WorldWideScience

Sample records for policy-induced structural change

  1. A climate-change policy induced shift from innovations in carbon-energy production to carbon-energy savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerlagh, Reyer

    2008-01-01

    We develop an endogenous growth model with capital, labor and carbon-energy as production factors and three technology variables that measure accumulated innovations for carbon-energy production, carbon-energy savings, and neutral growth. All markets are complete and perfect, except for research, for which we assume that the marginal social benefits exceed the marginal private benefits by factor four. The model constants are calibrated so that the model reproduces the relevant global trends over the 1970-2000 period. The model contains a simple climate module, and is used to assess the impact of Induced Technological Change (ITC) for a policy that aims at a maximum level of atmospheric CO 2 concentration (450 ppmv). ITC is shown to reduce the required carbon tax by more than a factor 2, and to reduce costs of such a policy by half. When we do not constrain aggregate R and D expenditures to benchmark levels, costs are further reduced. Numerical simulations show that knowledge accumulation shifts from energy production to energy saving technology. We discuss reasons for differences between our results and earlier results reported in the literature. (author)

  2. Organisational Structure & Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2006

    2006-01-01

    Structural change is seen as a way to meet the challenges of the future that face many organisations. While some writers agree that broad-ranging structural change may not always transform an organisation or enhance its performance, others claim that innovation will be a major source of competitive advantage to organisations, particularly when…

  3. Changing state structures: Outside in

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasner, Stephen D.

    2011-01-01

    In explaining the development of institutional structures within states, social science analysis has focused on autochthonous factors and paid less attention to the way in which external factors, especially purposive agent-directed as opposed to more general environmental factors, can influence domestic authority structures. For international relations scholarship, this lacunae is particularly troubling or perhaps, just weird. If the international system is anarchical, then political leaders can pursue any policy option. In some cases, the most attractive option would be conventional state to state interactions, diplomacy, or war. In other instances, however, changing the domestic authority structures of other states might be more appealing. In some cases, domestic authority structures have been influenced through bargaining, and in others through power. Power may reflect either explicit agent-oriented decisions or social processes that reflect the practices, values, and norms of more powerful entities. PMID:22198756

  4. Growth, Employment and Structural Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggarwal, Aradhna

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the decomposition of GSDP growth per capita in Punjab via-a-vis 15 other states in India during 1993–94 and 2011–12 in terms of employment and productivity growth. Specifically, it focuses on the role of employment growth and structural change in employment on economic growth...... but structural shifts have paid off well in terms of diversification of the economy and their contribution to labour productivity especially for manufacturing. Overall employment effect had been negative but this was essentially due to contraction in the labour force; the employment rate effect turned out...

  5. Structural change and climate protection. How does climate policy change economics and working environment; Strukturwandel und Klimaschutz. Wie Klimapolitik Wirtschaft und Arbeitswelt veraendert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazejczak, Juergen [DIW Berlin (Germany). Abteilung Energie, Verkehr, Umwelt; Edler, Dietmar [Deutsches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung, Berlin (Germany). Abteilung Innovation, Industrie und Dienstleistungen

    2011-07-01

    In order to curb the climatic change, the greenhouse gases in industrialized countries have to be reduced dramatically by the middle of this century. This strengthens the economic structural change. The contribution under consideration discusses the knowledge of the climate policy-induced structural transformation of economy and labor market in Germany. The actual state of information is limited. It is possible to identify sectors that either are burdened particularly by costs of avoidance or benefit from additional demand. Due to a variety of complex interdependencies employment effects only are tapped with great uncertainty. The additionally induced inter-sectoral structural change in employment lags behind the intra-sectoral adjustment demands. The requirements in qualification will increase more. Completely new skills are required. Necessarily additional qualifications often can be acquired by training. The correlations of forced climatic change policy with other aspects of job quality have not been studied systematically.

  6. Structure change of fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanaka, Tetsuji

    1980-01-01

    The investigation of the broken pieces of fuel rods in Mihama No. 1 reactor was carried out in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, and unexpectedly led to the post-irradiation tests. The investigation group of the Kyoto University Research Institute considers that the pursuit of the causes of accident by the government was insufficient, and the countermeasures are problematical, as the result of having examined various reports. In this study, the white foreign phase and swelling of cladding tubes were investigated, because these are especially important in view of the soundness of the fuel. Besides, the possibility of the oxidation of UO 2 pellets by cooling water was examined. It was found by metallographic test that the featuring phase different from UO 2 structure existed in the central part of pellets remaining in two broken fuel rod pieces. The report of JAERI judged that it is the product of solid phase reaction above a certain threshold temperature. The change of pellet structure observed in the white foreign phase and the swell of a cladding tube was caused by the oxidation of UO 2 pellets by primary coolant. The result of observation of the white foreign phase showed that it had been liquid phase at the time of the formation. From the thermodynamic examination based on oxygen potential, UO 2 is oxidized above 1100 deg C in the atmosphere of primary coolant. The liquid phase of the oxidized phase of UO 2 is formed above 1600 deg C. (Kako, I.)

  7. Structural Change in Meghalaya: Theory and Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Nayak, Purusottam; Mishra, SK

    2009-01-01

    Structural change which is inherent in an evolving economy refers to a long-term widespread transformation of the fundamental relationships among different parts and organic constituents of it, rather than micro scale or short-term change in output and employment. Short-term economic challenges that are managed with fiscal or monetary policies do not form part of the structural change. Structural change rather involves obsolescence of skills, vocations, and permanent changes in spending and p...

  8. Structural changes, roles and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Statnett is facing great challenges in a Nordic and European integrated power market, with increasingly mighty commercial players. In a competing market there are conflicts between the socio-economic targets for Statkraft's activities and the commercial interests of Statnet's customers and other players in the power market. In the light of development, the connection lines between the customers and Statnett should be changed. Another problem is the legal competence problem that arises when the Oil and Energy Department (OED) works out the general policy at the same time as it owns Statkraft and Statnett and is the appellate body for the development decisions taken by the NVE (the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate). When comprehensive changes in Statkraft's company organisation and ownership are considered, special attention must be paid to the competence problem and to the risk of the commercial producers increasing their impact on how Statnett manages its role as a systems operator

  9. Structural Change in Southern Softwood Stumpage Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas R. Carter

    1998-01-01

    The potential for structural change in southern stumpage market models has impacts on not only our basic understanding of those markets, but also on harvest, inventory and price projections, and related policy. In this paper, we test for structural change in both sawtimber and pulpwood softwood stumpage markets in the U.S. South over the period 1950-1994. Test...

  10. The structural properties of sustainable, continuous change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkonsson, Dorthe Døjbak; Klaas, Johann Peter; Carroll, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    this relationship by exploring what structural properties enable continuous change in inertia-generating organizations and what their performance consequences are in dynamic environments. The article has three main findings: First, employing managers who anticipate change is not enough to generate continuous change......; it is also necessary to raise both the rate of responsiveness and desired performance. Second, continuous change increases average organizational performance and reduces its variation. Third, organizations’ capacity for continuous change is counterintuitively limited by the organizations’ capacity to build...

  11. Structural change in the economy of Nigeria:

    OpenAIRE

    Adeyinka, Adedeji; Salau, Sheu; Vollrath, Dietrich

    2013-01-01

    We document that structural change accounts for approximately one-fifth of the total change in labor productivity in Nigeria between 1996 and 2009. Labor moved out of the agricultural and wholesale and retail trade sectors into manufacturing, transportation and communications, business services, and general services. While structural change did occur in this period, significant gains to aggregate labor productivity are still available from further shifts of labor to higher-productivity sector...

  12. Hospital board structure: changing form and changing issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tregoning, S

    2000-01-01

    Economic and social pressures are compelling many hospitals to consider their current board structure in an effort to position their hospital to meet changing demands. A national profile of the structures of hospital boards has been compiled from a questionnaire completed by hospital board representatives from both government and non-government sectors. Results show that hospital board structures are a hybrid of both philanthropic and corporate models. New structures may be required to meet future challenges. In developing new structures, consideration should be given to identifying the skills and processes required to undertake board business.

  13. Volume changes in unrestrained structural lightweight concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964-08-01

    In this study a comparator-type measuring system was developed to accurately determine volume change characteristics of one structural lightweight concrete. The specific properties studied were the coefficient of linear thermal expansion and unrestra...

  14. Structural Change Accounting with Labor Market Distortions

    OpenAIRE

    Wenbiao Cai

    2014-01-01

    This paper quantifies the relative importance of sectoral productivity and labor market distortions for structural change. I use a model in which labor productivity is the product of TFP and human capital in each sector, but distortions generate wedges in wage per efficiency worker across sectors. I calculate human capital by sector using micro census data, and use the model to infer TFP and distortions such that it replicates structural change in the US, India, Mexico and Brazil between 1960...

  15. Anatomizing the Mechanics of Structural Change

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Carrera, Jaime; Freire Serén, María Jesús; Raurich, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    We characterize several possible mechanisms of structural change by using a general multisector growth model, where preferences and technologies are not parameterized. In this generic set up, we derive the growth rates of sectoral employment shares at the equilibrium. We find that the economic fundamentals governing structural change in the sectoral employment shares are: (i) the income elasticities of the demand for consumption goods; (ii) the Allen-Uzawa elasticities of substitution between...

  16. UV-induced structural changes in chromatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, H.; Zimmer, C.; Vengerov, Yu.Yu.

    1985-01-01

    UV-induced structural alterations of chromatin were studied by means of CD, electron microscopic, and gel electrophoretic measurements. The results indicate that chromatin undergoes serious structural changes after irradiation even at very low fluences. In the low fluence range the structural transitions from the higher ordered chromatin structure to the unfolded state occur without detectable changes in the content of histone H1 and of the core histones. Histone H1 disappears only at fluences above 10 kJ/m 2 . Furthermore, DNA in chromatin is much more sensitive against UV-irradiation and shows a higher degree of strand scission relative to free DNA. While fragmentation in free DNA occurs at fluences above 15 kJ/m 2 , it occurs even at 5.5 kJ/m 2 in the case of chromatin. The biological meaning of the observed UV-induced structural alterations of chromatin is discussed. (author)

  17. Structural changes during oxidation of Au(110)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hale, P.; Thurgate, S.; Wilkie, P.; Parker, A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: We have constructed an Ultra High vacuum (UHV) system interfaced to an electro-chemical cell. The UHV system is equipped with Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). We have used these techniques to examine the oxidation of the Au(110) surface. The gold (110) single crystal exhibits a (2x1) surface structure when clean, but when immersed in 0.01 M HCIO 4 under potential control, the structure has been found to change. Throughout the double layer region the structure remains as (2x1) but when the potential is increased above 0.9-1.0V vs Ag/AgCI, (the pre-oxidation region) the surface structure changes to a centred rectangular structure found to represent a c(2x2) over-layer. This structure is fairly stable and reproducible. After the initial oxidation the structure prevails until 1.2-1.3V whereupon oxidation occurs on a larger scale and the surface structure becomes (1x1). These structures return to (2x1) after the reduction of the oxide, proving that the structural changes are reversible. XPS of these regions has shown a difference in the chemical state of the oxygen. Adsorbed perchlorate ion is initially the only oxygen component but as the potential increases the peak shifts into the hydroxide region and finally it splits into a hydroxide peak and a metal oxide peak. This study indicates a new way of looking at the structure and composition of the gold surface and provides insight into the nature of the interaction between the surface and the solution

  18. Globalization, structural change, and productivity growth:

    OpenAIRE

    McMillan, Margaret; Rodrik, Dani

    2012-01-01

    Large gaps in labor productivity between the traditional and modern parts of the economy are a fundamental reality of developing societies. In this paper, we document these gaps and emphasize that labor flows from low-productivity activities to high-productivity activities are a key driver of development. Our results show that since 1990 structural change has been growth-reducing in both Africa and Latin America, with the most striking changes taking place in Latin America. The bulk of the di...

  19. Migraine and structural changes in the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bashir, Asma; Lipton, Richard B; Ashina, Sait

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the association between migraine without aura (MO) and migraine with aura (MA) and 3 types of structural brain abnormalities detected by MRI: white matter abnormalities (WMAs), infarct-like lesions (ILLs), and volumetric changes in gray and white matter (GM, WM) regions....

  20. CHANGES IN STRUCTURE AND CONTENT HUMIC SUBSTANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroš SIROTIAK

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the process of thermal degradation of humic substances in soil samples exposed to increased temperature. To determine the basic properties of humic substances, humic and fulvic acids are used conventional fractionation chemical laboratory methods. To determine changes in the chemical structure, the method of use of FT-IR ATR spectroscopy technique.

  1. Structural modelling of economic growth: Technological changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukharev Oleg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neoclassical and Keynesian theories of economic growth assume the use of Cobb-Douglas modified functions and other aggregate econometric approaches to growth dynamics modelling. In that case explanations of economic growth are based on the logic of the used mathematical ratios often including the ideas about aggregated values change and factors change a priori. The idea of assessment of factor productivity is the fundamental one among modern theories of economic growth. Nevertheless, structural parameters of economic system, institutions and technological changes are practically not considered within known approaches, though the latter is reflected in the changing parameters of production function. At the same time, on the one hand, the ratio of structural elements determines the future value of the total productivity of the factors and, on the other hand, strongly influences the rate of economic growth and its mode of innovative dynamics. To put structural parameters of economic system into growth models with the possibility of assessment of such modes under conditions of interaction of new and old combinations is an essential step in the development of the theory of economic growth/development. It allows forming stimulation policy of economic growth proceeding from the structural ratios and relations recognized for this economic system. It is most convenient in such models to use logistic functions demonstrating the resource change for old and new combination within the economic system. The result of economy development depends on starting conditions, and on institutional parameters of velocity change of resource borrowing in favour of a new combination and creation of its own resource. Model registration of the resource is carried out through the idea of investments into new and old combinations.

  2. Climate adaptation and policy-induced inflation of coastal property value.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan E McNamara

    Full Text Available Human population density in the coastal zone and potential impacts of climate change underscore a growing conflict between coastal development and an encroaching shoreline. Rising sea-levels and increased storminess threaten to accelerate coastal erosion, while growing demand for coastal real estate encourages more spending to hold back the sea in spite of the shrinking federal budget for beach nourishment. As climatic drivers and federal policies for beach nourishment change, the evolution of coastline mitigation and property values is uncertain. We develop an empirically grounded, stochastic dynamic model coupling coastal property markets and shoreline evolution, including beach nourishment, and show that a large share of coastal property value reflects capitalized erosion control. The model is parameterized for coastal properties and physical forcing in North Carolina, U.S.A. and we conduct sensitivity analyses using property values spanning a wide range of sandy coastlines along the U.S. East Coast. The model shows that a sudden removal of federal nourishment subsidies, as has been proposed, could trigger a dramatic downward adjustment in coastal real estate, analogous to the bursting of a bubble. We find that the policy-induced inflation of property value grows with increased erosion from sea level rise or increased storminess, but the effect of background erosion is larger due to human behavioral feedbacks. Our results suggest that if nourishment is not a long-run strategy to manage eroding coastlines, a gradual removal is more likely to smooth the transition to more climate-resilient coastal communities.

  3. Climate Adaptation and Policy-Induced Inflation of Coastal Property Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Dylan E.; Gopalakrishnan, Sathya; Smith, Martin D.; Murray, A. Brad

    2015-01-01

    Human population density in the coastal zone and potential impacts of climate change underscore a growing conflict between coastal development and an encroaching shoreline. Rising sea-levels and increased storminess threaten to accelerate coastal erosion, while growing demand for coastal real estate encourages more spending to hold back the sea in spite of the shrinking federal budget for beach nourishment. As climatic drivers and federal policies for beach nourishment change, the evolution of coastline mitigation and property values is uncertain. We develop an empirically grounded, stochastic dynamic model coupling coastal property markets and shoreline evolution, including beach nourishment, and show that a large share of coastal property value reflects capitalized erosion control. The model is parameterized for coastal properties and physical forcing in North Carolina, U.S.A. and we conduct sensitivity analyses using property values spanning a wide range of sandy coastlines along the U.S. East Coast. The model shows that a sudden removal of federal nourishment subsidies, as has been proposed, could trigger a dramatic downward adjustment in coastal real estate, analogous to the bursting of a bubble. We find that the policy-induced inflation of property value grows with increased erosion from sea level rise or increased storminess, but the effect of background erosion is larger due to human behavioral feedbacks. Our results suggest that if nourishment is not a long-run strategy to manage eroding coastlines, a gradual removal is more likely to smooth the transition to more climate-resilient coastal communities. PMID:25806944

  4. Climate adaptation and policy-induced inflation of coastal property value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Dylan E; Gopalakrishnan, Sathya; Smith, Martin D; Murray, A Brad

    2015-01-01

    Human population density in the coastal zone and potential impacts of climate change underscore a growing conflict between coastal development and an encroaching shoreline. Rising sea-levels and increased storminess threaten to accelerate coastal erosion, while growing demand for coastal real estate encourages more spending to hold back the sea in spite of the shrinking federal budget for beach nourishment. As climatic drivers and federal policies for beach nourishment change, the evolution of coastline mitigation and property values is uncertain. We develop an empirically grounded, stochastic dynamic model coupling coastal property markets and shoreline evolution, including beach nourishment, and show that a large share of coastal property value reflects capitalized erosion control. The model is parameterized for coastal properties and physical forcing in North Carolina, U.S.A. and we conduct sensitivity analyses using property values spanning a wide range of sandy coastlines along the U.S. East Coast. The model shows that a sudden removal of federal nourishment subsidies, as has been proposed, could trigger a dramatic downward adjustment in coastal real estate, analogous to the bursting of a bubble. We find that the policy-induced inflation of property value grows with increased erosion from sea level rise or increased storminess, but the effect of background erosion is larger due to human behavioral feedbacks. Our results suggest that if nourishment is not a long-run strategy to manage eroding coastlines, a gradual removal is more likely to smooth the transition to more climate-resilient coastal communities.

  5. Radiation-induced structural changes, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogasawara, M.; Matsuyama, T.

    1992-11-01

    This seminar is aimed at understanding both the physical and chemical aspects of the structural changes of materials induced by photons or ionizing radiation. The seminar was held on December 19th, 1991 and from February 13 to 14th, 1992 in this institute. The most active areas of the material science, in addition to the previous subjects, such as organic superconductors, silicon-based polymers, and fullerenes were included in this seminar. (J.P.N.)

  6. Testing for structural changes in large portfolios

    OpenAIRE

    Posch, Peter N.; Ullmann, Daniel; Wied, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Model free tests for constant parameters often fail to detect structural changes in high dimensions. In practice, this corresponds to a portfolio with many assets and a reasonable long time series. We reduce the dimensionality of the problem by looking a compressed panel of time series obtained by cluster analysis and the principal components of the data. Using our methodology we are able to extend a test for a constant correlation matrix from a sub portfolio to whole indices a...

  7. Outlook for activity and structural change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The level of energy-using activities is continuing to increase throughout the world, but the rates of likely growth differ among regions. Over the next 20 years, manufacturing production is expected to grow at a rapid pace in parts of the developing world, and moderately in the OECD countries. In the Former East Bloc, it seems likely to stagnate or decline for much of the 1990s, but could then grow at a moderate pace if the transition to a market economy is successfully managed. Domestic passenger travel seems likely to increase everywhere, and growth in international travel will be especially strong. Freight transport activity is difficult to evaluate in the aggregate, since the composition of goods changes over time, but increase is expected in all regions, especially in the developing countries. Structural change within sectors will have significant impacts on energy use. In manufacturing, faster growth in light industry will lead to lower energy intensity in the OECD countries and especially in the Former East Bloc. The outlook in the LDCs suggests somewhat higher growth in energy-intensive industries, but this trend will vary among countries. In passenger travel, structural change is pointing toward higher energy intensity in most of the world as the role of automobiles and air travel continues to grow. Increase in the use of trucks is pushing in a similar direction in freight transport. In the residential sector, structural change will have only a moderate impact in the OECD countries, where per capita levels of home services are already high, but will push energy use significantly upward in the LDCs, and to a lesser extent, in the Former East Bloc. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  8. Alberta royalty structure changes seen lacking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Canadian petroleum companies have welcomed a revamp of Alberta's royalty structure but say it falls short of what is needed to revitalize activity in the province. The changes will give producers a cut in royalties of at least $170 million (Canadian)/year, offer incentives for new drilling, and index royalty levels to prices. The new royalty plan also will reward companies that funnel more capital into increased exploration programs. The industry association the new royalty rates tied to prices could increase royalties if prices rise above $26 (Canadian)/bbl for oil and $1.70 (Canadian)/Mcf for natural gas. Royalty take would decline below these prices. Oil prices currently are near the $26/bbl level. CAPP the it is difficult to assess the effects of the royalty changes in reactivating shut-in wells and increasing production from marginal wells

  9. Structural changes in dairy business in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teo Vujčić

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Croatia today is in the economy transition process that also includes agriculture aiming to increase production and achieving competitive standard with international and European markets. Currently, domestic cow milk production ensures 80% of annual milk and dairy products requirements with the 20% import. In the period from 1990-1992, during the patriot war, 103000 cows and heifers were destroyed. Since then, Croatia started the gradual process of reorganization of the agricultural private sector including dairy business in order to increase production insensitivity.The agricultural structure of dairy segment is unsatisfactory with only 23.39% of farms holding four or more heifers. Households with 3 cows per farm dominate with average real estate of 0.10-3.0 acres.Changes in milk production (1990-2003 are reflected in the decrease of the number of breeding cattle – index 56.13%, and decrease of milk market producers from 65 000 to 65 151. Never the less, positive trends towards stabilization in milk production (2003 – 642 mil litres and annual milk intake increased from 342 mil litres in 1990 to 472 mil litres in 2003 (index 138.08% can be noticed. Changes in the structure of milk producers show certain positive movements as 23.39% of producers have 53.40% cows and respectively participation in milk production and buy off. Until 2008, with determined development conditions, cow milk production can increase for 42% and from 2703 litres to average of 4000 litres per dairy cow.

  10. Changing optical band structure with single photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Andreas; Caneva, Tommaso; Chang, Darrick E.

    2017-11-01

    Achieving strong interactions between individual photons enables a wide variety of exciting possibilities in quantum information science and many-body physics. Cold atoms interfaced with nanophotonic structures have emerged as a platform to realize novel forms of nonlinear interactions. In particular, when atoms are coupled to a photonic crystal waveguide, long-range atomic interactions can arise that are mediated by localized atom-photon bound states. We theoretically show that in such a system, the absorption of a single photon can change the band structure for a subsequent photon. This occurs because the first photon affects the atoms in the chain in an alternating fashion, thus leading to an effective period doubling of the system and a new optical band structure for the composite atom-nanophotonic system. We demonstrate how this mechanism can be engineered to realize a single-photon switch, where the first incoming photon switches the system from being highly transmissive to highly reflective, and analyze how signatures can be observed via non-classical correlations of the outgoing photon field.

  11. Radiation-induced structural changes. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Yasuhiro; Matsuyama, Tomochika; Ogasawara, Masaaki

    1993-05-01

    This meeting is the fourth of series meetings on the structural change in materials induced by ionizing radiation. The present meeting was organized to discuss specifically on the x-ray storage phosphors such as BaFBr:Eu 2+ or RbI x Br 1-x :Tl and to get a clear understanding of the present status of the research on the storage mechanisms, nature of the rare earth impurities, and the optical properties of BaFBr. It was also expected that all the participants became aware of unsolved problems in these storage materials and that some of them would start research work on the storage phosphors. Therefore this report was edited mainly to provide basic knowledge correlated with the storage phosphors and related phenomena rather than to report simply on the experimental results. (J.P.N.)

  12. Brain Structural Changes in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macey, Paul M.; Kumar, Rajesh; Woo, Mary A.; Valladares, Edwin M.; Yan-Go, Frisca L.; Harper, Ronald M.

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: Determine whether obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) subjects show indications of axonal injury. Design: We assessed fiber integrity in OSA and control subjects with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). We acquired four whole-brain DTI series from each subject. The four series were realigned, and the diffusion tensor calculated at each voxel. Fractional anisotropy (FA), a measure of fiber integrity, was derived from the diffusion tensor, resulting in a whole brain FA “map.” The FA maps were spatially normalized, smoothed, and compared using voxel-based statistics to determine differences between OSA and control groups, with age as a covariate (P Valladares EM; Yan-Go FL; Harper RM. Brain structural changes in obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2008;31(7):967-977. PMID:18652092

  13. Soil structure changes evaluated with computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, Luiz Fernando

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate in millimetric scale changes in soil bulk density and porosity, using the gamma-ray computed tomography in soil samples with disturbed structure due to wetting and drying (W-D) cycles. Soil samples with 98.1 cm 3 were sieved using a 2 mm mesh and homogeneously packed in PVC cylinders. Soil samples were submitted to 1, 2, and 3 W-D cycles. Control samples were not submitted to W-D cycles. After repetitions of W-D cycles, soil sample porosity decreased and soil layers became denser. Computed tomography allowed a continuous analysis of soil bulk density and also soil porosity along millimetric (0.08 cm) layers, what cannot be provided by traditional methods used in soil physics. (author)

  14. Structure and conformational changes of crotamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltran, J.R.; Mascarenhas, Y.P.; Cid, H.; Craievich, A.F.; Laure, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    The secondary structure of crotamine is predicted by the simultaneous use of the statistical method of Chou and Fasman and the method of hydrofobicity profiles resulting in 19% of helix- and 45% of β-structures, in agreement both with previous results obtained from ORD and laser spectroscopy. It allows for the three disulphide bridges and is consistent with a long ellipsoidal shape for the molecule. From SAXS curves measured at several concentrations the radius of gyration, volume and surface of the molecule are obtained. The knowledge of these parameters enables one to conclude that the overall shape of the crotamine molecule can be described by a prolate (long) ellipsoide of semi-axis a, a and νa with ν = 2.3, in agreement with the above prediction. The radius of gyration of crotamine is also determined as a function of pH. An important change found for pH values from 9.5 to 12.5 is atributed to a dominant effect of molecular aggregation. (Author) [pt

  15. CHANGES IN STRUCTURE OF ROMANIA'S INTERNATIONAL TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CECILIA IRINA RABONTU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Evolution of structural changes in Romanian trade is somewhat interesting if you look at it from the perspective of mutations that occurred in the categories of goods and services subject to international trade. After the Revolution of 1989, the Romanian economy has gone through dramatic changes that had determinate a total reconfiguration of foreign trade. At the same time, the economic instability has had further repercussions on the Romanian economy manifested through higher prices, reduced wages or earnings, reduced employment and rising unemployment, increasing interest rates on loans due to the devaluation of the national currency, increase value-added tax, consumption reduction etc. We proposed in this paper an analyze for a significant period of time evolution of international trade in goods and services of Romania in order to establish the main categories of goods traded but Romania's main trading partners, too. In order to achieve the central goal of this paper we will use statistical data found in the databases provided by the WTO, Eurostat and the National Statistical Institutes and statistical methods to support our initiative.

  16. Structural changes induced by electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, J.; Pedraza, D.F.

    1993-01-01

    Highly oriented pyrolytic graphite was irradiated at room temperature with 300 kV electrons. Transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy were employed to study the structural changes produced by irradiation. The occurrence of a continuous ring intensity in the selected area diffraction (SAD) pattern obtained on a specimen irradiated with the electron beam parallel to the c-crystallographic axis indicated that microstructural changes had occurred. However, from the SAD pattern obtained for the specimens tilted relative to the irradiation direction, it was found that up to a fluence of 1.1x10 27 e/m 2 graphite remained crystalline. An SAD pattern of a specimen irradiated with the electron beam perpendicular to the c-axis confirmed the persistence of crystalline order. High resolution electron microscopy showed that ordering along the c-axis direction remained. A density reduction of 8.9% due to irradiation was determined from the plasmon frequency shift. A qualitative model is proposed to explain these observations. A new determination of the threshold displacement energy, Ed, of carbon atoms in graphite was done by examining the appearance of a continuous ring in the SAD pattern at various electron energies. A value of 30 eV was obtained whether the incident electron beam was parallel or perpendicular to the c-axis, demonstrating that Ed is independent of the displacement direction

  17. Structure changes of irradiated UO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Junji; Yokouchi, Yoji; Kajiyama, Takashi; Terunuma, Toshihiro; Koizumi, Masumichi

    1973-01-01

    The structural change of UO 2 irradiated in GETR reactor was analyzed on void distribution, fuel cracking, and gap conductance between fuel and cladding. Metallographic analysis was carried out on 21 sections of irradiated fuel pins. Radial void distribution was measured by the linear analysis technique based on the equivalence between the volume fraction of voids and the intercepted length of lines between void boundaries. Fuel cracks were classified into two types, namely radial cracks and circumferential cracks. The radial position, length, angle and number of each fuel clad were measured on metallographic section and autoradiography. The gap conductance between fuel and cladding was calculated from the equation h = q/(T sub(s) - T sub(i)) where h is gap conductance, T sub(i) is inside clad temperature and T sub(s) is outside clad temperature. In void distribution, as the result of studying the effect of linear heat rating on the radial void fraction of UO 2 fuel irradiated with the similar level of burnup, one specimen showed that the void fraction of columnar grain growth region was comparable to that of fabricated region, and two specimens showed higher void fraction at fabricated region than the calculated one. In fuel cladding, no significant effect of burnup on fuel cracking was observed, and the number of fuel cracking increased with shutdown or scram numbers, but the radial position of circumferential cracks was not much changed. In gap conductance, it was influenced by the estimation of temperature of columnar grain growth. (Iwakiri, K.)

  18. [Crystallographic evaluation of structural changes in water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farashchuk, N F; Rakhmanin, Yu A; Savostikova, O N; Telenkova, O G

    2014-01-01

    The study of the structural state of tap water that has been stored for two days in the packaging materials of various type and in different conditions, was performed with the use of crystallographic method for the investigation of liquids based on a special approach for dehydration of the drop, which is a fixed thin "slice" of the examines liquid. Most organized crystallographic pattern was shown to observe in a drop of water after treatment Bioptron lamp (content of liquid-crystal associates (LCA)--6.90 ± 0.23), and stored in a silver vessel (content LCA--6.28 ± 0.17), and the least organized, almost amorphous precipitate is formed in a drop of water stored in plastic containers (content LCA--2.92 ± 0.15%). Basing on the obtained results, it can be concluded that the crystallographic method can be used for the identification of qualitative changes occurring in liquid water under the influence of various physical factors, for the identification of the rationality of the use of hereafter sophisticated quantitative techniques.

  19. The Theoretical Foundations of Structural Changes in Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaustova Viktoriia Ye.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at defining the theoretical foundations of structural changes in economy. It has been proved that structural policy of the State is one of the main directions influencing the structure of economy, balancing its proportions, and ensuring progressive development. The components of structural policy have been defined. Genesis of scientific directions of researching the structure of economy was considered. The interpretation of the concept of «structure of economy» in the works of scientists was studied. The classification of particular structures of the national industrial complex was considered. It has been proved that the main role in the analysis of structural changes should be given to the structure of economy (of industrial complex, according to the types of economic activity. The interpretations of the concepts of «structural transformations», «structural shifts», «structural changes», «structural crisis» in the economy have been clarified. The functions of structural crises have been considered. The dynamics of changes in structural shifts were researched. The classification of structural shifts in the economy was considered. An interpretation of progressive structural changes has been suggested.

  20. Testing for change in structural elements of forest inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melinda Vokoun; David Wear; Robert Abt

    2009-01-01

    In this article we develop a methodology to test for changes in the underlying relationships between measures of forest productivity (structural elements) and site characteristics, herein referred to as structural changes, using standard forest inventories. Changes in measures of forest growing stock volume and number of trees for both...

  1. Variables and equations in hybrid systems with structural changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van D.A.

    2001-01-01

    In many models of physical systems, structural changes are common. Such structural changes may cause a variable to change from a differential variable to an algebraic variable, or to a variable that is not defined by an equation at all. Most hybrid modelling languages either restrict the kind of

  2. Family Structure Changes and Children's Health, Behavior, and Educational Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    decreased to 73% in 2005. Hence it is important to improve our understanding of the impact of "shocks" in family structure due to parental relationship dissolution on children. International studies mainly suggest a negative relationship between non-nuclear family structure and child outcomes. There are two...... relation between family structure changes and children's outcomes. Children who have experienced family structure changes during childhood seem to have worse educational outcomes and a higher propensity to being hospitalized and convicted of a crime. The children in the dataset experience up to 13 family...... structure changes during childhood. More family structure changes implies worse outcomes and might actually be more important than the number of years a child has spent in a single parent household. The age at which the family structure change occurs also seems to be important at least for some outcomes....

  3. Upgrade and Design of Coastal Structures Exposed to Climate Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen Quvang Harck

    This thesis "Upgrade and Design of Coastal Structures Exposed to Climate Changes" evaluates the performance of existing types of structures when exposed to climate changes. This includes also the potential of using cost‐sharing multipurpose structures for protection against the effects of future...... climate changes. The thesis consists of three parts. The first part evaluates the performance of existing design formulae for estimation of wave actions on structures, especially in shallow water since these structures are most vulnerable to the rising sea water levels caused by climate changes. Existing...... of coastal protection structures, which are extended to a wider range of wave conditions, and which can be used to more accurately estimate the influence from climate changes. In the second part of the thesis, the extended and modified formulae are used in case studies to evaluate the influence from climate...

  4. Entrepreneurship, structural changes and tax payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirokov Ivan Olegovich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of developing a business environment across industries. The characteristic of transformation as a result of resource constraints and the process of self-organization of ecological type. Held in the formalization of variational suggesting adequacy coenosis optimization theory structure of the business environment on the basis of fiscal restraint. We propose a streaming algorithm for determining the boundary size of the tax rate.

  5. Leading Change: Faculty Development through Structured Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Painter

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There are relentless calls for innovation in higher education programs in response to media and policy-makers attention to such concerns as instructional quality, relevance to employment, costs, and time-to-degree. At the same time, the individual course remains the primary unit of instruction and there is little evidence of faculty development strategies to assist with changing core instructional practices. We faced that dilemma when we led an innovative doctoral program in educational leadership. Soon after beginning, we implemented a regular meeting of all faculty members teaching and advising in the program to address upcoming events and review student progress. Our retrospective analysis indicates that these meetings evolved as a practical and sustainable framework for faculty development in support of deep change for instructional practices. Here we describe the challenge of faculty development for change and draw lessons learned from our four years of leadership centered on experiential learning and community sense-making. We hope that program leaders who aspire to promote faculty development in conjunction with graduate program implementation will find these lessons useful.

  6. Probing structural changes of self assembled i-motif DNA

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Iljoon; Patil, Sachin; Fhayli, Karim; Alsaiari, Shahad K.; Khashab, Niveen M.

    2015-01-01

    We report an i-motif structural probing system based on Thioflavin T (ThT) as a fluorescent sensor. This probe can discriminate the structural changes of RET and Rb i-motif sequences according to pH change. This journal is

  7. Economic Growth, Structural Change and Productive Employment Linkages in India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggarwal, Aradhna

    2018-01-01

    This article presents a quantitative analysis of growth, structural change and employment linkages at the aggregate level and by sector under the state- and market-led regimes in India. The underlying objectives are: (a) to understand how economic liberalization has affected the economic and labour...... intervention to broad base structural change for generating productive employment, which is at the core of poverty reduction....

  8. The effects of Climate Change on Structural Loads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, C.P.W.; Steenbergen, R.D.J.M.; Bentum, van C.A.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the possible impact of climate change on structural safety is discussed. Our work concentrates on possible changes in the structural loads. The work presented is based on the situation for the Netherlands, but conclusions are valid for at least the north west of Europe. The

  9. The Factors of Changing the Structure of Modern Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelekh O. B.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at attempting to clarify the essence of structural changes and to define the most important factors that cause structural changes in the economy, as well as researching the mechanism of their influence on the process of change. Economic development is directly related to economic structures and the changes that occur in them. Therefore, it is impossible to fully analyze economic development without taking into consideration structural changes in the economy. The economic system consists of separate branches, departments, production places, enterprises, has a certain structure of production resources and external trade, spatial placement, and is regulated by economic rules and norms. Under the economic structure the author understands the placement of the basic elements of economy and the proportions that have developed between them. Therefore, changes in the structure of economy are a complex system of changes in the interrelated proportions, taking place under the influence of the existing technical basis, social mechanisms of production, distribution and exchange in accordance with public needs, available resources, and the level of the labor productivity achieved. In conditions of modern economy and production, the factors influencing changes of the structure of economy, are divided into three groups: socio-economic, scientific-technological, and institutional. The author presents a list of the most important factors for each group and analyzes the mechanisms of interrelations between them.

  10. Systemically induced changes in skeletal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Derslice, R.

    1989-01-01

    The number of systemic designs leading the radiographically detectable bone and joint changes is legion. Some disorders (notably the arthridites), while qualifying as diseases with protean systemic manifestations are discussed elsewhere in this book. Other disorders (e.g., achondroplasia), while not representing diseases per se, are included in this chapter for the sake of completeness and due to their relative frequency and their interesting radiographic characteristics. The author focuses on a number of selected conditions, some commonly seen and some relatively infrequently encountered. They are classified into he following categories: endocrinologic; metabolic; hematologic and reticuloendothelial; and dysplastic

  11. Upgrade and Design of Coastal Structures Exposed to Climate Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen Quvang Harck

    This thesis “Upgrade and Design of Coastal Structures Exposed to Climate Changes” evaluates the performance of existing types of structures when exposed to climate changes. This includes also the potential of using cost‐sharing multipurpose structures for protection against the effects of future...... climate changes. The thesis consists of three parts. The first part evaluates the performance of existing design formulae for estimation of wave actions on structures, especially in shallow water since these structures are most vulnerable to the rising sea water levels caused by climate changes. Existing...... of coastal protection structures, which are extended to a wider range of wave conditions, and which can be used to more accurately estimate the influence from climate changes. In the second part of the thesis, the extended and modified formulae are used in case studies to evaluate the influence from climate...

  12. FUNDAMENTAL ECONOMIC STRUCTURE AND STRUCTURAL CHANGE IN REGIONAL ECONOMIES: A METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Sudhir K. THAKUR

    2011-01-01

    Regional economic structure is defined as the composition and patterns of various components of the regional economy such as: produc-tion, employment, consumption, trade, and gross regional product. Structur-al change is conceptualized as the change in relative importance of the aggregate indicators of the economy. The process of regional development and structural change are intertwined, implying as economic development takes place the strength and direction of intersectoral relationships ch...

  13. Sustainable urban structures to challenge climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil CREANGA

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Public spaces within the city in all their form of different types - streets, boulevards, squares, plazas, market places, green areas - are the backbone of cities. Over the centuries buildings defined the shape and quality of public spaces, valorising them in various ways. The post-modern development of urban form generated a great number of “urban spaces”, where there is no longer correspondence between architectural forms and social and political messages: shopping malls and theme parks, inner public spaces, strip developments etc. Urban sprawl accompanied by loss of agricultural/rural land and its impact on the environment are serious concerns for most cities over Europe. To strike the right balance between inner city regeneration, under-use of urban land in the old abandoned sites and the ecological benefits that accompany the new private business initiatives in suburban areas, is one of the major challenges confronting cities in Europe. The paper will analyze the complex relations between architecture and public space, in an attempt to understand how traditional urban structures, public and green spaces, squares and streets, could provide orientation for quality-oriented regeneration. Case in point is Bucharest - capital city of Romania - where aggressive intervention in the urban structure during the 1980s disrupted the fabric of the city. The investigation is oriented towards fundamental questions such as: how to secure and preserve sites that serve as initial points in upgrading processes, how to balance private investment criteria and the quality interests of the urban communities. The major aim is to provide a support for decision making in restoring the fundamental role of public urban space in shaping urban form and supporting community life.

  14. A Structural Equation Model of Conceptual Change in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Sinatra, Gale M.

    2011-01-01

    A model of conceptual change in physics was tested on introductory-level, college physics students. Structural equation modeling was used to test hypothesized relationships among variables linked to conceptual change in physics including an approach goal orientation, need for cognition, motivation, and course grade. Conceptual change in physics…

  15. Analysis of the Changing Functional Structure of Major Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Changes in Urban Functional Structure in Ethiopia. EJBE Vol. ... primary engines of economic growth, social wellbeing, centers of creativity, innovation and ... economic as well as commercial and business activities were confined to the capital ...

  16. Dynamic Changes in Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Structure in Ventricular Myocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L. Vega

    2011-01-01

    sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR and the sarcolemma where Ca2+ release is activated. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the SR is a structurally inert organelle in ventricular myocytes. Our data suggest that rather than being static, the SR undergoes frequent dynamic structural changes. SR boutons expressing functional ryanodine receptors moved throughout the cell, approaching or moving away from the sarcolemma of ventricular myocytes. These changes in SR structure occurred in the absence of changes in [Ca2+] during EC coupling. Microtubules and the molecular motors dynein and kinesin 1(Kif5b were important regulators of SR motility. These findings support a model in which the SR is a motile organelle capable of molecular motor protein-driven structural changes.

  17. Impact of the structural changes on the nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziakova, M.

    2005-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with impact of the structural changes (privatization of the Slovenske Elektrarne, a.s.) and new Atomic law (541/2004 Coll. Laws) on the nuclear safety in the Slovak Republic.

  18. Changes in vegetation structure and aboveground biomass in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in vegetation structure and aboveground biomass in response to traditional rangeland management practices in Borana, southern Ethiopia. ... managed by prescribed fire for five years and grazed only post-fire during dry seasons.

  19. Testing for structural change in the presence of long memory

    OpenAIRE

    Krämer, Walter; Sibbertsen, Philipp

    2000-01-01

    We derive the limiting null distributions of the standard and OLS-based CUSUM-tests for structural change of the coefficients of a linear regression model in the context of long memory disturbances. We show that both tests behave fundamentally different in a long memory environment, as compared to short memory, and that long memory is easily mistaken for structural change when standard critical values are employed.

  20. Structural changes in the polyethylene after ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proskova, K.; Svorcik, V.

    1999-01-01

    This work deals with the study of structural changes of the polyethylene after ion implantation. There were used the polyethylene film with thickness 15 μm, and Ar + ions with energy 63 keV and Xe + ions with energy 156 keV with doses 1·10 13 - 3·10 15 cm -2 for experiments. For the study of structural changes of polymer were used methods UV-VIS spectrometry, ESR, Rutherford back scattering

  1. New structural changes in Kazakhstan petroleum and gas industry management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadirov, N.K.; Konaev, Eh.N.

    1998-01-01

    The basic stags of structural changes in Kazakhstan petroleum and gas industry management are considered. It is shown, that in new economic situation the traditional branch scheme of management became out date and does not meet demands up the times. The spent structural changes in petroleum and gas industry management will promote to strengthening of strategic role of hydrocarbon raw material production and processing in prospect. (author)

  2. Changes in Nuclear Structure During Wheat Endosperm Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegel, E.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis is an investigation into the structure of wheat endosperm nuclei starting with nuclear divisions and migration during syncytium formation followed by the development of nuclear shape and positioning of chromosome territories and ending with changes in subchromosomal structure during the

  3. The changes of ADI structure during high temperature annealing

    OpenAIRE

    A. Krzyńska; M. Kaczorowski

    2010-01-01

    The results of structure investigations of ADI during it was annealing at elevated temperature are presented. Ductile iron austempered at temperature 325oC was then isothermally annealed 360 minutes at temperature 400, 450, 500 and 550oC. The structure investigations showed that annealing at these temperatures caused substantial structure changes and thus essential hardness decrease, which is most useful property of ADI from point of view its practical application. Degradation advance of the ...

  4. Does competitive entry structurally change key marketing metrics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kornelis, Marcel; Dekimpe, Marnik G.; Leeflang, Peter S. H.

    To what extent does competitive entry create a structural change in key marketing metrics? New players mayjust be a temporal nuisance to incumbents, but could also fundamentally change the latter's performance evolution, or induce them to permanently alter their spending levels and/or pricing

  5. Does competitive entry structurally change key marketing metrics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kornelis, M.; Dekimpe, de M.G.; Leeflang, P.S.H.

    2008-01-01

    To what extent does competitive entry create a structural change in keymarketingmetrics? New players may just be a temporal nuisance to incumbents, but could also fundamentally change the latter's performance evolution, or induce them to permanently alter their spending levels and/or pricing

  6. Bone structure changes in iliac crest grafts combined with implants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, Jan Willem; Ruijter, Jan M.; Koole, Ronald; de Putter, Cornelis; Cune, Marco S.

    2010-01-01

    Remodeling of onlay grafts combined with implants to the mandible results in predictable changes in the graft's radiographic density. We studied the relationship between changes in radiographic density and trabecular structure during the first year after onlay grafting with simultaneous implant

  7. Anomalous structural changes and elastic properties of bismuth oxide superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Y.S.; Xiang, J.; Chang, F.G.; Zhang, J.C.; He, A.S.; Wang, H.; Gu, B.L.

    1989-01-01

    Ultrasonic measurement revealed that there are anomalous structural changes near 200 K in single 2212 or 2223 phase samples of Bi(Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O. Detailed study showed such anomalous changes are isothermal-like processes and have a characteristics of second order phase transition, accompanying with increases in lattice constants. The elastic properties of these ceramics and related systems are discussed

  8. Modeling structural change in spatial system dynamics: A Daisyworld example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuwirth, C; Peck, A; Simonović, S P

    2015-03-01

    System dynamics (SD) is an effective approach for helping reveal the temporal behavior of complex systems. Although there have been recent developments in expanding SD to include systems' spatial dependencies, most applications have been restricted to the simulation of diffusion processes; this is especially true for models on structural change (e.g. LULC modeling). To address this shortcoming, a Python program is proposed to tightly couple SD software to a Geographic Information System (GIS). The approach provides the required capacities for handling bidirectional and synchronized interactions of operations between SD and GIS. In order to illustrate the concept and the techniques proposed for simulating structural changes, a fictitious environment called Daisyworld has been recreated in a spatial system dynamics (SSD) environment. The comparison of spatial and non-spatial simulations emphasizes the importance of considering spatio-temporal feedbacks. Finally, practical applications of structural change models in agriculture and disaster management are proposed.

  9. Shoreline change due to coastal structures of power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, K. S.; Lee, T. S.; Kim, Y. I.

    2001-01-01

    Characteristics of shoreline change at the coastal area near power plant were analyzed. For a nuclear power plant located in the east coast of Korean peninsula, remote-sensing data, i.e.airborne images and satellite images are acquired and shoreline data were extracted. Recession and davance of shoreline due to coastal structures of powder plant and land reclamation was showed. 1-line numerical shoreline change model was established for simulating the response of shoreline to construction of coastal structures. The model uses curvilinear coordinates that follow the shoreline and is capable of handling the formation of tombolos as well as the growth of salients in the vicinity of coastal structures. The model predicted significant erosion of beach in case breakwaters were extended. Offshore breakwaters were suggested as a countermeasure to shoreline change

  10. Family Structure Changes and Children's Health, Behavior, and Educational Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    More and more children do not grow up in traditional nuclear families. Instead they grow up in single parent households or in families with a step-parent. Hence it is important to improve our understanding of the impact of "shocks" in family structure due to parental relationship dissolution...... on children. In this study I empirically test whether children are traumatized both in the short and the long run by shocks in the family structure during childhood. I focus on educational, behavioral, and health outcomes. A population sample of Danish children born in January to May 1983, 1984, and 1985...... is used for the analysis. The empirical cross-sectional analysis indicates a negative relation between the number of family structure changes and children.s educational outcomes. Children experiencing many family structure changes also seem to have worse health outcomes....

  11. The structural change of lanthanum diiodide upon hydrogenation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryazanov, M.; Simon, A.; Mattausch, Hj.; Kremer, R.K.

    2004-01-01

    Slowly heating LaI 2 under 1 atm hydrogen to 650 deg. C leads to LaI 2 H, analyzed as LaI 2 H 0.95(3) , accompanied by a structural change from tetragonal to hexagonal. Sharp reflections in the XRD pattern can be indexed in P6 3 /mmc with a=4.2158(7) A and c=15.508(3) A, however, diffuse reflections indicate a polytypic intergrowth of MoS 2 and NbS 2 type structures. The earlier determined miscibility gap between LaI 2 and LaI 2 H x (x∼0.5) is closely related to the change of the structure. The Pauli paramagnetism for LaI 2 , χ P = 43(2)x10 -6 cm 3 /mol, derived from measurements on LaI 2 and LaI 2 H is in good agreement with the value estimated from band structure calculations

  12. Temperature-induced structural changes in fluorozirconate glasses and liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, S.; Youngman, R.E.

    2002-01-01

    The atomic structure and its temperature dependence in fluorozirconate glasses and supercooled liquids have been studied with high-resolution and high-temperature 19 F and 23 Na nuclear-magnetic-resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The 19 F NMR spectra in these glasses show the presence of multiple F environments. Temperature dependence of the 19 F magic-angle-spinning NMR spectra indicates a progressive change in the average F coordination environment in the glass structure, besides motional narrowing due to substantial mobility of F - ions. The observed change in the average 19 F NMR chemical shift is consistent with progressive breaking of the Zr-F-Zr linkages in the glass structure with increasing temperature. The onset of such a change in F speciation is observed at temperatures well below T g . This result is evidence of changes in the average equilibrium structure in an inorganic glass-forming liquid at T g , albeit on a local scale. The 23 Na NMR spectra indicate that the cations in these glasses become significantly mobile only at temperatures T≥T g , which allows for the onset of global structural relaxation and viscous flow

  13. Structural change in developing countries: has it decreased gender inequality?

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle Rendall

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the evolution of female labor market outcomes from 1987 to 2008 by assessing the role of changing labor demand requirements in four developing countries: Brazil, Mexico, India and Thailand. The results highlight the importance of structural change in reducing gender disparities by decreasing the labor demand for physical attributes. The results show that India, the country with the greatest physical labor requirements, exhibits the largest labor market gender inequality. I...

  14. Atomistic mechanisms governing structural stability change of zinc antimony thermoelectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaolong [Frontier Institute of Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710054 (China); Lin, Jianping, E-mail: jaredlin@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiamen University of Technology, Xiamen 361024 (China); Qiao, Guanjun [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Wang, Zhao, E-mail: zwangzhao@gmail.com [Frontier Institute of Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710054 (China); State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2015-01-05

    The structural stability of thermoelectric materials is a subject of growing importance for their energy harvesting applications. Here, we study the microscopic mechanisms governing the structural stability change of zinc antimony at its working temperature, using molecular dynamics combined with experimental measurements of the electrical and thermal conductivity. Our results show that the temperature-dependence of the thermal and electrical transport coefficients is strongly correlated with a structural transition. This is found to be associated with a relaxation process, in which a group of Zn atoms migrates between interstitial sites. This atom migration gradually leads to a stabilizing structural transition of the entire crystal framework, and then results in a more stable crystal structure of β–Zn{sub 4}Sb{sub 3} at high temperature.

  15. Internal structure changes of eyelash induced by eye makeup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukami, Ken-Ichi; Inoue, Takafumi; Kawai, Tomomitsu; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Uesugi, Kentaro; Suzuki, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    To investigate how eye makeup affects eyelash structure, internal structure of eyelashes were observed with a scanning X-ray microscopic tomography system using synchrotron radiation light source. Eyelash samples were obtained from 36 Japanese women aged 20-70 years and whose use of eye makeup differed. Reconstructed cross-sectional images showed that the structure of the eyelash closely resembled that of scalp hair. The eyelash structure is changed by use of eye makeup. There was a positive correlation between the frequency of mascara use and the degree of cracking in cuticle. The positive correlation was also found between the frequency of mascara use and the porosity of the cortex. By contrast, the use of eyelash curler did not affect the eyelash structure with statistical significance.

  16. Muscle structural changes in mitochondrial myopathy relate to genotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, David B.; Langkilde, Annika Reynberg; Ørngreen, Mette C.

    2003-01-01

    It is well known that morphological changes at the cellular level occur in muscle of patients with mitochondrial myopathy (MM), but changes in muscle structure with fat infiltration and gross variation of muscle fiber size with giant fibers, normally encountered in the muscular dystrophies, have...... typically not been associated with mitochondrial disease. We investigated gross and microscopic muscle morphology in thigh muscles by muscle biopsy and MRI in 16 patients with MM, and compared findings with those obtained in muscular dystrophy patients and healthy subjects. Changes of muscle architecture...

  17. Structural changes of creatine kinase upon substrate binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forstner, M; Kriechbaum, M; Laggner, P; Wallimann, T

    1998-08-01

    Small-angle x-ray scattering was used to investigate structural changes upon binding of individual substrates or a transition state analog complex (TSAC; Mg-ADP, creatine, and KNO3) to creatine kinase (CK) isoenzymes (dimeric muscle-type (M)-CK and octameric mitochondrial (Mi)-CK) and monomeric arginine kinase (AK). Considerable changes in the shape and the size of the molecules occurred upon binding of Mg-nucleotide or TSAC. The radius of gyration of Mi-CK was reduced from 55.6 A (free enzyme) to 48.9 A (enzyme plus Mg-ATP) and to 48.2 A (enzyme plus TSAC). M-CK showed similar changes from 28.0 A (free enzyme) to 25.6 A (enzyme plus Mg-ATP) and to 25.5 A (enzyme plus TSAC). Creatine alone did not lead to significant changes in the radii of gyration, nor did free ATP or ADP. AK also showed a change of the radius of gyration from 21.5 A (free enzyme) to 19.7 A (enzyme plus Mg-ATP), whereas with arginine alone only a minor change could be observed. The primary change in structure as seen with monomeric AK seems to be a Mg-nucleotide-induced domain movement relative to each other, whereas the effect of substrate may be of local order only. In CK, however, additional movements have to be involved.

  18. Changes in plasma membrane structure upon irradiation on thymocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreval', V.I.

    1993-01-01

    Thymocytes were irradiated with doses of 4 to 10 4 Gy. The binding of 1-anilinonaphtalene-8-sulphonate and Ca 2+ to plasma membranes; viscosity and lipid peroxidation; Stern-Folmer constant; and the number of Sh-groups of membrane proteins were determined. The structural changes in plasma membranes after irradiation of thymocytes were found to be cooperative

  19. Extinction Partially Reverts Structural Changes Associated with Remote Fear Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetere, Gisella; Restivo, Leonardo; Novembre, Giovanni; Aceti, Massimiliano; Lumaca, Massimo; Ammassari-Teule, Martine

    2011-01-01

    Structural synaptic changes occur in medial prefrontal cortex circuits during remote memory formation. Whether extinction reverts or further reshapes these circuits is, however, unknown. Here we show that the number and the size of spines were enhanced in anterior cingulate (aCC) and infralimbic (ILC) cortices 36 d following contextual fear…

  20. Structural change and agricultural diversification since China’s reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural change is considered the major engine in fostering a country’s growth. In the agricultural sector, diversification is the commonly used development strategy to increase rural sector’s flexibility, and to respond to improving technologies and market conditions. This study examined agricultural development and transformation during China’s socio-economic reforms. In particular, it empirically investigated whether the change of China’s agricultural structure is consistent with structural change theory and observed outcomes from other countries. The degree of agricultural diversification was quantitatively measured at a regional scale using the Herfindahl index. An underdeveloped province in northwest China was studied to provide insights into the interaction among structural change, agricultural diversification, and implemented development policies. Aggregate-level analyses suggest that China’s agricultural transformation pattern is consistent with those of other developing countries. A specific provincial-level analysis shows that environmentally and economically disadvantaged regions are slower to diversify their economy than better endorsed regions.

  1. Understanding and Representing Changing Work Structures and Practices through Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, Stacey M. B.

    2018-01-01

    Courses: Organizational Communication, Advanced Organizational Communication, Organizing Work, Management/Organizational History. Objectives: This activity will help students to understand major shifts in the organization of work and creatively represent changing work structures and practices. An optional follow-up assignment is included. A…

  2. Frequency effects and structural change – the Afrikaans preterite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    According to emergent grammar and exemplar theory in cognitive linguistics, the frequency of an item affects its behaviour in terms of structural change. In this article, I illustrate how high frequency items, such as preterital modal auxiliaries and copulas in Afrikaans, resist regularising with the rest of the Afrikaans verbal ...

  3. The structural changes in the Mexican coffee sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Padron, Benigno Rodriguez; Burger, Kees

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses the structural changes which have been present since the economic clauses of the International Coffee Agreements have no longer been in effect. It studies the elements that modified the coffee policy over time. It also investigates the main characteristics of the entire coffee

  4. Original Paper Floristic and structural changes in secondary forests ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data from the first inventory in secondary and old-growth forests were ... Structural changes in secondary forests are less known in West Africa, and ... temporal succession from one time spatial ..... s = number of species sampled per hectare; S = species richness of the whole forest; NF = the number of taxonomic families,.

  5. Structural changes during the unfolding of Bovine serum albumin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The native form of serum albumin is the most important soluble protein in the body plasma. In order to investigate the structural changes of Bovine serum albumin (BSA) during its unfolding in the presence of urea, a small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) study was performed. The scattering curves of dilute solutions of BSA ...

  6. Extinction partially reverts structural changes associated with remote fear memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vetere, Gisella; Restivo, Leonardo; Novembre, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Structural synaptic changes occur in medial prefrontal cortex circuits during remote memory formation. Whether extinction reverts or further reshapes these circuits is, however, unknown. Here we show that the number and the size of spines were enhanced in anterior cingulate (aCC) and infralimbic...... the remote memory network, suggesting that the preserved network properties might sustain reactivation of extinguished conditioned fear....

  7. Histological changes in kidney structure following a long – term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histological changes in kidney structure following paracetamol administration in pregnant Sprague - Dawley rats were studied. 10 Sprague-Dawley rats divided into five animals per group were used for the study. They were divided into two groups (A and B). Group A served as a control group, while group B received ...

  8. Effective Organizational Structures and Processes: Addressing Issues of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Maureen Snow

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes organizational structures and processes at the institutional and project levels for the development and support of distance learning initiatives. It addresses environmental and stakeholder issues and explores principles and strategies of effective leadership for change creation and management.

  9. A structural framework for anomalous change detection and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, Lakshman [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Theiler, James P [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    We present a spatially adaptive scheme for automatically searching a pair of images of a scene for unusual and interesting changes. Our motivation is to bring into play structural aspects of image features alongside the spectral attributes used for anomalous change detection (ACD). We leverage a small but informative subset of pixels, namely edge pixels of the images, as anchor points of a Delaunay triangulation to jointly decompose the images into a set of triangular regions, called trixels, which are spectrally uniform. Such decomposition helps in image regularization by simple-function approximation on a feature-adaptive grid. Applying ACD to this trixel grid instead of pixels offers several advantages. It allows: (1) edge-preserving smoothing of images, (2) speed-up of spatial computations by significantly reducing the representation of the images, and (3) the easy recovery of structure of the detected anomalous changes by associating anomalous trixels with polygonal image features. The latter facility further enables the application of shape-theoretic criteria and algorithms to characterize the changes and recognize them as interesting or not. This incorporation of spatial information has the potential to filter out some spurious changes, such as due to parallax, shadows, and misregistration, by identifying and filtering out those that are structurally similar and spatially pervasive. Our framework supports the joint spatial and spectral analysis of images, potentially enabling the design of more robust ACD algorithms.

  10. Changes in host-parasitoid food web structure with elevation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maunsell, Sarah C; Kitching, Roger L; Burwell, Chris J; Morris, Rebecca J

    2015-03-01

    Gradients in elevation are increasingly used to investigate how species respond to changes in local climatic conditions. Whilst many studies have shown elevational patterns in species richness and turnover, little is known about how food web structure is affected by elevation. Contrasting responses of predator and prey species to elevation may lead to changes in food web structure. We investigated how the quantitative structure of a herbivore-parasitoid food web changes with elevation in an Australian subtropical rain forest. On four occasions, spread over 1 year, we hand-collected leaf miners at twelve sites, along three elevational gradients (between 493 m and 1159 m a.s.l). A total of 5030 insects, including 603 parasitoids, were reared, and summary food webs were created for each site. We also carried out a replicated manipulative experiment by translocating an abundant leaf-mining weevil Platynotocis sp., which largely escaped parasitism at high elevations (≥ 900 m a.s.l.), to lower, warmer elevations, to test if it would experience higher parasitism pressure. We found strong evidence that the environmental change that occurs with increasing elevation affects food web structure. Quantitative measures of generality, vulnerability and interaction evenness decreased significantly with increasing elevation (and decreasing temperature), whilst elevation did not have a significant effect on connectance. Mined plant composition also had a significant effect on generality and vulnerability, but not on interaction evenness. Several relatively abundant species of leaf miner appeared to escape parasitism at higher elevations, but contrary to our prediction, Platynotocis sp. did not experience greater levels of parasitism when translocated to lower elevations. Our study indicates that leaf-mining herbivores and their parasitoids respond differently to environmental conditions imposed by elevation, thus producing structural changes in their food webs. Increasing

  11. Financing reform and structural change in the health services industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, C W; Phillips, B U

    1986-08-01

    This paper reviews the major trends in financing reform, emphasizing their impact on those characteristics of the market for health services that economists have viewed as monopolistic, and discusses the implications of structural change for the allied health professions. Hopefully, by understanding the fundamental forces of change and responding to uncertainty with flexibility and imagination, the allied health professions can capitalize on the opportunities afforded by structural change. Overall, these trends should result in the long-term outlook for use of allied health services to increase at an average annual rate of 9% to 10%. Allied health professionals may also witness an increase in independent practice opportunities. Finally, redistribution of jobs will likely occur in favor of outpatient facilities, home health agencies, and nontraditional settings. This in turn will have an impact on allied health education, which will need to adapt to these types of reforms.

  12. Graph-based structural change detection for rotating machinery monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guoliang; Liu, Jie; Yan, Peng

    2018-01-01

    Detection of structural changes is critically important in operational monitoring of a rotating machine. This paper presents a novel framework for this purpose, where a graph model for data modeling is adopted to represent/capture statistical dynamics in machine operations. Meanwhile we develop a numerical method for computing temporal anomalies in the constructed graphs. The martingale-test method is employed for the change detection when making decisions on possible structural changes, where excellent performance is demonstrated outperforming exciting results such as the autoregressive-integrated-moving average (ARIMA) model. Comprehensive experimental results indicate good potentials of the proposed algorithm in various engineering applications. This work is an extension of a recent result (Lu et al., 2017).

  13. Social dilemma structures hidden behind traffic flow with lane changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimoto, Jun; Kukida, Shinji; Hagishima, Aya

    2014-01-01

    Aiming to merge traffic flow analysis with evolutionary game theory, we investigated the question of whether such structures can be formed from frequent lane changes in usual traffic flow without any explicit bottlenecks. In our model system, two classes of driver-agents coexist: C-agents (cooperative strategy) always remain in the lane they are initially assigned, whereas D-agents (defective strategy) try to change lanes to move ahead. In relatively high-density flows, such as the metastable and high-density phases, we found structures that correspond to either n-person prisoner dilemma (n-PD) games or quasi-PD games. In these situations, lane changes by D-agents create heavy traffic jams that reduce social efficiency. (paper)

  14. Effect of Population Structure Change on Carbon Emission in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Guo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper expanded the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI model through the introduction of urbanization, residents’ consumption, and other factors, and decomposed carbon emission changes in China into carbon emission factor effect, energy intensity effect, consumption inhibitory factor effect, urbanization effect, residents’ consumption effect, and population scale effect, and then explored contribution rates and action mechanisms of the above six factors on change in carbon emissions in China. Then, the effect of population structure change on carbon emission was analyzed by taking 2003–2012 as a sample period, and combining this with the panel data of 30 provinces in China. Results showed that in 2003–2012, total carbon emission increased by 4.2117 billion tons in China. The consumption inhibitory factor effect, urbanization effect, residents’ consumption effect, and population scale effect promoted the increase in carbon emissions, and their contribution ratios were 27.44%, 12.700%, 74.96%, and 5.90%, respectively. However, the influence of carbon emission factor effect (−2.54% and energy intensity effect (−18.46% on carbon emissions were negative. Population urbanization has become the main population factor which affects carbon emission in China. The “Eastern aggregation” phenomenon caused the population scale effect in the eastern area to be significantly higher than in the central and western regions, but the contribution rate of its energy intensity effect (−11.10 million tons was significantly smaller than in the central (−21.61 million tons and western regions (−13.29 million tons, and the carbon emission factor effect in the central area (−3.33 million tons was significantly higher than that in the eastern (−2.00 million tons and western regions (−1.08 million tons. During the sample period, the change in population age structure, population education structure, and population occupation structure

  15. Structural Changes of PVDF Membranes by Phase Separation Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Semin; Kim, Sung Soo

    2016-01-01

    Thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) and nonsolvent induced phase separation (NIPS) were simultaneously induced for the preparation of flat PVDF membranes. N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) was used as a solvent and dibutyl-phthlate (DBP) was used as a diluent for PVDF. When PVDF was melt blended with NMP and DBP, crystallization temperature was lowered for TIPS and unstable region was expanded for NIPS. Ratio of solvent to diluent changed the phase separation mechanism to obtain the various membrane structures. Contact mode of dope solution with nonsolvent determined the dominant phase separation behavior. Since heat transfer rate was greater than mass transfer rate, surface structure was formed by NIPS and inner structure was by TIPS. Quenching temperature of dope solution also affected the phase separation mechanism and phase separation rate to result in the variation of structure

  16. [Labor law issues in hospitals by structural changes and changes in hospital ownership].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Peter

    2003-11-01

    The present article deals with the potential impact of structural changes and changes in hospital control or ownership on the employment contracts of the physicians concerned. While taking the applicable jurisdiction into consideration, the author examines the options of assigning new responsibilities or decreasing compensation opportunities, amending or even terminating employment contracts, outsourcing hospital-related services, or allowing physicians in the future to provide these services at their own risk. Furthermore, the article outlines the change in employer in various "change of control" scenarios such as in the case of hospital privatisation.

  17. Protein Structural Change Data - PSCDB | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us PSCDB Protein Structural Change Data Data detail Data name Protein Structural Change Data DO...History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Protein Structural Change Data - PSCDB | LSDB Archive ...

  18. Developmental changes in organization of structural brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khundrakpam, Budhachandra S; Reid, Andrew; Brauer, Jens; Carbonell, Felix; Lewis, John; Ameis, Stephanie; Karama, Sherif; Lee, Junki; Chen, Zhang; Das, Samir; Evans, Alan C

    2013-09-01

    Recent findings from developmental neuroimaging studies suggest that the enhancement of cognitive processes during development may be the result of a fine-tuning of the structural and functional organization of brain with maturation. However, the details regarding the developmental trajectory of large-scale structural brain networks are not yet understood. Here, we used graph theory to examine developmental changes in the organization of structural brain networks in 203 normally growing children and adolescents. Structural brain networks were constructed using interregional correlations in cortical thickness for 4 age groups (early childhood: 4.8-8.4 year; late childhood: 8.5-11.3 year; early adolescence: 11.4-14.7 year; late adolescence: 14.8-18.3 year). Late childhood showed prominent changes in topological properties, specifically a significant reduction in local efficiency, modularity, and increased global efficiency, suggesting a shift of topological organization toward a more random configuration. An increase in number and span of distribution of connector hubs was found in this age group. Finally, inter-regional connectivity analysis and graph-theoretic measures indicated early maturation of primary sensorimotor regions and protracted development of higher order association and paralimbic regions. Our finding reveals a time window of plasticity occurring during late childhood which may accommodate crucial changes during puberty and the new developmental tasks that an adolescent faces.

  19. Age structure changes and extraordinary lifespan in wild medfly populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, James R; Papadopoulos, Nikos T; Müller, Hans-Georg; Katsoyannos, Byron I; Kouloussis, Nikos A; Wang, Jane-Ling; Wachter, Kenneth; Yu, Wei; Liedo, Pablo

    2008-06-01

    The main purpose of this study was to test the hypotheses that major changes in age structure occur in wild populations of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) and that a substantial fraction of individuals survive to middle age and beyond (> 3-4 weeks). We thus brought reference life tables and deconvolution models to bear on medfly mortality data gathered from a 3-year study of field-captured individuals that were monitored in the laboratory. The average time-to-death of captured females differed between sampling dates by 23.9, 22.7, and 37.0 days in the 2003, 2004, and 2005 field seasons, respectively. These shifts in average times-to-death provided evidence of changes in population age structure. Estimates indicated that middle-aged medflies (> 30 days) were common in the population. A surprise in the study was the extraordinary longevity observed in field-captured medflies. For example, 19 captured females but no reference females survived in the laboratory for 140 days or more, and 6 captured but no reference males survived in the laboratory for 170 days or more. This paper advances the study of aging in the wild by introducing a new method for estimating age structure in insect populations, demonstrating that major changes in age structure occur in field populations of insects, showing that middle-aged individuals are common in the wild, and revealing the extraordinary lifespans of wild-caught individuals due to their early life experience in the field.

  20. Conflict transformation, stigma, and HIV-preventive structural change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robin Lin; Reed, Sarah J; Francisco, Vincent T; Ellen, Jonathan M

    2012-06-01

    Over the prior decade, structural change efforts have become an important component of community-based HIV prevention initiatives. However, these efforts may not succeed when structural change initiatives encounter political resistance or invoke conflicting values, which may be likely when changes are intended to benefit a stigmatized population. The current study sought to examine the impact of target population stigma on the ability of 13 community coalitions to achieve structural change objectives. Results indicated that coalitions working on behalf of highly stigmatized populations had to abandon objectives more often than did coalitions working for less stigmatized populations because of external opposition to coalition objectives and resultant internal conflict over goals. Those coalitions that were most successful in meeting external challenges used opposition and conflict as transformative occasions by targeting conflicts directly and attempting to neutralize oppositional groups or turn them into strategic allies; less successful coalitions working on behalf of stigmatized groups struggled to determine an appropriate response to opposition. The role of conflict transformation as a success strategy for working on behalf of stigmatized groups is discussed.

  1. A proposed structure for an international convention on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitze, W.A.

    1991-01-01

    In this chapter, the author recommends a framework convention that will stimulate policy changes without expensive emission reductions in the short term. A central task for a climate convention will be to provide the international community with a permanent mechanism for coordinating its efforts to deal with climate change. The convention should go beyond organizational structure to establish a process for updating the parties' understanding of the science and potential impacts of climate change and for building consensus on policy responses. Each party must then be required to prepare and distribute its own national plan for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and for adapting to future change while achieving its development objectives. A set of targets and timetables for the reduction of greenhouse gas reductions is presented

  2. Marsh canopy structure changes and the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Elijah W.; Rangoonwala, Amina; Jones, Cathleen E.

    2016-01-01

    Marsh canopy structure was mapped yearly from 2009 to 2012 in the Barataria Bay, Louisiana coastal region that was impacted by the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill. Based on the previously demonstrated capability of NASA's UAVSAR polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) image data to map Spartina alterniflora marsh canopy structure, structure maps combining the leaf area index (LAI) and leaf angle distribution (LAD, orientation) were constructed for yearly intervals that were directly relatable to the 2010 LAI-LAD classification. The yearly LAI-LAD and LAI difference maps were used to investigate causes for the previously revealed dramatic change in marsh structure from prespill (2009) to postspill (2010, spill cessation), and the occurrence of structure features that exhibited abnormal spatial and temporal patterns. Water level and salinity records showed that freshwater releases used to keep the oil offshore did not cause the rapid growth from 2009 to 2010 in marsh surrounding the inner Bay. Photointerpretation of optical image data determined that interior marsh patches exhibiting rapid change were caused by burns and burn recovery, and that the pattern of 2010 to 2011 LAI decreases in backshore marsh and extending along some tidal channels into the interior marsh were not associated with burns. Instead, the majority of 2010 to 2011 shoreline features aligned with vectors displaying the severity of 2010 shoreline oiling from the DWH spill. Although the association is not conclusive of a causal oil impact, the coexistent pattern is a significant discovery. PolSAR marsh structure mapping provided a unique perspective of marsh biophysical status that enhanced detection of change and monitoring of trends important to management effectiveness.

  3. Structural changes of manganese spinel at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Guohua; Iijima, Yukiko; Azuma, Hideto [Nishi Battery Laboratories, Sony Corporation, 4-16-1 Okata, Kanagawa 243-0021 Atsugi (Japan); Kudo, Yoshihiro [Technical Support Center, Sony Corporation, 4-16-1 Okata, Kanagawa 243-0021 Atsugi (Japan)

    2002-01-01

    A chemical synthesis route to Cr-doped and undoped Mn spinel was developed for the purpose of detailed structural analysis for elucidating the relationship between storage performance and structural changes at elevated temperatures. We identified a two-phase segregation in the lithium compositional range of 0.6structure (XAFS) analysis revealed that the Cr-doped samples showed less change in the local structure after storage than the undoped spinel samples. These results suggest that the Cr-doped spinel has higher structural stability at elevated temperatures than the undoped spinel.

  4. How do skilled traders change the structure of the market

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vácha, Lukáš; Baruník, Jozef; Vošvrda, Miloslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 1 (2012), s. 66-71 ISSN 1057-5219 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/10/0956; GA ČR GP402/08/P207; GA ČR GA402/09/0965 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Heterogeneous agent model * Market structure * Skilled traders * Hurst exponent Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/E/vacha-how do skilled traders change the structure of the market.pdf

  5. Structural Changes of Creatine Kinase upon Substrate Binding

    OpenAIRE

    Forstner, Michael; Kriechbaum, Manfred; Laggner, Peter; Wallimann, Theo

    1998-01-01

    Small-angle x-ray scattering was used to investigate structural changes upon binding of individual substrates or a transition state analog complex (TSAC; Mg-ADP, creatine, and KNO3) to creatine kinase (CK) isoenzymes (dimeric muscle-type (M)-CK and octameric mitochondrial (Mi)-CK) and monomeric arginine kinase (AK). Considerable changes in the shape and the size of the molecules occurred upon binding of Mg-nucleotide or TSAC. The radius of gyration of Mi-CK was reduced from 55.6 A (free enzym...

  6. Structural changes in the polyethylene after ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proskova, K.; Svorcik, V.

    1999-01-01

    This work deals with the study of the polyethylene (PE) after its modification by ion implantation. In this way the mechanical, optical, magnetic and electric characteristics can be changed. Experiments were processed on PE films with 15 μm thickness. For modification of the surface of PE for implantation the Ar + ions with the energy 63 keV and Xe + ions with the energy 156 keV and with doses from 1·10 13 to 3·10 15 cm +2 were used. The aim of this work was the study of structural changes of modified layer of the PE

  7. Financial crisis and market risk premium: Identifying multiple structural changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. García-Machado

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between macroeconomic variables and stock market returns is, by now, well-documented in the literature. However, in this article we examine the long-run relationship between stock and bond markets returns over the period from 1991:11 to 2009:11, using Bai and Perron’s multiple structural change approach. Findings indicate that while the market risk premium is usually positive, periods with negative values appear only in three periods (1991:1-1993:2, 1998:3-2002:2 and from 2007:1-2009:11 leading to changes in the GDP evolution. Thereby, the study shows the presence of structural breaks in the Spanish market risk premium and its relationship with business cycle. These findings contribute to a better understanding of close linkages between the financial markets and the macroeconomic variables such as GDP. Implications of the study and suggestions for future research are provided.

  8. CERN's new Career Structure Main Changes in a Nutshell

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    All Staff Members will have received an official notification of their position in the new career path structure, with effect from 1 September 2001. A Weekly Bulletin announcement two weeks ago (Bulletin 33/2001) referred to documents and contacts for individual or general information, notably via the HR Division Web site (see below). The present article summarises the main changes between the MOAS and the MAPS (Merit Advancement and Promotion Scheme). The aim of MAPS is to make the career structure more dynamic, while retaining positive elements of the MOAS scheme, notably an annual interview and performance assessment process. The main changes are: - Career reviews including salary band promotion at several stages in a person's career replace the previous automatic grade-to-grade progression within a career path. - Speeds of advancement can be modulated to a greater extent. - The exceptional advancement zone is re-designed. - Premiums or allowances linked to performance, responsibility, and specific labou...

  9. Microgravity changes in heart structure and cyclic-AMP metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott, D. E.; Fine, A.; Kato, K.; Egnor, R.; Cheng, L.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of microgravity on cardiac ultrastructure and cyclic AMP metabolism in tissues of rats flown on Spacelab 3 are reported. Light and electron microscope studies of cell structure, measurements of low and high Km phosphodiesterase activity, cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity, and regulatory subunit compartmentation show significant deviations in flight animals when compared to ground controls. The results indicate that some changes have occurred in cellular responses associated with catecholamine receptor interactions and intracellular signal processing.

  10. Change in fish community structure in the Barents Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Aschan

    Full Text Available Change in oceanographic conditions causes structural alterations in marine fish communities, but this effect may go undetected as most monitoring programs until recently mainly have focused on oceanography and commercial species rather than on whole ecosystems. In this paper, the objective is to describe the spatial and temporal changes in the Barents Sea fish community in the period 1992-2004 while taking into consideration the observed abundance and biodiversity patterns for all 82 observed fish species. We found that the spatial structure of the Barents Sea fish community was determined by abiotic factors such as temperature and depth. The observed species clustered into a deep assemblage, a warm water southern assemblage, both associated with Atlantic water, and a cold water north-eastern assemblage associated with mixed water. The latitude of the cold water NE and warm water S assemblages varied from year to year, but no obvious northward migration was observed over time. In the period 1996-1999 we observed a significant reduction in total fish biomass, abundance, mean fish weight, and a change in community structure including an increase in the pelagic/demersal ratio. This change in community structure is probably due to extremely cold conditions in 1996 impacting on a fish community exposed to historically high fishing rates. After 1999 the fish community variables such as biomass, abundance, mean weight, P/D ratio as well as community composition did not return to levels of the early 90s, although fishing pressure and climatic conditions returned to earlier levels.

  11. Change in Family Structure and Rates of Violent Juvenile Delinquency

    OpenAIRE

    Fry, Jeannie A

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the question: Have the changes in family structure in the U.S. become a catalyst for juvenile delinquency? For this research, I use existing statistics for my three independent variables: divorce rates, rate of working mothers with children under age 18, percent female-headed households. My dependent variable, juvenile violent crime rates, is measured using data from the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. My control variables consist of the followin...

  12. Structural Change Out of Agriculture: Labor Push versus Labor Pull

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Alvarez-Cuadrado; Markus Poschke

    2011-01-01

    The process of economic development is characterized by substantial rural-urban migrations and a decreasing share of agriculture in output and employment. The literature highlights two main engines behind this process of structural change: (i) improvements in agricultural technology combined with the effect of Engel's law of demand push resources out of the agricultural sector (the "labor push" hypothesis), and (ii) improvements in industrial technology attract labor into this sector (the "la...

  13. The Role of Labor Markets in Structural Change.

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Ricaurte

    2010-01-01

    Why did services become the dominant sector in industrialized economies? While abundant literature exists on the transition from agriculture to industry (i.e., the industrial revolution), there is no consensual explanation for the second wave of structural change. I argue that sectoral differences in regulation affecting the degree of competition in labor and goods markets explain: (a) the rise in the services sector share of output and employment, (b) international differences in cross-secto...

  14. Strain-induced changes to the electronic structure of germanium

    KAUST Repository

    Tahini, H. A.

    2012-04-17

    Density functional theory calculations (DFT) are used to investigate the strain-induced changes to the electronic structure of biaxially strained (parallel to the (001), (110) and (111) planes) and uniaxially strained (along the [001], [110] and [111] directions) germanium (Ge). It is calculated that a moderate uniaxial strain parallel to the [111] direction can efficiently transform Ge to a direct bandgap material with a bandgap energy useful for technological applications. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  15. Strain-induced changes to the electronic structure of germanium

    KAUST Repository

    Tahini, H. A.; Chroneos, Alexander I.; Grimes, Robin W.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Dimoulas, Athanasios Dimoulas

    2012-01-01

    Density functional theory calculations (DFT) are used to investigate the strain-induced changes to the electronic structure of biaxially strained (parallel to the (001), (110) and (111) planes) and uniaxially strained (along the [001], [110] and [111] directions) germanium (Ge). It is calculated that a moderate uniaxial strain parallel to the [111] direction can efficiently transform Ge to a direct bandgap material with a bandgap energy useful for technological applications. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  16. Changes in Mauna Kea Dry Forest Structure 2000-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banko, Paul C.; Brinck, Kevin W.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the structure of the subalpine vegetation of Palila Critical Habitat on the southwestern slope of Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawai‘i, were analyzed using 12 metrics of change in māmane (Sophora chrysophylla) and naio (Myoporum sandwicense) trees surveyed on plots in 2000 and 2014. These two dominant species were analyzed separately, and changes in their structure indicated changes in the forest’s health. There was a significant increase in māmane minimum crown height (indicating a higher ungulate “browse line”), canopy area, canopy volume, percentage of trees with ungulate damage, and percentage of dead trees. No significant changes were observed in māmane maximum crown height, proportion of plots with trees, sapling density, proportion of plots with saplings, or the height distribution of trees. The only significant positive change was for māmane tree density. Significantly negative changes were observed for naio minimum crown height, tree height, canopy area, canopy volume, and percentage of dead trees. No significant changes were observed in naio tree density, proportion of plots with trees, proportion of plots with saplings, or percentage of trees with ungulate damage. Significantly positive changes were observed in naio sapling density and the height distribution of trees. There was also a significant increase in the proportion of māmane vs. naio trees in the survey area. The survey methods did not allow us to distinguish among potential factors driving these changes for metrics other than the percentage of trees with ungulate damage. Continued ungulate browsing and prolonged drought are likely the factors contributing most to the observed changes in vegetation, but tree disease or insect infestation of māmane, or naio, and competition from alien grasses and other weeds could also be causing or exacerbating the impacts to the forest. Although māmane tree density has increased since 2000, this study also demonstrates that efforts by managers

  17. Structural Change and Economic Development in China and India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Valli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The comparison of the periods of rapid economic growth in China since 1978 and India since 1992 markedly show different patterns of development and structural change. However, both countries experienced some advantages of "relative economic backwardness" and some aspects of the "fordist model of growth". China had an anticipated and deeper structural change, spurred mainly by economic reforms and the growth of the internal market in the 1980s, and, since the mid-1990s, by a very rapid penetration of its industrial products in the world market. However, a substantial part of China's exports in medium and high tech sectors are due to joint-ventures with foreign multinationals. India had a more balanced structural change and a slower insertion in the world market, although some sectors, such as software, steel, automotive and pharmaceuticals are recently increasing their share in the world markets. Owing to the huge number of micro-enterprises and the great size of the informal sector, India benefited much less than China from the economies of scale and from the third wave of the "fordist model of growth". Both countries, but in particular China, experienced negative externalities of this recent phase of rapid growth, such as higher inequalities, pollution and urban congestion.

  18. Structural change and higher educated labour in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasay, N H

    1990-12-01

    This paper describes an impending shortage of higher-educated labor in Indonesia. Dynamic change is occurring in both Indonesia's population and economy. Its rapidly growing population demands annual national economic growth of 2.2% to avoid declining per capita output. Accordingly, investments have surged in banking and manufacturing industries as Indonesia undergoes structural change from an agricultural to service-based economy. Plagued by a majority of low productivity, elementary-level educated workers, increased productivity is called for to ensure continued development. As the age structural shift progresses, many of these workers will be absorbed in the services sector. Jobs exist requiring workers of all skill levels. This paper is mainly concerned, however, with higher-educated labor's failure to be oriented to the research and development required for sustained economic growth and development, and their entry into clerical positions potentially filled by less educated and less skilled labor. The services sector, particularly public services, is responsible for absorbing much of this labor. As professional, technical, and managerial capabilities and qualifications become increasingly needed in the near future as sector investments take effect, a shortage of higher-educated labor will become apparent. Policy makers are advised to anticipate these shortages and contemplate investments in human capital to facilitate a more smooth adjustment to structural change.

  19. Family Structure Changes and Children's Health, Behavior, and Educational Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    More and more children do not grow up in traditional nuclear families. Instead, they grow up in single-parent households or in families with a step-parent. Hence, it is important to improve our understanding of the impact of "shocks" in family structure due to parental relationship dissolution...... on children. In this study I empirically test whether children are traumatized both in the short and the long run by shocks in the family structure during childhood. I focus on educational, behavioral, and health outcomes. A population sample of Danish children born in January to May 1985 is used...... for the analysis. The empirical cross-sectional analysis indicates a negative relation between the number of family structure changes and children.s health, behavior, and educational outcomes. These results are con.rmed by a differences-in-differences analysis of health outcomes. This suggests...

  20. Altered structural brain changes and neurocognitive performance in pediatric HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh K. Yadav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric HIV patients often suffer with neurodevelopmental delay and subsequently cognitive impairment. While tissue injury in cortical and subcortical regions in the brain of adult HIV patients has been well reported there is sparse knowledge about these changes in perinatally HIV infected pediatric patients. We analyzed cortical thickness, subcortical volume, structural connectivity, and neurocognitive functions in pediatric HIV patients and compared with those of pediatric healthy controls. With informed consent, 34 perinatally infected pediatric HIV patients and 32 age and gender matched pediatric healthy controls underwent neurocognitive assessment and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI on a 3 T clinical scanner. Altered cortical thickness, subcortical volumes, and abnormal neuropsychological test scores were observed in pediatric HIV patients. The structural network connectivity analysis depicted lower connection strengths, lower clustering coefficients, and higher path length in pediatric HIV patients than healthy controls. The network betweenness and network hubs in cortico-limbic regions were distorted in pediatric HIV patients. The findings suggest that altered cortical and subcortical structures and regional brain connectivity in pediatric HIV patients may contribute to deficits in their neurocognitive functions. Further, longitudinal studies are required for better understanding of the effect of HIV pathogenesis on brain structural changes throughout the brain development process under standard ART treatment.

  1. Structure change of soda-silicate glass by mechanical milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwao, M; Okuno, M

    2010-01-01

    Structure change of ground soda-silicate glass (SiO 2 -Na 2 O binary systems) was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy. The measurement results were discussed comparison to that of SiO 2 glass. With increasing Na 2 O concentrations, the XRD intensity around 2θ = 22 0 decreased and the intensity around 32 0 increased. The intensity around 22 0 and 32 0 maybe attributed to SiO 2 glass structure unit and soda-silicate glass unit, respectively. The peaks of Na 2 CO 3 crystal for 2SiO 2 -Na 2 O glass were observed with increasing milling time. This crystallization was suggested that Na + ion on 2SiO 2 -Na 2 O glass surface connected CO 2 in air. The intensity around 22 0 and 32 0 decreased and the intensity around 30 0 increased with increasing milling time. These may indicate that SiO 2 glass structure unit and soda-silicate glass structure unit were mixed by milling. In addition, IR absorption band near v = 1100 cm -1 was separated to two bands near 940 cm -1 and 1070 cm -1 with increasing Na 2 O concentrations. The band near 940 cm -1 decreased and the band near 1070 cm -1 increased with increasing milling time. These spectra changes were suggested due to decrease of Na 2 O concentrations in 2SiO 2 -Na 2 O glass with Na 2 CO 3 crystallization.

  2. Structural changes of polytetrafluoroethylene during irradiation in oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Shuling; Fu, Congli; Gu, Aiqun; Yu, Zili

    2015-01-01

    To study the effect of irradiation on PTFE structure and prepare modified PTFE micropowder, PTFE was irradiated with dose up to 4 MGy in oxygen at room temperature. The structures of both irradiated and unirradiated PTFE samples were comparatively characterized by IR, XPS, Raman spectra and XRD measurement. The results showed that new groups of acyl fluoride (COF), carboxylic acid (COOH) and trifluoromethyl (CF 3 ) were formed under heavy radiation exposure in oxygen. In addition, the expansion of crystallite size or crystal lattice was first reported for the irradiated PTFE. The formation of new chemical groups and the expansion of crystallite size were elucidated by structural changes occurring in irradiation. - Highlights: • The structural change of PTFE irradiated in O 2 is different from that in vacuum. • The double bond is not found in PTFE after irradiation in oxygen. • The new groups like COF, COOH and CF 3 are formed in PTFE after irradiation. • The expansion of crystallite size is observed in the irradiated PTFE

  3. Rapid Structural Design Change Evaluation with AN Experiment Based FEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, C.-H.; Trethewey, M. W.

    1998-04-01

    The work in this paper proposes a dynamic structural design model that can be developed in a rapid fashion. The approach endeavours to produce a simplified FEM developed in conjunction with an experimental modal database. The FEM is formulated directly from the geometry and connectivity used in an experimental modal test using beam/frame elements. The model sacrifices fine detail for a rapid development time. The FEM is updated at the element level so the dynamic response replicates the experimental results closely. The physical attributes of the model are retained, making it well suited to evaluate the effect of potential design changes. The capabilities are evaluated in a series of computational and laboratory tests. First, a study is performed with a simulated cantilever beam with a variable mass and stiffness distribution. The modal characteristics serve as the updating target with random noise added to simulate experimental uncertainty. A uniformly distributed FEM is developed and updated. The results show excellent results, all natural frequencies are within 0·001% with MAC values above 0·99. Next, the method is applied to predict the dynamic changes of a hardware portal frame structure for a radical design change. Natural frequency predictions from the original FEM differ by as much as almost 18% with reasonable MAC values. The results predicted from the updated model produce excellent results when compared to the actual hardware changes, the first five modal natural frequency difference is around 5% and the corresponding mode shapes producing MAC values above 0·98.

  4. Hippocampal multimodal structural changes and subclinical depression in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalletta, Gianfranco; Piras, Fabrizio; Caltagirone, Carlo; Fagioli, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    Several neuroimaging studies report reduced hippocampal volume in depressed patients. However, it is still unclear if hippocampal changes in healthy individuals can be considered a risk factor for progression to clinical depression. Here, we investigated subclinical depression and its hippocampal correlates in a non-clinical sample of healthy individuals, with particular regard to gender differences. One-hundred-two participants underwent a comprehensive clinical assessment, a high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging protocol using a 3T MRI scanner. Data of macro-(volume) and micro-(mean diffusivity, MD) structural changes of the hippocampus were analyzed with reference to the Beck Depression Inventory score. Results of multivariate regression analyses revealed reduced bilateral volume, along with increased bilateral MD in hippocampal formation predicting subclinical depressive phenomenology only in healthy males. Conversely, subclinical depressive phenomenology in healthy female was accounted for by only lower educational level, in the absence of any hippocampal structure variations. To date, this is the only evidence reporting a relationship between subclinical depressive phenomenology and changes in hippocampal formation in healthy individuals. Our findings demonstrated that reduced volume, along with increased MD in hippocampal formation, is significantly associated with subclinical depressive phenomenology in healthy males. This encourages to study the hypothesis that early macro- and microstructural changes in hippocampi associated with subclinical depression may constitute a risk factor of developing depressive disorders in males. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of Structure Change on Radiation Crosslinking of Unsaturated Polyesters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranogajec, F.

    2006-01-01

    During the course of crosslinking of unsaturated polyesters reacting system, that was liquid prior to reaction, gels, and becomes solid. Crosslinking reaction begins to be controlled by the change of the physical state of the system at an early stage of reaction. The kinetics can not be studied by the usual kinetical methods. In-source 60 C o gamma rays induced crosslinking of unsaturated polyester with styrene was followed directly and continuously by measuring electrical conductivity change. The results of extraction analysis proved good correlation between the change of electrical conductivity and the extent of curing. The gel content was inversely proportional to conductivity and free styrene content directly proportional to conductivity. DC-electrical conductivity has shown high sensitivity toward structural changes and enabled us to detect liquid-liquid transitions in unsaturated polyester. The upper liquid-liquid transition (T l ρ) is less known transition caused by a stepwise decrease of intramolecular short-range local order that remains above the glass and lower liquid-liquid transitions. The local order is based on secondary valent interactions and is enhanced by hydrogen bonding. The linear temperature dependence of the viscosity and dc electrical conductivity of unsaturated polyesters showed a change of slope caused by the (T l ρ). Those changes were the result of the diminishing of the local order (which includes several bond lengths) caused by breaking of the intramolecular interactions. The intramolecular nature of the (T l ρ) in the polyesters under consideration was proved by its insensitivity to crosslinking and dilution with solvents. In the corresponding temperature range, DSC thermograms shoved expected endothermic changes. The structure changes related to the (T l ρ) in the investigated polyesters were determined by 1 H NMR and NIR spectroscopy. The proton NMR indicated that the stepwise change in hydrogen bonding occurred in the

  6. Structural change in the petroleum activities; Strukturendringer i petroleumsvirksomheten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    The report is twofold. First it is described a reference situation for the petroleum industry based on qualitative and quantitative parameters. The purpose of this section is to form a basis of a future observation can be assessed. Then referred the views and reviews a wide range of stake holders in the industry has about how the structures in the petroleum industry will evolve in the years ahead. The views and reviews that are reproduced are from players in the petroleum industry itself, represented by 48 companies and organizations, and are not the views or opinions of Ministry of Petroleum and Energy. Participants' attention is mainly focused on how StatoilHydro will affect the industry, but it is also a general perception that there are many other factors that are just as important for how the industry will evolve in the long term. Participants' views will help to identify trends that may affect the player image. The project is not intended to constitute a strategy for or how to accommodate structural changes in the petroleum industry. The report discusses not systematically the structural changes that will be positive or negative for the industry and proposes no measures that will affect them. In Chapter 5, however, rendered what the various players in the interview rounds have proposed measures to counter the various structural changes. Finally touches the report not the significance of structural changes in the industry may have on health, safety and environment (HSE) in activity. The views and reviews from the players were passed in 2008, before the problems in the financial industry gained a considerable extent. Data and forecasts are also prepared during this period. Reviews in the report were accordingly given before one learned about the extent of the economic development and are not revised in the afterwards. Ministry of Petroleum and Energy will in the years ahead have to have a continuous attention to the issues described in this report. It

  7. White matter structure changes as adults learn a second language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Alexander A; Rudelson, Justin J; Tse, Peter U

    2012-08-01

    Traditional models hold that the plastic reorganization of brain structures occurs mainly during childhood and adolescence, leaving adults with limited means to learn new knowledge and skills. Research within the last decade has begun to overturn this belief, documenting changes in the brain's gray and white matter as healthy adults learn simple motor and cognitive skills [Lövdén, M., Bodammer, N. C., Kühn, S., Kaufmann, J., Schütze, H., Tempelmann, C., et al. Experience-dependent plasticity of white-matter microstructure extends into old age. Neuropsychologia, 48, 3878-3883, 2010; Taubert, M., Draganski, B., Anwander, A., Müller, K., Horstmann, A., Villringer, A., et al. Dynamic properties of human brain structure: Learning-related changes in cortical areas and associated fiber connections. The Journal of Neuroscience, 30, 11670-11677, 2010; Scholz, J., Klein, M. C., Behrens, T. E. J., & Johansen-Berg, H. Training induces changes in white-matter architecture. Nature Neuroscience, 12, 1370-1371, 2009; Draganski, B., Gaser, C., Busch, V., Schuirer, G., Bogdahn, U., & May, A. Changes in grey matter induced by training. Nature, 427, 311-312, 2004]. Although the significance of these changes is not fully understood, they reveal a brain that remains plastic well beyond early developmental periods. Here we investigate the role of adult structural plasticity in the complex, long-term learning process of foreign language acquisition. We collected monthly diffusion tensor imaging scans of 11 English speakers who took a 9-month intensive course in written and spoken Modern Standard Chinese as well as from 16 control participants who did not study a language. We show that white matter reorganizes progressively across multiple sites as adults study a new language. Language learners exhibited progressive changes in white matter tracts associated with traditional left hemisphere language areas and their right hemisphere analogs. Surprisingly, the most significant changes

  8. MRI assessment of whole-brain structural changes in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hui; Siu, William; D'Arcy, Ryan Cn; Black, Sandra E; Grajauskas, Lukas A; Singh, Sonia; Zhang, Yunting; Rockwood, Kenneth; Song, Xiaowei

    2017-01-01

    One of the central features of brain aging is the accumulation of multiple age-related structural changes, which occur heterogeneously in individuals and can have immediate or potential clinical consequences. Each of these deficits can coexist and interact, producing both independent and additive impacts on brain health. Many of the changes can be visualized using MRI. To collectively assess whole-brain structural changes, the MRI-based Brain Atrophy and Lesion Index (BALI) has been developed. In this study, we validate this whole-brain health assessment approach using several clinical MRI examinations. Data came from three independent studies: the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative Phase II (n=950; women =47.9%; age =72.7±7.4 years); the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center (n=722; women =55.1%; age =72.7±9.9 years); and the Tianjin Medical University General Hospital Research database on older adults (n=170; women =60.0%; age =62.9±9.3 years). The 3.0-Tesla MRI scans were evaluated using the BALI rating scheme on the basis of T1-weighted (T1WI), T2-weighted (T2WI), T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (T2-FLAIR), and T2*-weighted gradient-recalled echo (T2*GRE) images. Atrophy and lesion changes were commonly seen in each MRI test. The BALI scores based on different sequences were highly correlated (Spearman r 2 >0.69; P age ( r 2 >0.29; P 26.48, P aging and dementia-related decline of structural brain health. Inclusion of additional MRI tests increased lesion differentiation. Further research is to integrate MRI tests for a clinical tool to aid the diagnosis and intervention of brain aging.

  9. Maturational changes in Canadian adolescents' cognitive attitudinal structure concerning marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, P M; Annis, H M; Chan, D W

    1986-09-01

    Thirty-four items concerning marijuana use were administered three times to a cohort of Canadian high school students between Grades 11 and 13, in 1977 (n = 439), 1978 (n = 419), and 1979 (n = 167). These items were designed to measure four distinct constructs: attitude, perceived peer approval or disapproval, concern about risks, and symbolic protest against conventional society. A cross-sectional factor analysis of the Grade 13 data supported the hypothesized factor structure, as had earlier work with college students. However, analogous analyses on the Grade 11 and Grade 12 data contradicted the hypothesized factor structure. Most notably, separate factors for positive and negative attitude appeared in the Grade 11 and 12 analyses. The data were interpreted primarily in terms of maturational changes, largely through elimination of alternative interpretations by internal analyses and previous findings. Implications were discussed for adolescent cognitive-attitudinal development, attitude theory, and analysis of panel data.

  10. Structural changes in a copper alloy due to helium implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, D.; Eliezer, D.

    1996-01-01

    The most suitable nuclear fusion reaction for energy production occurs between the two heavy hydrogen isotopes, deuterium and tritium. Structural materials in fusion reactors will be exposed to helium implantation over a broad range of energies. The deformation and partial exfoliation of surface layers due to hydrogen isotopes and helium contribute to the total erosion of the first wall. For this reason, one of the most important criteria in the choice of materials for the first wall of fusion reactors is the material's damage resistance. Recent advances in developing nuclear fusion reactors reveal that efficient heat removal from plasma-facing components is very important. Copper and copper alloys are considered an attractive choice for transporting such a high heat flux without thermal damage as they have high thermal conductivity. In the present study the authors report on the structural changes in a copper alloy, due to the helium implantation on the very near surface area, observed by transmission electron microscopy

  11. Fiscal reaction under endogenous structural changes in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei G. Simonassi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the importance of fiscal policy in smoothing the impact of shocks such as the international financial and economic crises, the paper analyzes the sustainability of the Brazilian fiscal policy by taking into consideration the possibility of multiple endogenous structural breaks on the coefficients of government reaction function. From monthly data in the period 1991–2008, tests on the reliable estimates dictate the occurrence of structural change in May 1994, and another in February 2003. There has been a situation of fiscal solvency in Brazil, but only from May 1994 the hitherto innocuous actions of government to formulate policies on public debt turn out to be significant, as it rose twofold after February 2003. This reinforces the existence of a more flexible alternative to implement strategic policy in Brazil, if an eventual alternative for increasing public spending is a way of hindering the effects of international financial crises without compromising the fiscal targets.

  12. Mind-Reading ability and structural connectivity changes in aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monia eCabinio

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Mind-Reading ability through the eyes is an important component of the affective Theory of Mind (ToM, which allows people to infer the other’s mental state from the eye gaze. The aim of the present study was to investigate to which extent age-associated structural brain changes impact this ability and to determine if this association is related to executive functions in elderly subjects. For this purpose, Magnetic Resonance Imaging was used to determine both gray matter and white matter areas associated with aging. The resulting areas have been included in a subsequent correlation analysis to detect the brain regions whose structure was associated with the Mind-Reading ability through the eyes, assessed with the Italian version of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes (RME test, in a sample of 36 healthy subjects ranging from 24 to 79 years of age. The analysis resulted in three important findings: 1 the performance to the RME test is relatively stable across the decades 20-70 (despite a slight decrease of this ability with aging and independent from executive functions; 2 structural brain imaging demonstrated the involvement of a great number of cortical ToM areas for the execution of the RME test: the bilateral precentral gyrus, the bilateral posterior insula, the left superior temporal gyrus and the left inferior frontal gyrus, which also showed a significant volume decrease with age; 3 an age and task-related decline in white matter connectivity on left fronto-temporal portion of the brain. Our results confirm the age-related structural modifications of the brain and show that these changes have an influence on the Mind-Reading ability through the eyes.

  13. Study of radiation induced structural changes in nitrile rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardona, F.; Hill, D.J.T.; Pomery, P.J.; Whittaker, A.K.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: Copolymers of butadiene (BD) and acrylonitrile (AN) (NBR rubber), have become important commercial material. NBR rubbers are part of a larger classification of products often referred to as special-purpose rubbers. Oil resistance is the most important property of nitrile rubbers, and refer to the ability of the vulcanised product to retain its original physical properties such as modulus, tensile strength, abrasion resistance and dimensions, while in contact with oils and fuels. Despite these reported advantages very few studies have been conducted on the radiation yields and structural changes in nitrile rubbers during exposure to high energy radiation. In this study we are investigating the stability against gamma and UV radiation, to different doses in vacuum, of butadiene, acrylonitrile and NBR copolymers with different composition ratio BD/AN. The mechanism of radiation induced structural changes is being investigated using experimental techniques such as ESR, NMR (Solid-state), FT-IR, RAMAN and UV spectroscopy. Also is being investigated the effect of irradiation on the mechanical properties of stressed and unstressed samples by TGA, DSC, DMA, Instron and Creep Test measurements. So far the main effect have been a marked radiation-induced loss of unsaturation in the butadiene units, cis to trans isomerization and formation of crosslink structures (intermolecular and intramolecular). One of the main challenges in the studies of NBR polymers is to observe directly the crosslinks produces by the radiation induced chemical reactions. IR spectroscopy is unsuitable because of the low molar absorbity of the peaks related to intermolecular crosslinking and the overlapping of the peaks (1630-1670 cm-1) related to intramolecular crosslinking (cyclization), with conjugated and nonconjugated (-C=C-; -C=N-) double bonds. A. K. Whittaker has shown that crosslink structures in PBD can be detected and measured directly using solid-state 13 C NMR. This technique

  14. Climate extremes drive changes in functional community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucek, Ross E; Rehage, Jennifer S

    2014-06-01

    The response of communities to climate extremes can be quite variable. Much of this variation has been attributed to differences in community-specific functional trait diversity, as well as community composition. Yet, few if any studies have explicitly tested the response of the functional trait structure of communities following climate extremes (CEs). Recently in South Florida, two independent, but sequential potential CEs took place, a 2010 cold front, followed by a 2011 drought, both of which had profound impacts on a subtropical estuarine fish community. These CEs provided an opportunity to test whether the structure of South Florida fish communities following each extreme was a result of species-specific differences in functional traits. From historical temperature (1927-2012) and freshwater inflows records into the estuary (1955-2012), we determined that the cold front was a statistically extreme disturbance, while the drought was not, but rather a decadal rare disturbance. The two disturbances predictably affected different parts of functional community structure and thus different component species. The cold front virtually eliminated tropical species, including large-bodied snook, mojarra species, nonnative cichlids, and striped mullet, while having little affect on temperate fishes. Likewise, the drought severely impacted freshwater fishes including Florida gar, bowfin, and two centrarchids, with little effect on euryhaline species. Our findings illustrate the ability of this approach to predict and detect both the filtering effects of different types of disturbances and the implications of the resulting changes in community structure. Further, we highlight the value of this approach to developing predictive frameworks for better understanding community responses to global change. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Extinction partially reverts structural changes associated with remote fear memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vetere, Gisella; Restivo, Leonardo; Novembre, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Structural synaptic changes occur in medial prefrontal cortex circuits during remote memory formation. Whether extinction reverts or further reshapes these circuits is, however, unknown. Here we show that the number and the size of spines were enhanced in anterior cingulate (aCC) and infralimbic...... (ILC) cortices 36 d following contextual fear conditioning. Upon extinction, aCC spine density returned to baseline, but the enhanced proportion of large spines did not. Differently, ILC spine density remained elevated, but the size of spines decreased dramatically. Thus, extinction partially erases...

  16. Structural changes in heat resisting high nickel alloys during homogenization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleshchev, A.S.; Korneeva, N.N.; Yurina, O.M.; Guzej, L.S.

    1981-01-01

    Effect of homogenization on the structure and technological plasticity of the KhN73MBTYu and KhN62BMKTYu alloys during treatment with pressure is investigated taking into account peculiarities if the phase composition. It is shown that homogenization of the KhN73MBTYu and KhN62BMKTYu alloys increases the technological plasticity. Homogenization efficiency is conditioned by the change of the grain boundaries and carbide morphology as well as by homogeneous distribution of the large γ'-phase [ru

  17. Forecasting Long Memory Series Subject to Structural Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Gustavo Fruet; Papailias, Fotis

    A two-stage forecasting approach for long memory time series is introduced. In the first step we estimate the fractional exponent and, applying the fractional differencing operator, we obtain the underlying weakly dependent series. In the second step, we perform the multi-step ahead forecasts...... for the weakly dependent series and obtain their long memory counterparts by applying the fractional cumulation operator. The methodology applies to stationary and nonstationary cases. Simulations and an application to seven time series provide evidence that the new methodology is more robust to structural...... change and yields good forecasting results....

  18. Light-induced metastable structural changes in hydrogenated amorphous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritzsche, H. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Light-induced defects (LID) in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and its alloys limit the ultimate efficiency of solar panels made with these materials. This paper reviews a variety of attempts to find the origin of and to eliminate the processes that give rise to LIDs. These attempts include novel deposition processes and the reduction of impurities. Material improvements achieved over the past decade are associated more with the material`s microstructure than with eliminating LIDs. We conclude that metastable LIDs are a natural by-product of structural changes which are generally associated with non-radiative electron-hole recombination in amorphous semiconductors.

  19. Late Posthemorrhagic Structural and Functional Changes in Pulmonary Circulation Arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Andreyeva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to reveal the major regularities and mechanisms of morphological changes in the rat pulmonary circulation arteries in the late posthemorrhagic period and to compare them with age-related features of the vessels. Materials and methods: experiments to generate graduated hemorrhagic hypotension with the blood pressure being maintained at 40 mm Hg were carried out on young (5—6-month albino male Wistar rats. Throughout hypotension and 60 days after blood loss, the blood was tested to determine low and average molecular-weight substances by spectrophotometry and the pro- and antioxidative systems by chemiluminescence. Pulmonary circulation arteries were morphologically studied in young animals, rats in the late posthemorrhagic period and old (24—25-month rats. Results. Sixty-minute hemorrhagic hypotension leads to the development of endotoxemia and imbalance of the pro- and antioxidative systems, the signs of which are observed in the late periods (2 months after hypotension. At the same time, the posthemorrhagic period is marked by the significant pulmonary circulation arterial morphological changes comparable with their age-related alterations in old rat. This shows up mainly in the reorganization of a connective tissue component in the vascular wall: the elevated levels of individual collagen fibers, their structural changes, elastic medial membrane destruction and deformity. At the same time, there is a change in the morphometric parameters of vessels at all study stages while their lowered flow capacity is only characteristic for intraorgan arteries. Conclusion: The increased activity of free radical oxidation and endotoxemia may be believed to be one of the causes of morphological changes in pulmonary circulation arteries in the late posthemorrhagic period, which is similar to age-related vascular alterations. Key words: hemorrhagic hypotension, pulmonary circulation arteries, free radical oxidation, endotoxemia, remodeling, late

  20. Structural changes in the regenerating rat thymus after irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumoto, Tetsuo; Wang, Yu-Hsueh; Hashimoto, Noriko; Tokuda, Nobuko; Sawada, Tomoo [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine

    1999-11-01

    The structural changes of the rat thymus after irradiation were examined. Thymocytes regenerate rapidly after irradiation and the mechanism responsible for this rapid regeneration was examined analyzing vascular and immunohistochemical changes in the thymus. Following results were obtained: Vascular fine mesh works in the cortex were destroyed on day 3 after 6 Gy irradiation, while on day 5 these changes appeared to be restored to almost normal. Massive macrophage accumulations were observed in the cortex on day 3-5 after irradiation. This may be due to clean up the damaged thymocytes, although other possibility, as production of cytokines which may contribute to the rapid proliferation must be intensively examined. Immunohistochemical staining with anti MHC class II molecule showed relatively strong staining in the medulla compared to the cortex in the normal thymus, while this finding was reversed and cortex stained heavily compared to the medulla on day 5-7 after irradiation suggesting the importance of the cortical MHC class II positive thymic epithelial cells in regeneration of thymocytes. Anti FTS antibody stained relatively strongly in the irradiated and recovering thymus compared to the normal. These results may partly explain the abrupt proliferation of thymocytes after irradiation and further studies on cytokine message changes and thymic epithelial characterization responsible to produce the cytokines for the effective thymocyte proliteration are on the way of analysis. (author)

  1. Monitoring Seismic Velocity Change to Explore the Earthquake Seismogenic Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, C. F.; Wen, S.; Chen, C.

    2017-12-01

    Studying spatial-temporal variations of subsurface velocity structures is still a challenge work, but it can provide important information not only on geometry of a fault, but also the rheology change induced from the strong earthquake. In 1999, a disastrous Chi-Chi earthquake (Mw7.6; Chi-Chi EQ) occurred in central Taiwan and caused great impacts on Taiwan's society. Therefore, the major objective of this research is to investigate whether the rheology change of fault can be associated with seismogenic process before strong earthquake. In addition, after the strike of the Chi-Chi EQ, whether the subsurface velocity structure resumes to its steady state is another issue in this study. Therefore, for the above purpose, we have applied a 3D tomographic technique to obtain P- and S-wave velocity structures in central Taiwan using travel time data provided by the Central Weather Bureau (CWB). One major advantage of this method is that we can include out-of-network data to improve the resolution of velocity structures at deeper depths in our study area. The results show that the temporal variations of Vp are less significant than Vs (or Vp/Vs ratio), and Vp is not prominent perturbed before and after the occurrence of the Chi-Chi EQ. However, the Vs (or Vp/Vs ratio) structure in the source area demonstrates significant spatial-temporal difference before and after the mainshock. From the results, before the mainshock, Vs began to decrease (Vp/Vs ratio was increased as well) at the hanging wall of Chelungpu fault, which may be induced by the increasing density of microcracks and fluid. But in the vicinities of Chi-Chi Earthquake's source area, Vs was increasing (Vp/Vs ratio was also decreased). This phenomenon may be owing to the closing of cracks or migration of fluid. Due to the different physical characteristics around the source area, strong earthquake may be easily nucleated at the junctional zone. Our findings suggest that continuously monitoring the Vp and Vs (or

  2. Export diversification and structural changes in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireen Choga

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available What is the nature and extent of export diversification in South Africa? The primary purpose of this paper is to seek empirical answers to this question. In an attempt to derive empirical measures of the extent of export diversification and the structural changes taking place in South Africa, this paper uses a sample of a group of 28 selected commodities for the period 1980-2012 for which the most recent data is available. The following methods were used to measure the extent of export diversification and the structural changes in export diversification: Commodity-specific cumulative export Experience function, the Commodity-specific traditional index (CSTI, variance of CSTI, concentration ratio and the aggregate specialisation index. The Commodity-Specific Cumulative Experience Function plots show that roughly, commodities such as scientific equipment, transport equipment, motor vehicles, furniture, machinery and electronic products were shifted to the right indicating that the commodities are non-traditional in nature whereas gold coal agricultural products and wood are traditional in nature. The CSTI rankings indicated that motor vehicle exports ranked first showing that motor vehicles are non-traditional exports. Findings of this paper corroborate findings of other scholars; we conclude that our results are complementary.

  3. Computed tomography structural lung changes in discordant airflow limitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firdaus A A Mohamed Hoesein

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that structural lung changes may be present before the occurrence of airflow limitation as assessed by spirometry. This study investigated the prevalence of computed tomography (CT quantified emphysema, airway wall thickening and gas trapping according to classification of airflow limitation (FEV1/FVC 70%; group 2LLN; and group 370% but FEV1 <80% predicted, were excluded. Multivariate regression analysis correcting for covariates was used to asses the extent of emphysema, airway wall thickening and gas trapping according to three groups of airflow limitation.Mean (standard deviation age was 62.5 (5.2 years and packyears smoked was 41.0 (18.0. Group 2 subjects when compared to group 1 had a significantly lower 15(th percentile, -920.6 HU versus -912.2 HU; a higher Pi10, 2.87 mm versus 2.57 mm; and a higher E/I-ratio, 88.6% versus 85.6% (all p<0.001.Subjects with an FEV1/FVC<70%, but above the LLN, have a significant greater degree of structural lung changes on CT compared to subjects without airflow limitation.

  4. LONGITUDINAL STRUCTURAL CHANGES IN LATE-ONSET RETINAL DEGENERATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukras, Catherine; Flamendorf, Jason; Wong, Wai T; Ayyagari, Radha; Cunningham, Denise; Sieving, Paul A

    2016-12-01

    To characterize longitudinal structural changes in early stages of late-onset retinal degeneration to investigate pathogenic mechanisms. Two affected siblings, both with a S163R missense mutation in the causative gene C1QTNF5, were followed for 8+ years. Color fundus photos, fundus autofluorescence images, near-infrared reflectance fundus images, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography scans were acquired during follow-up. Both patients, aged 45 and 50 years, had good visual acuities (>20/20) in the context of prolonged dark adaptation. Baseline color fundus photography demonstrated yellow-white, punctate lesions in the temporal macula that correlated with a reticular pattern on fundus autofluorescence and near-infrared reflectance imaging. Baseline spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging revealed subretinal deposits that resemble reticular pseudodrusen described in age-related macular degeneration. During follow-up, these affected areas developed confluent thickening of the retinal pigment epithelial layer and disruption of the ellipsoid zone of photoreceptors before progressing to overt retinal pigment epithelium and outer retinal atrophy. Structural changes in early stages of late-onset retinal degeneration, revealed by multimodal imaging, resemble those of reticular pseudodrusen observed in age-related macular degeneration and other retinal diseases. Longitudinal follow-up of these lesions helps elucidate their progression to frank atrophy and may lend insight into the pathogenic mechanisms underlying diverse retinal degenerations.

  5. Structural analysis of lunar subsurface with Chang'E-3 lunar penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jialong; Xu, Yi; Zhang, Xiaoping; Tang, Zesheng

    2016-01-01

    Geological structure of the subsurface of the Moon provides valuable information on lunar evolution. Recently, Chang'E-3 has utilized lunar penetrating radar (LPR), which is equipped on the lunar rover named as Yutu, to detect the lunar geological structure in Northern Imbrium (44.1260N, 19.5014W) for the first time. As an in situ detector, Chang'E-3 LPR has relative higher horizontal and vertical resolution and less clutter impact compared to spaceborne radars and earth-based radars. In this work, we analyze the LPR data at 500 MHz transmission frequency to obtain the shallow subsurface structure of the landing area of Chang'E-3 in Mare Imbrium. Filter method and amplitude recovery algorithms are utilized to alleviate the adverse effects of environment and system noises and compensate the amplitude losses during signal propagation. Based on the processed radar image, we observe numerous diffraction hyperbolae, which may be caused by discrete reflectors beneath the lunar surface. Hyperbolae fitting method is utilized to reverse the average dielectric constant to certain depth (ε bar). Overall, the estimated ε bar increases with the depth and ε bar could be classified into three categories. Average ε bar of each category is 2.47, 3.40 and 6.16, respectively. Because of the large gap between the values of ε bar of neighboring categories, we speculate a three-layered structure of the shallow surface of LPR exploration region. One possible geological picture of the speculated three-layered structure is presented as follows. The top layer is weathered layer of ejecta blanket with its average thickness and bound on error is 0.95±0.02 m. The second layer is the ejecta blanket of the nearby impact crater, and the corresponding average thickness is about 2.30±0.07 m, which is in good agreement with the two primary models of ejecta blanket thickness as a function of distance from the crater center. The third layer is regarded as a mixture of stones and soil. The

  6. Structural Analysis of Lunar Subsurface with Chang'E 3 Lunar Penetrating Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi; Lai, Jialong; Tang, Zesheng

    2015-04-01

    Geological structure of the subsurface of the Moon provides valuable information for our understanding of lunar evolution. Recently, Chang'E 3 has utilized lunar penetrating radar (LPR), which is equipped on the lunar rover named as Yutu, to detect the lunar geological structure in Northern Imbrium (44.1260N, 19.5014W) for the first time. As an in-situ detector, Chang'E 3 LPR has higher horizontal and vertical resolution and less clutter impact compared to spaceborne radars such as Chandrayaan-1 and Kaguya. In this work, we analyze the LPR data at 500 MHz transmission frequency to obtain the shallow subsurface structure of the landing area of Chang'E 3 in Mare Imbrium. First, filter method and amplitude recover algorithms are introduced for data processing to alleviate the adverse effects of environment and system noises and compensate the amplitude losses during signal propagation. Next, based on the processed LPR data, we present the methods to determine the interfaces between layers. A three-layered structure of the shallow surface of the Moon has been observed. The corresponding real part of relative dielectric constant is inverted with deconvolution method. The average dielectric constants of the surface, second and third layer is 2.8, 3.2 and 3.6, respectively. The phenomenon that the average dielectric constant increases with the depth is consistent with prior art. With the obtained dielectric constants, the thickness of each layer can be calculated. One possible geological picture of the observed three-layered structure is presented as follows. The top layer is lunar regolith with its thickness ranging from 0.59 m to 0.9 m. The second layer is the ejecta blanket of the nearby impact crater, and the corresponding thickness is between 3.6m to 3.9m, which is in good agreement with the model of ejecta blanket thickness (height) as a function of distance from the crater center proposed by Melosh in 1989. The third layer is regarded as early lunar regolith with 4

  7. Selected Aspects of Agro-structural Change within the Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Streifeneder

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available La région couverte par la Convention alpine a connu un recul important des exploitations agricoles (– 40 % entre 1980 et 2000. Des régions stables (Autriche, Suisse côtoient des régions profondément transformées (Italie, Slovénie. Les modifications agrostructurelles ont conduit à des bouleversements majeurs dans les structures de fonctionnement (agrandissement des exploitations, abandon de surface agricole utile, partages diversifiés des types socio-économiques d’exploitations. Cela résulte de divers facteurs, qu’ils soient culturels (l’attachement aux traditions agricoles, l’identification de la société au monde agricole, politico-agricoles (Politique Agricole Commune, OMC ou économiques (opportunités de revenus non-agricoles et fonctionnels (taille des exploitations. Au-delà des différenciations nationales et régionales majeures au sein de l’arc alpin (abandon d’exploitations modéré à fort, les exploitations agricoles affrontent les mêmes enjeux en ce qui concerne les transformations des structures agricoles (ex : abandon d’exploitation et augmentation de la taille des exploitations restantes. En comparaison avec la moyenne à l’échelle alpine de l’évolution du nombre d’exploitations et des surfaces agricoles utiles (1980-2000, on peut observer des tendances modérées (Autriche/Suisse/Allemagne, dynamiques (Italie/Slovénie ou non corrélées (France.The Alpine region registered a substantial abandonment of farms (-40% between 1980 and 2000. Both Alpine regions with a relatively stable situation (AT, CH and regions with significant agricultural changes (IT, SI exist next to each other. The agro-structural change has led to profound changes in operational structures (enlargement of farms, abandonment of utilised agricultural areas, varying shares of socio-economic farm types. This resulted from various cultural (e.g. relatedness to agricultural traditions, identification of the society with

  8. Pension decisions in a changing economy: gender, structure, and choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, M A; Shuey, K

    2000-09-01

    As responsibility for financial security in retirement becomes more individualized, understanding the distribution and determinants of savings behavior grows in importance. Employed men and women often gain access to their pension assets when they change jobs. In this study gender differences in pre-retirement access to and disposition of accumulated pension assets are examined. The authors used data from the Health and Retirement Study to model pension participation, disposition of pension assets, and use of cash settlements derived from a pension plan in a previous job. Logit models provided estimates of gender differences in access to pensions and the preservation of pension funds for retirement. Women were less likely to have participated in employer-sponsored pension plans; more likely to cash out accumulated pension assets when they changed jobs; and, when job changes occurred at relatively young ages, equally likely to spend the settlement. However, by their late 40s, women were more likely to save the settlement, a net gender difference that increased with age at which the settlement was received. The structure of employment compensation continues to place women at a disadvantage. Gender differences in earnings and fringe benefits not only affect current financial status, but also cast a shadow over future financial security. Although the gender gap in pension coverage has been reduced, women with pensions have access to lower benefits and less in accumulated assets. As these continuing deficits are addressed, enhancing women's tendency to save pension assets for retirement can help them build financial security.

  9. Cognitive and brain structural changes in a lung cancer population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simó, Marta; Root, James C; Vaquero, Lucía; Ripollés, Pablo; Jové, Josep; Ahles, Tim; Navarro, Arturo; Cardenal, Felipe; Bruna, Jordi; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    No study has examined structural brain changes specifically associated with chemotherapy in a lung cancer population. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess differences in brain structure between small-cell lung cancer patients (C+) following chemotherapy, non-small-cell lung cancer patients (C-) before chemotherapy and healthy controls (HC). Twenty-eight small-cell lung cancer patients underwent a neuropsychological assessment and a structural magnetic resonance imaging, including T1-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging to examine gray matter density and white matter (WM) integrity, respectively, 1 month following completion of platinum-based chemotherapy. This group was compared with 20 age and education-matched non-small-cell lung cancer patients before receiving chemotherapy and 20 HC. Both C+ and C- groups exhibited cognitive impairment compared with the HC group. The C+ group performed significantly worse than HC in verbal fluency and visuospatial subtests; C- performed significantly worse than both C+ and HC in verbal memory. Voxel-based morphometry analysis revealed lower gray matter density in the insula and parahippocampal gyrus bilaterally, and left anterior cingulate cortex in C+ compared with HC. Diffusion tensor imaging indices showed focal decreased WM integrity in left cingulum and bilateral inferior longitudinal fasciculus in the C+ group and more widespread decreased integrity in the C- group compared with the HC group. This study demonstrates that lung cancer patients exhibit cognitive impairment before and after chemotherapy. Before the treatment, C- showed verbal memory deficits as well as a widespread WM damage. Following treatment, the C+ group performed exhibited lower visuospatial and verbal fluency abilities, together with structural gray matter and WM differences in bilateral regions integrating the paralimbic system.

  10. Changing structure to improve function: one academic health center's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, B; Davis, L; Kohler, P O

    1997-04-01

    Academic health centers (AHCs) have been under siege for the past few years, with decreased federal and state funding for educational and research programs and increasing competition in the health care marketplace. In addition, many AHCs are burdened with the bureaucratic red tape of large educational institutions, which makes agility in responding to a demanding health care market difficult. The authors describe the response to these threats by Oregon Health Sciences University (OHSU), an approach that has been different from those of most similar institutions. OHSU chose to change its structure from being part of the state system of higher education to being an independent public corporation. The authors outline the political process of building widespread support for the legislation passed in 1995, the key features of the restructuring, the challenges faced before and after the transition to a public corporation, and lessons learned in this metamorphosis to a new form.

  11. Opening editorial 2016: Changes in scope and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazak, Anne E

    2016-01-01

    This issue of American Psychologist (AP) marks historic changes in the editorial structure and leadership of AP and related shifts in the refinement of the mission of AP and the types of papers AP will publish. As the new editor-in-chief (EIC) of AP, I am enthusiastic about psychology and the many ways that psychological knowledge can improve our lives and the societies in which we live. AP will continue to reflect the whole of psychology and welcomes the input and involvement of individuals from all areas of the field. In this editorial, I offer readers a brief overview of current journal activities and procedures for the flagship journal of the American Psychological Association (APA). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. A zero density change phase change memory material: GeTe-O structural characteristics upon crystallisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xilin; Dong, Weiling; Zhang, Hao; Simpson, Robert E

    2015-06-11

    Oxygen-doped germanium telluride phase change materials are proposed for high temperature applications. Up to 8 at.% oxygen is readily incorporated into GeTe, causing an increased crystallisation temperature and activation energy. The rhombohedral structure of the GeTe crystal is preserved in the oxygen doped films. For higher oxygen concentrations the material is found to phase separate into GeO2 and TeO2, which inhibits the technologically useful abrupt change in properties. Increasing the oxygen content in GeTe-O reduces the difference in film thickness and mass density between the amorphous and crystalline states. For oxygen concentrations between 5 and 6 at.%, the amorphous material and the crystalline material have the same density. Above 6 at.% O doping, crystallisation exhibits an anomalous density change, where the volume of the crystalline state is larger than that of the amorphous. The high thermal stability and zero-density change characteristic of Oxygen-incorporated GeTe, is recommended for efficient and low stress phase change memory devices that may operate at elevated temperatures.

  13. Subsurface structures in the northern Mare Imbrium measured by Chang'E-3 and SELENE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumamoto, A.; Ishiyama, K.; Feng, J.

    2016-12-01

    Subsurface structures in the northern Mare Imbrium measured by Chang'E-3 and SELENE have been compared. In Chang'E-3 mission, subsurface radar sounding at (19.51W, 44.12N) was performed by Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR) onboard the Yutu rover. The LPR was pulse radar operated at two frequencies: 60 MHz and 500 MHz. During its operation period from December 2013 to January 2014, the LPR observed subsurface echoes along the rover's track with total distance of 114 m. From the observation in 60 MHz, the subsurface echoes from buried regolith layers at depths of 35, 50, 140, 240, and 360 m were reported (Xiao et al., 2015). In SELENE mission, global subsurface radar sounding of the moon was performed by Lunar Radar Sounder (LRS) onboard the SELENE (Kaguya) spacecraft from the polar orbit with an altitude of 100 km. The LRS was chirp radar operated in a frequency range from 4-6 MHz. So the range resolution of LRS was 75 m in vacuum. During operation period from December 2007 to September 2008, subsurface echoes from all areas of the Moon was observed with a lateral resolution of 76 m. From the global observation, the subsurface echoes from the buried regolith layers in the neraside maria including Mare Imbrium at depths of several hundred meters were reported (Ono et al., 2009).In the present study, we focus on SELENE/LRS data obtained at (19.50W, 44.12N) which is the nearest to the Chang'E-3 landing site. While clear and large-scale subsurface reflectors, as found in Ono et al. (2009), are not found in it, we can identify some echo components from the depths of 140 ( 2000 ns), 240 ( 4000 ns), and 360 m ( 6000 ns). Further analyses utilizing high-resolution data from Chang'E-3/LPR and large-scale data from SELENE/LRS, we will be able to determine the thickness and large-scale structures of the buried regolith layers found by the both radars, and discuss their formation processes in volcanic history of Mare Imbrium.

  14. Analysis of Lipoplex Structure and Lipid Phase Changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koynova, Rumiana

    2012-07-18

    Efficient delivery of genetic material to cells is needed for tasks of utmost importance in the laboratory and clinic, such as gene transfection and gene silencing. Synthetic cationic lipids can be used as delivery vehicles for nucleic acids and are now considered the most promising nonviral gene carriers. They form complexes (lipoplexes) with the polyanionic nucleic acids. A critical obstacle for clinical application of the lipid-mediated DNA delivery (lipofection) is its unsatisfactory efficiency for many cell types. Understanding the mechanism of lipid-mediated DNA delivery is essential for their successful application, as well as for a rational design and synthesis of novel cationic lipoid compounds for enhanced gene delivery. A viewpoint now emerging is that the critical factor in lipid-mediated transfection is the structural evolution of lipoplexes within the cell, upon interacting and mixing with cellular lipids. In particular, recent studies showed that the phase evolution of lipoplex lipids upon interaction and mixing with membrane lipids appears to be decisive for transfection success: specifically, lamellar lipoplex formulations, which were readily susceptible to undergoing lamellar-nonlamellar phase transition upon mixing with cellular lipids and were found rather consistently associated with superior transfection potency, presumably as a result of facilitated DNA release. Thus, understanding the lipoplex structure and the phase changes upon interacting with membrane lipids is important for the successful application of the cationic lipids as gene carriers.

  15. Improved data visualization techniques for analyzing macromolecule structural changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Hyun; Iyer, Vidyashankara; Joshi, Sangeeta B; Volkin, David B; Middaugh, C Russell

    2012-10-01

    The empirical phase diagram (EPD) is a colored representation of overall structural integrity and conformational stability of macromolecules in response to various environmental perturbations. Numerous proteins and macromolecular complexes have been analyzed by EPDs to summarize results from large data sets from multiple biophysical techniques. The current EPD method suffers from a number of deficiencies including lack of a meaningful relationship between color and actual molecular features, difficulties in identifying contributions from individual techniques, and a limited ability to be interpreted by color-blind individuals. In this work, three improved data visualization approaches are proposed as techniques complementary to the EPD. The secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structural changes of multiple proteins as a function of environmental stress were first measured using circular dichroism, intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy, and static light scattering, respectively. Data sets were then visualized as (1) RGB colors using three-index EPDs, (2) equiangular polygons using radar charts, and (3) human facial features using Chernoff face diagrams. Data as a function of temperature and pH for bovine serum albumin, aldolase, and chymotrypsin as well as candidate protein vaccine antigens including a serine threonine kinase protein (SP1732) and surface antigen A (SP1650) from S. pneumoniae and hemagglutinin from an H1N1 influenza virus are used to illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of each type of data visualization technique. Copyright © 2012 The Protein Society.

  16. Changes in the structural properties of peripheral nerves after transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toby, E B; Meyer, B M; Schwappach, J; Alvine, G

    1996-11-01

    Changes in peripheral nerve structural properties after transection were measured weekly for 5 weeks in the distal stump of the sciatic nerve in 50 Sprague-Dawley rats. Each week after transection, the distal stump of the transected nerve showed increased stiffness when compared to intact nerves. Linear elastic stiffness reached a maximum at weeks 1 and 2 after transection, when the transected nerves were 15% stiffer than the contralateral control sides. Toughness was also increased and reached a maximum at week 4 with a 50% difference between values for experimental and control sides. Overall failure load was between 21% and 27% greater, peaking at week 3. An increase in stiffness of the distal stump would result in increased tension at the suture line, as the nerve gap is overcome when performing a delayed neurorraphy. These data suggest, with respect to structural properties, that an end-to-end repair should be carried out at the time of injury; after only 1 week, significant stiffness in the distal segment of the nerve developed, which should result in an increase in tension at the repair site.

  17. The offshore trend: Structural changes in the wind power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markard, Jochen; Petersen, Regula

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the wind power sector has begun to move offshore, i.e. to use space and good wind speeds on the open sea for large scale electricity generation. Offshore wind power, however, is not just technologically challenging but also a capital intensive and risky business that requires particular financial and organizational resources not all potential investors might have. We therefore address the question, what impact offshore wind power may have on ownership and organizational structures in the wind power sector. We compare on- and offshore wind park ownership in Denmark, the UK and Germany. The analysis shows that offshore wind power in all three countries is dominated by large firms, many of which are from the electricity sector. In Denmark and the UK, also investors from the gas and oil industry play an important role in the offshore wind business. This development represents a major shift for countries such as Germany and Denmark, in which the wind power sector has grown and matured on the basis of investments by individuals, farmers, cooperatives and independent project developers. The structural changes by which offshore wind power is accompanied have consequences for turbine manufacturers, project developers, investors, associations and policy makers in the field.

  18. The aging lacrimal gland: changes in structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Eduardo M; Alves, Monica; Rios, J David; Dartt, Darlene A

    2008-10-01

    The afferent nerves of the cornea and conjunctiva, efferent nerves of the lacrimal gland, and the lacrimal gland are a functional unit that works cooperatively to produce the aqueous component of tears. A decrease in the lacrimal gland secretory function can lead to dry eye disease. Because aging is a risk factor for dry eye disease, study of the changes in the function of the lacrimal gland functional unit with age is important for developing treatments to prevent dry eye disease. No one mechanism is known to induce the changes that occur with aging, although multiple different mechanisms have been associated with aging. These fall into two theoretical categories: programmed theories of aging (immunological, genetic, apoptotic, and neuroendocrine) and error theories of aging (protein alteration, somatic mutation, etc). Lacrimal glands undergo structural and functional alteration with increasing age. In mouse models of aging, it has been shown that neural stimulation of protein secretion is an early target of aging, accompanied by an increase in mast cells and lipofuscin accumulation. Hyperglycemia and increased lymphocytic infiltration can contribute to this loss of function at older ages. These findings suggest that an increase in oxidative stress may play a role in the loss of lacrimal gland function with age. For the afferent and efferent neural components of the lacrimal gland functional unit, immune or inflammatory mediated decrease in nerve function could contribute to loss of lacrimal gland secretion with age. More research in this area is critically needed.

  19. Changes in Soil Fungal Community Structure with Increasing Disturbance Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyunjun; Kim, Mincheol; Tripathi, Binu; Adams, Jonathan

    2017-07-01

    Although disturbance is thought to be important in many ecological processes, responses of fungal communities to soil disturbance have been little studied experimentally. We subjected a soil microcosm to physical disturbance, at a range of frequencies designed to simulate ecological disturbance events. We analyzed the fungal community structure using Illumina HiSeq sequencing of the ITS1 region. Fungal diversity was found to decline with the increasing disturbance frequencies, with no sign of the "humpback" pattern found in many studies of larger sedentary organisms. There is thus no evidence of an effect of release from competition resulting from moderate disturbance-which suggests that competition and niche overlap may not be important in limiting soil fungal diversity. Changing disturbance frequency also led to consistent differences in community composition. There were clear differences in OTU-level composition, with different disturbance treatments each having distinct fungal communities. The functional profile of fungal groups (guilds) was changed by the level of disturbance frequency. These predictable differences in community composition suggest that soil fungi can possess different niches in relation to disturbance frequency, or time since last disturbance. Fungi appear to be most abundant relative to bacteria at intermediate disturbance frequencies, on the time scale we studied here.

  20. 7 CFR 3560.405 - Borrower organizational structure or ownership interest changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Servicing § 3560.405 Borrower organizational structure or ownership interest changes. (a) General. The requirements of this section apply to changes in a borrower entity's organizational structure or to a change in... organizational change. The request must document that the proposed changes will not adversely affect the program...

  1. Structural changes in endometrial basal glands during menstruation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garry, R; Hart, R; Karthigasu, K A; Burke, C

    2010-09-01

    To prospectively observe the changes occurring in endometrial glandular morphology during menstrual shedding and regeneration. Prospective observational study. The academic gynaecological endoscopy unit of a university teaching hospital. Population Thirteen patients investigated for a variety of benign, non-infective gynaecological disorders during the active bleeding phase of the menstrual cycle. The morphological appearances of concurrent histological and scanning electron microscopic images of endometrium taken at different stages of the active bleeding phase of menstruation were studied and correlated with the simultaneous immunohistochemical expression of the Ki-67 proliferation marker and the CD68 marker of macrophage activity. Change in morphology of endometrial glands at various stages of menstruation. Endometrial glands within the basalis show evidence of apoptosis and associated macrophage activity immediately before and during menstruation. There is subsequent destruction and removal of old secretory glandular epithelial elements, and rapid replacement with new narrow glands lined with small epithelial cells. There is no evidence of mitotic cell division or expression of Ki-67 in the glandular cells during this replacement process, but there is evidence of marked macrophage activity prior to glandular cell loss. Early endometrial epithelial repair after menstruation is not a consequence of mitotic cell division. It occurs without evidence of Ki-67 expression. There is structural evidence of programmed cell death and intense macrophage activity associated with glandular remodelling. Dead epithelial cells are shed from the glands and accumulate within the endometrial cavity to be replaced by new small epithelial cells that appear to arise by differentiation of the surrounding stromal cells. We propose that these stromal cells are endometrial progenitor/stem cells.

  2. THE EFFECT OF IRRADIATION ON ENAMEL MICRO-STRUCTURE CHANGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Gunawan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Radiotherapy plays an important role in the management of head and neck carcinoma therapy. The radiation dose ranges from 40 – 70 Gy, depends on the severity and location of the malignancy. Many patients experience an increased dental caries or sensitivity occurrence following radiotherapy. The objective of this study is to analyze the enamel micro-structure changes after irradiation. Nine polished enamel slabs were prepared from impacted 3rd molars. The slabs were flushed in non-ionic distilled water and dried by using air spray and divided into 3 groups, the control, 20 Gy and 40 Gy irradiation group. Irradiations were performed from Co60 using Gammacell-220E, with duration variables to produce the irradiation doses of 20 and 40 Gy. Philips pW370-XRD was used to examine specimen microstructure changes after irradiation. 1-way ANOVA was used for statistics analysis. It was revealed that grain size after 40 Gy irradiation was 66.29±2.7 nm, and after 20 Gy was 51.64±15.8 whilst 43.95±11.1 nm for the control group. The micro-stain deviation of the 40 Gy group was 0.594±0.15 N/m, and 0.45±2.6 N/m for the 20 Gy group, and 0.378±0.27 N/m for control group. Statistic analysis showed significant grain size differences between 40 Gy compared to both 20 Gy and control groups, but not between 20 Gy compared to the control group. Similarly, there were micro-stain differences between 40 Gy compared to 20 Gy and control groups, but not between 20 Gy compared to control group. It was concluded that irradiation with 40 Gy caused elevation of the enamel microstrain and apaite grainsize. Elevation of the enamel microstrain could lead to enamel crack and gave hypersensitive sensation.

  3. Seasonal changes in the assembly mechanisms structuring tropical fish communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Daniel B; Winemiller, Kirk O; Sabaj Pérez, Mark H; Sousa, Leandro M

    2017-01-01

    Despite growing interest in trait-based approaches to community assembly, little attention has been given to seasonal variation in trait distribution patterns. Mobile animals can rapidly mediate influences of environmental factors and species interactions through dispersal, suggesting that the relative importance of different assembly mechanisms can vary over short time scales. This study analyzes seasonal changes in functional trait distributions of tropical fishes in the Xingu River, a major tributary of the Amazon with large predictable temporal variation in hydrologic conditions and species density. Comparison of observed functional diversity revealed that species within wet-season assemblages were more functionally similar than those in dry-season assemblages. Further, species within wet-season assemblages were more similar than random expectations based on null model predictions. Higher functional richness within dry season communities is consistent with increased niche complementarity during the period when fish densities are highest and biotic interactions should be stronger; however, null model tests suggest that stochastic factors or a combination of assembly mechanisms influence dry-season assemblages. These results demonstrate that the relative influence of community assembly mechanisms can vary seasonally in response to changing abiotic conditions, and suggest that studies attempting to infer a single dominant mechanism from functional patterns may overlook important aspects of the assembly process. During the prolonged flood pulse of the wet season, expanded habitat and lower densities of aquatic organisms likely reduce the influence of competition and predation. This temporal shift in the influence of different assembly mechanisms, rather than any single mechanism, may play a large role in maintaining the structure and diversity of tropical rivers and perhaps other dynamic and biodiverse systems. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  4. PTFE-nanocomposites structure and wear-resistance changing in various methods of structural modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashkov, Yu K.; Ruban, A. S.; Rogachev, E. A.; Chemisenko, O. V.

    2018-01-01

    Conditions of polymer materials usage containing nanoelements as modifiers significantly affect the requirements for their physic-mechanical and tribological properties. However, the mechanisms of nanoparticles effect to the polymers tribotechnical properties have not been studied enough. The article aim is to analyze the results of studying polytetrafluoroethylene modified with cryptocrystalline graphite and silicon dioxide and to determine the effectiveness of the modification methods used and methods for further improving filled PTFE mechanical and tribotechnical properties. The effect of modifiers to PCM supramolecular structure was analyzed with SEM methods. The results of modifying the PCM samples surface by depositing a copper film with ion-vacuum deposition methods and changing the structural-phase composition and tribological characteristics are considered. The findings make possible to characterize the physicochemical processes under frictional interaction in metal polymer tribosystems.

  5. Mitigating climate change: Decomposing the relative roles of energy conservation, technological change, and structural shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Gouri Shankar; Zakerinia, Saleh; Yeh, Sonia; Teter, Jacob; Morrison, Geoff

    2014-01-01

    We decompose the contribution of five drivers of energy use and CO 2 emissions reductions in achieving climate change goals over 2005–2100 for various climate policy scenarios. This study contributes to the decomposition literature in three ways. First, it disaggregates drivers of energy demand into technological progress and demand for energy services, represented in terms of useful energy, allowing us to estimate their contributions independently — an improvement over other economy-wide decomposition studies. Secondly, this approach reduces the ambiguity present in many previous measures of structural change. We delineate structural shifts into two separate measures: changes in fuel mix within a given resource or service pathway; and changes in mix among distinct energy resources or end-use services. Finally, this study applies decomposition methods to energy and emission trajectories from two mutually informing perspectives: (i) primary energy resources — crude oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear, and renewables; and (ii) end-uses of energy services — residential and commercial buildings, industry, and transportation. Our results show that technological improvements and energy conservation are important in meeting climate goals in the first half of the coming century; and that nuclear and renewable energy and CCS technology are crucial in meeting more stringent goals in the second half of the century. We examine the relative roles of the drivers in reducing CO 2 emissions separately for developed and developing regions. Although the majority of energy and emission growth – and by extension the greatest opportunities for mitigation – will occur in developing countries, the decomposition shows that the relative roles of the five drivers are broadly consistent between these two regions. - Highlights: • We decompose the contribution of five drivers of energy use and CO2 emissions reductions in achieving climate change goals • We analyze differences

  6. Structural changes in the ordering processes of macromolecular compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, M.; Tashiro, K.

    1998-01-01

    In order to clarify the microscopically-viewed relationship between the conformational ordering process and the aggregation process of the macromolecular chains in the phase transitions from melt to solid or from solution to gel, the time-resolved Fourier-transform infrared spectra and small-angle X-ray or neutron scattering data have been analyzed in an organized manner. Two concrete examples were presented. (1) In the gelation phenomenon of syndiotactic polystyrene-organic solvent system, the ordered TTGG conformation is formed and develops with time. This conformational ordering is accelerated by the aggregation of these chain segments, resulting in the formation of macroscopic gel network. (2) In the isothermal crystallization process from the melt of polyethylene, the following ordering mechanism was revealed. The conformationally-disordered short trans conformers appear at first in the random coils of the melt. These disordered trans sequences grow to longer and more regular trans sequences of the orthorhombic-type crystal and then the isolated lamellae are formed. Afterwards, the stacked lamellar structure is developed without change of lamellar thickness but with small decrease in the long period, indicating an insertion of new lamellae between the already produced lamellar layers

  7. Coal structure and reactivity changes induced by chemical demineralisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubiera, F.; Arenillas, A.; Pevida, C.; Garcia, R.; Pis, J.J. [Department of Energy and Environment, Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Apartado 73, 33080 Oviedo (Spain); Steel, K.M.; Patrick, J.W. [Fuel Technology Group, School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering, Nottingham University, University Park, NG7 2RD Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2002-12-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the influence that an advanced demineralisation procedure has on the combustion characteristics of coal. A high-volatile bituminous coal with 6.2% ash content was treated in a mixture of hydrofluoric and fluorosilicic acids (HF/H{sub 2}SiF{sub 6}). Nitric acid was used either as a pretreatment, or as a washing stage after HF/H{sub 2}SiF{sub 6} demineralisation, with an ash content as low as 0.3% being attained in the latter case. The structural changes produced by the chemical treatment were evaluated by comparison of the FTIR spectra of the raw and treated coal samples. The devolatilisation and combustibility behaviour of the samples was studied by using a thermobalance coupled to a mass spectrometer (TGA-MS) for evolved gas analysis. The combustibility characteristics of the cleaned samples were clearly improved, there being a decrease in SO{sub 2} emissions.

  8. Structural and Functional Changes in Human Kidneys with Healthy Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommos, Musab S; Glassock, Richard J; Rule, Andrew D

    2017-10-01

    Aging is associated with significant changes in structure and function of the kidney, even in the absence of age-related comorbidities. On the macrostructural level, kidney cortical volume decreases, surface roughness increases, and the number and size of simple renal cysts increase with age. On the microstructural level, the histologic signs of nephrosclerosis (arteriosclerosis/arteriolosclerosis, global glomerulosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis, and tubular atrophy) all increase with age. The decline of nephron number is accompanied by a comparable reduction in measured whole-kidney GFR. However, single-nephron GFR remains relatively constant with healthy aging as does glomerular volume. Only when glomerulosclerosis and arteriosclerosis exceed that expected for age is there an increase in single-nephron GFR. In the absence of albuminuria, age-related reduction in GFR with the corresponding increase in CKD (defined by an eGFRage-standardized mortality risk or ESRD. These findings raise the question of whether disease labeling of an age-related decline in GFR is appropriate. These findings also emphasize the need for a different management approach for many elderly individuals considered to have CKD by current criteria. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  9. THORACOLUMBAR BURST FRACTURE: STRUCTURAL CHANGES AND CLINICAL OUTCOME OF TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Arnold Tisot

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the correlation between structural changes in burst fractures of thoracic and lumbar spine with clinical outcome of the treatment. Methods: A retrospective study in 25 patients with fractures of thoracic and lumbar spine burst fractures without neurological deficit. Eleven patients underwent conservative treatment and for the remaining the treatment was surgical. All patients were followed up for at least 24 months. The cases were evaluated by a protocol that included: posttraumatic measurement of kyphosis, vertebral body collapse and narrowing of the spinal canal, the visual analog scale of pain, and the quality of life questionnaire SF-36 at the follow-up. For statistical analysis, the significance level was 5% and the software SPSS 18.0 was used. Results: No statistically significant difference was observed when comparing the clinical outcomes of one treatment over another. Similarly, there was no statistically significant correlation between kyphosis and post-traumatic narrowing of the spinal canal with clinical worsening in the follow-up, regardless of the treatment used. We found a positive correlation (p<0.05 between initial collapse and SF-36 domains in both groups (operated and non-operated. Conclusion: There was no significant superiority of one treatment over the other, and no correlation was found between kyphosis and spinal canal narrowing in burst fractures of the thoracic and lumbar spine without neurological deficit. However, there was correlation between initial collapse and clinical outcome in some domains of the SF-36 questionnaire.

  10. Structural and functional brain changes in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, David J; Malizia, Andrea L

    2004-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a highly disabling condition that is associated with intrusive recollections of a traumatic event, hyperarousal, avoidance of clues associated with the trauma, and psychological numbing. The field of neuroimaging has made tremendous advances in the past decade and has contributed greatly to our understanding of the physiology of fear and the pathophysiology of PTSD. Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated significant neurobiologic changes in PTSD. There appear to be 3 areas of the brain that are different in patients with PTSD compared with those in control subjects: the hippocampus, the amygdala, and the medial frontal cortex. The amygdala appears to be hyperreactive to trauma-related stimuli. The hallmark symptoms of PTSD, including exaggerated startle response and flashbacks, may be related to a failure of higher brain regions (i.e., the hippocampus and the medial frontal cortex) to dampen the exaggerated symptoms of arousal and distress that are mediated through the amygdala in response to reminders of the traumatic event. The findings of structural and functional neuroimaging studies of PTSD are reviewed as they relate to our current understanding of the pathophysiology of this disorder.

  11. Structural changes in brain substance in children with epilepsy (MRI findings)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaduk, Je.G.

    2000-01-01

    The structural changes in the brain substance and the parameters of liquor-containing spaces in children with epilepsy are studied. Structural morphological changes in the brain were found in 30, 7 % of cases. In 27, 7 % MRI findings did not differ from the control. The number of porencephalic changes in the both groups was similar (4, 2 - 4, 3 % of cases). Hypotrophy of cortical and subcortical structures, dysgenesis of the colossal body were observed in the group of local epilepsy. Typodense changes of pervantricular structures were more frequent in the patients will local disease. Hypodense changes of the periventricular structures were more frequent in the patients with local disturbances

  12. Geometric structure and information change in phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-jin; Hollerbach, Rainer

    2017-06-01

    We propose a toy model for a cyclic order-disorder transition and introduce a geometric methodology to understand stochastic processes involved in transitions. Specifically, our model consists of a pair of forward and backward processes (FPs and BPs) for the emergence and disappearance of a structure in a stochastic environment. We calculate time-dependent probability density functions (PDFs) and the information length L , which is the total number of different states that a system undergoes during the transition. Time-dependent PDFs during transient relaxation exhibit strikingly different behavior in FPs and BPs. In particular, FPs driven by instability undergo the broadening of the PDF with a large increase in fluctuations before the transition to the ordered state accompanied by narrowing the PDF width. During this stage, we identify an interesting geodesic solution accompanied by the self-regulation between the growth and nonlinear damping where the time scale τ of information change is constant in time, independent of the strength of the stochastic noise. In comparison, BPs are mainly driven by the macroscopic motion due to the movement of the PDF peak. The total information length L between initial and final states is much larger in BPs than in FPs, increasing linearly with the deviation γ of a control parameter from the critical state in BPs while increasing logarithmically with γ in FPs. L scales as |lnD | and D-1 /2 in FPs and BPs, respectively, where D measures the strength of the stochastic forcing. These differing scalings with γ and D suggest a great utility of L in capturing different underlying processes, specifically, diffusion vs advection in phase transition by geometry. We discuss physical origins of these scalings and comment on implications of our results for bistable systems undergoing repeated order-disorder transitions (e.g., fitness).

  13. Using wood products to mitigate climate change: External costs and structural change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathre, Roger; Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, 831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2009-02-15

    In this study we examine the use of wood products as a means to mitigate climate change. We describe the life cycle of wood products including forest growth, wood harvest and processing, and product use and disposal, focusing on the multiple roles of wood as both material and fuel. We present a comparative case study of a building constructed with either a wood or a reinforced concrete frame. We find that the production of wood building material uses less energy and emits less carbon than the production of reinforced concrete material. We compare the relative cost of the two building methods without environmental taxation, under the current Swedish industrial energy taxation regime, and in scenarios that incorporate estimates of the full social cost of carbon emission. We find that the inclusion of climate-related external costs improves the economic standing of wood construction vis-a-vis concrete construction. We conclude that policy instruments that internalise the external costs of carbon emission should encourage a structural change toward the increased use of sustainably produced wood products. (author)

  14. Structuring the agora of techno-organisational change

    OpenAIRE

    Kaniadakis, Antonios

    2009-01-01

    The Agora of Techno-Organisational Change refers to the global emergence and expansion of a marketplace for the resources necessary to carry out technological changes in business organisations. These resources include technologies such as information systems and software packages, specialised technical and business expertise, change methodologies, project management, etc. The Agora of Techno-Organisational Change is populated by various diverse and heterogeneous actors (suppliers, users, inte...

  15. Future Agribusiness Challenges: Strategic Uncertainty, Innovation and Structural Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boehlje, M.; Roucan-Kane, M.; Bröring, S.

    2011-01-01

    The global food and agribusiness industry is in the midst of major changes, and the pace of change seems to be increasing. These changes suggest three fundamental critical future issues for the sector: 1) decisions must be made in an environment of increasing risk and uncertainty, 2) developing and

  16. Structural change in European power and gas industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    After decades of stability the European power and gas industries are now undergoing fundamental changes. Made possible by policy reforms and technological developments, these changes are largely driven by commercial forces which have developed their own momentum and dynamics. New commercial risks are a key feature of the emerging market order and companies cannot protect themselves through a ''no move strategy''. This report explores the key changes and examines the emerging commercial strategies in response to the new environment. (author)

  17. Changing organizational structures of jihadist networks in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bie, Jasper L.; de Poot, Christianne J.; Freilich, Joshua D.; Chermak, Steven M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper uses Social Network Analysis to study and compare the organizational structures and division of roles of three jihadist networks in the Netherlands. It uses unique longitudinal Dutch police data covering the 2000–2013 period. This study demonstrates how the organizational structures

  18. Study of structural changes during deformation of polycrystal vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubets, Yu.E.; Manilov, V.A.; Sarzhan, G.F.; Trefilov, V.I.; Firstov, S.A.

    1978-01-01

    Investigated were the polycrystalline vanadium dislocation structure formed within the range of temperatures between 20 and 1000 deg C and in the interval of deformations between 5 and 94%. The diagram of states was established in the temperature vs. degree of deformation coordinates from electron microscopy data. It was shown that a deformation of 5-7% leads to the appearance in the structure of incorrect shape dislocations with a lot of jogs and kinks. The density of relatively homogeneously distributed dislocations increases with the degree of deformation up to the latter's value of 50%. At a deformation greater than 50%, there forms a cellular structure, there remaining ranges where no cellular structure is formed. Thus, there appears a two-component texture with a different level of internal stresses. Annealing of such a material gives rise to areas of different types of cellular structure

  19. 28 CFR 0.191 - Changes which affect the overall structure of the Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... structure of the Department. 0.191 Section 0.191 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Sections and Subunits § 0.191 Changes which affect the overall structure of the Department. Changes to the overall structure of the Department include: The establishment...

  20. Climate change and its impact on structural safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, R.D.J.M.; Geurts, C.P.W.; Bentum, van C.A.

    2009-01-01

    Extreme climatic events lead to loads on buildings and civil engineering works. Changes in climate will have an effect on the design loads. This paper presents an investigation into the relevance of the climate change scenarios with respect to the loads on buildings by wind, precipitation and

  1. Urban forest structure, ecosystem services and change in Syracuse, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Robert E. Hoehn; Allison R. Bodine; Eric J. Greenfield; Jarlath. O' Neil-Dunne

    2013-01-01

    The tree population within the City of Syracuse was assessed using a random sampling of plots in 1999, 2001 and 2009 to determine how the population and the ecosystem services these trees provide have changed over time. Ecosystem services and values for carbon sequestration, air pollution removal and changes in building energy use were derived using the i-Tree Eco...

  2. Cultural and structural changes in radioactive waste management organisations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    In recent years the socio-political environment of radioactive waste management (RWM) has been changing in a significant way. Stakeholder dialogue has become a leading principle. How have RWM organisations adapted to this societal transition? How do they balance the requirement of openness and the increasing concerns over the security of facilities? Are there organisations that have successfully changed from a technical- to a customer-focused culture? What resistance was met? Which tools and instruments helped organisations evolve? This report documents the changes observed by RWM managers and sets those changes in an organisational sciences framework. All those who are intent on learning about the changes that have taken place in the field of radioactive waste management, or whose own organisations in any sector must adapt to societal demand, will be interested by the experience and insight reported here. (authors)

  3. Mapping the order and pattern of brain structural MRI changes using change-point analysis in premanifest Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Faria, Andreia V; Younes, Laurent; Mori, Susumu; Brown, Timothy; Johnson, Hans; Paulsen, Jane S; Ross, Christopher A; Miller, Michael I

    2017-10-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder that progressively affects motor, cognitive, and emotional functions. Structural MRI studies have demonstrated brain atrophy beginning many years prior to clinical onset ("premanifest" period), but the order and pattern of brain structural changes have not been fully characterized. In this study, we investigated brain regional volumes and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measurements in premanifest HD, and we aim to determine (1) the extent of MRI changes in a large number of structures across the brain by atlas-based analysis, and (2) the initiation points of structural MRI changes in these brain regions. We adopted a novel multivariate linear regression model to detect the inflection points at which the MRI changes begin (namely, "change-points"), with respect to the CAG-age product (CAP, an indicator of extent of exposure to the effects of CAG repeat expansion). We used approximately 300 T1-weighted and DTI data from premanifest HD and control subjects in the PREDICT-HD study, with atlas-based whole brain segmentation and change-point analysis. The results indicated a distinct topology of structural MRI changes: the change-points of the volumetric measurements suggested a central-to-peripheral pattern of atrophy from the striatum to the deep white matter; and the change points of DTI measurements indicated the earliest changes in mean diffusivity in the deep white matter and posterior white matter. While interpretation needs to be cautious given the cross-sectional nature of the data, these findings suggest a spatial and temporal pattern of spread of structural changes within the HD brain. Hum Brain Mapp 38:5035-5050, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Structural changes in femtosecond laser modified regions inside fused silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juodkazis, Saulius; Kohara, Shinji; Ohishi, Yasuo; Hirao, Norihisa; Vailionis, Arturas; Mizeikis, Vygantas; Saito, Akira; Rode, Andrei

    2010-01-01

    Structural characterization of photomodified microvolumes formed by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses inside silica glass was carried out using synchrotron x-ray diffraction. The observed distinct separation between the O–O and Si–Si pair correlation peaks can be interpreted as a phase separation induced by microexplosions at the focal volume. The mechanisms of structural transitions induced by femtosecond laser pulses inside dielectrics are discussed

  5. Family Structure Changes and Children's Health, Behavior, and Educational Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    More and more children do not grow up in traditional nuclear families. Instead they grow up in single parent households or in families with a step-parent. Hence it is important to improve our understanding of the impact of 'shocks' in family structure due to parental relationship dissolution...... on children. In this study I empirically test whether children are traumatized by shocks in the family structure during childhood. I focus on both educational, behavioral, and health outcomes. A population sample of Danish children born in January to May 1983, 1984, and 1985 is used for the analysis...

  6. Functional and Structural Brain Changes Associated with Methamphetamine Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce R. Russell

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine (MA is a potent psychostimulant drug whose abuse has become a global epidemic in recent years. Firstly, this review article briefly discusses the epidemiology and clinical pharmacology of methamphetamine dependence. Secondly, the article reviews relevant animal literature modeling methamphetamine dependence and discusses possible mechanisms of methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity. Thirdly, it provides a critical review of functional and structural neuroimaging studies in human MA abusers; including positron emission tomography (PET and functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. The effect of abstinence from methamphetamine, both short- and long-term within the context of these studies is also reviewed.

  7. Changes in population structures of the major species in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out in six satellite lakes by making investigations on fish collected from experimental and artisanal fisheries. The fishes were analysed for length frequencies, weight and numbers caught to determine the population structure of the fishes. Indiscriminate fishing by deploying illegal gears and increased ...

  8. Structural changes in polytetrafluoroethylene molecular chains upon sliding against steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, J.T.; Pei, Y.T.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    In this work, the influence of dry sliding between a steel counterpart ball and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) plate sample on the transformation of PTFE molecular structure is investigated. With X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy

  9. Multinational enterprises, service outsourcing and regional structural change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ascani, A.; Iammarino, Simona

    2017-01-01

    This paper offers a joint analysis of two phenomena characterizing most advanced economies in recent decades: the rise of foreign ownership in manufacturing activities and the pervasiveness of the service economy. The aim of the study is to examine the structural transformation of regional economic

  10. Structural Transformation, Biased Technological Change, and Employment in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Tarp, Finn; Wu, Ce

    2015-01-01

    Employment in Vietnam and elsewhere in Asia has grown more slowly than GDP over the last several decades. This means GDP per capita is rising. Vietnamese policymakers, however, are concerned that ongoing structural transformation is creating too few jobs. We use data for seven aggregated sectors ...

  11. Structural transformation, biased technological change, and employment in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Tarp, Finn; Wu, Ce

    Employment in Vietnam and elsewhere in Asia has grown more slowly than GDP over the last several decades. This means GDP per capita is rising. Vietnamese policymakers, however, are concerned that ongoing structural transformation is creating too few jobs. We use data for seven aggregated sectors ...

  12. Structural, biochemical, cellular, and functional changes in skeletal muscle extracellular matrix with aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragstrup, T W; Kjaer, M; Mackey, A L

    2011-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of skeletal muscle is critical for force transmission and for the passive elastic response of skeletal muscle. Structural, biochemical, cellular, and functional changes in skeletal muscle ECM contribute to the deterioration in muscle mechanical properties with aging....... Structural changes include an increase in the collagen concentration, a change in the elastic fiber system, and an increase in fat infiltration of skeletal muscle. Biochemical changes include a decreased turnover of collagen with potential accumulation of enzymatically mediated collagen cross...

  13. Gender equality or patriarchal dividend: Structural change in Turkish nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdman, Elizabeth; Badir, Aysel

    2008-06-01

    Turkey is attempting to join the European Union and is facing pressure to eliminate many forms of discrimination, including discrimination based on gender. In keeping with these aims, in early 2007 the Turkish government changed the law to permit Turkish men to become nurses. Given that Turkey is a highly patriarchal society and that occupational segregation by sex is a persistent feature, it is important to examine the potential outcome of the legislative changes. The aim of this paper is to explore the paradoxical potential for Turkish female nurses to experience increased discrimination in a system that is restructured by legislation to be non-discriminatory.

  14. Scenarios of long-term farm structural change for application in climate change impact assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandryk, M.; Reidsma, P.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2012-01-01

    Towards 2050, climate change is one of the possible drivers that will change the farming landscape, but market, policy and technological development may be at least equally important. In the last decade, many studies assessed impacts of climate change and specific adaptation strategies. However,

  15. Ownership Structure and Earnings Management in periods of Executive Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Rasmus S.

    This paper reports evidence of earnings management associated with non-routine executive changes in a Danish context. It is hypothesised that incoming executives in non-owner-controlled companies decrease earnings by means of discretionary accruals in the financial statements relating to the period...

  16. Changes in Business Structures: Challenges for Management of Libyan Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abouazoum, Alafi; de Bruijn, E.J.; Steenhuis, H.J.; Kaynak, E.; Harcar, T.D.

    2008-01-01

    Libya has become a transition economy due to global industrial and political changes in the past decades. Being for long time under government control has created a number of challenges for the management of the SOEs. The most challenging aspect is firm performance improvement. Based on a pilot

  17. U.S. Army Acquisition Workforce: Reflecting Modern Structural Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    provisions ensuring oversight over a massive infusion of contracts, state grants and other measures. Interviews with acquisition workforce specialists... telecommuting .”3 Incentives for retaining qualified acquisition workforce members are discussed. Surveys were analyzed primarily for contextual...and the players who now have a voice in this expanded system. One major change was the use of the Joint Requirements Oversight Council (JROC

  18. Invasive grasses change landscape structure and fire behavior in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa M. Ellsworth; Creighton M. Litton; Alexander P. Dale; Tomoaki Miura

    2014-01-01

    How does potential fire behavior differ in grass-invaded non-native forests vs open grasslands? How has land cover changed from 1950–2011 along two grassland/forest ecotones in Hawaii with repeated fires? A study on non-native forest with invasive grass understory and invasive grassland (Megathyrsus maximus) ecosystems on Oahu, Hawaii, USA was...

  19. Improvement in photoconductor film properties by changing dielectric layer structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S; Oh, K; Lee, Y; Jung, J; Cho, G; Jang, G; Cha, B; Nam, S; Park, J

    2011-01-01

    In recent times, digital X-ray detectors have been actively applied to the medical field; for example, digital radiography offers the potential of improved image quality and provides opportunities for advances in medical image management, computer-aided diagnosis and teleradiology. In this study, two candidate materials (HgI 2 and PbI 2 ) have been employed to study the influence of the dielectric structure on the performance of fabricated X-ray photoconducting films. Parylene C with high permittivity was deposited as a dielectric layer using a parylene deposition system (PDS 2060). The structural and morphological properties of the samples were evaluated field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Further, to investigate improvements in the electrical characteristics, a dark current in the dark room and sensitivity to X-ray exposure in the energy range of general radiography diagnosis were measured across the range of the operating voltage. The electric signals varied with the dielectric layer structure of the X-ray films. The PbI 2 film with a bottom dielectric layer showed optimized electric properties. On the other hand, in the case of HgI 2 , the film with a top dielectric layer showed superior electric characteristics. Further, although the sensitivity of the film decreased, the total electrical efficiency of the film improved as a result of the decrease in dark current. When a dielectric layer is deposited on a photoconductor, the properties of the photoconductor, such as hole-electron mobility, should be considered to improve the image quality in digital medical imaging application. In this study, we have thus demonstrated that the use of dielectric layer structures improves the performance of photoconductors.

  20. The changing structure of the electric power industry: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    The U. S. electric power industry today is on the road to restructuring a road heretofore uncharted. While parallels can be drawn from similar journeys taken by the airline industry, the telecommunications industry, and, most recently, the natural gas industry, the electric power industry has its own unique set of critical issues that must be resolved along the way. The transition will be from a structure based on a vertically integrated and regulated monopoly to one equipped to function successfully in a competitive market. The long-standing traditional structure of the electric power industry is the result of a complex web of events that have been unfolding for over 100 years. Some of these events had far-reaching and widely publicized effects. Other major events took the form of legislation. Still other events had effects that are less obvious in comparison (e.g., the appearance of technologies such as transformers and steam and gas turbines, the invention of home appliances, the man-made fission of uranium), and it is likely that their significance in the history of the industry has been obscured by the passage of time. Nevertheless, they, too, hold a place in the underpinnings of today's electric industry structure. The purpose of this report, which is intended for both lay and technical readers, is twofold. First, it is a basic reference document that provides a comprehensive delineation of the electric power industry and its traditional structure, which has been based upon its monopoly status. Second, it describes the industry's transition to a competitive environment by providing a descriptive analysis of the factors that have contributed to the interest in a competitive market, proposed legislative and regulatory actions, and the steps being taken by the various components of the industry to meet the challenges of adapting to and prevailing in a competitive environment

  1. The changing structure of the electric power industry: An update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The U. S. electric power industry today is on the road to restructuring a road heretofore uncharted. While parallels can be drawn from similar journeys taken by the airline industry, the telecommunications industry, and, most recently, the natural gas industry, the electric power industry has its own unique set of critical issues that must be resolved along the way. The transition will be from a structure based on a vertically integrated and regulated monopoly to one equipped to function successfully in a competitive market. The long-standing traditional structure of the electric power industry is the result of a complex web of events that have been unfolding for over 100 years. Some of these events had far-reaching and widely publicized effects. Other major events took the form of legislation. Still other events had effects that are less obvious in comparison (e.g., the appearance of technologies such as transformers and steam and gas turbines, the invention of home appliances, the man-made fission of uranium), and it is likely that their significance in the history of the industry has been obscured by the passage of time. Nevertheless, they, too, hold a place in the underpinnings of today`s electric industry structure. The purpose of this report, which is intended for both lay and technical readers, is twofold. First, it is a basic reference document that provides a comprehensive delineation of the electric power industry and its traditional structure, which has been based upon its monopoly status. Second, it describes the industry`s transition to a competitive environment by providing a descriptive analysis of the factors that have contributed to the interest in a competitive market, proposed legislative and regulatory actions, and the steps being taken by the various components of the industry to meet the challenges of adapting to and prevailing in a competitive environment.

  2. Raman microspectroscopy of nanodiamond-induced structural changes in albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetlakova, Anastasiya S; Brandt, Nikolay N; Priezzhev, Alexander V; Chikishev, Andrey Yu

    2015-04-01

    Nanodiamonds (NDs) are promising agents for theranostic applications due to reported low toxicity and high biocompatibility, which is still being extensively tested on cellular, tissue, and organism levels. It is presumed that for experimental and future clinical applications, NDs will be administered into the organism via the blood circulation system. In this regard, the interaction of NDs with blood components needs to be thoroughly studied. We studied the interaction of carboxylated NDs (cNDs) with albumin, one of the major proteins of blood plasma. After 2-h long in vitro incubation in an aqueous solution of the protein, 100-nm cNDs were dried and the dry samples were studied with the aid of Raman microspectroscopy. The spectroscopic data indicate significant conformational changes that can be due to cND–protein interaction. A possible decrease in the functional activity of albumin related to the conformational changes must be taken into account in the in vivo applications.

  3. Raman microspectroscopy of nanodiamond-induced structural changes in albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetlakova, Anastasiya S.; Brandt, Nikolay N.; Priezzhev, Alexander V.; Chikishev, Andrey Yu.

    2015-04-01

    Nanodiamonds (NDs) are promising agents for theranostic applications due to reported low toxicity and high biocompatibility, which is still being extensively tested on cellular, tissue, and organism levels. It is presumed that for experimental and future clinical applications, NDs will be administered into the organism via the blood circulation system. In this regard, the interaction of NDs with blood components needs to be thoroughly studied. We studied the interaction of carboxylated NDs (cNDs) with albumin, one of the major proteins of blood plasma. After 2-h long in vitro incubation in an aqueous solution of the protein, 100-nm cNDs were dried and the dry samples were studied with the aid of Raman microspectroscopy. The spectroscopic data indicate significant conformational changes that can be due to cND-protein interaction. A possible decrease in the functional activity of albumin related to the conformational changes must be taken into account in the in vivo applications.

  4. Phase change - memory materials - composition, structure, and properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frumar, M.; Frumarová, Božena; Wágner, T.; Hrdlička, M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 18, suppl.1 (2007), S169-S174 ISSN 0957-4522. [International Conference on Optical and Optoelectronic Properties of Materials and Applications 2006. Darwin, 16.06.2006-20.06.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/06/0627 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : phase change memory Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.947, year: 2007

  5. Changes in secondary structure of poliovirus ribonucleic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koza, J.

    1975-01-01

    Infectious single-stranded RNA isolated from mature purified poliovirus was separated into three fractions by means of chromatography on an ''evaporated'' calcium phosphate column. RNA molecules with a higher degree of secondary structure were detected in two of the fractions as a result of the chromatography. These RNA molecules (1) were resistant to hydrolysis by pancreatic ribonuclease A, (2) retained unchanged the original infectivity for actinomycin D-pretreated cells, (3) were resistant to ultraviolet-light inactivation and (4) were partially resistant to formaldehyde inactivation

  6. Constructional change, paradigmatic structure and the orientation of usage processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heltoft, Lars

    2014-01-01

    construction from the 18th century to the present, a specialisation process parallel to the one described for English by Colleman & De Clerck (2011), though not identical to it. The semantics of constructions is described in terms of linguistic content, as distinct from conceptual structure, and the linguistic...... content of constructions is organised to a great extent in paradigmatic oppositions, similar to those found in classical morphology (Nørgård-Sørensen, Heltoft & Schøsler 2011). This organisation principle implies that the semantic description must uncover the boundaries of the construction’s content...

  7. Structural change of Japan's nuclear R and D organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, S. W.; Jeong, H. S.; Lee, T. Z.

    2002-01-01

    Recently Japanese government is performing a reform work in order to solve the problem involved the existing Special Public Institutions. As results to, JAERI and JNC will be merged into a new independent administrative institution which will be expected to Japan's nuclear policy effectively. Henceforth, government of Japan will establish the legislation and organizational structure until 2005. From the finding of this case study, we should make an effort in order to carry out Korea's nuclear R and D effectively for the strengthening of national competitive

  8. The Aging Lacrimal Gland: Changes in Structure and Function

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Eduardo M.; Alves, Monica; Rios, J. David; Dartt, Darlene A.

    2008-01-01

    The afferent nerves of the cornea and conjunctiva, efferent nerves of the lacrimal gland, and the lacrimal gland are a functional unit that works cooperatively to produce the aqueous component of tears. A decrease in the lacrimal gland secretory function can lead to dry eye disease. Because aging is a risk factor for dry eye disease, study of the changes in the function of the lacrimal gland functional unit with age is important for developing treatments to prevent dry eye disease. No one mec...

  9. Changes in retinal structure and function of Alzheimer's patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Qin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease(AD, a neurodegenerative disease, can result in memory loss,cognitive and behavioral deficits. The pathological hallmarkes are β amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles which lead loss of neurons in brain. As the extension of the central nervous system, retina has a similar tissue anatomy with central nervous system. The β amyloid plaques have also been detected in retina of AD. Furthermore, according to eye examinations of AD patients, we have found the loss of retinal ganglion cells, the attenuation of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, the smaller changes of macula lutea, the decline of vascular density and so on. And then, there occurs the visual field loss and the decline of contrast sensitivity and so on in AD patients. Thus, the retina has occurred nerve degenerative changes in AD. Meanwhile, there has been proved that the retina nerve degeneration is even earlier than senile plaques formation in brain. In addition,curcumin, a natural and safe fluorescent dye, can be used to label β amyloid plaques in retina. The above suggests that retina can be a window for the early diagnosis of AD.

  10. The nominalized infinitive in French : structure and change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Sleeman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many European languages have both nominal and verbal nominalized infinitives. They differ, however, in the degree to which the nominalized infinitives possess nominal and verbal properties. In this paper, nominalized infinitives in French are analyzed. It is shown that, whereas Old French was like other Romance languages in possessing both nominal and verbal nominalized infinitives, Modern French differs parametrically from other Romance languages in not having verbal infinitives and in allowing nominal infinitives only in a scientific style of speech. An analysis is proposed, within a syntactic approach to morphology. that tries to account for the loss of the verbal properties of the nominalized infinitive in French. It is proposed that the loss results from a change in word order (the loss of the OV word order in favor of the VO word order and a change in the morphological analysis of the nominalized infinitive: instead of a zero suffix analysis, a derivational analysis was adopted by the speakers of French. It is argued that the derivational analysis restricted nominalization to Vo, which made nominalization of infinitives less ìverbalî than in other Romance languages

  11. Structural change and forecasting long-run energy prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, J.T.; Khalaf, L.

    2004-01-01

    Fluctuating energy prices have a significant impact on the economies of industrialized nations. A recent study has shown a strong non-linear relationship between changes in oil prices and growth in gross domestic product (GDP). In order to forecast the behaviour of energy prices, a complete model must take into account domestic and international supply and demand conditions, market regulations, technological advances and geopolitics. In 1999, Pindyck suggested that for long-term forecasting, a simple model should be adopted where prices grow in real terms and at a fixed rate. This paper tests the statistical significance of Pindyck's suggested class of econometric equations that model the behaviour of long-run real energy prices. The models assume mean-reverting prices with continuous and random changes in their level and trend. They are estimated using Kalman filtering. The authors used simulation-based procedures to address the issue of non-standard test statistics and nuisance parameters. Results were reported for a standard Monte Carlo test and a maximized Monte Carlo test. Results shown statistically significant instabilities for coal and natural gas prices, but not for crude oil prices. Various models were differentiated using out-of-sample forecasting exercises. 25 refs., 3 tabs

  12. Structural changes of the brain in relation to occupational stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Ivanka

    2015-06-01

    Despite mounting reports about the negative effects of chronic occupational stress on cognitive functions, it is still uncertain whether and how this type of stress is associated with cerebral changes. This issue was addressed in the present MRI study, in which cortical thickness (Cth) and subcortical volumes were compared between 40 subjects reporting symptoms of chronic occupational stress (38 ± 6 years) and 40 matched controls (36 ± 6 years). The degree of perceived stress was measured with Maslach Burnout Inventory. In stressed subjects, there was a significant thinning of the mesial frontal cortex. When investigating the correlation between age and Cth, the thinning effect of age was more pronounced in the stressed group in the frontal cortex. Furthermore, their amygdala volumes were bilaterally increased (P = 0.020 and P = 0.003), whereas their caudate volumes were reduced (P = 0.040), and accompanied by impaired fine motor function. The perceived stress correlated positively with the amygdala volumes (r = 0.44, P = 0.04; r = 0.43, P = 04). Occupational stress was found to be associated with cortical thinning as well as with selective changes of subcortical volumes, with behavioral correlates. The findings support the hypothesis that stress-related excitotoxicity might be an underlying mechanism, and that the described condition is a stress related illness. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. The influence of drawing speed on structure changes in high carbon steel wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Suliga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the influence of the drawing speed on structure changes has been assessed. The Scanning Electron Microscope investigation confirmed that for wires drawn with high total draft, exceeding 80 %, makes it impossible to clearly assess the impact of drawing technology on structural changes in the drawn wires. Thus, to assess the structural changes necessary to apply quantitative methods. On the basis of examination of the wire structure by measuring of electrical resistance, the structure changes in drawn wires has been determined. It has been shown that the increase of drawing speed, especially above 15 m/s, causes an increase in structure defect, with a decline in platelet orientation of cementite in drawn wires.

  14. SOME STRUCTURAL CHANGES ON THE WAY TOWARDS EUNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram LAASER

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past eLearning has been introduced by many public universities however a concise IT-strategy was not followed during implementation. Different learning platforms were acquired by different departments and no systematic approach was set up to give support for course development, eTutoring or upgrading and archiving of electronic files. Although contemporary learning management systems had some administrative functions incorporated these data were not integrated with the rest of the universities administrative system. The need to work on integrated solutions offering most of the universities services with "one face to the customer" became obvious. The paper will discuss scenarios to explain the services needed and report on the present discussion about reforming organizational structures and adjusting IT infrastructure to create the future eUniversity.

  15. STRUCTURAL ECONOMIC CHANGE AND INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION FROM MEXICO AND POLAND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Douglas S.; Kalter, Frank; Pren, Karen A.

    2010-01-01

    In this article we use uniquely comparable data sets from two very different settings to examine how exogenous economic transformations affect the likelihood and selectivity of international out-migration. Specifically, we use data from the Mexican Migration Project to construct event history files predicting first U.S. trips from seven communities in the state of Veracruz, which until recently sent very few migrants abroad. Similarly, using data from the Polish Migration Project, we derive comparable event history files predicting first trips to Germany from four Polish communities, which also sent few migrants abroad before the 1980s. Our analyses suggest that the onset of structural adjustment in both places had a significant effect in raising the probability of international migration, even when controlling for a set of standard variables specified by other theories to influence migration propensity, such as the size of the binational income gap and various indicators of human and social capital. PMID:21765550

  16. Structural characterization of casein micelles: shape changes during film formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebhardt, R; Kulozik, U; Vendrely, C

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of size-fractionation by centrifugation on the film structure of casein micelles. Fractionated casein micelles in solution were asymmetrically distributed with a small distribution width as measured by dynamic light scattering. Films prepared from the size-fractionated samples showed a smooth surface in optical microscopy images and a homogeneous microstructure in atomic force micrographs. The nano- and microstructure of casein films was probed by micro-beam grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering (μGISAXS). Compared to the solution measurements, the sizes determined in the film were larger and broadly distributed. The measured GISAXS patterns clearly deviate from those simulated for a sphere and suggest a deformation of the casein micelles in the film. (paper)

  17. Functional Plasticity in the Absence of Structural Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasovsky, Tal; Landa, Jana; Bar, Orly; Jaana, Ahonniska-Assa; Livny, Abigail; Tsarfaty, Galia; Silberg, Tamar

    2017-04-01

    This work presents a case of a young woman with apraxia and a severe body scheme disorder, 10 years after a childhood frontal and occipitoparietal brain injury. Despite specific limitations, she is independent in performing all activities of daily living. A battery of tests was administered to evaluate praxis and body representations. Specifically, the Hand Laterality Test was used to compare RS's dynamic body representation to that of healthy controls (N = 14). Results demonstrated RS's severe praxis impairment, and the Hand Laterality Test revealed deficits in accuracy and latency of motor imagery, suggesting a significant impairment in dynamic body representation. However, semantic and structural body representations were intact. These results, coupled with frequent use of verbalizations as a strategy, suggest a possible ventral compensatory mechanism (top-down processing) for dorsal stream deficits, which may explain RS's remarkable recovery of activities of daily living. The link between praxis and dynamic body representation is discussed.

  18. Disease related tissue damage and subsequent changes in fillet structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of the fish and subsequent a reduction in price. Despite this, the impact of infectious diseases on the meat quality and the mechanisms behind are poorly investigated. Wound repair is a dynamic, interactive response to tissue injury that involves a complex interaction and cross talk of various cell types......, extracellular matrix molecules, soluble mediators and cytokines. In order to describe the molecular mechanisms and processes of wound repair, a panel of genes covering immunological factors and tissue regeneration were used to measure changes at the mRNA level following mechanical tissue damage in rainbow trout...... (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Needle disrupted muscle tissue was sampled at different time points and subject to real-time RT-PCR for measuring the expression of the genes IL-1β, IL-8, IL-10, TGF-β, Myostatin-1ab, MMP-2, CTGF, Collagen-1α, VEGF, iNOS, Arg-2 and FGF. The results showed an initial phase with up...

  19. Caloric Restriction Promotes Structural and Metabolic Changes in the Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Forni

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Caloric restriction (CR is the most effective intervention known to enhance lifespan, but its effect on the skin is poorly understood. Here, we show that CR mice display fur coat remodeling associated with an expansion of the hair follicle stem cell (HFSC pool. We also find that the dermal adipocyte depot (dWAT is underdeveloped in CR animals. The dermal/vennule annulus vasculature is enlarged, and a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF switch and metabolic reprogramming in both the dermis and the epidermis are observed. When the fur coat is removed, CR mice display increased energy expenditure associated with lean weight loss and locomotion impairment. Our findings indicate that CR promotes extensive skin and fur remodeling. These changes are necessary for thermal homeostasis and metabolic fitness under conditions of limited energy intake, suggesting a potential adaptive mechanism.

  20. Methods of scoring induced chromosome structural changes in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicoleff, H.; Gecheff, K.

    1976-01-01

    In barley, a material widely used in mutation and chromosomal aberration studies, the method most frequently used for scoring induced chromosomal changes is still anaphase analysis. In this paper, data obtained after treatment of barley with gamma-rays and ethyleneimine (EI) and comparative scoring of aberrations in metaphase and anaphase are reported and discussed. It is evident that the metaphase aberrations induced by gamma-rays and ethyleneimine, due probably to their specific location, showed a differential manifestation during anaphase. Thus, after treatment with ethyleneimine a great portion of the induced aberrations, being located preferentially at the centromere regions, gave no scorable bridges, and an apparent excess of fragments was observed at anaphase. After gamma-irradiation the differences between metaphase and anaphase scoring were mainly due to a large portion of fragments escaping detection

  1. Structural changes in the liver in metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Vasendin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientifically proven close relationship of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease with development of metabolic syndrome and its individual components involves the conclusion that the target organ in metabolic symptom, even regardless of the severity of obesity, the liver occupies a dominant position, as the body undergoes the first characteristic of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease changes, involving violation of metabolism in the body. Dislipoproteinemia plays an important role in the formation of metabolic syndrome in obesity and other obesity-associated diseases. Altered liver function are the root cause of violations of processes of lipid metabolism and, consequently, abnormal functioning of the liver may be a separate, additional and independent risk factor for development of dyslipidemia and obesity as the main component of the metabolic syndrome.

  2. CREEP-INDUCED STRUCTURAL CHANGES IN Ni-Si-B AMORPHOUS ALLOY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jurikova, A.; Miskuf, J.; Csach, K.; Ocelik, V.

    The influence of the stress annealing on the reversible structural relaxation of a Ni-Si-B amorphous ribbon was studied. Creep-induced structural changes in the amorphous structure were derived from anisothermal DSC and dilatometric experiments. It is demonstrated that considerable enthalpy and

  3. The social dilemma structure of climate change mitigation: individual responses and effects on action

    OpenAIRE

    Bӧgelein, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Climate change mitigation constitutes a social dilemma, a conflict between personal and collective outcomes. Behaviours that result in personal benefits (e.g. travelling quickly, conveniently and cheaply by plane) also result in a collective cost in the form of climate change. Behavioural theories and evidence suggest this social dilemma structure significantly influences behaviour. This thesis aims to understand how the social dilemma structure of climate change mitigation affect...

  4. Structural evaluation report of piping and support structure for design-changed hot-water layer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jeong Soo

    1998-05-01

    After hot-water layer system had been installed, the verification tests to reduce the radiation level at the top of reactor pool were performed many times. The major goal of this report is to assess the structural integrity on the piping and the support structures of design-changed hot-water layer system. The piping stress analysis was performed by using ADLPIPE program for the pump suction line and the pump discharge line subjected to dead weight, pressure, thermal expansion and seismic loadings. The stress analysis of the support structure was carried out using the reaction forces obtained from the piping stress analysis. The results of structural evaluation for the pipings and the support structures showed that the structural acceptance criteria were satisfied, in compliance with ASME, subsection ND for the piping and subsection NF for the support structures. Therefore based on the results of the analysis and the design, the structural integrity on the piping and the support structures of design-changed hot-water system was proved. (author). 9 refs., 9 tabs., 14 figs

  5. Structural changes in elastically stressed crystallites under irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zolnikov, K.P., E-mail: kost@ispms.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, 2/4, pr. Akademicheskii, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Tomsk State University, 36 Lenin Ave., Tomsk (Russian Federation); Korchuganov, A.V. [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, 2/4, pr. Akademicheskii, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Kryzhevich, D.S. [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, 2/4, pr. Akademicheskii, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Tomsk State University, 36 Lenin Ave., Tomsk (Russian Federation); Chernov, V.M. [Tomsk State University, 36 Lenin Ave., Tomsk (Russian Federation); A.A. Bochvar High-Technology Scientific Research Institute for Inorganic Materials, 5a Rogova St., Moscow (Russian Federation); Psakhie, S.G. [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, 2/4, pr. Akademicheskii, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Ave., Tomsk (Russian Federation); Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, 100 Novaya St., Skolkovo (Russian Federation)

    2015-06-01

    The response of elastically stressed iron and vanadium crystallites to atomic displacement cascades was investigated by molecular dynamics simulation. Interatomic interaction in vanadium was described by a many-body potential calculated in the Finnis–Sinclair approximation of the embedded atom method. Interatomic interaction in iron was described by a many-body potential constructed in the approximation of valence-electron gas. The crystallite temperature in the calculations was varied from 100 to 600 K. The elastically stressed state in the crystallites was formed through uniaxial tension by 4–8% such that their volume remained unchanged. The energy of a primary knock-on atom was varied from 0.5 to 50 keV. It is shown that the lower the temperature and the higher the strain degree of an initial crystallite, the lower the threshold primary knock-on atom energy for plastic deformation generation in the crystallite. The structural rearrangements induced in the crystallites by an atomic displacement cascade are similar to those induced by mechanical loading. It is found that the rearrangements are realized through twinning.

  6. Structural changes in elastically stressed crystallites under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolnikov, K.P.; Korchuganov, A.V.; Kryzhevich, D.S.; Chernov, V.M.; Psakhie, S.G.

    2015-01-01

    The response of elastically stressed iron and vanadium crystallites to atomic displacement cascades was investigated by molecular dynamics simulation. Interatomic interaction in vanadium was described by a many-body potential calculated in the Finnis–Sinclair approximation of the embedded atom method. Interatomic interaction in iron was described by a many-body potential constructed in the approximation of valence-electron gas. The crystallite temperature in the calculations was varied from 100 to 600 K. The elastically stressed state in the crystallites was formed through uniaxial tension by 4–8% such that their volume remained unchanged. The energy of a primary knock-on atom was varied from 0.5 to 50 keV. It is shown that the lower the temperature and the higher the strain degree of an initial crystallite, the lower the threshold primary knock-on atom energy for plastic deformation generation in the crystallite. The structural rearrangements induced in the crystallites by an atomic displacement cascade are similar to those induced by mechanical loading. It is found that the rearrangements are realized through twinning

  7. Changing Structures and Women’s Role as Labor Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Gonäs

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to analyze changes in the development of women’s role as labor force over a 40-year period. This is done by presenting research results that concern the restructuring of the labor market over different time periods. The empirical material is from the 1960s, the heyday of the Swedish model; from the 1980s, the period that economic historians label the third industrial revolution; and from the 1990s, a period labeled the new working life that is covering the reorganization of the public sector. For the first period results from restructuring in the shipyard industry are presented as well as employment outcomes for single individuals. This industry was male dominated with very few women employed, but regional policy measures were implemented to reach a latent female labor force. The second period is covered by a study of closures and cutbacks in different industries in Sweden during 1982–1983. The proportion of women employed in the industries studied was around one third and employment outcomes had a specific gendered pattern. Women did to a lower extent than men get new permanent jobs. Permanent temporariness was introduced as a concept to describe their labor market situation. The recession that one decade later hit both female- and male-dominated sectors is illustrated by a study of the relations between labor market attachment, working life, and family conditions. The material comes from a regional research program based on a questionnaire and on register data on incomes from 1990 to 1999. The paper analyzes several areas related to work and outside of work that indicate a gendered pattern of multidimensional subordination and an increased polarization in terms of both gender and class. In conclusion, the 40 years has been a period of dramatic change in women’s situation as labor force. In times of restructuring they often entered into precarious job situations or unemployment. Women’s double burden

  8. Structural change, land use and the state in China : Making sense of three divergent processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Arsel (Murat); A. Dasgupta (Anirban)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractRapid economic growth involves significant changes in land use patterns. The paper uses the recent history of Chinese economic growth to highlight and interrogate the implication of such changes within the context of structural transformation. It argues that though land use change is an

  9. Structural changes of corn stover lignin during acid pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxley, Geoffrey; Gaspar, Armindo Ribeiro; Higgins, Don; Xu, Hui

    2012-09-01

    In this study, raw corn stover was subjected to dilute acid pretreatments over a range of severities under conditions similar to those identified by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in their techno-economic analysis of biochemical conversion of corn stover to ethanol. The pretreated corn stover then underwent enzymatic hydrolysis with yields above 70 % at moderate enzyme loading conditions. The enzyme exhausted lignin residues were characterized by ³¹P NMR spectroscopy and functional moieties quantified and correlated to enzymatic hydrolysis yields. Results from this study indicated that both xylan solubilization and lignin degradation are important for improving the enzyme accessibility and digestibility of dilute acid pretreated corn stover. At lower pretreatment temperatures, there is a good correlation between xylan solubilization and cellulose accessibility. At higher pretreatment temperatures, lignin degradation correlated better with cellulose accessibility, represented by the increase in phenolic groups. During acid pretreatment, the ratio of syringyl/guaiacyl functional groups also gradually changed from less than 1 to greater than 1 with the increase in pretreatment temperature. This implies that more syringyl units are released from lignin depolymerization of aryl ether linkages than guaiacyl units. The condensed phenolic units are also correlated with the increase in pretreatment temperature up to 180 °C, beyond which point condensation reactions may overtake the hydrolysis of aryl ether linkages as the dominant reactions of lignin, thus leading to decreased cellulose accessibility.

  10. Corneal Structural Changes in Nonneoplastic and Neoplastic Monoclonal Gammopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragona, Pasquale; Allegra, Alessandro; Postorino, Elisa Imelde; Rania, Laura; Innao, Vanessa; Wylegala, Edward; Nowinska, Anna; Ieni, Antonio; Pisani, Antonina; Musolino, Caterina; Puzzolo, Domenico; Micali, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    To investigate corneal confocal microscopic changes in nonneoplastic and neoplastic monoclonal gammopathies. Three groups of subjects were considered: group 1, twenty normal subjects; group 2, fifteen patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS); group 3, eight patients with smoldering multiple myeloma and eight patients with untreated multiple myeloma. After hematologic diagnosis, patients underwent ophthalmologic exam and in vivo confocal microscopic study. The statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls tests and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Epithelial cells of gammopathic patients showed significantly higher reflectivity than controls, demonstrated by optical density (P < 0.001). Subbasal nerve density, branching, and beading were significantly altered in gammopathic patients (P = 0.01, P = 0.02, P = 0.02, respectively). The number of keratocytes was significantly reduced in neoplastic patients (P < 0.001 versus both normal and MGUS) in the anterior, medium, and posterior stroma. The ROC curve analysis showed good sensitivity and specificity for this parameter. Group 2 and 3 keratocytes showed higher nuclear and cytoplasmatic reflectivity in the medium and posterior stroma. Endothelial cells were not affected. Patients with neoplastic gammopathies showed peculiar alterations of the keratocyte number, which appeared significantly reduced. A follow-up with corneal confocal microscopy of patients with MGUS is suggested as a useful tool to identify peripheral tissue alterations linked to possible neoplastic disease development.

  11. Gender effects on age-related changes in brain structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J; Kobayashi, S; Yamaguchi, S; Iijima, K; Okada, K; Yamashita, K

    2000-01-01

    Previous reports have suggested that brain atrophy is associated with aging and that there are gender differences in brain atrophy with aging. These reports, however, neither exclude silent brain lesions in "healthy subjects" nor divide the brain into subregions. The aim of this study is to clarify the effect of gender on age-related changes in brain subregions by MR imaging. A computer-assisted system was used to calculate the brain matter area index (BMAI) of various regions of the brain from MR imaging of 331 subjects without brain lesions. There was significantly more brain atrophy with aging in the posterior parts of the right frontal lobe in male subjects than there was in female subjects. Age-related atrophy in the middle part of the right temporal lobe, the left basal ganglia, the parietal lobe, and the cerebellum also was found in male subjects, but not in female subjects. In the temporal lobe, thalamus, parieto-occipital lobe, and cerebellum, brain volume in the left hemisphere is significantly smaller than in the right hemisphere; sex and age did not affect the hemisphere differences of brain volume in these regions. The effect of gender on brain atrophy with aging varied in different subregions of the brain. There was more brain atrophy with aging in male subjects than in female subjects.

  12. Early structural changes in sheep lung following thoracic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerry-Force, M.L.; Perkett, E.A.; Brigham, K.L.; Meyrick, B.

    1988-01-01

    Using a large animal model of radiation lung injury--the sheep exposed to bilateral thoracic irradiation--we have recently shown the development of sustained pulmonary hypertension during the first 4 weeks following radiation. This is the period prior to the onset of pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis. In the present study, we have examined biopsy and autopsy lung tissue from these same sheep and assessed the sequential changes in lung morphology. Six unanesthetized sheep received bilateral thoracic irradiation (a total of 15 Gy); control sheep were sham irradiated. Lung biopsy tissue was taken prior to and at weekly or biweekly intervals during the 4 weeks immediately following radiation. The lungs were also removed at autopsy for light and electron microscopic examination. Our results show early (Week 1) interstitial and progressive intraalveolar edema accompanied by endothelial and epithelial injury. A gradual increase in number of interstitial mononuclear cells was evident from Week 1, both in the lung tissue and in perivascular cuffs. The number of peripheral lung interstitial mononuclear cells was twice baseline from Week 3 and included accumulation of lymphocytes, fibroblasts, and intravascular macrophages. The increased numbers of mononuclear cells paralleled the development of chronic pulmonary hypertension, perhaps suggesting their involvement in the pathogenesis of this disease. Alternatively, it may be that increased mononuclear cell number represents a stage of lung repair

  13. Nickel–carbon nanocomposites: Synthesis, structural changes and strengthening mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, D.; Vilarigues, M.; Correia, J.B.; Carvalho, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    The present work investigates Ni–nanodiamond and Ni–graphite composites produced by mechanical synthesis and subsequent heat treatments. Processing of nickel–carbon nanocomposites by this powder metallurgy route poses specific challenges, as carbon phases are prone to carbide conversion and amorphization. The processing window for carbide prevention has been established through X-ray diffraction by a systematic variation of the milling parameters. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the absence of carbide and showed homogeneous particle distributions, as well as intimate bonding between the metallic matrix and the carbon phases. Ring diffraction patterns of chemically extracted carbon phases demonstrated that milled nanodiamond preserved crystallinity, while an essentially amorphous nature could be inferred for milled graphite. Raman spectra confirmed that nanodiamond particles remained largely unaffected by mechanical synthesis, whereas the bands of milled graphite were significantly changed into the typical amorphous carbon fingerprint. The results on the annealed nanocomposites showed that milling with Ni accelerated graphitization of the carbon phases during heat treatments at 973 and 1073 K in both composites. At the finer scales, the nanocomposites exhibited a remarkable microhardness enhancement (∼70%) compared with pure nanostructured nickel. The Hall–Petch relation and the Orowan–Ashby equation are used to discuss strengthening mechanisms and the load transfer ability to the reinforcing particles.

  14. Changes in the structural and functional characteristics of fisher (Pekania pennanti) rest structures over time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill Zielinski; Fredrick V. Schlexer

    2015-01-01

    Resting habitat used by fishers (Pekania pennanti) has been relatively well studied but information on the persistence of their resting structures over time is unknown. We selected for reexamination 73 of 195 resting structures used by by fishers in northwestern California and compared their condition on the date they were found with their...

  15. Autobiographical memory and structural brain changes in chronic phase TBI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esopenko, Carrie; Levine, Brian

    2017-04-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with a range of neuropsychological deficits, including attention, memory, and executive functioning attributable to diffuse axonal injury (DAI) with accompanying focal frontal and temporal damage. Although the memory deficit of TBI has been well characterized with laboratory tests, comparatively little research has examined retrograde autobiographical memory (AM) at the chronic phase of TBI, with no prior studies of unselected patients drawn directly from hospital admissions for trauma. Moreover, little is known about the effects of TBI on canonical episodic and non-episodic (e.g., semantic) AM processes. In the present study, we assessed the effects of chronic-phase TBI on AM in patients with focal and DAI spanning the range of TBI severity. Patients and socioeconomic- and age-matched controls were administered the Autobiographical Interview (AI) (Levine, Svoboda, Hay, Winocur, & Moscovitch, 2002) a widely used method for dissociating episodic and semantic elements of AM, along with tests of neuropsychological and functional outcome. Measures of episodic and non-episodic AM were compared with regional brain volumes derived from high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Severe TBI (but not mild or moderate TBI) was associated with reduced recall of episodic autobiographical details and increased recall of non-episodic details relative to healthy comparison participants. There were no significant associations between AM performance and neuropsychological or functional outcome measures. Within the full TBI sample, autobiographical episodic memory was associated with reduced volume distributed across temporal, parietal, and prefrontal regions considered to be part of the brain's AM network. These results suggest that TBI-related distributed volume loss affects episodic autobiographical recollection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Structure changes, the contribution of sectors, income per capita Indonesia in 1990 – 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Harun

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Economic development is seen as a process of transition from one phase to another, from simple economic structure (agriculture to the modern economy structure. Economic development is characterized by changes in the structure of the agricultural sector into the modern sector. The changes affect all the matters related thereto. Therefore, a change or transformation of economic activity is referred to as a structural change. This study aims to analyze the structural changes in the national product, and the factors that cause changes in the structure and level of sectoral imbalances as a result of the structural changes. The study was conducted by using the economic sector, divided into four major groups, namely the primary, secondary, utilities and services from 1990 to 2014. Secondary data were collected by the method of sectoral trends, models Chanery Syrquin-Barua, Theil index. The results showed that the sectoral trend has a positive result such as utilities and services sectors, while the primary and secondary sectors tend to be negative. From the model Chenery, Syrquin-Barua shows the per capita income has a positive effect on the primary sector and the utilities, residents have positive effect on the secondary sector, utilities and services. Meanwhile dummy variable has a positive effect on the primary sector, secondary and services. Sectoral inequality occurs in the secondary sector.

  17. Tertiary structural changes and iron release from human serum transferrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecklenburg, S L; Donohoe, R J; Olah, G A

    1997-08-01

    Iron release from human serum transferrin was investigated by comparison of the extent of bound iron, measured by charge transfer absorption band intensity (465 nm), with changes observed by small-angle solution X-ray scattering (SAXS) for a series of equilibrated samples between pH 5.69 and 7.77. The phosphate buffers used in this study promote iron release at relatively high pH values, with an empirical pK of 6.9 for the convolved release from the two sites. The spectral data reveal that the N-lobe release is nearly complete by pH 7.0, while the C-lobe remains primarily metal-laden. Conversely, the radius of gyration, Rg, determined from the SAXS data remains constant between pH 7.77 and 7.05, and the evolution of Rg between its value observed for the diferric protein at pH 7.77 (31.2+/-0.2 A) and that of the apo protein at pH 5.69 (33.9+/-0.4 A) exhibits an empirical pK of 6.6. While Rg is effectively constant in the pH range associated with iron release from the N-lobe, the radius of gyration of cross-section, Rc, increases from 16.9+/-0.2 A to 17.6+/-0.2 A. Model simulations suggest that two different rotations of the NII domain relative to the NI domain about a hinge deep in the iron-binding cleft of the N-lobe, one parallel with and one perpendicular to the plane of the iron-binding site, can be significantly advanced relative to their holo protein positions while yielding constant Rg and increased Rc values consistent with the scattering data. Rotation of the CII domain parallel with the C-lobe iron-binding site plane can partially account for the increased Rg values measured at low pH; however, no reasonable combined repositioning of the NII and CII domains yields the experimentally observed increase in Rg.

  18. Scenario-Based Analysis on the Structural Change of Land Uses in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Land Use/Land Cover change (LUCC is a key aspect of global environmental change, which has a significant impact on climate change. In the background of increasing global warming resulting from greenhouse effect, to understand the impact of land use change on climate change is necessary and meaningful. In this study, we choose China as the study area and explore the possible land use change trends based on the AgLU module and ERB module of global change assessment model (GCAM model and Global Change Assessment Model. We design three scenarios based on socioeconomic development and simulated the corresponding structure change of land use according to the three scenarios with different parameters. Then we simulate the different emission of CO2 under different scenarios based on the simulation results of structure change of land use. At last, we choose the most suitable scenario that could control the emission of CO2 best and obtain the relatively better land use structure change for adaption of climate change. Through this research we can provide a theoretical basis for the future land use planning to adapt to climate change.

  19. Pressure-induced valence and structure change in some anti-Th3P4 structure rare earth compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, A.; Hochheimer, H.D.; Jayaraman, A.; Bucher, E.

    1981-01-01

    The anti-Th 3 P 4 structure compounds Yb 4 Bi 3 and Yb 4 Sb 3 have been investigated to 350 kbar by high pressure X-ray diffraction, using the diamond anvil cell. From the P-V data it is found that Yb 4 Bi 3 and Yb 4 Sb 3 are much more compressible, compared to Sm 4 Bi 3 before the valence transition. This suggests that a continuous change in the valence state of Yb takes place with pressure in the two compounds and that they may be in the mixed valent state already at ambient pressure. The ''collapsed'' anti-Th 3 P 4 structure becomes unstable in Yb 4 Bi 3 and Yb 4 Sb 3 and new lines appear at high pressure, that fit the NaCl structure. The latter structure change seems to occur also in the electronically collapsed Sm 4 Bi 3 . The results are presented and discussed. (Auth.)

  20. Pressure-induced drastic structural change in liquid CdTe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, T.; Hattori, T.; Narushima, T.; Tsuji, K.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the structure of liquid CdTe at pressures up to 6 GPa by synchrotron x-ray diffraction. The structure factor, S(Q), and the pair distribution function, g(r), change drastically within a small pressure interval of about 1 GPa (between 1.8 and 3 GPa). The S(Q),g(r), and other structural parameters, such as the average coordination number, CN, and the ratios of peak positions in S(Q) or g(r), reveal that the change originates from the pressure-induced modification in the local structure from the zinc-blende-like form into the rocksaltlike one. The liquid CdTe shows a high-pressure behavior similar to that in the crystalline counterpart in terms of the sharpness of the structural change and the high-pressure sequence in the local structure

  1. Brain structural changes following adaptive cognitive training assessed by Tensor-Based Morphometry (TBM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colom, Roberto; Hua, Xue; Martínez, Kenia; Burgaleta, Miguel; Román, Francisco J; Gunter, Jeffrey L; Carmona, Susanna; Jaeggi, Susanne M; Thompson, Paul M

    2016-10-01

    Tensor-Based Morphometry (TBM) allows the automatic mapping of brain changes across time building 3D deformation maps. This technique has been applied for tracking brain degeneration in Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases with high sensitivity and reliability. Here we applied TBM to quantify changes in brain structure after completing a challenging adaptive cognitive training program based on the n-back task. Twenty-six young women completed twenty-four training sessions across twelve weeks and they showed, on average, large cognitive improvements. High-resolution MRI scans were obtained before and after training. The computed longitudinal deformation maps were analyzed for answering three questions: (a) Are there differential brain structural changes in the training group as compared with a matched control group? (b) Are these changes related to performance differences in the training program? (c) Are standardized changes in a set of psychological factors (fluid and crystallized intelligence, working memory, and attention control) measured before and after training, related to structural changes in the brain? Results showed (a) greater structural changes for the training group in the temporal lobe, (b) a negative correlation between these changes and performance across training sessions (the greater the structural change, the lower the cognitive performance improvements), and (c) negligible effects regarding the psychological factors measured before and after training. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Propagation of engineering changes to multiple product data views using history of product structure changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Do, N.; Choi, I.; Song, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The present paper proposes a comprehensive procedure for engineering change propagation in order to maintain consistency between various product data views. A product data model is also proposed for the propagation procedure, which integrates base product definitions for product design, and

  3. Distortion of Local Atomic Structures in Amorphous Ge-Sb-Te Phase Change Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, A.; Ichitsubo, T.; Guan, P. F.; Fujita, T.; Chen, M. W.

    2018-05-01

    The local atomic structures of amorphous Ge-Sb-Te phase-change materials have yet to be clarified and the rapid crystal-amorphous phase change resulting in distinct optical contrast is not well understood. We report the direct observation of local atomic structures in amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 using "local" reverse Monte Carlo modeling dedicated to an angstrom-beam electron diffraction analysis. The results corroborated the existence of local structures with rocksalt crystal-like topology that were greatly distorted compared to the crystal symmetry. This distortion resulted in the breaking of ideal octahedral atomic environments, thereby forming local disordered structures that basically satisfied the overall amorphous structure factor. The crystal-like distorted octahedral structures could be the main building blocks in the formation of the overall amorphous structure of Ge-Sb-Te.

  4. Vulnerability of roads and associated structures to the effects of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arisz, H.; Therrien, M.; Burrell, B.C.; LeBlanc, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    The vulnerability of roads and associated structures in the City of Greater Sudbury to the effects of climate change was evaluated using the Public Infrastructure Vulnerability Committee (PIEVC) Engineering Protocol for Climate Change Infrastructure Assessment. Study objectives were to evaluate the vulnerability of road-related infrastructure in Greater Sudbury to climate change, and to identify potential impediments to the application of the protocol in other municipalities. Based on the experience gained during this study, recommendations were provided with respect to the vulnerabilities of roads and associated structures to the predicted effects of climate change and the performance of vulnerability assessments. (author)

  5. The role of organizational structure in readiness for change: A conceptual integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzer, Justin K; Charns, Martin P; Hamdan, Sami; Afable, Melissa

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this review is to extend extant conceptualizations of readiness for change as an individual-level phenomenon. This review-of-reviews focuses on existing conceptual frameworks from the dissemination, implementation, quality improvement, and organizational transformation literatures in order to integrate theoretical rationales for how organization structure, a key dimension of the organizational context, may impact readiness for change. We propose that the organization structure dimensions of differentiation and integration impact readiness for change at the individual level of analysis by influencing four key concepts of relevance, legitimacy, perceived need for change, and resource allocation. We identify future research directions that focus on these four key concepts.

  6. Interplay between past market correlation structure changes and future volatility outbursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musmeci, Nicoló; Aste, Tomaso; Di Matteo, T.

    2016-11-01

    We report significant relations between past changes in the market correlation structure and future changes in the market volatility. This relation is made evident by using a measure of “correlation structure persistence” on correlation-based information filtering networks that quantifies the rate of change of the market dependence structure. We also measured changes in the correlation structure by means of a “metacorrelation” that measures a lagged correlation between correlation matrices computed over different time windows. Both methods show a deep interplay between past changes in correlation structure and future changes in volatility and we demonstrate they can anticipate market risk variations and this can be used to better forecast portfolio risk. Notably, these methods overcome the curse of dimensionality that limits the applicability of traditional econometric tools to portfolios made of a large number of assets. We report on forecasting performances and statistical significance of both methods for two different equity datasets. We also identify an optimal region of parameters in terms of True Positive and False Positive trade-off, through a ROC curve analysis. We find that this forecasting method is robust and it outperforms logistic regression predictors based on past volatility only. Moreover the temporal analysis indicates that methods based on correlation structural persistence are able to adapt to abrupt changes in the market, such as financial crises, more rapidly than methods based on past volatility.

  7. Autolysis control and structural changes of purified ficin from Iranian fig latex with synthetic inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, H; Moosavi-Movahedi, A A; Salami, M; Sheibani, N; Khajeh, K; Habibi-Rezaei, M

    2016-03-01

    The fig's ficin is a cysteine endoproteolytic enzyme, which plays fundamental roles in many plant physiological processes, and has many applications in different industries such as pharmaceutical and food. In this work, we report the inhibition and activation of autolysis and structural changes associated with reaction of ficin with iodoacetamide and tetrathionate using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), ultra filtration membrane, and dynamic light scattering (DLS) methods. The ficin structural changes were also determined using UV-absorption, circular dichroism (CD), fluorescence spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques. These techniques demonstrated that iodoacetamide completely inhibited ficin autolysis, which was irreversible. However, tetrathionate partially and reversibility inhibited its autolysis. The ficin structural changes with two synthetic inhibitors were associated with secondary structural changes related to decreased alpha-helix and increased beta sheet and random coil conformations, contributing to its aggregation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Nitridation of one-dimensional tungsten oxide nanostructures: Changes in structure and photoactivity

    KAUST Repository

    Varga, Tamá s; Haspel, Henrik; Kormá nyos, Attila; Janá ky, Csaba; Kukovecz, Á kos; Kó nya, Zoltá n

    2017-01-01

    nitrogen atmosphere. Morphological changes and structural transitions were followed by transmission and scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Bandgap energies were determined from the UV–vis spectra of the materials, while photoelectrochemical

  9. Assessing the impact of structural changes in the financial sector on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    institution relationship by means of a Financial Social Accounting Matrix multipliers model for the case of Algeria. Our purpose is to understand the role of structural institutional changes implemented in the financial sector and their contribution to ...

  10. Solidarity as an Engine for Economic Change – The Impact of Swedish and US Political Ideology on Wage Differentials and Structural Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulfgramm, Melike

    This paper investigates the impact of interindustry wage distribution on structural change in the Swedish and US manufacturing sector in the 1970s. Structural change in the centralized Swedish labour market reacts far more positive to market pressures towards wage changes than structural change...... in the decentralized US labour market. Support for the Rehn-Meidner model of solidarity wages and structural change is found. It is shown how opposing ideologies and policy making influence not only the wage pattern but also industry structures of economies....

  11. Historical Context, Institutional Change, Organizational Structure, and the Mental Illness Career

    OpenAIRE

    Walter, Charles Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation demonstrates how patients' mental illness treatment careers depend on the change and/or stability among differing levels of social structure. Theorists of the mental illness career tend to ignore the role that higher levels of social structural change have on individuals' mental illness career. Researchers using an organizational perspective tend to focus on the organizational environment but ignore the treatment process from the individual's point of view. Both perspectives...

  12. Continuous Record Laplace-based Inference about the Break Date in Structural Change Models

    OpenAIRE

    Casini, Alessandro; Perron, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Building upon the continuous record asymptotic framework recently introduced by Casini and Perron (2017a) for inference in structural change models, we propose a Laplace-based (Quasi-Bayes) procedure for the construction of the estimate and confidence set for the date of a structural change. The procedure relies on a Laplace-type estimator defined by an integration-based rather than an optimization-based method. A transformation of the leastsquares criterion function is evaluated in order to ...

  13. Organizational models as configurations of structure, culture, leadership, control, and change strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janićijević Nebojša

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the axioms of consistency, stability, contingency, and configuration, research on organizational structure, culture, control, leadership, and change management strategy has shown that their typical configurations, or models, can be differentiated according to the same two criteria: distribution of power and dominant organizational dimension. On the one hand there are models of structure, culture, control, leadership, and change management strategy that are based on an unequal, or authoritarian, distribution of power within organizations, while on the other hand there are models that are based on democratic, or equal, distribution of power. Also, on the one hand there are models of structure, culture, control, leadership, and change strategy that are based on work structure and tasks, while on the other hand there are models of these organizational components that are based on social structure, people, and their relationships. Harmonization of typical configurations of organizational structure, culture, control, leadership, and change strategy occurs due to the harmonization of the differentiation criteria. Based on this harmonization, four organizational models have been identified as typical configurations of structure, culture, control, leadership, and change strategy: the autocratic, bureaucratic, innovative, and task models. Each of these models is effective in a different environmental contingency.

  14. Exploring energy efficiency in several European countries. An attribution analysis of the Divisia structural change index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández González, P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We present a new attribution analysis approach to study structural change index. • Based on LMDI method, we decompose changes in AEI in the EU in 1995–2010. • Mild AEI drop as a result of structural change, particularly in Eastern economies. • Transport, hotels and restaurants: positive contributors, specifically in Western EU. • Strategies should be focused on Industry: the most influential sector in reducing AEI. - Abstract: This paper aims at exploring the influence that the changes in sectoral composition in most EU economies have had on aggregate energy intensity. We rely on the so-called Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) method, implemented within a multiplicative energy intensity approach. Then, based on the Index Decomposition Analysis (IDA), we present, develop and apply a new methodology that enables the exploration of the contribution of each sector to the percent change in the structural factors index. Our findings show: (a) a greater importance of the intensity factor over the structural one, (b) a positive influence of structural change in some ex-communist countries, and (c) a strong, negative contribution of the industrial sector (including construction) to changes in aggregate energy intensity in most European economies, particularly in the Western ones. In short, adaptation to more efficient techniques, innovation, R and D, and substitution for higher quality energies, seem to be the action lines to follow, although in former communist countries these strategies should be accompanied by other policies aiming at accelerating the transition processes

  15. Stability and Change in Social Goals as Related to Goal Structures and Engagement in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madjar, Nir

    2017-01-01

    The current studies explored (a) the extended external validity of social-goal-orientation framework; (b) the mediating role of social goals between classroom goal structures and students' engagement; and (c) whether changes in social goals can be explained by classroom goal structures and engagement. Study 1 was cross-sectional (N = 317), and…

  16. Protein structural changes during processing of vegetable feed ingredients used in swine diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salazar-Villanea, S.; Hendriks, W.H.; Bruininx, E.M.A.M.; Gruppen, H.; Poel, Van Der A.F.B.

    2016-01-01

    Protein structure influences the accessibility of enzymes for digestion. The proportion of intramolecular β-sheets in the secondary structure of native proteins has been related to a decrease in protein digestibility. Changes to proteins that can be considered positive (for example, denaturation

  17. VA Health Care: Processes to Evaluate, Implement, and Monitor Organizational Structure Changes Needed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    their families , such as medallions and markers for headstones that signify veterans’ service. Page 3 GAO-16-803 VHA Organizational ... Research Oversight, and Chief Nursing Page 8 GAO-16-803 VHA Organizational Structure Officer. Also, the Chief Financial Officer and...VA HEALTH CARE Processes to Evaluate, Implement, and Monitor Organizational Structure Changes Needed Report to

  18. How social structure changes in Chinese global cities: Synthesizing globalization, migration and institutional factors in Beijing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, Q.; Liu, T.; Musterd, S.; Cao, G.

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies on the social structural change in global cities have recognized globalization, migration, and institutional factors as three main forces underlying this process. However, effects of these factors have rarely been synthetically examined and the social structure of emerging Chinese

  19. Structural Changes in Deformed Soft Magnetic Ni-Based Metallic Glass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jurikova, A.; Csach, K.; Miskuf, J.; Ocelik, V.

    The effects of intensive plastic deformation of the soft magnetic metallic glass Ni Si 13 on the structural relaxation were examined. The enthalpy changes studied by differential scanning calorimetry revealed that the intensive plastic deformation was associated with the partial structural

  20. Monitoring structural change in variance : With an application to European nominal exchange rate volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Carsoule (Frédéric); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we propose a sequential testing approach for a structural change in the variance of a time series, which amounts to a procedure with a controlled asymptotic size as we repeat the test. Our approach builds on that taken in Chu, Stinchcombe and White (1996) for structural

  1. The Structural Changes in the Economy of Ukraine and its Energy Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyzym Mykola O.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with an analysis of structural changes in the economy of Ukraine in view of energy intensity of types of economic activity (TEA. On considering the main tendencies of development of Ukraine’s economy in 2000 – 2015, it has been proved that, unlike the world economy, its development is of more unevenly nature. In order to research structural changes in the domestic economy in the period from 2000 to 2015, the methodical approach consisting of a number of interconnected stages has been proposed. Using this approach: the structure of economy of Ukraine by TEA has been analyzed, the classification and structure of the TEA distribution by their importance have been suggested; the dynamics of TEA of Ukraine have been analyzed, the classification and structure of distribution of Ukraine’s TEA by dynamics of development has been proposed; a matrix of positioning of the TEA of Ukraine in the plane of «proportion – rate of change» has been built; the values have been calculated and directions of structural changes of TEA in economy of Ukraine have been defined; a characterization of the TEA of economy of Ukraine as to the degree of materiality of structural shift has been formed; the integral coefficients of structural shifts in economy for the studied period have been calculated; the classification of the TEA of Ukraine according to the level of energy intensity has been developed, the structure of economy by the energy intensity groups has been presented; the indices have been calculated and directions of structural shifts of groups with different energy intensity of TEA have been determined; the integral coefficients of structural shift of economy due to the groups of TEA with different energy intensity have been calculated; the general characterization of structural shifts of the TEA of Ukraine in 2000 – 2015 has been formed.

  2. [Atrial fibrillation as consequence and cause of structural changes of atria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparina, O P; Chikhireva, L N; Stukalova, O V; Mironova, N A; Kashtanova, S Iu; Ternovoĭ, S K; Golitsyn, S P

    2014-01-01

    Changes of atrial structure and function are the contributors of atrial fibrillation clinical course, complications and treatment effectiveness. Effects of inflammation and mechanical stretch on atrial structural remodeling leading to atrial fibrillation are reviewed in the article. Contemporary invasive and non-invasive methods of evaluation (including late gadolinium enhancement magnetic resonance imaging) of patients with atrial structural remodeling in atrial fibrillation are also described.

  3. Structural changes and intermolecular interactions of filled ice Ic structure for hydrogen hydrate under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, S; Hirai, H; Kawamura, T; Yamamoto, Y; Yagi, T

    2010-01-01

    High-pressure experiments of hydrogen hydrate were performed using a diamond anvil cell under conditions of 0.1-44.2 GPa and at room temperature. Also, high pressure Raman studies of solid hydrogen were performed in the pressure range of 0.1-43.7 GPa. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) for hydrogen hydrate revealed that a known high-pressure structure, filled ice Ic structure, of hydrogen hydrate transformed to a new high-pressure structure at approximately 35-40 GPa. A comparison of the Raman spectroscopy of a vibron for hydrogen molecules between hydrogen hydrate and solid hydrogen revealed that the extraction of hydrogen molecules from hydrogen hydrate occurred above 20 GPa. Also, the Raman spectra of a roton revealed that the rotation of hydrogen molecules in hydrogen hydrate was suppressed at around 20 GPa and that the rotation recovered under higher pressure. These results indicated that remarkable intermolecular interactions in hydrogen hydrate between neighboring hydrogen molecules and between guest hydrogen molecules and host water molecules might occur. These intermolecular interactions could produce the stability of hydrogen hydrate.

  4. Acetylcholinesterase in motion : Visualizing conformational changes in crystal structures by a morphing procedure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeev-Ben-Mordehai, T; Silman, I.; Sussman, J.L.

    In order to visualize and appreciate conformational changes between homologous three-dimensional (3D) protein structures or protein/inhibitor complexes, we have developed a user-friendly morphing procedure. It enabled us to detect coordinated conformational changes not easily discernible by analytic

  5. Structural Approaches to Health Promotion: What Do We Need to Know about Policy and Environmental Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Lisa; Golden, Shelley D.; Earp, Jo Anne L.

    2013-01-01

    Although the public health literature has increasingly called on practitioners to implement changes to social, environmental, and political structures as a means of improving population health, recent research suggests that articles evaluating organization, community, or policy changes are more limited than those focused on programs with…

  6. Pulse NMR-spectroscopy of structural changes of chemically modified polypropylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gafarov, A.M.; Galibeev, S.S.; Kochnev, A.M.; Sukhanov, P.P.; Arkhireev, V.P.

    2004-01-01

    The structure of polypropylene compositions is studied by the method of pulse NMR-spectroscopy. The polypropylene compositions are derived by means of the modification by multicomponent systems. The analysis of relaxation times in a wide temperature range is carried out. Character of changes going on at a level of supermolecular structures is described. It is shown that the amplifications that manifest themselves under the polypropylene modification by the mixtures based on 2,4-tolyilendiisocyanate and e-caprolactam, are related to the change in the intermolecular interaction and formation of a more ordered polymer structure. (authors)

  7. Energy intensity developments in 40 major economies: Structural change or technology improvement?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, Sebastian; De Cian, Enrica; Schymura, Michael; Verdolini, Elena

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes energy intensity trends and drivers in 40 major economies using the WIOD database, a novel harmonized and consistent dataset of input–output table time series accompanied by environmental satellite data. We use logarithmic mean Divisia index decomposition to (1) attribute efficiency changes to either changes in technology or changes in the structure of the economy, (2) study trends in global energy intensity between 1995 and 2007, and (3) highlight sectoral and regional differences. For the country analysis we apply the traditional two factor index decomposition approach, while for the global analysis we use a three factor decomposition which includes the consideration of regional structural changes in the global economy. We first show that heterogeneity within each sector across countries is high. These general trends within sectors are dominated by large economies, first and foremost the United States. In most cases, heterogeneity is lower within each country across the different sectors. Regarding changes of energy intensity at the country level, improvements between 1995 and 2007 are largely attributable to technological change while structural change is less important in most countries. Notable exceptions are Japan, the United States, Australia, Taiwan, Mexico and Brazil where a change in the industry mix was the main driver behind the observed energy intensity reduction. At the global level we find that despite a shift of the global economy to more energy-intensive countries, aggregate energy efficiency improved mostly due to technological change

  8. Social structure, infectious diseases, disasters, secularism, and cultural change in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Igor; Varnum, Michael E W

    2015-03-01

    Why do cultures change? The present work examined cultural change in eight cultural-level markers, or correlates, of individualism in the United States, all of which increased over the course of the 20th century: frequency of individualist themes in books, preference for uniqueness in baby naming, frequency of single-child relative to multichild families, frequency of single-generation relative to multigeneration households, percentage of adults and percentage of older adults living alone, small family size, and divorce rates (relative to marriage rates). We tested five key hypotheses regarding cultural change in individualism-collectivism. As predicted by previous theories, changes in socioeconomic structure, pathogen prevalence, and secularism accompanied changes in individualism averaged across all measures. The relationship with changes in individualism was less robust for urbanization. Contrary to previous theories, changes in individualism were positively (as opposed to negatively) related to the frequency of disasters. Time-lagged analyses suggested that only socioeconomic structure had a robust effect on individualism; changes in socioeconomic structure preceded changes in individualism. Implications for anthropology, psychology, and sociology are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Measuring structural change and energy use. Decomposition of the US economy from 1997 to 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Christopher L.

    2009-01-01

    The steadily increasing focus on energy production and consumption has led to growing research attention to patterns of energy use within economies. Of particular interest has been comparing the driving forces of increasing efficiency and economic structural change. Input-output analysis (IOA) and decomposition analysis have become critical tools for performing such analyses. This study analyzes aggregate energy use in the United States in 1997 and 2002 to discover the causes of changing energy usage and flows. Results show that rising population and household consumption acted to drive up energy demand, but this driving force was offset by considerable structural change within the economy, particularly related to a quickly increasing trade deficit in manufacturing goods. Thus, while total energy intensity, the ratio of energy use to economic output, declined by approximately 12% between 1997 and 2002, changes in the structure of the economy explain this drop more than increased energy efficiency. The level of aggregation at which decomposition analyses are run was identified as a crucially sensitive parameter for the determination of structural change, and future studies should specifically address the amount of detail necessary to adequately measure changes in economic structure. (author)

  10. Distributed Piezoelectric Sensor System for Damage Identification in Structures Subjected to Temperature Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitola, Jaime; Pozo, Francesc; Tibaduiza, Diego A; Anaya, Maribel

    2017-05-31

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) is a very important area in a wide spectrum of fields and engineering applications. With an SHM system, it is possible to reduce the number of non-necessary inspection tasks, the associated risk and the maintenance cost in a wide range of structures during their lifetime. One of the problems in the detection and classification of damage are the constant changes in the operational and environmental conditions. Small changes of these conditions can be considered by the SHM system as damage even though the structure is healthy. Several applications for monitoring of structures have been developed and reported in the literature, and some of them include temperature compensation techniques. In real applications, however, digital processing technologies have proven their value by: (i) offering a very interesting way to acquire information from the structures under test; (ii) applying methodologies to provide a robust analysis; and (iii) performing a damage identification with a practical useful accuracy. This work shows the implementation of an SHM system based on the use of piezoelectric (PZT) sensors for inspecting a structure subjected to temperature changes. The methodology includes the use of multivariate analysis, sensor data fusion and machine learning approaches. The methodology is tested and evaluated with aluminum and composite structures that are subjected to temperature variations. Results show that damage can be detected and classified in all of the cases in spite of the temperature changes.

  11. Distributed Piezoelectric Sensor System for Damage Identification in Structures Subjected to Temperature Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Vitola

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Structural health monitoring (SHM is a very important area in a wide spectrum of fields and engineering applications. With an SHM system, it is possible to reduce the number of non-necessary inspection tasks, the associated risk and the maintenance cost in a wide range of structures during their lifetime. One of the problems in the detection and classification of damage are the constant changes in the operational and environmental conditions. Small changes of these conditions can be considered by the SHM system as damage even though the structure is healthy. Several applications for monitoring of structures have been developed and reported in the literature, and some of them include temperature compensation techniques. In real applications, however, digital processing technologies have proven their value by: (i offering a very interesting way to acquire information from the structures under test; (ii applying methodologies to provide a robust analysis; and (iii performing a damage identification with a practical useful accuracy. This work shows the implementation of an SHM system based on the use of piezoelectric (PZT sensors for inspecting a structure subjected to temperature changes. The methodology includes the use of multivariate analysis, sensor data fusion and machine learning approaches. The methodology is tested and evaluated with aluminum and composite structures that are subjected to temperature variations. Results show that damage can be detected and classified in all of the cases in spite of the temperature changes.

  12. Target-Dependent Structural Changes Accompanying Long-Term Synaptic Facilitation in Aplysia Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanzman, David L.; Kandel, Eric R.; Schacher, Samuel

    1990-08-01

    The mechanisms underlying structural changes that accompany learning and memory have been difficult to investigate in the intact nervous system. In order to make these changes more accessible for experimental analysis, dissociated cell culture and low-light-level video microscopy were used to examine Aplysia sensory neurons in the presence or absence of their target cells. Repeated applications of serotonin, a facilitating transmitter important in behavioral dishabituation and sensitization, produced growth of the sensory neurons that paralleled the long-term enhancement of synaptic strength. This growth required the presence of the postsynaptic motor neuron. Thus, both the structural changes and the synaptic facilitation of Aplysia sensorimotor synapses accompanying long-term behavioral sensitization can be produced in vitro by applying a single facilitating transmitter repeatedly. These structural changes depend on an interaction of the presynaptic neuron with an appropriate postsynaptic target.

  13. The influence of structural changes to the tourist industry in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adžić Slavica

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of transition on the society has reflected on the entire social-economic circumstances in Montenegro. This complex and long process has changed the stability of economic growth and the development of the national economy and has effectuated the structural changes in the economy of Montenegro. Beside transition, the war in the surroundings, international isolation and numerous other problems, which have changed flows of the social and economic development, have affected the condition of the economy system. On the example of other surrounding countries, Montenegro has persevered to provide, through the process of structural reforms, more rational and efficient company market business dealings. This paper investigates to which extent and in which manner the structural changes have reflected onto the tourist industry and which results have been achieved on the basis of reforms which should provide for the joining with the flows of European and World development. By changing the company's state-legal status, the state has strived to provide a greater level of economical activity, productivity growth, degree of participation in the social product, national revenue and employment. According to national economy aggregate indicators, the structural changes have not yet provided the balance of the entire economy to a sufficient extent. Social, economic and political stability are the assumptions for tourism development which is very sensitive to numerous changes in economy and in the society.

  14. Burning fire-prone Mediterranean shrublands: immediate changes in soil microbial community structure and ecosystem functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goberna, M; García, C; Insam, H; Hernández, M T; Verdú, M

    2012-07-01

    Wildfires subject soil microbes to extreme temperatures and modify their physical and chemical habitat. This might immediately alter their community structure and ecosystem functions. We burned a fire-prone shrubland under controlled conditions to investigate (1) the fire-induced changes in the community structure of soil archaea, bacteria and fungi by analysing 16S or 18S rRNA gene amplicons separated through denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis; (2) the physical and chemical variables determining the immediate shifts in the microbial community structure; and (3) the microbial drivers of the change in ecosystem functions related to biogeochemical cycling. Prokaryotes and eukaryotes were structured by the local environment in pre-fire soils. Fire caused a significant shift in the microbial community structure, biomass C, respiration and soil hydrolases. One-day changes in bacterial and fungal community structure correlated to the rise in total organic C and NO(3)(-)-N caused by the combustion of plant residues. In the following week, bacterial communities shifted further forced by desiccation and increasing concentrations of macronutrients. Shifts in archaeal community structure were unrelated to any of the 18 environmental variables measured. Fire-induced changes in the community structure of bacteria, rather than archaea or fungi, were correlated to the enhanced microbial biomass, CO(2) production and hydrolysis of C and P organics. This is the first report on the combined effects of fire on the three biological domains in soils. We concluded that immediately after fire the biogeochemical cycling in Mediterranean shrublands becomes less conservative through the increased microbial biomass, activity and changes in the bacterial community structure.

  15. The impact of considering land intensification and updated data on biofuels land use change and emissions estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background: The GTAP model has been used to estimate biofuel policy induced land use changes and consequent GHG emissions for more than a decade. This paper reviews the history of the model and database modifications and improvements that have occurr...

  16. Temporal change in biological community structure in the Fountain Creek basin, Colorado, 2001-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuellig, Robert E.; Bruce, James F.; Stogner, Sr., Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Colorado Springs City Engineering, began a study to better understand the relations between environmental characteristics and biological communities in the Fountain Creek basin in order to aide water-resource management and guide future monitoring activities. To accomplish this task, environmental (streamflow, habitat, and water chemistry) and biological (fish and macroinvertebrate) data were collected annually at 24 sites over a 6- or 8-year period (fish, 2003 to 2008; macroinvertebrates, 2001 to 2008). For this report, these data were first analyzed to determine the presence of temporal change in macroinvertebrate and fish community structure among years using nonparametric multivariate statistics. Where temporal change in the biological communities was found, these data were further analyzed using additional nonparametric multivariate techniques to determine which subset of selected streamflow, habitat, or water-chemistry variables best described site-specific changes in community structure relative to a gradient of urbanization. This study identified significant directional patterns of temporal change in macroinvertebrate and fish community structure at 15 of 24 sites in the Fountain Creek basin. At four of these sites, changes in environmental variables were significantly correlated with the concurrent temporal change identified in macroinvertebrate and fish community structure (Monument Creek above Woodmen Road at Colorado Springs, Colo.; Monument Creek at Bijou Street at Colorado Springs, Colo.; Bear Creek near Colorado Springs, Colo.; Fountain Creek at Security, Colo.). Combinations of environmental variables describing directional temporal change in the biota appeared to be site specific as no single variable dominated the results; however, substrate composition variables (percent substrate composition composed of sand, gravel, or cobble) collectively were present in 80 percent of the environmental

  17. Structural and morphological changes in supramolecular-structured polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell on addition of phosphoric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrana, S.; Pryliana, R. F.; Natanael, C. L.; Rahayu, I.

    2018-03-01

    Phosphoric acid is one agents used in membrane fuel cell to modify ionic conductivity. Therefore, its distribution in membrane is a key parameter to gain expected conductivity. Efforts have been made to distribute phosphoric acid in a supramolecular-structured membrane prepared with a matrix. To achieve even distribution across bulk of the membrane, the inclusion of the polyacid is carried out under pressurized chamber. Image of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows better phosphoric acid distribution for one prepared in pressurized state. It also leads in better performing in ionic conductivity. Moreover, data from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) indicate that the addition of phosphoric acid is prominent in the change of membrane structure, while morphological changes are captured in SEM images.

  18. Audit market structure, fees and choice in a period of structural change: evidence from the UK – 1998–2003

    OpenAIRE

    Abidin, S.; Beattie, V.; Goodacre, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents evidence on audit market concentration and auditor fee levels in the UK market in the crucial period of structural change following the PricewaterhouseCoopers’ (PwC) merger and encompassing Andersen’s demise (1998–2003). Given the current interest in auditor choice, analysis is also undertaken at the individual audit firm level and by industry sector. There is evidence of significant upward pressure on audit fees since 2001 but only for smaller auditees. Audit fee income f...

  19. Study of structural change in volcanic and geothermal areas using seismic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhana, Najwa; Foulger, Gillian; Julian, Bruce; peirce, Christine

    2014-05-01

    Long Valley caldera is a large silicic volcano. It has been in a state of volcanic and seismic unrest since 1978. Farther escalation of this unrest could pose a threat to the 5,000 residents and the tens of thousands of tourists who visit the area. We have studied the crustal structure beneath 28 km X 16 km area using seismic tomography. We performed tomographic inversions for the years 2009 and 2010 with a view to differencing it with the 1997 result to look for structural changes with time and whether repeat tomography is a capable of determining the changes in structure in volcanic and geothermal reservoirs. Thus, it might provide a useful tool to monitoring physical changes in volcanoes and exploited geothermal reservoirs. Up to 600 earthquakes, selected from the best-quality events, were used for the inversion. The inversions were performed using program simulps12 [Thurber, 1983]. Our initial results show that changes in both V p and V s were consistent with the migration of CO2 into the upper 2 km or so. Our ongoing work will also invert pairs of years simultaneously using a new program, tomo4d [Julian and Foulger, 2010]. This program inverts for the differences in structure between two epochs so it can provide a more reliable measure of structural change than simply differencing the results of individual years.

  20. Morphological and structural changes at the Merapi lava dome monitored using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmawan, H.; Walter, T. R.; Brotopuspito, K. S.; Subandriyo, S.; Nandaka, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Six gas-driven explosions between 2012 and 2014 had changed the morphology and structures of the Merapi lava dome. The explosions mostly occurred during rainfall season and caused NW-SE elongated open fissures that dissected the lava dome. In this study, we conducted UAVs photogrammetry before and after the explosions to investigate the morphological and structural changes and to assess the quality of the UAV photogrammetry. The first UAV photogrammetry was conducted on 26 April 2012. After the explosions, we conducted Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) survey on 18 September 2014 and repeated UAV photogrammetry on 6 October 2015. We applied Structure from Motion (SfM) algorithm to reconstruct 3D SfM point clouds and photomosaics of the 2012 and 2015 UAVs images. Topography changes has been analyzed by calculating height difference between the 2012 and 2015 SfM point clouds, while structural changes has been investigated by visual comparison between the 2012 and 2015 photo mosaics. Moreover, a quality assessment of the results of UAV photogrammetry has been done by comparing the 3D SfM point clouds to TLS dataset. Result shows that the 2012 and 2015 SfM point clouds have 0.19 and 0.57 m difference compared to the TLS point cloud. Furthermore, topography, and structural changes reveal that the 2012-14 explosions were controlled by pre-existing structures. The volume of the 2012-14 explosions is 26.400 ± 1320 m3 DRE. In addition, we find a structurally delineated unstable block at the southern front of the dome which potentially collapses in the future. We concluded that the 2012-14 explosions occurred due to interaction between magma intrusion and rain water and were facilitated by pre-existing structures. The unstable block potentially leads to a rock avalanche hazard. Furthermore, our drone photogrammetry results show very promising and therefore we recommend to use drone for topography mapping in lava dome building volcanoes.

  1. A user-friendly web portal for analyzing conformational changes in structures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Sameer; Thangam, Manonanthini; Vasudevan, Praveen; Kumar, G Ramesh; Unni, Rahul; Devi, P K Gayathri; Hanna, Luke Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    Initiation of the Tuberculosis Structural Consortium has resulted in the expansion of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) protein structural database. Currently, 969 experimentally solved structures are available for 354 MTB proteins. This includes multiple crystal structures for a given protein under different functional conditions, such as the presence of different ligands or mutations. In depth analysis of the multiple structures reveal that subtle differences exist in conformations of a given protein under varied conditions. Therefore, it is immensely important to understand the conformational differences between the multiple structures of a given protein in order to select the most suitable structure for molecular docking and structure-based drug designing. Here, we introduce a web portal ( http://bmi.icmr.org.in/mtbsd/torsion.php ) that we developed to provide comparative data on the ensemble of available structures of MTB proteins, such as Cα root means square deviation (RMSD), sequence identity, presence of mutations and torsion angles. Additionally, torsion angles were used to perform principal component analysis (PCA) to identify the conformational differences between the structures. Additionally, we present a few case studies to demonstrate this database. Graphical Abstract Conformational changes seen in the structures of the enoyl-ACP reductase protein encoded by the Mycobacterial gene inhA.

  2. Molecular dynamics simulation of structural changes during the collision of copper nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas T, Justo; Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Lima; Copa, Betty

    2009-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations with embedded-atom potential (EAM) have been performed to study the energetic and structural changes during the collision and coalescence of two Cu n nanoparticles. We simulated collision of nanoparticles at several temperatures below the melting point and with different impact energy. Analyzing the potential energy change during the collision we identify three clearly defined stages. The pair correlation function and the pair analysis technique are used to reveal the structural changes in the collision process. The variation in the time of the population of different pairs has been quantified, being observed diverse structural transformations. During the collision of two equal icosahedral nanoparticles ( Cu 55 ) has been observed different behavior of 1551 pairs depending on the impact velocity. (author).

  3. Gradual pressure-induced change in the magnetic structure of the noncollinear antiferromagnet Mn3Ge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, A. S.; Singh, Sanjay; Caron, L.; Hansen, Th.; Hoser, A.; Kumar, V.; Borrmann, H.; Fitch, A.; Devi, P.; Manna, K.; Felser, C.; Inosov, D. S.

    2018-06-01

    By means of powder neutron diffraction we investigate changes in the magnetic structure of the coplanar noncollinear antiferromagnet Mn3Ge caused by an application of hydrostatic pressure up to 5 GPa. At ambient conditions the kagomé layers of Mn atoms in Mn3Ge order in a triangular 120∘ spin structure. Under high pressure the spins acquire a uniform out-of-plane canting, gradually transforming the magnetic texture to a noncoplanar configuration. With increasing pressure the canted structure fully transforms into the collinear ferromagnetic one. We observed that magnetic order is accompanied by a noticeable magnetoelastic effect, namely, spontaneous magnetostriction. The latter induces an in-plane magnetostrain of the hexagonal unit cell at ambient pressure and flips to an out-of-plane strain at high pressures in accordance with the change of the magnetic structure.

  4. Spatial structure of the meroplankton community along a Patagonian fjord - The role of changing freshwater inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerhoff, Erika; Tapia, Fabián J.; Castro, Leonardo R.

    2014-12-01

    Freshwater inputs are major drivers of circulation, hydrographic structure, and productivity patterns along estuarine systems. We assessed the degree to which meroplankton community structure in the Baker/Martinez fjord complex (Chilean Patagonia, 47.5°S) responds to spatial and temporal changes in hydrographic conditions driven by seasonal changes in Baker river outflow. Zooplankton and hydrographic measurements were conducted along the fjord in early spring (October) and late summer (February), when river outflow was minimal and maximal, respectively. Major meroplankton groups found on these surveys were larval barnacles, crabs, bivalves and gastropods. There was a clear change in community structure between October and February, explained by a switch in the numerically dominant group from barnacle to bivalve larvae. This change in community structure was related to changes in hydrographic structure along the fjord, which are mainly associated with seasonal changes in the Baker river outflow. A variance partition analysis showed no significant spatial trend that could account for the variation in meroplankton along the Martinez channel, whereas temporal variability and environmental variables accounted for 36.6% and 27.6% of the variance, respectively. When comparing meroplankton among the Baker and Martinez channels in October, changes in environmental variables explained 44.9% of total variance, whereas spatial variability accounted for 23.5%. Early and late-stage barnacle larvae (i.e. nauplii and cyprids) were more abundant in water with lower temperature, and higher dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll-a concentration, whereas bivalve larvae were more strongly associated to warmer waters. The seasonal shift in numerical dominance, from barnacle larvae in early spring to bivalve larvae in late summer, suggests that reproduction of these groups is triggered by substantially different sets of conditions, both in terms of hydrography and food availability. The

  5. Growth, Structural Change and Technological Capabilities. Latin America in a Comparative Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Cimoli; Marcio Holland; Gabriel Porcile; Annalisa Primi; Sebastiàn Vergara

    2006-01-01

    Countries differ in terms of technological capabilities and complexity of production structures. According to that, countries may follow different development strategies: one based on extracting rents from abundant endowments, such as labor or natural resources, and the other focused on creating rents through intangibles, basically innovation and knowledge accumulation. The present article studies international convergence and divergence, linking structural change with trade and growth thr...

  6. Thermal changes of the environment and their influence on reinforced concrete structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fojtik, R.; Cajka, R.

    2018-04-01

    The thermal expansion of concrete elements concerns both monolithic and prefabricated structures. Inappropriate design of dilation segments may cause minor but even larger failures. Critical environment factors are temperature-changing operations, such as unheated underground garages, where temperature fluctuations may occur depending on the exterior conditions. This paper numerically and experimentally analyses the thermal deformation of selected girders in the underground garages and the consequent structure failures, their causes, possible prevention and appropriate remediation.

  7. Patterns of structural - qualitative changes in the development of complex systems

    OpenAIRE

    S Holtier

    1992-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to outline, in an emancipatory fashion, a framework of thinking to deal with the general patterns of development. As decision problems in society are increasingly of a developmental nature compared with simple performance in equilibrium systems, the author pleads in favour of an operational approach centred on 'the algebra' of structural change. It is argued that for describing and understanding development patterns better we need a proper 'structural' and 'ontologica...

  8. [Eyeball structure changes in high myopic patients and their significance for forensic assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi-Chang; Xia, Wen-Tao; Zhou, Xing-Tao; Liu, Rui-Jue; Bian, Shi-Zhong; Ying, Chong-Liang; Zhu, Guang-You

    2008-10-01

    There are irreversible eyeball structural changes in high myopic patients. These changes include axial length, corneal radius, anterior chamber depth, fundus degeneration, macula thickness, etc. There is a close relationship between the damage degree of visual function and these changes. The incidence of complications, such as vitreous opacity, posterior vitreous detachment, cataract, glaucoma, posterior staphyloma and retina detachment, is also highly related to the myopia diopter. More and more researches have indicated that the myopia diopter and the level of visual function are affected by multiple factors. It is promising to detect all of these changes by different kinds of methods, and to assess visual function through these changes. By clarifying these changes, it is also useful to distinguish traumatic damage from disease to provide evidence for forensic assessment of eye injuries.

  9. Morphological and Histopathological Changes in Orofacial Structures of Experimentally Developed Acromegaly-Like Rats: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Iikubo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tongue enlargement and mandibular prognathism are clinically recognized in almost all patients with acromegaly. An acromegaly-like rat model recently developed by exogenous administration of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I was used to investigate morphological and histopathological changes in orofacial structures and to clarify whether these changes were reversible. Exogenous administration of IGF-I evoked specific enlargement of the tongue with identifiable histopathological changes (increased muscle bundle width, increased space between muscle bundles, and increased epithelial thickness, elongation of the mandibular alveolar bone and ascending ramus, and lateral expansion of the mandibular dental arch. Regarding histopathological changes in the mandibular condyle, the cartilaginous layer width, bone matrix ratio, and number of osteoblasts were all significantly greater in this rat model. After normalization of the circulating IGF-I level, tongue enlargement and histopathological changes in the tongue and mandibular condyle were reversible, whereas morphological skeletal changes in the mandible remained.

  10. Stability and change in structural social relations as predictor of mortality among elderly women and men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rikke; Modvig, J; Due, P

    2000-01-01

    In a follow-up study of 70-95 years old women and men (n = 911) we studied the association between change and stability in three structural aspects of social relations (contact frequency, contact diversity, cohabitation status) from 1986-1990 and mortality after the next four years in 1994. Women.......02-14.94) and ORdiv: 6.04 (1.30-28.03). In summary, we found rather larger age differences in the strength of the association between change in structural social relations and mortality. Furthermore, the associations seemed stronger among women than men, which may however mainly be explained by the small number...

  11. Structural changes in connective tissues caused by a moderate laser heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagratashvili, Viktor N; Bagratashvili, N V; Sviridov, A P; Shakh, G Sh; Ignat'eva, Natalia Yu; Lunin, Valery V; Grokhovskaya, T E; Averkiev, S V

    2002-01-01

    The structural changes in adipose and fibrous tissues caused by 2- and 3-W IR laser irradiation are studied by the methods of IR and Raman spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. It is shown that heating of fibrous tissue samples to 50 0 C and adipose tissue samples to 75 0 C by IR laser radiation changes the supramolecular structure of their proteins and triacylglycerides, respectively, without the intramolecular bond breaking. Heating of fibrous tissue to 70 0 C and adipose tissue to 90 - 110 0 C leads to a partial reversible denaturation of proteins and to oxidation of fats.

  12. Hydrogen-induced structural changes in polycrystalline silicon as revealed by positron lifetime spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arole, V.M.; Takwale, M.G.; Bhide, V.G.

    1989-01-01

    Hydrogen passivation of polycrystalline silicon wafer is carried out in order to reduce the deleterious effects of grain boundaries. A systematic variation is made in the process parameters implemented during hydrogen passivation and the results of room temperature resistivity measurements are reported. As an efficient tool to study the structure change, positron lifetime spectroscopic measurements are performed on original and hydrogenated polycrystalline silicon wafers and a systematic correlation is sought between the changes that take place in the electrical and structural properties of polycrystalline silicon wafer, brought about by hydrogen passivation. (author)

  13. Changes in orientation and appearance of the 100 m arc s radio structure in SS433

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilizzi, R T [Netherlands Foundation for Radio Astronomy, Radio Sterrenwacht, Dwingeloo; Miley, G K [Rijksuniversiteit Leiden (Netherlands). Sterrewacht; Romney, J D [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Bonn (Germany, F.R.); Spencer, R E [Nuffield Radio Astronomy Labs., Jodrell Bank (UK)

    1981-03-26

    Results are presented of observations of SS433 made with the European VLBI network for periods of 9 and 10 h at a wavelength of 6 cm on 9 January (JD2444248) and 1-2 June (JD2444392.5) 1980. The results, together with earlier ones of Walker et al., show that the compact radio structure of SS433 changes orientation in a manner consistent with the 164-day precession period inferred from the optical emission lines, but with a phase delay of 5 +- 4 days. The shape of the radio structure is elongated, non-linear and changes from one observing epoch to the other.

  14. Structural, biochemical, cellular, and functional changes in skeletal muscle extracellular matrix with aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragstrup, Tue Wenzel; Kjaer, M; Mackey, A L

    2011-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of skeletal muscle is critical for force transmission and for the passive elastic response of skeletal muscle. Structural, biochemical, cellular, and functional changes in skeletal muscle ECM contribute to the deterioration in muscle mechanical properties with aging......-links and a buildup of advanced glycation end-product cross-links. Altered mechanotransduction, poorer activation of satellite cells, poorer chemotactic and delayed inflammatory responses, and a change in modulators of the ECM are important cellular changes. It is possible that the structural and biochemical changes...... in skeletal muscle ECM contribute to the increased stiffness and impairment in force generated by the contracting muscle fibers seen with aging. The cellular interactions provide and potentially coordinate an adaptation to mechanical loading and ensure successful regeneration after muscle injury. Some...

  15. Parallel structures for disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation in Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Becker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, the interest of the international community in the concepts of disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation has been growing immensely. Even though an increasing number of scholars seem to view these concepts as two sides of the same coin (at least when not considering the potentially positive effects of climate change, in practice the two concepts have developed in parallel rather than in an integrated manner when it comes to policy, rhetoric and funding opportunities amongst international organisations and donors. This study investigates the extent of the creation of parallel structures for disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation in the Southern African Development Community (SADC region. The chosen methodology for the study is a comparative case study and the data are collected through focus groups and content analysis of documentary sources, as well as interviews with key informants. The results indicate that parallel structures for disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation have been established in all but one of the studied countries. The qualitative interviews performed in some of the countries indicate that stakeholders in disaster risk reduction view this duplication of structures as unfortunate, inefficient and a fertile setup for conflict over resources for the implementation of similar activities. Additional research is called for in order to study the concrete effects of having these parallel structures as a foundation for advocacy for more efficient future disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation.

  16. Modulation of the Extent of Cooperative Structural Change During Protein Folding by Chemical Denaturant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jethva, Prashant N; Udgaonkar, Jayant B

    2017-09-07

    Protein folding and unfolding reactions invariably appear to be highly cooperative reactions, but the structural and sequence determinants of cooperativity are poorly understood. Importantly, it is not known whether cooperative structural change occurs throughout the protein, or whether some parts change cooperatively and other parts change noncooperatively. In the current study, hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry has been used to show that the mechanism of unfolding of the PI3K SH3 domain is similar in the absence and presence of 5 M urea. The data are well described by a four state N ↔ I N ↔ I 2 ↔ U model, in which structural changes occur noncooperatively during the N ↔ I N and I N ↔ I 2 transitions, and occur cooperatively during the I 2 ↔ U transition. The nSrc-loop and RT-loop, as well as β strands 4 and 5 undergo noncooperative unfolding, while β strands 1, 2, and 3 unfold cooperatively in the absence of urea. However, in the presence of 5 M urea, the unfolding of β strand 4 switches to become cooperative, leading to an increase in the extent of cooperative structural change. The current study highlights the relationship between protein stability and cooperativity, by showing how the extent of cooperativity can be varied, using chemical denaturant to alter protein stability.

  17. Brain Events Underlying Episodic Memory Changes in Aging: A Longitudinal Investigation of Structural and Functional Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjell, Anders M; Sneve, Markus H; Storsve, Andreas B; Grydeland, Håkon; Yendiki, Anastasia; Walhovd, Kristine B

    2016-03-01

    Episodic memories are established and maintained by close interplay between hippocampus and other cortical regions, but degradation of a fronto-striatal network has been suggested to be a driving force of memory decline in aging. We wanted to directly address how changes in hippocampal-cortical versus striatal-cortical networks over time impact episodic memory with age. We followed 119 healthy participants (20-83 years) for 3.5 years with repeated tests of episodic verbal memory and magnetic resonance imaging for quantification of functional and structural connectivity and regional brain atrophy. While hippocampal-cortical functional connectivity predicted memory change in young, changes in cortico-striatal functional connectivity were related to change in recall in older adults. Within each age group, effects of functional and structural connectivity were anatomically closely aligned. Interestingly, the relationship between functional connectivity and memory was strongest in the age ranges where the rate of reduction of the relevant brain structure was lowest, implying selective impacts of the different brain events on memory. Together, these findings suggest a partly sequential and partly simultaneous model of brain events underlying cognitive changes in aging, where different functional and structural events are more or less important in various time windows, dismissing a simple uni-factorial view on neurocognitive aging. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Changes in anterior ocular structures and macula following deep sclerectomy with collagen implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suominen, Sakari M A; Harju, Mika P; Hautamäki, Asta M E; Vesti, Eija T

    2018-01-01

    To determine the effect of intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering with deep sclerectomy (DS) on visual acuity, macular structures, and anterior ocular dimensions during the early postoperative period. We prospectively analyzed 35 eyes of 35 patients scheduled for DS. Our focus with the measurements was on early postoperative changes in anterior ocular and macular structures related to IOP lowering during the first month after DS. In addition to a clinical ophthalmologic examination, our measurements included corneal topography, measurement of ocular dimensions with optical biometry, and examination of macular structure with optical coherence tomography. These measurements were repeated 1, 2, and 4 weeks postoperatively. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) decreased 1 week postoperatively to 0.22 (0.20) LogMAR (p = 0.006). The BCVA then increased to its preoperative level, 0.17 (0.18) (p = 0.28), after 4 weeks. Axial length decreased from 24.12 (1.81) mm to 24.04 (1.81) (p<0.001) 4 weeks postoperatively. The steeper meridian of corneal curvature and average corneal power increased postoperatively; central corneal thickness was decreased. No significant change appeared in other measurements. We found changes in corneal curvature and ocular dimensions after DS. These changes were relatively small and do not completely explain the decrease in visual acuity postoperatively. Macular structures showed no changes.

  19. Investigations of the changes in the bentonite structure caused by the different treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Stojiljković S.; Stamenković M.; Kostić D.; Miljković M.; Arsić B.; Savić I.; Savić I.

    2015-01-01

    The bentonite was treated in different ways and the changes in structure were monitored. Acid activation with sulphuric acid of investigated bentonite caused the increase in specific volume of micropore-mesopore. It was shown that activation by acid obtained at a constant temperature and constant period of time provides the possibility to obtain samples of bentonite of searched porosity only by changing the concentration of sulphuric and hydrochloric acid. ...

  20. Structural change of the porous sulfur cathode using gelatin as a binder during discharge and charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang You; Huang Yaqin; Wang Weikun; Huang Chongjun; Yu Zhongbao; Zhang, Hao; Sun Jing; Wang Anbang; Yuan Keguo

    2009-01-01

    The structural change of the porous sulfur cathode using gelatin as a binder was studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The original sulfur cathode exhibited a homogenous distribution of sulfur, carbon and pores. During the discharge process, the pores and elemental sulfur disappeared gradually. However, those changes were reversed and elemental sulfur was reformed after the charge process, which improved the electrochemical performance of lithium-sulfur batteries.

  1. In Vivo Changes in Lamina Cribrosa Microarchitecture and Optic Nerve Head Structure in Early Experimental Glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M Ivers

    Full Text Available The lamina cribrosa likely plays an important role in retinal ganglion cell axon injury in glaucoma. We sought to (1 better understand optic nerve head (ONH structure and anterior lamina cribrosa surface (ALCS microarchitecture between fellow eyes of living, normal non-human primates and (2 characterize the time-course of in vivo structural changes in the ONH, ALCS microarchitecture, and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT in non-human primate eyes with early experimental glaucoma (EG. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT images of the ONH were acquired cross-sectionally in six bilaterally normal rhesus monkeys, and before and approximately every two weeks after inducing unilateral EG in seven rhesus monkeys. ONH parameters and RNFLT were quantified from segmented SDOCT images. Mean ALCS pore area, elongation and nearest neighbor distance (NND were quantified globally, in sectors and regionally from adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope images. In bilaterally normal monkeys, ONH parameters were similar between fellow eyes with few inter-eye differences in ALCS pore parameters. In EG monkeys, an increase in mean ALCS Depth (ALCSD was the first structural change measured in 6 of 7 EG eyes. A decrease in mean minimum rim width (MRW simultaneously accompanied this early change in 4 of 6 EG eyes and was the first structural change in the 7th EG eye. Mean ALCS pore parameters were among the first or second changes measured in 4 EG eyes. Mean ALCS pore area and NND increased in superotemporal and temporal sectors and in central and peripheral regions at the first time-point of change in ALCS pore geometry. RNFLT and/or mean ALCS radius of curvature were typically the last parameters to initially change. Survival analyses found mean ALCSD was the only parameter to significantly show an initial change prior to the first measured loss in RNFLT across EG eyes.

  2. U.S. Cotton Prices and the World Cotton Market: Forecasting and Structural Change

    OpenAIRE

    Isengildina-Massa, Olga; MacDonald, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze structural changes that took place in the cotton industry in recent years and develop a statistical model that reflects the current drivers of U.S. cotton prices. Legislative changes authorized the U.S. Department of Agriculture to resume publishing cotton price forecasts for the first time in 79 years. In addition, systematic problems have become apparent in the forecasting models used by USDA and elsewhere, highlighting the need for an updated review...

  3. Structural properties of the metastable state of phase change materials investigated by synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkelbach, Philipp; Eijk, Julia van; Wuttig, Matthias [I. Phys. Institut (IA), RWTH Aachen, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Braun, Carolin [Institut fuer Anorg. Chemie, CAU Kiel, 24098 Kiel (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Phase change alloys are among the most promising materials for novel data storage devices. Since several years Phase Change Materials based on Ge-Sb-Te- alloys have been used in optical data storage solutions like rewriteable CDs and DVDs. Recently these alloys have been explored as potential candidates for fast nonvolatile electrical data storage devices in Phase Change Random Access Memory (PCRAM). Besides attracting considerable interest from the commercial point of view phase change materials are very interesting also due to their remarkable physical properties. They have the ability to be reversibly switched within a few nanoseconds between the amorphous and the crystalline phase, while changing their physical properties such as optical reflectivity and electrical resistivity significantly. Even though the electronic properties show a drastical contrast such fast transitions can only be caused by small atomic rearrangements. This behavior calls for a deeper understanding of the structural properties of the alloys. We have performed powder diffraction measurements of the crystal phase of various GeSbTe alloys, to determine the structural similarities and differences of several alloys. Understanding the crystal structure of phase change materials is a key to a deeper insight into the properties of these promising materials.

  4. Structural-change localization and monitoring through a perturbation-based inverse problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Philippe; Guéguen, Philippe; Baillet, Laurent; Hamze, Alaa

    2014-11-01

    Structural-change detection and characterization, or structural-health monitoring, is generally based on modal analysis, for detection, localization, and quantification of changes in structure. Classical methods combine both variations in frequencies and mode shapes, which require accurate and spatially distributed measurements. In this study, the detection and localization of a local perturbation are assessed by analysis of frequency changes (in the fundamental mode and overtones) that are combined with a perturbation-based linear inverse method and a deconvolution process. This perturbation method is applied first to a bending beam with the change considered as a local perturbation of the Young's modulus, using a one-dimensional finite-element model for modal analysis. Localization is successful, even for extended and multiple changes. In a second step, the method is numerically tested under ambient-noise vibration from the beam support with local changes that are shifted step by step along the beam. The frequency values are revealed using the random decrement technique that is applied to the time-evolving vibrations recorded by one sensor at the free extremity of the beam. Finally, the inversion method is experimentally demonstrated at the laboratory scale with data recorded at the free end of a Plexiglas beam attached to a metallic support.

  5. The effect of exchange-correlation on change and stability of crystal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazdani, A.; Niazi, M.; Alimardan, V.

    2007-01-01

    Since exchange interaction energy has effect on band structure via polarization of spin of free electron, then can directly effects formation crystal structure. Therefore exchange-correlation is able to have an effect on determination of crystal structure or its change and stability. This energy is subject to fluctuation range of electrons between conduction band and valance band or density of electrons which due to increase the entropy of system, via Gibss Energy .We investigated these factors: 1) Size of ions 2) Density of States 3) Range of inter atomic and pair-potential.

  6. Structural Changes of International Trade Flows under the Impact of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Dachin

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Structural changes of international trade flows indicate modifications in competitiveness of countries, in terms of production, technological upgrading and exports under the pressure of globalization. The paper aims to point out sources of competitive advantages especially in manufacturing exports of different groups of countries. The focus is on the shifts in the structure of manufacturing in the European Union and their effects on international rankings in export performances. An important issue refers to the opportunities given by the enlargement of the European Union and their impact on EU trade structures.

  7. Historical changes in the structure and functioning of the benthic community in the lagoon of Venice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranovi, Fabio; Da Ponte, Filippo; Torricelli, Patrizia

    2008-03-01

    One of the main challenges in environmental management is how to manage the dynamics of natural environments. In this context, having information about historical changes of the structure of the biological communities could represent a useful tool to improve management strategies, contributing to refine the policy objectives, since it gives reference states with which to compare the present. The Venice lagoon represents an interesting case study, since it is a highly dynamic, but sensitive, environment which requires the adoption of prudent management. In its recent history the lagoon ecosystem has been exposed to different kinds of disturbance, from the discharge of pollutants and nutrients, to the invasion of alien species and the exploitation of its biological resources by using highly impacting fishing gears. The analysis of available data about the macro-benthic community, from 1935 to 2004, allows the description of changes of the community structure over almost 70 years, showing a sharp decrease in its diversity. In order to obtain information about its functioning, it is necessary to know how these changes have affected processes at the community and system level. In shallow water ecosystems, as the control is mainly due to the benthic compartment, variations in the structure of the benthic community can induce modifications in processes at different hierarchical levels. The trophic structure analysis has revealed major changes during the period; from a well-assorted structure in 1935, to an herbivore-detritivore dominated one in the 1990s, and finally to a filter feeder dominated structure during the last decade. This has produced variations in the secondary production and it has induced modifications in the type of the ecosystem control. These changes are discussed in the light of the dynamics of the main driving forces.

  8. Age-related changes in dermal fiber-like structures in facial cheeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukoshi, K; Hirayama, K

    2017-08-01

    Despite recent progress in non-invasive measurement methods, such as in vivo laser confocal microscopy (CLSM), it is difficult to quantitatively measure age-related changes in dermal fibrous structures in the face using these methods and qualitative characteristics. We used characteristics extracted from the analysis of CLSM images to quantitatively investigate the effects of aging on dermal fibrous structures in the face. CLSM images of dermal fibrous structures were obtained from 90 Japanese females, ranging in age from 20 to 60 years. The feature values of CLSM images were extracted using image analysis methods, such as short-line segment-matching processing and spatial frequency analysis. The qualitative characteristics of the dermal fibrous structures in the CLSM images were obtained by principal component analysis (PCA) of these feature values. The fibrous structures were scored on the basis of qualitative characteristics and then age-related changes in the scores among the subjects were quantitatively evaluated. The PCA results showed that there were two characteristics in the images of fibrous structures: clearness and directionality. The clearness of fibrous structures decreased and directionality isotropy increased with age. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Аsymmetry of Structural Institutional and Technological Changes in Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katkovа Marina Andreevna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the research on interrelation between institutional and technological changes. The authors provide the convincing argument in favor of the thesis on asymmetry of structural, institutional and technological changes. The complex of analytic methods is used in the work – comparative statics, static analysis, dynamic analysis. The analysis results in the conclusion on strengthening the heterogeneity, instability and uncertainty of the social and economic phenomena and processes. The authors comprehend structural changes as the changes in ratios and proportions of economic structure. They point to the emergence of new integrated characteristics and describe the synergetic effect of the general development. The use of the theory of technological modes allowed allocating radical and local shifts. The particular emphasis is placed on the analysis of reversible and irreversible structural and technological shifts as a special form of structural and technological changes. The application of the method of institutional statics and dynamics is effective in the analysis of technological and institutional symmetry / asymmetry. The emergence of negative institutional changes is explained by insufficient, inadequate or fragmentary assimilation of market institutes. The institutes interfering the innovative development stand against the institutes of innovative development. The institutional traps of structural and technological transformations are subdivided by authors into the traps of micro- and macrolevel. The authors point to the difficulty of assessing the institutes of microlevel by means of statistical data. They suggest using the phenomena which are under the control of authorities and subject to regulation as indicators. To define the opportunities of institutional management and the borders of government intervention the authors investigate in detail the institutional traps. They include moral and psychological unreadiness

  10. Ion implantation induced structural changes in reactively sputtered Cr-N layers on Si substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakovic, M.; Popovic, M.; Perusko, D.; Milinovic, V.; Radovic, I.; Bibic, N.; Mitric, M.; Milosavljevic, M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the structure and composition of reactively sputtered Cr-N layers as a function of deposition parameters, and the effects of ion implantation on these structures. The layers were deposited on (1 0 0) Si substrates to a thickness of 240-280 nm, at different nitrogen partial pressure, and subsequently irradiated with 120 keV Ar ions. Structural characterisation of the samples was performed with Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. We also measured their electrical resistivity with a four point probe. It was found that the layers grow in form of columnar structures, and their composition, Cr 2 N or CrN, strongly depends on the nitrogen partial pressure during deposition. Ion irradiation induces local micro-structural changes, formation of nano-particles and defects, which can be nicely correlated to the measured electrical resistivity

  11. The Changing Rules of the Game, Volleyball Player Systematic Structure and Effects in Applying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür DİNÇER

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We the purpose of this study, ranging from past to present and play volleyball rule changes that occur related to industry structure, how structure affects in applying with a systematic trial. Method: Volleyball, starting from the date of the present day sports entertainment, sport has become a subject performance. . As regards; the changing rules of the game, in terms of volleyball player systematic structure and effects on performance. The changing rules of the game, volleyball player systematic structure and effects the exhibition of the game, tactical understanding of the game is to combine the implementation of different systems to meet the needs of training and competition has created situations. Volleyball to purpose of changing the rules of the game, service, location and block combinations to improve defense, reducing the effect of conditions of service coverage and attack the ball to extend the duration of stay in the game. Thus, the visuals might volleyball, in terms of spectators and media will become attractive. While this study, scan was used during the research literature. Results: According to the data obtained from the literature, that the structural changes in the volleyball is thought to cause the positive and negative impact in the volleyball. Conclusion: Result of this research, the changing rules of the game affected the players' and the exhibition of the game and the diversity of training, volleyball game speed has increased, and became the focus of visual winning. The conclusion of every move made in the field with a number of players has increased and with it the responsibility of the importance of individual tactical exercises may have gained more importance.

  12. QUANTITATIVE AND STRUCTURAL CHANGES OF TESTIS AND SEMEN QUALITY PARAMETERS CHANGES CAUSED BY PERORAL ADMINISTRATION OF DIAZINON IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svätoslav Hluchý

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to find the quantitative and structural changes in the rat testis and changes of semen quality after a diazinon administration. METHODS: Rats received diazinon (99% purity in thier drinking water (40 mg.l-1 with free access. Age of rats at the beginning of the experiment was 30 days and experiment lasted for next 90 days. The histological samples were evaluated by histological and morphometric methods in light microscopy and the samples of semen were evaluated with CASA method. RESULTS: Disintergation of cellular associations in the seminiferous epithelium, germ cells evacuation into the tubule lumen and thier necrosis were mostly observed. Rarely vacuolisation and cracks of epithelium and fibrotisation of interstitial tissue were noted. Morphometric methods have shown extension of epithelium (P subcellular structures and their functions may be damaged which can lead to subfertility. Further investigation of diazinon is needed for verification of our hypothesis.doi:10.5219/188

  13. Associations Between Knee Effusion-synovitis and Joint Structural Changes in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia; Jin, Xingzhong; Blizzard, Leigh; Antony, Benny; Han, Weiyu; Zhu, Zhaohua; Cicuttini, Flavia; Wluka, Anita E; Winzenberg, Tania; Jones, Graeme; Ding, Changhai

    2017-11-01

    To describe the associations between effusion-synovitis and joint structural abnormalities in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) over 24 months. A posthoc analysis using data from a randomized controlled trial in 413 patients with symptomatic OA (aged 63 ± 7 yrs, 208 women). Knee effusion-synovitis volume and score, cartilage defects, cartilage volume, and bone marrow lesions (BML) were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging. Joint space narrowing (JSN) and osteophytes were assessed using radiograph. Least significant change criterion was used to define change in effusion-synovitis volume. Knee symptoms were assessed by Western Ontario and McMaster University OA Index. Multivariable linear/logistic regression and multilevel generalized mixed-effects models were used in longitudinal analyses. Total effusion-synovitis volume increased modestly from baseline (8.0 ± 8.5 ml) to followup (9.0 ± 10.5 ml). Baseline BML, cartilage defect, JSN, and osteophyte scores were positively associated with change in effusion-synovitis volume (p effusion-synovitis score (p effusion-synovitis score nor volume consistently predicted change in the above structures except cartilage volume. In the mixed-effects models, knee effusion-synovitis was positively associated with BML (volume: β = 1.19 ml/grade; score: OR = 1.75/grade) and cartilage defects (volume: β = 1.87 ml/grade; score: OR = 2.22/grade), while negatively associated with cartilage volume loss. Change in effusion-synovitis volume was positively correlated with changes in knee pain and stiffness scores (p effusion-synovitis, but effusion-synovitis did not predict knee structural changes. These findings suggest that synovial inflammation is likely the result of joint structural abnormalities in established OA. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01176344. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12610000495022.

  14. The associations between regional gray matter structural changes and changes of cognitive performance in control groups of intervention studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikaru eTakeuchi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In intervention studies of cognitive training, the challenging cognitive tests, which were used as outcome measures, are generally completed in more than a few hours. Here, utilizing the control groups’ data from three 1-week intervention studies in which young healthy adult subjects underwent a wide range of cognitive tests and T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI before and after the intervention period, we investigated how regional gray matter (GM density (rGMD of the subjects changed through voxel-based morphometry (VBM. Statistically significant increases in rGMD were observed in the anatomical cluster that mainly spread around the bilateral dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC and the right superior frontal gyrus (rSFG. Moreover, mean rGMD within this cluster changes were significantly and positively correlated with performance changes in the Stroop task, and tended to positively correlate with performance changes in a divergent thinking task. Affected regions are considered to be associated with performance monitoring (dACC and manipulation of the maintained information including generating associations (rSFG, and both are relevant to the cognitive functions measured in the cognitive tests. Thus, the results suggest that even in the groups of the typical control group in intervention studies including those of the passive one, experimental or non-experimental factors can result in an increase in the regional GM structure and form the association between such neural changes and improvements related to these cognitive tests. These results suggest caution toward the experimental study designs without control groups.

  15. Detecting Changes in Forest Structure over Time with Bi-Temporal Terrestrial Laser Scanning Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Melkas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Changes to stems caused by natural forces and timber harvesting constitute an essential input for many forestry-related applications and ecological studies, especially forestry inventories based on the use of permanent sample plots. Conventional field measurement is widely acknowledged as being time-consuming and labor-intensive. More automated and efficient alternatives or supportive methods are needed. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS has been demonstrated to be a promising method in forestry field inventories. Nevertheless, the applicability of TLS in recording changes in the structure of forest plots has not been studied in detail. This paper presents a fully automated method for detecting changes in forest structure over time using bi-temporal TLS data. The developed method was tested on five densely populated forest plots including 137 trees and 50 harvested trees in point clouds. The present study demonstrated that 90 percent of tree stem changes could be automatically located from single-scan TLS data. These changes accounted for 92 percent of the changed basal area. The results indicate that the processing of TLS data collected at different times to detect tree stem changes can be fully automated.

  16. Structural and morphological changes in P3HT thin film transistors applying an electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, Deepak Kumar; Grigorian, Souren; Pietsch, Ullrich [University of Siegen (Germany); Flesch, Heinz; Resel, Roland [University of Siegen (Germany); Graz University of Technology (Austria)

    2010-07-01

    We report on electric field dependent crystalline structure and morphological changes of drop casting and spin coated poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) thin films. In order to probe the morphological changes induced by an applied electric field the samples were covered with thin source/drain electrodes separated by a small channel of 2 mm width. A series of x-ray reflectivity, X-ray grazing incidence out-of-plane and in-plane scans have been performed as function of the applied electric voltage. The (100) peak shows a decrease in intensity with increase of the applied electric field. This might be caused by Joule heating and the creation of current induced defects in the P3HT film. On other hand the (020) peak intensity shows much stronger changes with applied field. Considering the *-* stacking direction the measured effect can be directly related to a change in the electric transport. The observed changes in structure are reversible and the current-voltage cycle can be repeated several times. For X-ray reflectivity major changes have been found close to critical angle of total external reflection indicating the film becomes less dense and increases in surface roughness with increase of the voltage. This change in surface behaviour could be confirmed by in-situ AFM measurements.

  17. Structural changes of DNA in heavy ion-induced mutants on Arabidopsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tano, S.; Shikazono, N.; Tanaka, A.; Yokota, Y.; Watanabe, H.

    1997-01-01

    In order to investigate the frequency of structural changes induced by high LET radiation in plants, a comparison was made between DNA fragments amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from C ion- and electron-induced Arabidopsis mutants at GL and TT loci. (orig./MG)

  18. Arterial stiffness and progression of structural brain changes The SMART-MR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jochemsen, H.M.; Muller, M.; Bots, M.L.; Scheltens, P.; Vincken, K.L.; Mali, W.P.T.M.; van der Graaf, Y.; Geerlings, M.I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine the cross-sectional and prospective associations between arterial stiffness and structural brain changes within the Second Manifestations of Arterial Disease-Magnetic Resonance (SMART-MR) study, a prospective cohort study among patients with manifest arterial disease. Methods:

  19. LANDIS PRO: a landscape model that predicts forest composition and structure changes at regional scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen J. Wang; Hong S. He; Jacob S. Fraser; Frank R. Thompson; Stephen R. Shifley; Martin A. Spetich

    2014-01-01

    LANDIS PRO predicts forest composition and structure changes incorporating species-, stand-, and landscape-scales processes at regional scales. Species-scale processes include tree growth, establishment, and mortality. Stand-scale processes contain density- and size-related resource competition that regulates self-thinning and seedling establishment. Landscapescale...

  20. Age-related changes of structures in cerebellar cortex of cat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We studied the structures of the cerebellar cortex of young adult and old cats for age-related changes, which were statistically analysed. Nissl staining was used to visualize the cortical neurons. The immunohistochemical method was used to display glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-immunoreactive (IR) astrocytes and ...

  1. Heat waves measured with MODIS land surface temperature data predict changes in avian community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas P. Albright; Anna M. Pidgeon; Chadwick D. Rittenhouse; Murray K. Clayton; Curtis H. Flather; Patrick D. Culbert; Volker C. Radeloff

    2011-01-01

    Heat waves are expected to become more frequent and severe as climate changes, with unknown consequences for biodiversity. We sought to identify ecologically-relevant broad-scale indicators of heat waves based on MODIS land surface temperature (LST) and interpolated air temperature data and assess their associations with avian community structure. Specifically, we...

  2. Experimental simulation techniques for the evaluation of structural changes in metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucki, Georgi

    1992-01-01

    In this work, high-doses irradiation in nuclear reactor were simulated using a cyclotron in order to study mechanical, electric, magnetic and structural changes in materials. Results of such simulations for portland cement, binary alloys and stainless steels are presented and discussed. 15 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  3. Ultrasound assessment for grading structural tendon changes in supraspinatus tendinopathy: an inter-rater reliability study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwersen, Kim Gordon; Hjarbæk, John; Eshøj, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the inter-rater reliability of measuring structural changes in the tendon of patients, clinically diagnosed with supraspinatus tendinopathy (cases) and healthy participants (controls), on ultrasound (US) images captured by standardised procedures. Methods A total of 40 participant...

  4. Watershed evapotranspiration increased due to changes in vegetation composition and structure under a subtropical climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Changqing Zuo; Shiyu Liu; Mingliang Liu; Steven G McNulty; James M. Vose

    2008-01-01

    Natural forests in southern China have been severely logged due to high human demand for timber, food, and fuels during the past century, but are recovering in the past decade. The objective of this study was to investigate how vegetation cover changes in composition and structure affected the water budgets of a 9.6-km2 Dakeng watershed located...

  5. Changes in microbial community structure following herbicide (glyphosate) additions to forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alice W. Ratcliff; Matt D. Busse; Carol J. Shestak

    2006-01-01

    Glyphosate applied at the recommended field rate to a clay loam and a sandy loam forest soil resulted in few changes in microbial community structure. Total and culturable bacteria, fungal hyphal length, bacterial:fungal biomass, carbon utilization profiles (BIOLOG), and bacterial and fungal phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) were unaffected 1, 3, 7, or 30 days...

  6. Responses of redwood soil microbial community structure and N transformations to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damon C. Bradbury; Mary K. Firestone

    2012-01-01

    Soil microorganisms perform critical ecosystem functions, including decomposition, nitrogen (N) mineralization and nitrification. Soil temperature and water availability can be critical determinants of the rates of these processes as well as microbial community composition and structure. This research examined how changes in climate affect bacterial and fungal...

  7. Bone structural changes in osteoarthritis as a result of mechanoregulated bone adaptation: a modeling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, L.G.E.; Rietbergen, van B.; Donkelaar, van C.C.; Ito, K.

    2011-01-01

    Objective There are strong indications that subchondral bone may play an important role in osteoarthritis (OA), making it an interesting target for medical therapies. The subchondral bone structure changes markedly during OA, and it has long been assumed that this occurs secondary to cartilage

  8. Structuring Cooperative Learning for Motivation and Conceptual Change in the Concepts of Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belge Can, Hatice; Boz, Yezdan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of structuring cooperative learning based on conceptual change approach on grade 9 students' understanding the concepts of mixtures and their motivation, compared with traditional instruction. Among six classes of a high school, two of them were randomly assigned to cooperative learning group where students were…

  9. Possibilities and problems for post-installed anchors used for changing concrete structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hordijk, D.A.

    1999-01-01

    From sustainability point of view extending the lifetime of a structure can be regarded as the best opportunity there is, when its no longer suitable for the purpose it was originally built for. For many dwellings built in an industrialised way during the 1960's the changed demands for residential

  10. Characterizing changes in soil bacterial community structure in response to short-term warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Jinbo [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing China; School of Marine Sciences, Ningbo University, Ningbo China; Sun, Huaibo [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing China; Peng, Fei [Key Laboratory of Desert and Desertification, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou China; Zhang, Huayong [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing China; Xue, Xian [Key Laboratory of Desert and Desertification, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou China; Gibbons, Sean M. [Argonne National Laboratory Biosciences Division, Argonne IL USA; Graduate Program in Biophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, Chicago IL USA; Gilbert, Jack A. [Argonne National Laboratory Biosciences Division, Argonne IL USA; Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Chicago, Chicago IL USA; Chu, Haiyan [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing China

    2014-02-18

    High altitude alpine meadows are experiencing considerably greater than average increases in soil surface temperature, potentially as a result of ongoing climate change. The effects of warming on plant productivity and soil edaphic variables have been established previously, but the influence of warming on soil microbial community structure has not been well characterized. Here, the impact of 15 months of soil warming (both + 1 and + 2 degrees C) on bacterial community structure was examined in a field experiment on a Tibetan plateau alpine meadow using bar-coded pyrosequencing. Warming significantly changed (P < 0.05) the structure of the soil bacterial community, but the alpha diversity was not dramatically affected. Changes in the abundance of the Actinobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria were found to contribute the most to differences between ambient (AT) and artificially warmed conditions. A variance partitioning analysis (VPA) showed that warming directly explained 7.15% variation in bacterial community structure, while warming-induced changes in soil edaphic and plant phenotypic properties indirectly accounted for 28.3% and 20.6% of the community variance, respectively. Interestingly, certain taxa showed an inconsistent response to the two warming treatments, for example Deltaproteobacteria showed a decreased relative abundance at + 1 degrees C, but a return to AT control relative abundance at + 2 degrees C. This suggests complex microbial dynamics that could result from conditional dependencies between bacterial taxa.

  11. Structural changes of organic solids caused by irradiation: raman study at very low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hase, Hirotomo; Ishioka, Kunie; Miyatake, Yoko.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we first describe a simple liquid helium cryostat and a device of making and mounting organic solid samples. We then present the Raman spectra for irradiated ethanol crystal that were obtained by using the new cryostat and demonstrate how the Raman method is useful for getting insight into structural changes of organic solids caused by irradiation. (J.P.N.)

  12. What Does Global Migration Network Say about Recent Changes in the World System Structure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinkina, Julia; Korotayev, Andrey

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to investigate whether the structure of the international migration system has remained stable through the recent turbulent changes in the world system. Design/methodology/approach: The methodology draws on the social network analysis framework--but with some noteworthy limitations stipulated by the specifics of…

  13. Change of structure and some mechanical properties during processing of AlMn(Fe,Si) alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs-Csetenyi, E.; Griger, A.; Turmezey, T.; Suchanek, V.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the change of structure and some mechanical properties during processing of AlMn(Fe,Si) alloys. An emphasis was given to the effect of Fe and Si on the properties measured in deformed and annealed states, because of its technological importance

  14. PRINCIPLES OF MARKET ECONOMY AND STRUCTURAL CHANGES IN THE RUSSIAN INSTRUMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Voronina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with result analysis of incoming of native instrument making into market economy. Reasons of dramatically worsening of many of enterprises condition and factors that are putting obstacles to its improvement are shown. Also variants of competiveness increasing ofRussian instruments are considered taking in account possible structure changes in its sphere.

  15. Mercy Mission and Transformative Change: Evaluation of a Revised Governance Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affenito, Sandra G.; Artz, Judy; Carlson, Vivian

    2014-01-01

    The University of St. Joseph, a Mercy institution, was founded during the Great Depression to provide women a gateway to higher education for careers in fields that would serve the well-being of society. Recently, the institution has undergone changes to modernize its organizational structure. Consistent with its commitment to educate people of…

  16. Structural changes of DNA in heavy ion-induced mutants on Arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tano, S; Shikazono, N; Tanaka, A; Yokota, Y; Watanabe, H [Japan Atomic Research Research Inst., Watanuki, Takasaki (Japan). Advanced Science Research Center

    1997-09-01

    In order to investigate the frequency of structural changes induced by high LET radiation in plants, a comparison was made between DNA fragments amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from C ion- and electron-induced Arabidopsis mutants at GL and TT loci. (orig./MG)

  17. Utilizing High Pressure Processing to Induce Structural Changes in Dairy and Meat Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlien, Vibeke

    2017-01-01

    High pressure (HP) is capable of modifying the functional properties of milk and meat proteins by pressure-induced changes of the molecular structure. Therefore, HP treatment of milk and meat has been extensively investigated to understand, clarify, and utilize HP processing in the food industry....

  18. The Social Consequences of Postcommunist Structural Change: An Analysis of Suicide Trends in Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minagawa, Yuka

    2013-01-01

    Guided by Durkheim's classic theory of suicide, this article examines suicide trends and determinants in Eastern European countries for the period of 1989-2006, with particular attention given to the association between postcommunist social change and suicide mortality. I find that countries characterized by more drastic structural change…

  19. A Self-Ethnographic Investigation of Continuing Education Program in Engineering Arising from Economic Structural Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaihlavirta, Auri; Isomöttönen, Ville; Kärkkäinen, Tommi

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a self-ethnographic investigation of a continuing education program in engineering in Central Finland. The program was initiated as a response to local economic structural change, in order to offer re-education possibilities for a higher educated workforce currently under unemployment threat. We encountered considerable…

  20. Structural joint changes, malalignment, and laxity in osteoarthritis of the knee

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Esch, M.; Steultjens, M.; Wieringa, H.; Dinant, H.; Dekker, J.

    2005-01-01

    To assess the relationship between (i) structural joint changes (i.e. joint space narrowing and osteophyte formation) and laxity and (ii) joint malalignment and laxity in osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 35 outpatients with osteoarthritis of the knee.

  1. Agents of Structural Change : The Role of Firms and Entrepreneurs in Regional Diversification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neffke, Frank; Hartog, Matté; Boschma, Ron; Henning, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Who introduces structural change in regional economies: Entrepreneurs or existing firms? And do local or nonlocal establishment founders create most novelty in a region? We develop a theoretical framework that focuses on the roles different agents play in regional transformation. We then apply this

  2. Effect of Temperature Change on Geometric Structure of Isolated Mixing Regions in Stirred Vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Hanizah Shahirudin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work experimentally investigated the effect of temperature change on the geometric structure of isolated mixing regions (IMRs in a stirred vessel by the decolorization of fluorescent green dye by acid-base neutralization. A four-bladed Rushton turbine was installed in an unbaffled stirred vessel filled with glycerin as a working fluid. The temperature of working fluid was changed in a stepwise manner from 30°C to a certain fixed value by changing the temperature of the water jacket that the vessel was equipped with. The step temperature change can dramatically reduce the elimination time of IMRs, as compared with a steady temperature operation. During the transient process from an initial state to disappearance of IMR, the IMR showed interesting three-dimensional geometrical changes, that are, simple torus with single filament, simple torus without filaments, a combination of crescent shape and circular tori, and doubly entangled torus.

  3. Application of X-ray phase-contrast tomography in quantative studies of heat induced structural changes in meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miklos, R.; Nielsen, M. S.; Einarsdottir, Hildur

    2013-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography is increasingly used in the studies of food structure. This paper describes the perspectives of use of phase contrast computed tomography in studies of heat induced structural changes in meat. From the data it was possible to obtain reconstructed images of the sample...... structure for visualization and qualitative studies of the sample structure. Further data segmentation allowed structural changes to be quantified....

  4. Climate change and the macroeconomic structure in pre-industrial europe: new evidence from wavelet analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Qing; Zhang, David D; Li, Guodong; Lee, Harry F

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between climate change and the macroeconomy in pre-industrial Europe has attracted considerable attention in recent years. This study follows the combined paradigms of evolutionary economics and ecological economics, in which wavelet analysis (spectrum analysis and coherence analysis) is applied as the first attempt to examine the relationship between climate change and the macroeconomic structure in pre-industrial Europe in the frequency domain. Aside from confirming previous results, this study aims to further substantiate the association between climate change and macroeconomy by presenting new evidence obtained from the wavelet analysis. Our spectrum analysis shows a consistent and continuous frequency band of 60-80 years in the temperature, grain yield ratio, grain price, consumer price index, and real wage throughout the study period. Besides, coherence analysis shows that the macroeconomic structure is shaped more by climate change than population change. In addition, temperature is proven as a key climatic factor that influences the macroeconomic structure. The analysis reveals a unique frequency band of about 20 years (15-35 years) in the temperature in AD1600-1700, which could have contributed to the widespread economic crisis in pre-industrial Europe. Our findings may have indications in re-examining the Malthusian theory.

  5. Behavioral correlates of changes in hippocampal gray matter structure during acquisition of foreign vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellander, Martin; Berggren, Rasmus; Mårtensson, Johan; Brehmer, Yvonne; Wenger, Elisabeth; Li, Tie-Qiang; Bodammer, Nils C; Shing, Yee-Lee; Werkle-Bergner, Markus; Lövdén, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Experience can affect human gray matter volume. The behavioral correlates of individual differences in such brain changes are not well understood. In a group of Swedish individuals studying Italian as a foreign language, we investigated associations among time spent studying, acquired vocabulary, baseline performance on memory tasks, and gray matter changes. As a way of studying episodic memory training, the language learning focused on acquiring foreign vocabulary and lasted for 10weeks. T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging and cognitive testing were performed before and after the studies. Learning behavior was monitored via participants' use of a smartphone application dedicated to the study of vocabulary. A whole-brain analysis showed larger changes in gray matter structure of the right hippocampus in the experimental group (N=33) compared to an active control group (N=23). A first path analyses revealed that time spent studying rather than acquired knowledge significantly predicted change in gray matter structure. However, this association was not significant when adding performance on baseline memory measures into the model, instead only the participants' performance on a short-term memory task with highly similar distractors predicted the change. This measure may tap similar individual difference factors as those involved in gray matter plasticity of the hippocampus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Alternative approaches used to assess structural changes of natural zircon caused by heat treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, L. T. T.; Thuyet, N. T. M.; Phan, T. L.; Tran, N.; Toan, D. N.; Thang, P. D.; Huy, B. T.

    2018-03-01

    It is known that large changes in the crystal structure of zircon (ZrSiO4) can be assessed through the linewidth of the characteristic Raman mode (Δν3) at 1008 cm-1. However, the use of Δν3 to assess small changes caused by heat treatment at temperatures below its decomposition temperature of 1670 °C is difficult. The present work points out that the combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses, and photoluminescence (PL) and Raman (RS) measurements with different excitation wavelengths is an effective approach to solve the above problem. In this context, we have selected natural zircon containing some rare-earth (RE) impurities, and then studied the changes in its crystal structure caused by heat treatment at temperatures Tan=400-1600 °C. XRD analyses reveal that small modifications of the unit-cell parameters occur as Tan>600 °C. Taking the intensity ratios of the ν3 mode to RE-related emissions (Iν3/IRE) or the PL intensity ratios between RE-related emissions into consideration, the similar results in good agreement with the XRD analyses are also found. We believe that the small structural changes are related to the migration and redistribution of defects and impurities, and re-crystallization of zircon. This could be further confirmed though the relation between paramagnetic and ferromagnetic signals when Tan changes.

  7. The effects of demographic change on disease transmission and vaccine impact in a household structured population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geard, Nicholas; Glass, Kathryn; McCaw, James M; McBryde, Emma S; Korb, Kevin B; Keeling, Matt J; McVernon, Jodie

    2015-12-01

    The demographic structure of populations in both more developed and less developed countries is changing: increases in life expectancy and declining fertility have led to older populations and smaller households. The implications of these demographic changes for the spread and control of infectious diseases are not fully understood. Here we use an individual based model with realistic and dynamic age and household structure to demonstrate the marked effect that demographic change has on disease transmission at the population and household level. The decline in fertility is associated with a decrease in disease incidence and an increase in the age of first infection, even in the absence of vaccination or other control measures. Although large households become rarer as fertility decreases, we show that there is a proportionate increase in incidence of disease in these households as the accumulation of susceptible clusters increases the potential for explosive outbreaks. By modelling vaccination, we provide a direct comparison of the relative importance of demographic change and vaccination on incidence of disease. We highlight the increased risks associated with unvaccinated households in a low fertility setting if vaccine behaviour is correlated with household membership. We suggest that models that do not account for future demographic change, and especially its effect on household structure, may potentially overestimate the impact of vaccination. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Early grey matter changes in structural covariance networks in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppen, Emma M; van der Grond, Jeroen; Hafkemeijer, Anne; Rombouts, Serge A R B; Roos, Raymund A C

    2016-01-01

    Progressive subcortical changes are known to occur in Huntington's disease (HD), a hereditary neurodegenerative disorder. Less is known about the occurrence and cohesion of whole brain grey matter changes in HD. We aimed to detect network integrity changes in grey matter structural covariance networks and examined relationships with clinical assessments. Structural magnetic resonance imaging data of premanifest HD ( n  = 30), HD patients (n = 30) and controls (n = 30) was used to identify ten structural covariance networks based on a novel technique using the co-variation of grey matter with independent component analysis in FSL. Group differences were studied controlling for age and gender. To explore whether our approach is effective in examining grey matter changes, regional voxel-based analysis was additionally performed. Premanifest HD and HD patients showed decreased network integrity in two networks compared to controls. One network included the caudate nucleus, precuneous and anterior cingulate cortex (in HD p  covariance might be a sensitive approach to reveal early grey matter changes, especially for premanifest HD.

  9. Structural changes of TasA in biofilm formation of Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Anne; Roske, Yvette; Ball, Linda; Chowdhury, Anup; Hiller, Matthias; Molière, Noel; Kramer, Regina; Stöppler, Daniel; Worth, Catherine L; Schlegel, Brigitte; Leidert, Martina; Cremer, Nils; Erdmann, Natalja; Lopez, Daniel; Stephanowitz, Heike; Krause, Eberhard; van Rossum, Barth-Jan; Schmieder, Peter; Heinemann, Udo; Turgay, Kürşad; Akbey, Ümit; Oschkinat, Hartmut

    2018-03-27

    Microorganisms form surface-attached communities, termed biofilms, which can serve as protection against host immune reactions or antibiotics. Bacillus subtilis biofilms contain TasA as major proteinaceous component in addition to exopolysaccharides. In stark contrast to the initially unfolded biofilm proteins of other bacteria, TasA is a soluble, stably folded monomer, whose structure we have determined by X-ray crystallography. Subsequently, we characterized in vitro different oligomeric forms of TasA by NMR, EM, X-ray diffraction, and analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) experiments. However, by magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR on live biofilms, a swift structural change toward only one of these forms, consisting of homogeneous and protease-resistant, β-sheet-rich fibrils, was observed in vivo. Thereby, we characterize a structural change from a globular state to a fibrillar form in a functional prokaryotic system on the molecular level. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  10. Mechanical Spectroscopy: Some Applications On Structural Changes And Relaxation Dynamics In Soft Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Xuebang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The general trend in soft matter is to study systems of increasing complexity covering a wide range in time and frequency. Mechanical spectroscopy is a powerful tool for understanding the structure and relaxation dynamics of these materials over a large temperature range and frequency scale. In this work, we collect a few recent applications using low-frequency mechanical spectroscopy for elucidating the structural changes and relaxation dynamics in soft matter, largely based on the author’s group. We illustrate the potential of mechanical spectroscopy with three kinds of soft materials: colloids, polymers and granular systems. Examples include structural changes in colloids, segmental relaxations in amorphous polymers, and resonant dissipation of grain chains in three-dimensional media. The present work shows that mechanical spectroscopy has been applied as a necessary and complementary tool to study the dynamics of such complex systems.

  11. Prediction of pressure induced structural phase transitions and internal mode frequency changes in solid N2+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etters, R.D.; Kobashi, K.; Chandrasekharan, V.

    1983-01-01

    A rhombohedral distortion of the Pm3n structure is introduced which shows that a low temperature phase transition occurs from P4 2 /mnm into the R3c calcite structure at P approx. = 19.2 kbar with a volume change of 0.125 cm 3 /mole. This transition agrees with recent Raman scattering measurements. Another transition from R3c into R3m is predicted at P approx. = 67.5 kbar, with a volume change of 0.1 cm 3 /mole. The pressure dependence of the intramolecular mode frequencies for the R3c structure is in reasonably good agreement with the two main branches observed experimentally

  12. Changes in molecular structure and properties of irradiated polymers of different compositions - ESR and NMR study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carswell-Pomerantz, T.; Babanalbandi, A.; Dong, L.; Hill, D.J.T.; Perera, M.C.S.; Pomery, P.J.; Saadat, G.; Whittaker, A.K.

    1999-01-01

    Investigations of molecular structural changes in polymers during exposure to high energy radiation is the long term interest of the Polymer Materials and Radiation Group at the University of Queensland. Recently, the group had looked at a range of polymers including natural and synthetic rubbers, methacrylates and polyesters. The objective of the work has been to investigate the relationships between polymer structure and sensitivity towards high energy radiation, including gamma radiation. This report will focus on the Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) studies of the effects of gamma irradiation on these polymers. Other methods such as Gas Chromatography (GC), Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC), Fourier Transformed Infra Red (FTIR), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) have also been used as these methods combine with ESR and NMR, to provide a more complete picture of the mechanism of the structural changes. (author)

  13. Parametric imaging of collagen structural changes in human osteoarthritic cartilage using optical polarization tractography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravanfar, Mohammadreza; Pfeiffer, Ferris M.; Bozynski, Chantelle C.; Wang, Yuanbo; Yao, Gang

    2017-12-01

    Collagen degeneration is an important pathological feature of osteoarthritis. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PSOCT)-based optical polarization tractography (OPT) can be useful in imaging collagen structural changes in human osteoarthritic cartilage samples. OPT eliminated the banding artifacts in conventional PSOCT by calculating the depth-resolved local birefringence and fiber orientation. A close comparison between OPT and PSOCT showed that OPT provided improved visualization and characterization of the zonal structure in human cartilage. Experimental results obtained in this study also underlined the importance of knowing the collagen fiber orientation in conventional polarized light microscopy assessment. In addition, parametric OPT imaging was achieved by quantifying the surface roughness, birefringence, and fiber dispersion in the superficial zone of the cartilage. These quantitative parametric images provided complementary information on the structural changes in cartilage, which can be useful for a comprehensive evaluation of collagen damage in osteoarthritic cartilage.

  14. Structural changes of cotton seeds due to fast neurons-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osiris, W G [Biophysics Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza, (Egypt)

    1997-12-31

    The effect of irradiation with different fast neutron fluences in the range 10{sub 5}- 10{sub 8} n/cm{sup 2} were studied on one egyptian cotton seeds (Dandara, Giza 31). Both pre-and post-irradiated seeds were implanted and the effects of fast neutrons on the first generation were investigated through the use of: X-ray fluorescence analysis, infrared spectral,combustion technique, analysis as well as scanning electron microscopy. The changes in cellulose and heme cellulose contents in the seeds relative to the unirradiated one were also detected. From the obtained results,it was found that significant structural changes are indicated which may be attributed to the variation in the internal mechanisms that occurred by the radiation effect on thr structure of seeds. In conclusion, irradiation with fast neutrons may cause genetic changes in seeds. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Fluorescent eosin probe in investigations of structural changes in glycated proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravdin, A. B.; Kochubey, V. I.; Mel'Nikov, A. G.

    2010-08-01

    The possibility of using the luminescent-kinetic probe method to investigate structural changes in bovine serum albumin (BSA) upon nonenzymatic thermal glycation is studied. An increase in the glycation time lead to a decrease in the intensity of the probe (eosin) fluorescence and to a long-wavelength shift of its maximum, as well as to an increase in the eosin phosphorescence intensity, which indicates that eosin binds to hydrophobic regions of protein at any times of incubation of BSA with glucose. From a decrease in the rate constant of the triplet-triplet energy transfer between the donor (eosin) and acceptor (anthracene) bound to proteins, it is found that the changes observed in the spectral characteristics of eosin are caused by structural changes in albumin globules as a result of glycosylation.

  16. Structural Changes of the Macula on Optical Coherence Tomography after Vitrectomy for Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Jong Chan; Kim, Jong Ho; Park, Dong Ho; Shin, Jae Pil

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between macular structural changes and visual prognosis after pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for proliferative diabetic retinopathy. The study included 60 eyes that had undergone PPV. Macular optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings were classified into 5 groups preoperatively and 10 groups postoperatively. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were analyzed according to pre- and postoperative OCT. From the preoperative OCT, normal fovea with/without traction, normal fovea with preretinal hemorrhage, and tractional retinal detachment involving fovea showed an increase in BCVA after PPV (all p 20/50). Subfoveal fibrosis, macular hole, loss of foveal depression, and serous foveal detachment showed poor visual prognosis (BCVA <20/100). Macular structural changes were various after PPV, and visual prognosis correlated with these changes. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. ABOUT THE SECTORAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL STRUCTURAL CHANGES NECESSARY FOR THE MODERNIZATION OF THE RUSSIAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Akaeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effect of industry technological and structural changes on economic growth. It uses quantitative methods of structural changes evaluation by way of the Vatnik's proportionality constant as a means to analyze the dynamics of quality of sectoral and technological structures of the economies of Russia and several OECD countries. The comparative analysis shows that both the sectoral and technological structure of Russian economy is far from the optimal balanced structure of the OECD most developed countries' economies. It follows that Russian economy needs fundamental structural reform.Hence, the paper discusses the need for active industrial policy that can give impetus to the technological modernization of the Russian economy and facilitate its transition to the path of sustainable dynamic growth. The metallurgical, chemical and pharmaceutical industries are identified as priority sectors in industrial manufacturing. The paper analyzes condition and prospects of these industries and formulates medium-term goals of development and modernization, which can become reference points in the formation of a new sector-based industrial policy.

  18. Approaches to evaluation of changes in capital structure in industrial branches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Landa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Capital structure is described as a relation between equity and debts while the mutual consequences among items of company’s assets and resources employed as well as the cost of capital are also taken into account. Both, the theory and practice, at evaluation of approaches to capital structure are focu­sed on creation and optimization of capital structure. Relatively less frequent approach is the analy­sis of a state and of changes in capital structure on the level of whole business branch. But on this basis, it is possible to investigate some “average” approaches to selection of financial resources. At ca­pi­tal structure optimization (the proportion between equity and debts, a wide range of criteria plays a substantial role, e.g. cost of capital, risk, expected profitability, liquidity, dividend policy. These criteria have joint effect. This way, a logic question which criteria are preferred more and which criteria are preferred less appears. The article deals with the analysis of capital structure of three branches of manufacturing industry (the branch of production of plastics, the branch of production of electric equipments, the branch of production of textile in the years 2007–2009 with the special focus on development of financial structure, capital structure and on cost of capital.

  19. Change Analysis in Structural Laser Scanning Point Clouds: The Baseline Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yueqian; Lindenbergh, Roderik; Wang, Jinhu

    2016-12-24

    A method is introduced for detecting changes from point clouds that avoids registration. For many applications, changes are detected between two scans of the same scene obtained at different times. Traditionally, these scans are aligned to a common coordinate system having the disadvantage that this registration step introduces additional errors. In addition, registration requires stable targets or features. To avoid these issues, we propose a change detection method based on so-called baselines. Baselines connect feature points within one scan. To analyze changes, baselines connecting corresponding points in two scans are compared. As feature points either targets or virtual points corresponding to some reconstructable feature in the scene are used. The new method is implemented on two scans sampling a masonry laboratory building before and after seismic testing, that resulted in damages in the order of several centimeters. The centres of the bricks of the laboratory building are automatically extracted to serve as virtual points. Baselines connecting virtual points and/or target points are extracted and compared with respect to a suitable structural coordinate system. Changes detected from the baseline analysis are compared to a traditional cloud to cloud change analysis demonstrating the potential of the new method for structural analysis.

  20. Change Analysis in Structural Laser Scanning Point Clouds: The Baseline Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueqian Shen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A method is introduced for detecting changes from point clouds that avoids registration. For many applications, changes are detected between two scans of the same scene obtained at different times. Traditionally, these scans are aligned to a common coordinate system having the disadvantage that this registration step introduces additional errors. In addition, registration requires stable targets or features. To avoid these issues, we propose a change detection method based on so-called baselines. Baselines connect feature points within one scan. To analyze changes, baselines connecting corresponding points in two scans are compared. As feature points either targets or virtual points corresponding to some reconstructable feature in the scene are used. The new method is implemented on two scans sampling a masonry laboratory building before and after seismic testing, that resulted in damages in the order of several centimeters. The centres of the bricks of the laboratory building are automatically extracted to serve as virtual points. Baselines connecting virtual points and/or target points are extracted and compared with respect to a suitable structural coordinate system. Changes detected from the baseline analysis are compared to a traditional cloud to cloud change analysis demonstrating the potential of the new method for structural analysis.

  1. Using the SRQ–20 Factor Structure to Examine Changes in Mental Distress Following Typhoon Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Kelcey J.; Richardson, Lisa K.; Tran, Trinh Luong; Tam, Nguyen Thanh; Aggen, Steven H.; Berenz, Erin C.; Trung, Lam Tu; Tuan, Tran; Buoi, La Thi; Ha, Tran Thu; Thach, Tran Duc; Amstadter, Ananda B.

    2014-01-01

    Empirical research is limited regarding postdisaster assessment of distress in developing nations. This study aimed to evaluate the factor structure of the 20-item Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ–20) before and after an acute trauma, Typhoon Xangsane, in order to examine changes in mental health symptoms in an epidemiologic sample of Vietnamese adults. The study examined a model estimating individual item factor loadings, thresholds, and a latent change factor for the SRQ–20's single “general distress” common factor. The covariates of sex, age, and severity of typhoon exposure were used to evaluate the disaster-induced changes in SRQ–20 scores while accounting for possible differences in the relationship between individual measurement scale items and the latent mental health construct. Evidence for measurement noninvariance was found. However, allowing sex and age effects on the pre-typhoon and post-typhoon factors accounted for much of the noninvariance in the SRQ–20 measurement structure. A test of no latent change failed, indicating that the SRQ–20 detected significant individual differences in distress between pre- and post-typhoon assessment. Conditioning on age and sex, several typhoon exposure variables differentially predicted levels of distress change, including evacuation, personal injury, and peri-event fear. On average, females and older individuals reported higher levels of distress than males and younger individuals, respectively. The SRQ–20 is a valid and reasonably stable instrument that may be used in postdisaster contexts to assess emotional distress and individual changes in mental health symptoms. PMID:24512425

  2. Arsenic induces structural and compositional colonic microbiome change and promotes host nitrogen and amino acid metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dheer, Rishu; Patterson, Jena; Dudash, Mark; Stachler, Elyse N.; Bibby, Kyle J.; Stolz, Donna B.; Shiva, Sruti; Wang, Zeneng; Hazen, Stanley L.; Barchowsky, Aaron; Stolz, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic exposure to arsenic in drinking water causes cancer and non-cancer diseases. However, mechanisms for chronic arsenic-induced pathogenesis, especially in response to lower exposure levels, are unclear. In addition, the importance of health impacts from xeniobiotic-promoted microbiome changes is just being realized and effects of arsenic on the microbiome with relation to disease promotion are unknown. To investigate impact of arsenic exposure on both microbiome and host metabolism, the stucture and composition of colonic microbiota, their metabolic phenotype, and host tissue and plasma metabolite levels were compared in mice exposed for 2, 5, or 10 weeks to 0, 10 (low) or 250 (high) ppb arsenite (As(III)). Genotyping of colonic bacteria revealed time and arsenic concentration dependent shifts in community composition, particularly the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, relative to those seen in the time-matched controls. Arsenic-induced erosion of bacterial biofilms adjacent to the mucosal lining and changes in the diversity and abundance of morphologically distinct species indicated changes in microbial community structure. Bacterical spores increased in abundance and intracellular inclusions decreased with high dose arsenic. Interestingly, expression of arsenate reductase (arsA) and the As(III) exporter arsB, remained unchanged, while the dissimilatory nitrite reductase (nrfA) gene expression increased. In keeping with the change in nitrogen metabolism, colonic and liver nitrite and nitrate levels and ratios changed with time. In addition, there was a concomitant increase in pathogenic arginine metabolites in the mouse circulation. These data suggest that arsenic exposure impacts the microbiome and microbiome/host nitrogen metabolism to support disease enhancing pathogenic phenotypes. - Highlights: • Arsenic exposure induces changes in host and host nitrogen metabolism that cause progresive change in the microbiome. • A polyphasic approach reveals changes

  3. Arsenic induces structural and compositional colonic microbiome change and promotes host nitrogen and amino acid metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dheer, Rishu; Patterson, Jena; Dudash, Mark [Department of Biological Sciences, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA 15282 (United States); Stachler, Elyse N.; Bibby, Kyle J. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Pittsburgh Swanson School of Engineering, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Stolz, Donna B. [Department of Cell Biology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Shiva, Sruti [Department of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh 15261 (United States); Vascular Medicine Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh 15261 (United States); Wang, Zeneng; Hazen, Stanley L. [Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Cleveland Clinic Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland, OH 44195 (United States); Barchowsky, Aaron, E-mail: aab20@pitt.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh 15261 (United States); Vascular Medicine Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh 15261 (United States); Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, PA 15219 (United States); Stolz, John F. [Department of Biological Sciences, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA 15282 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Chronic exposure to arsenic in drinking water causes cancer and non-cancer diseases. However, mechanisms for chronic arsenic-induced pathogenesis, especially in response to lower exposure levels, are unclear. In addition, the importance of health impacts from xeniobiotic-promoted microbiome changes is just being realized and effects of arsenic on the microbiome with relation to disease promotion are unknown. To investigate impact of arsenic exposure on both microbiome and host metabolism, the stucture and composition of colonic microbiota, their metabolic phenotype, and host tissue and plasma metabolite levels were compared in mice exposed for 2, 5, or 10 weeks to 0, 10 (low) or 250 (high) ppb arsenite (As(III)). Genotyping of colonic bacteria revealed time and arsenic concentration dependent shifts in community composition, particularly the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, relative to those seen in the time-matched controls. Arsenic-induced erosion of bacterial biofilms adjacent to the mucosal lining and changes in the diversity and abundance of morphologically distinct species indicated changes in microbial community structure. Bacterical spores increased in abundance and intracellular inclusions decreased with high dose arsenic. Interestingly, expression of arsenate reductase (arsA) and the As(III) exporter arsB, remained unchanged, while the dissimilatory nitrite reductase (nrfA) gene expression increased. In keeping with the change in nitrogen metabolism, colonic and liver nitrite and nitrate levels and ratios changed with time. In addition, there was a concomitant increase in pathogenic arginine metabolites in the mouse circulation. These data suggest that arsenic exposure impacts the microbiome and microbiome/host nitrogen metabolism to support disease enhancing pathogenic phenotypes. - Highlights: • Arsenic exposure induces changes in host and host nitrogen metabolism that cause progresive change in the microbiome. • A polyphasic approach reveals changes

  4. Taking Stock: Five Years of Structural Change in Boston's Public Schools. A Boston Indicators Project Special Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEnroe, Ted

    2014-01-01

    While structural reform has certainly inspired change in Boston's public schools, its true value is best measured by examining the impact those changes have had on students. Seen through the lens of student performance over the past five years there is ample suggestion that these structural changes have been more than just window dressing--they…

  5. Evaluating Structural Change Approaches to Health Promotion: An Exploratory Scoping Review of a Decade of U.S. Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Yuka; Lieberman, Lisa D.; Neubauer, Leah C.; Hanneke, Rosie; Fagen, Michael C.

    2018-01-01

    Structural change approaches--also known as policy and environmental changes--are becoming increasingly common in health promotion, yet our understanding of how to evaluate them is still limited. An exploratory scoping review of the literature was conducted to understand approaches and methods used to evaluate structural change interventions in…

  6. Changes in the chemical structure of polytetrafluoroethylene induced by electron beam irradiation in the molten state

    CERN Document Server

    Lappan, U; Lunkwitz, K

    2000-01-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) was exposed to electron beam radiation at elevated temperature above the melting point under nitrogen atmosphere and in vacuum for comparison. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to study the changes in the chemical structure. The irradiation under nitrogen atmosphere leads to the same structures as described recently for PTFE irradiated in vacuum. Trifluoromethyl branches and double bond structures were detected. The concentrations of terminal and internal double bonds are higher after irradiation under nitrogen than in vacuum. Annealing experiments have shown that the thermal oxidative stability of the radiation-modified PTFE is reduced compared to unirradiated PTFE. The reason are the formation of unstable structures such as double bonds.

  7. Effect of mechanical activation on structure changes and reactivity in further chemical modification of lignin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaohong; Zhang, Yanjuan; Hu, Huayu; Huang, Zuqiang; Yang, Mei; Chen, Dong; Huang, Kai; Huang, Aimin; Qin, Xingzhen; Feng, Zhenfei

    2016-10-01

    Lignin was treated by mechanical activation (MA) in a customized stirring ball mill, and the structure and reactivity in further esterification were studied. The chemical structure and morphology of MA-treated lignin and the esterified products were analyzed by chemical analysis combined with UV/vis spectrometer, FTIR,NMR, SEM and particle size analyzer. The results showed that MA contributed to the increase of aliphatic hydroxyl, phenolic hydroxyl, carbonyl and carboxyl groups but the decrease of methoxyl groups. Moreover, MA led to the decrease of particle size and the increase of specific surface area and roughness of surface in lignin. The reactivity of lignin was enhanced significantly for the increase of hydroxyl content and the improvement of mass transfer in chemical reaction caused by the changes of molecular structure and morphological structure. The process of MA is green and simple, and is an effective method for enhancing the reactivity of lignin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Structural change of the economy, technological progress and long-term energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinge Jacobsen, H.

    2000-01-01

    The material included in the report is a collection of papers dealing with different issues related to the topics included in the title. Some of these papers have already either been published or presented at various conferences. Together with a general introduction, they constitute the author's PhD dissertation. The dissertation includes six papers and two shorter notes on different aspects of structural change of the economy and energy demand. Three different issues related to long-term energy demand are discussed: (1) the importance of technological change and its representation in energy-economy modelling, (2) an integration of two different modelling approaches, and (3) the effect on energy demand of structural changes exemplified by changes in the energy supply sector and in Danish trade patterns. The report highlights a few aspects of the interaction between structural economic changes and energy demand, but it does not intend to cover a wide range of issues related to these topics. In the introductory chapter some discussions and thoughts about issues not covered by the articles are brought forward. The introductory chapter includes an overview of possible relations between longterm energy demand and the economy, technical progress demography, social conditions and politics. The first two papers discuss the importance for projections of long-term energy demand of the way in which technological progress is modelled. These papers focus on energy-economy modelling. A paper dealing with two different approaches to energy demand modelling and the possible integration of these approaches in the Danish case follows next. The integrated Danish model, is then used for analysing different revenue recycling principles in relation to a CO 2 tax. The effect of subsidising biomass use is compared with recycling through corporate tax rates. Then a paper follows describing the structural change of a specific sector, namely the energy supply sector, and the implications for

  9. MOLECULAR MODELING INDICATES THAT HOMOCYSTEINE INDUCES CONFORMATIONAL CHANGES IN THE STRUCTURE OF PUTATIVE TARGET PROTEINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumnam Silla

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An elevated level of homocysteine, a reactive thiol containing amino acid is associated with a multitude of complex diseases. A majority (>80% of homocysteine in circulation is bound to protein cysteine residues. Although, till date only 21 proteins have been experimentally shown to bind with homocysteine, using an insilico approach we had earlier identified several potential target proteins that could bind with homocysteine. Shomocysteinylation of proteins could potentially alter the structure and/or function of the protein. Earlier studies have shown that binding of homocysteine to protein alters its function. However, the effect of homocysteine on the target protein structure has not yet been documented. In the present work, we assess conformational or structural changes if any due to protein homocysteinylation using two proteins, granzyme B (GRAB and junctional adhesion molecule 1 (JAM1, which could potentially bind to homocysteine. We, for the first time, constructed computational models of homocysteine bound to target proteins and monitored their structural changes using explicit solvent molecular dynamic (MD simulation. Analysis of homocysteine bound trajectories revealed higher flexibility of the active site residues and local structural perturbations compared to the unbound native structure’s simulation, which could affect the stability of the protein. In addition, secondary structure analysis of homocysteine bound trajectories also revealed disappearance of â-helix within the G-helix and linker region that connects between the domain regions (as defined in the crystal structure. Our study thus captures the conformational transitions induced by homocysteine and we suggest these structural alterations might have implications for hyperhomocysteinemia induced pathologies.

  10. Green roof soil system affected by soil structural changes: A project initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelínková, Vladimíra; Dohnal, Michal; Šácha, Jan; Šebestová, Jana; Sněhota, Michal

    2014-05-01

    Anthropogenic soil systems and structures such as green roofs, permeable or grassed pavements comprise appreciable part of the urban watersheds and are considered to be beneficial regarding to numerous aspects (e.g. carbon dioxide cycle, microclimate, reducing solar absorbance and storm water). Expected performance of these systems is significantly affected by water and heat regimes that are primarily defined by technology and materials used for system construction, local climate condition, amount of precipitation, the orientation and type of the vegetation cover. The benefits and potencies of anthropogenic soil systems could be considerably threatened in case when exposed to structural changes of thin top soil layer in time. Extensive green roof together with experimental green roof segment was established and advanced automated monitoring system of micrometeorological variables was set-up at the experimental site of University Centre for Energy Efficient Buildings as an interdisciplinary research facility of the Czech Technical University in Prague. The key objectives of the project are (i) to characterize hydraulic and thermal properties of soil substrate studied, (ii) to establish seasonal dynamics of water and heat in selected soil systems from continuous monitoring of relevant variables, (iii) to detect structural changes with the use of X-ray Computed Tomography, (iv) to identify with the help of numerical modeling and acquired datasets how water and heat dynamics in anthropogenic soil systems are affected by soil structural changes. Achievements of the objectives will advance understanding of the anthropogenic soil systems behavior in conurbations with the temperate climate.

  11. Influence of Weaving Loom Setting Parameters on Changes of Woven Fabric Structure and Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aušra ADOMAITIENĖ

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available During the manufacturing of fabric of different raw material there was noticed, that after removing the fabric from weaving loom and after stabilization of fabric structure, the changes of parameters of fabric structure are not regular. During this investigation it was analysed, how weaving loom technological parameters (heald cross moment and initial tension of warp should be chosen and how to predict the changes of fabric structure parameters and its mechanical properties. The dependencies of changes of half-wool fabric structure parameters (weft setting, fabric thickness and projections of fabric cross-section and mechanical properties (breaking force, elongation at break, static friction force and static friction coefficient on weaving loom setting parameters (heald cross moment and initial warp tension were analysed. The orthogonal Box plan of two factors was used, the 3-D dependencies were drawn, and empirical equations of these dependencies were established.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.4.780

  12. [Morphochemical changes in the substantia nigra cellular structures in Parkinson's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salkov, V N; Khudoerkov, R M; Voronkov, D N; Sobolev, V B; Kutukova, K A

    to clarify the features of morphochemical changes in the substantia nigra cellular structures in Parkinson's disease. The structural characteristics of the substantia nigra were studied microscopically and quantified using computer morphometric methods at brain autopsies of individuals with Parkinson's disease who had died from intercurrent diseases and those who had no evidence of neurological disorders in their history (a control group). This investigation could clarify the features of morphochemical changes in both the neural network structures and the glial populations of the substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease. The number of neurons containing tyrosine hydroxylase (a marker of dopamine neurons) in the compact part of the substantia nigra (a ventral region) was smaller and the density distribution of Lewy bodies was higher in the patients with Parkinson's disease than in the control group. The accumulation of iron (II) compounds in the cellular elements and neuropile and the increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein in Parkinson's disease were more pronounced than those in the controls. Postmortem diagnosis in Parkinson's disease should be based on a full description of a set of neuronal and glial morphochemical and structural changes in the substantia nigra rather than on the identification of cellular markers for the neurodegenerative process.

  13. Switch region for pathogenic structural change in conformational disease and its prediction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many diseases are believed to be related to abnormal protein folding. In the first step of such pathogenic structural changes, misfolding occurs in regions important for the stability of the native structure. This destabilizes the normal protein conformation, while exposing the previously hidden aggregation-prone regions, leading to subsequent errors in the folding pathway. Sites involved in this first stage can be deemed switch regions of the protein, and can represent perfect binding targets for drugs to block the abnormal folding pathway and prevent pathogenic conformational changes. In this study, a prediction algorithm for the switch regions responsible for the start of pathogenic structural changes is introduced. With an accuracy of 94%, this algorithm can successfully find short segments covering sites significant in triggering conformational diseases (CDs and is the first that can predict switch regions for various CDs. To illustrate its effectiveness in dealing with urgent public health problems, the reason of the increased pathogenicity of H5N1 influenza virus is analyzed; the mechanisms of the pandemic swine-origin 2009 A(H1N1 influenza virus in overcoming species barriers and in infecting large number of potential patients are also suggested. It is shown that the algorithm is a potential tool useful in the study of the pathology of CDs because: (1 it can identify the origin of pathogenic structural conversion with high sensitivity and specificity, and (2 it provides an ideal target for clinical treatment.

  14. Hardness and structure changes at surface in electrical discharge machined steel C 3840

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karastojkovic, Z.; Janjusevic, Z.

    2003-01-01

    The electrical discharge machining (EDM) of both hard and soft materials became an important technique in industrial applications. This technique has an advantage in producing of structural/tool parts of complex geometry. The EDM is based on electrical phenomena, when the treated surface undergoes to erosion. The first step in EDM, the melting of thin surface layer, frequently is neglected. In this paper the changes of hardness and structure at surface layer, after EDM is applied on steel C 3840, will be discussed. The steel C- 3840 was quenched and tempered to hardness of 63 HRC, at surface, and than machined by electrical discharging. The changed, white, layer is just a product of melting and decarburization processes. The white layer is registered at surface by using a metallographic investigation. Hardness profile is measured from surface to the interior of material. The achievement of local high temperatures during EDM is resulting on melt and erosion of material. Besides of these effects, during EDM were happened some minor but not a neglectible effects, primary on structure changes on treated surface. It would be expected that melting, even an evaporation of melted metal, and further the phase transformation have an important influence on the starting structure. (Original)

  15. Searching for structural medium changes during the 2011 El Hierro (Spain) submarine eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pastor, Pilar S.; Schimmel, Martin; López, Carmen

    2017-04-01

    Submarine volcanic eruptions are often difficult to study due to their restricted access that usually inhibits direct observations. That happened with the 2011 El Hierro eruption, which is the first eruption that has been tracked in real time in Canary Islands. For instance, despite the real-time tracking it was not possible to determine the exact end of the eruption. Besides, volcanic eruptions involve many dynamic (physical and chemical) processes, which cause structural changes in the surrounding medium that we expect to observe and monitor through passive seismic approaches. The purpose of this study is to detect and analyse these changes as well as to search for precursory signals to the eruption itself using ambient noise auto and cross-correlations. We employ different correlation strategies (classical and phase cross-correlation) and apply them to field data recorded by the IGN network during 2011 and 2012. The different preprocessing and processing steps are tested and compared to better understand the data, to find the robust signatures, and to define a routine work procedure. One of the problems we face is the presence of volcanic tremors, which cause a varying seismic response that we can not attribute to structural changes. So far, structural changes could not be detected unambiguously and we present our ongoing research in this field.

  16. Climate-induced changes in lake ecosystem structure inferred from coupled neo- and paleoecological approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saros, Jasmine E.; Stone, Jeffery R.; Pederson, Gregory T.; Slemmons, Krista; Spanbauer, Trisha; Schliep, Anna; Cahl, Douglas; Williamson, Craig E.; Engstrom, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Over the 20th century, surface water temperatures have increased in many lake ecosystems around the world, but long-term trends in the vertical thermal structure of lakes remain unclear, despite the strong control that thermal stratification exerts on the biological response of lakes to climate change. Here we used both neo- and paleoecological approaches to develop a fossil-based inference model for lake mixing depths and thereby refine understanding of lake thermal structure change. We focused on three common planktonic diatom taxa, the distributions of which previous research suggests might be affected by mixing depth. Comparative lake surveys and growth rate experiments revealed that these species respond to lake thermal structure when nitrogen is sufficient, with species optima ranging from shallower to deeper mixing depths. The diatom-based mixing depth model was applied to sedimentary diatom profiles extending back to 1750 AD in two lakes with moderate nitrate concentrations but differing climate settings. Thermal reconstructions were consistent with expected changes, with shallower mixing depths inferred for an alpine lake where treeline has advanced, and deeper mixing depths inferred for a boreal lake where wind strength has increased. The inference model developed here provides a new tool to expand and refine understanding of climate-induced changes in lake ecosystems.

  17. Main drivers of changes in CO_2 emissions in the Spanish economy: A structural decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cansino, José M.; Román, Rocío; Ordóñez, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is the analysis of structural decomposition of changes in CO_2 emissions in Spain by using an enhanced Structural Decomposition Analysis (SDA) supported by detailed Input–Output tables from the World Input–Output Database (2013) (WIOD) for the period 1995–2009. The decomposition of changes in CO_2 emissions at sectoral level are broken down into six effects: carbonization, energy intensity, technology, structural demand, consumption pattern and scale. The results are interesting, not only for researchers but also for utility companies and policy-makers as soon as past and current political mitigation measures are analyzed in line with such results. The results allow us to conclude that the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol together with European Directives related to the promotion of RES seem to have a positive impact on CO_2 emissions trends in Spain. After reviewing the current mitigation measures in Spain, one policy recommendation is suggested to avoid the rebound effect and to enhance the fight against Climate Change that is tax benefits for those companies that prove reductions in their energy intensity ratios. - Highlights: • Kyoto's Protocol and European Directives acted against CO_2 emissions in Spain. • Changes in primary energy mix acted against increasing CO_2 emissions. • Energy efficiency seems to have improved. • Historical analysis gives support for most mitigation measures currently in force.

  18. A longitudinal study of structural brain network changes with normal aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai eWu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate age-related changes in the topological organization of structural brain networks by applying a longitudinal design over 6 years. Structural brain networks were derived from measurements of regional gray matter volume and were constructed in age-specific groups from baseline and follow-up scans. The structural brain networks showed economical small-world properties, providing high global and local efficiency for parallel information processing at low connection costs. In the analysis of the global network properties, the local and global efficiency of the baseline scan were significantly lower compared to the follow-up scan. Moreover, the annual rate of changes in local and global efficiency showed a positive and negative quadratic correlation with the baseline age, respectively; both curvilinear correlations peaked at approximately the age of 50. In the analysis of the regional nodal properties, significant negative correlations between the annual rate of changes in nodal strength and the baseline age were found in the brain regions primarily involved in the visual and motor/ control systems, whereas significant positive quadratic correlations were found in the brain regions predominately associated with the default-mode, attention, and memory systems. The results of the longitudinal study are consistent with the findings of our previous cross-sectional study: the structural brain networks develop into a fast distribution from young to middle age (approximately 50 years old and eventually became a fast localization in the old age. Our findings elucidate the network topology of structural brain networks and its longitudinal changes, thus enhancing the understanding of the underlying physiology of normal aging in the human brain.

  19. Homeostatic structural plasticity can account for topology changes following deafferentation and focal stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butz, Markus; Steenbuck, Ines D; van Ooyen, Arjen

    2014-01-01

    After brain lesions caused by tumors or stroke, or after lasting loss of input (deafferentation), inter- and intra-regional brain networks respond with complex changes in topology. Not only areas directly affected by the lesion but also regions remote from the lesion may alter their connectivity-a phenomenon known as diaschisis. Changes in network topology after brain lesions can lead to cognitive decline and increasing functional disability. However, the principles governing changes in network topology are poorly understood. Here, we investigated whether homeostatic structural plasticity can account for changes in network topology after deafferentation and brain lesions. Homeostatic structural plasticity postulates that neurons aim to maintain a desired level of electrical activity by deleting synapses when neuronal activity is too high and by providing new synaptic contacts when activity is too low. Using our Model of Structural Plasticity, we explored how local changes in connectivity induced by a focal loss of input affected global network topology. In accordance with experimental and clinical data, we found that after partial deafferentation, the network as a whole became more random, although it maintained its small-world topology, while deafferentated neurons increased their betweenness centrality as they rewired and returned to the homeostatic range of activity. Furthermore, deafferentated neurons increased their global but decreased their local efficiency and got longer tailed degree distributions, indicating the emergence of hub neurons. Together, our results suggest that homeostatic structural plasticity may be an important driving force for lesion-induced network reorganization and that the increase in betweenness centrality of deafferentated areas may hold as a biomarker for brain repair.

  20. Structural changes in highly crosslinked polyethylene irradiated in absence of oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinovic-Cincovic, M.; Kacarevic-Popovic, Z.; Babic, D.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The radiation effect in polymers is heterogeneous in nature. In the crystalline state alkyl radicals responsible for crosslinking are formed in heterogeneous spatial distribution due to the specific early excitation processes. Based upon the selective alkyl radical formation on the edge of crystals, crosslinking in the crystalline state mostly occurs on the lamellae surfaces. On the other hand crosslinking in the crystalline phase may also take place by combining of radicals formed at double bond site (that are formed initially) with radicals migrating in the matrices and this is the slow process that occurs step by step and depends upon irradiation dose. The aim of this work was to investigate the changes in the supermolecular structure of polyethylene upon gamma irradiation and to correlate it with the changes in the molecular structure due to crosslinking. The polyethylene samples (LDPE) were irradiated by 60 Co γ-rays, in argon to absorbed doses from 360 to 1650 kGy. The structural changes in polyethylene upon irradiation are discussed in terms of the physics of collective phenomena that are measured by a technique that substantially focus on collective properties, the technique of different scanning calorimetry. In order to acquire more direct structural information concerning the effect of irradiation the activation energy of ordering transition and number of defects are estimated from heat capacity changes, and correlated to G-values for the number of crystalline units excluded from the crystal calculated from the depression of melting temperature. Decrease in these parameters with increase of absorbed dose suggests a decrease in the crystal size distribution with the contribution of the changes in the entropy of fusion. Non-linear dependence with absorbed dose for the first melting is the consequence of recrystallization initiated by irradiation. Non-linear dependence with absorbed dose for the second melting, for

  1. Structural changes and degradation of Red Latosols under different management systems for 20 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Tavares Filho

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Soils are the foundation of terrestrial ecosystems and their role in food production is fundamental, although physical degradation has been observed in recent years, caused by different cultural practices that modify structures and consequently the functioning of soils. The objective of this study was to evaluate possible structural changes and degradation in an Oxisol under different managements for 20 years: no-tillage cultivation with and without crop rotation, perennial crop and conventional tillage, plus a forested area (reference. Initially, the crop profile was described and subsequently, 10 samples per management system and forest soil were collected to quantify soil organic matter, flocculation degree, bulk density, and macroporosity. The results indicated structural changes down to a soil depth of 50 cm, with predominance of structural units ∆μ (intermediate compaction level under perennial crop and no-tillage crop rotation, and of structural units ∆ (compacted under conventional tillage and no-tillage. The soil was increasingly degraded in the increasing order: forest => no-tillage crop rotation => perennial crop => no-tillage without crop rotation => conventional tillage. In all managements, the values of organic matter and macroporosity were always below and bulk density always above those of the reference area (forest and, under no-tillage crop rotation and perennial crop, the flocculation degree was proportionally equal to that of the reference area.

  2. Changes of creatine kinase structure upon ligand binding as seen by small-angle scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forstner, Michael; Kriechbaum, Manfred; Laggner, Peter; Wallimann, Theo

    1996-09-01

    Small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering have been used to investigate structural changes upon binding of individual substrates or a transition state analogue complex (TSAC), consisting of Mg-ADP, creatine and KNO 3 to creatine kinase isoenzymes (dimeric M-CK and octameric Mi-CK) and monomeric arginine kinase (AK). Considerable changes in the shape and the size of the molecules occurred upon binding of Mg-ATP and TSAC, whereas creatine alone had only a small effect. In Mi-CK, the radius of gyration was reduced from 55.6 Å (free enzyme) to 48.9 Å (enzyme + Mg-ATP) and to 48.2 Å (enzyme + TSAC). The experiments performed with M-CK showed similar changes from 28.0 Å (free enzyme) to 25.6 Å (enzyme + Mg-ATP) and to 25.5 Å (enzyme + TSAC). Creatine alone did not lead to significant changes in the radii of gyration, nor did free ATP or ADP. AK showed the same behaviour: a change of the radius of gyration from 21.5 Å (free enzyme) to 19.7 Å (enzyme + MG-ATP), whereas with arginine alone only a minor change could be observed. The primary change in structure as seen with monomeric AK seems to be a magnesium-nucleotide induced domain movement relative to each other, whereas the effect of substrate may be of local order only. In creatine kinase, however, further movements must be involved in the large conformational change.

  3. Quantifying Structural and Compositional Changes in Forest Cover in NW Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkenberg, C.

    2012-12-01

    NW Yunnan, China is a region renowned for high levels of biodiversity, endemism and genetically distinct refugial plant populations. It is also a focal area for China's national reforestation efforts like the Natural Forest Protection Program (NFPP), intended to control erosion in the Upper Yangtze watershed. As part of a larger project to investigate the role of reforestation programs in facilitating the emergence of increasingly species-rich forest communities on a previously degraded and depauperate land mosaic in montane SW China, this study uses a series of Landsat TM images to quantify the spatial pattern and rate of structural and compositional change in forests recovering from medium to large-scale disturbances in the area over the past 25 years. Beyond the fundamental need to assess the outcomes of one of the world's largest reforestation programs, this research offers approaches to confronting two critical methodological issues: (1) techniques for characterizing subtle changes in the nature of vegetation cover, and (2) reducing change detection uncertainty due to persistent cloud cover and shadow. To address difficulties in accurately assessing the structure and composition of vegetative regrowth, a biophysical model was parameterized with over 300 ground-truthed canopy cover assessment points to determine pattern and rate of long-term vegetation changes. To combat pervasive shadow and cloud cover, an interactive generalized additive model (GAM) model based on topographic and spatial predictors was used to overcome some of the constraints of satellite image analysis in Himalayan regions characterized by extreme topography and extensive cloud cover during the summer monsoon. The change detection is assessed for accuracy using ground-truthed observations in a variety of forest cover types and topographic positions. Results indicate effectiveness in reducing the areal extent of unclassified regions and increasing total change detection accuracy. In addition

  4. MR imaging of lumbar spondylolysis: signal intensity change in the pars interarticularis and adjacent structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Suk Whan; Lee, Ghi Jai; Shim, Jae Chan; Kim, Ho Kyun [Inje Univ. College of Medicine, Kimhae (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-05-01

    To assess changes in MR signal intensity in the pars interarticularis and adjacent structures in patients with lumbar spondylolysis. The MR images of 36 patients with lumbar spondylolysis, confirmed by plain radiographs, were retrospectively analyzed. Using a 1.0T unit, we evaluated the signal intensity of a total of 216 parts interarticulares and adjacent structures from L3 to L5, as seen on sagittal images, and differences between areas with and without spondylolysis. The signal intensity of T1-and T2-weighted images was graded 0(more hypointense than spinal body), 1(as isointense as spinal body), 2(more hyperintense than spinal body and more hypointense than epidural fat), or 3(as isointense as epidural fat). Signal intensity change in endplates and degree of spondylolisthesis were analyzed, and the relationship between these factors was determined. Spondylolysis was noted at L5 in 61 cases, at L4 in 22, and of L3 in no case. In three cases spondylolysis was unilateral, and in the remainder it was bilateral. The degree of signal intensity was the same on T1-and T2-weighted images, and no case was grade 0. Eighty-six of 133 areas without spondylolysis were grade 1, 43 were grade 2, and four were grade 3. In 42 of 47 cases, signal intensity change was localized at pedicles. Among 83 areas with spondylolysis,on the other hand, nine were grade 1, 48 were grade 2, and 26 were grade 3. Signal intensity change was most commonly observed at the pars interarticularis, pedicle, and lamina(50/74)({rho}<0.001). Signal intensity change at the pars interarticularis and adjacent structures was accompanied in most cases by degenerative endplate change(10/11) and spondylolisthesis(11/13)({rho}<0.001). In patients with spondylolysis, signal intensity was frequently higher at the pars interarticularis and adjacent structures, and is thought to have a close relationship with degenerative endplate change and spondylolisthesis. Increases in signal intensity at the pars

  5. MR imaging of lumbar spondylolysis: signal intensity change in the pars interarticularis and adjacent structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Suk Whan; Lee, Ghi Jai; Shim, Jae Chan; Kim, Ho Kyun

    2001-01-01

    To assess changes in MR signal intensity in the pars interarticularis and adjacent structures in patients with lumbar spondylolysis. The MR images of 36 patients with lumbar spondylolysis, confirmed by plain radiographs, were retrospectively analyzed. Using a 1.0T unit, we evaluated the signal intensity of a total of 216 parts interarticulares and adjacent structures from L3 to L5, as seen on sagittal images, and differences between areas with and without spondylolysis. The signal intensity of T1-and T2-weighted images was graded 0(more hypointense than spinal body), 1(as isointense as spinal body), 2(more hyperintense than spinal body and more hypointense than epidural fat), or 3(as isointense as epidural fat). Signal intensity change in endplates and degree of spondylolisthesis were analyzed, and the relationship between these factors was determined. Spondylolysis was noted at L5 in 61 cases, at L4 in 22, and of L3 in no case. In three cases spondylolysis was unilateral, and in the remainder it was bilateral. The degree of signal intensity was the same on T1-and T2-weighted images, and no case was grade 0. Eighty-six of 133 areas without spondylolysis were grade 1, 43 were grade 2, and four were grade 3. In 42 of 47 cases, signal intensity change was localized at pedicles. Among 83 areas with spondylolysis,on the other hand, nine were grade 1, 48 were grade 2, and 26 were grade 3. Signal intensity change was most commonly observed at the pars interarticularis, pedicle, and lamina(50/74)(ρ<0.001). Signal intensity change at the pars interarticularis and adjacent structures was accompanied in most cases by degenerative endplate change(10/11) and spondylolisthesis(11/13)(ρ<0.001). In patients with spondylolysis, signal intensity was frequently higher at the pars interarticularis and adjacent structures, and is thought to have a close relationship with degenerative endplate change and spondylolisthesis. Increases in signal intensity at the pars interarticularis and

  6. Changes in attitude structure toward nuclear power in the nuclear power plant locations of Tohoku district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujikawa, Norifumi; Tsuchida, Shoji; Shiotani, Takamasa; Nakagawa, Yuri

    2012-01-01

    This survey was examined the changes in structure of attitude toward nuclear power and the influence of environmental value on the attitude structure before and after the accident at the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant. With residents of Aomori, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures as participants, we conducted online surveys in November 2009 and October 2011. Comparing the results before and after the accident, we found that trust in the management of nuclear power plants had a stronger influence on the perceived risk and benefit regarding nuclear power after the accident than before the accident. The value of concern about environmental destruction resulted in reduced trust in the management. (author)

  7. Modelling of stiffness and damping change in reinforced concrete structures under seismic actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, G.; Oetes, A.

    1985-01-01

    Restoring force and energy dissipation properties of ductile reinforced concrete structures during seismic excitation are investigated. Interpreting the results of earthquake simulation experiments with large scale reinforced concrete structural members mainly subjected to cyclic bending the various types of the force-deflection response and energy dissipation capability will be identified. Two alternative concepts are suggested for modelling: A rigorous model which considers the numerous deformation and dissipation mechanisms using a step by step algorithm for analysis and a simplified practical model which employs a modified spectrum analysis technique and a simple updating procedure for changing stiffness and damping properties of the members. (orig.)

  8. Quantitative description of changes in the structure in austenitic steels after hot temperature deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuc, D.; Rodak, K.; Niewielski, G.; Hetmanczyk, M.

    1998-01-01

    An investigation on the structural changes in austenitic hard deformable Cr-Mn and Cr-Ni steels during dynamic recrystallization has been presented in the paper. The influence of the factors (strain rate, deformation, temperature) on the geometric characteristic of grains has been taken into consideration. Investigation of the structure were performed using metallographic microscope and transmission electron microscope. The results of researched should widen the theoretical background in order to the model of phenomena, which accompany the dynamic recovery and dynamic recrystallization. (author)

  9. Environmental Disaster and Economic Change: Do tropical cyclones have permanent effects on economic growth and structure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jina, A.; von der Goltz, J.; Hsiang, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    Natural disasters have important, often devastating, effects upon economic growth and well-being. Due to this, disasters have become an active area of recent research and policy attention. However, much of this research has been narrowly focused, relying on anecdotal evidence and aggregated data to support conclusions about disaster impacts in the short-term. Employing a new global data set of tropical cyclone exposure from 1960 to 2008, we investigate in greater detail whether permanent changes in economic performance and structure can result from these extreme events in some cases. Our macro-economic analyses use the World Development Indicator dataset and have shown promising results: there are dramatic long-term economic transformations associated with tropical cyclones across a number of countries and industries. This effect is most clearly seen in Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and some countries in Latin America, where negative changes in long-term growth trends are observed in the years following a large tropical cyclone. In many economies with a high exposure to tropical cyclone damage, there are noticeable structural changes within the economy. The impacts of disasters might be expressed through various economic and social channels, through direct loss of lives and infrastructure damage; for instance, the destruction of infrastructure such as ports may damage export opportunities where replacement capital is not readily available. These structural changes may have far-reaching implications for economic growth and welfare. Larger nations subjected to the impacts of tropical cyclones are thought to be able to relocate economically important activities that are damaged by cyclones, and so long-term trend changes are not observed, even for events that cause a large immediate decrease in national productivity. By investigating in a more rigorous fashion the hypothesis that the environment triggers these permanent economic changes, our work has

  10. Parameters and structure of lunar regolith in Chang'E-3 landing area from lunar penetrating radar (LPR) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zehua; Fang, Guangyou; Ji, Yicai; Gao, Yunze; Wu, Chao; Zhang, Xiaojuan

    2017-01-01

    Chang'E-3 (CE-3) landed in the northwest Mare Imbrium, a region that has not been explored before. Yutu rover that released by CE-3 lander carried the first lunar surface penetrating radar (LPR) for exploring lunar regolith thickness and subsurface shallow geological structures. In this paper, based on the LPR data and the Panoramic Camera (PC) data, we first calculate the lunar surface regolith parameters in CE-3 landing area including its permittivity, density, conductivity and FeO + TiO2 content. LPR data provides a higher spatial resolution and more accuracy for the lunar regolith parameters comparing to other remote sensing techniques, such as orbit radar sounder and microwave sensing or earth-based powerful radar. We also derived the regolith thickness and its weathered rate with much better accuracy in the landing area. The results indicate that the regolith growth rate is much faster than previous estimation, the regolith parameters are not uniform even in such a small study area and the thickness and growth rate of lunar regolith here are different from other areas in Mare Imbrium. We infer that the main reason should be geological deformation that caused by multiple impacts of meteorites in different sizes.

  11. The changes of macroscopic features and microscopic structures of water under influence of magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang Xiaofeng; Deng Bo

    2008-01-01

    Influences of magnetic field on microscopic structures and macroscopic properties of water are studied by the spectrum techniques of infrared, Raman, visible, ultraviolet lights and X-ray. From these investigations, we know that the magnetic fields change the distribution of molecules and electrons, cause displacements and polarization of molecules and atoms, result in changes of dipole-moment transition and vibrational states of molecules and variation of transition probability of electrons, but does not alter the constitution of molecules and atoms. These are helpful in seeking the mechanism of magnetization of water. Meanwhile, we also measure the changed rules of the surface tension force, soaking effect or angle of contact, viscosity, rheology features, refraction index, dielectric constant and electric conductivity of magnetized water relative to that of pure water. The results show that the magnetic fields increase the soaking degree and hydrophobicity of water to materials, depress its surface-tension force, diminish the viscosity of war, enhance the feature of plastic flowing of water, and increase the refraction index, dielectric constant and electric conductivity of water after magnetization. These changes are caused by the above changes of microscopic structures under the action of magnetic field. Therefore, our studies are significant in science and has practical value of applications

  12. [Comparative analysis of structural changes in thrombocytes during Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonidze, V; Samushia, O

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with the study of the changes in the formed elements of blood during the Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. While studying the structure of thrombocytes, a number of identical structural changes were identified in case of both diseases. The study has revealed various shapes of thrombocytes, the production of pseudopodia on their surface, high level of body outline, specific distribution of glycogen granules and their concentration on the periphery, glycogen eruption, dissociation of Alpha-granules towards the edge, and effective outline and density of the granules. There are frequent cases of the granule eruption from the body (exocytosis), the existence of vacuoles on the matrix, the rise in the number of gigantic thrombocytes and, consequently, considerable enhancement of the ability of absorption. Besides, there is a rise in the number of degenerated cells. The shape of thrombocytes is often changed and stretched on one side. The produced pseudopodia make the impression of participation in phagocytosis. As for the difference between changes, during Parkinson disease the amount of thrombocytes is low, more gigantic and distorted shape, less invagination of plasma membrane, low amount of granules and less intensity of alpha-granule eruption from the body. The changes revealed by the research show the activity of thrombocytes, which should be connected to their participation in protective functions of the body towards existing agent. And the diseases - although with similar but with different pathogenic mechanisms - are being developed with participation of non-specific agents.

  13. Change of hydrogen bonding structure in ionic liquid mixtures by anion type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Seoncheol; Kim, Doseok

    2018-05-01

    Ionic liquid mixtures have gained attention as a way of tuning material properties continuously with composition changes. For some mixture systems, physicochemical properties such as excess molar volume have been found to be significantly different from the value expected by linear interpolation, but the origin of this deviation is not well understood yet. The microstructure of the mixture, which can range from an ideal mixture of two initial consisting ionic liquids to a different structure from those of pure materials, has been suggested as the origin of the observed deviation. The structures of several different ionic liquid mixtures are studied by IR spectroscopy to confirm this suggestion, as a particular IR absorption band (νC(2)-D) for the moiety participating in the hydrogen bonding changes sensitively with the change of the anion in the ionic liquid. The absorbance of νC(2)-D changes proportionally with the composition, and a relatively small excess molar volume is observed for the mixtures containing an electronegative halide anion. By contrast, the absorbance changes nonlinearly, and the excess molar volumes are larger for the mixtures of which one of the anions has multiple interaction sites.

  14. From bifluorenylidene dianion to dibenzo[g,p]chrysene dianion: sensitivity of anisotropy changes to bonding structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shenhar, R.; Beust, R.; Hagen, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    Five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of the C-26 series having similar bonding structure yield dianions upon reduction with lithium metal. Anisotropy changes, revealed from an advanced charge distribution analysis performed on these dianions, show a correlation to the bonding structure...

  15. Trans-acting RNAs as molecular probes for monitoring time-dependent structural change of an RNA complex adapting two structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yuri; Furuta, Hiroyuki; Ikawa, Yoshiya

    2011-03-01

    As dynamic structural changes are pivotal for the functions of some classes of RNA molecule, it is important to develop methods to monitor structural changes in RNA in a time-dependent manner without chemical modification. Based on previous reports that trans-acting RNAs can be used as probes for analysis and control of 3D structures of target RNAs, we applied this method to monitor time-dependent structural changes in RNA. We designed and performed a proof-of-principle study using a simple model RNA complex that adopts two different structures as a target. The time-dependent structural changes in the target RNA were successfully monitored using two trans-acting RNAs, which stably form a ternary complex with the bimolecular target RNA and act as a catalyst to join two RNA fragments of the target complex, respectively. Copyright © 2010 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Investigations of the changes in the bentonite structure caused by the different treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojiljković S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The bentonite was treated in different ways and the changes in structure were monitored. Acid activation with sulphuric acid of investigated bentonite caused the increase in specific volume of micropore-mesopore. It was shown that activation by acid obtained at a constant temperature and constant period of time provides the possibility to obtain samples of bentonite of searched porosity only by changing the concentration of sulphuric and hydrochloric acid. By thermal activation of bentonite clay in the temperature range 100-1100 0C, samples of desired porosity were acquired. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 174007i br. TR 34020

  17. Structural changes evaluation with Raman spectroscopy in meat batters prepared by different processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Zhuang-Li; Li, Xiang; He, Hong-Ju; Ma, Han-Jun; Song, Zhao-Jun

    2017-08-01

    A comprehensive study was conducted to evaluate the structural changes of meat and protein of pork batters produced by chopping or beating process through the phase-contrast micrograph, laser light scattering analyzer, scanning electronic microscopy and Raman spectrometer. The results showed that the shattered myofibrilla fragments were shorter and particle-sizes were smaller in the raw batter produced by beating process than those in the chopping process. Compared with the raw and cooked batters produced by chopping process, modifications in amide I and amide III bands revealed a significant decrease of α -helix content and an increase of β -sheet, β -turn and random coils content in the beating process. The changes in secondary structure of protein in the batter produced by beating process was thermally stable. Moreover, more tyrosine residues were buried, and more gauche-gauche-trans disulfide bonds conformations and hydrophobic interactions were formed in the batter produced by beating process.

  18. Analysis of Multiple Structural Changes in Financial Contagion Based on the Largest Lyapunov Exponents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A modified multiple structural changes model is built to test structural breaks of the financial system based on calculating the largest Lyapunov exponents of the financial time series. Afterwards, the Lorenz system is used as a simulation example to inspect the new model. As the Lorenz system has strong nonlinearity, the verification results show that the new model has good capability in both finding the breakpoint and revealing the changes in nonlinear characteristics of the time series. The empirical study based on the model used daily data from the S&P 500 stock index during the global financial crisis from 2005 to 2012. The results provide four breakpoints of the period, which divide the contagion into four stages: stationary, local outbreak, global outbreak, and recovery period. An additional significant result is the obvious chaos characteristic difference in the largest Lyapunov exponents and the standard deviation at various stages, particularly at the local outbreak stage.

  19. Metal concentration and structural changes in Corallina elongata (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) from hydrothermal vents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Ruben P; Neto, Ana I; Rodrigues, Armindo S

    2010-04-01

    Shallow-water hydrothermal activity is widely present at Azores archipelago. Organisms in such environments present great potential as sentinels of the effects derived from chronically exposure to increased temperature, metal concentrations and reduced pH. This study aimed to evaluate metal concentration in Corallina elongata collected at locations exposed and not exposed to shallow-water hydrothermal activity and evaluate changes in its calcareous structure. Elemental concentration was determined and morphometric analysis was performed by scanning electron microscopy. Thicker cell walls and a bleached appearance were observed on C. elongata specimens from the hydrothermally active location, as well as increased concentrations of elements associated to volcanic activity. This study reports on metal accumulation and morphometric changes in the calcareous structure of C. elongata from a hydrothermally active location, adding new data for further research on such habitats and communities, providing an insight on how coralline algae might be affected by ocean acidification. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Metal concentration and structural changes in Corallina elongata (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) from hydrothermal vents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couto, Ruben P.; Neto, Ana I.; Rodrigues, Armindo S.

    2010-01-01

    Shallow-water hydrothermal activity is widely present at Azores archipelago. Organisms in such environments present great potential as sentinels of the effects derived from chronically exposure to increased temperature, metal concentrations and reduced pH. This study aimed to evaluate metal concentration in Corallina elongata collected at locations exposed and not exposed to shallow-water hydrothermal activity and evaluate changes in its calcareous structure. Elemental concentration was determined and morphometric analysis was performed by scanning electron microscopy. Thicker cell walls and a bleached appearance were observed on C. elongata specimens from the hydrothermally active location, as well as increased concentrations of elements associated to volcanic activity. This study reports on metal accumulation and morphometric changes in the calcareous structure of C. elongata from a hydrothermally active location, adding new data for further research on such habitats and communities, providing an insight on how coralline algae might be affected by ocean acidification.

  1. Changes of population by age and gender structure of Regions in the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resul Hamiti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the changes of population by age and the gender structure in the regions of the Republic of Macedonia. Age and gender is very important not only for the development of demographic process but also for the development of regions. They play an important role in planning the health care needs and other services with the socio-economic and cultural character. In this sense they affect the performance of demographic processes (births, deaths, marriages, etc. and are a result of bilateral relations fertility, mortality, migration movements and other social processes. The main objective of this paper is to identify the aging phenomenon of population in state level and regions. This paper also dedicates special importance to the changes of age and sex structure, during the period between1981-2014 in the regions of the republic of Macedonia.

  2. A Model of Target Changes and the Term Structure of Interest Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Pierluigi Balduzzi; Giuseppe Bertola; Silverio Foresi

    1993-01-01

    We explore the effects of official targeting policy on the term-structure of nominal interest rates, adapting relevant insights from theoretical work on "peso problems" to account for realistic infrequency of target changes. Our analysis of daily U.S. interest rates and newly available historical targets provides an interpretation for persistent spreads between short-term money-market rates and overnight fed-funds targets, and for the poor performance of expectations-hypothesis tests: it is t...

  3. Chemical composition, crystal size and lattice structural changes after incorporation of strontium into biomimetic apatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z Y; Lam, W M; Yang, C; Xu, B; Ni, G X; Abbah, S A; Cheung, K M C; Luk, K D K; Lu, W W

    2007-03-01

    Recently, strontium (Sr) as ranelate compound has become increasingly popular in the treatment of osteoporosis. However, the lattice structure of bone crystal after Sr incorporation is yet to be extensively reported. In this study, we synthesized strontium-substituted hydroxyapatite (Sr-HA) with different Sr content (0.3%, 1.5% and 15% Sr-HA in mole ratio) to simulate bone crystals incorporated with Sr. The changes in chemical composition and lattice structure of apetite after synthetic incorporation of Sr were evaluated to gain insight into bone crystal changes after incorporation of Sr. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns revealed that 0.3% and 1.5% Sr-HA exhibited single phase spectrum, which was similar to that of HA. However, 15% Sr-HA induced the incorporation of HPO4(2-) and more CO3(2-), the crystallinity reduced dramatically. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed that the crystal length and width of 0.3% and 1.5% Sr-HA increased slightly. Meanwhile, the length and width distribution were broadened and the aspect ratio decreased from 10.68+/-4.00 to 7.28+/-2.80. The crystal size and crystallinity of 15% Sr-HA dropped rapidly, which may suggest that the fundamental crystal structure is changed. The findings from this work indicate that current clinical dosage which usually results in Sr incorporation of below 1.5% may not change chemical composition and lattice structure of bone, while it will broaden the bone crystal size distribution and strengthen the bone.

  4. Transformational leadership and change readiness and a moderating role of perceived bureaucratic structure: an empirical investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Badri Abbasi

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between transformational leadership and change readiness through perceived bureaucratic structure among government employees in Rasht. As a methodology, descriptive method was applied using questionnaire to collect data. The studied population consisted of 600 employees from three state organizations including Municipality, Gilan Tax Department and Gilan Justice Court. According to Morgan table, the sample size was estimated at 234. Th...

  5. Influence of Mean State Changes on the Structure of ENSO in a Tropical Coupled GCM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codron, Francis; Vintzileos, Augustin; Sadourny, Robert

    2001-03-01

    This study examines the response of the climate simulated by the Institut Pierre Simon Laplace tropical Pacific coupled general circulation model to two changes in parameterization: an improved coupling scheme at the coast, and the introduction of a saturation mixing ratio limiter in the water vapor advection scheme, which improves the rainfall distribution over and around orography. The main effect of these modifications is the suppression of spurious upwelling off the South American coast in Northern Hemisphere summer. Coupled feedbacks then extend this warming over the whole basin in an El Niño-like structure, with a maximum at the equator and in the eastern part of the basin. The mean precipitation pattern widens and moves equatorward as the trade winds weaken.This warmer mean state leads to a doubling of the standard deviation of interannual SST anomalies, and to a longer ENSO period. The structure of the ENSO cycle also shifts from westward propagation in the original simulation to a standing oscillation. The simulation of El Niño thus improves when compared to recent observed events. The study of ENSO spatial structure and lagged correlations shows that these changes of El Niño characteristics are caused by both the increase of amplitude and the modification of the spatial structure of the wind stress response to SST anomalies.These results show that both the mean state and variability of the tropical ocean can be very sensitive to biases or forcings, even geographically localized. They may also give some insight into the mechanisms responsible for the changes in ENSO characteristics due to decadal variability or climate change.

  6. Computer simulation of model cohesive powders: Plastic consolidation, structural changes and elasticity under isotropic loads

    OpenAIRE

    Gilabert, Francisco; Roux, Jean-Noël; Castellanos, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    International audience; The quasistatic behavior of a simple 2D model of a cohesive powder under isotropic loads is investigated by Discrete Element simulations. The loose packing states, as studied in a previous paper, undergo important structural changes under growing confining pressure P, while solid fraction \\Phi irreversibly increases by large amounts. The system state goes through three stages, with different forms of the plastic consolidation curve \\Phi(P*), under growing reduced press...

  7. Portfolio Sensitivity Model for Analyzing Credit Risk Caused by Structural and Macroeconomic Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Klepac

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new model for portfolio sensitivity analysis. The model is suitable for decision support in financial institutions, specifically for portfolio planning and portfolio management. The basic advantage of the model is the ability to create simulations for credit risk predictions in cases when we virtually change portfolio structure and/or macroeconomic factors. The model takes a holistic approach to portfolio management consolidating all organizational segments in the process such as marketing, retail and risk.

  8. Western North Pacific Tropical Cyclone Formation and Structure Change in TCS-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-30

    cyclones often transition to a fast-moving and rapidly- developing extratropical cyclone that may contain gale-, storm -, or hurricane-force winds...there is a need to improve understanding and prediction of the extratropical transition phase of a decaying tropical cyclone. The structural evolution...of the transition from a tropical to an extratropical circulation involves rapid changes to the wind, cloud, and precipitation patterns that

  9. Transient Structures and Possible Limits of Data Recording in Phase-Change Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianbo; Vanacore, Giovanni M; Yang, Zhe; Miao, Xiangshui; Zewail, Ahmed H

    2015-07-28

    Phase-change materials (PCMs) represent the leading candidates for universal data storage devices, which exploit the large difference in the physical properties of their transitional lattice structures. On a nanoscale, it is fundamental to determine their performance, which is ultimately controlled by the speed limit of transformation among the different structures involved. Here, we report observation with atomic-scale resolution of transient structures of nanofilms of crystalline germanium telluride, a prototypical PCM, using ultrafast electron crystallography. A nonthermal transformation from the initial rhombohedral phase to the cubic structure was found to occur in 12 ps. On a much longer time scale, hundreds of picoseconds, equilibrium heating of the nanofilm is reached, driving the system toward amorphization, provided that high excitation energy is invoked. These results elucidate the elementary steps defining the structural pathway in the transformation of crystalline-to-amorphous phase transitions and describe the essential atomic motions involved when driven by an ultrafast excitation. The establishment of the time scales of the different transient structures, as reported here, permits determination of the possible limit of performance, which is crucial for high-speed recording applications of PCMs.

  10. Probing Induced Structural Changes in Biomimetic Bacterial Cell Membrane Interactions with Divalent Cations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, Allison M [ORNL; Standaert, Robert F [ORNL; Jubb, Aaron M [ORNL; Katsaras, John [ORNL; Johs, Alexander [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    Biological membranes, formed primarily by the self-assembly of complex mixtures of phospholipids, provide a structured scaffold for compartmentalization and structural processes in living cells. The specific physical properties of phospholipid species present in a given membrane play a key role in mediating these processes. Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), a zwitterionic lipid present in bacterial, yeast, and mammalian cell membranes, is exceptional. In addition to undergoing the standard lipid polymorphic transition between the gel and liquid-crystalline phase, it can also assume an unusual polymorphic state, the inverse hexagonal phase (HII). Divalent cations are among the factors that drive the formation of the HII phase, wherein the lipid molecules form stacked tubular structures by burying the hydrophilic head groups and exposing the hydrophobic tails to the bulk solvent. Most biological membranes contain a lipid species capable of forming the HII state suggesting that such lipid polymorphic structural states play an important role in structural biological processes such as membrane fusion. In this study, the interactions between Mg2+ and biomimetic bacterial cell membranes composed of PE and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) were probed using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), and fluorescence spectroscopy. The lipid phase transitions were examined at varying ratios of PE to PG and upon exposure to physiologically relevant concentrations of Mg2+. An understanding of these basic interactions enhances our understanding of membrane dynamics and how membrane-mediated structural changes may occur in vivo.

  11. Texture analysis for the assessment of structural changes in parotid glands induced by radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scalco, Elisa; Fiorino, Claudio; Cattaneo, Giovanni Mauro; Sanguineti, Giuseppe; Rizzo, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: During radiotherapy (RT) for head-and-neck cancer, parotid glands undergo significant anatomic, functional and structural changes which could characterize pre-clinical signs of an increased risk of xerostomia. Texture analysis is proposed to assess structural changes of parotids induced by RT, and to investigate whether early variations of textural parameters (such as mean intensity and fractal dimension) can predict parotid shrinkage at the end of treatment. Material and methods: Textural parameters and volumes of 42 parotids from 21 patients treated with intensity-modulated RT for nasopharyngeal cancer were extracted from CT images. To individuate which parameters changed during RT, a Wilcoxon signed-rank test between textural indices (first and second RT week; first and last RT week) was performed. Discriminant analysis was applied to variations of these parameters in the first two weeks of RT to assess their power in predicting parotid shrinkage at the end of RT. Results: A significant decrease in mean intensity (1.7 HU and 3.8 HU after the second and last weeks, respectively) and fractal dimension (0.016 and 0.021) was found. Discriminant analysis, based on volume and fractal dimension, was able to predict the final parotid shrinkage (accuracy of 71.4%). Conclusion: Textural features could be used in combination with volume to characterize structural modifications on parotid glands and to predict parotid shrinkage at the end of RT

  12. Structural changes in the Czech, Slovak and euro area economies during the Great Recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tvrz Stanislav

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to identify and compare the most important changes in the structure of the Czech economy, as a small open economy with independent monetary policy, the Slovak economy, as a small open economy that entered monetary union, and the economy of the euro area, which has a common monetary policy, during the turbulent period of the Great Recession, the subsequent anaemic recovery and recent disinflationary period. Structural changes are identified with the help of nonlinear dynamic stochastic models of general equilibrium with time-varying parameters. The model parameters are estimated using Bayesian methods and a nonlinear particle filter. The results confirm the similarity of the Czech and Slovak economies and show that in certain respects the structure of the Czech economy might be closer to that of the euro area than that of Slovakia. The time-varying estimates reveal many similarities between the parameter changes in the Czech economy and those in the euro area. In Slovakia, the situation during the Great Recession was dominated by the country’s adoption of the euro, which caused large deviations in its Calvo parameters.

  13. Structure changes in steels and hard metal induced by nanosecond and femtosecond laser processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitru, Gabriel; Romano, Valerio; Weber, Heinz P.; Haefke, Henry; Gerbig, Yvonne; Sentis, Marc L.; Hermann, Joerg; Bruneau, Sebastien

    2003-11-01

    Investigations on the occurrence of structure and hardness changes (for two sorts of steel and for a hard metal substrate) in the immediate vicinity of laser induced craters are presented in this work. Experiments with femtosecond pulses were performed in air with a Ti:sapphire laser (800 nm, 100 fs) at mean fluences of 2, 5 and 10 J/cm2. Series of microcraters were induced with 100 to 5,000 laser pulses per hole. Experiments with similar fluences, but 10 to 40 pules per hole, were performed on the same materials using a Nd:YAG delivering 100 ns pulese. After laser irradiation, cuts were made through the processed samples and the changes occurred in the crystalline structure of the target materials were evidenced by metallographical analysis of the resulting cross-sections. Hardness measurements were performed in points situated in the immediate vicinity of the laser-induced pores. Affected zones in the material surrounding laser induced pores were always found in the ns-regime, however with different properties for various laser parameters. In the fs-regime, zones of modified materials were also found and in such zones a significant hardness increasing was evidenced; the limit of the low fluences regime, where no structure changes occurred, was found to be slightly above 2 J/cm2.

  14. Strain-induced structural changes and chemical reactions. 1: Thermomechanical and kinetic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitas, V.I.; Nesterenko, V.F.; Meyers, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Strain-induced chemical reactions were observed recently (Nesterenko et al) in experiments in the shear band in both Ti-Si and Nb-Si mixtures. Reactions can start in the solid state or after melting of at least one component. One of the aims is to find theoretically whether there are possible macroscopic mechanisms of mechanical intensification of the above and other chemical reactions due to plastic shear in the solid state. Continuum thermodynamical theory of structural changes with an athermal kinetics, which includes martensitic phase transformations, plastic strain-induced chemical reactions and polymorphic transformations, is developed at finite strains. The theory includes kinematics, criterion of structural change and extremum principle for determination of all unknown variable parameters for the case with neglected elastic strains. Thermodynamically consistent kinetic theory of thermally activated structural changes is suggested. The concept of the effective temperature is introduced which takes into account that temperature can vary significantly (on 1,000 K) during the chemical reactions under consideration. The theory will be applied in Part 2 of the paper for the description of chemical reactions in the shear band

  15. Childhood Music Training Induces Change in Micro and Macroscopic Brain Structure: Results from a Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Assal; Damasio, Antonio; Ilari, Beatriz; Veiga, Ryan; Joshi, Anand A; Leahy, Richard M; Haldar, Justin P; Varadarajan, Divya; Bhushan, Chitresh; Damasio, Hanna

    2017-11-08

    Several studies comparing adult musicians and nonmusicians have shown that music training is associated with structural brain differences. It is not been established, however, whether such differences result from pre-existing biological traits, lengthy musical training, or an interaction of the two factors, or if comparable changes can be found in children undergoing music training. As part of an ongoing longitudinal study, we investigated the effects of music training on the developmental trajectory of children's brain structure, over two years, beginning at age 6. We compared these children with children of the same socio-economic background but either involved in sports training or not involved in any systematic after school training. We established at the onset that there were no pre-existing structural differences among the groups. Two years later we observed that children in the music group showed (1) a different rate of cortical thickness maturation between the right and left posterior superior temporal gyrus, and (2) higher fractional anisotropy in the corpus callosum, specifically in the crossing pathways connecting superior frontal, sensory, and motor segments. We conclude that music training induces macro and microstructural brain changes in school-age children, and that those changes are not attributable to pre-existing biological traits. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. A DSC investigation on the changes in pore structure of skin during leather processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathima, N. Nishad; Kumar, M. Pradeep; Rao, J. Raghava; Nair, B.U.

    2010-01-01

    Leather processing involves many unit operations that modify the physical, chemical and biological properties of the raw skin/hide of an animal. One such major variation is brought to pore structure and size, which determines the breathing property of skin. Understanding this property is essential to improve the end use of the leather matrix. Thermoporometric technique has been used in this study to bring out the influence of various process steps on the pore size distribution of skin. Marked changes in the depression of freezing point are observed for each process. Scanning electron microscopy study reveals the morphological changes in the grain and cross-section of the skin during leather processing. Understanding and predictions of pore structure changes at various stages of leather processing would benefit: (a) in process control, (b) analysis of cost benefit ratio and (c) strategic planning and transport. Thus, this study aids in better understanding of the pore structure of skin to improve the functional properties of the leather.

  17. Structural changes in lignin during organosolv pretreatment of Liriodendron tulipifera and the effect on enzymatic hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Bon-Wook; Min, Byeong-Cheol; Gwak, Ki-Seob; Lee, Soo-Min; Choi, Joon-Weon; Yeo, Hwanmyeong; Choi, In-Gyu

    2012-01-01

    Although organosolv pretreatment removed substantial amounts of lignin and xylan, the yield of glucan which is a major sugar source for fermentation to ethanol is more than 90% in most conditions of the organosolv pretreatment. Relative lignin contents of all pretreated biomass were more than 200 g kg −1 , however enzymatic conversions were increased dramatically comparing to untreated biomass. Therefore the correlation between lignin and enzymatic hydrolysis could not be explained just by lignin content, and other changes resulting from lignin removal affected enzymatic hydrolysis. Results on enzymatic conversion and sugar recovery suggested that the critical temperature improving enzymatic hydrolysis significantly was between 120 °C and 130 °C. Microscopic analysis using Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) showed that structural lignin changes happened through organosolv pretreatment. Lignins were isolated from lignin carbohydrate complex (LCC) at the initial stage and then migrated to the surface of biomass. The isolated and migrated lignins were finally redistributed onto surface. These structural changes formed droplets on surface and increased pore volume in pretreated biomass. The increase in pore volume also increased available surface area and enzyme adsorption at initial stage, and thus enzymatic conversion increased significantly through organosolv pretreatment. It was verified that the droplets were mainly composed of lignin and the lignin droplets inhibited enzymatic hydrolysis through adsorption with cellulase. -- Highlights: ► Just lignin contents cannot explain a correlation with enzymatic hydrolysis. ► Several changes resulted from lignin removal must affect enzymatic hydrolysis. ► Droplets are formed by structural changes in lignin during organosolv pretreatment. ► Formation of the lignin droplet increases the pore volume in biomass. ► The increase in pore volume enhances the enzymatic hydrolysis.

  18. Changes of optical, dielectric, and structural properties of Si15Sb85 phase change memory thin films under different initializing laser power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Huan; Zhang Lei; Wang Yang; Han Xiaodong; Wu Yiqun; Zhang Ze; Gan Fuxi

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We study the optical, dielectric, and structural characteristics of Si 15 Sb 85 phase change memory thin films under a moving continuous-wave laser initialization. → The optical and dielectric constants, absorption coefficient of Si 15 Sb 85 change regularly with the increasing laser power. → The optical band gaps of Si 15 Sb 85 irradiated upon different power lasers were calculated. → HRTEM images of the samples were observed and the changes of optical and dielectric constants are determined by crystalline structures changes of the films. - Abstract: The optical, dielectric, and structural characteristics of Si 15 Sb 85 phase change memory thin films under a moving continuous-wave laser initialization are studied by using spectroscopic ellipsometry and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The dependence of complex refractive index, dielectric functions, absorption coefficient, and optical band gap of the films on its crystallization extents formed by the different initialization laser power are analyzed in detail. The structural change from as-deposited amorphous phase to distorted rhombohedra-Sb-like crystalline structure with the increase of initialization laser power is clearly observed with sub-nanometer resolution. The optical and dielectric constants, the relationship between them, and the local atomic arrangements of this new phase change material can help explain the phase change mechanism and design the practical phase change memory devices.

  19. Infrared spectroscopy study of structural changes in glass-forming salol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, J; Davydova, N A

    2010-03-01

    We report the investigation of glass-forming salol upon different courses of the temperature changes from liquid to glass state and back using FT-IR spectroscopy measurements in the wide spectral and temperature ranges. The formation of the ordered clusters in supercooled liquid salol has been observed at 250 K. When the temperature is decreased further to 11 K these ordered clusters become an element of the glass structure. With increasing temperature to 270 K through the glass transition noticeable evolutions of the IR spectrum occurs up till the ordered clusters are developed into crystal. So produced crystal melts in the temperature range 300-310 K, that corresponds to the melting temperature of the metastable phase (Tmelt=302 K) . Thus, the crystalline structure of the ordered clusters corresponds to the structure of metastable phase and is monoclinic.

  20. Formation of glassy carbon structure and its change under neutron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurolenkin, E.I.; Lopato, Yu.S.; Virgil' ev, Yu.S.; Khakimova, D.K.; Aksenov, S.I.

    1981-01-01

    The changes of glassy carbon structure, which is prepared of phenol-formaldehyde and furfurol-phenol-formaldehyde resins in the process of irradiation with 5.3x10/sup 20/ cm/sup -2/ neutron fluence with the energy E>0.18 MeV in the temperature range of 90-540 deg C are studied. It is established the irradiation results in the shrinkage of the samples. The compression of the samples increases with the irradiation temperature and neutron fluence. The thermal annealing does not result in the restoration of the volume of samples. The sample shrinkage, caused by more compact package of globular structures and the destruction of film structures, decrease gas permeability of glassy carbon.

  1. Model structures amplify uncertainty in predicted soil carbon responses to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zheng; Crowell, Sean; Luo, Yiqi; Moore, Berrien

    2018-06-04

    Large model uncertainty in projected future soil carbon (C) dynamics has been well documented. However, our understanding of the sources of this uncertainty is limited. Here we quantify the uncertainties arising from model parameters, structures and their interactions, and how those uncertainties propagate through different models to projections of future soil carbon stocks. Both the vertically resolved model and the microbial explicit model project much greater uncertainties to climate change than the conventional soil C model, with both positive and negative C-climate feedbacks, whereas the conventional model consistently predicts positive soil C-climate feedback. Our findings suggest that diverse model structures are necessary to increase confidence in soil C projection. However, the larger uncertainty in the complex models also suggests that we need to strike a balance between model complexity and the need to include diverse model structures in order to forecast soil C dynamics with high confidence and low uncertainty.

  2. Pressure-induced structural change from hexagonal to fcc metal lattice in scandium trihydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmura, A.; Machida, A.; Watanuki, T.; Aoki, K.; Nakano, S.; Takemura, K.

    2007-01-01

    We synthesized scandium hydrides by hydrogenation of a scandium foil with hydrogen fluid under high pressure at ambient temperature. Scandium dihydride (ScH 2 ) and trihydride (ScH 3 ) were prepared near 4 and 5 GPa, respectively. The hydrogenation process and pressure-induced structural changes in ScH 3 were investigated by synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction measurements up to 54.7 GPa. A structural transition from hexagonal to the fcc lattice began at 30 GPa and was completed at 46 GPa via an intermediate state similar to those reported for other hexagonal trihydrides. The intermediate state was not interpreted in terms of a coexisting state for the low-pressure hexagonal and the high-pressure fcc structures. The onset transition pressure of ScH 3 supported the previously proposed relation that the hexagonal-fcc transition pressure is inversely proportional to the ionic radius of the trihydride

  3. Time-varying parameter models for catchments with land use change: the importance of model structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathiraja, Sahani; Anghileri, Daniela; Burlando, Paolo; Sharma, Ashish; Marshall, Lucy; Moradkhani, Hamid

    2018-05-01

    Rapid population and economic growth in Southeast Asia has been accompanied by extensive land use change with consequent impacts on catchment hydrology. Modeling methodologies capable of handling changing land use conditions are therefore becoming ever more important and are receiving increasing attention from hydrologists. A recently developed data-assimilation-based framework that allows model parameters to vary through time in response to signals of change in observations is considered for a medium-sized catchment (2880 km2) in northern Vietnam experiencing substantial but gradual land cover change. We investigate the efficacy of the method as well as the importance of the chosen model structure in ensuring the success of a time-varying parameter method. The method was used with two lumped daily conceptual models (HBV and HyMOD) that gave good-quality streamflow predictions during pre-change conditions. Although both time-varying parameter models gave improved streamflow predictions under changed conditions compared to the time-invariant parameter model, persistent biases for low flows were apparent in the HyMOD case. It was found that HyMOD was not suited to representing the modified baseflow conditions, resulting in extreme and unrealistic time-varying parameter estimates. This work shows that the chosen model can be critical for ensuring the time-varying parameter framework successfully models streamflow under changing land cover conditions. It can also be used to determine whether land cover changes (and not just meteorological factors) contribute to the observed hydrologic changes in retrospective studies where the lack of a paired control catchment precludes such an assessment.

  4. Time-varying parameter models for catchments with land use change: the importance of model structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pathiraja

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Rapid population and economic growth in Southeast Asia has been accompanied by extensive land use change with consequent impacts on catchment hydrology. Modeling methodologies capable of handling changing land use conditions are therefore becoming ever more important and are receiving increasing attention from hydrologists. A recently developed data-assimilation-based framework that allows model parameters to vary through time in response to signals of change in observations is considered for a medium-sized catchment (2880 km2 in northern Vietnam experiencing substantial but gradual land cover change. We investigate the efficacy of the method as well as the importance of the chosen model structure in ensuring the success of a time-varying parameter method. The method was used with two lumped daily conceptual models (HBV and HyMOD that gave good-quality streamflow predictions during pre-change conditions. Although both time-varying parameter models gave improved streamflow predictions under changed conditions compared to the time-invariant parameter model, persistent biases for low flows were apparent in the HyMOD case. It was found that HyMOD was not suited to representing the modified baseflow conditions, resulting in extreme and unrealistic time-varying parameter estimates. This work shows that the chosen model can be critical for ensuring the time-varying parameter framework successfully models streamflow under changing land cover conditions. It can also be used to determine whether land cover changes (and not just meteorological factors contribute to the observed hydrologic changes in retrospective studies where the lack of a paired control catchment precludes such an assessment.

  5. Evaluation of sex-related changes in skin topography and structure using innovative skin testing equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowska, M; Mielcarek, A; Nowak, I

    2018-04-29

    Evaluation of skin condition on the basis of parametrization and objective measurements of the parameters has become obligatory. The aim of this study was to assess sex-related changes in skin topography and structure using the skin testing equipment. The study was carried out on the group of 40 volunteers (20 females and 20 males) of the mean age 24 ± 3 years. The skin parameters were measured using 3 devices: Visioscan ®  VC 98 (skin topography), Visioline ® VL 650 (skin macro relief) and Ultrascan UC22 (ultrasound imaging of the skin). All measurements were performed on the inner part of the left forearm. The skin parameters measured revealed significant differences in skin surface and structure between females and males. The skin of all women subjects was more homogenous in its structure with the presence of more abundant superficial skin lines and wrinkles in comparison to male skin. The higher number of skin furrows in the skin of women is in agreement with literature reports claiming that men's skin has lower number of wrinkles which are deeper and more pronounced. Ultrasound imaging of the skin indicated greater thickness and lower density of the dermis of men subjects compared to those of females. Non-invasive methods of skin testing using new and advanced equipment have provided a possibility of objective parametrization and evaluation of sex-related changes in skin topography and structure. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Modeling High Frequency Data with Long Memory and Structural Change: A-HYEGARCH Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanlin Shi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an Adaptive Hyperbolic EGARCH (A-HYEGARCH model to estimate the long memory of high frequency time series with potential structural breaks. Based on the original HYGARCH model, we use the logarithm transformation to ensure the positivity of conditional variance. The structural change is further allowed via a flexible time-dependent intercept in the conditional variance equation. To demonstrate its effectiveness, we perform a range of Monte Carlo studies considering various data generating processes with and without structural changes. Empirical testing of the A-HYEGARCH model is also conducted using high frequency returns of S&P 500, FTSE 100, ASX 200 and Nikkei 225. Our simulation and empirical evidence demonstrate that the proposed A-HYEGARCH model outperforms various competing specifications and can effectively control for structural breaks. Therefore, our model may provide more reliable estimates of long memory and could be a widely useful tool for modelling financial volatility in other contexts.

  7. Single Nanostructure Electrochemical Devices for Studying Electronic Properties and Structural Changes in Lithiated Si Nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    McDowell, Matthew T.; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Nanostructured Si is a promising anode material for the next generation of Li-ion batteries, but few studies have focused on the electrical properties of the Li-Si alloy phase, which are important for determining power capabilities and ensuring sufficient electrical conduction in the electrode structure. Here, we demonstrate an electrochemical device framework suitable for testing the electrical properties of single Si nanowires (NWs) at different lithiation states and correlating these properties with structural changes via transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We fi nd that single Si NWs usually exhibit Ohmic I - V response in the lithiated state, with conductivities two to three orders of magnitude higher than in the delithiated state. After a number of sequential lithiation/delithiation cycles, the single NWs show similar conductivity after each lithiation step but show large variations in conductivity in the delithiated state. Finally, devices with groups of NWs in physical contact were fabricated, and structural changes in the NWs were observed after lithiation to investigate how the electrical resistance of NW junctions and the NWs themselves affect the lithiation behavior. The results suggest that electrical resistance of NW junctions can limit lithiation. Overall, this study shows the importance of investigating the electronic properties of individual components of a battery electrode (single nanostructures in this case) along with studying the nature of interactions within a collection of these component structures. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Single Nanostructure Electrochemical Devices for Studying Electronic Properties and Structural Changes in Lithiated Si Nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    McDowell, Matthew T.

    2011-07-19

    Nanostructured Si is a promising anode material for the next generation of Li-ion batteries, but few studies have focused on the electrical properties of the Li-Si alloy phase, which are important for determining power capabilities and ensuring sufficient electrical conduction in the electrode structure. Here, we demonstrate an electrochemical device framework suitable for testing the electrical properties of single Si nanowires (NWs) at different lithiation states and correlating these properties with structural changes via transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We fi nd that single Si NWs usually exhibit Ohmic I - V response in the lithiated state, with conductivities two to three orders of magnitude higher than in the delithiated state. After a number of sequential lithiation/delithiation cycles, the single NWs show similar conductivity after each lithiation step but show large variations in conductivity in the delithiated state. Finally, devices with groups of NWs in physical contact were fabricated, and structural changes in the NWs were observed after lithiation to investigate how the electrical resistance of NW junctions and the NWs themselves affect the lithiation behavior. The results suggest that electrical resistance of NW junctions can limit lithiation. Overall, this study shows the importance of investigating the electronic properties of individual components of a battery electrode (single nanostructures in this case) along with studying the nature of interactions within a collection of these component structures. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Structural Changes of Lignin from Wheat Straw by Steam Explosion and Ethanol Pretreatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Pan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Effects of the pretreatment of wheat straw by steam explosion and ethanol were evaluated relative to the structural changes of lignin from the pretreated pulp. The lignin from steam explosion pulp (LS, lignin from steam blasting residual liquid (LL, lignin from ethanol pretreatment pulp (LE, lignin from black liquor (LB, and lignin from wheat straw (LW were separated, and the structural characteristics of the lignin fractions were compared based on analyses of Fourier transform-infrared, ultraviolet, thermogravimetric, and 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. The proportions of the three structural units in all lignin fractions clearly changed during the pretreatment process because of inter-conversion reactions. The conjugated structure of lignin was destroyed in the pretreatment process and was also affected by the alkali extraction process. The alcoholic hydroxyl links on the aliphatic side chain were partly transformed into carbonyl groups during ethanol pretreatment. Demethoxylation occurred in all lignin fractions during the ethanol pretreatment and steam explosion process. The thermal stability of the LB fraction was relatively high because of the condensation reaction.

  10. Changes in residential, occupational and gender structure of the greater Bangkok in the globalization process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Nakagawa

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated recent changes in migration and population structure of the Greater Bangkok considering the impact of economic globalization. The spatial policy of the Thai government has lead newer investments for manufacturing to locate away from Bangkok Metropolis and thereby the industrial structure of Bangkok Metropolis has gradually turned into service-dominated, while the region surrounding Bangkok Metropolis has attracted factories mainly owned by foreign capital. Light industry and electronics industry are con-centrated in the adjacent provinces to Bangkok Metropolis and the heavy and petrochemical industry tends to be located in the outer zone of the surrounding region. The service sector and light industry as well as electronics industry prefer female workers and Bangkok met-ropolis and the adjoining provinces have become female-dominated population structure while male workers tend to gather in the outer zone attracted by heavy and petrochemical industry. It is possible to mention accordingly that the unbalanced spatial distribution of sex structure of population which might cause changes in the norm to the family formation in future is one of the consequences of economic globalization of Thailand, which the inves-tment promotion policy of the government did not assume.

  11. Risk factors associated with structural postural changes in the spinal column of children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Adami Sedrez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between behavioral risk factors, specifically postural habits, with the presence of structural changes in the spinal column of children and adolescents. METHODS: 59 students were evaluated through the self-reporting Back Pain and Body Posture Evaluation Instrument and spinal panoramic radiographic examination. Spine curvatures were classified based on Cobb angles, as normal or altered in the saggital plane and as normal or scoliotic in the frontal plane. Data were analyzed using SPSS 18.0, based on descriptive statistics and chi-square association test (a=0,05. RESULTS: The prevalence of postural changes was 79.7% (n=47, of which 47.5% (n=28 showed frontal plane changes and 61% (n=36 sagital plane changes. Significant association was found between the presence of thoracic kyphosis and female gender, practice of physical exercises only once or twice a week, sleep time greater than 10 hours, inadequate postures when sitting on a seat and sitting down to write, and how school supplies are carried. Lumbar lordosis was associated with the inadequate way of carrying the school backpack (asymmetric; and scoliosis was associated wuth the practice of competitive sports and sleep time greater than 10 hours. CONCLUSIONS: Lifestyle may be associated with postural changes. It is important to develop health policies in order to reduce the prevalence of postural changes, by decreasing the associated risk factors.

  12. Roads and associated structures: infrastructure impacts, vulnerabilities and design considerations for future climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tighe, S.L.; Lapp, D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of the findings from the literature scan, directed at identifying engineering literature that relates to road and associated infrastructure vulnerabilities in light of climate change. The scan was carried out over the course of several weeks in late 2007/early 2008. Although many Canadian transportation agencies are thinking about the potential vulnerabilities and associated engineering impacts, very few agencies have completed any formal analysis at this time. A few agencies currently have some on-going activities that are expected to be completed in 2008, but the majority have not started to examine the engineering aspects of how the change will need to be addressed in design, construction and maintenance. Although climate change and it's impact on transportation and specifically roads and associated structures is appearing in various reports and documents across Canada, available detailed information on engineering impacts was limited to nonexistent. This paper includes a brief introduction and background on climate change in general and the related predicted impacts on road infrastructure and associated structures, with primary focus on bridges. These sections are followed by project scope and objectives and methodology of assessment. The summary of findings provides some more specific details and has been prepared using available public agency documents that were located during the aforementioned search. Finally a few closing comments are provided. (author)

  13. The self-concept and conjugal loss: evidence for structural change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montpetit, Mignon A; Bergeman, C S; Bisconti, Toni L

    2010-08-01

    The self-concept is often considered to be a personal resource that individuals may use to cope with life stressors, but little is known about how this entity might itself change in response to profound stress. The present study examines structural change in self-concept following conjugal loss in later life. Analyses were conducted on data collected from 57 widows every 4 months over the first 2 years post-loss. The first objective was to explore the adequacy of an operational definition of the self-concept as a latent construct lying at the confluence of self-esteem, perceived environmental mastery, and optimism. Because confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) supported this theoretically based conceptualization, the second objective of the study was to model stability and change in the structure of the self-concept over the 2-year study period. Results suggested that there is both stability and change in the self-system during the adjustment to major life stress.

  14. Coping with change: Household structure and composition in rural South Africa, 1992 – 20031

    Science.gov (United States)

    MADHAVAN, SANGEETHA; SCHATZ, ENID J.

    2010-01-01

    Aim To describe household change over a 10-year period of tremendous social, political, economic and health transformation in South Africa using data from the Agincourt health and demographic surveillance system in the rural northeast of South Africa. Methods Examination of household structure and composition at three points: 1992, 1997, and 2003. These three years loosely represent conditions immediately before the elections (1992), short term post-elections (1997), and longer term (2003), and span a period of notable increase in HIV prevalence. Results Average household size decreased and the proportion headed by females increased. The within-household dependency ratios for children and elders both decreased, as did the proportion of households containing foster children. The proportion with at least one maternal orphan doubled, but was still relatively small at 5.5%. Conclusions This analysis is a starting point for future investigations aimed at explaining how HIV/AIDS and other sociocultural changes post-apartheid have impacted on household organization. The analysis shows both consistency and change in measures of household structure and composition between 1992 and 2003. The changes do not include an increase in various types of “fragile families”, such as child-headed or skipped-generation households that might be expected due to HIV/AIDS. PMID:17676508

  15. In Situ Observation of the Dislocation Structure Evolution During a Strain Path Change in Copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wejdemann, Christian; Poulsen, Henning Friis; Lienert, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of deformation structures in individual grains embedded in polycrystalline copper specimens during strain path changes is observed in situ by high-resolution reciprocal space mapping with high-energy synchrotron radiation. A large number of individual subgrains is resolved; their be......The evolution of deformation structures in individual grains embedded in polycrystalline copper specimens during strain path changes is observed in situ by high-resolution reciprocal space mapping with high-energy synchrotron radiation. A large number of individual subgrains is resolved...... and orientation of the resolved subgrains change only slightly, while their elastic stresses are significantly altered. This indicates the existence of a microplastic regime during which only the subgrains deform plastically and no yielding of the dislocation walls occurs. After reloading above 0.3% strain......, the elastic stresses of individual subgrains are about the same as in unidirectionally deformed reference specimens. They increase only slightly during further straining—accompanied by occasional emergence of new subgrains, abundant orientation changes, and disappearance of existing subgrains....

  16. Bacterial Community Structure and Biochemical Changes Associated With Composting of Lignocellulosic Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Huzairi Mohd Zainudin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial community structure and biochemical changes during the composting of lignocellulosic oil palm empty bunch (EFB and palm oil mill effluent (POME anaerobic sludge were studied by examining the succession of the bacterial community and its association with changes in lignocellulosic components by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE and the 16S rRNA gene clone library. During composting, a major reduction in cellulose after 10 days from 50% to 19% and the carbon content from 44% to 27% towards the end of the 40-day composting period were observed. The C/N ratio also decreased. A drastic change in the bacterial community structure and diversity throughout the composting process was clearly observed using PCR-DGGE banding patterns. The bacterial community drastically shifted between the thermophilic and maturing stages. 16s rRNA clones belonging to the genera Bacillus, Exiguobacterium, Desemzia, and Planococcus were the dominant groups throughout composting. The species closely related to Solibacillus silvestris were found to be major contributors to changes in the lignocellulosic component. Clones identified as Thermobacillus xylanilyticus, Brachybacterium faecium, Cellulosimicrobium cellulans, Cellulomonas sp., and Thermobifida fusca, which are known to be lignocellulosic-degrading bacteria, were also detected and are believed to support the lignocellulose degradation.

  17. Remanent resistance changes in metal- PrCaMnO-metal sandwich structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherff, Malte; Meyer, Bjoern-Uwe; Scholz, Julius; Hoffmann, Joerg; Jooss, Christian [Institute of Materials Physics, University of Goettingen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The non-volatile electric pulse induced resistance change (EPIR) seems to be a rather common feature of oxides sandwiched by electrodes. However, microscopic mechanisms are discussed controversially. We present electrical transport measurements of sputtered Pr{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} films sandwiched by metallic electrodes with variation of electrode materials, device geometry and PCMO deposition parameters. Cross-plane transport measurements have been performed as function of temperature and magnetic field. Specifically, the transition from dynamic resistance changes due to non-linear transport to remanent switching is analyzed. By analyzing changes of magneto-resistance at low temperatures in different resistance states we aim for separation between interface and film contributions to switching. Comparing switching behavior in symmetric and asymmetric electrode configuration allows for identification of the active, single interface in the switching process and the origin of an observed switching polarity inversion. The influence of excitation field and power on the switching characteristics of different noble metal electrodes is discussed. Samples from macroscopic devices and in situ stimulated sandwich structures were studied in a transmission electron microscope in order to investigate the induced structural, chemical and electronic changes.

  18. Modelling a sector undergoing structural change: The case of Danish energy supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    for the demand of the produced goods. Environmental priorities and targets for emission reductions are important for defining energy policy in Denmark. As the energy supply sector at present is a major contributor to emissions of CO2 and SO2, knowledge of this sector is vital for reducing these emissions......This paper examines structural change in the power and heat producing sector (energy supply) and its implications for the economy. An integrated approach is used to describe the interactions between this sector and the rest of the economy. Thus, a very detailed model of the sector for Denmark has...... been linked to a macroeconometric model of the Danish economy. It is argued that analysing sectors that undergo radical changes, for example, the energy supply sector should be undertaken by using a model that describes the technological and organisational changes in production along with implications...

  19. Influence of the local structure in phase-change materials on their dielectric permittivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shportko, Kostiantyn V; Venger, Eugen F

    2015-01-01

    Ge-Sb-Te alloys, which belong to the phase-change materials, are promising materials for data storage and display and data visualization applications due to their unique properties. This includes a remarkable difference of their electrical and optical properties in the amorphous and crystalline state. Pronounced change of optical properties for Ge-Sb-Te alloys is linked to the different bonding types and different atomic arrangements in amorphous and crystalline states. The dielectric function of phase-change materials has been investigated in the far infrared (FIR) range. Phonons have been detected by FTIR spectroscopy. Difference of the dispersion of the dielectric permittivity of amorphous and crystalline samples is caused by different structures in different states which contribute to the dielectric permittivity.

  20. Structure and strength of carbide-steel cermet and their changes during heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dariel, M.P.; Frage, N.R.; Kaputkina, L.M.; Kaputkin, D.M.; Sverdlova, N.R.

    2004-01-01

    Both homogeneous and 'graded' materials were produced by pressing and sintering of titanium carbide TiC x (0.7 x takes place during the joining. If the titanium carbide is carbon deficient that the carbon goes from the steel binder to TiC x , and this redistribution intensity with the x decreases. So-named graded cermets were produced on controlled distribution of TiC x with different x. An additional flow of carbon from C-rich to C-poor TiC x layers was obtained in these cermets. These changes both in the steel and TiC x compositions result in changes in such processes as austenitization, carbide dissolution and precipitation, and martensitic transformation. Both general strength of the material and the gradient of properties in graded cermets can be increased using kinetic factors of element redistribution and structure changes resulted from the heat treatment. (author)

  1. Structural Change, Economic Growth and the Environmental Kuznets Curve. A Theoretical Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Groot, H.L.F.

    1999-01-01

    The question of whether economic growth will ultimately resolve environmental problems has recently been discussed in a mainly empirical literature. One of the mechanisms that can explain the finding of an inverted U-shaped relationship between income and emissions relies on the changes in the sectoral composition of economies associated with economic growth. This paper develops a multi-sector general-equilibrium model to study the dynamic relationships between technological progress, economic development, the sectoral composition of economies and emissions. In the model, structural change is the outcome of a complex interplay between factors of demand and supply, and results from both differences in technological progress on a sectoral level and from differences in income elasticities of demand for different goods. We will derive under what conditions such changes can give rise to a hump-shaped relationship between per capita income and emissions. 39 refs

  2. The Structures of the Alternative Conceptions of Preservice Secondary Teachers on Seasonal Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyoung Oh

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was to understand the components that influence preservice secondary teachers' conceptions about "seasonal changes". We selected 74 university science education students among whom 23 were in the second, 23 in the third, and 28 in the fourth year. The data collected from the paper-pencil test and individual interview with students. The results of this study show that the students had considerable apparent alternative conceptions, and that the 'distance theory' had most important effects on their alternative conceptions. It can be said that preservice secondary teachers' initial models of the seasonal change have their origin in their belief sets (specific theory related to 'seasonal change', on the basis of which they can interpret their observations and cultural information with the constraints of a naive framework of physics. The structures and possible sources of their alternative conceptions for overcoming these alternative conceptions were also discussed. Implications for preservice science teacher education related to the results were discussed.

  3. Survey of Lignin-Structure Changes and Depolymerization during Ionic Liquid Pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Tanmoy; Isern, Nancy G.; Sun, Jian; Wang, Eileen; Hull, Sarah; Cort, John R.; Simmons, Blake A.; Singh, Seema

    2017-09-26

    A detailed study of chemical changes in lignin structure during the ionic liquid (IL) pretreatment process is not only pivotal for understanding and overcoming biomass recalcitrance during IL pretreatment, but also is necessary for designing new routes for lignin valorization. Chemical changes in lignin were systematically studied as a function of pretreatment temperature, time and type of IL used. Kraft lignin was used as the lignin source and common pretreatment conditions were employed using three different ILs of varying chemical structure in terms of acidic or basic character. The chemical changes in the lignin structure due to IL pretreatment processes were monitored using 1H-13C HSQC NMR, 31P NMR, elemental analysis, GPC, FT-IR, and the depolymerized products were analyzed using GC-MS. Although pretreatment in acidic IL, triethylammonium hydrogensulfate ([TEA][HSO4]) results in maximum decrease in β-aryl ether bond, maximum dehydration and recondensation pathways were also evident, with the net process showing a minimum decrease in the molecular weight of regenerated lignin. However, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2C1Im][OAc]) pretreatment yields a smaller decrease in the β-aryl ether content along with minimum evidence of recondensation, resulting in the maximum decrease in the molecular weight. Cholinium lysinate ([Ch][Lys]) pretreatment shows an intermediate result, with moderate depolymerization, dehydration and recondensation observed. The depolymerization products after IL pretreatment are found to be a function of the pretreatment temperature and the specific chemical nature of the IL used. At higher pretreatment temperature, [Ch][Lys] pretreatment yields guaiacol, [TEA][HSO4] yields guaiacylacetone, and [C2C1Im][OAc] yields both guaiacol and guaiacylacetone as major products. These results clearly indicate that the changes in lignin structure as well as the depolymerized product profile depend on the pretreatment conditions and the nature

  4. The Dependencies of Ecosystem Pattern, Structure, and Dynamics on Climate, Climate Variability, and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, S.; Hurtt, G. C.; Fisk, J. P.; Rourke, O.

    2012-12-01

    A robust understanding of the sensitivity of the pattern, structure, and dynamics of ecosystems to climate, climate variability, and climate change is needed to predict ecosystem responses to current and projected climate change. We present results of a study designed to first quantify the sensitivity of ecosystems to climate through the use of climate and ecosystem data, and then use the results to test the sensitivity of the climate data in a state-of the art ecosystem model. A database of available ecosystem characteristics such as mean canopy height, above ground biomass, and basal area was constructed from sources like the National Biomass and Carbon Dataset (NBCD). The ecosystem characteristics were then paired by latitude and longitude with the corresponding climate characteristics temperature, precipitation, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and dew point that were retrieved from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR). The average yearly and seasonal means of the climate data, and their associated maximum and minimum values, over the 1979-2010 time frame provided by NARR were constructed and paired with the ecosystem data. The compiled results provide natural patterns of vegetation structure and distribution with regard to climate data. An advanced ecosystem model, the Ecosystem Demography model (ED), was then modified to allow yearly alterations to its mechanistic climate lookup table and used to predict the sensitivities of ecosystem pattern, structure, and dynamics to climate data. The combined ecosystem structure and climate data results were compared to ED's output to check the validity of the model. After verification, climate change scenarios such as those used in the last IPCC were run and future forest structure changes due to climate sensitivities were identified. The results of this study can be used to both quantify and test key relationships for next generation models. The sensitivity of ecosystem characteristics to climate data

  5. Changes of brain structure in Parkinson's disease patients with mild cognitive impairment analyzed via VBM technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuyuan; Nie, Kun; Huang, Biao; Mei, Mingjin; Guo, Manli; Xie, Sifen; Huang, Zhiheng; Wang, Limin; Zhao, Jiehao; Zhang, Yuhu; Wang, Lijuan

    2017-09-29

    To analyze changes in cerebral grey matter volume and white matter density in non-dementia Parkinson's disease patients using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) technology; to investigate features of brain structure changes in Parkinson's disease patients with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI), and reveal their intrinsic pathological changes. Based on the diagnostic criteria of PD-MCI, 23 PD-MCI patients, 23 Parkinson's disease patients with normal cognition (PD-NC), and 21 age- and gender-matched healthy people were recruited for the study. Scans were performed on all subjects on a 3.0T MR scanner to obtain brain structural magnetic resonance images. Images were preprocessed using the VBM8 tool from SPM8 software package on the Matlab R2008a platform, and data were then analyzed using the SPM statistical software package to compare the differences of grey matter volume and white matter density between groups, and to evaluate the brain structural changes corresponding to the overall cognitive function. Compared to the control group, the PD-NC group suffered from grey matter atrophy, mainly found in the prefrontal lobe, limbic lobe and left temporal gyrus. The PD-MCI group suffered from grey matter atrophy found in the frontal lobe, limbic lobe, basal ganglia and cerebellum. Compared to the PD-NC group, the PD-MCI group suffered from grey matter atrophy found in the left-side middle temporal gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus and frontal lobe. The grey matter regions correlated with MMSE score (mainly memory related) including the right cingulate gyrus and the limbic lobe. The grey matter regions correlated with MoCA score (mainly non-memory related) including the frontal lobe, basal ganglia, parahippocampal gyrus, occipital lobe and the cerebellum. Additionally, overall cognitive function in non-dementia PD was mainly located in the frontal and limbic system, and was dominated by subcortical atrophy. Structural changes in PD-MCI patients are associated with overall

  6. Between information systems and physical structure of the city: New causes of climate changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlov Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the frequent and significant spatial transformations, an increasing climate change regime in urban areas occurs. In this paper a comprehensive reflection on these changes is analyzed, concerning one of the major causes - the social transformation and the growing use of information, networks and technology, used by city dwellers in everyday life. Advanced communications and the Internet provide urban concentration and decentralization, creating new spatial and geographic network, with a new allocation of space, for manufacturing and services. The consequence may be recognized in increasing individualization and social habits of city dwellers, as well as in modified way of households use, changing neighbourhoods and public spaces, transport systems, as the final outcome is the climate change. In this paper, the interdependence between information networks is emphasized - between virtual and physical environment, as well as changes in the way of life of the city, which ultimately lead to a new trigger for climate change. Users have never been more mobile in the physical space (commuting and tourist travel, while in the virtual space they are associated with the fixed points - everybody can be located, by using email or social network. Unexpectedly, the cause of the problem which is considered in this paper, is increased mobility in the real space, while city dwellers remain in one place, by using their virtual electronic connections. Thus, the role of city dwellers in creating climate change depends upon their spatial distribution and relationship towards information's and network activity. As a result, the drivers in city development are recognized on network nodes. Current crises in the global environment (economic, climate and social indicate the need to develop multi-functional environment and a greater appreciation of natural factors. Therefore, as a decisive factor for the adaptation of urban structure on climate change is the

  7. Revisiting local structural changes in GeO2 glass at high pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Juncai; Yao, HuRong; Guo, Zhiying; Jia, Quanjie; Wang, Yan; An, Pengfei; Gong, Yu; Liang, Yaxiang; Chen, Dongliang

    2017-09-18

    Despite the great importance in fundamental and industrial fields, understanding structural changes for pressure-induced polyamorphism in network-forming glasses remains a formidable challenge. Here, we revisited the local structural transformations in GeO2 glass up to 54 GPa using x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy via a combination diamond anvil cell and polycapillary half-lens. Three polyamorphic transitions can be clearly identified by XAFS structure refinement. First, a progressive increase of the nearest Ge-O distance and bond disorder to a maximum at ~5-16 GPa, in the same pressure region of previously observed tetrahedral-octahedral transformation. Second, a markedly decrease of the nearest Ge-O distance at ~16-22.6 GPa but a slight increase at ~22.6-32.7 GPa, with a concomitant decrease of bond disorder. This stage can be related to a second-order-like transition from less dense to dense octahedral glass. Third, another decrease in the nearest Ge-O distance at ~32.7-41.4 GPa but a slight increase up to 54 GPa, synchronized with a gradual increase of bond disorder. This stage provides strong evidence for ultrahigh-pressure polyamorphism with coordination number >6. Furthermore, cooperative modification is observed in more distant shells. Those results provide a unified local structural picture for elucidating the polyamorphic transitions and densification process in GeO2 glass. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  8. Revisiting local structural changes in GeO2 glass at high pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Juncai; Yao, Hurong; Guo, Zhiying; Jia, Quanjie; Wang, Yan; An, Pengfei; Gong, Yu; Liang, Yaxiang; Chen, Dongliang

    2017-10-20

    Despite the great importance in fundamental and industrial fields, understanding structural changes for pressure-induced polyamorphism in network-forming glasses remains a formidable challenge. Here, we revisited the local structural transformations in GeO 2 glass up to 54 GPa using x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy via a combination diamond anvil cell and polycapillary half-lens. Three polyamorphic transitions can be clearly identified by XAFS structure refinement. First, a progressive increase of the nearest Ge-O distance and bond disorder to a maximum at ~5-16 GPa, in the same pressure region of previously observed tetrahedral-octahedral transformation. Second, a marked decrease of the nearest Ge-O distance at ~16-22.6 GPa but a slight increase at ~22.6-32.7 GPa, with a concomitant decrease of bond disorder. This stage can be related to a second-order-like transition from less dense to dense octahedral glass. Third, another decrease in the nearest Ge-O distance at ~32.7-41.4 GPa but a slight increase up to 54 GPa, synchronized with a gradual increase of bond disorder. This stage provides strong evidence for ultrahigh-pressure polyamorphism with coordination number  >6. Furthermore, cooperative modification is observed in more distant shells. Those results provide a unified local structural picture for elucidating the polyamorphic transitions and densification process in GeO 2 glass.

  9. Changes in proteasome structure and function caused by HAMLET in tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Lotta; Aits, Sonja; Onnerfjord, Patrik; Trulsson, Maria; Storm, Petter; Svanborg, Catharina

    2009-01-01

    Proteasomes control the level of endogenous unfolded proteins by degrading them in the proteolytic core. Insufficient degradation due to altered protein structure or proteasome inhibition may trigger cell death. This study examined the proteasome response to HAMLET, a partially unfolded protein-lipid complex, which is internalized by tumor cells and triggers cell death. HAMLET bound directly to isolated 20S proteasomes in vitro and in tumor cells significant co-localization of HAMLET and 20S proteasomes was detected by confocal microscopy. This interaction was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation from extracts of HAMLET-treated tumor cells. HAMLET resisted in vitro degradation by proteasomal enzymes and degradation by intact 20S proteasomes was slow compared to fatty acid-free, partially unfolded alpha-lactalbumin. After a brief activation, HAMLET inhibited proteasome activity in vitro and in parallel a change in proteasome structure occurred, with modifications of catalytic (beta1 and beta5) and structural subunits (alpha2, alpha3, alpha6 and beta3). Proteasome inhibition was confirmed in extracts from HAMLET-treated cells and there were indications of proteasome fragmentation in HAMLET-treated cells. The results suggest that internalized HAMLET is targeted to 20S proteasomes, that the complex resists degradation, inhibits proteasome activity and perturbs proteasome structure. We speculate that perturbations of proteasome structure might contribute to the cytotoxic effects of unfolded protein complexes that invade host cells.

  10. Phytoestrogens and Mycoestrogens Induce Signature Structure Dynamics Changes on Estrogen Receptor α

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueyan Chen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupters include a broad spectrum of chemicals such as industrial chemicals, natural estrogens and androgens, synthetic estrogens and androgens. Phytoestrogens are widely present in diet and food supplements; mycoestrogens are frequently found in grains. As human beings and animals are commonly exposed to phytoestrogens and mycoestrogens in diet and environment, it is important to understand the potential beneficial or hazardous effects of estrogenic compounds. Many bioassays have been established to study the binding of estrogenic compounds with estrogen receptor (ER and provided rich data in the literature. However, limited assays can offer structure information with regard to the ligand/ER complex. Our current study surveys the global structure dynamics changes for ERα ligand binding domain (LBD when phytoestrogens and mycoestrogens bind. The assay is based on the structure dynamics information probed by hydrogen deuterium exchange mass spectrometry and offers a unique viewpoint to elucidate the mechanism how phytoestrogens and mycoestrogens interact with estrogen receptor. The cluster analysis based on the hydrogen deuterium exchange (HDX assay data reveals a unique pattern when phytoestrogens and mycoestrogens bind with ERα LBD compared to that of estradiol and synthetic estrogen modulators. Our study highlights that structure dynamics could play an important role in the structure function relationship when endocrine disrupters interact with estrogen receptors.

  11. Verrucomicrobial community structure and abundance as indicators for changes in chemical factors linked to soil fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Acacio Aparecido; Soares, Tielle; Rossetto, Raffaella; van Veen, Johannes Antonie; Tsai, Siu Mui; Kuramae, Eiko Eurya

    2015-09-01

    Here we show that verrucomicrobial community structure and abundance are extremely sensitive to changes in chemical factors linked to soil fertility. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism fingerprint and real-time quantitative PCR assay were used to analyze changes in verrucomicrobial communities associated with contrasting soil nutrient conditions in tropical regions. In case study Model I ("Slash-and-burn deforestation") the verrucomicrobial community structures revealed disparate patterns in nutrient-enriched soils after slash-and-burn deforestation and natural nutrient-poor soils under an adjacent primary forest in the Amazonia (R = 0.819, P = 0.002). The relative proportion of Verrucomicrobia declined in response to increased soil fertility after slash-and-burn deforestation, accounting on average, for 4 and 2 % of the total bacterial signal, in natural nutrient-poor forest soils and nutrient-enriched deforested soils, respectively. In case study Model II ("Management practices for sugarcane") disparate patterns were revealed in sugarcane rhizosphere sampled on optimal and deficient soil fertility for sugarcane (R = 0.786, P = 0.002). Verrucomicrobial community abundance in sugarcane rhizosphere was negatively correlated with soil fertility, accounting for 2 and 5 % of the total bacterial signal, under optimal and deficient soil fertility conditions for sugarcane, respectively. In nutrient-enriched soils, verrucomicrobial community structures were related to soil factors linked to soil fertility, such as total nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and sum of bases, i.e., the sum of calcium, magnesium and potassium contents. We conclude that community structure and abundance represent important ecological aspects in soil verrucomicrobial communities for tracking the changes in chemical factors linked to soil fertility under tropical environmental conditions.

  12. High-throughput interpretation of gene structure changes in human and nonhuman resequencing data, using ACE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majoros, William H; Campbell, Michael S; Holt, Carson; DeNardo, Erin K; Ware, Doreen; Allen, Andrew S; Yandell, Mark; Reddy, Timothy E

    2017-05-15

    The accurate interpretation of genetic variants is critical for characterizing genotype-phenotype associations. Because the effects of genetic variants can depend strongly on their local genomic context, accurate genome annotations are essential. Furthermore, as some variants have the potential to disrupt or alter gene structure, variant interpretation efforts stand to gain from the use of individualized annotations that account for differences in gene structure between individuals or strains. We describe a suite of software tools for identifying possible functional changes in gene structure that may result from sequence variants. ACE ('Assessing Changes to Exons') converts phased genotype calls to a collection of explicit haplotype sequences, maps transcript annotations onto them, detects gene-structure changes and their possible repercussions, and identifies several classes of possible loss of function. Novel transcripts predicted by ACE are commonly supported by spliced RNA-seq reads, and can be used to improve read alignment and transcript quantification when an individual-specific genome sequence is available. Using publicly available RNA-seq data, we show that ACE predictions confirm earlier results regarding the quantitative effects of nonsense-mediated decay, and we show that predicted loss-of-function events are highly concordant with patterns of intolerance to mutations across the human population. ACE can be readily applied to diverse species including animals and plants, making it a broadly useful tool for use in eukaryotic population-based resequencing projects, particularly for assessing the joint impact of all variants at a locus. ACE is written in open-source C ++ and Perl and is available from geneprediction.org/ACE. myandell@genetics.utah.edu or tim.reddy@duke.edu. Supplementary information is available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e

  13. Revisiting the Neural Basis of Acquired Amusia: Lesion Patterns and Structural Changes Underlying Amusia Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihvonen, Aleksi J; Ripollés, Pablo; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Soinila, Seppo; Särkämö, Teppo

    2017-01-01

    Although, acquired amusia is a common deficit following stroke, relatively little is still known about its precise neural basis, let alone to its recovery. Recently, we performed a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) and morphometry (VBM) study which revealed a right lateralized lesion pattern, and longitudinal gray matter volume (GMV) and white matter volume (WMV) changes that were specifically associated with acquired amusia after stroke. In the present study, using a larger sample of stroke patients ( N = 90), we aimed to replicate and extend the previous structural findings as well as to determine the lesion patterns and volumetric changes associated with amusia recovery. Structural MRIs were acquired at acute and 6-month post-stroke stages. Music perception was behaviorally assessed at acute and 3-month post-stroke stages using the Scale and Rhythm subtests of the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA). Using these scores, the patients were classified as non-amusic, recovered amusic, and non-recovered amusic. The results of the acute stage VLSM analyses and the longitudinal VBM analyses converged to show that more severe and persistent (non-recovered) amusia was associated with an extensive pattern of lesions and GMV/WMV decrease in right temporal, frontal, parietal, striatal, and limbic areas. In contrast, less severe and transient (recovered) amusia was linked to lesions specifically in left inferior frontal gyrus as well as to a GMV decrease in right parietal areas. Separate continuous analyses of MBEA Scale and Rhythm scores showed extensively overlapping lesion pattern in right temporal, frontal, and subcortical structures as well as in the right insula. Interestingly, the recovered pitch amusia was related to smaller GMV decreases in the temporoparietal junction whereas the recovered rhythm amusia was associated to smaller GMV decreases in the inferior temporal pole. Overall, the results provide a more comprehensive picture of the lesions

  14. Revisiting the Neural Basis of Acquired Amusia: Lesion Patterns and Structural Changes Underlying Amusia Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihvonen, Aleksi J.; Ripollés, Pablo; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Soinila, Seppo; Särkämö, Teppo

    2017-01-01

    Although, acquired amusia is a common deficit following stroke, relatively little is still known about its precise neural basis, let alone to its recovery. Recently, we performed a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) and morphometry (VBM) study which revealed a right lateralized lesion pattern, and longitudinal gray matter volume (GMV) and white matter volume (WMV) changes that were specifically associated with acquired amusia after stroke. In the present study, using a larger sample of stroke patients (N = 90), we aimed to replicate and extend the previous structural findings as well as to determine the lesion patterns and volumetric changes associated with amusia recovery. Structural MRIs were acquired at acute and 6-month post-stroke stages. Music perception was behaviorally assessed at acute and 3-month post-stroke stages using the Scale and Rhythm subtests of the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA). Using these scores, the patients were classified as non-amusic, recovered amusic, and non-recovered amusic. The results of the acute stage VLSM analyses and the longitudinal VBM analyses converged to show that more severe and persistent (non-recovered) amusia was associated with an extensive pattern of lesions and GMV/WMV decrease in right temporal, frontal, parietal, striatal, and limbic areas. In contrast, less severe and transient (recovered) amusia was linked to lesions specifically in left inferior frontal gyrus as well as to a GMV decrease in right parietal areas. Separate continuous analyses of MBEA Scale and Rhythm scores showed extensively overlapping lesion pattern in right temporal, frontal, and subcortical structures as well as in the right insula. Interestingly, the recovered pitch amusia was related to smaller GMV decreases in the temporoparietal junction whereas the recovered rhythm amusia was associated to smaller GMV decreases in the inferior temporal pole. Overall, the results provide a more comprehensive picture of the lesions

  15. Revisiting the Neural Basis of Acquired Amusia: Lesion Patterns and Structural Changes Underlying Amusia Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksi J. Sihvonen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Although, acquired amusia is a common deficit following stroke, relatively little is still known about its precise neural basis, let alone to its recovery. Recently, we performed a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM and morphometry (VBM study which revealed a right lateralized lesion pattern, and longitudinal gray matter volume (GMV and white matter volume (WMV changes that were specifically associated with acquired amusia after stroke. In the present study, using a larger sample of stroke patients (N = 90, we aimed to replicate and extend the previous structural findings as well as to determine the lesion patterns and volumetric changes associated with amusia recovery. Structural MRIs were acquired at acute and 6-month post-stroke stages. Music perception was behaviorally assessed at acute and 3-month post-stroke stages using the Scale and Rhythm subtests of the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA. Using these scores, the patients were classified as non-amusic, recovered amusic, and non-recovered amusic. The results of the acute stage VLSM analyses and the longitudinal VBM analyses converged to show that more severe and persistent (non-recovered amusia was associated with an extensive pattern of lesions and GMV/WMV decrease in right temporal, frontal, parietal, striatal, and limbic areas. In contrast, less severe and transient (recovered amusia was linked to lesions specifically in left inferior frontal gyrus as well as to a GMV decrease in right parietal areas. Separate continuous analyses of MBEA Scale and Rhythm scores showed extensively overlapping lesion pattern in right temporal, frontal, and subcortical structures as well as in the right insula. Interestingly, the recovered pitch amusia was related to smaller GMV decreases in the temporoparietal junction whereas the recovered rhythm amusia was associated to smaller GMV decreases in the inferior temporal pole. Overall, the results provide a more comprehensive picture of

  16. Structural changes and tribological performance of thermosetting polyimide induced by proton and electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Mei; Wang, Yanming; Wang, Qihua; Wang, Tingmei; Liang, Yongmin

    2015-01-01

    The structural changes and tribological performance of thermosetting polyimide were investigated by electron, proton or both combined irradiations at 25 keV in a ground-based simulation facility. Three forms of irradiations could lead to the formation of the carbonized layer on the polymer surface that could increase the hardness and adhesive force of the material. Proton irradiation induced more extensive changes in structure and friction behavior than electron irradiation by reason of the higher linear energy transfer value, and combined irradiation resulted in the largest impact, but which was less than the sum of the radiation effects of electron and proton. Moreover, the experimental results indicated that the changes in friction behavior are closely related with the carbonized layer, which was easily worn out in friction process and could introduce a shift from adhesion wear to three-body abrasive wear that reduced the wear rate and the friction coefficient. The friction process of irradiated samples could be divided into the initial stage and the steady stage. Three forms of irradiations all induced the high friction coefficient in the initial stage and the low friction coefficient in the steady stage, and the wear rate of the irradiated samples decreased in the order: electron irradiation>proton irradiation>combined irradiation. - Highlights: • Proton irradiation induced more extensive changes in structure and friction behavior than electron irradiation. • The effect of combined irradiation was less than that of the sum of electron and proton irradiation. • Three forms of irradiations all induced the high initial friction coefficient and the low steady-stage friction coefficient. • The initial friction stage means a fast-wearing adhesive process while the steady-state of the system is a three-body abrasion

  17. Annealing assisted structural and surface morphological changes in Langmuir–Blodgett films of nickel octabutoxy phthalocyanine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shilpa Harish, T.; Viswanath, P., E-mail: viswanath@cnsms.res.in

    2016-01-01

    We report our studies on thin films of metallo-phthalocyanine (MPc), Nickel(II)1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octabutoxy-29H,31H-phthalocyanine (NiPc(OBu){sub 8}) transferred in a well defined thermodynamic state over a self assembled monolayer (octadecyl trichlorosilane)/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate using the Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) method. The films are characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. DSC studies on powdered samples in the bulk indicate enantiotropic solid–solid phase transition. GIXD studies on the as-deposited LB film show a Bragg peak indicating crystallinity of the thin film. Annealing (373 K) results in reduction of lattice spacing (1.21 Å) signifying changes in molecular packing within the unit cell. At this stage, an additional Bragg peak is observed which grows at the expense of the former one and they coexist between 373 K and 423 K. A discontinuity in lattice spacing from 20.73 to 15.12 Å with annealing indicates clearly a structural change of the underlying crystalline lattice. Correspondingly, the surface morphology images obtained using AFM show, with annealing, a transformation from spherical granular morphology to elongated, flat crystallites suggesting asymmetric growth process. Statistical parameters of the grain extracted from the AFM images show that the size, fractal dimension and circularity are affected by annealing. Based on these studies, we infer the structural and surface morphological changes of the meta-stable phase (Form I) to the stable phase (Form II) in annealed LB films of phthalocyanine. - Highlights: • Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) films of phthalocyanine subjected to thermal annealing. • Structural transformation and coexistence of polymorphs in LB films • Surface morphology changes from nanoscale grains to elongated crystallites. • Reduction of fractal dimension and circularity index reveals asymmetric growth.

  18. The Changing Safety Net for Low-Income Parents and Their Children: Structural or Cyclical Changes in Income Support Policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Bradley; Smeeding, Timothy; Ziliak, James P

    2018-02-01

    Refundable tax credits and food assistance are the largest transfer programs available to able-bodied working poor and near-poor families in the United States, and simultaneous participation in these programs has more than doubled since the early 2000s. To understand this growth, we construct a series of two-year panels from the 1981-2013 waves of the Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplement to estimate the effect of state labor-market conditions, federal and state transfer program policy choices, and household demographics governing joint participation in food and refundable tax credit programs. Overall, changing policy drives much of the increase in the simultaneous, biennial use of food assistance and refundable tax credits. This stands in stark contrast from the factors accounting for the growth in food assistance alone, where cyclical and structural labor market factors account for at least one-half of the growth, and demographics play a more prominent role. Moreover, since 2000, the business cycle factors as the leading determinant in biennial participation decisions in food programs and refundable tax credits, suggesting a recent strengthening in the relationship between economic conditions and transfer programs.

  19. Values, inter-attitudinal structure, and attitude change: value accessibility can increase a related attitude's resistance to change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, Kevin L; Wegener, Duane T; Murray, Renee A

    2015-12-01

    Accessibility is one of the most basic structural properties of an attitude and an important factor to consider in attitude strength. Despite its importance, relatively little work has examined the role of attitude accessibility in an inter-attitudinal context, particularly as it relates to the strength of related attitudes in the network. The present research examines accessibility as a property of one attitude (toward an abstract goal or end-state, that is, a value) that might influence the strength of a different but related attitude (toward a social policy conceptually related to the value). In Study 1, a highly accessible evaluative component of a value increased resistance to change of attitudes and behavioral intentions toward a social policy related to that value. Similarly, a manipulation of value accessibility (Studies 2 and 3) led to increased resistance of attitudes and behavioral intentions toward a social policy related to that value. Implications for the role of accessibility in inter-attitudinal strength are discussed. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  20. Implications of changes in land cover and landscape structure for the biocontrol potential of stemborers in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kebede, Yodit; Bianchi, Felix; Baudron, Frédéric; Abraham, Kristin; Valença, de Anne; Tittonell, Pablo

    2018-01-01

    The land cover and structure of agricultural landscapes may influence the abundance and diversity of natural enemies of crop pests. However, these landscapes are continuously evolving due to changing land uses and agricultural practices. Here we assess changes in land use and landscape structure in

  1. Globalization and structural change in the U.S. forest sector: an evolving context for sustainable forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Ince; Albert Schuler; Henry Spelter; William Luppold

    2007-01-01

    This report examines economic implications for sustainable forest management of globalization and related structural changes in the forest sector of the United States. Globalization has accelerated structural change in the U.S. forest sector, favored survival of larger and more capital-intensive enterprises, and altered historical patterns of resource use.

  2. Lake Michigan offshore ecosystem structure and food web changes from 1987 to 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Mark W.; Bunnell, David B.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Warner, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystems undergo dynamic changes owing to species invasions, fisheries management decisions, landscape modifications, and nutrient inputs. At Lake Michigan, new invaders (e.g., dreissenid mussels (Dreissena spp.), spiny water flea (Bythotrephes longimanus), round goby (Neogobius melanostomus)) have proliferated and altered energy transfer pathways, while nutrient concentrations and stocking rates to support fisheries have changed. We developed an ecosystem model to describe food web structure in 1987 and ran simulations through 2008 to evaluate changes in biomass of functional groups, predator consumption, and effects of recently invading species. Keystone functional groups from 1987 were identified as Mysis, burbot (Lota lota), phytoplankton, alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), nonpredatory cladocerans, and Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Simulations predicted biomass reductions across all trophic levels and predicted biomasses fit observed trends for most functional groups. The effects of invasive species (e.g., dreissenid grazing) increased across simulation years, but were difficult to disentangle from other changes (e.g., declining offshore nutrient concentrations). In total, our model effectively represented recent changes to the Lake Michigan ecosystem and provides an ecosystem-based tool for exploring future resource management scenarios.

  3. Correlation between structural, optical and electrical properties anf the suitability of phase change alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woda, Michael; Steimer, Christoph; Wamwangi, Daniel; Wuttig, Matthias [I. Insitute of Physics (IA), RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Phase change random access memory (PCRAM) is a very promising candidate to replace Flash memories employed in the non-volatile storage sector. In the active region of this emerging memory, a phase change material is found. This class of materials is already used in rewritable optical data storage. In both application areas the reversible switching between the amorphous and the crystalline state by short current or laser pulses, respectively is used to store data. A key question that has not yet been answered regards the optimum choice of materials for phase change recording. We present a material selection strategy which classifies carefully chosen alloys, being representative for a larger selection of phase change materials, regarding their suitability for non-volatile storage applications. XRD and XRR measurements reveal structural properties of the as-deposited, amorphous and the crystalline state, the corresponding local bond arrangements and the change of film density. Ellipsometry measurements determine the optical contrast of the samples while the temperature dependent resistivity is measured by four point probe experiments. Finally the electrical switching behaviour is tested in nanometer size test cells to validate the full functionality of the chosen materials.

  4. Stable isotope evidence of long-term changes in North Sea food web structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardson, Katherine; Christensen, Jens Tang

    2008-01-01

    coast. Porpoises collected after ~1960 had significantly lower d15N than porpoises collected earlier. This change in d15N implies that fundamental changes in food web structure in, or nutrient availability to, the North Sea have taken place over the last ~150 yr and that most of the change occurred over......, been feeding at a lower trophic level than during the preceding century, i.e. animals from lower trophic levels may now be more dominant than they were prior to the middle of the 20th century. There is no a priori reason to suspect that a change in isotope distributions at the base of the food web has...... occurred during this period and we have not been able to find material that would allow us to test the assumption that there has been no temporal development of d15N at the lowest levels of the food web. Thus, we cannot eliminate the possibility that the change in d15N in harbour porpoise skeletons...

  5. Human and natural influences on the changing thermal structure of the atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santer, Benjamin D; Painter, Jeffrey F; Bonfils, Céline; Mears, Carl A; Solomon, Susan; Wigley, Tom M L; Gleckler, Peter J; Schmidt, Gavin A; Doutriaux, Charles; Gillett, Nathan P; Taylor, Karl E; Thorne, Peter W; Wentz, Frank J

    2013-10-22

    Since the late 1970s, satellite-based instruments have monitored global changes in atmospheric temperature. These measurements reveal multidecadal tropospheric warming and stratospheric cooling, punctuated by short-term volcanic signals of reverse sign. Similar long- and short-term temperature signals occur in model simulations driven by human-caused changes in atmospheric composition and natural variations in volcanic aerosols. Most previous comparisons of modeled and observed atmospheric temperature changes have used results from individual models and individual observational records. In contrast, we rely on a large multimodel archive and multiple observational datasets. We show that a human-caused latitude/altitude pattern of atmospheric temperature change can be identified with high statistical confidence in satellite data. Results are robust to current uncertainties in models and observations. Virtually all previous research in this area has attempted to discriminate an anthropogenic signal from internal variability. Here, we present evidence that a human-caused signal can also be identified relative to the larger "total" natural variability arising from sources internal to the climate system, solar irradiance changes, and volcanic forcing. Consistent signal identification occurs because both internal and total natural variability (as simulated by state-of-the-art models) cannot produce sustained global-scale tropospheric warming and stratospheric cooling. Our results provide clear evidence for a discernible human influence on the thermal structure of the atmosphere.

  6. Spectroscopic evaluation of painted layer structural changes induced by gamma radiation in experimental models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manea, Mihaela M.; Moise, Ioan V.; Virgolici, Marian; Negut, Constantin D.; Barbu, Olimpia-Hinamatsuri; Cutrubinis, Mihalis; Fugaru, Viorel; Stanculescu, Ioana R.; Ponta, Corneliu C.

    2012-01-01

    The degradation of cultural heritage objects by insects and microorganisms is an important issue for conservators, art specialists and humankind in general. Gamma irradiation is an efficient method of polychrome wooden artifacts disinfestation. Color changes and other modifications in the physical chemical properties of materials induced by gamma irradiation are feared by cultural heritage responsible committees and they have to be evaluated objectively and precisely. In this paper FTIR and FT-Raman spectroscopy methods were used to investigate the structural changes in some experimental models of tempera paint layers on wood following 11 kGy gamma irradiation at two dose rates. Radiation chemistry depends on the particular pigment, matrix formed by protein, resin (in case of varnished samples) and water presence. For the majority of painted layer in experimental models very small spectral variations were observed. Small changes in the FTIR spectra were observed for the raw sienna experimental model: for the higher dose rate the egg yolk protein oxidation peaks and the CH stretching bands due to lipids degradation products increased. - Highlights: ► Experimental models of tempera paint layers on wood were γ-irradiated at two dose rates. ► Changes induced by γ-irradiation were evaluated by vibrational spectroscopy. ► Minor spectral variations of painted layer were observed. ► Raw sienna FTIR spectra showed little changes of egg yolk and lipids at higher dose rate. ► Gamma irradiation is recommended for disinfection of painted wooden artifacts.

  7. Algorithms and data structures for automated change detection and classification of sidescan sonar imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendron, Marlin Lee

    During Mine Warfare (MIW) operations, MIW analysts perform change detection by visually comparing historical sidescan sonar imagery (SSI) collected by a sidescan sonar with recently collected SSI in an attempt to identify objects (which might be explosive mines) placed at sea since the last time the area was surveyed. This dissertation presents a data structure and three algorithms, developed by the author, that are part of an automated change detection and classification (ACDC) system. MIW analysts at the Naval Oceanographic Office, to reduce the amount of time to perform change detection, are currently using ACDC. The dissertation introductory chapter gives background information on change detection, ACDC, and describes how SSI is produced from raw sonar data. Chapter 2 presents the author's Geospatial Bitmap (GB) data structure, which is capable of storing information geographically and is utilized by the three algorithms. This chapter shows that a GB data structure used in a polygon-smoothing algorithm ran between 1.3--48.4x faster than a sparse matrix data structure. Chapter 3 describes the GB clustering algorithm, which is the author's repeatable, order-independent method for clustering. Results from tests performed in this chapter show that the time to cluster a set of points is not affected by the distribution or the order of the points. In Chapter 4, the author presents his real-time computer-aided detection (CAD) algorithm that automatically detects mine-like objects on the seafloor in SSI. The author ran his GB-based CAD algorithm on real SSI data, and results of these tests indicate that his real-time CAD algorithm performs comparably to or better than other non-real-time CAD algorithms. The author presents his computer-aided search (CAS) algorithm in Chapter 5. CAS helps MIW analysts locate mine-like features that are geospatially close to previously detected features. A comparison between the CAS and a great circle distance algorithm shows that the

  8. Structural plasticity of the social brain: Differential change after socio-affective and cognitive mental training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valk, Sofie L; Bernhardt, Boris C; Trautwein, Fynn-Mathis; Böckler, Anne; Kanske, Philipp; Guizard, Nicolas; Collins, D Louis; Singer, Tania

    2017-10-01

    Although neuroscientific research has revealed experience-dependent brain changes across the life span in sensory, motor, and cognitive domains, plasticity relating to social capacities remains largely unknown. To investigate whether the targeted mental training of different cognitive and social skills can induce specific changes in brain morphology, we collected longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data throughout a 9-month mental training intervention from a large sample of adults between 20 and 55 years of age. By means of various daily mental exercises and weekly instructed group sessions, training protocols specifically addressed three functional domains: (i) mindfulness-based attention and interoception, (ii) socio-affective skills (compassion, dealing with difficult emotions, and prosocial motivation), and (iii) socio-cognitive skills (cognitive perspective-taking on self and others and metacognition). MRI-based cortical thickness analyses, contrasting the different training modules against each other, indicated spatially diverging changes in cortical morphology. Training of present-moment focused attention mostly led to increases in cortical thickness in prefrontal regions, socio-affective training induced plasticity in frontoinsular regions, and socio-cognitive training included change in inferior frontal and lateral temporal cortices. Module-specific structural brain changes correlated with training-induced behavioral improvements in the same individuals in domain-specific measures of attention, compassion, and cognitive perspective-taking, respectively, and overlapped with task-relevant functional networks. Our longitudinal findings indicate structural plasticity in well-known socio-affective and socio-cognitive brain networks in healthy adults based on targeted short daily mental practices. These findings could promote the development of evidence-based mental training interventions in clinical, educational, and corporate settings aimed at

  9. Structural changes of radial forging die surface during service under thermo-mechanical fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nematzadeh, Fardin; Akbarpour, Mohammad Reza; Kokabi, Amir Hosein; Sadrnezhaad, Seyed Khatiboleslam

    2009-01-01

    Radial forging is one of the modern open die forging techniques and has a wide application in producing machine parts. During operation at high temperatures, severe temperature change associated with mechanical loads and the resultant wearing of the die surface lead to intense variation in strain on the die surface. Therefore, under this operating condition, thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF) occurs on the surface of the radial forging die. TMF decreases the life of the die severely. In the present research, different layers were deposited on a 1.2714 steel die by SMAW and GTAW, with a weld wire of UDIMET 520. The microstructure of the radial forging die surface was investigated during welding and service using an optical microscope and scanning electron microscope. The results revealed that, after welding, the structure of the radial forging die surface includes the γ matrix with a homogeneous distribution of fine semi-spherical carbides. The weld structure consisted mostly of columnar dendrites with low grain boundaries. Also, microstructural investigation of the die surface during operation showed that the weld structure of the die surface has remained without any considerable change. Only dendrites were deformed and broken. Moreover, grain boundaries of the dendrites were revealed during service.

  10. A study on structural changes in protein by time-division type Laue method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, Hideki

    1995-01-01

    In order to know the physiological roles of proteins, it is important to investigate the intermediate states of their structural changes. The sizes of proteins are generally several tens angstrom(A). Considering the resolution, only x-ray crystal analysis can be used in practice for the investigation of the mechanism of protein structural changes, though NMR is applicable only for small-sized proteins. However, x-ray analysis is not so suitable for analysis of their intermediate states. Thus, the author paid attention to the time-division type Laue method for the study of hemoglobin (Hb). Laser-flash induces to release carbonmonooxide (CO) from carboxyhemoglobin (Hb(CO) 4 ). Therefore, if an appropriate length of x-ray pulse (∼100 picosec) is available, the processes in the period from cleavage of the bond between a ligand (O 2 , CO or NO) and Hb to recombination of them might be monitored. Using DNA recombination and chemical modification techniques, recombinant Hb, of which T structure is stable was produced. An investigation on the conditions which allow to release CO from the Hb is undertaken using a single crystal of this Hb. The experimental systems applicable to time-division type Laue method are some protein molecules participating in chemical reactions inducible by light absorption, the electron-transfer system excited by light and so on. (M.N.)

  11. High-spin states in 136La and possible structure change in the N =79 region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishibata, H.; Leguillon, R.; Odahara, A.; Shimoda, T.; Petrache, C. M.; Ito, Y.; Takatsu, J.; Tajiri, K.; Hamatani, N.; Yokoyama, R.; Ideguchi, E.; Watanabe, H.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Yoshinaga, K.; Suzuki, T.; Nishimura, S.; Beaumel, D.; Lehaut, G.; Guinet, D.; Desesquelles, P.; Curien, D.; Higashiyama, K.; Yoshinaga, N.

    2015-05-01

    High-spin states in the odd-odd nucleus 136La, which is located close to the β -stability line, have been investigated in the radioactive-beam-induced fusion-evaporation reaction 124Sn(17N,5 n ). The use of the radioactive beam enabled a highly sensitive and successful search for a new isomer [14+,T1 /2=187 (27 ) ns] in 136La. In the A =130 -140 mass region, no such long-lived isomer has been observed at high spin in odd-odd nuclei. The 136La level scheme was revised, incorporating the 14+ isomer and six new levels. The results were compared with pair-truncated shell model (PTSM) calculations which successfully explain the level structure of the π h11 /2⊗ν h11/2 -1 bands in 132La and 134La. The isomerism of the 14+ state was investigated also by a collective model, the cranked Nilsson-Strutinsky (CNS) model, which explains various high-spin structures in the medium-heavy mass region. It is suggested that a new type of collective structure is induced in the PTSM model by the increase of the number of π g7 /2 pairs, and/or in the CNS model by the configuration change associated with the shape change in 136La.

  12. Sleep duration and age-related changes in brain structure and cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, June C; Loh, Kep Kee; Zheng, Hui; Sim, Sam K Y; Chee, Michael W L

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the contribution of sleep duration and quality to age-related changes in brain structure and cognitive performance in relatively healthy older adults. Community-based longitudinal brain and cognitive aging study using a convenience sample. Participants were studied in a research laboratory. Relatively healthy adults aged 55 y and older at study commencement. N/A. Participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological assessment every 2 y. Subjective assessments of sleep duration and quality and blood samples were obtained. Each hour of reduced sleep duration at baseline augmented the annual expansion rate of the ventricles by 0.59% (P = 0.007) and the annual decline rate in global cognitive performance by 0.67% (P = 0.050) in the subsequent 2 y after controlling for the effects of age, sex, education, and body mass index. In contrast, global sleep quality at baseline did not modulate either brain or cognitive aging. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein, a marker of systemic inflammation, showed no correlation with baseline sleep duration, brain structure, or cognitive performance. In healthy older adults, short sleep duration is associated with greater age-related brain atrophy and cognitive decline. These associations are not associated with elevated inflammatory responses among short sleepers. Lo JC, Loh KK, Zheng H, Sim SK, Chee MW. Sleep duration and age-related changes in brain structure and cognitive performance.

  13. The Impact of Automation on Employment: Just the Usual Structural Change?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Vermeulen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We study the projected impact of automation on employment in the forthcoming decade, both at the macro-level and in actual (types of sectors. Hereto, we unite an evolutionary economic model of multisectoral structural change with labor economic theory. We thus get a comprehensive framework of how displacement of labor in sectors of application is compensated by intra- and intersectoral countervailing effects and notably mopped up by newly created, labor-intensive sectors. We use several reputable datasets with expert projections on employment in occupations affected by automation (and notably by the introduction of robotics and AI to pinpoint which and how sectors and occupations face employment shifts. This reveals how potential job loss due to automation in “applying” sectors is counterbalanced by job creation in “making” sectors as well in complementary and quaternary, spillover sectors. Finally, we study several macro-level scenarios on employment and find that mankind is facing “the usual structural change” rather than the “end of work”. We provide recommendations on policy instruments that enhance the dynamic efficiency of structural change.

  14. A study on structural changes in protein by time-division type Laue method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morimoto, Hideki [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering Science

    1995-11-01

    In order to know the physiological roles of proteins, it is important to investigate the intermediate states of their structural changes. The sizes of proteins are generally several tens angstrom(A). Considering the resolution, only x-ray crystal analysis can be used in practice for the investigation of the mechanism of protein structural changes, though NMR is applicable only for small-sized proteins. However, x-ray analysis is not so suitable for analysis of their intermediate states. Thus, the author paid attention to the time-division type Laue method for the study of hemoglobin (Hb). Laser-flash induces to release carbonmonooxide (CO) from carboxyhemoglobin (Hb(CO){sub 4}). Therefore, if an appropriate length of x-ray pulse ({approx}100 picosec) is available, the processes in the period from cleavage of the bond between a ligand (O{sub 2}, CO or NO) and Hb to recombination of them might be monitored. Using DNA recombination and chemical modification techniques, recombinant Hb, of which T structure is stable was produced. An investigation on the conditions which allow to release CO from the Hb is undertaken using a single crystal of this Hb. The experimental systems applicable to time-division type Laue method are some protein molecules participating in chemical reactions inducible by light absorption, the electron-transfer system excited by light and so on. (M.N.)

  15. Structural Changes of Lumbar Muscles in Non-specific Low Back Pain: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goubert, Dorien; Oosterwijck, Jessica Van; Meeus, Mira; Danneels, Lieven

    2016-01-01

    Lumbar muscle dysfunction due to pain might be related to altered lumbar muscle structure. Macroscopically, muscle degeneration in low back pain (LBP) is characterized by a decrease in cross-sectional area and an increase in fat infiltration in the lumbar paraspinal muscles. In addition microscopic changes, such as changes in fiber distribution, might occur. Inconsistencies in results from different studies make it difficult to draw firm conclusions on which structural changes are present in the different types of non-specific LBP. Insights regarding structural muscle alterations in LBP are, however, important for prevention and treatment of non-specific LBP. The goal of this article is to review which macro- and/or microscopic structural alterations of the lumbar muscles occur in case of non-specific chronic low back pain (CLBP), recurrent low back pain (RLBP), and acute low back pain (ALBP). Systematic review. All selected studies were case-control studies. A systematic literature search was conducted in the databases PubMed and Web of Science. Only full texts of original studies regarding structural alterations (atrophy, fat infiltration, and fiber type distribution) in lumbar muscles of patients with non-specific LBP compared to healthy controls were included. All included articles were scored on methodological quality. Fifteen studies were found eligible after screening title, abstract, and full text for inclusion and exclusion criteria. In CLBP, moderate evidence of atrophy was found in the multifidus; whereas, results in the paraspinal and the erector spinae muscle remain inconclusive. Also moderate evidence occurred in RLBP and ALBP, where no atrophy was shown in any lumbar muscle. Conflicting results were seen in undefined LBP groups. Results concerning fat infiltration were inconsistent in CLBP. On the other hand, there is moderate evidence in RLBP that fat infiltration does not occur, although a larger muscle fat index was found in the erector spinae

  16. World trade organization and structural changes in economy of a region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelena Davidovna Vasman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the results of the research dedicated to the probable consequences of Russian entry to WTO are represented. Based on the analysis of the opposite points of view, it is shown that changes depend more on the economic situation in the country and not on the entry itself. The series of negative starting characteristics of Russian economy is noticed. Among those are the significant spatial differentiation of particular regions and the disproportion of the regional development. It also noted that Russian entry to WTO may deepen this disproportion. The prognosis of economic structural changes is proposed to implement in the two fields: in the traditional economic sector and the field of the knowledge-based economy. The method was developed for determining the first field of prognosis, which approbation confirmed the probable declining trend in traditional economic sectors. The task considering the second field was solved on the basis of the research in technology and innovation capital transformation processes on the example of two groups of countries: already WTO members but still developing countries and developing countries beyond WTO. The results of the research show the WTO entry neutral influence on structural changes in the knowledge-based economy.

  17. Early structural changes of the heart after experimental polytrauma and hemorrhagic shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbgebauer, Rebecca; Eisele, Philipp; Messerer, David A. C.; Weckbach, Sebastian; Schultze, Anke; Braumüller, Sonja; Gebhard, Florian

    2017-01-01

    Evidence is emerging that systemic inflammation after trauma drives structural and functional impairment of cardiomyocytes and leads to cardiac dysfunction, thus worsening the outcome of polytrauma patients. This study investigates the structural and molecular changes in heart tissue 4 h after multiple injuries with additional hemorrhagic shock using a clinically relevant rodent model of polytrauma. We determined mediators of systemic inflammation (keratinocyte chemoattractant, macrophage chemotactic protein 1), activated complement component C3a and cardiac troponin I in plasma and assessed histological specimen of the mouse heart via standard histomorphology and immunohistochemistry for cellular and subcellular damage and ongoing apoptosis. Further we investigated spatial and quantitative changes of connexin 43 by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Our results show significantly increased plasma levels of both keratinocyte chemoattractant and cardiac troponin I 4 h after polytrauma and 2 h after induction of hypovolemia. Although we could not detect any morphological changes, immunohistochemical evaluation showed increased level of tissue high-mobility group box 1, which is both a damage-associated molecule and actively released as a danger response signal. Additionally, there was marked lateralization of the cardiac gap-junction protein connexin 43 following combined polytrauma and hemorrhagic shock. These results demonstrate a molecular manifestation of remote injury of cardiac muscle cells in the early phase after polytrauma and hemorrhagic shock with marked disruption of the cardiac gap junction. This disruption of an important component of the electrical conduction system of the heart may lead to arrhythmia and consequently to cardiac dysfunction. PMID:29084268

  18. Effect of ionizing radiation on structural changes of energy nutrients in feeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvorak, J.; Smid, K.; Hrusovsky, J.

    1985-01-01

    For the purpose of testing the effect of ionizing radiation, feeds for dogs (meat feed mixture VETACAN and loose feed mixture VETAVIT) irradiated with 60 Co at a dose of 25 kGy/kg were studied for 60 days. It was found that the total volume of energetic and non-energetic nutrients did not change. Qualitative structure, however, displayed a significant, on the average 35% disintegration of essential amino acids, a decrease in proteins and increase in free ammoniacal bases. A significant oxidation effect of radiation is exerted on the decomposition of fats with a release of free fatty acids from the glycerol bond in a process similar to racidification (from 13.3 - 20.88 - 37.10 mg/g in meat mixture, from 103.1 - 130.04 - 135.04 mg/g in loose mixture). A certain disintegration of nutrients, only within the limits of significance, occurred also in the saccharide proportion of the loose feed mixture (acidity of water extract 348.8 - 403.99 -436.60 mg/100 g). It was proved that radiosterilization reliably secured microbiological and mycological sanitation of feeds and caused no sensory changes noticeable by human senses. It follows from the results that ionizing radiation had a pronounced antimicrobial and antimycotic effect. However, it caused significant structural changes in energetic nutrients in the feeds of animal as well as of vegetable origin. (author)

  19. Changes in Cold Surge Occurrence over East Asia in the Future: Role of Thermal Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Woo Heo

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of wintertime cold surges (CSs over East Asia is largely controlled by the surface air temperature (SAT distribution at high latitudes and thermal advection in the lower troposphere. The thermodynamic background state over northeastern Asia is associated with the strength of the East Asian winter monsoon and the variation of Arctic Oscillation. This study assesses the importance of the SAT structure with thermal advection in determining the frequency of CS occurrences over East Asia through the analysis of nine atmosphere–ocean coupled global climate models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5. The historical simulations can reproduce the observed typical characteristics of CS development. On the basis of this model performance, ensemble-averaged future simulations under the representative concentration pathway 8.5 project a reduction in CS frequency by 1.1 yr−1 in the late 21st century (2065–2095 compared to the present-day period (1975–2005. The major reason for less frequent CSs in the future is the weakened cold advection, caused by notable SAT warming over the northern part of East Asia. These results suggest that changes in the meridional SAT structure and the associated changes in thermal advection would play a more substantial role than local warming in determining future changes in the frequency of CS occurrences over East Asia.

  20. Irradiation-induced structure and property changes in tokamak plasma-facing, carbon-carbon composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchell, T.D.

    1994-01-01

    Carbon-carbon composites are an attractive choice for fusion reactor plasma-facing components because of their low atomic number, superior thermal shock resistance, and low neutron activation. Next generation plasma fusion reactors, such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), will require advanced carbon-carbon composite materials possessing high thermal conductivity to manage the anticipated severe heat loads. Moreover, ignition machines such as ITER will produce large neutron fluxes. Consequently, the influence of neutron damage on the structure and properties of carbon-carbon composite materials must be evaluated. Data from two irradiation experiments are reported and discussed here. Carbon-carbon composite materials were irradiated in target capsules in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). A peak damage dose of 4.7 displacements per atom (dpa) at 600 degree C was attained. The carbon materials irradiated included uni-directional, two-directional, and three-directional carbon-carbon composites. Dimensional changes are reported for the composite materials and are related to single crystal dimensional changes through fiber and composite structural models. Moreover, the irradiation-induced dimensional changes are reported and discussed in terms of their architecture, fiber type, and graphitization temperature. The effect of neutron irradiation on thermal conductivity of two three-directional, carbon-carbon composites is reported and the recovery of thermal conductivity due to thermal annealing is discussed

  1. Changes in glycosaminoglycan structure on differentiation of human embryonic stem cells towards mesoderm and endoderm lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasimli, Leyla; Hickey, Anne Marie; Yang, Bo; Li, Guoyun; dela Rosa, Mitche; Nairn, Alison V; Kulik, Michael J; Dordick, Jonathan S; Moremen, Kelley W; Dalton, Stephen; Linhardt, Robert J

    2014-06-01

    Proteoglycans are found on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix, and serve as prime sites for interaction with signaling molecules. Proteoglycans help regulate pathways that control stem cell fate, and therefore represent an excellent tool to manipulate these pathways. Despite their importance, there is a dearth of data linking glycosaminoglycan structure within proteoglycans with stem cell differentiation. Human embryonic stem cell line WA09 (H9) was differentiated into early mesoderm and endoderm lineages, and the glycosaminoglycanomic changes accompanying these transitions were studied using transcript analysis, immunoblotting, immunofluorescence and disaccharide analysis. Pluripotent H9 cell lumican had no glycosaminoglycan chains whereas in splanchnic mesoderm lumican was glycosaminoglycanated. H9 cells have primarily non-sulfated heparan sulfate chains. On differentiation towards splanchnic mesoderm and hepatic lineages N-sulfo group content increases. Differences in transcript expression of NDST1, HS6ST2 and HS6ST3, three heparan sulfate biosynthetic enzymes, within splanchnic mesoderm cells compared to H9 cells correlate to changes in glycosaminoglycan structure. Differentiation of embryonic stem cells markedly changes the proteoglycanome. The glycosaminoglycan biosynthetic pathway is complex and highly regulated, and therefore, understanding the details of this pathway should enable better control with the aim of directing stem cell differentiation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Urban Land Expansion and Structural Change in the Yangtze River Delta, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinlong Gao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban development in China has attracted considerable scholarly attention. However, more work is still needed to examine and understand the mechanisms of urban land expansion, especially within the context of globalization/marketization, decentralization and urbanization. This paper analyzes urban land expansion and structural changes in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD. We find that cities in the YRD are experiencing urban land expansion mainly characterized by the growth of residential and industrial land. The dominant characteristics of urban land expansion in cities have also varied within different development and administrative levels. Based on our conceptual framework, we have used multi-models to investigate the driving forces of urban land expansion and structural changes in the YRD. The results reveal that six influencing factors—foreign direct investment (FDI, labor, government competition, institution, population, and job-housing relations—facilitate land use change in the economic transition process. However, their impacts differ in cities in different geographical locations, as well as with different administrative levels. Finally, this paper discusses policies to promote sustainable urban land use in the YRD.

  3. Electronic structure and spectroscopy of nucleic acid bases: Ionization energies, ionization-induced structural changes, and photoelectron spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravaya, Ksenia B.; Kostko, Oleg; Dolgikh, Stanislav; Landau, Arie; Ahmed, Musahid; Krylov, Anna I.

    2010-08-02

    We report high-level ab initio calculations and single-photon ionization mass spectrometry study of ionization of adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C) and guanine (G). For thymine and adenine, only the lowest-energy tautomers were considered, whereas for cytosine and guanine we characterized five lowest-energy tautomeric forms. The first adiabatic and several vertical ionization energies were computed using equation-of-motion coupled-cluster method for ionization potentials with single and double substitutions. Equilibrium structures of the cationic ground states were characterized by DFT with the {omega}B97X-D functional. The ionization-induced geometry changes of the bases are consistent with the shapes of the corresponding molecular orbitals. For the lowest-energy tautomers, the magnitude of the structural relaxation decreases in the following series G > C > A > T, the respective relaxation energies being 0.41, 0.32, 0.25 and 0.20 eV. The computed adiabatic ionization energies (8.13, 8.89, 8.51-8.67 and 7.75-7.87 eV for A,T,C and G, respectively) agree well with the onsets of the photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves (8.20 {+-} 0.05, 8.95 {+-} 0.05, 8.60 {+-} 0.05 and 7.75 {+-} 0.05 eV). Vibrational progressions for the S{sub 0}-D{sub 0} vibronic bands computed within double-harmonic approximation with Duschinsky rotations are compared with previously reported experimental photoelectron spectra.

  4. Changes in the Bacterial Community Structure of Remediated Anthracene-Contaminated Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Balbuena, Laura; Bello-López, Juan M.; Navarro-Noya, Yendi E.; Rodríguez-Valentín, Analine; Luna-Guido, Marco L.; Dendooven, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Mixing soil or adding earthworms (Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826)) accelerated the removal of anthracene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, from a pasture and an arable soil, while a non-ionic surfactant (Surfynol® 485) inhibited the removal of the contaminant compared to the untreated soil. It was unclear if the treatments affected the soil bacterial community and consequently the removal of anthracene. Therefore, the bacterial community structure was monitored by means of 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene in the pasture and arable soil mixed weekly, amended with Surfynol® 485, E. fetida or organic material that served as food for the earthworms for 56 days. In both soils, the removal of anthracene was in the order: mixing soil weekly (100%) > earthworms applied (92%) > organic material applied (77%) > untreated soil (57%) > surfactant applied (34%) after 56 days. There was no clear link between removal of anthracene from soil and changes in the bacterial community structure. On the one hand, application of earthworms removed most of the contaminant from the arable soil and had a strong effect on the bacterial community structure, i.e. a decrease in the relative abundance of the Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi and Gemmatimonadetes, and an increase in that of the Proteobacteria compared to the unamended soil. Mixing the soil weekly removed all anthracene from the arable soil, but had little or no effect on the bacterial community structure. On the other hand, application of the surfactant inhibited the removal of anthracene from the arable soil compared to the untreated soil, but had a strong effect on the bacterial community structure, i.e. a decrease in the relative abundance of Cytophagia (Bacteroidetes), Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes and Planctomycetes and an increase in that of the Flavobacteria (Bacteroidetes) and Proteobacteria. Additionally, the removal of anthracene was similar in the different treatments of both the arable and pasture soil, but the

  5. Changes in the Bacterial Community Structure of Remediated Anthracene-Contaminated Soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Delgado-Balbuena

    Full Text Available Mixing soil or adding earthworms (Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826 accelerated the removal of anthracene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, from a pasture and an arable soil, while a non-ionic surfactant (Surfynol® 485 inhibited the removal of the contaminant compared to the untreated soil. It was unclear if the treatments affected the soil bacterial community and consequently the removal of anthracene. Therefore, the bacterial community structure was monitored by means of 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene in the pasture and arable soil mixed weekly, amended with Surfynol® 485, E. fetida or organic material that served as food for the earthworms for 56 days. In both soils, the removal of anthracene was in the order: mixing soil weekly (100% > earthworms applied (92% > organic material applied (77% > untreated soil (57% > surfactant applied (34% after 56 days. There was no clear link between removal of anthracene from soil and changes in the bacterial community structure. On the one hand, application of earthworms removed most of the contaminant from the arable soil and had a strong effect on the bacterial community structure, i.e. a decrease in the relative abundance of the Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi and Gemmatimonadetes, and an increase in that of the Proteobacteria compared to the unamended soil. Mixing the soil weekly removed all anthracene from the arable soil, but had little or no effect on the bacterial community structure. On the other hand, application of the surfactant inhibited the removal of anthracene from the arable soil compared to the untreated soil, but had a strong effect on the bacterial community structure, i.e. a decrease in the relative abundance of Cytophagia (Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes and Planctomycetes and an increase in that of the Flavobacteria (Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria. Additionally, the removal of anthracene was similar in the different treatments of both the arable and pasture soil

  6. Structural Damage Detection Using Changes in Natural Frequencies: Theory and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, K.; Zhu, W. D.

    2011-07-01

    A vibration-based method that uses changes in natural frequencies of a structure to detect damage has advantages over conventional nondestructive tests in detecting various types of damage, including loosening of bolted joints, using minimum measurement data. Two major challenges associated with applications of the vibration-based damage detection method to engineering structures are addressed: accurate modeling of structures and the development of a robust inverse algorithm to detect damage, which are defined as the forward and inverse problems, respectively. To resolve the forward problem, new physics-based finite element modeling techniques are developed for fillets in thin-walled beams and for bolted joints, so that complex structures can be accurately modeled with a reasonable model size. To resolve the inverse problem, a logistical function transformation is introduced to convert the constrained optimization problem to an unconstrained one, and a robust iterative algorithm using a trust-region method, called the Levenberg-Marquardt method, is developed to accurately detect the locations and extent of damage. The new methodology can ensure global convergence of the iterative algorithm in solving under-determined system equations and deal with damage detection problems with relatively large modeling error and measurement noise. The vibration-based damage detection method is applied to various structures including lightning masts, a space frame structure and one of its components, and a pipeline. The exact locations and extent of damage can be detected in the numerical simulation where there is no modeling error and measurement noise. The locations and extent of damage can be successfully detected in experimental damage detection.

  7. Structural Damage Detection Using Changes in Natural Frequencies: Theory and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, K; Zhu, W D

    2011-01-01

    A vibration-based method that uses changes in natural frequencies of a structure to detect damage has advantages over conventional nondestructive tests in detecting various types of damage, including loosening of bolted joints, using minimum measurement data. Two major challenges associated with applications of the vibration-based damage detection method to engineering structures are addressed: accurate modeling of structures and the development of a robust inverse algorithm to detect damage, which are defined as the forward and inverse problems, respectively. To resolve the forward problem, new physics-based finite element modeling techniques are developed for fillets in thin-walled beams and for bolted joints, so that complex structures can be accurately modeled with a reasonable model size. To resolve the inverse problem, a logistical function transformation is introduced to convert the constrained optimization problem to an unconstrained one, and a robust iterative algorithm using a trust-region method, called the Levenberg-Marquardt method, is developed to accurately detect the locations and extent of damage. The new methodology can ensure global convergence of the iterative algorithm in solving under-determined system equations and deal with damage detection problems with relatively large modeling error and measurement noise. The vibration-based damage detection method is applied to various structures including lightning masts, a space frame structure and one of its components, and a pipeline. The exact locations and extent of damage can be detected in the numerical simulation where there is no modeling error and measurement noise. The locations and extent of damage can be successfully detected in experimental damage detection.

  8. Microscopic structure and properties changes of cassava stillage residue pretreated by mechanical activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zhengda; Huang, Zuqiang; Hu, Huayu; Zhang, Yanjuan; Tan, Yunfang

    2011-09-01

    This study has focused on the pretreatment of cassava stillage residue (CSR) by mechanical activation (MA) using a self-designed stirring ball mill. The changes in surface morphology, functional groups and crystalline structure of pretreated CSR were examined by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) under reasonable conditions. The results showed that MA could significantly damage the crystal structure of CSR, resulting in the variation of surface morphology, the increase of amorphous region ratio and hydrogen bond energy, and the decrease in crystallinity and crystalline size. But no new functional groups generated during milling, and the crystal type of cellulose in CSR still belonged to cellulose I after MA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Nonparametric Monitoring for Geotechnical Structures Subject to Long-Term Environmental Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Bum Yun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonparametric, data-driven methodology of monitoring for geotechnical structures subject to long-term environmental change is discussed. Avoiding physical assumptions or excessive simplification of the monitored structures, the nonparametric monitoring methodology presented in this paper provides reliable performance-related information particularly when the collection of sensor data is limited. For the validation of the nonparametric methodology, a field case study was performed using a full-scale retaining wall, which had been monitored for three years using three tilt gauges. Using the very limited sensor data, it is demonstrated that important performance-related information, such as drainage performance and sensor damage, could be disentangled from significant daily, seasonal and multiyear environmental variations. Extensive literature review on recent developments of parametric and nonparametric data processing techniques for geotechnical applications is also presented.

  10. Structural changes in surface layer of steel 08Kh18N10T during machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palenik, J.; Vodarek, V.

    1989-01-01

    The results are reported of a study of the surface layer of steel 08Kh18N10T affected by machining. Structural changes were studied caused by finish turning and by additional roller burnishing. Multiple deformation bands were observed to occur under the given cutting conditions; they mainly consisted of deformation doublets and only in isolated cases of ε-martensite. The presence of α'-martensite was not shown in the specimen surface layer following finish turning. The deformation shear bands in the roller-burnished specimen consisted of both ε-martensite and of deformation doublets. The amount of ε-martensite in the structure was significantly higher than in the specimen worked by turning. Local presence of α'-martensite formations was observed inside the deformation bands. It thus follows that roller burnishing is unsuitable as part of the manufacture of components from steel 08Kh18N10T. (J.B.). 5 figs., 1 tab., 9 refs

  11. The structural changes of the food industry in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajderllari, Luljeta; Karantininis, Konstantinos

    This paper studies the structural changes of food industry in the EU-27. We first provide a detailed description of the relative importance of the various sectors in the food industry. The structure is studied by calculating Gini coefficients for the EU members with regard to food industry. We find...... that the food industry is one of the most important components of the manufacturing sectors in terms of turnover and employment. Enterprises in the EU are relatively large in terms of turnover but small in the number of enterprises with the dairy and meat sectors being the most important branches of the food...... industry regarding the share of turnover, employment and enterprises. During the eight years 2000-2007, the Gini coefficient of the food industry in the EU is very close to 1, indicating a high degree of concentration....

  12. RNAsnp: efficient detection of local RNA secondary structure changes induced by SNPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radhakrishnan, Sabarinathan; Tafer, Hakim; Seemann, Ernst Stefan

    2013-01-01

    into structural effects of SNPs. The global measures employed so far suffer from limited accuracy of folding programs on large RNAs and are computationally too demanding for genome-wide applications. Here, we present a strategy that focuses on the local regions of maximal structural change between mutant and wild......-type. These local regions are approximated in a "screening mode" that is intended for genome-wide applications. Furthermore, localized regions are identified as those with maximal discrepancy. The mutation effects are quantified in terms of empirical P values. To this end, the RNAsnp software uses extensive...... precomputed tables of the distribution of SNP effects as function of length and GC content. RNAsnp thus achieves both a noise reduction and speed-up of several orders of magnitude over shuffling-based approaches. On a data set comprising 501 SNPs associated with human-inherited diseases, we predict 54 to have...

  13. Irreversible Change of the Pore Structure of ZIF-8 in Carbon Dioxide Capture with Water Coexistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Huang; Guo, Ping; Regueira Muñiz, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    The performance of zeolitic imidazolate framework 8 (ZIF-8) for CO2 capture under three different conditions (wetted ZIF-8, ZIF-8/water slurry, and ZIF-8/water-glycol slurry) was systemically investigated. This investigation included the study of the pore structure stability of ZIF-8 by using X......-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Raman detection technologies. Our results show that the CO2 adsorption ability of ZIF-8 could be substantially increased under the existence of liquid water. However, the structure characterization of the recovered ZIF-8...... showed an irreversible change of its framework, which occurs during the CO2 capture process. It was found that there is an irreversible chemical reaction among ZIF-8, water, and CO2, which creates both zinc carbonate (or zinc carbonate hydroxides) and single 2-methylimidazole crystals, and therefore...

  14. Proposed changes to the nomenclature of Ichthyophonus sp. life stages and structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocan, R M

    2013-10-01

    Much of the terminology describing Ichthyophonus sp. life stages and structures can be traced to the mistaken classification of this organism as a fungus. This misidentification led early investigators to use mycological terms for the structures they observed; while some terminology is not so easily explained, it appears to have been co-opted from the fields of botany and bacteriology. The purpose of this exercise is to attempt to standardize the terminology associated with Ichthyophonus and to bring it into agreement with terminology currently used to define similar life stages of other protists. The proposed changes are (1) spore/macrospore/mother spore to "schizont," (2) microspore/endospore to "merozoite," and (3) pseudohyphae to "hyphae" or "germ tube."

  15. Phase change predictions for liquid fuel in contact with steel structure using the heat conduction equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brear, D.J. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1998-01-01

    When liquid fuel makes contact with steel structure the liquid can freeze as a crust and the structure can melt at the surface. The melting and freezing processes that occur can influence the mode of fuel freezing and hence fuel relocation. Furthermore the temperature gradients established in the fuel and steel phases determine the rate at which heat is transferred from fuel to steel. In this memo the 1-D transient heat conduction equations are applied to the case of initially liquid UO{sub 2} brought into contact with solid steel using up-to-date materials properties. The solutions predict criteria for fuel crust formation and steel melting and provide a simple algorithm to determine the interface temperature when one or both of the materials is undergoing phase change. The predicted steel melting criterion is compared with available experimental results. (author)

  16. Study on the piezoelectric behavior and structural changes of strontium doped PZT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M.S. da; Lemos, L.; Souza, E.F.; Cavalheiro, A.A.; Longo, E.; Zaghete, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Lead zirconate titanate, with Zr/Ti ratio of 53/47 was prepared by the polymeric precursor method. The powders were doped with 0.0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 mol% of Sr 2+ and the effects of Sr 2+ additions on piezoelectric properties and on the phase constitution were investigated by XRD. The percentages of tetragonal and rhombohedral phases were calculated through Rietveld refinement. The results indicated that addition of Sr 2+ ions in the amount of 0.4 mol% in the ceramic structure maximally increase the values of piezoelectric parameter to d 33 = 289 μC/N and K p = 0.43. The values found for the piezoelectric properties were among the highest at the concentration of 0.4 mol% of strontium and this composition showed the highest structural change from the rhombohedral to the tetragonal phase perovskita. (author)

  17. The Great Recession and Its Aftermath: What Role for Structural Changes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Rothstein

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The years since the 2009 end of the Great Recession have been disastrous for many workers, particularly those with low human capital or other disadvantages. One explanation attributes this to deficient aggregate labor demand, to which marginal workers are more sensitive. A second attributes it to structural changes. Cyclical explanations imply that if aggregate labor demand is increased then many of the post-2009 patterns will revert to their pre-recession trends. Structural explanations suggest recent experience is the “new normal.” This paper reviews data since 2007 for evidence. I examine wage trends to measure the relative importance of supply and demand. I find little wage pressure before 2015, pointing to demand as the binding constraint. The most recent data show some signs of tightness, but still substantial slack.

  18. Phase change predictions for liquid fuel in contact with steel structure using the heat conduction equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brear, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    When liquid fuel makes contact with steel structure the liquid can freeze as a crust and the structure can melt at the surface. The melting and freezing processes that occur can influence the mode of fuel freezing and hence fuel relocation. Furthermore the temperature gradients established in the fuel and steel phases determine the rate at which heat is transferred from fuel to steel. In this memo the 1-D transient heat conduction equations are applied to the case of initially liquid UO 2 brought into contact with solid steel using up-to-date materials properties. The solutions predict criteria for fuel crust formation and steel melting and provide a simple algorithm to determine the interface temperature when one or both of the materials is undergoing phase change. The predicted steel melting criterion is compared with available experimental results. (author)

  19. Scaling Mode Shapes in Output-Only Structure by a Mass-Change-Based Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangliang Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A mass-change-based method based on output-only data for the rescaling of mode shapes in operational modal analysis (OMA is introduced. The mass distribution matrix, which is defined as a diagonal matrix whose diagonal elements represent the ratios among the diagonal elements of the mass matrix, is calculated using the unscaled mode shapes. Based on the theory of null space, the mass distribution vector or mass distribution matrix is obtained. A small mass with calibrated weight is added to a certain location of the structure, and then the mass distribution vector of the modified structure is estimated. The mass matrix is identified according to the difference of the mass distribution vectors between the original and modified structures. Additionally, the universal set of modes is unnecessary when calculating the mass distribution matrix, indicating that modal truncation is allowed in the proposed method. The mass-scaled mode shapes estimated in OMA according to the proposed method are compared with those obtained by experimental modal analysis. A simulation is employed to validate the feasibility of the method. Finally, the method is tested on output-only data from an experiment on a five-storey structure, and the results confirm the effectiveness of the method.

  20. Change in pore structure of coals by activation with KOH; KOH fukatsushita sekitan no saiko kozo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, K.; Yoshizawa, N.; Ishikawa, E.; Kobayashi, M.; Toda, Y.; Yamada, Y.; Shiraishi, M. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Three typical Japanese coals of non-coking coal, coking coal and anthracite were heat-treated with KOH, and change in their pore structure was examined by absorption of N2, X-ray diffraction and TEM observation. In addition, the relation between a coal rank and pore structure was also studied by absorption experiment of N2. In experiment, the mixture of coal and KOH in a nickel holder was heat-treated in N2 gas flow at heating rate of 2{degree}C/min, and held at a fixed temperature for one hour. To clarify the pore structure, N2 absorption isotherms were measured at -196{degree}C under nearly 76cmHg using a commercially available full-automatic absorption measurement equipment. Based on the X-ray diffraction and TEM observation results on activated coals, the relation between the N2 absorption and pore structure was studied. The results are summarized as follows: (1) The yield and absorption ability of coals increase with a coal rank, (2) The specific surface area of coals reaches its peak at 800{degree}C in activation temperature regardless of a coal rank, and (3) The activation behavior of coals is dependent on a coal rank. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.