regression models assessed participant characteristics associated with class membership. Four classes of officials based on policy priorities emerged: (1) economic development and livability; (2) economic development and traffic concerns; (3) public health; and (4) general (all policy areas rated as highly important). Compared with class 4, officials in classes 1 and 3 were more likely to have a graduate degree, officials in class 2 were less likely to be in a public health job/department, and officials in class 3 were more likely to be in a public health job/department. Findings can guide public health professionals in framing discussions with policy makers to maximize physical activity potential of public policy initiatives, particularly economic development.

  10. The Solutions Project: Educating the Public and Policy Makers About Solutions to Global Warming, Air Pollution, and Energy Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, M. Z.

    2015-12-01

    Three major global problems of our times are global warming, air pollution mortality and morbidity, and energy insecurity. Whereas, policy makers with the support of the public must implement solutions to these problems, it is scientists and engineers who are best equipped to evaluate technically sound, optimal, and efficient solutions. Yet, a disconnect exists between information provided by scientists and engineers and policies implemented. Part of the reason is that scientific information provided to policy makers and the public is swamped out by information provided by lobbyists and another part is the difficulty in providing information to the hundreds of millions of people who need it rather than to just a few thousand. What other ways are available, aside from issuing press releases on scientific papers, for scientists to disseminate information? Three growing methods are through social media, creative media, and storytelling. The Solutions Project is a non-profit non-governmental organization whose goal is to bring forth scientific information about 100% clean, renewable energy plans to the public, businesses, and policy makers using these and related tools. Through the use of social media, the development of engaging internet and video content, and storytelling, the group hopes to increase the dissemination of information for social good. This talk discusses the history and impacts to date of this group and its methods. Please see www.thesolutionsproject.org and 100.org for more information.

  11. Survey on Public Awareness On AIDS- Role Of Government And Non Government Agencies In A Rural South Indian Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balagnesh G

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What is the level of Public awareness on AIDS in a rural community and to what extent the government and non-government agencies have played their role in creating the awareness? Objectives: (i To study the public awareness on AIDS in a rural community (ii To Study role of government and non-government agencies in creating the awareness on AIDS. Design: Cross-sectional study Setting: Rural area under S. V. Medical College Triputi (AP Participants: 100 males (15-45 yrs and 100 females (15-45 yrs. Study variables: Awareness on AIDS, Government and non-government agencies. Statistical Analysis: Percentages Results: Most of the persons interviewed had minimal knowledge on AIDS. Quite a large section of the ‘ study population was ignorant over the safety offered by condoms in preventing AIDS. Doordarshan and Newspaper agencies played much role in creation the awareness on AIDS, while the non-government agencies like Lions’ Club, Rotary Club. Indian Junior Chamber etc. played no role in creating the awareness on AIDS in the study area. Recommendations: Government health sector should take more responsibility in educating the people and creating adequate awareness on AIDS. Non-government agencies should involve themselves in creating awareness on AIDS.

  12. 75 FR 16484 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Open Government...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Open Government Citizen Engagement Ratings, Rankings, and Flagging; Information Collection; OMB Control No. 3090-0288 AGENCY: Office of Citizen Services, General Services Administration (GSA). ACTION: Notice of a request...

  13. Key performance indicators for government and non profit agencies: implementing winning KPIs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parmenter, David

    2012-01-01

    "Winning techniques and strategies for nonprofits and government agencies in creating successful and critical key performance indicatorsBy exploring measures that have transformed businesses, David...

  14. Do evidence summaries increase policy-makers' use of evidence from systematic reviews: A systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkovic, Jennifer; Welch, Vivian; Tugwell, Peter

    2015-09-28

    Systematic reviews are important for decision-makers. They offer many potential benefits but are often written in technical language, are too long, and do not contain contextual details which makes them hard to use for decision-making. There are many organizations that develop and disseminate derivative products, such as evidence summaries, from systematic reviews for different populations or subsets of decision-makers. This systematic review will assess the effectiveness of systematic review summaries on increasing policymakers' use of systematic review evidence and to identify the components or features of these summaries that are most effective. We will include studies of policy-makers at all levels as well as health-system managers. We will include studies examining any type of "evidence summary," "policy brief," or other products derived from systematic reviews that present evidence in a summarized form. The primary outcomes are the following: (1) use of systematic review summaries decision-making (e.g., self-reported use of the evidence in policy-making, decision-making) and (2) policy-maker understanding, knowledge, and/or beliefs (e.g., changes in knowledge scores about the topic included in the summary). We will conduct a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomized controlled trials (NRCTs), controlled before-after studies (CBA), and interrupted time series (ITS) studies. The results of this review will inform the development of future systematic review summaries to ensure that systematic review evidence is accessible to and used by policy-makers making health-related decisions.

  15. Special report on renewable energy sources and climate change mitigation, (SRREN). Summary for policy makers; FNs klimapanel: Spesialrapport om fornybar energi, sammendrag for beslutningstakere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-06-15

    In May 2011 the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change published a report on six renewable energy sources and their role in climate change mitigation. This is a Norwegian, unofficial translation of the Summary for Policy makers. (Author)

  16. European pet travel: misleading information from veterinarians and government agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, R K; Robertson, L J

    2012-12-01

    Inter-country travel of companion animals provides an opportunity for introduction of zoonotic pathogens, such as rabies virus and Echinococcus spp. Regulations are in place to control this threat, but Schengen Agreements mean that border controls between some European countries are minimal, and animals may enter countries without any checks that they have been appropriately treated. Veterinarians provide an important source of information for people intending to travel with their pets. We conducted a telephone survey to investigate provision of correct advice to someone intending to travel with their dog to Norway. Mainland Norway is considered free of both rabies and E. multilocularis and is a signatory to the Schengen Agreement. Ten randomly selected veterinary clinics were surveyed in Austria, Belgium (Wallonia), Finland, France, Germany, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom. The information provided was scored as correct, incorrect or incomplete. The information provided by secondary information sources (website or government agency), which the clinic had referred the caller to, was also assessed (correct, incorrect, incomplete). Whilst the majority of clinics provided appropriate information regarding rabies, many clinics did not provide correct information regarding treatment for E. multilocularis. Less than one in 10 clinics provided the correct information regarding both pathogens directly at the time of calling. The correct information was obtained, once taking into account secondary sources, just 62% of the time. Countrywise, most clinics in Finland provided correct advice, either directly or indirectly via referring the caller to another source, whilst the majority in Belgium, Germany and France did not. The apparent paucity of readily accessible, correct advice for owners intending to travel with their dogs is concerning. The compulsory treatment regulations are only as good as the checks that ensure compliance, and this is also lacking in

  17. Young Children as Language Policy-Makers: Studies of Interaction in Preschools in Finland and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Sally; Huss, Leena

    2017-01-01

    This special issue has as its focus the agency of young children in relation to language policy and practice in bi- and multilingual preschools in Finland and Sweden. Studies of language policy in practice in early childhood education and care (ECEC) in these two countries can be particularly relevant even to those in other contexts, because they…

  18. Solar Photovoltaic Financing: Deployment by Federal Government Agencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cory, K.; Coggeshall, C.; Coughlin, J.; Kreycik, C.

    2009-07-01

    The goal of this report is to examine how federal agencies can finance on-site PV projects. It explains state-level cash incentives available, the importance of solar renewable energy certificate revenues (in certain markets), existing financing structures, as well as innovative financing structures being used by federal agencies to deploy on-site PV. Specific examples from the DOD, DOE, and other federal agencies are highlighted to explain federal project financing in detail.

  19. Reputation-Seeking by a Government Agency in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækkeskov, Erik

    2017-01-01

    occur at autonomous agencies in the European context. A unique participant-observational study of an international public health agency acting in response to the 2009 H1N1 “swine” influenza pandemic provides bases for this conclusion. It adds empirical support for the proposition using real...

  20. 77 FR 43353 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Tribal Self-Governance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Tribal Self- Governance Program... for Tribal Self-Governance Program authorized by OMB Control Number 1076-0143. This information...-Governance, 1951 Constitution Avenue NW., Mail Stop 355-G SIB, Washington, DC 20240; telephone: (202) 219...

  1. 77 FR 71016 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Tribal Self-Governance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Tribal Self- Governance Program... Self-Governance Program. The information collection is currently authorized by OMB Control Number 1076... comments to Ken Reinfeld, Office of Self-Governance, 1951 Constitution Avenue NW., Mail Stop 355-G SIB...

  2. 77 FR 38396 - Agency Information Collection (Notice of Lapse-Government Life Insurance) Activities Under OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Notice of Lapse--Government Life Insurance) Activities Under OMB... INFORMATION: Titles: a. Notice of Lapse--Government Life Insurance, VA Form 29-389. b. Application for... government life insurance has lapsed or will lapse due to nonpayment of premiums. The claimant must complete...

  3. 78 FR 53014 - Agency Information Collection (Claim for One Sum Payment (Government Life Insurance)) Activities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Claim for One Sum Payment (Government Life Insurance)) Activities... for One Sum Payment (Government Life Insurance), VA Form 29-4125. ] b. Claim for Monthly Payments (National Service Life Insurance), VA Form 29-4125a. c. Claim for Monthly Payments (United States Government...

  4. 76 FR 71624 - Agency Information Collection (Claim for Disability Insurance Benefits, Government Life Insurance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Claim for Disability Insurance Benefits, Government Life Insurance..., Government Life Insurance, VA Form 29-357. OMB Control Number: 2900-0016. Type of Review: Extension of a... disability insurance on National Service Life Insurance and United States Government Life Insurance policies...

  5. The global wilderness seminar for government agencies: a meeting at the crossroads of wildlands stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy Roeper; Peter Landres; Don Fisher

    2006-01-01

    Two days before the 8th World Wilderness Congress began in Alaska, nearly 200 government wildlands managers from 17 countries met to share ideas about common challenges and to explore ways to improve wildland stewardship globally. The goal for this Global Wilderness Seminar for Government Agencies was to lay the foundation for an operating peer network of government...

  6. Summary for Policy Makers: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report Renewable Energy Sources (SRREN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvizu, Dan; Bruckner, Thomas; Christensen, John; Devernay, Jean-Michel; Faaij , Andre; Fischedick, Manfred; Goldstein, Barry; Hansen, Gerrit; Huckerby , John; Jager-Waldau, Arnulf; Kadner, Susanne; Kammen, Daniel; Krey, Volker; Kumar, Arun; Lewis , Anthony; Lucon, Oswaldo; Matschoss, Patrick; Maurice, Lourdes; Mitchell , Catherine; Moomaw, William; Moreira, Jose; Nadai, Alain; Nilsson, Lars J.; Nyboer, John; Rahman, Atiq; Sathaye, Jayant; Sawin, Janet; Schaeffer, Roberto; Schei, Tormod; Schlomer, Steffen; Sims, Ralph; von Stechow, Christoph; Verbruggen, Aviel; Urama, Kevin; Wiser, Ryan; Yamba, Francis; Zwickel, Timm

    2011-05-08

    The Working Group III Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation (SRREN) presents an assessment of the literature on the scientific, technological, environmental, economic and social aspects of the contribution of six renewable energy (RE) sources to the mitigation of climate change. It is intended to provide policy relevant information to governments, intergovernmental processes and other interested parties. This Summary for Policymakers provides an overview of the SRREN, summarizing the essential findings. The SRREN consists of 11 chapters. Chapter 1 sets the context for RE and climate change; Chapters 2 through 7 provide information on six RE technologies, and Chapters 8 through 11 address integrative issues.

  7. Transporting Government Agencies on Department of Defense Aircraft

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Diaz, Angel A

    2000-01-01

    .... The bombings of the American embassies in Tanzania and Kenya in August of 1998 highlighted the need for better coordination between DoD and other non-DoD agencies when moving to a disaster site...

  8. Renewable electricity production costs-A framework to assist policy-makers' decisions on price support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinica, Valentina

    2011-01-01

    Despite recent progress, the production costs for renewable electricity remain above those for conventional power. Expectations of continuous reductions in production costs, typically underpin governments' policies for financial support. They often draw on the technology-focused versions of the Experience Curve model. This paper discusses how national-contextual factors also have a strong influence on production costs, such as geographic, infrastructural, institutional, and resource factors. As technologies mature, and as they reach significant levels of diffusion nationally, sustained increases in production costs might be recorded, due to these nationally contextual factors, poorly accounted for in policy-making decisions for price support. The paper suggests an analytical framework for a more comprehensive understanding of production costs. Based on this, it recommends that the evolution of specific cost levels and factors be monitored to locate 'sources of changes'. The paper also suggests policy instruments that governments may use to facilitate cost decreases, whenever possible. The application of the framework is illustrated for the diffusion of wind power in Spain during the past three decades. - Highlights: → Models, frameworks for policy-making on price support for renewable electricity production costs. → Policy instruments to help reduce production costs. → Limits to the influence of policies of production costs reductions.

  9. FY2010 Federal Government Greenhouse Gas Inventory by Agency

    Data.gov (United States)

    Council on Environmental Quality, Executive Office of the President — The comprehensive Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Inventory for the Federal Government accounts for emissions associated with Federal operations in FY 2010. Attached...

  10. Using experiential marine debris education to make an impact: Collecting debris, informing policy makers, and influencing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Katharine A

    2018-02-01

    The Shore to Statehouse project supported the creation of an open-source, replicable, undergraduate experiential course on marine debris. Funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the course allowed undergraduate students in Connecticut, USA, to collect marine debris locally, then create a policy report for state legislators. Here we share the results of the project including data on four accumulation surveys on the Long Island Sound, as well as the impact on student motivation, attitudes, and behavior levels. Results include finding over 1600 individual pieces of debris totaling 19.4kg (42.8lb). In addition, the students experienced statistically significant improvements in knowledge and behavior scores. This open-source course can be replicated, empowering students to remove debris, provide important information to local policy makers, and improve knowledge and behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Round Six Of Partners Investing In Nursing's Future: Implications For The Health Sector, Policy Makers, And Foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellinek, Paul S; Reinhardt, Renee J; Ladden, Maryjoan D; Salmon, Marla E

    2015-07-01

    In its 2011 report on the future of nursing, the Institute of Medicine issued recommendations to position nursing to meet the challenges of twenty-first-century health care. Following release of the report, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation funded eleven local and regional partnerships of nurses, foundations, and other stakeholders to begin implementing some of the recommendations in their regions. A qualitative evaluation of these partnerships found that although not all goals were met, most of the partnerships achieved meaningful gains. Partnership participants emphasized the value of engaging foundations and other stakeholders from outside nursing in the implementation process, the necessity of funding for implementation, the need for policy makers to address constraints that local and regional partnerships by themselves cannot address, and the unique leadership and convening role that local and regional foundations can play to help their regions respond to complex challenges for the nursing profession. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  12. Establishing local government in fragile states: experimental evidence from Afghanistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jochem, T.; Murtazashvili, I.; Murtazashvili, J.

    2016-01-01

    International and domestic policy makers often promote elections to establish village government in fragile states. However, two additional options are available in such countries: formalization of self-governing village councils and formalization of community development councils (CDCs). We

  13. Extent of Anaemia among Preschool Children in EAG States, India: A Challenge to Policy Makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. India is the highest contributor to child anemia. About 89 million children in India are anemic. The study determines the factors that contributed to child anemia and examines the role of the existing programs in reducing the prevalence of child anemia particularly in the EAG states. Methods. The data from the latest round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3 is used. Simple bivariate and multinomial logistics regression analyses are used. Results. About 70% children are anemic in all the EAG states. The prevalence of severe anemia is the highest (6.7% in Rajasthan followed by Uttar Pradesh (3.6% and Madhya Pradesh (3.4%. Children aged 12 to 17 months are significantly seven times (RR=7.99, P<0.001 more likely to be severely anemic compared to children of 36 to 59 months. Children of severely anemic mothers are also found to be more severely anemic (RR=15.97, P<0.001 than the children of not anemic mothers. Conclusions. The study reveals that the existing government program fails to control anemia among preschool children in the backward states of India. Therefore, there is an urgent need for monitoring of program in regular interval, particularly for EAG states to reduce the prevalence of anemia among preschool children.

  14. Attitudes of policy makers in Hawaii towards public health and related issues before and after an economic recession in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay E Maddock

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Legislation and regulation at the state and local level can often have a greater impact on the public’s health than individual-based approaches. Elected and appointed officials have an essential role in protecting and improving public health. Despite this important role, little systematic research has been done to assess the relative importance of public health issues compared to other policy issues in times of economic hardship. This study assessed attitudes of elected and appointed decision makers in Hawaii in 2007 and 2013 to determine if priorities differed before and after the economic recession. Methods: Elected and appointed state and county officials were mailed surveys at both time points. Respondents rated the importance of 23 specified problems, of which 9 asked about specific public health issues. Results: The survey was completed by 126 (70.4% respondents in 2007 and 117(60.9% in 2013. Among the public health issues, five saw significant mean decreases. These variables included: climate change, pedestrian safety, government response to natural disasters, access to healthcare, and pandemic influenza. Obesity was the only public health issue to increase in importance across the two time points. In terms of relative ranking across the time points, only drug abuse and obesity were among the top ten priorities. Lack of public health training, pandemic influenza, and government response to natural disasters were among the bottom five priorities. Conclusions: After the economic recession, many public health issues have a lower priority among Hawaii’s policy makers than before the downturn. Additional education and advocacy is needed to keep public health issues on the minds of decision makers during tough economic times.

  15. 76 FR 14471 - Clearing Agency Standards for Operation and Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... to conduct such annual statutory cycle examinations on the Commission's fiscal year basis. The... information Agencies that Provide CCP Services for SBS 17Ad-23: Policies and procedures to protect [cir] [cir..., India, Italy, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, The Netherlands, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Spain, England, and the...

  16. Judging Teachers: Foucault, Governance and Agency during Education Reforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickney, Jeff A.

    2012-01-01

    Over a decade after publication of "Thinking Again: Education After Postmodernism" (1998) contention still emerges among Foucaultians over whether discursively made-up things really exist, and whether removal of the constituent subject leaves room for agency within techniques of caring for the self. That these questions are kept alive shows that…

  17. Exploring public perceptions of solutions to tree diseases in the UK: Implications for policy-makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepson, Paul; Arakelyan, Irina

    2017-10-01

    Tree diseases are on the increase in many countries and the implications of their appearance can be political, as well as ecological and economic. Preventative policy approaches to tree diseases are difficult to formulate because dispersal pathways for pest and pathogens are numerous, poorly known and likely to be beyond human management control. Genomic techniques could offer the quickest and most predictable approach to developing a disease tolerant native ash. The population of European Ash ( Fraxinus Excelsi or) has suffered major losses in the last decade, due to the onset of Hymenoscyphus fraxineus (previously called Chalara Fraxinea ) commonly known in the UK as ash dieback. This study presents evidence on the public acceptability of tree-breed solutions to the spread of Chalara , with the main aim to provide science and policy with an up-stream 'steer' on the likely public acceptability of different tree breeding solutions. The findings showed that whilst there was a firm anti-GM and ' we shouldn't tamper with nature ' attitude among UK publics, there was an equally firm and perhaps slightly larger pragmatic attitude that GM (science and technology) should be used if there is a good reason to do so, for example if it can help protect trees from disease and help feed the world. The latter view was significantly stronger among younger age groups (Millennials), those living in urban areas and when the (GM)modified trees were destined for urban and plantation, rather than countryside settings. Overall, our findings suggest that the UK government could consider genomic solutions to tree breeding with more confidence in the future, as large and influential publics appear to be relaxed about the use of genomic techniques to increase tolerance of trees to disease.

  18. Policy makers ignoring science and scientists ignoring policy: the medical ethical challenges of heroin treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Small Dan

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A decade of research in Switzerland, The Netherlands, Germany, and Spain now constitutes a massive body of work supporting the use of heroin treatment for the most difficult patients addicted to opiates. These trials concur on this method's safety and efficacy and are now serving as a prelude to the institution of heroin treatment in clinical practice throughout Europe. While the different sampling and research protocols for heroin treatment in these studies were important to the academic claims about specific results and conclusions that could be drawn from each study, the overall outcomes were quite clear – and uniformly positive. They all find that the use of prescribed pharmaceutical heroin does exactly what it is intended to do: it reaches a treatment refractory group of addicts by engaging them in a positive healthcare relationship with a physician, it reduces their criminal activity, improves their health status, and increases their social tenure through more stable housing, employment, and contact with family. The Canadian trial (NAOMI, now underway for over a year, but not yet completed, now faces a dilemma about what to do with its patients who have successfully completed 12 months of heroin and must be withdrawn from heroin and transferred to other treatments in accordance with the research protocol approved by Government of Canada, federal granting body and host institutions. The problem is that the principal criterion for acceptance to NAOMI was their history of repeated failure in these very same treatment programs to which they will now be referred. The existence of the results from abroad (some of which were not yet available when NAOMI was designed and initiated now raises a very important question for Canada: is it ethical to continue to prohibit the medical use of heroin treatment that has already been shown to be feasible and effective in numerous medical studies throughout the world? And while this is being worked

  19. Policy makers ignoring science and scientists ignoring policy: the medical ethical challenges of heroin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Dan; Drucker, Ernest

    2006-05-02

    A decade of research in Switzerland, The Netherlands, Germany, and Spain now constitutes a massive body of work supporting the use of heroin treatment for the most difficult patients addicted to opiates. These trials concur on this method's safety and efficacy and are now serving as a prelude to the institution of heroin treatment in clinical practice throughout Europe. While the different sampling and research protocols for heroin treatment in these studies were important to the academic claims about specific results and conclusions that could be drawn from each study, the overall outcomes were quite clear--and uniformly positive. They all find that the use of prescribed pharmaceutical heroin does exactly what it is intended to do: it reaches a treatment refractory group of addicts by engaging them in a positive healthcare relationship with a physician, it reduces their criminal activity, improves their health status, and increases their social tenure through more stable housing, employment, and contact with family. The Canadian trial (NAOMI), now underway for over a year, but not yet completed, now faces a dilemma about what to do with its patients who have successfully completed 12 months of heroin and must be withdrawn from heroin and transferred to other treatments in accordance with the research protocol approved by Government of Canada, federal granting body and host institutions. The problem is that the principal criterion for acceptance to NAOMI was their history of repeated failure in these very same treatment programs to which they will now be referred. The existence of the results from abroad (some of which were not yet available when NAOMI was designed and initiated) now raises a very important question for Canada: is it ethical to continue to prohibit the medical use of heroin treatment that has already been shown to be feasible and effective in numerous medical studies throughout the world? And while this is being worked out, is it acceptable to

  20. 41 CFR 102-77.10 - What basic Art-in-Architecture policy governs Federal agencies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What basic Art-in... PROPERTY 77-ART-IN-ARCHITECTURE General Provisions § 102-77.10 What basic Art-in-Architecture policy governs Federal agencies? Federal agencies must incorporate fine arts as an integral part of the total...

  1. 75 FR 73166 - Agency Information Collection (Claim for One Sum Payment (Government Life Insurance)) Activities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Claim for One Sum Payment (Government Life Insurance)) Activities... Insurance), VA Form 29-4125. b. Claim for Monthly Payments (National Service Life Insurance), VA Form 29-4125a. c. Claim for Monthly Payments (United States Government Life Insurance, (USGLI)), VA Form 29...

  2. 76 FR 2756 - Agency Information Collection (Application for Conversion) (Government Life Insurance) Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Application for Conversion) (Government Life Insurance) Activity... No. 2900-0149.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Application for Conversion (Government Life Insurance), VA Form 29-0152. OMB Control Number: 2900-0149. Type of Review: Extension of a currently...

  3. 75 FR 32540 - Agency Information Collection (Application for Standard Government Headstone or Marker for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Application for Standard Government Headstone or Marker for..., OMB Human Resources and Housing Branch, New Executive Office Building, Room 10235, Washington, DC... for Standard Government Headstone or Marker for Installation in a Private or State Veterans' Cemetery...

  4. A Preliminary Evaluation of Instructional Effectiveness of Online Training Implemented at a Government Agency in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supanakorn-Davila, Supawan; Bolliger, Doris U.

    2012-01-01

    Online training has become popular in the professional development of government employees in Thailand. One large government agency developed an online program to provide training to its employees across the country using two systems: an Internet and Intranet-based system. With the new program implemented, the evaluation of the instructional…

  5. 76 FR 12645 - Ownership Limitations and Governance Requirements for Security-Based Swap Clearing Agencies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... 3235-AK74 Ownership Limitations and Governance Requirements for Security- Based Swap Clearing Agencies... which such security- based swap dealer or major security-based swap participant has a material debt or... restrictions in Regulation MC with respect to the ownership and voting interests in and the governance of...

  6. ESCO Project for Buildings of Government Agencies in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prukvilailert Monchai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Thailand, Department of Alternative Energy Development and Efficiency (DEDE have organized the ESCO project to promote and encourage the use of machinery, materials and equipment having high efficiency for government buildings. ESCO company provides the invest and management for changing equipments in the buildings. In this paper, the evaluation of the project has been presented. The potential of electricity savings is about 77 million kwhr/year. It can reduce imports of crude oil about 6.58 thousand tons of crude oil (Ktoe/year. The budget to invest is BHT 1,504 million, with an average payback period of 4.85. However, we found that the establishment of the budget is the barriers. The recommendations and solutions using legal process have been presented to proceed the project in the future.

  7. Monitoring and Predicting Railway Noise and its Large-Scale Impact on the Environment; a Tool for Policy-Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, G.

    1996-05-01

    The social pressure to decrease noise nuisance caused by rail transport lines is growing rapidly. The solutions realized by the railway companies are often only effective locally and are specified without taking note of future European transport flows. In order to evolve their new policy the Dutch Railway company (NS) is developing a special purpose Geographical Information System. By means of this system it is possible to calculate the acoustic consequences of different future plans on a national or international scale. The input parameters of the system are the number of trains to be expected on the different lines, train speeds, train types, the noise nuisance law concerned, and the amount of sound reduction on specific trains and tracks. The acoustic consequences are quantified either as costs for noise barriers and sound-insulating measures in houses or as the area or number of people living within one specific equal noise level contour. The system gives policy-makers insight into the effects of certain sound reduction measures, of changes in the noise nuisance law and future transport flows. Results of studies show that the system can be a useful aid when making choices between investing in certain acoustic measures to be taken at the source or taking measures along the propagation path. In addition the system is useful as a monitoring system. Thus it is possible to quantify the effects of policy implementation and independent developments.

  8. ‘Forging change’? Collaboration between policy makers, academics, and civil society stakeholders at the ECI Day 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Hatton

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The ‘ECI Day 2016: Forging Change’ conference brought together policy makers, academics and civil society representatives to discuss how to maximise the effectiveness of the European Citizens’ Initiative (ECI, the EU’s only mechanism of participatory democracy, within its existing rules. Since 2012 these annual conferences have brought together a significant number of interested parties to evaluate the performance of the ECI and look to its future. Through a series of workshops and plenary sessions during ECI Day 2016, participants from diverse backgrounds interacted to produce a number of conclusions that will hopefully be used to inform the future development of the ECI tool. This review focuses on how the representatives of the EU’s institutions, academics and civil society representatives collaborated to create a productive environment and reach a clear conclusion to the proceedings. This was a strength of the conference that will hopefully contribute to ‘forging change’ for the ECI, though resistance to reform from one key stakeholder remains an obstacle.

  9. Multi-criteria decision analysis of breast cancer control in low- and middle- income countries: development of a rating tool for policy makers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venhorst, K.; Zelle, S.G.; Tromp, N.; Lauer, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to develop a rating tool for policy makers to prioritize breast cancer interventions in low- and middle- income countries (LMICs), based on a simple multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach. The definition and identification of criteria play a key

  10. "Actual results may vary" : a behavioral review of eco-\\0xADdriving for policy makers : a white paper from the National Center for Sustainable Transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This research provides energy and environment policy : makers with an up-to-date summary of eco-driving : research. Our review of an extensive database of ecodriving : studies reveals the fuel and emissions reduction : outcomes achieved to date and t...

  11. Building the capacity of policy-makers and planners to strengthen mental health systems in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keynejad, Roxanne; Semrau, Maya; Toynbee, Mark; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Lund, Crick; Gureje, Oye; Ndyanabangi, Sheila; Courtin, Emilie; Abdulmalik, Jibril O; Alem, Atalay; Fekadu, Abebaw; Thornicroft, Graham; Hanlon, Charlotte

    2016-10-21

    Little is known about the interventions required to build the capacity of mental health policy-makers and planners in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We conducted a systematic review with the primary aim of identifying and synthesizing the evidence base for building the capacity of policy-makers and planners to strengthen mental health systems in LMICs. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Knowledge, Web of Science, Scopus, CINAHL, LILACS, ScieELO, Google Scholar and Cochrane databases for studies reporting evidence, experience or evaluation of capacity-building of policy-makers, service planners or managers in mental health system strengthening in LMICs. Reports in English, Spanish, Portuguese, French or German were included. Additional papers were identified by hand-searching references and contacting experts and key informants. Database searches yielded 2922 abstracts and 28 additional papers were identified. Following screening, 409 full papers were reviewed, of which 14 fulfilled inclusion criteria for the review. Data were extracted from all included papers and synthesized into a narrative review. Only a small number of mental health system-related capacity-building interventions for policy-makers and planners in LMICs were described. Most models of capacity-building combined brief training with longer term mentorship, dialogue and/or the establishment of networks of support. However, rigorous research and evaluation methods were largely absent, with studies being of low quality, limiting the potential to separate mental health system strengthening outcomes from the effects of associated contextual factors. This review demonstrates the need for partnership approaches to building the capacity of mental health policy-makers and planners in LMICs, assessed rigorously against pre-specified conceptual frameworks and hypotheses, utilising longitudinal evaluation and mixed quantitative and qualitative approaches.

  12. Building the capacity of policy-makers and planners to strengthen mental health systems in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne Keynejad

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the interventions required to build the capacity of mental health policy-makers and planners in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. We conducted a systematic review with the primary aim of identifying and synthesizing the evidence base for building the capacity of policy-makers and planners to strengthen mental health systems in LMICs. Methods We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Knowledge, Web of Science, Scopus, CINAHL, LILACS, ScieELO, Google Scholar and Cochrane databases for studies reporting evidence, experience or evaluation of capacity-building of policy-makers, service planners or managers in mental health system strengthening in LMICs. Reports in English, Spanish, Portuguese, French or German were included. Additional papers were identified by hand-searching references and contacting experts and key informants. Database searches yielded 2922 abstracts and 28 additional papers were identified. Following screening, 409 full papers were reviewed, of which 14 fulfilled inclusion criteria for the review. Data were extracted from all included papers and synthesized into a narrative review. Results Only a small number of mental health system-related capacity-building interventions for policy-makers and planners in LMICs were described. Most models of capacity-building combined brief training with longer term mentorship, dialogue and/or the establishment of networks of support. However, rigorous research and evaluation methods were largely absent, with studies being of low quality, limiting the potential to separate mental health system strengthening outcomes from the effects of associated contextual factors. Conclusions This review demonstrates the need for partnership approaches to building the capacity of mental health policy-makers and planners in LMICs, assessed rigorously against pre-specified conceptual frameworks and hypotheses, utilising longitudinal evaluation and mixed

  13. Collaborative Environmental Governance, Inter-Agency Cooperation and Local Water Sustainability in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Huang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Administrative fragmentation among government agencies has posed a significant challenge to environmental governance. However, few studies have theoretically examined and empirically measured how local governments in China address this with collaborative approaches. Informed by the ecology of games framework (EGF, this paper examined the status of inter-agency water governance in Dongguan City: the pilot city of aquatic ecologically friendly city of China. The research question we seek to address is: What are the main characteristics of the water governance network in local China? With empirical data collected via survey questionnaires and semi-structured in-depth interviews following the EGF, we find that local agencies have realized the need for cooperation in water resource management. However, they were not substantially familiar with each other in the local policy network, failing to reach their full potential in collaboration. Social network analysis was used to analyze the collaborative network. We found that the network has a weak to moderate density, allowing for collective action problems and leading to insufficient cooperative governance. The network has presented central actors with strong bridging capital to control information and resource flows. We also find strong bonding capital among some policy actors as shown in high reciprocity, clustering coefficient and transitivity. To strengthen the effectiveness of local water governance, efforts should be made to establish a functional department and extend the boundary of collaborative network.

  14. The challenges of working in underserved areas: a qualitative exploratory study of views of policy makers and professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbuAlRub, Raeda F; El-Jardali, Fadi; Jamal, Diana; Iblasi, Abdulkareem S; Murray, Susan F

    2013-01-01

    The inadequate number of health care providers, particularly nurses, in underserved areas is one of the biggest challenges for health policymakers. There is a scarcity of research in Jordan about factors that affect nurse staffing and retention in underserved areas. To elucidate the views of staff nurses working in underserved areas, directors of health facilities in underserved areas and key informants from the policy and education arena on issues of staffing and retention of nurses in underserved areas. An exploratory study using a qualitative approach with semi-structured interviews was utilized to elucidate the views of 22 key informants from the policy and education arena, 11 directors of health centers, and 19 staff nurses on issues that contribute to low staffing and retention of nurses in underserved areas. The five stage 'framework approach' proposed by Bryman et al. (1993) was utilized for data analysis. Nursing shortage in underserved areas in Jordan are exacerbated by a lack of financial incentives, poor transportation and remoteness of these areas, bad working conditions, and lack of health education institutions in these areas, as well as by opportunities for internal and external migration. Young Jordanian male nurses usually grab any opportunity to migrate and work outside the country to improve their financial conditions; whereas, female nurses are more restricted and not encouraged to travel abroad to work. Several strategies are suggested to enhance retention in these areas, such as promoting financial incentives for staff to work there, enhancing the transportation system, and promoting continuous and academic education. Nurses' administrators and health care policy makers could utilize the findings of the present study to design and implement comprehensive interventions to enhance retention of staff in underserved areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Court Governance in Context: Beyond Independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tin Bunjevac

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing trend in some of the world’s most advanced western democracies of entrusting certain “framework” aspects of court administration to independent judicial agencies. This trend was highlighted in my recent study of the models of court administration, in which I examined court governance systems in seven Australian and international jurisdictions.This article will focus on the reasons behind the establishment of such agencies and the need for judges and policy makers to clearly identify the problems, aims and drivers for reform before embarking on a mission to adopt a particular “model.” At first, this may seem like an obvious proposition; however, recent experience in overseas jurisdictions demonstrates that it is not easy to reach a consensus on even the most basic issues affecting the administration of justice in courts.

  16. A critical review of corporate governance reforms in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Al-Hiyari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Following the East-Asian financial crisis in 1997 and the corporate accounting scandals, the shareholder’s confidence in the audited financial statements was adversely affected and regulators started to think seriously reforming the existing corporate governance practices. As a result, numerous initiatives were implemented to accelerate improvement of corporate governance practices. One of these initiatives was the Malaysian Code on Corporate Governance (MCCG. The code was derived from the approach applied by the British Hampel Committee, which attempt to mitigate the agency problem between corporate managers and outside owners. This study suggests that the British approach is unsuitable to Malaysian business environment. Particularly, the MCCG that had been lunched since 2011 ignore the uniqueness of Malaysia’s capital market, regulation environment and ownership structure. Therefore, the study recommends that policy makers and other regulators should consider the local business environment when establishing future code on corporate governance.

  17. Government Agency and Trust in the Formation and Transformation of Interorganizational Entrepreneurial Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the role of trust and government agency in the creation and evolution of interoganizational cooperation among entrepreneurial ventures in general and the influence of trust on development trajectories in particular. The multiple-case approach used draws on five in-depth case...

  18. What do government agencies consider in the debate over added sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    The place of sugars in the U.S. diet is vigorously debated with much attention on added sugars, those added during processing or preparation of foodstuffs, particularly as they relate to obesity. Federal government agencies have different responsibilities related to the food supply including researc...

  19. How Agencies Inspect. A Comparative Study of Inspection Policies in Eight Swedish Government Agencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindblom, Lars; Clausen, Jonas; Edvardsson, Karin; Hayenhielm, Madeleine; Hermansson, Helene; Nihlen, Jessica; Palm, Elin; Ruden, Christina; Wikman, Per; Hansson, Sven Ove

    2003-04-01

    Eight Swedish authorities with inspection tasks in the areas of health, safety, and environmental protection have been compared, namely the authorities responsible for nuclear safety, radiation protection, railway, marine and aviation safety, environmental protection, chemicals control, and health and safety on workplaces. Significant differences in inspection policies and practices between the authorities were found, such as: diverging definitions of supervision and inspection that complicate comparisons, different priority-setting principles for inspections, variations in inspection frequencies (between 13 and 0.03 inspections per company and year), different practices with respect to notifying companies before inspection visits, and in particular, large differences in the extent to which non-compliance with regulations is reported to legal authorities. It was concluded that these agencies have much to gain from increasing their cooperation in methods development, evaluation studies, and education of inspectors

  20. THE BESIEGED FORTRESS: MAKING SENSE OF RUSSIA’S ANNEXATION OF CRIMEA AND WHAT IT MEANS TO U.S. POLICY MAKERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-13

    Ukraine. Additionally, I provide five lessons learned from the Russian invasion, followed by four recommendations for U.S. policy makers regarding...Lessons Learned from Crimea and a Prediction of Putin’s Future Behavior 1. Putin views himself as a contemporary Peter the Great, and his grand...approval -ratings. 28 “Vladimir Putin’s Unshakeable Popularity” Levada Center, Economist, 4 February 2016, http://www.economist.com/ blogs /grapicdetail

  1. “What is the Spirit of this Gathering?” Indigenous Sport Policy-Makers and Self-Determination in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Braden P. Te Hiwi

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I examine how the process of Indigenous participation in policy-making pertaining to the development of federal sport policy in Canada is connected to Indigenous forms of self-determination. By conducting semi-structured interviews with six Indigenous sport policy-makers, I investigate how their respective thoughts, experiences, and actions shape their perspective on self-determination. My analysis shows that a focus on relationships was at the center of the interviewed Indig...

  2. Adolescent pregnancies and girls' sexual and reproductive rights in the amazon basin of Ecuador: an analysis of providers' and policy makers' discourses

    OpenAIRE

    Goicolea, Isabel; Wulff, Marianne; Sebastian, Miguel San; ?hman, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Adolescent pregnancies are a common phenomenon that can have both positive and negative consequences. The rights framework allows us to explore adolescent pregnancies not just as isolated events, but in relation to girls' sexual and reproductive freedom and their entitlement to a system of health protection that includes both health services and the so called social determinants of health. The aim of this study was to explore policy makers' and service providers' discourse...

  3. 42 CFR 137.286 - Do Self-Governance Tribes become Federal agencies when they assume these Federal environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Do Self-Governance Tribes become Federal agencies... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.286 Do Self-Governance... Self-Governance Tribes are required to assume Federal environmental responsibilities for projects in...

  4. Assessing the Institutional Capacity of External Agencies in Holding Local Government Accountable in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Kakumba

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Government of Uganda established external agencies as part of the control mechanisms aimed at promoting accountability in the public sector in general and local governments (LGs in particular. The two cardinal control agencies include the Office of the Auditor General (OAG and the Inspectorate of Government (IG, who are mandated to enhance public service through efficient and effective resource management, ensuring adherence to standards and regulations, and promoting responsiveness to community needs. In spite of these institutional controls, a surge of unbearable events involving abuse of authority and misuse of public resources still exists, suggesting significant managerial and capacity handicaps, not only in the internal mechanisms of LGs, but also in the external control agencies. This paper presents findings of a study conducted to evaluate the institutional capacity of the OAG and the IG in the enhancement of accountability in local governments (LGs in Uganda. The findings demonstrate deficiencies in institutional capacity across the spectrum of financial, human and material resources, as well as the enabling legislation and lack stakeholder support. The scenario is a recipe for encouraging public malfeasance. The paper makes a strong case for strengthening institutional capacity, through improvements in planning, resource facilitation and collaborative relations among the key stakeholders. It is argued that the establishment of a special anti-corruption court could help reduce the delays and provide appropriate corrective measures in support of accountability.

  5. 48 CFR 1827.304-2 - Contracts placed by or for other Government agencies. (NASA supplements paragraph (a))

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Contracts placed by or for other Government agencies. (NASA supplements paragraph (a)) 1827.304-2 Section 1827.304-2 Federal... for other Government agencies. (NASA supplements paragraph (a)) (a)(3) When a contract is placed for...

  6. The Impact of NAFTA on Training and Development in Mexico: The Perspective of Mexican Senior Government Agency Officials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Carlos Enrique

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the perceptions of Mexican senior government agency officials with regard to the impact of NAFTA on training and development practices in Mexico. This study was conducted using a phenomenological tradition within qualitative research. The major findings of the study indicate that Mexican senior government agency officials…

  7. User Acceptance Model on E-Billing Adoption: A Study of Tax Payment by Government Agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maulana Yusup

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of information technology is to create the paradigm shift in public services by government agencies, particularly in the payment of taxes. The purpose of this study is to determine the user's perception of e-billing in paying taxes. The study population were employees of the 17 companies in the textile and garment industry in Bandung, West Java and the sample was taken by simple random sampling with as many as 269 people involved from 17 industries in textile and garment units. Analysis of data was using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM. The results showed that there was a significant effect of perceived ease of use, subjective norm, perceived usefulness, facilitating condition of the attitude, toward the attitude and the intention to use. Thus, it is evidence that e-billing based services may be one way to improve service of government agencies to facilitate the payment of taxes.

  8. Strategic Models and the Response of Government Agencies to Extreme Emergencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casler, Catherine; Pierides, Dean

    Government agencies that are tasked with responding to extreme emergencies are constantly battling with the tensions and trade-offs of centralized control versus decentralized decision-making. Many of today’s emergency management organizations are a product of World War II and as such they have...... and address how military and strategic management models organize the response of government agencies to extreme emergencies whilst also failing to address their core organizational problems. We are interested in the relatively recent creation of centralized organizations like the US Federal Emergency...... to emergency management in the Australian State of Victoria after the catastrophic 2009 ‘Black Saturday’ bushfires. In the public inquiry into the disaster, centralization became an important antidote for previous shortcomings in ‘command, control and coordination’, eventually leading to the creation...

  9. Integrating global energy and climate governance: The changing role of the International Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heubaum, Harald; Biermann, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Despite the long-recognized interlinkages between global energy consumption and climate change, there has historically been only limited policy interaction, let alone integration, between the two fields. This compartmentalization is mirrored in scholarship, where much research has focused on the fragmentation of, respectively, global energy and global climate governance, but only little has been said about how these fields might be integrated. Our analysis of the International Energy Agency’s (IEA) changing activities in recent years shows that governance integration – both within global energy governance and between global energy and climate governance – is now happening. The IEA has broadened its portfolio to embrace the full spectrum of energy issues, including renewable energy and climate change; it has built and is expanding key partnerships with both the UN climate convention and the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA); and it has become an authoritative advocate for the inter-related goals of a low-carbon transition and climate change mitigation. We show that these developments are not the result of a top-down plan, but have rather emerged through the Agency’s various efforts to pursue its energy-centric mandate in a fast-changing global policy environment. - Highlights: • Assesses integration between global energy and global climate governance. • Analyzes organizational change in the IEA and its impact on governance integration. • Discusses recent activities and advocacy by the IEA in relation to climate change.

  10. Adolescent pregnancies and girls' sexual and reproductive rights in the amazon basin of Ecuador: an analysis of providers' and policy makers' discourses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Miguel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent pregnancies are a common phenomenon that can have both positive and negative consequences. The rights framework allows us to explore adolescent pregnancies not just as isolated events, but in relation to girls' sexual and reproductive freedom and their entitlement to a system of health protection that includes both health services and the so called social determinants of health. The aim of this study was to explore policy makers' and service providers' discourses concerning adolescent pregnancies, and discuss the consequences that those discourses have for the exercise of girls' sexual and reproductive rights' in the province of Orellana, located in the amazon basin of Ecuador. Methods We held six focus-group discussions and eleven in-depth interviews with 41 Orellana's service providers and policy makers. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using discourse analysis, specifically looking for interpretative repertoires. Results Four interpretative repertoires emerged from the interviews. The first repertoire identified was "sex is not for fun" and reflected a moralistic construction of girls' sexual and reproductive health that emphasized abstinence, and sent contradictory messages regarding contraceptive use. The second repertoire -"gendered sexuality and parenthood"-constructed women as sexually uninterested and responsible mothers, while men were constructed as sexually driven and unreliable. The third repertoire was "professionalizing adolescent pregnancies" and lead to patronizing attitudes towards adolescents and disregard of the importance of non-medical expertise. The final repertoire -"idealization of traditional family"-constructed family as the proper space for the raising of adolescents while at the same time acknowledging that sexual abuse and violence within families was common. Conclusions Providers' and policy makers' repertoires determined the areas that the array of sexual and reproductive

  11. Adolescent pregnancies and girls' sexual and reproductive rights in the amazon basin of Ecuador: an analysis of providers' and policy makers' discourses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goicolea, Isabel; Wulff, Marianne; Sebastian, Miguel San; Ohman, Ann

    2010-06-07

    Adolescent pregnancies are a common phenomenon that can have both positive and negative consequences. The rights framework allows us to explore adolescent pregnancies not just as isolated events, but in relation to girls' sexual and reproductive freedom and their entitlement to a system of health protection that includes both health services and the so called social determinants of health. The aim of this study was to explore policy makers' and service providers' discourses concerning adolescent pregnancies, and discuss the consequences that those discourses have for the exercise of girls' sexual and reproductive rights' in the province of Orellana, located in the amazon basin of Ecuador. We held six focus-group discussions and eleven in-depth interviews with 41 Orellana's service providers and policy makers. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using discourse analysis, specifically looking for interpretative repertoires. Four interpretative repertoires emerged from the interviews. The first repertoire identified was "sex is not for fun" and reflected a moralistic construction of girls' sexual and reproductive health that emphasized abstinence, and sent contradictory messages regarding contraceptive use. The second repertoire -"gendered sexuality and parenthood"-constructed women as sexually uninterested and responsible mothers, while men were constructed as sexually driven and unreliable. The third repertoire was "professionalizing adolescent pregnancies" and lead to patronizing attitudes towards adolescents and disregard of the importance of non-medical expertise. The final repertoire -"idealization of traditional family"-constructed family as the proper space for the raising of adolescents while at the same time acknowledging that sexual abuse and violence within families was common. Providers' and policy makers' repertoires determined the areas that the array of sexual and reproductive health services should include, leaving out the ones more prone to

  12. "We noticed that suddenly the country has become full of MRI". Policy makers' views on diffusion and use of health technologies in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tishelman Carol

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Uncontrolled proliferation of health technologies (HT is one contributor to the increasing pressure on health systems to adopt new technologies. With limited resources, policy-makers encounter difficulties in fulfilling their responsibility to meet the healthcare needs of the population. The aim of this study is to explore how policy-makers' reason about the diffusion and utilization of health technologies in Iran using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and interferon beta as tracers. Method This qualitative exploration complements quantitative data generated in a research project investigating the diffusion and utilization of MRI and interferon beta in Iran. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 informants in different positions and levels of authority in the Ministry of Health (MOH, University of Medical Sciences, Health Insurance Organizations, and Parliament. The data was analysed using the framework approach. Findings Although policy-makers appeared to be positive to health technology assessment (HTA, the processes of policy-making described by the interviewees did not seem to be based on a full understanding of this (discipline. Several obstacles to applying knowledge about HT and HTA were described. The current official plan for MRI adoption and diffusion in the country was said not to be followed, and no such plan was described for interferon beta. Instead, market forces such as advertising, and physician and consumer demand, appear to have strong influence on HT diffusion and use. Dual practice may have increased the induced demand and also reduced the supervision of the private sector by the MOH. Conclusion Management instability and lack of coordination in the MOH were found to be important obstacles to accumulation of knowledge and experience which, in turn, could have led to suboptimal managerial and policy-making processes. Furthermore marketing should be controlled in order to avoid

  13. Do new cancer drugs offer good value for money? The perspectives of oncologists, health care policy makers, patients, and the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilla, Tatiana; Lizan, Luís; Paz, Silvia; Garrido, Pilar; Avendaño, Cristina; Cruz-Hernández, Juan J; Espinosa, Javier; Sacristán, José A

    2016-01-01

    In oncology, establishing the value of new cancer treatments is challenging. A clear definition of the different perspectives regarding the drivers of innovation in oncology is required to enable new cancer treatments to be properly rewarded for the value they create. The aim of this study was to analyze the views of oncologists, health care policy makers, patients, and the general population regarding the value of new cancer treatments. An exploratory and qualitative study was conducted through structured interviews to assess participants' attitudes toward cost and outcomes of cancer drugs. First, the participants were asked to indicate the minimum survival benefit that a new treatment should have to be funded by the Spanish National Health System (NHS). Second, the participants were requested to state the highest cost that the NHS could afford for a medication that increases a patient's quality of life (QoL) by twofold with no changes in survival. The responses were used to calculate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). The minimum improvement in patient survival means that justified inclusions into the NHS were 5.7, 8.2, 9.1, and 10.4 months, which implied different ICERs for oncologists (€106,000/quality-adjusted life year [QALY]), patients (€73,520/QALY), the general population (€66,074/QALY), and health care policy makers (€57,471/QALY), respectively. The costs stated in the QoL-enhancing scenario were €33,167, €30,200, €26,000, and €17,040, which resulted in ICERs of €82,917/QALY for patients, €75,500/QALY for the general population, €65,000/QALY for oncologists, and €42,600/QALY for health care policy makers, respectively. All estimated ICER values were higher than the thresholds previously described in the literature. Oncologists most valued gains in survival, whereas patients assigned a higher monetary value to treatments that enhanced QoL. Health care policy makers were less likely to pay more for therapeutic

  14. Developing and Maintaining Official Government Agencies Web site - Issues and Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Fauzi Haris; Mohd Hasnor Hasan; Nuruliza Samsudin

    2011-01-01

    In the era where Internet technology has grown rapidly, information is now at your fingertips. Web site is considered as an important medium and widely used whether for the purposes of promoting products and services or as an effective way to disseminate general information about the organization, companies or individuals. Nowadays, a general term such as Web 2.0 is almost out of date and is now entering the era of the Real World Web. For government agencies for instance, official web site is an important and effective tool for dissemination and communication of information to the public. In the view of Web master for a government agency, a number of issues and challenges may arise. They might face the same issues and challenges but they way to handle them are differ from one agency to another, depending on the culture, special rules and regulations applied and shared values among the staff. This paper will discuss these issues and challenges as well as applicable solutions based on our experiences. (author)

  15. 42 CFR 137.297 - If the environmental review procedures of a Federal agency are adopted by a Self-Governance Tribe...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... agency are adopted by a Self-Governance Tribe, is the Self-Governance Tribe responsible for ensuring the... INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa...-Governance Tribe, is the Self-Governance Tribe responsible for ensuring the agency's policies and procedures...

  16. Public Acceptance on Nuclear Power: A Strategic Need to Shift to 5Ps (Politicians, Policy Makers, Professionals, Public and Press) Acceptance on Nuclear Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dato Syed Ahmad Idid, S.N. K. A.-I.

    2015-01-01

    Business should not be as usual in formulating strategies and plans to enhance awareness regarding the benefits of nuclear power as an option for energy mix. Although, presently 435 nuclear power reactors in operation in 30 countries are delivering cost competitive electricity to consumers, creating significant job, investment and business opportunities, supporting enterprises, contributing significantly to these nations economic growth, however these positive impacts and benefits have not be sufficiently transmitted to the various stakeholders and population, who have until recently only received unbalanced views and news from an uninformed press. Negative and generally unbalanced press coverage of isolated nuclear incidents and accidents such as TMI, Chernobyl and most recently Fukushima has resulted in public protests to nuclear power, contributing to several nuclear power programmes being delayed or not able to take off. This situation is further exacerbated by uninformed politicians and policy makers who have the influence but were not able to harness their positions to assure the public due to lack of knowledge regarding the economic and social benefits of nuclear power. As the challenges to the nuclear industry presently also include ageing nuclear professionals, lack of updates regarding business and financing opportunities to business and financing professionals, thus the benefits of career, business and financing opportunities must also be disseminated to these Professionals. This paper aims to highlight the fundamental need to expand present Public Awareness Programme to become the 5Ps (Politicians, Policy makers, Professionals, Public and Press) Awareness Programme on Nuclear Power. (author)

  17. What do government agencies consider in the debate over added sugars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klurfeld, David M

    2013-03-01

    The place of sugars in the U.S. diet is vigorously debated with much attention on added sugars, those added during processing or preparation of foodstuffs, particularly as they relate to obesity. Federal government agencies have different responsibilities related to the food supply including research, food safety, nutrition assistance, and labeling; therefore, the interpretation of evidence differs depending on the role of the agency. Some common references for government agency positions are the dietary reference intakes and the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, which together form the foundation for much of federal nutrition policy. Sugar consumption has increased in proportion to intake of other nutrients since 1980, when obesity began to increase substantially. Median intake of added sugars is ~12% of energy, whereas total sugar intake is ~22% of energy. Although there are differences in the way in which individual monosaccharides are metabolized, they are rarely consumed alone. A key issue related to obesity is likely the increased number of eating occasions and portion size for many indulgent foods; grain-based snacks have become the largest source of energy in the U.S. diet. There are currently insufficient data to justify a decision on regulation or taxation of sugar-containing foods and the like because the approach must be weighed against personal freedoms; the list of foods associated with obesity includes many commonly eaten items, and it is not likely that they are all causally related. Government should consider the totality of the evidence including the strength of the relationship of sugar intake with various health outcomes.

  18. Priorities in national space strategies and governance of the member states of the European Space Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaensen, Maarten; Giannopapa, Christina; Sagath, Daniel; Papastefanou, Anastasia

    2015-12-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has twenty Member States with a variety of strategic priorities and governance structures regarding their space activities. A number of countries engage in space activities exclusively though ESA, while others have also their own national space programme. Some consider ESA as their prime space agency and others have additionally their own national agency with respective programmes. The main objective of this paper is to provide an up-to date overview and a holistic assessment of strategic priorities and the national space governance structures in 20 ESA Member States. This analysis and assessment has been conducted by analysing the Member States public documents, information provided at ESA workshop on this topic and though unstructured interviews. The paper is structured to include two main elements: priorities and trends in national space strategies and space governance in ESA Member States. The first part of this paper focuses on the content and analysis of the national space strategies and indicates the main priorities and trends in Member States. The priorities are categorised with regards to technology domains, the role of space in the areas of sustainability and the motivators that boost engagement in space. These vary from one Member State to another and include with different levels of engagement in technology domains amongst others: science and exploration, navigation, Earth observation, human space flight, launchers, telecommunications, and integrated applications. Member States allocate a different role of space as enabling tool adding to the advancement of sustainability areas including: security, resources, environment and climate change, transport and communication, energy, and knowledge and education. The motivators motivating reasoning which enhances or hinders space engagement also differs. The motivators identified are industrial competitiveness, job creation, technology development and transfer, social benefits

  19. [The constitution and attribution of government research agencies. A matter of need for science-generated policy knowledge?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipps, Axel

    2011-03-01

    Government research agencies are a form of extra-university research institutions. In contrast to other extra-university research facilities they are subordinate to and financed by respective German governmental departments. As their mission they provide science-generated information, services, and monitoring to support the governmental departments. In science studies researchers proclaim a rigid association between the installation, attribution, and development of government research agencies and the increasing need for science-generated policy knowledge. The article examines this assumed association based on the personal, institutional, financial, and mission specific development of government research agencies between the years 1965 and 2005. According to the results the expansion of government research agencies stagnates--like science in general.

  20. A Case Study on Organizational Culture and Its Role in the Creation of Organizational Change Efforts Within a Government Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    organizational change efforts within government agencies. The government agency studied seeking organizational change was the U.S. Army Armament Research, Development, and Engineering Center (ARDEC) and the organizational change effort analyzed was the Technology and Product Development Process, otherwise known as Vector, currently in development at ARDEC. The considerations presented were based upon historic information from literature by leading subject matter experts in the field of organizational change .

  1. A case study on organizational culture and its role in the creation of organizational change efforts within a government agency

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Frank; Faust, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited Joint Applied Project In this Joint Applied Project, we present organizational culture implications and lessons-learned to consider during organizational change efforts within government agencies. The government agency studied seeking organizational change was the U.S. Army Armament Research, Development, and Engineering Center (ARDEC) and the organizational change effort analyzed was the Technology and Product Development Process, ot...

  2. Recognition of Mangrove Ecosystem Services by the Community and Policy Makers in the Gulf of Guayaquil, Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Darquea, Jodie J

    2016-01-01

    In 2000 Ecuador created the “Agreements of Sustainable Use and Custody of Mangroves” management for the local communities, helping to stop deforestation of mangroves caused by shrimp farming. With this program, the Ecuadorian government offers economic incentives to support community–based management without taking into consideration the essential role of ecosystem services. This policy fails to encourage the capacity of the communities to grow through monitoring of ecosystem services. This p...

  3. Public Sector Financial Management Reform: A Case Study of Local Government Agencies in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monir Mir

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has taken initiatives to reform its public sector financial management. One of the reform agendas was to introduce ‘cash to accrual’ accounting for improved financial reporting. It is expected that improved financial reporting will enhance financial accountabilities of the governmental agencies and will assist both internal and external decision makers whose decisions will be based on the financial reports. However, it has been observed that there is a significant increase in the number of qualified audit reports when these financial reports were audited. This also means that these financial reports are lacking in providing true and fair views on the financial activities of the governmental agencies, thereby not assisting in discharging their accountabilities. This study seeks to answer the question as to why the numbers of qualified audit reports have increased despite the existence of various governmental accounting reform agendas. Based on the in-depth case studies of three Indonesian local governments, it is found that the demand, the supply and the quality assurance of the accounting information outputs in these local governments are not in parity, and this lacking in parties actually has impacted in producing unqualified and usable accounting reports.

  4. Significant factors for enabling knowledge sharing between government agencies within South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avain Mannie

    2013-10-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to validate the significant factors that influence the effectiveness of KM between government agencies in South Africa. The commonly identified pillars of KM in the extant literature served as a primary framework in establishing these factors. Method: Data were gathered using an electronic survey made available to different national government agencies within the security cluster. Responses were analysed using structural equation modelling. Main findings: Existing literature highlighted organisational culture, learning organisation, collaboration, subject matter experts and trust as being determinants for knowledge management. The first two were identified as the most significant factors for knowledge sharing to succeed. Conclusion: Whilst there is universal consent as to the strategic importance of KM, actionable implementation of knowledge sharing initiatives appears to be lacking. This study emphasised the fact that leaders must instil a knowledge sharing culture either through employee performance contracts or methods such as the balanced score card. The study also showed that it is imperative for leaders to acknowledge that KM is a multi-faceted discipline that offers strategic advantages. Leaders of developing countries should note that they are on a developmental journey. This requires their organisations to be learning organisations, which necessitates a change in the organisational culture and knowledge interventions through their academies of learning.

  5. Decision-making contexts involving Earth observations in federal and state government agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwayama, Y.; Thompson, A.

    2017-12-01

    National and international organizations are placing greater emphasis on the societal and economic benefits that can be derived from applications of Earth observations, yet improvements are needed to connect to the decision processes that produce actions with direct societal benefits. The Consortium for the Valuation of Applications Benefits Linked with Earth Science (VALUABLES), a cooperative agreement between Resources for the Future (RFF) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), has the goal of advancing methods for the valuation and communication of the applied benefits linked with Earth observations. One of the Consortium's activities is a set of Policy Briefs that document the use of Earth observations for decision making in federal and state government agencies. In developing these Policy Briefs, we pay special attention to documenting the entire information value chain associated with the use of Earth observations in government decision making, namely (a) the specific data product, modeling capability, or information system used by the agency, (b) the decision context that employs the Earth observation information and translates it into an agency action, (c) the outcomes that are realized as a result of the action, and (d) the beneficiaries associated with the outcomes of the decision. Two key examples include the use of satellite data for informing the US Drought Monitor (USDM), which is used to determine the eligibility of agricultural communities for drought disaster assistance programs housed at the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the use of satellite data by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection to develop numeric nutrient water quality standards and monitoring methods for chlorophyll-a, which is codified in Florida state code (62-302.532).

  6. Enhancing the Capacity of Policy-Makers to Develop Evidence-Informed Policy Brief on Infectious Diseases of Poverty in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chigozie Jesse Uneke

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The lack of effective use of research evidence in policy-making is a major challenge in most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. There is need to package research data into effective policy tools that will help policy-makers to make evidence-informed policy regarding infectious diseases of poverty (IDP. The objective of this study was to assess the usefulness of training workshops and mentoring to enhance the capacity of Nigerian health policy-makers to develop evidence-informed policy brief on the control of IDP. Methods A modified “before and after” intervention study design was used in which outcomes were measured on the target participants both before the intervention is implemented and after. A 4-point Likert scale according to the degree of adequacy; 1 = “grossly inadequate,” 4 = “very adequate” was employed. The main parameter measured was participants’ perceptions of their own knowledge/understanding. This study was conducted at subnational level and the participants were the career health policy-makers drawn from Ebonyi State in the South-Eastern Nigeria. A oneday evidence-to-policy workshop was organized to enhance the participants’ capacity to develop evidence-informed policy brief on IDP in Ebonyi State. Topics covered included collaborative initiative; preparation and use of policy briefs; policy dialogue; ethics in health policy-making; and health policy and politics. Results The preworkshop mean of knowledge and capacity ranged from 2.49-3.03, while the postworkshop mean ranged from 3.42–3.78 on 4-point scale. The percentage increase in mean of knowledge and capacity at the end of the workshop ranged from 20.10%–45%. Participants were divided into 3 IDP mentorship groups (malaria, schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis [LF] and were mentored to identify potential policy options/recommendations for control of the diseases for the policy briefs. These policy options were subjected to research

  7. Relationship between Saskatchewan government regulatory agencies and the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechner, L.J.; Mathieson, B.

    1998-01-01

    The roles and responsibilities of various government agencies as they interact with the oil and gas industry in Saskatchewan were described. The regulatory agencies featured in this paper were Saskatchewan Energy and Mines (SEM), Saskatchewan Environment and Resource Management (SERM), and Saskatchewan Agriculture and Food (SAF). The management of land sales, seismic activities, exploration and oil and gas production activities were reviewed. While each of the agencies has a different mandate, they have a common goal regarding petroleum resources, and that is to ensure that the oil and gas industry carries out its activities in a sustainable manner while protecting and conserving the environment. The mandate of SEM is to facilitate the discovery, development and use of Saskatchewan's energy and mineral resources. SERM's mandate is to manage, enhance and protect Saskatchewan's natural and environmental resources such as fish, wildlife, lands, forests, parks, air, water and soil, for conservation, recreation, social and economic purposes. The mandate of SAF is to manage crown land in the province and to control surface access to these lands

  8. Application of Employability Skills and Contextual Performance Level of Employees in Government Agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maripaz C. Abas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The widespread practice of contractualization even in government institutions is a big challenge facing newly-hired employees in seeking a stable position.  Researchers have argued that the quality of practice of employability skills could help employees have better job performance, provide them better working condition or status, and consequently meet the higher expectations of employers. The present study employs descriptive research design to explain the extent of application of employability skills and contextual performance.  Based on The Conference Board of Canada’s Employability Skills 2000+ and Borman and Motowidlo’s Taxonomy of Contextual Performance, two sets of survey questionnaires were adopted to gather data from 220 respondents representing employers and employees from 25 government institutions. Data analysis showed that novice employees in public institutions applied their employability skills such as fundamental, personal management and teamwork skills to some extent. Moreover, results revealed that employees had satisfactory contextual performance.  Thus, this may suggest that the application of employability skills and contextual behaviors should be enhanced to meet the increasing and complex challenges of their respective government agencies.

  9. DEVELOPING AN INSTITUTIONAL ANALYSIS FRAMEWORK IN STUDYING BUREAUCRATIC BEHAVIOUR IN GOVERNMENT AGENCIES FROM CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRADA-MARIA ALBESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to develop a comprehensive institutional analysis framework in studying bureaucratic behaviour in government agencies. Although the purpose is to outline a general framework for research, the focus will be on taking into account the specifics of the agencification process in states from Central and Eastern Europe. The paper is divided into three sections. In the first section I compare various neoinstitutionalist approaches in terms of analysing the processes and transformations in the institutional environment concerning government agencies as semi-autonomous bodies in state organization. I argue that the approach which has a greater potential in explaining the processes and transformations in the institutional environment in government agencies is rational choice institutionalism. The second section of this paper is focused on presenting several traditional bureaucratic models in studying bureaucratic behaviour, from the traditional approach to public choice ones, in order to determine their possible contribution in analysing officials behaviour in semiautonomous agencies. Using these and the institutional analysis framework sugested in the first section of this paper I will focus on developing a model for studying bureaucratic behaviour in government agencies. The final section of the paper will be focused on the possibility of using the institutional analysis framework for studying bureaucratic behaviour in government agencies in Central and Eastern Europe and the challenges presented.

  10. The role of the primary care physician in the Israeli health care system as a 'gatekeeper'--the viewpoint of health care policy makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabenkin, H; Gross, R

    2000-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the attitudes of policy makers in the health care system in Israel to a change in the role of primary care physicians (PCP) and to ascertain the conditions under which they would be ready to adopt the model of PCP as gatekeeper. The study design was qualitative, with analyses of in-depth structured interviews of 20 policy makers from the Ministry of Health, the Sick Funds' central administrations and the Israel Medical Association (IMA) central office. The majority of the respondents claim that they want highly trained PCPs (family physicians, pediatricians and internals) to play a central role in the health care system. They should be co-ordinators, highly accessible and should be able to weigh cost considerations. However, only about half of the respondents support a full gatekeeper model and most of them think that the gatekeeper concept has a negative connotation. They also feel that it would be difficult to implement regulations regarding primary care. The barriers to implementation of the gatekeeper model, as cited by the respondents include loss of faith in PCPs by the general population, dearth of PCPs with adequate training, low stature, lack of availability on a 24-h basis, resistance by specialists, strong competition between the sick funds including promises of direct access to specialists, the medical care habits of the general population many of whom do not settle for only one opinion, and a declared anti-gatekeeper policy by one of the sick funds. Ways to overcome these obstacles include implementation of fundholding clinics, patient education on the importance of having a personal physician, appropriate marketing by family medicine and primary care advocates, and continued training in primary care. Israeli health care policy makers have an ambivalent attitude to strengthening the role of primary care. In theory, they profess support for placing primary care physicians in a central role in the health care system

  11. THEORETIC INCURSION IN THE IDENTIFICATION OF DETERMINANTS AND E-GOVERNMENT STRATEGY. EMPIRIC STUDY OVER THE GRADE OF IMPLEMENTATION OF E-GOVERNMENT IN BIHOR COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Cohut Ioana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We are currently witnessing an unprecedented development of new technologies, that offers great opportunities for the modernization of the society, it changes radically the way governments, businesses and citizens have the opportunity to obtain goods and services, the way in which public services are provided that become increasingly important for citizens, the way of obtaining and transmitting information, the way in which business connections are done, the interaction between different communities, etc.. From this point of view we research the way in which public strategies of achievement and implementation of model of e-government are shaped, model which can exploit the opportunities offered by new technologies and can implement roles for the citizen and public policy makers and implicitly of local and regional development. How the public sector should support the implementation of strategies of e-government, to polarize at the highest level all communities of interest, to provide a framework for planning and action across the board, covering local administration, institutions, organizations and government agencies, to empower appropriate training for implementation of IT strategies, can lead to stimulation of generators factors of local and regional development. We also, intend to identify, from carrying out an empirical study in Bihor county, by analysis of 30 public institutions, the degree of implementation of new technologies in public administration, human resources readiness for appropriate use of IT facilities and what level of implementation of e-government in these institutions, in order to outline the main characteristics and determinants of e-government implementation. The present paper is of interest to policy-makers, researchers, local communities through analysis how the introduction of new technology development in developing and implementing public policies, particularly by networking government and e-government, can cause

  12. Towards a stakeholders' consensus on patient payment policy: the views of health-care consumers, providers, insurers and policy makers in six Central and Eastern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambor, Marzena; Pavlova, Milena; Golinowska, Stanisława; Sowada, Christoph; Groot, Wim

    2015-08-01

    Although patient charges for health-care services may contribute to a more sustainable health-care financing, they often raise public opposition, which impedes their introduction. Thus, a consensus among the main stakeholders on the presence and role of patient charges should be worked out to assure their successful implementation. To analyse the acceptability of formal patient charges for health-care services in a basic package among different health-care system stakeholders in six Central and Eastern European countries (Bulgaria, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Ukraine). Qualitative data were collected in 2009 via focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with health-care consumers, providers, policy makers and insurers. The same participants were asked to fill in a self-administrative questionnaire. Qualitative and quantitative data are analysed separately to outline similarities and differences in the opinions between the stakeholder groups and across countries. There is a rather weak consensus on patient charges in the countries. Health policy makers and insurers strongly advocate patient charges. Health-care providers overall support charges but their financial profits from the system strongly affects their approval. Consumers are against paying for services, mostly due to poor quality and access to health-care services and inability to pay. To build consensus on patient charges, the payment policy should be responsive to consumers' needs with regard to quality and equity. Transparency and accountability in the health-care system should be improved to enhance public trust and acceptance of patient payments. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Setting up charging electric stations within residential communities in current China: Gaming of government agencies and property management companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Tian; Ma, Lin; Mao, Zhonggen; Ou, Xunmin

    2015-01-01

    The difficulty of charging electric vehicles (EVs) is now hindering their further development. Governments generally choose to build stations for home charging (including piles) within residential communities. Given the conflict of interest between various government agencies and property management companies, constructing a charging station within residential communities would result in welfare loss for the property management companies and therefore lead to the principal–agent problem. This paper constructs a two-period imperfect information game theory model to study the moral hazard involved in this issue and government agencies' optimal choice. In the analytic solution of the model, we find that the optimal choice for a farsighted government agency is to constantly improve the incentive mechanism and introduce charging stations only when the conflict of interest is eliminated. Any benefits derived from government regulations by force would prove short-lived. The government should focus on long-term returns in the development of EVs, and its optimal mechanism should be designed to mitigate the principal–agent problem of property management companies, thereby accelerate the progress of EV charging infrastructure and improve overall social welfare. - Highlights: • The charging of electric vehicles (EVs) is hindering their use. • A game theory model is used for analysis of EV charging station construction. • Charging stations are in residential communities in China. • Government agencies are constantly improving incentive mechanisms

  14. The Governance of Multi-Use Platforms at Sea for Energy Production and Aquaculture: Challenges for Policy Makers in European Seas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuiver, Marian; Soma, Katrine; Koundouri, Phoebe; Burg, Van Den Sander; Gerritsen, Alwin; Rockmann, C.

    2016-01-01

    European seas are encountering an upsurge in competing marine activities and infrastructures. Traditional exploitation such as fisheries, tourism, transportation, and oil production are accompanied by new sustainable economic activities such as offshore windfarms, aquaculture, and tidal and wave

  15. VALUE CREATION FROM ORGANIZATIONAL PROJECT MANAGEMENT: A CASE STUDY IN A GOVERNMENT AGENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warlei Agnelo De Oliveira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze, through a case study based on a construct of the work of Thomas and Mulally (2008, called Researching the Value of Project Management, the relations of the constructs of this conceptual model and to show how they interfere with the organizational values, possibly in programs conducted by a government agency, from the perspective of the senior management directly involved. The analysis of information collected indicated that project management has brought value to the organization, but not all components of the conceptual model used were perceived. Additionally, differences between respondents from outside and inside of this department become evident, indicating a difference in stakeholders ́ interests. Finally, from the perspective of institutional isomorphism, we searched for evidence of an effort to increase the organization's management maturity in project management, indicating by documents the mimetic and coercive isomorphism to ensure the achievement of goals and financial efficiency of the projects analyzed.

  16. Using SCOR as a Supply Chain Management Framework for Government Agency Contract Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Joseph; Tucker, Brian

    2010-01-01

    This paper will present a model that uses the Supply-Chain Operations Reference (SCOR) model as a foundation for a framework to illustrate the information needed throughout a product lifecycle to support a healthy supply chain management function and the subsequent contract requirements to enable it. It will also show where in the supply chain the information must be extracted. The ongoing case study used to exemplify the model is NASA's (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Ares I program for human spaceflight. Effective supply chain management and contract requirements are ongoing opportunities for continuous improvement within government agencies, specifically development of systems for human spaceflight operations. Multiple reports from the Government Accountability Office (GAO) reinforce this importance. The SCOR model is a framework for describing a supply chain with process building blocks and business activities. It provides a set of metrics for measuring supply chain performance and best practices for continuously improving. This paper expands the application of the SCOR to also provide the framework for defining information needed from different levels of the supply chain and at different phases of the lifecycle. These needs can be incorporated into contracts to enable more effective supply chain management. Depending on the phase of the lifecycle, effective supply chain management will require involvement from different levels of the organization and different levels of the supply chain.

  17. Daring to dream: reactions to tobacco endgame ideas among policy-makers, media and public health practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Nick

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco control strategies have mainly targeted reducing demand. Supply-side focused measures, though less familiar, deserve consideration, particularly to achieve 'endgame' tobacco control aims (e.g. achieving close to zero smoking prevalence. We explored attitudes towards supply-side focused 'endgame' tobacco control approaches and how they can be best communicated with senior policymakers, journalists, and public health practitioners. Methods We identified five supply-side focused approaches which could potentially lead to the tobacco endgame: two structural models and three discrete actions. The structural models were: (i a Nicotine Authority to coordinate tobacco control activities and regulate the nicotine/tobacco market for public health aims; and (ii a Tobacco Supply Agency acting as a monopoly purchaser of tobacco products and controlling the tobacco supply for public health aims. The actions were: (a allocating progressively reducing tobacco product import quotas (the 'sinking lid' until importation and commercial sale of tobacco products ceased; (b making tobacco companies responsible for reducing smoking prevalence with stringent financial penalties if targets were missed; and (c new laws to facilitate litigation against tobacco companies. These approaches were presented as means to achieve a tobacco free New Zealand by 2020 to 19 senior policymakers, journalists, and public health physicians in two focus groups and eight interviews, and their reactions sought. Results The tobacco-free vision was widely supported. Participants engaged fully with the proposed tobacco control approaches, which were viewed as interesting or even intriguing. Most supported increasing the focus on supply-side measures. Views differed greatly about the desirability, feasibility and likely effectiveness of each approach. Participants identified a range of potential barriers to implementation and challenges to successfully advocating and

  18. The Competing Dynamics and Relationships in Corporate and Local Government Agency Constructions of Place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Russell

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the dynamics of how private sector business entities and local government bodies perceive and interact with the identity of the locality in which they operate. It identifies tensions and differences in, and consequences of, the dynamics and relationships between how private sector business entities view constructions of ‘place’ and how government and publicly-funded place-marketing organisations portray and promote localities. These issues are examined through the phenomenon, brand and slogan of ‘visit, live, invest’ which is gaining credence in the United Kingdom and elsewhere in the world. The paper develops data using in-depth interviews and a small-scale survey set within an overall interpretivistic case study approach. The data and the case-study demonstrate that, despite the rebranding of the local government agencies as a place-marketing organisation committed to the new ‘live, visit, invest’ initiative and brand agenda, there is an ongoing ‘cultural hangover’ from previous place promotion policies. There are also serious impacts and consequences for relationships between the public and private sectors and with other stakeholders. The prevailing image of UKTown (real name anonymised by business leaders is one that sees this town fundamentally as a historic, traditional and conservative town. This image has been the product of many years of older style promotion in this vein. While such an image may suggest pleasant aspects of the living environment, it has little to do with corporate image, values and concerns and many private sector business entities do not identity with it. In several instances it is even considered by certain business sectors to be ‘detrimental’ to the need for a dynamic business environment and the forms of relationships and activities these necessitate. The paper indicates a number of strategic moves that could be adopted in order to improve this predicament.

  19. Corporate Governance at the Nacional Telecommunications Agency (ANATEL as a mechanism to improve the Agency’s Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio de Paula e Souza

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the current scenario facing the country's government crisis of confidence, transparency and relationship with society, corporate governance is an important tool to monitor and improve the management, governance and corporate social responsibility in public organizations. The application of this mechanism in the National Telecommunications Agency (ANATEL has great impact to the economy and technological development of the country, capturing investments in the telecommunications sector, generating confidence to investors and stimulating competition between companies, which can offer products with best quality and services at affordable prices for consumers in Brazil. This paper investigates and analyzes by the theory of regulation, guides and reports, corporate governance as a mechanism to improve the management in ANATEL, using references, legislation and other documents in order to examine the transparency, fairness, accountability (providing accounts and corporate social responsibility in the Agency.

  20. State government regulation of forestry practices applied to nonfederal forests: extent and intensity of agency involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul V. Ellefson; Michael A. Kilgore; James E. Granskog

    2006-01-01

    In 2003, 276 state governmental agencies regulated forestry practices applied to nonfederal forests. Fifty-four percent of these agencies were moderately to extensively involved in such regulation, and 68% engaged in moderate to extensive regulatory coordination with a state's lead forestry agency. The agencies employed an estimates 1,047 full-time equivalents (...

  1. The Text of a Protocol between the Agency and the Governments of Thailand and the United States of America Terminating the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Government of the Kingdom of Thailand and the Government of the United States of America for the Application of Safeguards and Terminating the Protocol Suspending that Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The text of a protocol between the Agency and the Governments of Thailand and the United States of America terminating the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Government of the Kingdom of Thailand and the Government of the United States of America for the Application of Safeguards and terminating the Protocol suspending that Agreement is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Protocol entered into force on 27 June 1974, pursuant to Section 6 thereof.

  2. Carbon footprint of canned mussels from a business-to-consumer approach. A starting point for mussel processors and policy makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iribarren, Diego; Hospido, Almudena; Moreira, Maria Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    2010-01-01

    The increasing demand for environmental information on the global warming impact of products requires a solid methodological framework which guarantees comparability and communicability. The publicly available specification PAS 2050 combines approaches to a variety of greenhouse gas specific assessment issues to deliver a globally applicable product Carbon Footprinting (CF) method, which is expected to be widely accepted. Specifically, this paper aims to demonstrate the implementation of a CF scheme for a common canned mussel product according to PAS 2050 guidelines. A final value of 4.35 kg CO 2 e per triple pack of round cans of mussels was calculated. Furthermore, this CF study led to identify primary packaging (can production) and mussel shell management as the main activities where efforts should focus for climate change mitigation. Throughout this case study, CF opportunities and drawbacks are discussed. The whole text tries to provide a starting point for both mussel processors and policy makers to benefit from the potential advantages of a responsible use of this increasingly popular tool.

  3. Should we use a direct regulation to implement the Healthy Prisons Agenda in England? A qualitative study among prison key policy makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, N; de Viggiani, N

    2017-08-31

    The Healthy Prisons Agenda seeks to reduce prisoners' health risks, balance prisoners' rights with a security regime, ensure equivalent prison health service provisions to community health services, and facilitate the whole-prison approach. There is an established assumption that legislation will ensure better implementation of health promotion programmes. This study aimed to examine whether a legislative framework, via a direct regulation, could lead to enhanced implementation of the Healthy Prisons Agenda in England. A qualitative study design was conducted using semi-structured interviews with 30 key prison policy makers in England. Our findings contradict the established assumption that legislation improves the implementation of health promotion programmes. A direct regulation was perceived as restrictive, manifesting excessive compliance and encouraging a risk-averse culture, whilst preoccupation with security, order and discipline amongst prison governors and custody staff was deemed an internal institutional barrier to implementing the Healthy Prisons Agenda. External barriers included diminishing resources, lengthier or delayed sentencing, and an unsympathetic public and political stance towards prisoner rehabilitation. A direct regulation should not be used to operationalize the Healthy Prisons Agenda. Rather, self-regulation, along with proactive solutions for the identified barriers to implementing the Agenda, is the most appropriate path forward. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  4. 15 CFR 30.40 - Special exemptions for certain shipments to U.S. government agencies and employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special exemptions for certain shipments to U.S. government agencies and employees. 30.40 Section 30.40 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE...

  5. Governing cruise tourism at Bonaire: a networks and flows approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bets, van L.K.J.; Lamers, M.A.J.; Tatenhove, van J.P.M.

    2017-01-01

    Conceptual approaches to thoroughly study governance of cruise tourism are lacking in the literature. Relying on Castells’ network society, we analyze how two interconnected flows of cruise ships and passengers are governed by a marine community of users and policy makers. Bonaire is used as a case

  6. Visions of technology: : Big data lessons understood by EU policy makers in their review of the legal frameworks on intellectual property rights, access to and re-use of PSI and the protection of personal data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerant, Hans; de Hert, Paul; Gutwirth, Serge; Leenes, Ronald; De Hert, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This article’s focus is on how the advent of big data technology and practices has been understood and addressed by policy makers in the EU. We start with a reflection on of how big data affects business processes and how it con- tributes to the creation of a data economy. Then we look at EU policy

  7. Optimize Deployment of Renewable Energy Technologies for Government Agencies, Industrial Facilities, and Military Installations: NREL Offers Proven Tools and Resources to Reduce Energy Use and Improve Efficiency (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Lab provides expertise, facilities, and technical assistance to campuses, facilities, and government agencies to apply renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies.

  8. An Assessment of the Efficiency of Government Regulatory Agencies in Nigeria. Case of the National Agency for Food and Drugs Administration and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiwanehi Barbara Ofuani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines Business, Government and Society interrelationships. It eventually narrowed down to assessing the efficiency of government regulatory agencies, in fulfilling the role of government in protecting consumers from unscrupulous practices of businesses. The National Agency for Food and Drugs Administration and Control (NAFDAC was chosen for the study. Since the expectations of the consumers are paramount here, the stakeholder approach method was used for assessing the efficiency of NAFDAC. Literature and previous empirical studies on the topic were examined. For representativeness, data was collected utilizing the survey research design through Questionnaire distributed to 200 respondents in some areas of Lagos Mainland in Lagos state, using the convenience sampling method. 187 copies of the questionnaire representing 93.5% were returned and usable. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the responses to questions regarding the efficiency of NAFDAC and a hypothesis tested using a one-sample T-test. The findings ran contrary to results from some previous studies. Instead, consumer awareness of the existence of NAFDAC as a regulatory agency and its functions were established, along with a high rate of consumer education. The assessment of its efficiency also showed a high rating. Recommendations were made that the study be replicated in other states of Nigeria and further studies carried out to evaluate its efficiency under previous and current directors for improvement purposes.

  9. Learning about knowledge management for improving environmental impact assessment in a government agency: the Western Australian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Luis Enrique; Morrison-Saunders, Angus

    2011-09-01

    How does knowledge management (KM) by a government agency responsible for environmental impact assessment (EIA) potentially contribute to better environmental assessment and management practice? Staff members at government agencies in charge of the EIA process are knowledge workers who perform judgement-oriented tasks highly reliant on individual expertise, but also grounded on the agency's knowledge accumulated over the years. Part of an agency's knowledge can be codified and stored in an organizational memory, but is subject to decay or loss if not properly managed. The EIA agency operating in Western Australia was used as a case study. Its KM initiatives were reviewed, knowledge repositories were identified and staff surveyed to gauge the utilisation and effectiveness of such repositories in enabling them to perform EIA tasks. Key elements of KM are the preparation of substantive guidance and spatial information management. It was found that treatment of cumulative impacts on the environment is very limited and information derived from project follow-up is not properly captured and stored, thus not used to create new knowledge and to improve practice and effectiveness. Other opportunities for improving organizational learning include the use of after-action reviews. The learning about knowledge management in EIA practice gained from Western Australian experience should be of value to agencies worldwide seeking to understand where best to direct their resources for their own knowledge repositories and environmental management practice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Financial Reporting by Selected Defense Agencies of Government Property in the Custody of Contractors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    ... over the $92 billion of Government property in the custody of contractors. After several years of planning, DoD has not developed a standard accounting system for recording, tracking, and reporting Government property in the custody of contractors...

  11. Examining Agencies' Satisfaction with Electronic Record Management Systems in e-Government: A Large-Scale Survey Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Fang-Ming; Hu, Paul Jen-Hwa; Chen, Hsinchun; Hu, Han-Fen

    While e-government is propelling and maturing steadily, advanced technological capabilities alone cannot guarantee agencies’ realizing the full benefits of the enabling computer-based systems. This study analyzes information systems in e-government settings by examining agencies’ satisfaction with an electronic record management system (ERMS). Specifically, we investigate key satisfaction determinants that include regulatory compliance, job relevance, and satisfaction with support services for using the ERMS. We test our model and the hypotheses in it, using a large-scale survey that involves a total of 1,652 government agencies in Taiwan. Our results show significant effects of regulatory compliance on job relevance and satisfaction with support services, which in turn determine government agencies’ satisfaction with an ERMS. Our data exhibit a reasonably good fit to our model, which can explain a significant portion of the variance in agencies’ satisfaction with an ERMS. Our findings have several important implications to research and practice, which are also discussed.

  12. The development of the model for recognition of prior learning for nurses in South Africa: development of RPL guidelines by the policy makers and stakeholders of nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanyile, T

    2005-11-01

    The National Qualifications Framework (NQF) was established to address the compartmentalization of education and training, the absence of norms and standards and the need for international recognition. According to the South African Qualifications Authority (1996),this framework was aimed at developing a comprehensive qualifications structure and an integrated approach to education and training in the country (NCHE, 1996:46). Educational institutions, including those for nursing, were challenged with a view to rethink the whole culture of teaching and learning and was counted as knowledge. The major principle of the NQF was the Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL), which had to be persued across all sectors (Musker, 1998: 8). RPL was seen as a means to widen access into learning programs for those who had been historically denied this. The challenge for educational institutions was how to ensure that RPL systems once implemented did not compromise academic standards. Research into methodologies to implement the NF in the absence of mechanisms was then essential. The purpose of the study was to develop and test a RPL model for nurses in South Africa. The study adopted a multi phase decisions-oriented evaluation research design. Stuffelbeam's educational evaluation model was used to guide data collection and analysis. The research questions were incorporated under the different phases of evaluation. The model was development at six levels: level one was at the policy makers level; level two was at the stakeholders; levels three to six were at institutional level where three institutions participated at pilot site for the RPL model development. These levels are presented as tiers in the figure 1. This article present the results of the model development at the first two levels, which according to Stuffelbeam's model is the context evaluation for boundary setting. Part two will present the model development at institutional level, involving the input and process

  13. Prospective analysis of energy security: A practical life-cycle approach focused on renewable power generation and oriented towards policy-makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Gusano, Diego; Iribarren, Diego; Garraín, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Formulation and application of the Renewable Energy Security Index (RESI). • Prospective analysis combining Energy Systems Modelling and Life Cycle Assessment. • Feasibility proven through two case studies of power generation in Spain and Norway. • Good coverage of key energy security aspects (availability, affordability, etc.). • Novel and easy-to-report index suitable for energy policy-making. - Abstract: Energy security is a wide-ranging term to encompass issues such as security of supply, reliability of infrastructures, affordability and environmental friendliness. This article develops a robust indicator – the Renewable Energy Security Index, RESI – to enrich the body of knowledge associated with the presence of renewable energy technologies within national electricity production mixes. RESI is built by combining environmental life cycle assessment and techno-economic energy systems modelling. Spain and Norway are used as illustrative case studies for the prospective analysis of power generation from an energy security standpoint. In the Spanish case, with a diversified electricity production mix and a growing presence of renewable technologies, RESI favourably “evolves” from 0.36 at present to 0.65 in 2050 in a business-as-usual scenario, reaching higher values in a highly-restricted CO 2 scenario. The Norwegian case study attains RESI values similar to 1 due to the leading role of renewable electricity (mainly hydropower) regarding both satisfaction of national demand and exportation of electricity surplus. A widespread use of RESI as a quantifiable energy security index of national power generation sectors is found to be feasible and practical for both analysts and energy policy-makers, covering a significant number of energy security aspects.

  14. PPD-QALY-an index for cost-effectiveness in orthopedics: providing essential information to both physicians and health care policy makers for appropriate allocation of medical resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Christopher P; Howard, Timothy

    2013-09-01

    Because of the increasing health care costs and the need for proper allocation of resources, it is important to ensure the best use of health benefits for sick and injured people of the population. An index or indicator is needed to help us quantify what is being spent so that comparisons with other options can be implemented. Cost-effective analysis seems to be well suited to provide this essential information to health care policy makers and those charged with distributing disability funds so that the proper allocation of resources can be achieved. There is currently no such index to show whether the benefits paid out are the most cost-effective. By comparing the quality-adjusted life year (QALY) of a treatment method to the disability an individual would experience, on the basis of lost wages as measure of disability, we provide decision makers more information for the basis of cost allocation in health care. To accomplish this, we describe a new term, the PPD-QALY (permanent partial disability-quality of life year). This term was developed to establish an index to which musculoskeletal care can be compared, to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a treatment on the basis of the monetary value of the disability. This term serves to standardize the monetary value of an injury. Cost-effective analysis in arthroscopic surgery may prove to be a valuable asset in this role and to provide decision makers the information needed to determine the societal benefit from new arthroscopic procedures as they are developed and implemented.

  15. The Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules to Govern the Provision of Technical Assistance by the Agency. Latest Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-03-01

    The Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules to Govern the Provision of Technical Assistance by the Agency were approved by the Board of Governors on 21 February 1979. The test is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The provisions established by the Board of Governors on 24 September 1977 for the application of safeguards in relation to the granting of technical assistance are also reproduced in the Annex to the Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules.

  16. 75 FR 48689 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Open Government...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... employees in those agencies work for enrichment of their own wallets and not for the good of American... subsequently changed; train personnel to be able to respond to a collection of information; search data sources... AGENCY: Office of Citizen Services, General Services Administration (GSA). ACTION: Notice of a request...

  17. 48 CFR 46.408 - Single-agency assignments of Government contract quality assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of Government contract quality assurance. 46.408 Section 46.408 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Government Contract Quality...) For drugs, biologics, and other medical supplies—the Food and Drug Administration; (2) For food...

  18. Establishing a community of practice of researchers, practitioners, policy-makers and communities to sustainably manage environmental health risks in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Bonnie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Sustainably Managing Environmental Health Risk in Ecuador project was launched in 2004 as a partnership linking a large Canadian university with leading Cuban and Mexican institutes to strengthen the capacities of four Ecuadorian universities for leading community-based learning and research in areas as diverse as pesticide poisoning, dengue control, water and sanitation, and disaster preparedness. Methods In implementing curriculum and complementary innovations through application of an ecosystem approach to health, our interdisciplinary international team focused on the question: “Can strengthening of institutional capacities to support a community of practice of researchers, practitioners, policy-makers and communities produce positive health outcomes and improved capacities to sustainably translate knowledge?” To assess progress in achieving desired outcomes, we review results associated with the logic framework analysis used to guide the project, focusing on how a community of practice network has strengthened implementation, including follow-up tracking of program trainees and presentation of two specific case studies. Results By 2009, train-the-trainer project initiation involved 27 participatory action research Master’s theses in 15 communities where 1200 community learners participated in the implementation of associated interventions. This led to establishment of innovative Ecuadorian-led master’s and doctoral programs, and a Population Health Observatory on Collective Health, Environment and Society for the Andean region based at the Universidad Andina Simon Bolivar. Building on this network, numerous initiatives were begun, such as an internationally funded research project to strengthen dengue control in the coastal community of Machala, and establishment of a local community eco-health centre focusing on determinants of health near Cuenca. Discussion Strengthening capabilities for producing and

  19. 75 FR 65881 - Ownership Limitations and Governance Requirements for Security-Based Swap Clearing Agencies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... responsible, fostering cooperation and coordination with persons engaged in the clearance and settlement of... decentralized, security-based swap clearing agencies would help to prevent a single market participant's failure...

  20. Assessment of policy makers' individual and organizational capacity to acquire, assess, adapt and apply research evidence for maternal and child health policy making in Nigeria: a cross-sectional quantitative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Sombie, Issiaka; Keita, Namoudou; Lokossou, Virgil; Johnson, Ermel; Ongolo-Zogo, Pierre; Uro-Chukwu, Henry Chukwuemeka

    2017-09-01

    Throughout the world, there is increasing awareness and acknowledgement of the value of research evidence in the development of effective health policy and in quality health care practice and administration. Among the major challenges associated with the lack of uptake of research evidence into policy and practice in Nigeria is the capacity constraints of policymakers to use research evidence in policy making. To assess the capacity of maternal and child health policy makers to acquire, access, adapt and apply available research evidence. This cross-sectional quantitative survey was conducted at a national maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH) stakeholders' engagement event. An evidence to policy self-assessment questionnaire was used to assess the capacity of forty MNCH policy makers to acquire, assess, adapt and apply research evidence for policy making. Low mean ratings were observed ranging from 2.68-3.53 on a scale of 5 for knowledge about initiating/conducting research and capacity to assess authenticity, validity, reliability, relevance and applicability of research evidence and for organizational capacity for promoting and using of research for policy making. There is need to institute policy makers' capacity development programmes to improve evidence-informed policymaking.

  1. Solar Photovoltaic Energy Policy in Europe: Losing Sight of What is Right. Current Developments and Lessons Learned for Policy-makers and Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherrelle, Eid

    2012-01-01

    interesting to examine China and the United States in regard to PV manufacturing and installation capacity. China may be characterized by its high and early PV production, exporting almost 90% of its output. What will this and other developments mean for European PV industry and job creation? At present, the deployment of PV is under much discussion in many countries, within and outside of Europe. Changes in Feed-in-Tariffs (FIT) are following each other closely and motivations behind deployment are presently frequently discussed in the political sphere. Still, there are important points to consider. What are the costs of PV? How are the costs expected to decrease and how effective are current policies concerning PV penetration? Are these policies also effective in eventually reaching the CO 2 reduction targets? PV technologies are still developing and it is important to not be moved by assumptions on efficiencies or effectiveness of the technology. The aim of this report is to provide recommendations for the debate concerning PV deployment in Europe and to provide suggestions for both policy-makers and industry in- and outside of Europe. This is done by analyzing the main developments related to PV worldwide. The report will furthermore present technical developments of PV and will present a comparison in the international context with US and Asia. In Section 2, the position of PV policy is given within the EU renewable projections for 2020. Before continuing with the support policies for PV in Section 4, the main developments in PV technologies with definitions are provided in Section 3. Afterwards, case studies of the five major European countries with the largest European installed capacities in PV are presented with their efforts and policies associated to PV in Section 5. In Section 6, an evaluation of the European Policy is presented, after which a brief review of the US and China and their PV industries is given with their policy incentives to increase PV installation

  2. The Anti-Politics of Development: donor agencies and the political economy of governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Hout (Wil)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAbstract This article discusses the attempt undertaken by several development aid agencies since the turn of the century to integrate political economy assessments into their decision making on development assistance. The article discusses three such attempts: the Drivers of Change

  3. Corporate governance and the agency costs of debt and outside equity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szilagyi, P.G.

    2007-01-01

    The agency literature identifies two critical principal-agent problems in the context of the firm. On one hand, the separation of ownership and control may lead management to seek private benefits rather than maximize shareholder value. On the other, shareholders may themselves expropriate creditors

  4. Policymakers' Reflections on Water Governance Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyeeta Gupta

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The two cultures theory argues that policy makers and scientists have different cultures and difficulty in communicating with each other. Others argue that there is increasing co-production of knowledge. This essay aims to assess the concerns of policy makers based on our policy work, policy-related research work, and our day-to-day experiences in terms of three questions: What are the perceived major issues for water governance? What are the major challenges in the structure of the existing global water governance approach? What is the vision for improving global water governance? This essay combines views from governmental, hybrid, inter- and non-governmental policy makers. It argues that water covers so many issues, aspects, and sectors that a key challenge is whether water should be governed as a sector or as a cross-cutting issue. It looks at how this challenge plays out within the United Nations system and leads to specific goal setting, while missing an overall visionary approach and a legally binding system of governance; within the hybrid arena, where it leads to inclusive discussion but not necessarily triggering consensus decisions; within nation states, where it has led to a loss of focus and a multitude of gaps and overlaps; and within transnational cooperative projects, where it has led to multiple interpretations of what is good practice. It then identifies a series of research questions.

  5. Health worker and policy-maker perspectives on use of intramuscular artesunate for pre-referral and definitive treatment of severe malaria at health posts in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefyalew, Takele; Kebede, Zelalem; Getachew, Dawit; Mukanga, David; Awano, Tessema; Tekalegne, Agonafer; Batisso, Esey; Edossa, Wasihun; Mekonnen, Emebet; Tibenderana, James; Baba, Ebenezer Sheshi; Shumba, Constance; Nankabirwa, Joaniter I; Hamade, Prudence

    2016-10-18

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends injectable artesunate given either intravenously or by the intramuscular route for definitive treatment for severe malaria and recommends a single intramuscular dose of intramuscular artesunate or intramuscular artemether or intramuscular quinine, in that order of preference as pre-referral treatment when definitive treatment is not possible. Where intramuscular injections are not available, children under 6 years may be administered a single dose of rectal artesunate. Although the current malaria treatment guidelines in Ethiopia recommend intra-rectal artesunate or alternatively intramuscular artemether or intramuscular quinine as pre-referral treatment for severe malaria at the health posts, there are currently no WHO prequalified suppliers of intra-rectal artesunate and when available, its use is limited to children under 6 years of age leaving a gap for the older age groups. Intramuscular artesunate is not part of the drugs recommended for pre-referral treatment in Ethiopia. This study assessed the perspectives of health workers, and policy-makers on the use of intramuscular artesunate as a pre-referral and definitive treatment for severe malaria at the health post level. In-depth interviews were held with 101 individuals including health workers, malaria focal persons, and Regional Health Bureaus from Oromia and southern nations, nationalities, and peoples' region, as well as participants from the Federal Ministry of Health and development partners. An interview guide was used in the data collection and thematic content analysis was employed for analysis. Key findings from this study are: (1) provision of intramuscular artesunate as pre-referral and definitive treatment for severe malaria at health posts could be lifesaving; (2) with adequate training, and provision of facilities including beds, health posts can provide definitive treatment for severe malaria using intramuscular artesunate where referral is

  6. Health worker and policy-maker perspectives on use of intramuscular artesunate for pre-referral and definitive treatment of severe malaria at health posts in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takele Kefyalew

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization (WHO recommends injectable artesunate given either intravenously or by the intramuscular route for definitive treatment for severe malaria and recommends a single intramuscular dose of intramuscular artesunate or intramuscular artemether or intramuscular quinine, in that order of preference as pre-referral treatment when definitive treatment is not possible. Where intramuscular injections are not available, children under 6 years may be administered a single dose of rectal artesunate. Although the current malaria treatment guidelines in Ethiopia recommend intra-rectal artesunate or alternatively intramuscular artemether or intramuscular quinine as pre-referral treatment for severe malaria at the health posts, there are currently no WHO prequalified suppliers of intra-rectal artesunate and when available, its use is limited to children under 6 years of age leaving a gap for the older age groups. Intramuscular artesunate is not part of the drugs recommended for pre-referral treatment in Ethiopia. This study assessed the perspectives of health workers, and policy-makers on the use of intramuscular artesunate as a pre-referral and definitive treatment for severe malaria at the health post level. Methods In-depth interviews were held with 101 individuals including health workers, malaria focal persons, and Regional Health Bureaus from Oromia and southern nations, nationalities, and peoples’ region, as well as participants from the Federal Ministry of Health and development partners. An interview guide was used in the data collection and thematic content analysis was employed for analysis. Results Key findings from this study are: (1 provision of intramuscular artesunate as pre-referral and definitive treatment for severe malaria at health posts could be lifesaving; (2 with adequate training, and provision of facilities including beds, health posts can provide definitive treatment for severe

  7. Business continuity and risk management at a strategic level: Case study of the Flemish government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouve, Joris; Steens, Herman-Peter; Ruebens, Martin

    2018-01-01

    The Flemish government comprises a number of different departments and agencies with the autonomy to optimise their service level in a proactive and resilient manner. Recently, the Flemish government defined four organisational values: openness, decisiveness, trust and agility. In addition, the Internal Audit Agency developed guidelines concerning internal control and organisational management, in which risk management was emphasised. In combination with goal setting and process management, this paper considers risk management as a starting point for the overall management of Flemish government entities. The paper then develops tools to support the establishment of business continuity and risk management processes. These tools fit into the organisation's strategic framework and are easy to understand, pragmatically designed and flexible in their use. The paper goes on to illustrate how the Department of the Chancellery and Public Governance is implementing BCM and risk management, and how it is integrating BCM, risk management and crisis management. It will then focus on the Flemish government's long-term strategy across the boundaries between the different entities and the question of how risk management can become a useful tool for policy makers.

  8. 75 FR 8999 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... questions for future large-scale surveys, as needed. Expected Respondents. The respondents will be from... proceedings of conferences, or in journals. Improved NSF surveys will help policy makers in decisions on... Redesigned R&D Surveys: Higher Education R&D 400 1,200 Government R&D 60 180 Nonprofit R&D 100 300 Business R...

  9. The Indiana Local Technical Assistance Program Roller Compacted Concrete Pavement Manual for Local Government Agencies

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Kyung Joon; Carboneau, Neal

    2010-01-01

    Interest in the use of Roller Compacted Concrete (RCC) pavement (RCCP) for local roads and streets has increased. The Indiana Local Technical Assistance Program (LTAP), which is a part of the Purdue University School of Civil Engineering, has developed this document to assist local agencies with the implementation of roller compacted concrete as a paving material. This manual is intended for those interested in planning, designing and constructing RCCP for local roads and streets. It provides...

  10. Identifying Procurement Fraud in Defense Agencies: An Analysis of the Government Purchase Card Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-30

    audit agency handbook. (1997). Retrieved from http://www.dodig.mil/Inspections/APO/fraud/AFAAFraudHandbook.pdf American Psychological Association...APA). (2010). Publication manual of the American psychological association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. Colaianni, M. A. (2005). Principles and...Retrieved from EBSCO database. Office of Charge Card Management. (2011) Retrieved from http://www.gsa.gov/portal/content/105080 y OMB Circular

  11. An Adaptive Approach for Implementing e-Government in I. R. Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Hossein; Zarei, Behrouz

    2004-01-01

    Acknowledging the necessity of utilizing the new electronics, information, and communication technologies, the movement toward implementation of e-government in Iran has recently received the attention of the authorities and policy makers. The premise of the work is set around the fact that the e-enabled government is a momentous opportunity for…

  12. Governance, scale and the environment: the importance of recognizing knowledge claims in transdisciplinary arenas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buizer, I.M.; Arts, B.J.M.; Kok, K.

    2011-01-01

    Any present day approach of the world’s most pressing environmental problems involves both scale and governance issues. After all, current local events might have long-term global consequences (the scale issue) and solving complex environmental problems requires policy makers to think and govern

  13. County and Parish Boundaries - COUNTY_GOVERNMENT_BOUNDARIES_IDHS_IN: Governmental Boundaries Maintained by County Agencies in Indiana (Indiana Department of Homeland Security, Polygon feature class)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — COUNTY_GOVERNMENT_BOUNDARIES_IDHS_IN is a polygon feature class that contains governmental boundaries maintained by county agencies in Indiana, provided by personnel...

  14. The Text of the Agreement between the Agency and the Governments of Norway, Poland and Yugoslavia concerning Co-operative Research in Reactor Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between the Agency and the Governments of Norway, Poland and Yugoslavia concerning Co-operative Research in Reactor Physics (the 'NPY Agreement') is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  15. Toward a methodology for evaluating website of government environmental agencies in the northern border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Ignacio Castro Salazar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the environmental field of the northern Mexican border make use of websites toprovide information and services to society in order to achieve a better interaction about the environmental work. In spite of that, and since there are various schemes and government programs that set objectives to be met by this online offer, little is known about the extent of achievement of these objectives. Therefore, this study tries to find out if these sites are fulfilling the objectives that motivate their creation and their setting online. From this initial assessment, it is confirmed that local government’s websites are likely to have a lower compliance of objectives. It was observed that the objective that is more often fulfilled on the three levels of government was offering visible and structured services, in a lesser extent to implement citizen participation.

  16. History, Hysteria, and Hype: Government Contracting with Faith-Based Social Service Agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Queen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In light of the adoption of the Charitable Choice Provision of the Welfare Reform Bill and the creation of White House Offices on faith based initiatives this article examines the history of government contracting with faith-based organizations to deliver human and social services with a particular focus on how the U. S. Supreme Court has viewed the legal status of such contracts.

  17. Foundation Assessment of the Influence of IT Management Practices on Customer Relationship Management (CRM in a Large Australian Federal Government Agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Young

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The research presented in this paper was motivated by the thrust in Australia to move to whole of e-government. The aim was to determine the level of readiness towards the implementation of customer relationship management (CRM in Australian Federal Government departments and agencies. As such the research presented in this paper represents an initial phase of research that focusses on CRM implementation in the highest level of government in this country. To address the research objective, data were collected through the distribution of an electronic questionnaire to 23 Australian Federal Government departments and agencies using a previously validated questionnaire. The main finding of the research was that a majority of the departments and agencies are only in the early stages of moving toward implementation of collaborative CRM. This suggests that a concerted effort needs to be made to encourage less developed departments and agencies to make this transition. Until collaborative CRM is accomplished, the ultimate goal of whole of e-government in Australia cannot become a reality. However, a positive aspect of the results is that some departments and agencies are in a position of collaborative CRM. This means that those not so positioned can benefit from the ‘best practice’ processes already adopted in the more CRM advanced Australian Federal government departments and agencies.

  18. Factors associated with the professional competencies of public health nurses employed by local government agencies in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeki, Kazuko; Izumi, Hisako; Uza, Miyoko; Murashima, Sachiyo

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to clarify some of the factors associated with the professional competencies of public health nurses (PHNs) employed by local government agencies in Japan. A cross-sectional study. PHNs (N=1,614) working in local government agencies in Japan. Based on self-reported questionnaires, the nurses were grouped according to experience. Statistical differences between the groups were analyzed using analysis of variance. Multiple regression analyses were used to determine associated factors. Variables contributing to high self-evaluation of interpersonal health support competencies were length of experience as a PHN, an awareness of the role expectations of community health support and administration, marital status, and participation in off-the-job training programs. The same variables contributed to high self-evaluation of community health support and administration competencies. In addition, experience of job transfer or rotation was found to be a variable. These results show the importance of off-the-job training programs designed to foster exposure to a wide variety of personal and professional experiences. They also illustrate the importance of planned on-the-job training programs that promote an understanding of the nature of the field, as well as developing planning and administrative competency in career development.

  19. Using SCOR as a Supply Chain Management Framework for Government Agency Contract Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Joe

    2010-01-01

    Enterprise Supply Chain Management consists of: Specifying suppliers to support inter-program and inter-agency efforts. Optimizing inventory levels and locations throughout the supply chain. Executing corrective actions to improve quality and lead time issues throughout the supply chain. Processing reported data to calculate and make visible supply chain performance (provide information for decisions and actions). Ensuring the right hardware and information is provided at the right time and in the right place. Monitoring the industrial base while developing, producing, operating and retiring a system. Seeing performance deep in the supply chain that could indicate issues affecting system availability and readiness.

  20. The text of the Agreement of 16 May 1986 between the Government of Monaco and the Agency concerning the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity and the privileges and immunities of the Agency within the Principality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    The document reproduces the Seat Agreement between the Government of Monaco and the Agency concerning the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity and defining the privileges and immunities of the Agency in Monaco, as approved by the Board of Governors of the IAEA In September 1985 and signed on 16 May 1985. The agreement entered into force on 17 October 1986

  1. Text of a Protocol between the Agency and the Governments of Norway and the United States of America in Connection with the Application of Safeguards under a Co-Operation Agreement between the Two Governments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The text of a protocol between the Agency and the Governments of Norway and the United States of America in connection with the application of safeguards under the Agreement for Co-operation between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of Norway Concerning Civil Uses of Atomic Energy signed on 4 May 1967, as amended, is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The protocol entered into force on 25 September 1973 pursuant to Section 4.

  2. 2 CFR 901.950 - Federal agency (Department of Energy supplement to government-wide definition at 2 CFR 180.950).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION Definitions § 901.950 Federal agency (Department of Energy supplement to government-wide definition at 2 CFR 180.950). DOE means the U.S. Department of Energy, including the NNSA. NNSA... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal agency (Department of Energy...

  3. 41 CFR 301-54.1 - Is my agency allowed to collect undisputed delinquent amounts that I owe to a Government travel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... BILLED TRAVEL CHARGE CARD General Rules § 301-54.1 Is my agency allowed to collect undisputed delinquent... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Is my agency allowed to collect undisputed delinquent amounts that I owe to a Government travel charge card contractor? 301-54.1...

  4. The Text of Tile Master Agreement between the Agency and the United States of America Governing Sales of Source, By- Product and Special Nuclear Materials for research Purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The text of the Master Agreement Governing Sales of Source, Bye Product and Special Nuclear Materials for Research Purposes, which has been concluded between the Agency and the Government of the United States of America, is reproduced herein for the information of all Members,

  5. Factors to consider in developing individual pharmaceutical product quality risk profiles useful to government procurement agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Boehm, Garth; Zheng, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Governments that procure pharmaceutical products from an Essential Medicine List (EML) bear special responsibility for the quality of these products. In this article we examine the possibility of developing a pharmaceutical product quality risk assessment scheme for use by government procurement officials. We use the Chinese EML as a basis, and US recall data is examined as it is publically available.This is justified as the article is only concerned with inherent product quality risks. After establishing a link between Chinese essential medicines and those available in the US, we examine US recall data to separate product specific recalls. We conclude that, in addition to existing manufacturing based risks, there are two other product specific risks that stand out from all others, degradation and dissolution failure. Methodology for relative product risk for degradation is needed to be developed and further work is required to better understand dissolution failures which largely occur with modified-release solid oral products. We conclude that a product specific quality risk profile would be enhanced by including a risk assessment for degradation for all products, and in the case of solid oral products, dissolution.

  6. The Influence of Communication Climate on the Employees’ Performance at Government Agencies in Gorontalo City (An Indonesian Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuchri Abdussamad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of employees’ performance at government agencies can be done in several ways, for instance, through giving appropriate compensation, motivation, creation of conducive work environment, and through education and training. In addition, comfortable work environment, coordination and communication are factors supporting the performance of the employees in order to reach goals and objectives decided. This research was conducted to find out to what extent the influence of communication climate in an organization on the employees’ performance at Industry, Trade, Cooperation, Small and Medium Enterprise and Investment Agency of Gorontalo city. This research uses survey method and correlational analysis. The result from this research expected to develop employees’ performance development model through organizational communication climate. This research revealed that there was a significant influence of organizational communication climate toward the employees’ performance at the agency of at the Industry, Trade, Cooperation, Small and Medium Enterprise and Investment of Gorontalo city. Through a simple linear regression formula of Y=21.811 + 0.359 X and the correlation value of 0.476 and the determinant coefficient of 0.227 which means that there was a significant influence of organizational communication climate toward the employees’ performance of 22.7% and the rest 77.3% was influenced by other factors that were not investigated in this research

  7. Development of a forestry government agency enterprise GIS system: a disconnected editing approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jin; Barber, Brad L.

    2008-10-01

    The Texas Forest Service (TFS) has developed a geographic information system (GIS) for use by agency personnel in central Texas for managing oak wilt suppression and other landowner assistance programs. This Enterprise GIS system was designed to support multiple concurrent users accessing shared information resources. The disconnected editing approach was adopted in this system to avoid the overhead of maintaining an active connection between TFS central Texas field offices and headquarters since most field offices are operating with commercially provided Internet service. The GIS system entails maintaining a personal geodatabase on each local field office computer. Spatial data from the field is periodically up-loaded into a central master geodatabase stored in a Microsoft SQL Server at the TFS headquarters in College Station through the ESRI Spatial Database Engine (SDE). This GIS allows users to work off-line when editing data and requires connecting to the central geodatabase only when needed.

  8. Governance and communication for energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Energy efficiency has multiple benefits. It usually is a win-win option for all aspects of sustainability – environment, social objectives, and economy. We need to evaluate and communicate these multiple benefits – to citizens, companies, and policy-makers. Due to strong market barriers, effective governance and policy packages for energy efficiency are needed. Evaluation shows effective policy can achieve around 2% per year of additional energy savings.

  9. History, Structure and Agency in Global Health Governance; Comment on “Global Health Governance Challenges 2016 – Are We Ready?”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Gill

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ilona Kickbusch’s thought provoking editorial is criticized in this commentary, partly because she fails to refer to previous critical work on the global conditions and policies that sustain inequality, poverty, poor health and damage to the biosphere and, as a result, she misreads global power and elides consideration of the fundamental historical structures of political and material power that shape agency in global health governance. We also doubt that global health can be improved through structures and processes of multilateralism that are premised on the continued reproduction of the ecologically myopic and socially unsustainable market civilization model of capitalist development that currently prevails in the world economy. This model drives net financial flows from poor to rich countries and from the poor to the affluent and super wealthy individuals. By contrast, we suggest that significant progress in global health requires a profound and socially just restructuring of global power, greater global solidarity and the “development of sustainability.”

  10. REVIEW OF INDUSTRIES AND GOVERNMENT AGENCIES FOR TECHNOLOGIES APPLICABLE TO DEACTIVATION AND DECOMMISSIONING OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS FACILITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reilkoff, T. E.; Hetland, M. D.; O' Leary, E. M.

    2002-02-25

    The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area's (DDFA's) mission is to develop, demonstrate, and deploy improved deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) technologies. This mission requires that emphasis be continually placed on identifying technologies currently employed or under development in other nuclear as well as nonnuclear industries and government agencies. In support of DDFA efforts to clean up the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) radiologically contaminated surplus facilities using technologies that improve worker safety, reduce costs, and accelerate cleanup schedules, a study was conducted to identify innovative technologies developed for use in nonnuclear arenas that are appropriate for D&D applications.

  11. Modelling End-User of Electronic-Government Service: The Role of Information quality, System Quality and Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witarsyah Jacob, Deden; Fudzee, Mohd Farhan Md; Aizi Salamat, Mohamad; Kasim, Shahreen; Mahdin, Hairulnizam; Azhar Ramli, Azizul

    2017-08-01

    Many governments around the world increasingly use internet technologies such as electronic government to provide public services. These services range from providing the most basic informational website to deploying sophisticated tools for managing interactions between government agencies and beyond government. Electronic government (e-government) aims to provide a more accurate, easily accessible, cost-effective and time saving for the community. In this study, we develop a new model of e-government adoption service by extending the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) through the incorporation of some variables such as System Quality, Information Quality and Trust. The model is then tested using a large-scale, multi-site survey research of 237 Indonesian citizens. This model will be validated by using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The result indicates that System Quality, Information Quality and Trust variables proven to effect user behavior. This study extends the current understanding on the influence of System Quality, Information Quality and Trust factors to researchers, practitioners, and policy makers.

  12. Strategic Intelligence Observations from the Pre-Vietnam and Pre-9/11 Periods for the Intelligence Professional and the Policy-Maker

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    the drawing board.” It came back optimistic.106 6/11/63 Buddhist ‘demonstration’ in So Vietnam, with monk Thich Quang Duc self- immolation. Receives...Vietnamese sponsored insurgency. This in part was caused by sensational media coverage of monks lighting themselves on fire in protest to President...The compartmentalization observation from the 9/11 Report was that the FBI and other domestic agencies did not have routine access to foreign

  13. Educational Reforms in Malta: A Missed Opportunity to Establish Distributed Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutajar, Mario; Bezzina, Christopher; James, Chris

    2013-01-01

    This article critically analyses the current Maltese educational reform process, which aimed to transform educational governance in Malta from a centralized system to a more decentralized one. This longitudinal study adopted a multi-site inquiry of a sample of the colleges involving different stakeholders, including key policy-makers, college…

  14. Agreement between the Government of India and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards to civilian nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between the Government of India and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards to Civilian Nuclear Facilities is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency. The Board of Governors approved the Agreement on 1 August 2008. It was signed in Vienna on 2 February 2009. Pursuant to paragraph 108 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 11 May 2009, the date on which the Agency received from India written notification that India's statutory and constitutional requirements for entry into force had been met

  15. 78 FR 24393 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Promoting Student Success in Algebra I...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    ...; Comment Request; Promoting Student Success in Algebra I Project AGENCY: Office of Elementary and Secondary... Success in Algebra I Project. OMB Control Number: 1810-NEW. Type of Review: A new information collection... Algebra I (PSSA) study aims to provide policy-makers and practitioners with a deeper understanding of how...

  16. Barriers to the participation of people with psychosocial disability in mental health policy development in South Africa: a qualitative study of perspectives of policy makers, professionals, religious leaders and academics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleintjes, Sharon; Lund, Crick; Swartz, Leslie

    2013-03-11

    This paper outlines stakeholder views on environmental barriers that prevent people who live with psychosocial disability from participating in mental health policy development in South Africa. Fifty-six semi-structured interviews with national, provincial and local South African mental health stakeholders were conducted between August 2006 and August 2009. Respondents included public sector policy makers, professional regulatory council representatives, and representatives from non-profit organisations (NPOs), disabled people's organisations (DPOs), mental health interest groups, religious organisations, professional associations, universities and research institutions. Respondents identified three main environmental barriers to participation in policy development: (a) stigmatization and low priority of mental health, (b) poverty, and (c) ineffective recovery and community supports. A number of attitudes, practices and structures undermine the equal participation of South Africans with psychosocial disability in society. A human rights paradigm and multi-system approach is required to enable full social engagement by people with psychosocial disability, including their involvement in policy development.

  17. Agreement Between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Government of Jamaica and the Government of the United States of America for Assistance in Securing Low Enriched Uranium for a Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Government of Jamaica and the Government of the United States of America for Assistance in Securing Low Enriched Uranium for a Research Reactor is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency. The Agency's Board of Governors approved the text of the Agreement on 6 March 2013. The Agreement was signed by the authorized representatives of Jamaica on 25 November 2013, the United States on 2 May 2013 and the Director General of the IAEA on 16 December 2013. Pursuant to the Article XI of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 16 December 2013, upon signature by the Director General of the IAEA and by the authorized representatives of Jamaica and the United States [es

  18. Agreement Between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Government of Jamaica and the Government of the United States of America for Assistance in Securing Low Enriched Uranium for a Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Government of Jamaica and the Government of the United States of America for Assistance in Securing Low Enriched Uranium for a Research Reactor is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency. The Agency's Board of Governors approved the text of the Agreement on 6 March 2013. The Agreement was signed by the authorized representatives of Jamaica on 25 November 2013, the United States on 2 May 2013 and the Director General of the IAEA on 16 December 2013. Pursuant to the Article XI of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 16 December 2013, upon signature by the Director General of the IAEA and by the authorized representatives of Jamaica and the United States

  19. Agreement among the Government of the Republic of Poland, the Government of the United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency for assistance in securing nuclear fuel for a research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The text of the Project and Supply Agreement among the Government of the Republic of Poland, the Government of the United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency for Assistance in Securing Nuclear Fuel for a Research Reactor is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency. The Agency's Board of Governors approved the above mentioned Project and Supply Agreement on 14 June 2006. The Agreement was signed by the authorized representatives of Poland on 8 January 2007, the United States on 12 January 2007 and by the Director General of the IAEA on 16 January 2007. Pursuant to the Article XII of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 16 January 2007, upon signature by the representatives of Poland, the United States and the Director General of the IAEA

  20. 42 CFR 137.305 - May Self-Governance Tribes act as lead, cooperating, or joint lead agencies for environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May Self-Governance Tribes act as lead, cooperating... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.305 May Self-Governance...-Governance Tribes assuming Federal environmental responsibilities for construction projects under section 509...

  1. Innovation in Multi-Level Governance for Energy Efficiency. Sharing experience with multi-level governance to enhance energy efficiency. Information paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jollands, Nigel; Gasc, Emilien; Pasquier, Sara Bryan

    2009-12-15

    Despite creating a plethora of national and international regulations and voluntary programmes to improve energy efficiency, countries are far from achieving full energy efficiency potential across all sectors of the economy. One major challenge, among numerous barriers, is policy implementation. One strategy that many national governments and international organisations have used to address the implementation issue is to engage regional and local authorities. To that end, many programmes have been created that foster energy efficiency action and collaboration across levels of government. The aim of this report is to identify trends and detail recent developments in multi-level governance in energy efficiency (MLGEE). By sharing lessons learned from daily practitioners in the field, the IEA hopes energy efficiency policy makers at all levels of government will be able to identify useful multilevel governance (MLG) practices across geographical and political contexts and use these to design robust programmes; modify existing programmes, and connect and share experiences with other policy makers in this field.

  2. The Text of the Agreement between the Agency and the Governments of Norway, Poland and Yugoslavia concerning Co-operative Research in Reactor Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    The texts of the Agreement between the Agency and the Governments of Norway, Poland and Yugoslavia concerning Co-operative Research in Reactor Science, and of the Minutes of Signature thereof are reproduced herein for the information of all Members. This Agreement entered into force on 10 April 1970.

  3. Conceptions of Software Development by Project Managers: A Study of Managing the Outsourced Development of Software Applications for United States Federal Government Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This study explores how project managers, working for private federal IT contractors, experience and understand managing the development of software applications for U.S. federal government agencies. Very little is known about how they manage their projects in this challenging environment. Software development is a complex task and only grows in…

  4. Corporate governance : disclosure on directors’ remuneration in Malaysia – is it adequate?

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Irene Ling Chiong

    2014-01-01

    Ever since numerous corporate failures that shaken the faith and confidence of the public, the introduction of good corporate governance mechanism has swept the world off their feet. A sound corporate governance mechanism not only encourages proper management of risk, but at the same time, promotes effective performance. A vital part of corporate governance, directors’ remuneration has gain considerable focus from the policy makers, academics, media and public over the years. The measurements...

  5. Multi-agency collaboration in local governace: partnership or pragmatism? An exploratory case study

    OpenAIRE

    Cunneen, Jacinta Mary

    2012-01-01

    peer-reviewed Policy makers everywhere are confronted by complex problems and public agencies strive to find effective solutions in a context of dwindling resources and increased demands. This study examines how a partnership, among Irish public agencies, was used to address anti-social behaviour on some public housing estates in Limerick City. In 2007 the Limerick City Community Safety Partnership Limited was established. This was the first time a multi-agency community ...

  6. Local Action Plans for Forest Fire Prevention in Greece: Existing situation and a Proposed Template based on the Collaboration of Academics and Public Policy Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanikolaou, Dimitrios; Arvanitakis, Spyridon; Papanikolaou, , Ioannis; Lozios, Stylianos; Diakakis, Michalis; Deligiannakis, Georgios; Dimitropoulou, Margarita; Georgiou, Konstantinos

    2013-04-01

    Wildfires are a major hazard in Greece suffering on average 1,509 wildfires and 36,151 burned hectares of forestlands every year. Since 1998 the Greek Fire Service is responsible for wildfires suppression and response, while prevention and mitigation yearly directives are also being released by the General Secretariat of Civil Protection. The 3013/2002 Act introduced a major transfer of responsibilities from the national to local municipal and regional authorities, which are accompanied by supplementary financial support. Significant new features were established such as the operation of local coordination councils, the foundation of municipality civil protection offices, the establishment of the annually prevention planning for forest fires and the development of local action plans. The University of Athens has developed a Local Action Plan template for municipality administrative levels, integrating scientific techniques and technologies to public government management. The Local Action Plan for Forest Fire Prevention is the main handbook and primary tool of every municipality for reducing the risk of wildfires. Fire prevention and risk analysis are the principal aims of this Plan, which also emphasizes on the important role of the volunteer organizations on forest fire prevention. The 7 chapters of the Action Plan include the legal framework, the risk analysis parameters, the risk analysis using GIS, the prevention planning, the manpower and available equipment of services involved, along with operational planning and evaluation of the previous year's forest fire prevention actions. Multiple information layers, such as vegetation types, road network, power lines and landfills are combined in GIS environment and transformed into qualitative multiparameter as well as quantitative combinational fire hazard maps. These maps are essential in wildfire risk analysis as they display the areas that need the highest attention during the fire season. Moreover, the separate

  7. Diffuse Agency and Institutional Dynamics in Global Governance – the Cases of the World Bank and the WTO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strange, Michael Stewart; Aagaard, Peter

    Global governance has no central authority, so global political leadership must be understood in new terms. When direct use of power through hierarchies is no longer an option, policy research has turned to the concept of soft power. Central to soft power issues is normative change. Normative cha...... governance involves multiple actors who by their engagement are themselves changed. To better understand this process, the paper will consider normative change within global governance in the cases of the World Bank and the WTO....

  8. The Customer Metaphor and the Defense Intelligence Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    into a 1956 film starring Gregory Peck, depicted marketing executives as dissatisfied sellouts struggling to find meaning at work or at home.35 The...segmented categories has led to the widespread adoption of CRM as a philosophy and a tool. Savvy consumers have in turn grown increasingly aware of...working in government. While serving as deputy director, Gates also published his philosophy on the CIA’s relationship with policy makers in this

  9. The Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules to Govern the Provision of Technical Assistance by the Agency. Latest Status (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-03-01

    The Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules to Govern the Provision of Technical Assistance by the Agency were approved by the Board of Governors on 21 February 1979. The test is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The provisions established by the Board of Governors on 24 September 1977 for the application of safeguards in relation to the granting of technical assistance are also reproduced in the Annex to the Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules. [es

  10. The Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules to Govern the Provision of Technical Assistance by the Agency. Latest Status (Chinese Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-03-01

    The Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules to Govern the Provision of Technical Assistance by the Agency were approved by the Board of Governors on 21 February 1979. The test is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The provisions established by the Board of Governors on 24 September 1977 for the application of safeguards in relation to the granting of technical assistance are also reproduced in the Annex to the Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules.

  11. Communication of 1 October 2009 received from the Resident Representative of Hungary to the Agency on behalf of the Participating Governments of the Nuclear Suppliers Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Director General has received a letter dated 1 October 2009 from the Resident Representative of Hungary to the Agency on behalf of the Participating Governments of the Nuclear Suppliers Group. Attached to this letter is an updated version of a paper entitled 'The Nuclear Suppliers Group: Its Origins, Role and Activities.' The original version of this paper was issued as INFCIRC/539 on 15 September 1997: revisions were issued on 17 April 2000, 16 September 2003 and 30 May 2005

  12. Communication of 1 October 2009 received from the Resident Representative of Hungary to the Agency on behalf of the Participating Governments of the Nuclear Suppliers Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Director General has received a letter dated 1 October 2009 from the Resident Representative of Hungary to the Agency on behalf of the Participating Governments of the Nuclear Suppliers Group. Attached to this letter is an updated version of a paper entitled 'The Nuclear Suppliers Group: Its Origins, Role and Activities.' The original version of this paper was issued as INFCIRC/539 on 15 September 1997: revisions were issued on 17 April 2000, 16 September 2003 and 30 May 2005 [es

  13. The Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules to Govern the Provision of Technical Assistance by the Agency. Latest Status (Russian Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-03-01

    The Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules to Govern the Provision of Technical Assistance by the Agency were approved by the Board of Governors on 21 February 1979. The test is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The provisions established by the Board of Governors on 24 September 1977 for the application of safeguards in relation to the granting of technical assistance are also reproduced in the Annex to the Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules. [ru

  14. 77 FR 70686 - Rules Governing Hearings Before the Agency of Original Jurisdiction and the Board of Veterans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... Jurisdiction and the Board of Veterans' Appeals; Repeal of Prior Rule Change AGENCY: Department of Veterans... of Original Jurisdiction (AOJ) do not apply to hearings before the Board of Veterans' Appeals (Board... Before the Agency of Original Jurisdiction and the Board of Veterans' Appeals; Clarification,'' a final...

  15. Indigenous Youth as Language Policy Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Teresa L.; Romero-Little, Mary Eunice; Warhol, Larisa; Zepeda, Ofelia

    2009-01-01

    This article offers a grounded view of language shift as experienced by Native American youth across a range of early- to late-shift settings. Drawing on data from a long-term ethnographic study, we demonstrate that the linguistic ecologies in which youth language choices play out are more complex than a unidirectional notion of shift might…

  16. Understanding Mali: Lessons for Policy Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Staff College to attend the USAF Air Command and Staff College. After earning distinguished graduate honors at Air Command and Staff College in 2013, he...submission to the infidel , which was intolerable to any good Muslim,” they resisted the Europeans with added fervor and tenacity.10 The resistance...inclination, Islam did not tolerate French colonization because believers viewed the French as infidels who were taking over dâr al-islâm (territory of

  17. Implementing energy conservation strategies in energy materials transport: U. S. Department of Energy and other government agency policy-making mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertram, K. M.

    1978-11-01

    This report defines policy-making channels within Federal agencies for the strategy implementation efforts of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project entitled ''Development and Implementation of Strategies to Conserve Energy in Energy Materials Transport and Through Modal Shifts.'' The report's research involved review and analysis of government-agency policy-making mechanisms. Research methods included interviews with 36 regulatory officials, and review of pertinent legislative, organizational and other technical materials. Emphasis was placed upon relevant Federal agencies and summary treatment given other federal, state, and local agencies. In addition to DOE, the ICC, DOT, DOI, EPA, and Council on Environmental Quality were found to be highly important to the implementation of strategies developed during this project. Brief case studies were also made of states and localities which have had significant effects upon energy materials transport systems. The main findings of the report are that two primary channels exist for effecting this project's policy-oriented strategies: inputs to legislation and inducement of regulatory involvements. In addition, interviews with Federal agency officials during the research produced two significant suggestions for implementing strategies--to hold internal DOE and inter-agency briefings.

  18. Views of policy makers and health promotion professionals on factors facilitating implementation and maintenance of interventions and policies promoting physical activity and healthy eating: results of the DEDIPAC project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muellmann, Saskia; Steenbock, Berit; De Cocker, Katrien; De Craemer, Marieke; Hayes, Catherine; O'Shea, Miriam P; Horodyska, Karolina; Bell, Justyna; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Roos, Gun; Langøien, Lars Jørun; Rugseth, Gro; Terragni, Laura; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brug, Johannes; Pischke, Claudia R

    2017-12-06

    The uptake, implementation, and maintenance of effective interventions promoting physical activity (PA) and a healthy diet and the implementation of policies targeting these behaviors are processes not well understood. We aimed to gain a better understanding of what health promotion professionals and policy makers think are important factors facilitating adoption, implementation, and maintenance of multi-level interventions and policies promoting healthy eating and PA in Belgium, Germany, Ireland, Norway, and Poland. Six interventions and six policies were identified based on pre-defined criteria. Forty semi-structured interviews were conducted with stakeholders from various sectors to elicit information on factors impacting adoption, implementation, and maintenance of these interventions and policies. All interview transcripts were coded in NVivo, using a common categorization matrix. Coding in the respective countries was done by one researcher and validated by a second researcher. Active involvement of relevant stakeholders and good communication between coordinating organizations were described as important factors contributing to successful adoption and implementation of both interventions and policies. Additional facilitating factors included sufficient training of staff and tailoring of materials to match needs of various target groups. The respondents indicated that maintenance of implemented interventions/policies depended on whether they were embedded in existing or newly created organizational structures in different settings and whether continued funding was secured. Despite considerable heterogeneity of interventions and health policies in the five countries, stakeholders across these countries identify similar factors facilitating adoption, implementation, and maintenance of these interventions and policies.

  19. Corporate Sector Practice Informs Online Workforce Training for Australian Government Agencies: Towards Effective Educational-Learning Systems Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Elspeth; Vilela, Cenie

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline government online training practice. We searched individual research domains of the human-dimensions of Human Computer Interaction (HCI), information and communications technologies (ICT) and instructional design for evidence of either corporate sector or government training practices. We overlapped these…

  20. Maritime governance speed, flow, form process

    CERN Document Server

    Roe, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an original analysis of the problems facing global governance and in particular that of one of the most globalised of all industries – shipping. Central to all global trade and its dramatic growth, shipping faces difficulties of governance stemming from its every globalised nature. The current characteristics of global governance – nation-state fixation, anachronistic institutions, inadequate stakeholder involvement and an over-domination of owner interests are dwarfed by the problems of stasis and fixation which means that policies to address problems of safety, the environment and security are inadequate. This book provides a full and wide ranging discussion of how governance can be animated in a global context so that the dynamism of the maritime industry and its problems can be prevented, regulated and understood. Its unique approach to governance makes it essential reading for all maritime policy-makers and those analysing maritime issues, alongside those with an interest in govern...

  1. What is “Arctic governance”? A critical assessment of the diverse meanings of “Arctic governance"

    OpenAIRE

    Pelaudeix, Cecile

    2015-01-01

    The history of the concept of governance in Arctic social science does not necessarily take into account the process and degree of conceptualization pertaining to the subject or any semantic consistency in its use. Unlike the homogeneous or ‘taken-for-granted’ use of the concept by policy-makers in general, centered on a Westphalian or state-centered understanding of governance, the scientific production on Arctic governance is characterized by four categories of approaches - pragmatic, presc...

  2. The economic consequences of rising US government debt: privileges at risk

    OpenAIRE

    Bohn, Henning

    2010-01-01

    The rapidly growing federal government debt has become a concern for policy makers and the public. Yet the U.S. government has seemingly unbounded access to credit at low interest rates. Historically, Treasury yields have been below the growth rate of the economy. The paper examines the ramifications of debt financing at low interest rates. Given the short maturity of U.S. public debt - over $2.5 trillion maturing in 2010 - investor expectations are critical. Excessive debts justify reasonabl...

  3. E-Commerce as an instrument of governing SMEs’ marketing strategy in an emerging economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Mpele Lekhanya

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to report on the use of e-commerce an instrument of governing SMEs’ marketing strategy in an emerging economy. The study aimed to assess and critically discuss various factors influencing the use of e-commerce as an instrument of governing SMEs marketing strategy and identify the extent to which SMEs owners/managers perceived e-commerce to be important to their businesses survival and growth. A mixed method approach allowed for qualitative and quantitative techniques in collecting data from targeted respondents, with primary collected from rural areas of an emerging country. The research instrument consisted of closed-ended questionnaires made up of 5-point Likert scale responses were distributed to each respondent. The research findings indicate that most respondents believed that the use of e-commerce is motivated by the cost saving and other financial factors in the form of benefits for the customer. In addition, large number of respondents disagreed that the use of e-Commerce has changed their consumer buying behaviour. The paper’s benefit will be to the owners/managers SMEs as well as policy makers and financial agencies for SMEs

  4. Being Accountable for One's Own Governing: A Case Study of Early Educators Responding to Standards-Based Early Childhood Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christopher P.

    2009-01-01

    As early childhood education continues to gain prominence on the agendas of policy makers across the globe, members of the field of early childhood education are concerned that these reforms will create new governing discourses that restrict how early educators are defined and limit their work with young children. While these neo-liberal policies…

  5. Does corporate governance matter after all? governance scores and the value of Canadian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloisa Perez-de Toledo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the determinants of governance in the case of Canadian firms and examines the relationship between governance and firm value after the 2008 financial crisis. We estimate the effect of governance on stock return by using different econometric approaches. Our results show that large firms and firms with higher market-to-book value adopt better standards of governance. However, the results show a negative impact of governance on stock return. Therefore, providing important insights to policy makers that have recently proposed changes to the Canadian regulatory system. Our results show a lack of market enforcement, therefore, self-regulation is unlikely to be an effective mechanism for implementation of best practices of governance

  6. Communication of 16 September 1997 from the government of the Republic of Latvia to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of a note verbale dated 16 September 1997 received by the Director General of the IAEA from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Latvia providing information about the nuclear export policies and practices of the Government of Latvia

  7. The Emergence of Cambodian Civil Society within Global Educational Governance: A Morphogenetic Approach to Agency and Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.; Brehm, William C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses Margaret Archer's morphogenetic approach to analyze the emergence of civil society within global educational governance. The purpose is to understand the intersection of historical structures with global actors and spaces that have accompanied the globalization of education. Based on findings from a study on the impact in Cambodia…

  8. Communication of 1 October 2009 received from the Resident Representative of Hungary to the Agency on behalf of the participating Governments of the Nuclear Suppliers Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Director General has received a letter dated 1 October 2009 from the Resident Representative of Hungary to the Agency on behalf of the Participating Governments of the Nuclear Suppliers Group.1 Attached to this letter is an updated version of a paper entitled 'The Nuclear Suppliers Group: Its Origins, Role and Activities. The original version of this paper was issued as INFCIRC/539 on 15 September 1997: revisions were issued on 17 April 2000, 16 September 2003 and 30 May 2005. As requested in the letter, the revised version of the paper, attached hereto, is being circulated to Member States of the IAEA

  9. 'Nurse entrepreneurs' a case of government rhetoric?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traynor, Michael; Drennan, Vari; Goodman, Claire; Mark, Annabelle; Davis, Kathy; Peacock, Richard; Banning, Maggi

    2008-01-01

    Nursing has come to play a prominent role in government health policy since 1997. Extending the scope of nursing practice into activities previously carried out by doctors can assist a managerialist and 'modernizing' project of increasing National Health Service (NHS) efficiency by removing demarcations between professional groups. Drawing on elements of poststructuralist linguistics, this paper presents an analysis of a key government speech in the context of a discussion of overall policy intentions. The speech can be seen as an example of how government has attempted to use rhetoric to make its goals attractive to nurses. Policy-makers have to make their policies acceptable to those whom they expect to implement them. In this case, organizational efficiency, chiefly in terms of broader access to NHS services, as well as role substitution, is aligned with government policy promoting social enterprise and 'sold' to the nursing profession as enhancing its status compared with medicine.

  10. Partnering Healthy@Work: an Australian university-government partnership facilitating policy-relevant research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Kim; Venn, Alison; Jarman, Lisa; Seal, Judy; Teale, Brook; Scott, Jennifer; Sanderson, Kristy

    2017-12-01

    Research funding is increasingly supporting collaborations between knowledge users and researchers. Partnering Healthy@Work (pH@W), an inaugural recipient of funding through Australia's Partnership for Better Health Grants scheme, was a 5-year partnership between the Menzies Institute for Medical Research, University of Tasmania and the Tasmanian State Service (TSS). The partnerships purpose was to evaluate a comprehensive workplace health promotion programme (Healthy@Work) targeting 30 000 public sector employees; generating new knowledge and influencing workplace health promotion policy and decision-making. This mixed methods study evaluates the partnership between policy-makers and academics and identifies strategies that enabled pH@W to deliver key project outcomes. A pH@W document review was conducted, two partnership assessment tools completed and semi-structured interviews conducted with key policy-makers and academics. Analysis of the partnership assessment tools and interviews found that pH@W had reached a strong level of collaboration. Policy-relevant knowledge was generated about the health of TSS employees and their engagement with workplace health promotion. Knowledge exchange of a conceptual and instrumental nature occurred and was facilitated by the shared grant application, clear governance structures, joint planning, regular information exchange between researchers and policy-makers and research student placements in the TSS. Flexibility and acknowledgement of different priorities and perspectives of partner organizations were identified as critical factors for enabling effective partnership working and research relevance. Academic-policy-maker partnerships can be a powerful mechanism for improving policy relevance of research, but need to incorporate strategies that facilitate regular input from researchers and policy-makers in order to achieve this. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions

  11. Prevention and control of food safety risks: the role of governments, food producers, marketers, and academia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupien, John R

    2007-01-01

    Food systems are rapidly changing as world population grows, increasing urbanization occurs, consumer tastes and preferences change and differ in various countries and cultures, large scale food production increases, and food imports and exports grow in volume and value. Consumers in all countries have become more insistent that foods available in the marketplace are of good quality and safe, and do not pose risks to them and their families. Publicity about food risk problems and related risks, including chemical and microbiological contamination of foods, mad-cow disease, avian flu, industrial chemical contamination all have made consumers and policy makers more aware of the need of the control of food safety risk factors in all countries. To discuss changes in food systems, and in consumer expectations, that have placed additional stress on the need for better control of food safety risks. Food producers, processors, and marketers have additional food law and regulations to meet; government agencies must increase monitoring and enforcement of adequate food quality and safety legislation and coordinate efforts between agriculture, health, trade, justice and customs agencies; and academia must take action to strengthen the education of competent food legislation administrators, inspectorate, and laboratory personnel for work in government and industry, including related food and food safety research . Both Government and the food industry must assure that adequate control programs are in place to control the quality and safety of all foods, raw or processed, throughout the food chain from production to final consumption. This includes appropriate laboratory facilities to perform necessary analysis of foods for risk and quality factors, and to carry out a wide range of food science, toxicological and related research.

  12. The economic efficiency and equity of government policies on brucellosis: comparative insights from Albania and the United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, D; Bruce, M

    2017-04-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic bacterial disease that causes recurring febrile illness in humans, as well as reproductive failure and reduced milk production in livestock. The cost of brucellosis is equal to the sum of lost productivity of humans and animals, as well as private and public expenditures on brucellosis surveillance, prevention, control and treatment. In Albania, Brucella abortus and B. melitensis affect humans, cattle and small ruminants. In the United States, B. abortus affects cattle and wild ungulates in the Greater Yellowstone Area. These two case studies illustrate the importance of place-specific context in developing sustainable and effective brucellosis mitigation policies. Government regulations and mitigation strategies should be designed with consideration of all costs and benefits, both to public agencies and private stakeholders. Policy-makers should, for example, weigh the benefits of a regulation that increases epidemiological certainty against the costs of compliance for producers and households. The distribution of costs and benefits amongst public agencies and private individuals can have important implications for a policy's economic efficiency and equity quite apart from their total magnitude.

  13. Executive Remuneration as an Aspect of Corporate Governance under OHADA's Corporate System

    OpenAIRE

    Kelong, Richard William Ngwa

    2009-01-01

    With growing importance attached to the notion of executive remuneration, OHADA’s policy makers have also considered the concept as a fundamental element in any corporate governance system. In this regard, they have put in place a policy framework that regulates executive remuneration within OHADA’s corporate system to ensure that executive benefits are appropriate and lawful to enable directors remain objective in respect of their fiduciary duties towards the company. This paper discusses ex...

  14. The Influence of Organizational Commitment and Motivation in the Relationship between Budget Participation and Managerial Performance (Empirical Study on Provincial Government Agencies ( SKPA of Aceh Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muslim A. Djalil

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of research is to empirically examine the influence of organizational commitment and motivation in the relationship between budget participation and managerialperformance of Provincial Government Agencies (SKPA of Aceh Province.Total samples used in this study were 92 respondents who were in the position of Echelon III and IV in SKPA of Aceh Province. The data source of this study was primary data obtained through the distribution of a questionnaire to the selected respondents. The collected data were analyzed by using Path Analysis Method.The result of the study indicated that the organizational commitment, motivation, and budget participation have a significant influence on the managerial performance both simultaneously and partially. However, the organizational commitment and motivation did not mediate the relationshipbetween budget participation and managerial performance.Keywords: Managerial Performance, Budget Participation, Organizational Commitment, Motivation

  15. The True Cost of Electric Power. An Inventory of Methodologies to Support Future Decision-making in Comparing the Cost and Competitiveness of Electricity Generation Technologies. Summary for policy-makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtraw, Dallas; Krupnick, Alan

    2012-06-01

    investments are directed at the electricity generation methods with the lowest true costs to investors and society. The aim of the report is to provide the background for policy-makers and investors who want to incorporate the concept of 'true costs' into the discussion of electricity generation. In some geographic areas, adequate data and methods exist to make a solid estimate of the total social costs of energy production. In those places where the data or methods (or both) are less robust, it is possible to use a benefits transfer approach that still gives stakeholders important guidance about the scale of the true costs of their investments and to get started in formulating policies to incorporate those costs into the market price. Whatever the state of the data and methods, the process of the analysis and stakeholder discussion can be just as important as the final results in providing guidance to decision-makers. Consideration of the true costs should be a component of decision-making for all energy investment worldwide. (authors)

  16. Government control over health-related not-for-profit organisations: Agency for International Development v. Alliance for Open Society International Inc 570 US_(2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vines, Tim; Donohoo, Angus M; Faunce, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    The relationship between government and the not-for-profit (NFP) sector has important implications for society, especially in relation to the delivery of public health measures and the protection of the environment. In key health-related areas such as provision of medical services, welfare, foreign aid and education, governments have traditionally preferred for the NFP sector to act as service partners, with the relationship mediated through grants or funding agreements. This service delivery arrangement is intended to provide a diversity of voices, and encourage volunteerism and altruism, in conjunction with the purposes and objectives of the relevant NGO. Under the pretence of "accountability", however, governments increasingly are seeking to impose intrusive conditions on grantees, which limit their ability to fulfil their mission and advocate on behalf of their constituents. This column examines the United States Supreme Court decision, Agency for International Development v Alliance for Open Society International Inc 570 US_(2013), and compares it to the removal of gag clauses in Australian federal funding rules. Recent national changes to the health-related NFP sector in Australia are then discussed, such as those found in the Charities Act 2013 (Cth) and the Not-for-Profit Sector Freedom to Advocate Act 2013 (Cth). These respectively include the establishment of the Australian Charities and Not-For-Profit Commission, the modernising of the definition of "charity" and statutory blocks on "gag" clauses. This analysis concludes with a survey of recent moves by Australian States to impose new restrictions on the ability of health-related NFPs to lobby against harmful government policy Among the responses considered is the protection afforded by s 51l(xxiiiA) of the Australian Constitution. This constitutional guarantee appears to have been focused historically on preventing medical and dental practitioners and related small businesses being practically coerced

  17. The Urban Leaders Adaptation Initiative: Climate Resilient Local Governments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, J. G.

    2008-12-01

    Local governments, the first responders to public health, safety and environmental hazards, must act now to lessen vulnerabilities to climate change. They must plan for and invest in "adapting" to inevitable impacts such as flood, fire, and draught that will occur notwithstanding best efforts to mitigate climate change. CCAP's Urban Leaders Adaptation Initiative is developing a framework for informed decision making on climate adaptation. Looking ahead to projected climate impacts and 'back casting' can identify what is needed now to both reduce greenhouse gas emissions and build local resiliency to climate change. CCAP's partnership with King County (WA), Chicago, Los Angeles, Miami-Dade County (FL), Milwaukee, Nassau County (NY), Phoenix, San Francisco, and Toronto is advancing policy discussions to ensure that state and local governments consider climate change when making decisions about infrastructure, transportation, land use, and resource management. Through the Initiative, local leaders will incorporate climate change into daily urban management and planning activities, proactively engage city and county managers and the public in developing solutions, and build community resilience. One goal is to change both institutional and public attitudes and behaviors. Determining appropriate adaptation strategies for each jurisdiction requires Asking the Climate Question: "How does what we are doing increase our resilience to climate change?" Over the next three years, the Initiative will design and implement specific adaptation plans, policies and 'catalytic' projects, collect and disseminate "best practices," and participate in framing national climate policy discussions. In the coming years, policy-makers will have to consider climate change in major infrastructure development decisions. If they are to be successful and have the resources they need, national climate change policy and emerging legislation will have to support these communities. The Urban Leaders

  18. Corporate risk, intelligence and governance in the time of cyber threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Bronk

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cyber security is an issue of foremost interest for policy makers in the world’s governments, corporations, NGOs, academic institutions, and other associations, however remedy for the myriad cyber threats and vulnerabilities continues to elude technologists and policy makers alike. In this paper, we consider the concept of cyber risk intelligence, a general concept of understanding the varied phenomena that impact an organization’s capacity to secure its digital communications and resources from eavesdropping, theft or attack. We also consider the deeper economics of information held and transmitted in digital form and how those economics may alter thinking on modeling of risk. Finally, we offer guidance of how organizations and entire sectors of business activity may want to alter their thinking on cyber security issues beyond a technological framing to an informational one aligned with business activities

  19. Text of the agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and the Government of the Republic of Italy concerning the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    The text of the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and the Government of the Republic of Italy concerning the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 25 February 1993, by the UNESCO General Conference on 16 November 1993, and ratified by the Italian Parliament on 2 January 1995

  20. Project and supply agreement. The text of the agreement of 17 June 1993 between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the governments of Colombia and the United States of America concerning the transfer of enriched uranium for a research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    The text of the Project and Supply Agreement, which was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 25 February 1993 and 2 December 1993, between the Agency and the Governments of Colombia and the United States of America for the transfer of enriched uranium for a research reactor is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The agreement entered into force on 17 June 1994, pursuant to Article XII

  1. Implementing and Designing Interactive Governance Arenas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Andreas Hagedorn

    2017-01-01

    of the oldest research questions in public administration research: how and why are the high hopes of central policy-makers (not) translated into practice? By combining insights from the public policy implementation literature, network governance literature and theories of multi-actor institutional design......, the article develops a theoretical perspective for studying top-down implementation of interactive governance arenas. The developed perspective enables researchers and practitioners to identify a number of critical junctions in the implementation process with important implications for the final design...... of the interactive arenas. A longitudinal case-analysis of the implementation of ten Local Crime Prevention Councils in one of twelve Danish police districts is conducted to demonstrate how the perspective may be deployed in empirical studies....

  2. Contribution of the Japan International Cooperation Agency health-related projects to health system strengthening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Motoyuki; Yamaguchi, Yoshie; Imada, Mihoko

    2013-09-22

    The Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) has focused its attention on appraising health development assistance projects and redirecting efforts towards health system strengthening. This study aimed to describe the type of project and targets of interest, and assess the contribution of JICA health-related projects to strengthening health systems worldwide. We collected a web-based Project Design Matrix (PDM) of 105 JICA projects implemented between January 2005 and December 2009. We developed an analytical matrix based on the World Health Organization (WHO) health system framework to examine the PDM data and thereby assess the projects' contributions to health system strengthening. The majority of JICA projects had prioritized workforce development, and improvements in governance and service delivery. Conversely, there was little assistance for finance or medical product development. The vast majority (87.6%) of JICA projects addressed public health issues, for example programs to improve maternal and child health, and the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases such as AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. Nearly 90% of JICA technical healthcare assistance directly focused on improving governance as the most critical means of accomplishing its goals. Our study confirmed that JICA projects met the goals of bilateral cooperation by developing workforce capacity and governance. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that JICA assistance could be used to support financial aspects of healthcare systems, which is an area of increasing concern. We also showed that the analytical matrix methodology is an effective means of examining the component of health system strengthening to which the activity and output of a project contributes. This may help policy makers and practitioners focus future projects on priority areas.

  3. Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of a nuclear power station from the People's Republic of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Supply of a Nuclear Power Station from the People's Republic of China is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency. The Board of Governors approved the Agreement on 23 November 2006. It was signed in Vienna on 22 February 2007. Pursuant to Section 30 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 22 February 2007, upon signature by the Director General of the Agency and by the authorised representative of Pakistan

  4. High performance public health: assessing agencies' strategic management capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Eric W; Wells, Rebecca; Capper, Stuart A

    2003-01-01

    Limited knowledge about state health agencies' strategic management capabilities constrains their capacity to improve public health. The current study addresses this gap through two objectives: 1) To assess agencies' strategic management capabilities, conceptualized through a learning framework and 2) To portray both those capabilities and where the agencies have progressed along a developmental pathway of strategic management ability. Forty-one state health agencies' documents from 1995-2000 were content analyzed. Latent Trait Analysis (LTA) was used to depict both the progressive levels of strategic management capabilities and states' relative mastery along the continuum. Findings indicate that strategic management capabilities have path dependent characteristics and a distinct learning paradigm exists. Therefore, policy-makers wishing to improve agency performance can utilize this framework to assess and target capabilities that need improvement.

  5. Agreement of 27 September 1988 between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of India for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of a nuclear power station from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The full text of the Agreement of 27 September 1988 between the Agency and the Government of India for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of a nuclear power station composed of two pressurized light water reactors, each of 1000 MW(e) from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is reproduced

  6. Agreement of 11 October 1989 between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of India for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of nuclear material from France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The text of the Agreement of 11 October 1989 between the Government of India and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of nuclear material from France, which was approved by the Board on 20 September 1989, is reproduced in this document

  7. Combating Gangs: Better Coordination and Performance Measurement Would Help Clarify Roles of Federal Agencies and Strengthen Assessment of Efforts. Report to the Ranking Member, Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, House of Representatives. GAO-09-708

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Government Accountability Office, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Justice (DOJ) estimates that the United States has about a million gang members. While state and local agencies have primary responsibility for combating gang crime, the federal government has key roles to enforce laws and help fund programs to provide alternatives to gang membership for at-risk youth. GAO was asked to examine…

  8. 78 FR 63960 - Notice of Intent To Request Revision and Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... Title V of the E-Government Act, Confidential Information Protection and Statistical Efficiency Act of..., commodity exchanges, State and national farm policy makers, and government agencies are important users of...

  9. Project and supply agreement. The text of the agreement of 15 January 1993 between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of the Republic of Indonesia and the Government of the United States of America concerning the transfer of enriched uranium for materials test reactor fuel development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The text of the Project and Supply Agreement, which was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 4 December 1992 and concluded on 15 January 1993 between the Agency and the Governments of the Republic of Indonesia and the United States of America for the transfer of enriched uranium for materials test reactor fuel development is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The agreement entered into force on 15 January 1993, pursuant to Article XII.1

  10. The evidence-policy divide: a 'critical computational linguistics' approach to the language of 18 health agency CEOs from 9 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Erica; Seidel, Bastian M

    2012-10-30

    There is an emerging body of literature suggesting that the evidence-practice divide in health policy is complex and multi-factorial but less is known about the processes by which health policy-makers use evidence and their views about the specific features of useful evidence. This study aimed to contribute to understandings of how the most influential health policy-makers view useful evidence, in ways that help explore and question how the evidence-policy divide is understood and what research might be supported to help overcome this divide. A purposeful sample of 18 national and state health agency CEOs from 9 countries was obtained. Participants were interviewed using open-ended questions that asked them to define specific features of useful evidence. The analysis involved two main approaches 1)quantitative mapping of interview transcripts using Bayesian-based computational linguistics software 2)qualitative critical discourse analysis to explore the nuances of language extracts so identified. The decision-making, conclusions-oriented world of policy-making is constructed separately, but not exclusively, by policy-makers from the world of research. Research is not so much devalued by them as described as too technical- yet at the same time not methodologically complex enough to engage with localised policy-making contexts. It is not that policy-makers are negative about academics or universities, it is that they struggle to find complexity-oriented methodologies for understanding their stakeholder communities and improving systems. They did not describe themselves as having a more positive role in solving this challenge than academics. These interviews do not support simplistic definitions of policy-makers and researchers as coming from two irreconcilable worlds. They suggest that qualitative and quantitative research is valued by policy-makers but that to be policy-relevant health research may need to focus on building complexity-oriented research methods for

  11. The evidence-policy divide: a ‘critical computational linguistics’ approach to the language of 18 health agency CEOs from 9 countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bell Erica

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an emerging body of literature suggesting that the evidence-practice divide in health policy is complex and multi-factorial but less is known about the processes by which health policy-makers use evidence and their views about the specific features of useful evidence. This study aimed to contribute to understandings of how the most influential health policy-makers view useful evidence, in ways that help explore and question how the evidence-policy divide is understood and what research might be supported to help overcome this divide. Methods A purposeful sample of 18 national and state health agency CEOs from 9 countries was obtained. Participants were interviewed using open-ended questions that asked them to define specific features of useful evidence. The analysis involved two main approaches 1quantitative mapping of interview transcripts using Bayesian-based computational linguistics software 2qualitative critical discourse analysis to explore the nuances of language extracts so identified. Results The decision-making, conclusions-oriented world of policy-making is constructed separately, but not exclusively, by policy-makers from the world of research. Research is not so much devalued by them as described as too technical— yet at the same time not methodologically complex enough to engage with localised policy-making contexts. It is not that policy-makers are negative about academics or universities, it is that they struggle to find complexity-oriented methodologies for understanding their stakeholder communities and improving systems. They did not describe themselves as having a more positive role in solving this challenge than academics. Conclusions These interviews do not support simplistic definitions of policy-makers and researchers as coming from two irreconcilable worlds. They suggest that qualitative and quantitative research is valued by policy-makers but that to be policy-relevant health research may

  12. Examining the Operational Effectiveness and Accountability of Federal Agencies as Indicated in the Performance and Accountability Reports Required by the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caron, Lenn E; Farricker, Daniel A; Underwood, Jeffrey R

    2007-01-01

    The Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 (GPRA) was enacted to improve the confidence of the American people in the capability of the federal government and to initiate program performance improvement...

  13. Agreement among the Portuguese Republic, the Government of the United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency for assistance in securing nuclear fuel for a research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The text of the Agreement among the Portuguese Republic, the Government of the United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency for Assistance in Securing Nuclear Fuel for a Research Reactor is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency. The Agency's Board of Governors approved the above mentioned Agreement on 14 June 2006. The Agreement was signed by the authorized representatives of Portugal on 27 June 2006 and the United States on 13 December 2006, and by the Director General of the IAEA on 14 December 2006. Pursuant to the Article XII.1 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 19 April 2007, the date on which the Agency received written notification from Portugal that its internal requirements for entry into force had been met

  14. The Economic Consequences of Rising U.S. Government Debt: Privileges at Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Henning Bohn

    2010-01-01

    The rapidly growing federal government debt has become a concern for policy makers and the public. Yet the U.S. government has seemingly unbounded access to credit at low interest rates. Historically, Treasury yields have been below the growth rate of the economy. The paper examines the ramifications of debt financing at low interest rates. Given the short maturity of U.S. public debt – over $2.5 trillion maturing in 2010 – investor expectations are critical. Excessive debts justify reaso...

  15. A Study of Efficiency, Effectiveness and Productivity of Filipino Administrative Agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Simpas

    1980-01-01

    to several constraints such as limited funds, the team had to reduce the number to four.The examination of the actual performance of the four agencies being studied consisted of content analysis of agency records and other sources such as reports and periodicals. Perceptions of both clientele and agency personnel on our structural and functional variables were conducted so as to compare these results from those obtained from content analysis of agency documents.The project, in addition to its contribution to the growing literature in the field of development administration, is expected to help Filipino administrators increase their understanding of the complex factors that hinder or facilitate agency operations. These insights and knowledge could further serve policy-makers in channeling multi-agency efforts towards the attainment of national development goals. Hopefully, with the establishment of the variables that affect the three major factors in development administration - efficiency, effectiveness and productivity - the different government as well as private development agencies could improve their service delivery capacities.

  16. Behaviour Change in the UK Climate Debate: An Assessment of Responsibility, Agency and Political Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane Fudge

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the politics around the role of agency in the UK climate change debate. Government interventions on the demand side of consumption have increasingly involved attempts to obtain greater traction with the values, attitudes and beliefs of citizens in relation to climate change and also in terms of influencing consumer behaviour at an individual level. With figures showing that approximately 40% of the UK’s carbon emissions are attributable to household and transport behaviour, policy initiatives have progressively focused on the facilitation of “sustainable behaviours”. Evidence suggests however, that mobilisation of pro-environmental attitudes in addressing the perceived “value-action gap” has so far had limited success. Research in this field suggests that there is a more significant and nuanced “gap” between context and behaviour; a relationship that perhaps provides a more adroit reflection of reasons why people do not necessarily react in the way that policy-makers anticipate. Tracing the development of the UK Government’s behaviour change agenda over the last decade, we posit that a core reason for the limitations of this programme relates to an excessively narrow focus on the individual. This has served to obscure some of the wider political and economic aspects of the debate in favour of a more simplified discussion. The second part of the paper reports findings from a series of focus groups exploring some of the wider political views that people hold around household energy habits, purchase and use of domestic appliances, and transport behaviour-and discusses these insights in relation to the literature on the agenda’s apparent limitations. The paper concludes by considering whether the aims of the Big Society approach (recently established by the UK’s Coalition Government hold the potential to engage more directly with some of these issues or whether they merely constitute a “repackaging” of the

  17. Social health insurance contributes to universal coverage in South Africa, but generates inequities: survey among members of a government employee insurance scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Goudge, Jane; Alaba, Olufunke A.; Govender, Veloshnee; Harris, Bronwyn; Nxumalo, Nonhlanhla; Chersich, Matthew F.

    2018-01-01

    Background Many low- and middle-income countries are reforming their health financing mechanisms as part of broader strategies to achieve universal health coverage (UHC). Voluntary social health insurance, despite evidence of resulting inequities, is attractive to policy makers as it generates additional funds for health, and provides access to a greater range of benefits for the formally employed. The South African government introduced a voluntary health insurance scheme (GEMS) for governme...

  18. Why the Critics of Poor Health Service Delivery Are the Causes of Poor Service Delivery: A Need to Train the Policy-makers; Comment on “Why and How Is Compassion Necessary to Provide Good Quality Healthcare?”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Harding

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This comment on Professor Fotaki’s Editorial agrees with her arguments that training health professionals in more compassionate, caring and ethically sound care will have little value unless the system in which they work changes. It argues that for system change to occur, senior management, government members and civil servants themselves need training so that they learn to understand the effects that their policies have on health professionals. It argues that these people are complicit in the delivery of unethical care, because they impose requirements that contradict health professionals’ desire to deliver compassionate and ethical forms of care.

  19. Protocol Additional to the agreement between the Government of the Republic of South Africa and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection With the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Safeguards Agreement 1 concluded between the Government of the Republic of South Africa and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 12 June 2002. It was signed in Vienna on 13 September 2002. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force upon signature by the representatives of South Africa and the Agency, i.e. on 13 September 2002

  20. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Government of the Kingdom of Denmark and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Government of the Kingdom of Denmark and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 5 March 2013. It was signed on 22 March 2013 in Vienna, Austria. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 22 March 2013, upon signature by the representatives of the Denmark and the Agency.

  1. Agreement of 3 May 1996 between the government of the commonwealth of Dominica and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    The text of the Agreement (and the Protocol thereof) between the Government of the Commonwealth of Dominica and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 12 September 1994 and signed in Vienna on 10 July 1995 and in Roseau, Dominica on 3 May 1996. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 24, on 3 May 1996. The Protocol entered into force on the same day, pursuant to Article II

  2. Agreement of 30 January 1992 between the Government of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The text of the Agreement between the Government of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 12 September 1991 and signed in Vienna on 30 January 1992. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 25, on 10 April 1992

  3. Agreement of 30 January 1992 between the Government of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The text of the Agreement between the Government of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 12 September 1991 and signed in Vienna on 30 January 1992. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 25, on 10 April 1992 [es

  4. Protocol Additional to the agreement between the Government of Iceland and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Government of Iceland and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 9 September 2003. It was signed in Vienna on 12 September 2003. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force upon signature by the representatives of Iceland and the Agency, i.e., on 12 September 2003

  5. Agreement Between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Supply of Two Nuclear Power Stations from the People's Republic of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Supply of two Nuclear Power Stations from the People's Republic of China is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Agreement on 8 March 2011. It was signed on 15 April 2011 in Vienna, Austria. Pursuant to Section 30 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 15 April 2011, upon signature by the representatives of Pakistan and the Agency

  6. Examining the Operational Effectiveness and Accountability of Federal Agencies as Indicated in the Performance and Accountability Reports Required by the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caron, Lenn E; Farricker, Daniel A; Underwood, Jeffrey R

    2007-01-01

    .... The agencies chosen were performing at different levels of effectiveness, according to the performance and accountability scorecard produced by the Mercatus Center at George Mason University, a non...

  7. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Malawi and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Malawi and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 23 November 2006. It was signed on 5 May 2007 in Lilongwe, Malawi, and on 26 July 2007 in Vienna, Austria

  8. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Ghana and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Safeguards Agreement concluded between the Government of the Republic of Ghana and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 11 June 1998. It was signed in Vienna on 12 June 1998 [fr

  9. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Government of the Kingdom of Denmark and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Government of the Kingdom of Denmark and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 5 March 2013. It was signed on 22 March 2013 in Vienna, Austria

  10. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Malawi and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Malawi and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 23 November 2006. It was signed on 5 May 2007 in Lilongwe, Malawi, and on 26 July 2007 in Vienna, Austria [fr

  11. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Government of the Kingdom of Denmark and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Government of the Kingdom of Denmark and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 5 March 2013. It was signed on 22 March 2013 in Vienna, Austria [fr

  12. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Ghana and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Safeguards Agreement concluded between the Government of the Republic of Ghana and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 11 June 1998. It was signed in Vienna on 12 June 1998 [es

  13. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Malawi and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Malawi and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 23 November 2006. It was signed on 5 May 2007 in Lilongwe, Malawi, and on 26 July 2007 in Vienna, Austria [es

  14. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Government of the Kingdom of Denmark and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Government of the Kingdom of Denmark and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 5 March 2013. It was signed on 22 March 2013 in Vienna, Austria [es

  15. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Ghana and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Safeguards Agreement concluded between the Government of the Republic of Ghana and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 11 June 1998. It was signed in Vienna on 12 June 1998

  16. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Lithuania and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Protocol Additional to the Safeguards Agreement concluded between the Government of the Republic of Lithuania and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). The Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 8 December 1997, signed in Vienna on 11 March 1998, and entered into force on 5 July 2000

  17. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Government of Japan and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III.1 and 4 of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Government of Japan and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III.1 and 4 of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), which was approved by the Board of Governors on 25 November 1998 and signed in Vienna on 4 December 1998. The Protocol entered into force on 16 December 1998

  18. Agreement Between the Government of India and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards to Civilian Nuclear Facilities. Addition to the List of Facilities Subject to Safeguards Under the Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    In accordance with Paragraph 14(a) of the Agreement between the Government of India and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards to Civilian Nuclear Facilities (hereinafter “the Agreement”), India shall notify the Agency in writing of its decision to offer any facility identified by India for Agency safeguards under the Agreement. Any facility so notified by India becomes subject to the Agreement as of the date of receipt by the Agency of such written notification from India, and is to be included in the Annex to the Agreement. On 11 March 2014, the Agency received from India written notification, pursuant to Paragraph 14(a) of the Agreement, of its decision to bring one additional facility under safeguards in accordance with the provisions of the Agreement. Pursuant to Paragraph 14 4(a) of the Agreement, the Annex to the Agreement has been updated and is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency [es

  19. [Health technology assessment agencies in the xxi century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argimon, Josep Maria

    2015-11-01

    The origins of the health technology assessment (HTA) agencies date back to the 70s in the United States; in the European context, the current Agency for Quality and Health Assessment of Catalonia was among the pioneers in 1991. Epidemiological, social, technological and economic changes of recent years have led to the incorporation, by the agencies, of new functions, activities and projects that can offer better services (information and knowledge) to the various players in the healthcare system (patients, professionals, providers, insurers and policy-makers) in order to increase healthcare quality and preserve the sustainability of the health system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Policymakers' reflections on water governance issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, J.; Akhmouch, A.; Cosgrove, W.; Hurwitz, Z.; Maestu, J.; Ünver, O.

    2013-01-01

    The two cultures theory argues that policy makers and scientists have different cultures and difficulty in communicating with each other. Others argue that there is increasing co-production of knowledge. This essay aims to assess the concerns of policy makers based on our policy work, policy-related

  1. The implementation of Health in All Policies initiatives: a systems framework for government action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankardass, Ketan; Muntaner, Carles; Kokkinen, Lauri; Shahidi, Faraz Vahid; Freiler, Alix; Oneka, Goldameir; M Bayoumi, Ahmed; O'Campo, Patricia

    2018-03-15

    There has been a renewed interest in broadening the research agenda in health promotion to include action on the structural determinants of health, including a focus on the implementation of Health in All Policies (HiAP). Governments that use HiAP face the challenge of instituting governance structures and processes to facilitate policy coordination in an evidence-informed manner. Due to the complexity of government institutions and the policy process, systems theory has been proposed as a tool for evaluating the implementation of HiAP. Our multiple case study research programme (HiAP Analysis using Realist Methods On International Case Studies - HARMONICS) has relied on systems theory and realist methods to make sense of how and why the practices of policy-makers (including politicians and civil servants) from specific institutional environments (policy sectors) has either facilitated or hindered the implementation of HiAP. Herein, we present a systems framework for the implementation of HiAP based on our experience and empirical findings in studying this process. We describe a system of 14 components within three subsystems of government. Subsystems include the executive (heads of state and their appointed political elites), intersectoral (the milieu of policy-makers and experts working with governance structures related to HiAP) and intrasectoral (policy-makers within policy sectors). Here, HiAP implementation is a process involving interactions between subsystems and their components that leads to the emergence of implementation outcomes, as well as effects on the system components themselves. We also describe the influence of extra-governmental systems, including (but not limited to) the academic sector, third sector, private sector and intergovernmental sector. Finally, we present a case study that applies this framework to understand the implementation of HiAP - the Health 2015 Strategy - in Finland, from 2001 onward. This framework is useful for helping to

  2. Project and supply agreement. The text of the agreement of 15 January 1993 between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of the Republic of Indonesia and the Government of the United States of America concerning the transfer of enriched uranium for the fabrication of targets for the production of radioisotopes for medical purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The text of the Project and Supply Agreement, which was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 4 December 1992 and concluded on 15 January 1993 between the Agency and the Governments of the Republic of Indonesia and the United States of America for the transfer of enriched uranium for the fabrication of targets for the production of radioisotopes for medical purposes is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The agreement entered into force on 15 January 1993, pursuant to Article XII.1

  3. 77 FR 33216 - Agency Information Collection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION Agency Information Collection Activities AGENCY: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. ACTION... federal agencies only for evaluating whether an agency's recruitment activities are effectively reaching...

  4. Protocol between the Republic of the Fiji Islands and the International Atomic Energy Agency Additional to the Agreement between the Government of Fiji and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The text of the Protocol between the Republic of the Fiji Islands and the International Atomic Energy Agency Additional to the Agreement between the Government of Fiji and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 16 June 2005. It was signed on 7 July 2006 in Sydney and 14 July 2006 in Vienna [fr

  5. Protocol between the Republic of the Fiji Islands and the International Atomic Energy Agency Additional to the Agreement between the Government of Fiji and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The text of the Protocol between the Republic of the Fiji Islands and the International Atomic Energy Agency Additional to the Agreement between the Government of Fiji and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 16 June 2005. It was signed on 7 July 2006 in Sydney and 14 July 2006 in Vienna

  6. Protocol between the Republic of the Fiji Islands and the International Atomic Energy Agency Additional to the Agreement between the Government of Fiji and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The text of the Protocol between the Republic of the Fiji Islands and the International Atomic Energy Agency Additional to the Agreement between the Government of Fiji and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 16 June 2005. It was signed on 7 July 2006 in Sydney and 14 July 2006 in Vienna [es

  7. Economic analysis of three interventions of different intensity in improving school implementation of a government healthy canteen policy in Australia: costs, incremental and relative cost effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Kathryn L; Reeves, Penny; Deeming, Simon; Yoong, Sze Lin; Wolfenden, Luke; Nathan, Nicole; Wiggers, John

    2018-03-20

    No evaluations of the cost or cost effectiveness of interventions to increase school implementation of food availability policies have been reported. Government and non-government agency decisions regarding the extent of investment required to enhance school implementation of such policies are unsupported by such evidence. This study sought to i) Determine cost and cost-effectiveness of three interventions in improving school implementation of an Australian government healthy canteen policy and; ii) Determine the relative cost-effectiveness of the interventions in improving school implementation of such a policy. An analysis of the cost and cost-effectiveness of three implementation interventions of varying support intensity, relative to usual implementation support conducted during 2013-2015 was undertaken. Secondly, an indirect comparison of the trials was undertaken to determine the most cost-effective of the three strategies. The economic analysis was based on the cost of delivering the interventions by health service delivery staff to increase the proportion of schools 'adherent' with the policy. The total costs per school were $166,971, $70,926 and $75,682 for the high, medium and low intensity interventions respectively. Compared to usual support, the cost effectiveness ratios for each of the three interventions were: A$2982 (high intensity), A$2627 (medium intensity) and A$4730 (low intensity) per percent increase in proportion of schools reporting 'adherence'). Indirect comparison between the 'high' and 'medium intensity' interventions showed no statistically significant difference in cost-effectiveness. The results indicate that while the cost profiles of the interventions varied substantially, the cost-effectiveness did not. This result is valuable to policy makers seeking cost-effective solutions that can be delivered within budget.

  8. How should grid operators govern smart grid innovation projects? An embedded case study approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuver, Mark de; Lei, Telli van der; Lukszo, Zofia

    2016-01-01

    Grid operators increasingly have to collaborate with other actors in order to realize smart grid innovations. For routine maintenance, grid operators typically acquire technologies in one-off transactions, but the innovative nature of smart grid projects may require more collaborate relationships. This paper studies how a transactional versus relational approach to governing smart grid innovation projects affects incentives for other actors to collaborate. We analyse 34 cases of smart grid innovation projects based on extensive archival data as well as interviews. We find that projects relying on relational governance are more likely to provide incentives for collaboration. Especially non-financial incentives such as reputational benefits and shared intellectual property rights are more likely to be found in projects relying on relational governance. Policy makers that wish to stimulate smart grid innovation projects should consider stimulating long-term relationships between grid operators and third parties, because such relationships are more likely to produce incentives for collaboration. - Highlights: • Smart grids require collaboration between grid operators and other actors. • We contrast transactional and relational governance of smart grid projects. • Long-term relations produce more incentives for smart grid collaboration. • Non-financial incentives are more important in long-term relations. • Policy makers should stimulate long-term relations to stimulate smart grids.

  9. Science-policy processes for transboundary water governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, Derek; de Loë, Rob C; Morris, Michelle; Edwards, Tom W D; Gerlak, Andrea K; Hall, Roland I; Huitema, Dave; Ison, Ray; Livingstone, David; MacDonald, Glen; Mirumachi, Naho; Plummer, Ryan; Wolfe, Brent B

    2015-09-01

    In this policy perspective, we outline several conditions to support effective science-policy interaction, with a particular emphasis on improving water governance in transboundary basins. Key conditions include (1) recognizing that science is a crucial but bounded input into water resource decision-making processes; (2) establishing conditions for collaboration and shared commitment among actors; (3) understanding that social or group-learning processes linked to science-policy interaction are enhanced through greater collaboration; (4) accepting that the collaborative production of knowledge about hydrological issues and associated socioeconomic change and institutional responses is essential to build legitimate decision-making processes; and (5) engaging boundary organizations and informal networks of scientists, policy makers, and civil society. We elaborate on these conditions with a diverse set of international examples drawn from a synthesis of our collective experiences in assessing the opportunities and constraints (including the role of power relations) related to governance for water in transboundary settings.

  10. Monitoring and Evaluating Government Performance in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. K. Botlhale

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In an era characterised by fiscal stress in the post-global recession era, clichés such as ‘bang for the buck’ are commonplace. Governments are under increasing pressure to spend limited public resources in efficient and  effective ways. Efficient and  effective governments are a necessary, though not sufficient, condition for economic development. Hence, governments have adopted performance-improving interventions such as New Public Management. Botswana jumped into the bandwagon of public sector reforms in the 1990s through interventions such as Performance-based Management Systems. The focus was almost entirely on performance enhancement to the neglect of performance measurement through a result-based Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E framework. However, in 2009, the government decided to mainstream M&E into the development planning regime. Since the M&E tool is still in draft form, Botswana is very favourably circumstanced to learn from others. Meanwhile essentials to do are: attitudinal change, shared vision on M&E, stakeholder management and demand and use of M&E information by policy-makers such as Members of Parliament.

  11. 28 CFR 83.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal agency or agency. 83.645 Section 83.645 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENT-WIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR... means any United States executive department, military department, government corporation, government...

  12. The essence of governance in health development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirigia, Joses Muthuri; Kirigia, Doris Gatwiri

    2011-03-28

    case for broader health development governance framework has been made. A health development governance index with 10 functions and 42 sub-functions has been proposed to facilitate inter-country comparisons. Potential sources of data for estimating HDGI have been suggested. The Governance indices for individual sub-functions can aid policy-makers to establish the sources of weak health governance and subsequently develop appropriate interventions for ameliorating the situation.

  13. 77 FR 18258 - Government-to-Government Telephonic Consultation Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-WASO-NRNHL-0212-9515; 2280-665] Government-to-Government Telephonic Consultation Meetings AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. SUMMARY: The National Park Service announces two telephonic government- to-government consultation meetings with Indian...

  14. Temporary agency work, migration and the crisis in Greece: labour market segmentation intensified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroukis, Thanos

    2016-05-01

    This article focuses on the under-researched temporary agency employment in Greece. It shows that the development of the temporary employment agency sector has gone hand in hand with the flow of undocumented and exploitable migrant labour in Greece over the past 25 years, reflecting the segmentation of the Greek labour market along ethnic lines. Using empirical research evidence on the operation of temporary employment agencies in the Greek hospitality and health care sectors, the article highlights the precarious or even illicit nature of agency employment in a context in which labour outsourcing and flexible employment are promoted by policy-makers. Last but not least, it suggests that the segmented landscape of the Greek labour market has become more complex during the economic crisis, with more and more Greeks drawn to agency-mediated precarious employment.

  15. Protocol between the Republic of the Fiji Islands and the International Atomic Energy Agency Additional to the Agreement between the Government of Fiji and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The text of the Protocol between the Republic of the Fiji Islands and the International Atomic Energy Agency Additional to the Agreement between the Government of Fiji and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 16 June 2005. It was signed on 7 July 2006 in Sydney and 14 July 2006 in Vienna. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 14 July 2006, upon signature by the representatives of the Republic of the Fiji Islands and the Agency

  16. Assessing the Role of User Computer Self-Efficacy, Cybersecurity Countermeasures Awareness, and Cybersecurity Skills toward Computer Misuse Intention at Government Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Min Suk

    2013-01-01

    Cybersecurity threats and vulnerabilities are causing substantial financial losses for governments and organizations all over the world. Cybersecurity criminals are stealing more than one billion dollars from banks every year by exploiting vulnerabilities caused by bank users' computer misuse. Cybersecurity breaches are threatening the common…

  17. The Text of the Agreement of 25 February 1975 between the Agency, The Government of Monaco and the Oceanographic Institute at Monaco concerning Developmental Studies on the Effects of Radioactivity in the Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The agreement of 21 May 1969 between the Agency, the Government of the Principality of Monaco and the Oceanographic Institute at Monaco, concerning developmental studies on the effects of radioactivity in the sea provided for that project to be carried out for a period of six years ending on 31 December 1974. On 25 February 1975 the three Parties entered into a new agreement providing for the project to be continued for a further six years ending on 31 December 1980. The text of this agreement, which entered into force on 25 February 1975 pursuant to Article 13, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members.

  18. Arcabouço teórico para os estudos de governança corporativa: os pressupostos subjacentes à teoria da agência A theoretical framework for corporate governance studies: agency theory assumptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laíse Ferraz Correia

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O propósito deste ensaio consiste em fornecer uma contribuição para o desenvolvimento e fundamentação da pesquisa em governança corporativa, mediante a apresentação dos pressupostos subjacentes à Teoria da Agência, que constitui um dos arcabouços teóricos mais utilizados nos estudos sobre o tema, mas que é, muitas vezes, abordado de forma incompleta. Assim, este trabalho buscou preencher um pouco essa lacuna nos estudos de governança, mediante a discussão dos principais pilares da Teoria da Agência, isto é, as suposições acerca do comportamento dos indivíduos nas organizações; a repartição das etapas do processo decisório, que se traduz na delegação de autoridade aos administradores (agentes; a importância do conhecimento específico; os custos de agência oriundos da distribuição do poder de decisão a indívíduos racionais, que detêm o conhecimento requerido pela organização; e os mecanismos de controle do comportamento dos administradores. A partir dos elementos essenciais dessa teoria, são desenvolvidos os mecanismos de governança corporativa, os quais visam melhorar a performance das firmas.The agency theory, an important theoretical framework in the area of corporate governance, was discussed as a contribution for development of this subject. The foundations, assumptions and building blocks of the agency theory, frequently used in research on this subject, are often only partially addressed. An effort was made to bridge this gap in governance studies by discussing pillars of the agency theory, that is to say, assumptions about the nature of human behavior in organizations, the way organizations allocate steps in the decision making process across agents, the relevance of specific knowledge required , the agency costs arising from diffusion of decision functions among rational agents with the specific knowledge required, and decision control mechanisms for opportunistic behavior of agents, were included

  19. Renaissance of nuclear power challenge for policy makers and industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaroslav, I.R.A.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear power industry being cost intensive, must be considered as a high-tech employer of highly qualified man power. Similar challenge is faced by manufacturers: the part of supply chain. Nuclear power plant is very complex equipment as far as technology and science is involved. Nuclear power can be the option for bigger share of balanced national or global energy mix, to meet growing demand for power, with stability of supply and reducing CO 2 emissions till the year 2050. Hence, there is need to treat nuclear power as a long-term program, with which all its positive features will be a stronger alternative to conventional fossil power plants as well as all renewables. (author)

  20. Research a 'revolution' for academics and policy makers

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Barbara Fraser

    Los hallazgos de la investigación sobre el crecimiento económico, la reducción de la pobreza y la igualdad están inspirando cambios de las políticas públicas en Perú. Al mismo tiempo que otros latinoamericanos responsables de políticas conocen los resultados, académicos están revisando sus teorías sobre el ...

  1. Soil biodiversity: functions, threats and tools for policy makers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putten, van der W.H.; Mudgal, S.; Turbé, A.; Toni, de A.; Lavelle, P.; Benito, P.; Ruiz, N.

    2010-01-01

    Human societies rely on the vast diversity of benefits provided by nature, such as food, fibres, construction materials, clean water, clean air and climate regulation. All the elements required for these ecosystem services depend on soil, and soil biodiversity is the driving force behind their

  2. DEFINING HUMAN MIGRATION – A POLICY MAKERS PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul-Panfil IVAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Migration is a global phenomenon gradually increased in scope, impact and complexity. Practically all countries are simultaneously countries of destination, origin and transit for migrants. Traditionally migration flows are complemented by new changes generated by economic, demographic, political or social conditions, and these trends affect both the size and structure of the migrant population and also economies and societies. Of course this has sparked international interest from various NGOs and by the European Union and the United Nations. This paper aims to present the vision of international organizations concerned with migration and how they define migration and its typologies.

  3. Le TIC nella scuola: dieci raccomandazioni per i policy maker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Calvani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Basandosi sulle evidenze relative al rapporto tra tecnologia e apprendimento e sul recente rapporto OCSE riguardante il Piano Nazionale Scuola Digitale, l’autore riflette sui criteri che devono orientare le politiche innovative, ispirati a sostenibilità, ottimizzazione dell’impatto educativo, sottolineando anche la necessità di finalizzare meglio l’impiego delle tecnologie verso specifici obiettivi. Viene ricordato come storicamente si tenda a sovrastimare l’effetto positivo delle tecnologie sull’apprendimento; la ricerca ha invece rilevato i limiti della loro efficacia (da ricercare in determinate aree e la rilevanza del rischio del sovraccarico cognitivo che la loro introduzione può comportare. Si propongono alcuni suggerimenti per i decisori scolastici rispondendo alle due domande “Quali criteri per la politica tecnologica?”, “In che modo usare le tecnologie per apprendere a scuola?”.

  4. Evidence for Agile Policy Makers: The Contribution of Transformative Realism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Room, Graham

    2013-01-01

    Advocates of evidence-based policy making (EBPM) are typically concerned with the impact of particular interventions. This implicit ontology of the policy world, as disaggregated into a variety of independent interventions, has been challenged by Pawson (2006), in terms of the contingencies that activate, inhibit or reshape the impact of any…

  5. Australian Government Information Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Bert

    2017-01-01

    Provides an overview of Australian Government information resources. Features content from Australian Government agency websites such as the Department of Environment and Energy, Department of Defence, Australian National Maritime Museum, ANZAC Memorial in Sydney, Department of Immigration & Border Protection, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Dept. of Agriculture and Water Resources, Australian Parliament, Australian Treasury, Australian Transport Safety Board, and Australian Parl...

  6. Comparison of governance approaches for the control of antimicrobial resistance: Analysis of three European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Birgand

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Policy makers and governments are calling for coordination to address the crisis emerging from the ineffectiveness of current antibiotics and stagnated pipe-line of new ones – antimicrobial resistance (AMR. Wider contextual drivers and mechanisms are contributing to shifts in governance strategies in health care, but are national health system approaches aligned with strategies required to tackle antimicrobial resistance? This article provides an analysis of governance approaches within healthcare systems including: priority setting, performance monitoring and accountability for AMR prevention in three European countries: England, France and Germany. Advantages and unresolved issues from these different experiences are reported, concluding that mechanisms are needed to support partnerships between healthcare professionals and patients with democratized decision-making and accountability via collaboration. But along with this multi-stakeholder approach to governance, a balance between regulation and persuasion is needed.

  7. TOWARDS A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF ISLAMIC LEADERSHIP SUCCESSOR'S ATTRIBUTES MODEL AND GOOD GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naji Zuhair Alsarhi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to propose a conceptual model that explains the relationship between Islamic leadership successionpersonalityattributes and good governance. The paper sources information from an extensive search of literature to design a conceptual model of Islamic leadership succession (personal attributes & governmental characteristics of Succession and good governance. The model will provide an integration of relationships that will add valuable insights into improved leadership succession theory in the related literature. The paper may assist particularly policy makers and strategists to focus on new possibilities of leadership successors attributes that will lead to improved governance as well as government performance in the world in general, and the Palestine community, in particular.

  8. Comparison of governance approaches for the control of antimicrobial resistance: Analysis of three European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgand, Gabriel; Castro-Sánchez, Enrique; Hansen, Sonja; Gastmeier, Petra; Lucet, Jean-Christophe; Ferlie, Ewan; Holmes, Alison; Ahmad, Raheelah

    2018-01-01

    Policy makers and governments are calling for coordination to address the crisis emerging from the ineffectiveness of current antibiotics and stagnated pipe-line of new ones - antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Wider contextual drivers and mechanisms are contributing to shifts in governance strategies in health care, but are national health system approaches aligned with strategies required to tackle antimicrobial resistance? This article provides an analysis of governance approaches within healthcare systems including: priority setting, performance monitoring and accountability for AMR prevention in three European countries: England, France and Germany. Advantages and unresolved issues from these different experiences are reported, concluding that mechanisms are needed to support partnerships between healthcare professionals and patients with democratized decision-making and accountability via collaboration. But along with this multi-stakeholder approach to governance, a balance between regulation and persuasion is needed.

  9. Agreement of 24 February 1993 between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of a nuclear power station from the People's Republic of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Agreement from 24 February 1993 between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of a nuclear power station from the People's Republic of China. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 19 June 1992

  10. Sustainability and Convergence: The Future of Corporate Governance Systems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela M. Salvioni

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In today’s world, a sustainable approach to corporate governance can be a source of competitive advantage and a long-term success factor for any firm. Sustainable governance requires that the board of directors considers economic, social and environmental expectations in an integrated way, no matter what ownership structure and formal rules of corporate governance apply to the company: this mitigates the traditional differences between insider and outsider systems of corporate governance. Previous studies failed to consider the contribution of sustainability in the process of corporate governance convergence. Therefore, the aim of this article is to fill the gap in the existing literature by means of a qualitative analysis, supporting the international debate about convergence of corporate governance systems. The article describes the evolution of outsider and insider systems in the light of the increasing importance of sustainability in the board’s decision-making and firm’s operation to satisfy the needs of all the company’s stakeholders. According to this, a qualitative content analysis developed with a directed approach completes the theoretical discussion, demonstrating that sustainability can bring de facto convergence between outsider and insider corporate governance systems. The article aims to be a theoretical starting point for future research, the findings of which could also have practical implications: the study encourages the policy makers to translate the sustainable business best practices into laws and recommendations, strengthening the mutual influence between formal and substantial convergence.

  11. The Changing Role of ENGOs in Water Governance: Institutional Entrepreneurs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Seanna L.; de Loë, Rob C.

    2016-01-01

    The changing role of the state in the last quarter century has been an important contemporary concern for policy makers, scholars, and the public. Equally, there is increasing recognition among governance scholars that nongovernment actors are exerting new kinds of influence over governance systems and contributing in novel ways to governance processes. The role of environmental nongovernmental organizations (ENGOs) is particularly pertinent given the continued involvement of ENGOs within collaborative, adaptive, and co-management governance, across several contexts and regions. This paper uses an analytical framework derived from recent studies on institutional entrepreneurs, to examine the skills ENGOs are applying in order to orchestrate change. An empirical case of governance for water in Canada's Lake Simcoe region provides the foundation for the research. Drawing on a mixed methods approach, the research finds that ENGOs in Lake Simcoe have taken on a role as an institutional entrepreneur, and thereby have altered the relationship between governance actors in this setting. A key outcome of their actions is a more dominant, engaged, and influential role for ENGOs in a critical, regional governance system.

  12. From corporate governance to hospital governance. Authority, transparency and accountability of Belgian non-profit hospitals' board and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeckloo, Kristof; Van Herck, Gustaaf; Van Hulle, Cynthia; Vleugels, Arthur

    2004-04-01

    As a result of multiple developments in health care and health care policy, hospital administrators, policy makers and researchers are increasingly challenged to reflect on the meaning of good hospital governance and how they can implement it in the hospital organisations. The question arises whether and to what extent governance models that have been developed within the corporate world can be valuable for these reflections. Due to the unique societal position of hospitals--which involves a large diversity of stakeholders--the claim for autonomy of various highly professional groups and the lack of clear business objectives, principles of corporate governance cannot be translated into the hospital sector without specific adjustments. However, irrespective of these contextual differences, corporate governance can provide for a comprehensive 'frame of reference', to which the hospital sector will have to give its own interpretation. A multidisciplinary research unit of the university of Leuven has taken the initiative to develop a governance model for Belgian hospitals. As part of the preliminary research work a survey has been performed among 82 hospitals of the Flemish Community on their governance structure, the composition of the governance entities, the partition of competencies and the relationship between management and medical staff.

  13. Agreement of 23 February 1989 Between the Government of the Democratic People's Republic of Algeria and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection With the Supply of a Research Reactor From the Republic of Argentina. Definitive Entry into Force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    Pursuant to Section 28 of the Agreement between the Government of the Democratic People's Republic of Algeria and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Supply of a Research Reactor from the Republic of Argentina, which entered into force provisionally on 23 February 1989, the Agreement entered into force definitively on 9 April 1990, the date on which the Agency received from the Government of Algeria written notification that the statutory and constitutional requirements of the Government of Algeria for the entry into force had been met.

  14. The Financial Performance and Corporate Governance Disclosure: A Study in the Annual Reports of Listed Companies of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abdur Rouf

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to test empirically the relationship between the Financial Performances (Profitability and the level of Corporate Governance Disclosure (CGD by the listed non-financial companies in Bangladesh. Data are taken from annual reports of the listed companies in the 2007. This paper is based on a sample of 94 listed companies and Used OLS as a method of estimation. The extent of corporate governance disclosure level is measured using 40 items of information and financial performance (profitability is measured by return on assets (ROA. Using an unweighted approach for measuringcorporate governance disclosure, this approach is most appropriate when no importance is given to any specific user-groups. After establishing the disclosure index, a scoring sheet was developed to assess the extent of corporate governance disclosures. The resultshows that the level of Corporate Governance Disclosure (CGD is positively correlated with the Financial Performances (Profitability. The study provides empirical evidence to policy makers and regulators in South Asia.

  15. Communication government agencies: the case of FCC/ Organismos de regulación y control de las comunicaciones: el caso de la FCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Ana I. Segovia Alonso; asegovia@ccinf.ucm.es

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Federal Communications Commission (FCC is one of the pioneering regulatory agencies in relation to the communication system within the capitalist model. From a general perspective, beginning with its constitution, plan of action, and regulatory decisions, we carry out a research of the historical, political and economic conditions under which this commission operates and was created. The main objective is to outline the reasons for the failures and mistakes of the FCC, that has been accused –since its origins- of acting in defence of the industry interests it seemingly regulates, and not in the public interest; and of being a creature of Congress, with no real independence from the politic, economic, and judiciary power. The final purpose of this essay is to suggest the necessary democratization of the communicative space, which needs an agency transformation that could change the current defence of the existing status quo. La Comisión Federal de Comunicaciones (FCC es uno de los organismos pioneros en el control y regulación del sistema comunicativo en el modelo capitalista. Desde una mirada general a partir de su composición, formas de actuación, y decisiones normativas, se realiza un estudio de los condicionamientos históricos, políticos y económicos bajo los cuales se crea y desarrolla su labor esta Comisión. El objetivo fundamental es delinear las razones de los errores y negligencias de la FCC, acusada desde sus inicios de actuar en defensa de los intereses de la industria a la que pretende regular, y no en interés del público; y de ser una criatura del Congreso sin independencia del poder político, ni económico, ni judicial. El propósito final del presente artículo es plantear la necesaria democratización del espacio comunicativo, que pasa por una transformación de estos organismos y su defensa del status quo existente.

  16. Research and development of methods and tools for achieving and maintaining consensus processes in the face of change within and among government oversight agencies: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This progress report summarizes our research activities under our consensus grant. In year four of the grant, we continued to capitalize on and benefit from historical events which drove our early emphasis on group process studies. Following our work on various procedures for bringing together groups such as the State and Tribal Government Working Group and the Stakeholders' Forum (both of which provide input to the Five-Year Waste Plan), we continue to observe these groups and collect data. We also began a configuration study involving the complex modeling of DOE's Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). Related to group process studies is the issue of the information requirements for individuals making decisions in consensus groups. Our information studies examined the requirements for decision-related information, frameworks for such information, and the effectiveness of information portrayed for decision making. However, we were able not only to continue studying consensus groups in action and related information issues, but also to focus considerable attention on the fundamental side of our research. The fundamental or basic research conducted in year four included: (1) expanding our literature database; (2) beginning the writing of the literature review summary document and the consensus guide; (3) developing frameworks and models such as the Environmental Trilogy model and a structural equations model of the consensus process; and (4) conducting laboratory studies concerning the effects of the presence of an expert, met expectations, opportunity to express views, incentive structure and conflict type (competitive versus collaborative) on consensus outcomes

  17. The role of local governments in traditional market revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prastyawan, A.; Isbandono, P.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the discussion the role of local government in traditional market revitalization. It is obvious that traditional market contributes economically into a certain region. However, the existence of the traditional market is decreasing since there are modern markets that are fully facilitated by the government. In order to increase the economic standard of the traders, the government and the legislative revitalized the improper traditional market, without the participation of the society and the stakeholders. Government’s intention to revitalize the market is to increase local revenue. While the Legislative Council considered politically motivated by profit, rent-seeking. Restrictions on the aspirations of the traders in the revitalization cause resistance to the government. The traders wished to be recognized as part of the stakeholder. In the future, the market revitalization activities should involve the traders as the main actors who have received services from the government. Government as policy makers should consider as it partners in developing business traders and increase local revenues.

  18. An Empirical Study on the Relationship between Investor Protection, Government Behavior, and Financial Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chi Chu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We studied the relationship between investor protection, government behavior, and financial development using data covering six provinces (Guangdong, Jiangsu, Shandong, Zhejiang, Henan, and Sichuan and two provincial-level cities (Beijing and Shanghai in China for the period 2005–2014. Using panel data estimation techniques, we found that there is a positive relationship between investor protection and financial development; by contrast, highly-intense government intervention leads to more financial impediments. Moreover, government intervention in education could promote financial development through its contribution to having a higher amount of the fund supply. Our empirical findings have important implications for policy-makers in terms of reforming the capital market regulation.

  19. Agreement between the Government of Belize and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    The Agreement between the Government of Belize and the IAEA for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 19 February 1986 and signed in Vienna on 8 July 1991 and in New York on 13 August 1992; the Protocol hereto was signed in New York on 13 August 1992 and in Vienna on 2 September 1992. The Agreement entered into, force on 21 January 1997. The present documents contains two parts: Part I stipulates the agreement of Belize to accept safeguards on all source or special fissionable material in all peaceful nuclear activities within its territory, under its jurisdiction or carried out under its control anywhere, for the exclusive purpose of verifying that such material is not diverted to nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices. Part II specifies the procedures to be applied in the implementation of the safeguards provisions of part one

  20. Agreement between the government of the Republic of Estonia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The document contains two parts. Part I stipulates the agreement of the Government of Republic of Estonia to accept safeguards on all source or special fissionable material in all peaceful nuclear activities within its territory, under its jurisdiction or carried out under its control anywhere, for the exclusive purpose of verifying that such material is not diverted to nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices. Part II specifies the procedures to be applied in the implementation of the safeguards provisions of Part I. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 24 February 1992, signed in Vienna on 18 November 1997 and in Tallinn on 24 November 1997, and entered into force on 24 November 1997

  1. Research and development of methods and tools for achieving and maintaining consensus processes in the face of change within and among government oversight agencies: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    This progress report summarizes our research activities under our consensus grant. In year four of the grant, we continued to capitalize on and benefit from historical events which drove our early emphasis on group process studies. Following our work on various procedures for bringing together groups such as the State and Tribal Government Working Group and the Stakeholders' Forum (both of which provide input to the Five-Year Waste Plan), we continue to observe these groups and collect data. We also began a configuration study involving the complex modeling of DOE's Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). Related to group process studies is the issue of the information requirements for individuals making decisions in consensus groups. Our information studies examined the requirements for decision-related information, frameworks for such information, and the effectiveness of information portrayed for decision making. However, we were able not only to continue studying consensus groups in action and related information issues, but also to focus considerable attention on the fundamental side of our research. The fundamental or basic research conducted in year four included: (1) expanding our literature database; (2) beginning the writing of the literature review summary document and the consensus guide; (3) developing frameworks and models such as the Environmental Trilogy model and a structural equations model of the consensus process; and (4) conducting laboratory studies concerning the effects of the presence of an expert, met expectations, opportunity to express views, incentive structure and conflict type (competitive versus collaborative) on consensus outcomes.

  2. Frameworks to assess health systems governance: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Helen; van den Broek, Nynke

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Governance of the health system is a relatively new concept and there are gaps in understanding what health system governance is and how it could be assessed. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to describe the concept of governance and the theories underpinning as applied to health systems; and to identify which frameworks are available and have been applied to assess health systems governance. Frameworks were reviewed to understand how the principles of governance might be operationalized at different levels of a health system. Electronic databases and web portals of international institutions concerned with governance were searched for publications in English for the period January 1994 to February 2016. Sixteen frameworks developed to assess governance in the health system were identified and are described. Of these, six frameworks were developed based on theories from new institutional economics; three are primarily informed by political science and public management disciplines; three arise from the development literature and four use multidisciplinary approaches. Only five of the identified frameworks have been applied. These used the principal–agent theory, theory of common pool resources, North’s institutional analysis and the cybernetics theory. Governance is a practice, dependent on arrangements set at political or national level, but which needs to be operationalized by individuals at lower levels in the health system; multi-level frameworks acknowledge this. Three frameworks were used to assess governance at all levels of the health system. Health system governance is complex and difficult to assess; the concept of governance originates from different disciplines and is multidimensional. There is a need to validate and apply existing frameworks and share lessons learnt regarding which frameworks work well in which settings. A comprehensive assessment of governance could enable policy makers to prioritize solutions for

  3. Frameworks to assess health systems governance: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyone, Thidar; Smith, Helen; van den Broek, Nynke

    2017-06-01

    Governance of the health system is a relatively new concept and there are gaps in understanding what health system governance is and how it could be assessed. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to describe the concept of governance and the theories underpinning as applied to health systems; and to identify which frameworks are available and have been applied to assess health systems governance. Frameworks were reviewed to understand how the principles of governance might be operationalized at different levels of a health system. Electronic databases and web portals of international institutions concerned with governance were searched for publications in English for the period January 1994 to February 2016. Sixteen frameworks developed to assess governance in the health system were identified and are described. Of these, six frameworks were developed based on theories from new institutional economics; three are primarily informed by political science and public management disciplines; three arise from the development literature and four use multidisciplinary approaches. Only five of the identified frameworks have been applied. These used the principal-agent theory, theory of common pool resources, North's institutional analysis and the cybernetics theory. Governance is a practice, dependent on arrangements set at political or national level, but which needs to be operationalized by individuals at lower levels in the health system; multi-level frameworks acknowledge this. Three frameworks were used to assess governance at all levels of the health system. Health system governance is complex and difficult to assess; the concept of governance originates from different disciplines and is multidimensional. There is a need to validate and apply existing frameworks and share lessons learnt regarding which frameworks work well in which settings. A comprehensive assessment of governance could enable policy makers to prioritize solutions for problems identified

  4. Governance, Scale and the Environment: The Importance of Recognizing Knowledge Claims in Transdisciplinary Arenas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleen Buizer

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Any present day approach of the world's most pressing environmental problems involves both scale and governance issues. After all, current local events might have long-term global consequences (the scale issue and solving complex environmental problems requires policy makers to think and govern beyond generally used time-space scales (the governance issue. To an increasing extent, the various scientists in these fields have used concepts like social-ecological systems, hierarchies, scales and levels to understand and explain the "complex cross-scale dynamics" of issues like climate change. A large part of this work manifests a realist paradigm: the scales and levels, either in ecological processes or in governance systems, are considered as "real". However, various scholars question this position and claim that scales and levels are continuously (reconstructed in the interfaces of science, society, politics and nature. Some of these critics even prefer to adopt a non-scalar approach, doing away with notions such as hierarchy, scale and level. Here we take another route, however. We try to overcome the realist-constructionist dualism by advocating a dialogue between them on the basis of exchanging and reflecting on different knowledge claims in transdisciplinary arenas. We describe two important developments, one in the ecological scaling literature and the other in the governance literature, which we consider to provide a basis for such a dialogue. We will argue that scale issues, governance practices as well as their mutual interdependencies should be considered as human constructs, although dialectically related to nature's materiality, and therefore as contested processes, requiring intensive and continuous dialogue and cooperation among natural scientists, social scientists, policy makers and citizens alike. They also require critical reflection on scientists' roles and on academic practices in general. Acknowledging knowledge claims

  5. INCORPORATING GOOD LAND GOVERNANCE IN THE DISASTER REGION OF YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunarno Sunarno

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Land is one of the most major capitals in our life. Without it, sustainability of human existence is very impossible. Unfortunately, land problems in Indonesia have unique challenges compared to other countries. Many of kinds of challenges are in the form of the natural disasters. This paper is going to measure how well the principles of good governance has been incorporated in the Yogyakarta Special Region Land administration System generally by studying on the Merapi Disaster Mitigation, particularly in how  land planning for the Merapi Disaster’s victims is performed. The research methodology employs a combined research method, it means that fundamental principles in process and its output of both the doctrinal and non doctrinal approaches is synergized to based on the research’s activity unites. Configuration of  the land administration systems in achieving people prosperity has been affected by evolution of political, cultural, and legal awareness of local communities and central government policy. To conclude, incorporating a disaster response based land policy principles requires an integrated law and policy making system among parties through the implementation of good governance principle in the record of public participation voices and sustainable development interests. Notable reports illustrate that the good land governance incorporation encouraged and inspired land planning system to be more efficient and effective. Particularly in the natural disaster mitigation and reconstruction, incorporating good land governance principles furthermore encourages land policy makers to achieve the responsive land management in line with social demands and sustainable development programs.

  6. Project and supply agreement. The text of the agreement of 14 October 1994 among the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Governments of the Republic of Ghana and the People's Republic of China concerning the transfer of a miniature neutron research reactor and enriched uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    The text of the Project and Supply Agreement, which was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 5 December 1991, among the Agency and the Governments of the Republic of Ghana and the People's Republic of China concerning the transfer of a miniature neutron research reactor and enriched uranium is reproduced for the information of all Members. The agreement entered into force on 14 October 1994, pursuant to Article XIII

  7. Agreement of 10 September 1991 between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of a miniature neutron source reactor from the People's Republic of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Agreement of 10 September 1991, between the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of a miniature neutron source reactor from the People's Republic of China. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 20 February 1990 and entered into force upon signature on 10 September 1991

  8. Project and supply agreement. The text of the agreement of 20 September 1990 between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Governments of the Republic of Zaire and the United States of America concerning the transfer of enriched uranium for a research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Project and Supply Agreement which was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 15 June 1990, and concluded on 20 September 1990, among the Agency and the Governments of the Republic of Zaire and the United States of America for the transfer of enriched uranium for a research reactor in Zaire. The supplied material will be an instrumented fuel element containing uranium enriched to 19.98 percent in the isotope uranium-235. 1 tab

  9. Interactive governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Torfing, Jacob; Peters, B. Guy

    , but all these forms represent means of governing involving mixtures of state action with the actions of other entities.This book explores thoroughly this meaning of governance, and links it to broader questions of governance. In the process of explicating this dimension of governance the authors also...... explore some of the more fundamental questions about governance theory. For example, although governance is talked about a great deal political science has done relatively little about how to measure this concept. Likewise, the term multi-level governance has become widely used but its important...... to understand that idea more fully and see how it functions in the context of interactive forms of governance. The authors also link governance to some very fundamental questions in political science and the social sciences more broadly. How is power exercised in interactive governance? How democratic...

  10. The Relationship Between Corporate Governance Characteristics and Credit Exposure in Banks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Caspar

    2017-01-01

    the “Supervision Diamond” introduced by the Danish FSA, which “external” board directors must address. It contains five thresholds for measuring a bank’s exposure to credit risks i.e. the proportion of large customers, lending growth, the ratio of lending/deposits, liquidity buffer and the proportion of real...... executive director remuneration. The policy implication is that financial authorities should be increasingly aware of insufficient corporate governance characteristics in order to prevent excessive credit risk exposure. Moreover, the article provides important insights on which corporate governance...... variables have a significant impact on a bank’s credit risk exposure. This knowledge is valuable for financial authorities/policy makers considering future regulatory initiatives and how they should administer bank monitoring....

  11. Energy Efficiency Governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to help EE practitioners, government officials and stakeholders to establish the most effective EE governance structures, given their specific country context. It also aims to provide readers with relevant and accessible information to support the development of comprehensive and effective governance mechanisms. The International Energy Agency (IEA) conducted a global review of many elements of EE governance,including legal frameworks, institutional frameworks, funding mechanisms, co-ordination mechanisms and accountability arrangements, such as evaluation and oversight. The research tools included a survey of over 500 EE experts in 110 countries, follow-up interviews of over 120 experts in 27 countries and extensive desk study and literature searches on good EE governance.

  12. Participatory Aspirations of Environmental Governance in East Africa - Comment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas N. Kimani

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available New ways of thinking about governance are challenging our basic understandings about how we organise ourselves in a world that is increasingly characterised by uncertainty, ambiguity and unpredictability, and about how we should organise ourselves (emphasis added. Through consideration of developments in East Africa under the auspices of a United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP-administered project, the Partnership for Development of Environmental Laws and Institutions (PADELIA, two important considerations clearly stand out. First, in regional approaches to environmental governance law-makers and policy-makers need to go beyond a formalist understanding of governance which lays sole emphasis upon respective countries' institutions and legal frameworks. An appreciation of the extent to which shared understandings and common approaches to problem-solving may be tempered by contingent social, cultural and political circumstances is also necessary. Secondly, given the present trend in environmental governance where governmental authority is increasingly shifting away from state institutions towards civil actors, ever-increasing opportunities are presented to civil actors to shape and reshape their environmental laws and policy. As a result, what is left is for these actors is to be proactive and to take more initiative in safeguarding their own environment.

  13. Faith-based initiatives and the challenges of governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biebricher, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The task of this paper is to offer an analysis of the Faith-Based and Community Initiative (FBCI) established by George W. Bush and continued under the Obama administration based on a critical and decentred approach to governance (networks). The paper starts out by placing FBCI in the context of the welfare reform of 1996 arguing that both share certain basic assumptions, for example, regarding the nature of poverty, and that FBCI can be interpreted as a response to the relative failure of some aspects of the reform of 1996. In what follows, FBCI is analysed as a typical case of (welfare) state restructuring from government to governance. Emphasis is given to the way discourses and traditions such as communitarianism and public choice have shaped the formation of this new governance arrangement in the field of social service delivery in order to strive for a ‘decentring’ of FBCI by drawing attention to actors' beliefs and worldviews. Finally, I argue that it is not least because of a divergence of such views between policy-makers and faith-based organizations that the effect of FBCI remains for the time being limited.

  14. 3 CFR - Government Contracting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... agencies in assessing the capacity and ability of the Federal acquisition workforce to develop, manage, and... projects found cost overruns of 26 percent, totaling $295 billion over the life of the projects. Improved... serve the Federal Government's needs and to manage the risk associated with the goods and services being...

  15. Government support of innovation

    CERN Multimedia

    Studt, T

    2003-01-01

    "One of the Federal government's few formal interagency enterprises, the Networking and Information Technology R&D (NITRD) program, is the collaborative framework of numerous federal agencies that conduct fundamental R&D in advanced networks, computing systems, software, and information management technologies" (1/2 page).

  16. Innovation Across the Federal Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innovation happens at EPA, but it also takes place at many other government agencies including NASA, DARPA, HHS, OPM, and USGS through projects such as SBIR, innovation labs, innovation offices, and high-risk, high-reward scientific research.

  17. Innovation in government : workforce practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    A review of the literature on innovation within government provides detailed case studies on innovative practices adopted by transportation agencies across the U.S. These case studies focus on operational innovations adopted by transportation agencie...

  18. Decentralization can help reduce deforestation when user groups engage with local government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Glenn D.; Gibson, Clark C.; Evans, Tom P.

    2016-01-01

    Policy makers around the world tout decentralization as an effective tool in the governance of natural resources. Despite the popularity of these reforms, there is limited scientific evidence on the environmental effects of decentralization, especially in tropical biomes. This study presents evidence on the institutional conditions under which decentralization is likely to be successful in sustaining forests. We draw on common-pool resource theory to argue that the environmental impact of decentralization hinges on the ability of reforms to engage local forest users in the governance of forests. Using matching techniques, we analyze longitudinal field observations on both social and biophysical characteristics in a large number of local government territories in Bolivia (a country with a decentralized forestry policy) and Peru (a country with a much more centralized forestry policy). We find that territories with a decentralized forest governance structure have more stable forest cover, but only when local forest user groups actively engage with the local government officials. We provide evidence in support of a possible causal process behind these results: When user groups engage with the decentralized units, it creates a more enabling environment for effective local governance of forests, including more local government-led forest governance activities, fora for the resolution of forest-related conflicts, intermunicipal cooperation in the forestry sector, and stronger technical capabilities of the local government staff. PMID:27956644

  19. Decentralization can help reduce deforestation when user groups engage with local government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Glenn D; Andersson, Krister P; Gibson, Clark C; Evans, Tom P

    2016-12-27

    Policy makers around the world tout decentralization as an effective tool in the governance of natural resources. Despite the popularity of these reforms, there is limited scientific evidence on the environmental effects of decentralization, especially in tropical biomes. This study presents evidence on the institutional conditions under which decentralization is likely to be successful in sustaining forests. We draw on common-pool resource theory to argue that the environmental impact of decentralization hinges on the ability of reforms to engage local forest users in the governance of forests. Using matching techniques, we analyze longitudinal field observations on both social and biophysical characteristics in a large number of local government territories in Bolivia (a country with a decentralized forestry policy) and Peru (a country with a much more centralized forestry policy). We find that territories with a decentralized forest governance structure have more stable forest cover, but only when local forest user groups actively engage with the local government officials. We provide evidence in support of a possible causal process behind these results: When user groups engage with the decentralized units, it creates a more enabling environment for effective local governance of forests, including more local government-led forest governance activities, fora for the resolution of forest-related conflicts, intermunicipal cooperation in the forestry sector, and stronger technical capabilities of the local government staff.

  20. E-Governance Frameworks - Agenda Ahead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nityesh BHATT

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic governance may be defined as the delivery of the government services and information to the public using electronic means. Use of IT in the government facilitates an efficient, speedy and transparent process for disseminating information to the public and other agencies, and for performing the government administration activities.

  1. The text of the Agreement of 9 June 1982 between the Federal Republic of Germany, Spain and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Agreement between the Governments on co-operation in the field of the utilization of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes of 5 December 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    The full text of the agreement of 9 June 1982 between the Federal Republic of Germany, Spain and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the agreement between the Governments in co-operation in the field of the utilization of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes of 5 December 1978 is presented

  2. Agreement of 27 February 1992 between the Government of the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of a research reactor from the People's Republic of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Agreement of 27 February 1992 between the Government of the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria and the IAEA for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of a 15 MW (thermal) research reactor from the People's Republic of China. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 25 February 1992

  3. Agreement of 27 February 1992 between the government of the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of a research reactor from the People's Republic of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    The document informs that the Agreement between the Government of the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Supply of a Research Reactor from the People's Republic of China, which has been applied provisionally as from 27 February 1992, entered into force on 2 June 1992

  4. Governing education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ria Bronneman-Helmers

    2011-01-01

    Governing education. Trends in Dutch education policy 1990-2010 The Dutch government is responsible for e a cohesive and properly functioning education system. This report discusses the way in which the government fulfilled that responsibility in the period 1990-2010.  The study is

  5. The Effect of Government Debt and Other Determinants on Economic Growth: The Greek Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Pegkas

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically investigates the relationship between economic growth and several factors (investment, private and government consumption, trade openness, population growth and government debt in Greece, where imbalances persist several years after the financial crisis. The results reveal a long-run relationship between variables. Investment as private and government consumption and trade openness affect positively growth. On the other hand, there is a negative long-run effect of government debt and population growth on growth. Furthermore, the study addresses the issue of break effects between government debt and economic growth. The results indicate that the relationship between debt and growth depends on the debt breaks. Specifically, at debt levels before 2000, increases in the government debt-to-GDP ratio are associated with insignificant effects on economic growth. However, as government debt rises after 2000, the effect on economic growth diminishes rapidly and the growth impacts become negative. The challenge for policy makers in Greece is to halt the rising of government debt by keeping a sustainable growth path. Fiscal discipline should be combined with the implementation of coherent, consistent and sequential growth-enhancing structural reforms.

  6. Nested governance for effective REDD+: Institutional and political arguments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Kashwan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation and Forest Enhancement (REDD+ has become a central focus of global climate change mitigation efforts. Even though the international demand for forest-based carbon sequestration is the key driver of REDD+, forest protection strategies must be implemented on the ground. This cross-scale nature of REDD+ explains why scholars and policy makers increasingly favor nested governance arrangements over either fully centralized or fully decentralized REDD+ governance. The focus of the literature on nested REDD+ governance has mostly been on monitoring, reporting, and verification of carbon emission reductions across sub-national, national, and international levels. We build on Ostrom’s principle of ‘nested enterprises’ to argue that REDD+ must be designed to systematically and formally link national policy reforms with the organization and execution of sub-national (regional and local forest conservation efforts led by forest users. We also contribute new insights on the political dimensions of nestedness in REDD+, with important roles for inter-community forestry associations and forest rights movements.

  7. Plural Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter; Menard, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Plural governance is a form of governance where a firm both makes and buys similar goods or services. Despite a widespread use of plural governance there are no transaction cost models of how plural governance affects performance. This paper reviews the literature about plural forms and proposes...... a model relating transaction cost and resource-based variables to the cost of the plural form. The model is then used to analyze when the plural form is efficient compared to alternative governance structures. We also use the model to discuss the strength of three plural form synergies....

  8. Program governance

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Muhammad Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    FOUNDATION OF GOVERNANCEGovernanceDefining GovernanceGovernance at Multiple LevelsSummaryReferencesTransaction Cost EconomicsTransactions-Core Elements and Attributes     Behavioral Assumptions     Governance Structure AttributesHazards of Concern     Incomplete Contracting     Bilateral Dependency and Fundamental Transformation     Adaptation or MaladaptationLinking Governance, Governance Structures, and ContractsThe Impact of Asset Specificity and Behavioral Assumptions on ContractsAp

  9. 76 FR 6471 - Agency Information Collection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION Agency Information Collection Activities AGENCY: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. ACTION: Notice of Information Collection --Extension Without Change: Local Union Report (EEO-3). SUMMARY: In...

  10. 31 CFR 210.6 - Agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CLEARING HOUSE General § 210.6 Agencies. Notwithstanding ACH Rules 2.2.3, 2.4.5, 2.5.2, 4.2, and 8.7.2... Government entries. (a) Receiving entries. An agency may receive ACH debit or credit entries only with the... ACH entry to the agency's account in accordance with this part. The agency's liability shall be...

  11. The Texts of the Agreements Between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the United Nations and the Federal Government of the Republic of Austria Regarding the Headquarters Seat and Related Agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The texts of seven agreements concluded between the Agency and the Republic of Austria, as well as between the Agency, the United Nations and the Republic of Austria, are reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  12. Administering Our State Library Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuFrane, Gerard

    1970-01-01

    A satire on the application of scientific management principles to a state library agency. Covers relationships of the state librarian to staff, the profession, and state and federal governments. (Author/JS)

  13. Physics and Government

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendry, Nancy H.

    1999-08-24

    In defining the powers and duties of the three branches of government, the U.S. Constitution never explicitly referred to Science, except in the patent clause. But many technical responsibilities are implied in references to weights and measures, the census, and the like. Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, and in particular Benjamin Franklin, were highly literate in science, but it was their disciple, President John Quincy Adams who promoted as a matter of policy a direct role of the government in science--in particular with respect to astronomy, land surveys and navigation--all physical sciences. Some agencies of government--notably the National Bureau of Standards and the Department of Agriculture were founded in the early days of the Republic with scientific and technical missions. Since then the involvement of the government with science has waxed and waned but the major expansion of the interaction between physics and government occurred after World War II when physicists demonstrated the power of their craft during mobilization of science in support of the war effort. In discussing the interaction of physics with government we should distinguish ''science in government''--scientific input into policy making--from ''government in science,'' which is the support and management of that part of the overall scientific endeavor for which the government has responsibility. Let me turn first to the subject of physics in government. An overwhelming fraction of governmental decisions today have scientific and technical components; decisions ignoring these components are wasteful at best and can imperil the nation. For this reason governmental bodies at all levels solicit scientific advice--or at least give lip service to the need for such advice. When such advice was deliberately avoided, as President Reagan did before announcing his Strategic Defense Initiative in March 1983, the technically unattainable goal ''to make

  14. 5 CFR 2638.602 - Annual agency reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; (3) A description and evaluation of the agency's program of ethics education, training and counseling... 2638.602 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS AND EXECUTIVE AGENCY ETHICS PROGRAM RESPONSIBILITIES Executive Branch Agency Reports § 2638.602...

  15. 5 CFR 2638.202 - Responsibilities of agency head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and implementing agency ethics programs; (6) Administer a system for periodic evaluation of the ethics... Section 2638.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS AND EXECUTIVE AGENCY ETHICS PROGRAM RESPONSIBILITIES Designated Agency Ethics Official...

  16. Twin Evils: Government Copyright and Copyright-like Controls Over Government Information

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gellman, Robert

    1995-01-01

    .... Nevertheless, several factors work together to allow agencies to deny public access to or effective use of uncopyrighted government information, restrict use of that information, or charge royalties...

  17. The Global Governance of Bioethics: Negotiating UNESCO’s Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights (2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Adèle

    2012-01-01

    UNESCO’s Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights (2005) was drawn up by an independent panel of experts (the International Bioethics Committee) and negotiated by member states. UNESCO aimed for a participatory and transparent drafting process, holding national and regional consultations and seeking the views of various interest groups, including religious and spiritual ones. Furthermore, reflecting UNESCO’s broad interpretation of bioethics, the IBC included medics, scientists, lawyers and philosophers among its membership. Nevertheless, several potential stakeholders—academic scientists and ethicists, government policy-makers and NGO representatives—felt they had not been sufficiently consulted or even represented during the Declaration’s development. Better communications and understanding within and between national, regional and international layers of governance would help to avoid a recurrence of this problem in future negotiations. PMID:22724045

  18. Government Subsidy for Remanufacturing or Carbon Tax Rebate: Which Is Better for Firms and a Low-Carbon Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Shu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The government as a policy maker wishing to promote remanufacturing and proper disposal of hazardous old products which are harmful to environment has taken many actions, ranging from carbon regulation and financial incentives such as trade-in subsidy. However, carbon tax can result in loss of profit for firms to some degree, so the government has to give other subsidy to balance the profits and carbon emission. Thus, this article investigates two subsidy mechanisms: remanufacturing subsidy or tax rebate. The optimal pricing and production decision under these policies are examined. Our results show that carbon tax has a great impact on pricing strategies. Trade-in subsidy can encourage customers to replace their existing products with new and remanufactured products. Both remanufacture subsidy and tax rebate are beneficial to manufacturer and can further promote remanufacturing development.

  19. Experimentalist governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabel, C.F.; Zeitlin, J.; Levi-Faur, D.

    2012-01-01

    A secular rise in volatility and uncertainty is overwhelming the capacities of conventional hierarchical governance and ‘command-and-control’ regulation in many settings. One significant response is the emergence of a novel, ‘experimentalist’ form of governance that establishes deliberately

  20. Interactive Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    and growth. However, interactive governance is not a property or effect of institutions; nor does it apply solely to those individuals who seek success above everything else. It is connective more than individualistic or collectivistic in nature; and it manifests a governability capacity which...

  1. Project and supply agreement: Agreement of 28 February 1992 between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Governments of the Syrian Arab Republic and the People's Republic of China concerning the transfer of a miniature neutron source reactor and enriched uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Project and Supply Agreement between the Agency and the Governments of the Syrian Arab Republic and the People's Republic of China for the transfer of a 30 KW miniature neutron source reactor for radioisotope production, research and tracing and of approximately 980.40 grams of uranium enriched to approximately 90.2 percent by weight in the isotope uranium-235 contained in fuel elements for the supplied reactor. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 25 February 1992, signed in Vienna on 28 February 1992, and entered into force on 18 May 1992. 1 tab

  2. Diplomatic agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    diplomatic agency has been conceptualized in International Relations theory (English School, game theory, Foreign Policy Analysis, constructivism, practice theory, post-positivism) before presenting and exemplifying major and overlapping types of diplomatic agency, including communication, negotiation......, it discusses how diplomatic agency is linked to conceptions of diplomatic representation and legitimacy in its actual, functional and symbolic forms....

  3. Governance and Management of the Nexus: Structures and Institutional Capacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snorek Julie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustaining the water-energy-food nexus for the future requires new governance approaches and joint management across sectors. The challenges to the implementation of the nexus are many, but not insurmountable. These include trade-offs between sectors, difficulties of communication across the science-policy interface, the emergence of new vulnerabilities resulting from implementation of policies, and the perception of high social and economic costs. In the context of the Sustainability in the W-E-F Nexus conference May 19-20, 2014, the session on ‘Governance and Management of the Nexus: Structures and Institutional Capacities’ discussed these problems as well as tools and solutions to nexus management. The session demonstrated three key findings: 1. Trade-offs in the Water-Energy-Food Nexus should be expanded to include the varied and shifting social and power relations; 2. Sharing knowledge between users and policy makers promotes collective learning and science-policy-stakeholder communication; and 3. Removing subsidies or seeking the ‘right price’ for domestic resources vis à vis international markets is not always useful; rather the first imperative is to gauge current and future costs at the national scale.

  4. Essays in economics: 1. Pre-committed government spending and partisan politics. 2. Investment in energy efficiency: Do the characteristics of firms matter? 3. Information processing and organizational structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, William Edward, Jr.

    1. Spending commitments requiring future outlays are important for understanding partisan politics because they prevent a conservative government from scaling back spending programs. In a one-government-good model, a "stubborn liberal" policy maker can use precommitted spending to prevent a later conservative government from imposing spending cuts. In a model where parties differ about spending priorities, re-election uncertainty creates a bias towards higher government spending and higher taxes. 2. The literature on energy efficiency provides examples of profitable technologies that are not universally adopted. Theory indicates that firms should undertake all investments with a positive net present value, and that the discount rate for computing the present value of a project should be the return available on other projects in the same risk class, not on characteristics of the firm. This model is tested by examining whether firms' characteristics influence their decision to join the Environmental Protection Agency's Green Lights program. A discrete choice regression is estimated over a sample of participating and non-participating firms. Missing values in the data matrix are replaced with multiple imputations using the EM algorithm. The results show that: (1) substantial improvements in the power of hypothesis tests can be achieved through imputation of missing data, and (2) characteristics of firms do affect their decision to join Green Lights. 3. Standard theories of the firm stress profit maximization as the foundation for derivation of predictable behavior. Yet evidence continues to accumulate that firms do not act as required by the neoclassical framework. Instead of being represented by ever more elaborate maximization models, the firm can be modeled simply as a network of information-processing agents. The actions of the firm are then a function only of the network structure and the information-processing capabilities of the agents. This approach can be

  5. Policy making and energy infrastructure change: A Nigerian case study of energy governance in the electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edomah, Norbert; Foulds, Chris; Jones, Aled

    2017-01-01

    This paper focusses on investigating the underlying mechanisms and influences of the policy decision making process and how it affects and impacts the governance of the Nigerian energy industry, and energy infrastructure provisions. In-depth semi-structured interviews were used; all interviewees had been involved, directly or indirectly, in energy infrastructure policy decisions in Nigeria. Five key themes subsequently emerged as salient intra-country induced influences that were affecting the governance and performance of the Nigerian energy sector: (1) competencies – i.e. practical knowledge of energy policy making; (2) expectations – i.e. past, present, and forecasted future expectations from the energy industry; (3) legislation – i.e. institutionalized (and unwritten) rules/procedures; (4) future visions – i.e. future vision of the energy industry/energy market; (5) recruiting experts – i.e. recruiting new energy and public policy makers. In addition, three major inter-country induced influences were also identified: (1) the changing dynamics of international and foreign aid; (2) the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals; and (3) the Paris Agreements on Climate Change. The paper concludes by highlighting the policy implications of these influences, and the consequences for policy makers in the governance of the energy industry in ensuring a secured energy future. - Highlights: • Unclear energy policies pose a business risk to current and future investors. • Our energy future is threatened by unsystematic recruitment into the policy space. • Some energy governance challenges reflect incompetence in energy legislation. • Nigerian energy transition was shaped by historical policy dynamics and structures.

  6. Advertising Agencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeran, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Advertising agencies are the most significant organizations in the development of advertising and marketing worldwide. An advertising agency is an independent service company, composed of business, marketing and creative people, who develop, prepare, and place advertising in advertising media...... for their clients, the advertisers, who are in search of customers for their goods and services. Agencies thus mediate between three different but interlocking social groups: industry, media, and consumers. The history of advertising is largely the history of the advertising agencies that have served the needs....... This article is concerned with the origins, early developments, organization, compensation arrangements, and accounts of contemporary full-service advertising agencies....

  7. What is good governance in the context of drug policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Nicola; Rubin, Jennifer

    2014-09-01

    The concept of governance is applied in a wide range of contexts, but this paper focuses on governance in relation to public administration, i.e. states and how they take action, and specifically governance of particular policy areas. In the current context of financial austerity and an era of globalisation, policy-makers face pressures and challenges from a growing range of interests and local, national and supranational actors. Drug policy is an example of a particularly contentious and polarised area in which governance-related challenges abound. In response to these challenges, interest has grown in developing agreed policy governance standards and processes and articulating policy-making guidelines, including the use of available evidence to inform policy-making. Attempts have been made to identify 'policy fundamentals' - factors or aspects of policy-making apparently associated with successful policy development and implementation (Hallsworth & Rutter, 2011; Laughrin, 2011) and, in the drug policy field, Hughes et al. (2010) reflecting on the co-ordination of Australian drug policy highlighted some of what they considered principles of good governance. But how useful is the concept of 'good governance'; how well can it be defined, and to what purpose? As part of a wider project considering the governance of drug policy, RAND Europe and the UK Drug Policy Commission undertook a targeted review of other research and sought expert views, from within and beyond drug policy, on principles, processes, structures and stakeholders associated with good drug policy governance. From this emerged some perceived characteristics of good governance that were then used by the UK Drug Policy Commission to assess the extent to which drug policy making in the UK fits with these perceived good governance characteristics, and to suggest possible improvements. Particular consideration was given to the range of interests at stake, the overarching aims of drug policy and the

  8. Renewing governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Gregory P

    2003-01-01

    Globalization's profound influence on social and political institutions need not be negative. Critics of globalization have often referred to the "Impossible Trinity" because decision-making must 1. respect national sovereignty, 2. develop and implement firm regulation, and 3. allow capital markets to be as free as possible. To many, such goals are mutually exclusive because history conditions us to view policy-making and governance in traditional molds. Thus, transnational governance merely appears impossible because current forms of governance were not designed to provide it. The world needs new tools for governing, and its citizens must seize the opportunity to help develop them. The rise of a global society requires a greater level of generality and inclusion than is found in most policy bodies today. Politicians need to re-examine key assumptions about government. States must develop ways to discharge their regulatory responsibilities across borders and collaborate with neighboring jurisdictions, multilateral bodies, and business. Concepts such as multilateralism and tripartism show great promise. Governments must engage civil society in the spirit of shared responsibility and democratic decision-making. Such changes will result in a renewal of the state's purpose and better use of international resources and expertise in governance.

  9. Regulatory Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.; Vetterlein, Antje

    2018-01-01

    , legal and cultural, on a global scale. Against this background, this special issue sets out to explore the multifaceted meaning, potential and impact as well as the social praxis of regulatory governance. Under the notions rules, resistance and responsibility the special issue pins out three overall......Regulatory governance frameworks have become essential building blocks of world society. From supply chains to the regimes surrounding international organizations, extensive governance frameworks have emerged which structure and channel a variety of social exchanges, including economic, political...

  10. Protocol to suspend the application of safeguards pursuant to the Agreement of 26 February 1976 between the Agency, the Government of the Federative Republic of Brazil and the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany in the light of the provisions for the application of safeguards pursuant to the Quadripartite Safeguards Agreement between Argentina, Brazil, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for the Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Protocol of 16 October 1998 suspending the application of safeguards under the Safeguards Agreement (INFCIRC/237) of 26 February 1976 between the Agency, Brazil and the Federal Republic of Germany in the light of the provisions for the application of safeguards pursuant to the Quadripartite Safeguards Agreement between the Agency, Brazil, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for the Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the IAEA. The Protocol entered into force on 21 October 1999

  11. 22 CFR 204.43 - Governing law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governing law. 204.43 Section 204.43 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT HOUSING GUARANTY STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Administration § 204.43 Governing law. This Guaranty shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of...

  12. 39 CFR 259.1 - Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Government. 259.1 Section 259.1 Postal Service....1 Government. (a) Policy. The Postal Service cooperates with Federal Agencies whenever the overall costs to Government will be reduced. Assistance in a number of special projects and programs is provided...

  13. 16 CFR 460.21 - Government claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Government claims. 460.21 Section 460.21 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.21 Government claims. Do not say or imply that a government agency uses, certifies...

  14. Government Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans; Salskov-Iversen, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    This entry is concerned with demonstrating the increasingly important interface between government organization and communication. Government organization can be approached in terms of state centrism, where the emphasis is on government organization understood as state authority and power......, with clearly defined boundaries between the public and private; and in terms of polycentrism, where power and authority are seen as dispersed among state and nonstate organizations, including business and civil society organizations. Globalization and new media technologies imply changes in the relationship...... between power, communication, and organizational forms, and suggest the usefulness of viewing government organization in terms of polycentrism, highlighting communication and organizing processes in a wider perspective. The entry focuses particularly on two major strands of literature: deliberative...

  15. Organizational governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.

    This chapter reviews and discusses rational-choice approaches to organizational governance. These approaches are found primarily in organizational economics (virtually no rational-choice organizational sociology exists), particularly in transaction cost economics, principal-agent theory, and the ......This chapter reviews and discusses rational-choice approaches to organizational governance. These approaches are found primarily in organizational economics (virtually no rational-choice organizational sociology exists), particularly in transaction cost economics, principal-agent theory...

  16. Risk Governance of Multiple Natural Hazards: Centralized versus Decentralized Approach in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komendantova, Nadejda; Scolobig, Anna; Vinchon, Charlotte

    2014-05-01

    policy makers, private sector actors and practitioners in risk and emergency management. This work was informed by 36 semi-structured interviews, three workshops with over seventy participants from eleven different countries, feedback from questionnaires and focus group discussions (Scolobig et al., 2013). The results show that both governance systems have their own strengths and weaknesses (Komendantova et al., 2013). Elements of the centralized multi-risk governance system could lead to improvements in interagency communication and the creation of an inter-agency environment, where the different departments at the national level can exchange information, identify the communities that are most exposed to multiple risks and set priorities, while providing consistent information about and responses to multi-risk to the relevant stakeholders at the local level. A decentralised multi-risk governance system by contrast can instead favour the creation of local multi-risk commissions to conduct discussions between experts in meteorological, geological and technological risks and practitioners, to elaborate risk and hazard maps, and to develop local capacities which would include educational and training activities. Both governance systems suffer from common deficiencies, the most important being the frequent lack of capacities at the local level, especially financial, but sometimes also technical and institutional ones, as the responsibilities for disaster risk management are often transferred from the national to local levels without sufficient resources for implementation of programs on risk management (UNISDR, 2013). The difficulty in balancing available resources between short-term and medium-term priorities often complicates the issue. Our recommendations are that the implementation of multi-risk approach can be facilitated through knowledge exchange and dialogue between different disciplinary communities, such as geological and meteorological, and between the natural and

  17. The Influence of Country-Level Governance on Business Environment and Entrepreneurship: a Global Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Groşanu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to analyze the influence of country-level governance on business environment and entrepreneurship for an international large sample of countries for a period of six years (2007-2012. The dimensions of country-level governance at macroeconomic level will be captured by using the following six indicators developed by the World Bank: 1. Voice and accountability; 2. Political stability and absence of violence; 3. Government effectiveness; 4. Regulatory quality; 5. Rule of law; 6. Control of corruption. To capture the quality of business environment we use the Ease of doing business index developed by the World Bank in its Doing Business report series. To measure entrepreneurship we use the World Bank Group Entrepreneurship Survey where the number of new registered businesses, as a percentage of the working age population is defined as a measure of formal entrepreneurship. In order to capture the extent to which country-level governance does influence business environment and entrepreneurship, we analyze the data using cross-sectional time-series random effects generalized least square (GLS models. The results of this panel data analysis clarifies and quantifies the influence that various characteristics of country-level governance could have on business environment and entrepreneurship. Therefore, this study could have significant implications for policy-makers as well as for businesses.

  18. Interpreting transnational infrastructure vulnerability: European blackout and the historical dynamics of transnational electricity governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vleuten, Erik van der; Lagendijk, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    Recent transnational blackouts exposed two radically opposed interpretations of Europe's electricity infrastructure, which inform recent and ongoing negotiations on transnational electricity governance. To EU policy makers such blackouts revealed the fragility of Europe's power grids and the need of a more centralized form of governance, thus legitimizing recent EU interventions. Yet to power sector spokespersons, these events confirmed the reliability of transnational power grids and the traditional decentralized governance model: the disturbances were quickly contained and repaired. This paper inquires the historic legacies at work in these conflicting interpretations and associated transnational governance preferences. It traces the power sector's interpretation to its building of a secure transnational power grid from the 1950s through the era of neoliberalization. Next it places the EU interpretation and associated policy measures against the historical record of EU attempts at transnational infrastructure governance. Uncovering the historical roots and embedding of both interpretations, we conclude that their divergence is of a surprisingly recent date and relates to the current era of security thinking. Finally we recommend transnational, interpretative, and historical analysis to the field of critical infrastructure studies.

  19. Multilevel governance and deployment of solar PV panels in U.S. cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hui; Yi, Hongtao

    2014-01-01

    Solar photovoltaic (PV) installations have been growing rapidly in the United States over the last few years, incentivized by policies from federal, state and local governments. The complex relationships between solar policies at multiple levels of government and solar deployment are questions of importance to policy makers and scholars. Extant literature on solar policies pays less attention to the role of local governments and policies than to their federal and state counterparts. Local governments and policies play indispensable roles in the deployment of solar PVs. This paper studies the multilevel governance of solar development in the U.S. by evaluating the relative effectiveness of state and local policy tools in stimulating solar PV installations, with an emphasis on local solar policies. With a regression analysis on a national sample of 186 U.S. cities, we find that cities with local financial incentives deploy 69% more solar PV capacities than cities without such policies. We also find that cities subject to RPS requirements have 295% more solar PV capacity, compared with cities not regulated by state RPS. - Highlights: • This study evaluates state and local solar PV policies. • State RPS has positive impacts on local solar PV capacity. • Local financial incentives matter for solar PV deployment

  20. Ex-ante evaluation of profitability and government's subsidy policy on vehicle-to-grid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Junhee; Koo, Yoonmo; Jeong, Gicheol; Lee, Jongsu

    2012-01-01

    Abstact: Although the electric vehicle reduces pollutant emissions and results in reduced energy costs, lack of battery charging infrastructure and relatively high vehicle prices create challenges to the automobile industry and affect government support policies. To create a battery charging infrastructure, such as a vehicle-to-grid system, stakeholders need a quantitative analysis that decreases profitability uncertainty. The high cost of an electric vehicle can be offset by government subsidies that promote early marketing efforts, but an ex-ante evaluation of consumer demand is needed to analyze the effectiveness of any policy. This study provides information about optimal pricing based on consumer demand as well as the social welfare change effected by possible government subsidy polices for electric vehicles. Results show that the maximum profit for a vehicle-to-grid service provider will be 1.27 trillion Korean won/year with an annual subscription fee of 0.65 million Korean won. The government subsidy of 1 trillion Korean won, given annually, will increase social welfare by 1.94 trillion won and also boost the profit of vehicle-to-grid service provider to 1.98 trillion won. - Highlights: ▶ We evaluate consumer preference on electric vehicle and V2G service. ▶ Based on the consumer preference, we calculate profitability of V2G service. ▶ Also, the effect of government subsidy on electric vehicle market is analyzed. ▶ The empirical results will be useful to the V2G service providers and policy makers

  1. Toward an E-Government Semantic Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbodio, Marco Luca; Moulin, Claude; Benamou, Norbert; Barthès, Jean-Paul

    This chapter describes the major aspects of an e-government platform in which semantics underpins more traditional technologies in order to enable new capabilities and to overcome technical and cultural challenges. The design and development of such an e-government Semantic Platform has been conducted with the financial support of the European Commission through the Terregov research project: "Impact of e-government on Territorial Government Services" (Terregov 2008). The goal of this platform is to let local government and government agencies offer online access to their services in an interoperable way, and to allow them to participate in orchestrated processes involving services provided by multiple agencies. Implementing a business process through an electronic procedure is indeed a core goal in any networked organization. However, the field of e-government brings specific constraints to the operations allowed in procedures, especially concerning the flow of private citizens' data: because of legal reasons in most countries, such data are allowed to circulate only from agency to agency directly. In order to promote transparency and responsibility in e-government while respecting the specific constraints on data flows, Terregov supports the creation of centrally controlled orchestrated processes; while the cross agencies data flows are centrally managed, data flow directly across agencies.

  2. Stakeholder Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flak, Leif Skiftenes; Rose, Jeremy

    2005-01-01

    The e-government field, like most young fields, lacks a strong body of well-developed theory. One strategy for coping with theoretical immaturity is to import and adapt theories from other, more mature fields. This study reviews Stakeholder Theory (ST) and investigates its potential in relation...... to e-Government. Originally a management theory, stakeholder theory advocates addressing the concerns of all stakeholders in a firm, as opposed to concentration on the interests of senior managers and stockholders. Apart from the original profit focus, there is no serious conceptual mismatch between...... stakeholder theory and government’s objective of providing policy and services for citizens and organizations – society’s stakeholders. Potential problems with adapting a management theory to a government setting are discussed. The paper further discusses how information technology impacts a stakeholder model...

  3. Government Regulatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Katie

    Government regulation of food products, food processing, and food preparation is imperative in bringing an unadulterated, nonmisleading, and safe food product to market and is relevant to all areas of food science, including engineering, processing, chemistry, and microbiology. The liability associated with providing consumers with an adulterated or substandard product cannot only tarnish a company's name and reputation, but also impose substantial financial repercussions on the company and those individuals who play an active role in the violation. In order for a company to fully comply with the relevant food laws (both federal and state), an intimate knowledge of food science is required. Individuals knowledgeable in food science play an integral role not only in implementing and counseling food companies/processors to ensure compliance with government regulations, but these individuals are also necessary to the state and federal governments that make and enforce the relevant laws and regulators.

  4. 37 CFR 501.7 - Agency determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Agency determination. 501.7... UNIFORM PATENT POLICY FOR RIGHTS IN INVENTIONS MADE BY GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES § 501.7 Agency determination... left with the employee, the agency shall notify the employee of this determination. In cases pursuant...

  5. 75 FR 22406 - Avaya Government Solutions; Transfer of Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... AGENCY Avaya Government Solutions; Transfer of Data AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), including information that may have been claimed as Confidential Business Information (CBI) by the submitter, will be transferred to Avaya Government Solutions in...

  6. Agency Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linder, Stefan; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2015-01-01

    Agency theory studies the problems and solutions linked to delegation of tasks from principals to agents in the context of conflicting interests between the parties. Beginning from clear assumptions about rationality, contracting, and informational conditions, the theory addresses problems of ex...... agency theory to enjoy considerable scientific impact on social science; however, it has also attracted considerable criticism....

  7. Mobilizing Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Cancan; Medaglia, Rony; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2016-01-01

    The nature of inter-organizational collaboration between government and other stakeholders is rapidly changing with the introduction of open social media (OSM) platforms. Characterized by a high degree of informality as well as a blurred personal/professional nature, OSM can potentially introduce...... changes and tensions in the well-established routines of the public sector. This paper aims at shedding light on such changes, presenting findings from a study on the use of an OSM platform, WeChat, in an interorganizational collaboration project between government, university, and industry stakeholders...... rather than on organizational affiliation; and a transition from formal to informal as well as from professional to private collaboration....

  8. design of government cloud network for a developing economy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Ondo State, some businesses, telecommunication agencies and government agencies are not utilizing Information Technology (IT) services to its maximum due to challenges faced by IT penetration in the state. This paper presents the design of a Government Cloud (G-Cloud) network for Ondo State Government which ...

  9. Diplomatic agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    diplomatic agency has been conceptualized in International Relations theory (English School, game theory, Foreign Policy Analysis, constructivism, practice theory, post-positivism) before presenting and exemplifying major and overlapping types of diplomatic agency, including communication, negotiation......Diplomatic agency is intriguing. On the one hand, diplomats are crucial to the management of day-to-day international relations and the negotiation of war and peace. On the other hand, most diplomatic action is highly constrained or invisible. This chapter provides an overview of the ways in which...... and advocacy. It analyzes how professionalization, legalization, personalization and popularization of diplomacy have shaped diplomatic agency including how international law, bureaucracy, public diplomacy and new information technologies have impacted the scope and content of diplomatic agency. Finally...

  10. Designing and Evaluation Transparency in Open Government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matheus, R.

    One of the objectives of opening data is the creation of transparency. However, transparency is an ill-defined concept. My PhD thesis aims to help designers, architects and policy-makers develop portals and applications to enable transparency for the diverse society. Literature will be reviewed to

  11. Renewable energy governance complexities and challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Michalena, Evanthie

    2013-01-01

    A boon for planners and policy makers, this book deploys a range of case studies and contributions from around the world to provide profound and radical insights into RE transitions, governmental policies, and financial tools such as feed-in tariffs.

  12. Adaptive Networks: the Governance for Sustainable Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.G. Nooteboom (Sibout)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractIn this book, I reconstruct how policy makers, working together in what I term adaptive networks, have enabled a breakthrough in thinking about sustainable mobility in certain policy circles. I define the conduct of leading actors in these adaptive networks as sustainable change

  13. Electronic Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmer, Maria A.; Traunmüller, Roland; Grönlund, Åke

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Electronic Government, EGOV 2005, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2005. The 30 revised papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions, and assess the state-of-the-art in e...

  14. Bank Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Ard; Alexander Berg

    2010-01-01

    Principles of good governance have been a major component of international financial standards and are seen as essential to the stability and integrity of financial systems. Over the past 10 years much energy and attention have gone to improving the ability of company boards, managers, and owners to prudently navigate rapidly changing and volatile market conditions. So, how to explain the ...

  15. Governing principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Andrew

    2003-12-01

    BUPA HOSPITALS LIMITED took an early stand at a corporate level by championing the value of clinical governance for independent hospitals. The challenge this presented was never underestimated but was seen as a means to improve quality, patient outcomes and accountability, and ultimately to create a firm platform for the delivery of business objectives.

  16. Project governance: "Schools of thought"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel Christiaan Bekker

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The terminology, definition and context of project governance have become a focal subject for research and discussions in project management literature. This article reviews literature on the subject of project governance and categorise the arguments into three schools of thought namely the single-firm school, multi-firm school and large capital school. The single-firm school is concerned with governance principles related to internal organisational projects and practice these principles at a technical level. The multi-firm school address the governance principles concerned with two of more organisations participating on a contractual basis on the same project and focus their governance efforts at the technical and strategic level. The large capital school consider projects as temporary organisations, forming their own entity and establishing governance principles at an institutional level. From these schools of thought it can be concluded that the definition of project governance is dependent on the type of project and hierarchical positioning in the organisation. It is also evident that further research is required to incorporate other governance variables and mechanisms such as transaction theory, social networks and agency theory. The development of project governance frameworks should also consider the complexity of projects spanning across international companies, across country borders and incorporating different value systems, legal systems, corporate governance guidelines, religions and business practices.

  17. An approach to addressing governance from a health system framework perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen-Lopez, Inez; Wyss, Kaspar; de Savigny, Don

    2011-12-02

    As countries strive to strengthen their health systems in resource constrained contexts, policy makers need to know how best to improve the performance of their health systems. To aid these decisions, health system stewards should have a good understanding of how health systems operate in order to govern them appropriately. While a number of frameworks for assessing governance in the health sector have been proposed, their application is often hindered by unrealistic indicators or they are overly complex resulting in limited empirical work on governance in health systems. This paper reviews contemporary health sector frameworks which have focused on defining and developing indicators to assess governance in the health sector. Based on these, we propose a simplified approach to look at governance within a common health system framework which encourages stewards to take a systematic perspective when assessing governance. Although systems thinking is not unique to health, examples of its application within health systems has been limited. We also provide an example of how this approach could be applied to illuminate areas of governance weaknesses which are potentially addressable by targeted interventions and policies. This approach is built largely on prior literature, but is original in that it is problem-driven and promotes an outward application taking into consideration the major health system building blocks at various levels in order to ensure a more complete assessment of a governance issue rather than a simple input-output approach. Based on an assessment of contemporary literature we propose a practical approach which we believe will facilitate a more comprehensive assessment of governance in health systems leading to the development of governance interventions to strengthen system performance and improve health as a basic human right.

  18. An approach to addressing governance from a health system framework perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkelsen-Lopez Inez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As countries strive to strengthen their health systems in resource constrained contexts, policy makers need to know how best to improve the performance of their health systems. To aid these decisions, health system stewards should have a good understanding of how health systems operate in order to govern them appropriately. While a number of frameworks for assessing governance in the health sector have been proposed, their application is often hindered by unrealistic indicators or they are overly complex resulting in limited empirical work on governance in health systems. This paper reviews contemporary health sector frameworks which have focused on defining and developing indicators to assess governance in the health sector. Based on these, we propose a simplified approach to look at governance within a common health system framework which encourages stewards to take a systematic perspective when assessing governance. Although systems thinking is not unique to health, examples of its application within health systems has been limited. We also provide an example of how this approach could be applied to illuminate areas of governance weaknesses which are potentially addressable by targeted interventions and policies. This approach is built largely on prior literature, but is original in that it is problem-driven and promotes an outward application taking into consideration the major health system building blocks at various levels in order to ensure a more complete assessment of a governance issue rather than a simple input-output approach. Based on an assessment of contemporary literature we propose a practical approach which we believe will facilitate a more comprehensive assessment of governance in health systems leading to the development of governance interventions to strengthen system performance and improve health as a basic human right.

  19. Agency Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linder, Stefan; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    Agency theory studies the problems and solutions linked to delegation of tasks from principals to agents in the context of conflicting interests between the parties. Beginning from clear assumptions about rationality, contracting and informational conditions, the theory addresses problems of ex a...... agency theory to enjoy considerable scientific impact on social science; however, it has also attracted considerable criticism.......Agency theory studies the problems and solutions linked to delegation of tasks from principals to agents in the context of conflicting interests between the parties. Beginning from clear assumptions about rationality, contracting and informational conditions, the theory addresses problems of ex...

  20. Urban Governance of Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie E. Fischer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid population growth, urbanization, and the growing challenges faced by the urban poor require redefining the paradigm for public health interventions in the 21st century, creating new approaches that take urban determinants of health into consideration. The widening disparity between the urban poor and the urban rich further exacerbates health inequities. Existing tools for global governance of urban health risks fall short, particularly in the lack of formal mechanisms to strengthen collaboration and communication among national and municipal agencies and between their local and international non-governmental partners. There is also a clear disconnect between governance strategies crafted at the international level and implementation on the ground. The challenge is to find common ground for global goods and municipal needs, and to craft innovative and dynamic policy solutions that can benefit some of the poorest citizens of the global urban network.

  1. 75 FR 50744 - Notice of Intent To Request Revision and Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... for Title V of the E-Government Act, Confidential Information Protection and Statistical Efficiency... number 0535- 0213, by any of the following methods: E-mail: [email protected] . Include docket..., agribusinesses, commodity exchanges, State and national farm policy makers, and government agencies are important...

  2. A minority research and education information service: Design, develop, pilot test, and implement on-line access for historically black colleges and universities and government agencies. Annual status report, September 28, 1992--September 27, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodman, J.A.

    1993-08-01

    The goal of the MOLIS project was to develop, design, and pilot test on-line access to current information on minority colleges and universities as well as federal minority opportunities. Federal Information Exchange, Inc. (FIE), a diversified information services company recognized by researchers and educators as a leader in the field of information delivery services, was awarded a 5 year small business research grant to develop and implement MOLIS. Since going on-line on April 29, 1991, MOLIS has provided current information on 138 Black and Hispanic colleges and universities -- including faculty and student profiles, financial data, research centers and equipment information, precollege and education programs, emerging capabilities, enrollment data, administrative personnel data, and current events -- as well as minority opportunities from participating federal agencies. Six federal agencies are currently participating in MOLIS, including: Agency for International Development; Department of Commerce; Department of Energy; Department of Housing and Urban Development; National Aeronautics and Space Administration; and National Science Foundation.

  3. How sustainable is government-sponsored desertification rehabilitation in China? Behavior of households to changes in environmental policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Zhou, Lihua; Hauger, J Scott

    2013-01-01

    This paper undertakes a direct, comprehensive assessment of the long-term sustainability of desertification rehabilitation in China under a plausible but worst case scenario where governmental interventions, in the form of payments for environmental services (PES), will cease. The analysis is based on household behavior as well as experimental data. Our econometric results highlight the main obstacles to the sustainability of rehabilitation programs subsequent to cessation of government intervention, including specific shortfalls in households' preference for a free ride, budget constraints, attitudes, tolerance of and responsibility for desertification, and dissatisfaction with governmental actions. We conclude that desertification rehabilitation is not sustainable in China without continued governmental intervention. The results of this study are intended to support policy makers as they consider future directions for rehabilitation sustainability.

  4. How sustainable is government-sponsored desertification rehabilitation in China? Behavior of households to changes in environmental policies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Liu

    Full Text Available This paper undertakes a direct, comprehensive assessment of the long-term sustainability of desertification rehabilitation in China under a plausible but worst case scenario where governmental interventions, in the form of payments for environmental services (PES, will cease. The analysis is based on household behavior as well as experimental data. Our econometric results highlight the main obstacles to the sustainability of rehabilitation programs subsequent to cessation of government intervention, including specific shortfalls in households' preference for a free ride, budget constraints, attitudes, tolerance of and responsibility for desertification, and dissatisfaction with governmental actions. We conclude that desertification rehabilitation is not sustainable in China without continued governmental intervention. The results of this study are intended to support policy makers as they consider future directions for rehabilitation sustainability.

  5. 78 FR 5805 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ..., patients/consumers, and policy- makers, continuing education modules and faculty slide sets for clinicians... evidence for use by patients, consumers, practitioners, providers, purchasers, policy makers, and educators... fits into the current curriculum for each health professions field; how both the philosophy and...

  6. Government Services Information Infrastructure Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavallini, J.S.; Aiken, R.J.

    1995-04-01

    The Government Services Information Infrastructure (GSII) is that portion of the NII used to link Government and its services, enables virtual agency concepts, protects privacy, and supports emergency preparedness needs. The GSII is comprised of the supporting telecommunications technologies, network and information services infrastructure and the applications that use these. The GSII is an enlightened attempt by the Clinton/Gore Administration to form a virtual government crossing agency boundaries to interoperate more closely with industry and with the public to greatly improve the delivery of government services. The GSII and other private sector efforts, will have a significant impact on the design, development, and deployment of the NII, even if only through the procurement of such services. The Federal Government must adopt new mechanisms and new paradigms for the management of the GSII, including improved acquisition and operation of GSII components in order to maximize benefits. Government requirements and applications will continue to evolv. The requirements from government services and users of form affinity groups that more accurately and effectively define these common requirements, that drive the adoption and use of industry standards, and that provide a significant technology marketplace.

  7. Protocol between the government of the Republic of Latvia and the International Atomic Energy Agency additional to the agreement for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Safeguards Agreement concluded between the Republic of Latvia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 7 December 2000. It was signed in Vienna on 12 July 2001. 2. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force upon signature by the representatives of Latvia and the Agency, i.e. on 12 July 2001

  8. Hospice Agencies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of all Hospice Agencies that have been certified by Medicare. The list includes addresses, phone numbers, and date of original CMS certification, as well as...

  9. Board of director's effectiveness and the stakeholder perspective of corporate governance: Do effective boards promote the interests of shareholders and stakeholders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Garcia-Torea

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes whether effective boards of directors in addressing shareholder interests also prove to be effective in guaranteeing the interests of the rest of the firm's stakeholders. We measure board effectiveness based on the shareholder perspective, and test whether it is valid for the stakeholder perspective. The novelty of this paper precisely lies in its approach, given that it considers both perspectives of corporate governance at a time. Using the transparency of sustainability reports as a proxy for the stakeholder perspective in an international sample of 2366 companies, the paper shows that effective boards are more likely to address the interests of both the shareholders and the rest of the firm's stakeholders. Furthermore, we propose a measure of board effectiveness by gathering several board characteristics. Our results contribute to research on corporate governance and corporate social responsibility reporting, and it has implications for policy makers.

  10. Fair and just or just fair? Examining models of government--not-for-profit engagement under the Australian Social Inclusion Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Gemma; Riley, Therese

    2012-08-01

    This paper explores the interrelationship between two contemporary policy debates: one focused on the social determinants of health and the other on social (inclusion) policy within contemporary welfare regimes. In both debates, academics and policy makers alike are grappling with the balance between universal and targeted policy initiatives and the role of local 'delivery' organizations in promoting health and social equality. In this paper, we discuss these debates in the context of a recent social policy initiative in Australia: the Social Inclusion Agenda. We examine two proposed models of engagement between the government and the not-for-profit welfare sector for the delivery of social services. We conclude that the two models of engagement currently under consideration by the Australian government have substantially different outcomes for the health of disadvantaged communities and the creation of a more socially inclusive Australia.

  11. Pengaruh Corporate Governance terhadap Efektifitas Mekanisme Pengurang Masalah Agensi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenal Arifin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to investigate whether there are a significant influence between corporate governance and effectiveness of agency-problem-reducing mechanism. The corporate governance is concern on all stakeholder interest while the agency variables are concern only on one of the most important stakeholders’ that is the stockholders. In theory, there should be a significant relationship between the corporate governance and the effectiveness of agency-problem-reducing mechanism. Using all manufacturing companies listed in Jakarta Stock Exchange during 2001 - 2004, this research found that corporate governance influence the effectiveness of debt mechanism in reducing agency problem. The other mechanism, dividend and independent board of director, do not effective to reduce agency problem and the corporate governance does not influence the effectiveness of these two mechanisms. Key words: agency problem, corporate governance, dividend, debt, independent Board of director

  12. Transformative Agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard, Klaus

    The purpose of this paper is to enhance the conceptual understanding of the mediatory relationship between paradoxes on an organizational and an individual level. It presents a concept of agency that comprises and mediates between a structural and individual pole. The constitution of this agency...... is achieved through narrative activity that oscillates between the poles and transforms paradoxes through the configuration of plots and metaphors. Empirical cases are introduced in order to illustrate the implications of this understanding....

  13. Corporate Governance and Corporate Creditworthiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dror Parnes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We examine the relation between corporate governance and bankruptcy risk as an underlying force affecting a bond’s yield. The level of corporate governance is captured by the G-index, along with the explicit groups of governance provisions. We estimate bankruptcy risk by Z-score, by cash-flow-score, by O-score, through Merton structural model default probabilities, and by S&P credit ratings. After addressing endogeneity and while controlling for firm-specific factors, based on the four objective methodologies we find that corporate governance is inversely related to bankruptcy risk. Yet, rating agencies take a mixed approach towards this association likely because of the conflicting impact of different governance provisions.

  14. 28 CFR 31.102 - State agency structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... unit of State government. Details of organization and structure are matters of State discretion... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State agency structure. 31.102 Section 31... Applicants § 31.102 State agency structure. The State agency may be a discrete unit of State government or a...

  15. Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Estonia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Agreement of 5 April 1973 between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III, (I) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons came into force for the Republic of Estonia on 1 December 2005 [es

  16. Perceptions of risk from nanotechnologies and trust in stakeholders: a cross sectional study of public, academic, government and business attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capon, Adam; Gillespie, James; Rolfe, Margaret; Smith, Wayne

    2015-04-26

    Policy makers and regulators are constantly required to make decisions despite the existence of substantial uncertainty regarding the outcomes of their proposed decisions. Understanding stakeholder views is an essential part of addressing this uncertainty, which provides insight into the possible social reactions and tolerance of unpredictable risks. In the field of nanotechnology, large uncertainties exist regarding the real and perceived risks this technology may have on society. Better evidence is needed to confront this issue. We undertook a computer assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) survey of the Australian public and a parallel survey of those involved in nanotechnology from the academic, business and government sectors. Analysis included comparisons of proportions and logistic regression techniques. We explored perceptions of nanotechnology risks both to health and in a range of products. We examined views on four trust actors. The general public's perception of risk was significantly higher than that expressed by other stakeholders. The public bestows less trust in certain trust actors than do academics or government officers, giving its greatest trust to scientists. Higher levels of public trust were generally associated with lower perceptions of risk. Nanotechnology in food and cosmetics/sunscreens were considered riskier applications irrespective of stakeholder, while familiarity with nanotechnology was associated with a reduced risk perception. Policy makers should consider the disparities in risk and trust perceptions between the public and influential stakeholders, placing greater emphasis on risk communication and the uncertainties of risk assessment in these areas of higher concern. Scientists being the highest trusted group are well placed to communicate the risks of nanotechnologies to the public.

  17. Agreement of 23 February 1989 between the Government of the Democratic People's Republic of Algeria and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of a research reactor from the Republic of Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Agreement of 23 February 1989 between the Government of the Democratic People's Republic of Algeria and the IAEA for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of a 1 MW thermal training and research reactor from the Republic of Argentina

  18. Additional supply agreement of 9 December 1988 between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Governments of the Islamic Republic of Iran and of Argentina for the transfer of enriched uranium for a research reactor in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the additional supply agreement of 9 December 1988 between the IAEA and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran and of Argentina for the transfer of 115.80 kilograms of uranium enriched up to 20% in the isotope uranium-235 for a research reactor in Iran

  19. Water: Drought, Crisis and Governance in Australia and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Sousa Júnior

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite huge differences in population, household income and development levels, Australia and Brazil have some temporal convergences in their water governance systems. Over the last 20 years, both countries have significantly reformed their water policies and practices by introducing a legal foundation for more integrated and participatory catchment/basin management based on the best information available. A critical test of any water reform is how effective it is in meeting the challenges of extreme and unpredictable conditions of drought and floods, which are expected to increase under climate changes scenarios. This paper compared the contemporary water governance frameworks of Australia and Brazil in relation to three elements of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM: integration, participation, and information/knowledge. We focused on insights from Brazil’s recent drought and Australia’s fluctuating water crises to derive lessons and recommendations for future changes. Among the main recommendations, we stress the need for both systems to improve effective participation and to embrace a more comprehensive approach to cope with water scarcity in future scenarios. Furthermore, water related decisions should be based on a transparent and well informed process, and take into account the lessons from similar situations worldwide in order to avoid unnecessary or ineffective measures. As demonstrated in the Australian case during the Millennium Drought, the most effective initiatives were those involving government, the private sector and society to achieve a more sustainable consumption pattern in all sectors. There is much to learn from the Brazilian and Australia experiences in water reforms and crises, but it is imperative to understand the social, economic and environmental context within which these took place. Continuing to develop the capacity and willingness of researchers and policy makers to work together can make an

  20. Governance in managing public health resources in Brazilian municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelino, George; Barberia, Lorena G; Biderman, Ciro

    2014-09-01

    This study contributes to the health governance discussion by presenting a new data set that allows for comparisons of the management of health resources among Brazilian municipalities. Research on Brazil is particularly important as the provision of health services was decentralized in 1988 and since then municipalities have been given greater responsibilities for the management of fiscal resources for public health service provision. Based on detailed information on corruption practices (such as over-invoicing, illegal procurement and fake receipts) from audit reports of health programmes in 980 randomly selected Brazilian municipalities, this study deepens understanding of the relationship between health governance institutions and the incidence of corruption at the local level by exploring the extent to which horizontal and vertical accountabilities contribute to reducing the propensity of municipal government officials to divert public health resources for private gain. The results of our multiple regression analysis suggest that the experience of health municipal councils is correlated with reductions in the incidence of corruption in public health programmes. This impact is significant over time, with each additional year of health council experience reducing corruption incidence levels by 2.1% from baseline values. The findings reported in this study do not rely on the subjectivity of corruption measures which usually conflate the actual incidence of corruption with its perception by informants. Based on our results, we provide recommendations that can assist policy makers to reduce corruption. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2013; all rights reserved.

  1. The Financial Performance (Profitability and Corporate Governance Disclosure in the Annual Reports of Listed Companies of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdur Rouf

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to test empirically the relationship between the Financial Performances (Profitability and the level of Corporate Governance Disclosure (CGD by the listed non-financial companies in Bangladesh. Data are taken from annual reports of the listed companies in the 2007. This paper is based on a sample of 94 listed companies and Used OLS as a method of estimation. The extent of corporate governance disclosure level is measured using 40 items of information and financial performance (profitability is measured by return on assets (ROA. Using an unweighted approach for measuring corporate governance disclosure, this approach is most appropriate when no importance is given to any specific user-groups. After establishing the disclosure index, a scoring sheet was developed to assess the extent of corporate governance disclosures. The result shows that the Financial Performances (Profitability and Board Audit Committee are positively correlated with the level of Corporate Governance Disclosure (CGD. Percentage of Equity Owned by the Insiders is negatively associated with the Corporate Governance Disclosure. The study provides empirical evidence to policy makers and regulators in South Asia.

  2. Protocol Additional to the Agreement of 31 October 1975 between the Government of the Republic of Korea and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement of 31 October 1975 between the Government of the Republic of Korea and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 24 March 1999 and signed in Vienna on 21 June 1999. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 19 February 2004, the date on which the Agency received from the Republic of Korea written notification that the Republic of Korea's statutory and/or constitutional requirements for entry into force had been met

  3. 78 FR 20693 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Office of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... primary respondents are state agencies, tribal governments, local governments, colleges and universities... pending applications, and research and evaluation independence and integrity. Public reporting burden for...

  4. 78 FR 7812 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Office of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... primary respondents are state agencies, tribal governments, local governments, colleges and universities... applications, and research and evaluation independence and integrity. Public reporting burden for this...

  5. 78 FR 22559 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Office of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... Abstract: The primary respondents are state agencies, tribal governments, local governments, colleges and... applications, and research and evaluation independence and integrity. Public reporting burden for this...

  6. Financial Reporting of Government Property in the Custody of Contractors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    ... of the Military Departments and Defense agencies. We also assessed management controls affecting the financial reporting of Government property, and we assessed compliance with applicable laws and regulations...

  7. Governing Warfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

      It would seem as though warfare has gotten out of control, not only in Iraq and Afghanistan, but also in Central Africa. The paper outlines the strategic history of politically controlled warfare since the early Enlightenment. The argument is that control is implausible. The idea of control has...... the risks of lacking unity and displays the organisational trap to the fatal political myth of controlled warfare: Does it come from the military organisation system itself, from political ideologies of goal-rational governance, or from the chameleonic logic of wars?  ...

  8. 78 FR 75920 - Advisory Council on Government Auditing Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    ... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Advisory Council on Government Auditing Standards AGENCY: U.S... public that the Advisory Council on Government Auditing Standards will hold a public meeting by... recommendations to the Comptroller General for revisions to the Government Auditing Standards, to provide for...

  9. 31 CFR 538.305 - Government of Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Government of Sudan. 538.305 Section... § 538.305 Government of Sudan. (a) The term Government of Sudan includes: (1) The state and the Government of Sudan, as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof, including the...

  10. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Turkey and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Safeguards Agreement concluded between the Republic of Turkey and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 7 June 2000. It was signed in Vienna on 6 July 2000

  11. Comparing types of local public health agencies in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markiewicz, Milissa; Moore, Jill; Foster, Johanna H; Berner, Maureen; Matthews, Gene; Wall, Aimee

    2013-01-01

    Some states are considering restructuring local public health agencies (LPHAs) in hopes of achieving long-term efficiencies. North Carolina's experience operating different types of LPHAs, such as county health departments, district health departments, public health authorities, and consolidated human services agencies, can provide valuable information to policy makers in other states who are examining how best to organize their local public health system. To identify stakeholders' perceptions of the benefits and challenges associated with different types of LPHAs in North Carolina and to compare LPHA types on selected financial, workforce, and service delivery measures. Focus groups and key informant interviews were conducted to identify stakeholders' perceptions of different LPHA types. To compare LPHA types on finance, workforce, and service delivery measures, descriptive statistical analyses were performed on publicly available quantitative data. North Carolina. Current and former state and local public health practitioners, county commissioners, county managers, assistant managers, state legislators, and others. In addition to identifying stakeholders' perceptions of LPHA types, proportion of total expenditures by funding source, expenditures per capita by funding source, full-time equivalents per 1000 population, and percentage of 127 tracked services offered were calculated. Stakeholders reported benefits and challenges of all LPHA types. LPHA types differ with regard to source of funding, with county health departments and consolidated human services agencies receiving a greater percentage of their funding from county appropriations than districts and authorities, which receive a comparatively larger percentage from other revenues. Types of LPHAs are not entirely distinct from one another, and LPHAs of the same type can vary greatly from one another. However, stakeholders noted differences between LPHA types-particularly with regard to district health

  12. Teacher agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Priestley, M.; Biesta, G.; Robinson, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    ]turn to the centrality of the teacher in school-based curriculum development. In many cases, this renewed emphasis on teachers is explicitly tied to change agendas, with teachers described as agents of change. And yet such change agentry (Fullan, 2003) and teacher agency more broadly are often circumscribed by features...

  13. 77 FR 3210 - Indian Tribal Government Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 [REG-133223-08] RIN 1545-BI19 Indian Tribal Government Plans AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of public..., (REG-133223-08) relating to Indian tribal government plans. DATES: The public hearing is scheduled for...

  14. 77 FR 5442 - Indian Tribal Government Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 [REG-133223-08] RIN 1545-BI19 Indian Tribal Government Plans AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of public... advance notice of proposed rulemaking, (REG-133223-08) relating to Indian tribal government plans. This...

  15. 77 FR 58492 - Prohibitions Governing Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service 36 CFR Part 261 RIN 0596-AD08 Prohibitions Governing Fire AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA... Fire. * * * * * (j) Operating or using any internal or external combustion engine without a spark...

  16. Governing Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Most people agree that our world face daunting problems and, correctly or not, technological solutions are seen as an integral part of an overall solution. But what exactly are the problems and how does the engineering ‘mind set’ frame these problems? This chapter sets out to unravel dominant...... perspectives in challenge per-ception in engineering in the US and Denmark. Challenge perception and response strategies are closely linked through discursive practices. Challenge perceptions within the engineering community and the surrounding society are thus critical for the shaping of engineering education...... and the engineering profession. Through an analysis of influential reports and position papers on engineering and engineering education the chapter sets out to identify how engineering is problematized and eventually governed. Drawing on insights from governmentality studies the chapter strives to elicit the bodies...

  17. Governing Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Most people agree that our world faces daunting problems and, correctly or not, technological solutions are seen as an integral part of an overall solution. But what exactly are the problems and how does the engineering ‘mind set’ frame these problems? This chapter sets out to unravel...... dominant perspectives in challenge perception in engineering in the US and Denmark. Challenge perception and response strategies are closely linked through discursive practices. Challenge perceptions within the engineering community and the surrounding society are thus critical for the shaping...... of engineering education and the engineering profession. Through an analysis of influential reports and position papers on engineering and engineering education the chapter sets out to identify how engineering is problematized and eventually governed. Drawing on insights from governmentality studies the chapter...

  18. Performance contracting in central government in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Mads Bøge

    2015-01-01

    in Danish central government. Since their introduction, performance contracts have become central elements in the steering and management of agencies in central government in Denmark, and today they are nearly universally adopted in central government. In Denmark, the Ministry of Finance is responsible......This paper looks into performance contracting in Danish central government. Management by Objectives and Results (MBOR) was adopted in central government in Denmark during the 1980s and early 1990s. In 1991, performance contracts between parent ministries and their agencies were introduced...... for maintaining the MBOR system including setting requirements and recommendations for the design and use of performance contracts, which means that a common central government framework for performance contracting exists. Despite of this common framework, differences in the contract content (scale and focus...

  19. Public health and English local government: historical perspectives on the impact of 'returning home'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsky, Martin; Lock, Karen; Hogarth, Sue

    2014-12-01

    This article uses history to stimulate reflection on the present opportunities and challenges for public health practice in English local government. Its motivation is the paradox that despite Department of Health policy-makers' allusions to 'a long and proud history' and 'returning public health home' there has been no serious discussion of that past local government experience and what we might learn from it. The article begins with a short resumé of the achievements of Victorian public health in its municipal location, and then considers the extensive responsibilities that it developed for environmental, preventive and health services by the mid-twentieth century. The main section discusses the early NHS, explaining why historians see the era as one of decline for the speciality of public health, leading to the reform of 1974, which saw the removal from local government and the abolition of the Medical Officer of Health role. Our discussion focuses on challenges faced before 1974 which raise organizational and political issues relevant to local councils today as they embed new public health teams. These include the themes of leadership, funding, integrated service delivery, communication and above all the need for a coherent vision and rationale for public health action in local authorities. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.

  20. Current Government Actions and Potential Policy Options for Reducing Obesity in Queensland Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsharairi, Naser A

    2018-01-29

    School nutrition policies provide promising avenues towards the improvement of children's eating habits and the prevention of obesity. Childhood obesity rates and related chronic diseases are increasing in Queensland, in part as a result of unhealthy eating habits and lack of physical activity. There is a very high investment by the Queensland government in maintaining healthy weight and promoting nutrition and physical activity among schoolchildren through delivering a range of initiatives across the state. However, there is a lack of evidence concerning the effectiveness of nutrition/physical education and parental involvement programs addressing obesity delivered in Queensland schools. This paper can be used to guide government and policy-makers regarding the most effective policy options that will promote healthy eating and physical activity among Queensland schoolchildren. The aim of this paper is to: (i) summarize current evidence on Queensland government responses to obesity; and (ii) discuss potential policy options that could support healthy eating and regular physical activity, and examine the evidence base for each option and suggest new areas for future research.

  1. Posting and transfer: key to fostering trust in government health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Kabir; Freedman, Lynn; Ghaffar, Abdul; Marchal, Bruno; el-Jardali, Fadi; McCaffery, Jim; de Sardan, Jean-Pierre Olivier; Dal Poz, Mario; Flores, Walter; Garimella, Surekha; Schaaf, Marta

    2015-10-13

    Appropriate deployment or posting and transfer (P&T) of health workers - placing the right people in the right positions at the right time - lies at the heart of fostering communities' faith in government health services and cementing the role of the health system as a core social institution. The authors of this paper have been involved in an ongoing transnational dialogue about P&T practices and determinants. This dialogue seeks to call attention to the importance of P&T as a health system function; to urge donors and policy-makers working in health systems, HRH and public administration governance to consider how to address issues around P&T; and to suggest avenues and approaches to research. P&T is a vexed and unresolved issue in many low- and middle-income countries that requires, above all, political commitment to improving public sector services and to new thinking and research. It holds promise as a focal point for inter-disciplinary collaboration in research and implementation that can inform other areas in HRH and health systems strengthening. Innovative social science and management theorizing, and iterative, locally driven interventions that focus on establishing transparent professional norms and building the credibility of government administration, including the health services, are likely the way forward.

  2. Government use licenses in Thailand: The power of evidence, civil movement and political leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to describe and analyse the policy processes that led to the granting and implementation of the government use licenses to enable the import and production of generic versions of medicines patented in Thailand. The decision to grant the series of government use licenses was taken despite much domestic and international controversy. The paper demonstrates that the policy processes leading to the granting of government use licenses are a successful application of the concept of "the triangle that moves the mountain". This is a well-known conceptualisation of a philosophical and strategic approach to public policy advocacy in Thailand, which propounds that the effective bridging of three powers; a.) Knowledge and evidence generated by research and analysis, b.) Civil society movements and public support, and c.) Leadership of policy makers and politicians; in a synergistic "triangle" can move "mountains", meaning the resolution of seemingly insurmountable problems. The paper provides insights into the policy context for the decision and analyses the roles of key actors, their motivations and the policy processes in the country. PMID:21910864

  3. Effect of Governance Indicators on Under-Five Mortality in OECD Nations: Generalized Method of Moments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emamgholipour, Sara; Asemane, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Today, it is recognized that factors other than health services are involved in health improvement and decreased inequality so identifying them is the main concern of policy makers and health authorities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of governance indicators on health outcomes. A panel data study was conducted to investigate the effect of governance indicators on child mortality rate in 27 OECD countries from 1996 to 2012 using the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) model and EVIEWS.8 software. According to the results obtained, under-five mortality rate was significantly related to all of the research variables (p corruption and rule of law indicators decreased child mortality rate by 0.05 and 0.08%, respectively. Furthermore, 1% increase in public health expenditure per capita resulted in a 0.03% decrease in under-five mortality rate. The results of the study suggest that considering control variables, including GDP per capita, public health expenditure per capita, total fertility rate, and improvement of governance indicators (control of corruption and rule of law) would decrease the child mortality rate.

  4. The Evolution of Green Growth Policy: An Unwelcome Intrusion on Global Environmental Governance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongwon Park

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The notion of green growth emerged in 2009. Since then, policy makers and practitioners have largely adopted the term. Although rather intermittently, there have been academic observations on green growth, with the term often being cited as a paradigm and a policy guide for generating new sources of growth. The most important reasons for the surge in green growth today as a new trend and an international agenda item are the rather unsatisfactory results and pitfalls of sustainable development, which has failed at promoting a tangible international environmental principle or a concrete policy framework. Green growth has been proposed as an alternative simultaneously to foster the dynamics of global environmental governance and to reinvigorate the world economy. This study examines to what extent green growth plays a complementary role in existing global environmental governance. Available evidence provides reasonable grounds for arguing that a positive outcome may well be expected from the evolution of green growth architecture and followed by practical policies. It became a global agenda out of a few influential national governments' control. However, decision makers in the leading countries, both developed and developing must be willing to continue implementing what has been discussed and agreed thus far, beyond changes in political leadership and administrations.

  5. Corruption, development and governance indicators predict invasive species risk from trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenton-Rule, Evan C.; Barbieri, Rafael F.; Lester, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive species have an enormous global impact, with international trade being the leading pathway for their introduction. Current multinational trade deals under negotiation will dramatically change trading partnerships and pathways. These changes have considerable potential to influence biological invasions and global biodiversity. Using a database of 47 328 interceptions spanning 10 years, we demonstrate how development and governance socio-economic indicators of trading partners can predict exotic species interceptions. For import pathways associated with vegetable material, a significantly higher risk of exotic species interceptions was associated with countries that are poorly regulated, have more forest cover and have surprisingly low corruption. Corruption and indicators such as political stability or adherence to rule of law were important in vehicle or timber import pathways. These results will be of considerable value to policy makers, primarily by shifting quarantine procedures to focus on countries of high risk based on their socio-economic status. Further, using New Zealand as an example, we demonstrate how a ninefold reduction in incursions could be achieved if socio-economic indicators were used to select trade partners. International trade deals that ignore governance and development indicators may facilitate introductions and biodiversity loss. Development and governance within countries clearly have biodiversity implications beyond borders. PMID:27306055

  6. Symposium report: the prevention of obesity and NCDs: challenges and opportunities for governments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobstein, Tim; Brinsden, Hannah

    2014-08-01

    This paper is written as a briefing document with the aim of providing support to policy-makers and government officials tackling obesity and related non-communicable diseases. It is based on a symposium Obesity and non-communicable diseases: Learning from international experiences convened by the International Association for the Study of Obesity (now the World Obesity Federation) and its policy section, the International Obesity TaskForce (now World Obesity - Policy and Prevention). The symposium discussed a wide range of proposals to tackle the consumption of unhealthy food products, including interventions in the market through fiscal policies and marketing restrictions, measures to strengthen public health legislation and measures to limit agri-food company lobbying activities. It recognized the need for government leadership and action in order to reduce preventable deaths while improving economic performance and identified a need for governments to take a systems wide approach to tackling obesity and to work with civil society, especially to monitor the drivers of disease and to hold all stakeholders accountable for progress. © 2014 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2014 World Obesity.

  7. [Indicators of governance in mental health policies and programmes in Mexico: a perspective of key actors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Castro, Lina; Arredondo, Armando; Pelcastre-Villafuerte, Blanca Estela; Hufty, Marc

    To analyse the role of Mexico's mental health system governance in the development of mental health policies and programmes, from the perspective of its own actors. A map was developed for identifying the actors in Mexico's mental health system. A guide was designed for in-depth interviews, which were recorded and arranged in categories for their analysis. The Atlas-ti v.7 software was used for the organisation of qualitative data and Policy Maker v.4 was used to determine the position and influence of actors within the health system. The actors were identified according to their level of influence in mental health policies: high, medium and low. Actors with a high level of influence participate in national policies, actors with medium influence are involved in regional or local policies and the participation of actors with a low level of influence is considered marginal. This study facilitated understanding of governance in mental health. The level of influence of the actors directly affects the scope of governance indicators. Relevant data were obtained to improve policies in mental health care. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Corruption, development and governance indicators predict invasive species risk from trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenton-Rule, Evan C; Barbieri, Rafael F; Lester, Philip J

    2016-06-15

    Invasive species have an enormous global impact, with international trade being the leading pathway for their introduction. Current multinational trade deals under negotiation will dramatically change trading partnerships and pathways. These changes have considerable potential to influence biological invasions and global biodiversity. Using a database of 47 328 interceptions spanning 10 years, we demonstrate how development and governance socio-economic indicators of trading partners can predict exotic species interceptions. For import pathways associated with vegetable material, a significantly higher risk of exotic species interceptions was associated with countries that are poorly regulated, have more forest cover and have surprisingly low corruption. Corruption and indicators such as political stability or adherence to rule of law were important in vehicle or timber import pathways. These results will be of considerable value to policy makers, primarily by shifting quarantine procedures to focus on countries of high risk based on their socio-economic status. Further, using New Zealand as an example, we demonstrate how a ninefold reduction in incursions could be achieved if socio-economic indicators were used to select trade partners. International trade deals that ignore governance and development indicators may facilitate introductions and biodiversity loss. Development and governance within countries clearly have biodiversity implications beyond borders. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. Agency theory

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The success or failure of any organization rests on its leadership. In the 21st century, corporate governance is ... Sharma (2007) argued that intellectual capital, including the ability to manage knowledge and create and commercialize innovation, affect strategic leaders' success. The author observed that one of the most ...

  10. 77 FR 32136 - Agency Information Collection Activities:

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed collection; comments requested; Notification to Fire Safety Authority of Storage of Explosive Materials...

  11. 75 FR 13575 - Agency Information Collection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs Agency Information Collection Activities ACTION: 30-Day Notice of Information Collection Under Review: Revision of a currently approved collection; Bulletproof Vest Partnership. The...

  12. 75 FR 81650 - Agency Information Collection Activities:

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested ACTION: 30-Day Notice of Information Collection Under Review: Open Letter to...

  13. Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Cameroon and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between the Republic of Cameroon and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non- Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Safeguards Agreement on 24 February 1992. It was signed on 21 May 1992 in Vienna. Pursuant to Article 24 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 17 December 2004. Pursuant to Article II of the Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on the same date

  14. 78 FR 47699 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... professional groups, trade associations, and government agencies. Specific objectives are to: (1) Inventory... Prevention (OSAP) is a unique group of dental educators and consultants, researchers, clinicians, industry...

  15. Agreement of 3 May 1996 between the government of the commonwealth of Dominica and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty of the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-08-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Exchange of Letters with the Commonwealth of Dominica in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and Caribbean, which constitutes an agreement confirming that the Safeguards Agreement of 3 May 1996 (IAEA-INFCIRC-513) concluded between the Government of the Commonwealth of Dominica (Dominica) and the IAEA pursuant to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) satisfies the obligation of Dominica under Article 13 of the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and Caribbean (the Tlatelolco Treaty) to conclude a safeguards agreement with the IAEA

  16. Protocol additional to the agreement between the Government of the Republic of Ghana and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Protocol Additional to the Safeguards Agreement (INFCIRC/226) concluded between the Government of the Republic of Ghana and the IAEA for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 11 June 1998, and signed in Vienna on 12 June 1998. Pending entry into force, the Protocol is being applied provisionally as from the date of signature, i.e. 12 June 1998

  17. 5 CFR 2638.203 - Duties of the designated agency ethics official.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duties of the designated agency ethics official. 2638.203 Section 2638.203 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS AND EXECUTIVE AGENCY ETHICS PROGRAM RESPONSIBILITIES Designated Agency Ethics...

  18. 5 CFR 2638.706 - Agency's written plan for annual ethics training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agency's written plan for annual ethics training. 2638.706 Section 2638.706 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS AND EXECUTIVE AGENCY ETHICS PROGRAM RESPONSIBILITIES Executive Agency Ethics...

  19. Corporate Governance in PT Lippo Karawaci Tbk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Kusumastuti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available When mismanagement and misuse run rampant in giant corporations, as in the case of Enron in 2001, good corporate governance becomes mandatory. From the perspective of the agency theory, the separation of capital owners and management must lead to strictly applied good corporate governance. The purpose is to eliminate any disadvantages to the corporation's objective, namely providing added values to all relevant parties. The agency theory also covers two aspects: agency issues and agency costs. The research uses the qualitative approach and data is gathered through extensive interview, secondary data, and bibliography study. Key persons among the sources are selected based on specific criteria. Data validity is obtained through the triangulation technique, and the samples used are PT Lippo Karawaci Tbk and subsidiaries. The results show that governance practices are unique in each corporation, in accordance with their characteristics.

  20. EU ECONOMIC GOVERNANCE REFORM: ARE WE AT A TURNING POINT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Daianu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The sovereign debt crisis is creating enormous anguish in the European Monetary Union (EMU. Not surprisingly, emergency measures continue to be used at a time when a sort of economic recovery seems to be underway. Against this background the European Council summit of last October considered a Task Force report with a telling name: "Strengthening economic governance in the EU". This document is to be examined in conjunction with the governance reform proposals issued by the European Commission at the end of September and related documents. For the depth of this financial crisis and the "Great Recession" have forced EU governments and EU institutions to take a hard look at the governance structure of the Union. But it would be wrong to say that this demarche is an attempt to explore a terra incognita. From the very beginning of the European Monetary Union (EMU there was some discomfort with its institutional underpinnings and there were misgivings regarding its optimality as a currency area. This explains why a train of thought underlines a political rationale, too, for the creation of the EMU. Likewise, criticism regarding the way regulation and supervision have been established in the Union is not of recent vintage. And insufficiencies of the Stability and Growth Pact (SGP, with almost all member states flouting its rules at various points in time, have been repeatedly pointed out. This said, however, the flaws of financial intermediation have been less tackled by policy-makers and central bankers for reasons which, partially, are to be found in a paradigm which has dominated economic thinking in recent decades. This paper focuses on roots of the huge strain in the EU (EMU and main policy issues ensuing from the current crisis. It also looks at the stake NMSs have in a reformed EU economic governance structure. The challenges for EU economic governance reform are to be seen from a broad perspective: the crisis of the financial intermediation