WorldWideScience

Sample records for policy transfer context

  1. The Policy Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagakos, George

    2016-01-01

    Green project. The term ‘green’ is used in the sustainability context, meaning that it features economic and social dimensions in addition to the usual environmental one. The most important EU transport policy documents are reviewed and briefly presented by transportation mode. Horizontal documents covering all...

  2. National responses to global health targets: exploring policy transfer in the context of the UNAIDS '90-90-90' treatment targets in Ghana and Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRobie, Ellen; Matovu, Fred; Nanyiti, Aisha; Nonvignon, Justice; Abankwah, Daniel Nana Yaw; Case, Kelsey K; Hallett, Timothy B; Hanefeld, Johanna; Conteh, Lesong

    2018-01-01

    Global health organizations frequently set disease-specific targets with the goal of eliciting adoption at the national-level; consideration of the influence of target setting on national policies, programme and health budgets is of benefit to those setting targets and those intended to respond. In 2014, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS set 'ambitious' treatment targets for country adoption: 90% of HIV-positive persons should know their status; 90% of those on treatment; 90% of those achieving viral suppression. Using case studies from Ghana and Uganda, we explore how the target and its associated policy content have been adopted at the national level. That is whether adoption is in rhetoric only or supported by programme, policy or budgetary changes. We review 23 (14 from Ghana, 9 from Uganda) national policy, operational and strategic documents for the HIV response and assess commitments to '90-90-90'. In-person semi-structured interviews were conducted with purposively sampled key informants (17 in Ghana, 20 in Uganda) involved in programme-planning and resource allocation within HIV to gain insight into factors facilitating adoption of 90-90-90. Interviews were transcribed and analysed thematically, inductively and deductively, guided by pre-existing policy theories, including Dolowitz and Marsh's policy transfer framework to describe features of the transfer and the Global Health Advocacy and Policy Project framework to explain observations. Regardless of notable resource constraints, transfer of the 90-90-90 targets was evident beyond rhetoric with substantial shifts in policy and programme activities. In both countries, there was evidence of attempts to minimize resource constraints by seeking programme efficiencies, prioritization of programme activities and devising domestic financing mechanisms; however, significant resource gaps persist. An effective health network, comprised of global and local actors, mediated the adoption and adaptation

  3. Lifelong Learning Policy in Two National Contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Palle

    in different life phases. In this paper I discuss the state of lifelong learning policy in two European societies with different educational contexts, histories, system models and development issues, Denmark and Portugal. As part of the paper will give a brief overview of EU policies and initiatives...... in the area of lifelong learning and discuss how national policies in the two contexts are influenced by EU policies and funding....

  4. Lifelong learning policy in two national contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Palle

    2014-01-01

    of lifelong learning policy. Early development of public primary education and popular adult education has provided a strong foundation for lifelong learning policy in Denmark while in Portugal not only institutional provision but also popular demand for lifelong learning has had to be built up relatively......This article describes and discusses the development of lifelong learning policy in two EU member states, Denmark and Portugal. The purpose is to show how different societal and historical contexts shape the development and implementation of lifelong learning policies, even though these policies...... have significant common elements. As a basis for the discussion an inventory of policy elements is presented. Denmark and Portugal have been chosen as examples of smaller EU member states with different historical, social and cultural characteristics. Developments and policies in the two countries...

  5. Adaptation in the context of technology development and transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olhoff, Anne

    2015-01-01

    and transfer. It summarizes what technologies for adaptation are, how they relate to development, and what their role is in adaptation. It subsequently highlights a number of policy and research issues that could be important to inform future policy. The commentary has two key messages. First, it argues...... that informed policy decisions on technology development and transfer to enhance adaptation require systematic assessments of the findings in the theoretical and empirical literature. Second, in light of the potential for overlap between processes for adaptation and processes for technologies for adaptation......Starting from a summary of key developments under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) related to adaptation and technologies, the commentary provides an initial review of the available literature relevant to adaptation in the context of technology development...

  6. What is good governance in the context of drug policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Nicola; Rubin, Jennifer

    2014-09-01

    The concept of governance is applied in a wide range of contexts, but this paper focuses on governance in relation to public administration, i.e. states and how they take action, and specifically governance of particular policy areas. In the current context of financial austerity and an era of globalisation, policy-makers face pressures and challenges from a growing range of interests and local, national and supranational actors. Drug policy is an example of a particularly contentious and polarised area in which governance-related challenges abound. In response to these challenges, interest has grown in developing agreed policy governance standards and processes and articulating policy-making guidelines, including the use of available evidence to inform policy-making. Attempts have been made to identify 'policy fundamentals' - factors or aspects of policy-making apparently associated with successful policy development and implementation (Hallsworth & Rutter, 2011; Laughrin, 2011) and, in the drug policy field, Hughes et al. (2010) reflecting on the co-ordination of Australian drug policy highlighted some of what they considered principles of good governance. But how useful is the concept of 'good governance'; how well can it be defined, and to what purpose? As part of a wider project considering the governance of drug policy, RAND Europe and the UK Drug Policy Commission undertook a targeted review of other research and sought expert views, from within and beyond drug policy, on principles, processes, structures and stakeholders associated with good drug policy governance. From this emerged some perceived characteristics of good governance that were then used by the UK Drug Policy Commission to assess the extent to which drug policy making in the UK fits with these perceived good governance characteristics, and to suggest possible improvements. Particular consideration was given to the range of interests at stake, the overarching aims of drug policy and the

  7. Policy Diffusion and Policy Transfer in Comparative Welfare State Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obinger, Herbert; Schmitt, Carina; Starke, Peter

    2013-01-01

    existing theoretical concepts and quantitative and qualitative methodological approaches that enable the analysis of interdependencies between countries. Moreover, we summarize the empirical findings of quantitative and qualitative studies on the diffusion and transfer of social policy, from some...

  8. Transfer pricing and the Czech tax policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Solilová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Czech Republic as a small open economy with an extensive network of the international tax treaties for the avoidance of the double taxation prevents from shifting the tax base of the associated enterprises to countries with preferential tax regime through transfer pricing rules. Transfer pricing as one of the important areas of international taxes determines how the profits of the multinational enterprises are split between the jurisdictions in which they operate and which countries get to tax those profits. This situation may affect the global budget of the multinational enterprises and the tax reve­nues of the jurisdictions. This paper is focused on the transfer pricing rules used in the Czech Republic and makes recommendations for the Czech tax policy in this area based on the analysis of the transfer pricing rules in the EU Member States.

  9. MARKETING POLICY FORMULATION IN MULTIPLE STRATEGIC CONTEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIVIU N EAMŢU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Business Strategy, as part adaptation of company’s actions in a particular business area to specific demand and competition or conversely opening new market positions, is the main strategic move that ensures competitiveness in the market and ensuring appreciable profitability of the business. Marketing policies adopted by one firm are fundamental decisions concerning the product and its conditioning elements. Marketing decisions are manifold; the most important for a company is selection of those marketing elements that can support business strategy as defined at the level of a whole company's strategic units. This paper brings to the fore just correlations between marketing actions that are at the reach of the company and strategic business contexts in which it may lie. Thus, according to the four strategic situation of the market, will analyze key sets of strategic action in the field of marketing that companies can use in order to support the business strategy and not undermine the production and marketing efforts with the costs involved.

  10. Canada's climate change policy in context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, S.

    2000-10-01

    Climate change has a wide range of implications for the health, well-being, and economic prospects for Canadians, and for the ecological systems that sustain life on this planet. The overwhelming scientific opinion, world leaders and even a growing number of corporate leaders now agree that the Earth is undergoing a significant and unusual warming period as a result of the build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. There is also wide agreement that much of this build-up is anthropogenic, and that a global effort is required to slow this trend. Because climate change is a global problem, it requires global solutions by way of reduction in global greenhouse gas emissions. In this context, the Kyoto Agreement of 1997 constitutes a major breakthrough, even though it takes only a small step towards towards altering the human impact on global climate. Although some 80 states, plus the European Union signed the Kyoto Protocol, it remains unclear when it will come into force because the majority of states have failed to ratify it, pending the resolution of a variety of technical and operational details. Canada is the second highest emitter of greenhouse gases (16 tonnes per capita, compared to world average of 3.6 tonnes per capita). This, combined with Canada's foreign policy goals of playing a leading role in taking action and preserving its reputation as an honest broker, makes the challenge of meeting Canada's Kyoto commitments especially pressing. The purpose of this paper is to explain Canada's climate change policy in the context of these international and domestic pressures. The paper identifies the main climate change-related policy challenges, international responses to date and the constraints and opportunities open to Canada in the light of its economy, its federalist political structure, and place in the world as a middle power, as well as its geographic situation, natural resources and environmental endowment. There is a detailed discussion of the Kyoto

  11. Towards "Thick Description" of Educational Transfer: Understanding a Japanese Institution's "Import" of European Language Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappleye, Jeremy; Imoto, Yuki; Horiguchi, Sachiko

    2011-01-01

    Globalisation and convergence in educational policy worldwide has reinvigorated, while rendering more complex, the classic theme of educational transfer. Framed by this wider pursuit of new understandings of a changing transfer/context puzzle, this paper explores how an ethnographic "thick description" might complement and extend recent…

  12. Strategic Control of Transfer Pricing in a BEPS Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Christian Plesner; Pearson, Thomas C.; Nesimi, Ardit

    2016-01-01

    In the context of the BEPS Final Reports released by the OECD on 5 October 2015, the need to develop and implement strategies for international transfer pricing has been further intensified. Currently, the quality of transfer pricing strategies across multinational enterprises (multinationals......) varies significantly. Some multinationals have fairly advanced approaches to transfer pricing, while others still struggle with basic strategic formulation and implementation – or seem to have no formal strategic approach at all. This article provides an overview of key concepts for controlling transfer...

  13. Philippine linguistic policy in the global context

    OpenAIRE

    Donoso Jiménez, Isaac

    2012-01-01

    The Philippines suffers an enduring linguistic problem that is not identified as such. Through the 20th century the goal has been to study a foreign language hoping for economical competitiveness in an Asian context. At present, this very context has revealed the fallacy of abandoning the education of the citizens in its own setting, if not pointed out the problem—Diglossia. By using an alien means of communication in the schools, the whole education has been alienated, and the result is a so...

  14. Challenges for policy mix in the context

    OpenAIRE

    Stawska, Joanna; Grzesiak, Lena

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present the essence of policy mix and the extraordinary actions undertaken by the monetary and fiscal authorities in Poland in response to the recent financial crisis. In the article, the hypothesis has been put forward that the challenges faced by monetary and fiscal authorities have contributed to carrying out coordinated actions, especially in support of economic growth during the recent financial crisis. As a result, in Poland during the last f...

  15. ICT-policy in a geographical context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sten Lorentzon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available L’introduction des Technologies de l’Information et de la Communication (TIC en Suède s’est effectuée dans un contexte politico-institutionnel centralisé qui s’est toujours efforcé de maintenir les activités situées dans les îles, ces espaces périphériques peu peuplés. Dans un contexte où l’utilisation des TIC est perçue comme un moyen de corriger les déséquilibres régionaux, il n’en reste pas moins que le développement suédois vers une société de l’information et de la connaissance tend naturellement à renforcer le rôle de Stockholm comme nœud dominant. Cet article traite de la territorialisation des TIC en Suède à un niveau local, régional, national et international. Le rôle des acteurs territoriaux à ces différents niveaux est en particulier souligné pour montrer que les autorités locales, malgré un contexte centralisé, jouent un rôle important dans le soutien à la mise en place de la société de l’information.

  16. Shaping Education Policy Research in an Asia-Pacific Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Dong Wook; Lee, Ho Jun; Lee, Seung Ho; Wi, Eunjoo

    2014-01-01

    Globalization increasingly calls for comparing educational policies across countries. In this study, we assemble and analyze academic journal publications of the past decade in order to shape education policy research within an Asia-Pacific context. After examining Asia-Pacific research publication data from the Web of Science, we find a few…

  17. Reporting the characteristics of the policy context for population-level alcohol interventions: a proposed 'Transparent Reporting of Alcohol Intervention ContExts' (TRAICE) checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, John; Meier, Petra S; Booth, Andrew; Brennan, Alan

    2014-11-01

    Effectiveness of alcohol policy interventions varies across times and places. The circumstances under which effective polices can be successfully transferred between contexts are typically unexplored with little attention given to developing reporting requirements that would facilitate systematic investigation. Using purposive sampling and expert elicitation methods, we identified context-related factors impacting on the effectiveness of population-level alcohol policies. We then drew on previous characterisations of alcohol policy contexts and methodological-reporting checklists to design a new checklist for reporting contextual information in evaluation studies. Six context factor domains were identified: (i) baseline alcohol consumption, norms and harm rates; (ii) baseline affordability and availability; (iii) social, microeconomic and demographic contexts; (iv) macroeconomic context; (v) market context; and (vi) wider policy, political and media context. The checklist specifies information, typically available in national or international reports, to be reported in each domain. The checklist can facilitate evidence synthesis by providing: (i) a mechanism for systematic and more consistent reporting of contextual data for meta-regression and realist evaluations; (ii) information for policy-makers on differences between their context and contexts of evaluations; and (iii) an evidence base for adjusting prospective policy simulation models to account for policy context. Our proposed checklist provides a tool for gaining better understanding of the influence of policy context on intervention effectiveness. Further work is required to rationalise and aggregate checklists across interventions types to make such checklists practical for use by journals and to improve reporting of important qualitative contextual data. © 2014 The Authors. Drug and Alcohol Review published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and

  18. Consistent Parameter and Transfer Function Estimation using Context Free Grammars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Daniel; Herrnegger, Mathew; Schulz, Karsten

    2017-04-01

    This contribution presents a method for the inference of transfer functions for rainfall-runoff models. Here, transfer functions are defined as parametrized (functional) relationships between a set of spatial predictors (e.g. elevation, slope or soil texture) and model parameters. They are ultimately used for estimation of consistent, spatially distributed model parameters from a limited amount of lumped global parameters. Additionally, they provide a straightforward method for parameter extrapolation from one set of basins to another and can even be used to derive parameterizations for multi-scale models [see: Samaniego et al., 2010]. Yet, currently an actual knowledge of the transfer functions is often implicitly assumed. As a matter of fact, for most cases these hypothesized transfer functions can rarely be measured and often remain unknown. Therefore, this contribution presents a general method for the concurrent estimation of the structure of transfer functions and their respective (global) parameters. Note, that by consequence an estimation of the distributed parameters of the rainfall-runoff model is also undertaken. The method combines two steps to achieve this. The first generates different possible transfer functions. The second then estimates the respective global transfer function parameters. The structural estimation of the transfer functions is based on the context free grammar concept. Chomsky first introduced context free grammars in linguistics [Chomsky, 1956]. Since then, they have been widely applied in computer science. But, to the knowledge of the authors, they have so far not been used in hydrology. Therefore, the contribution gives an introduction to context free grammars and shows how they can be constructed and used for the structural inference of transfer functions. This is enabled by new methods from evolutionary computation, such as grammatical evolution [O'Neill, 2001], which make it possible to exploit the constructed grammar as a

  19. Structural policy in the context of international competition aggravation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Bodrov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article researches the essence and peculiarities of the structural policy, performs classification of its models and determines possibilities of their use in the context of increasing international competition. It discovers the main components of the economic structure and trends of the state policy regarding their modernization. Measures on improvement of state regulation instruments are offered, factors of influence upon improvement of the Ukrainian economy structure are analyzed and priority goals are systematized which require urgent implementation in the terms of competitive struggle aggravation at the global markets. The article also researches the matter of importance of performing a complex of state functional and selective measures in the form of matrix policy for the purpose of protecting national interests of the country in the context of global challenges

  20. Transfer pricing and the Czech tax policy

    OpenAIRE

    Veronika Solilová; Veronika Sobotková

    2010-01-01

    The Czech Republic as a small open economy with an extensive network of the international tax treaties for the avoidance of the double taxation prevents from shifting the tax base of the associated enterprises to countries with preferential tax regime through transfer pricing rules. Transfer pricing as one of the important areas of international taxes determines how the profits of the multinational enterprises are split between the jurisdictions in which they operate and which countries get t...

  1. Key policy considerations for facilitating low carbon technology transfer to developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ockwell, David G.; Watson, Jim; MacKerron, Gordon; Pal, Prosanto; Yamin, Farhana

    2008-01-01

    Based on Phase I of a UK-India collaborative study, this paper analyses two case studies of low carbon technologies-hybrid vehicles and coal-fired power generation via integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC). The analysis highlights the following six key considerations for the development of policy aimed at facilitating low carbon technology transfer to developing countries: (1) technology transfer needs to be seen as part of a broader process of sustained, low carbon technological capacity development in recipient countries; (2) the fact that low carbon technologies are at different stages of development means that low carbon technology transfer involves both vertical transfer (the transfer of technologies from the R and D stage through to commercialisation) and horizontal transfer (the transfer from one geographical location to another). Barriers to transfer and appropriate policy responses often vary according to the stage of technology development as well as the specific source and recipient country contexts; (3) less integrated technology transfer arrangements, involving, for example, acquisition of different items of plant from a range of host country equipment manufacturers, are more likely to involve knowledge exchange and diffusion through recipient country economies; (4) recipient firms that, as part of the transfer process, strategically aim to obtain technological know-how and knowledge necessary for innovation during the transfer process are more likely to be able to develop their capacity as a result; (5) whilst access to Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) may sometimes be a necessary part of facilitating technology transfer, it is not likely to be sufficient in itself. Other factors such as absorptive capacity and risks associated with new technologies must also be addressed; (6) there is a central role for both national and international policy interventions in achieving low carbon technology transfer. The lack of available empirical analysis

  2. 77 FR 46855 - Small Business Technology Transfer Program Policy Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Chapter I RIN 3245-AF45 Small Business Technology Transfer Program Policy Directive AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Final policy directive with request for comments. SUMMARY: The U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) is amending its Small Business...

  3. Processes of local alcohol policy-making in England: Does the theory of policy transfer provide useful insights into public health decision-making?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavens, Lucy; Holmes, John; Buykx, Penny; de Vocht, Frank; Egan, Matt; Grace, Daniel; Lock, Karen; Mooney, John D; Brennan, Alan

    2017-06-13

    Recent years have seen a rise in new and innovative policies to reduce alcohol consumption and related harm in England, which can be implemented by local, as opposed to national, policy-makers. The aim of this paper is to explore the processes that underpin the adoption of these alcohol policies within local authorities. In particular, it aims to assess whether the concept of policy transfer (i.e. a process through which knowledge about policies in one place is used in the development of policies in another time or place) provides a useful model for understanding local alcohol policy-making. Qualitative data generated through in-depth interviews and focus groups from five case study sites across England were used to explore stakeholder experiences of alcohol policy transfer between local authorities. The purposive sample of policy actors included representatives from the police, trading standards, public health, licensing, and commissioning. Thematic analysis was used inductively to identify key features in the data. Themes from the policy transfer literature identified in the data were: policy copying, emulating, hybridization, and inspiration. Participants described a multitude of ways in which learning was shared between places, ranging from formal academic evaluation to opportunistic conversations in informal settings. Participants also described facilitators and constraints to policy transfer, such as the historical policy context and the local cultural, economic, and bureaucratic context, which influenced whether or not a policy that was perceived to work in one place might be transferred successfully to another context. Theories of policy transfer provide a promising framework for characterising processes of local alcohol policy-making in England, extending beyond debates regarding evidence-informed policy to account for a much wider range of considerations. Applying a policy transfer lens enables us to move beyond simple (but still important) questions of

  4. Federalism and educational policies in Brazil: contexts and ruptures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ferreira Rodrigues

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the complexity of the Brazilian federal arrangement and the design of educational policies through the correlation of forces and disputes between spaces and institutional tensions that configure the current and recent context in the educational policies of Brazil. It is a theoretical and documentary study and had as its axis of analysis the tensions and ruptures that had as a background (direct or indirect the National Education System and in its contribution the very system of collaboration, as specific policies of the Brazilian cooperative pact. Thus, we emphasize the role of social participation in the implementation of EC 59/2009, in the National Education Conferences (from 2010 to 2018 and in the constitution of SASE as spaces of agreement and broad and democratic dialogue. Based on this context, it was possible to highlight the ruptures with the process of affirmation of cooperative federalism in guaranteeing the right to quality public education with social and democratic participation, evidencing the necessary strengthening of federal pacts, in the face of the challenges facing the federalism and effectiveness of educational policies in Brazil.

  5. Implementation as transfer between policy, research and practice in care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiligers, P.J.M.; Niet, A. van der

    2010-01-01

    Background: Health Services Research is policy related and results have an impact on practices. Implementation of research output into practices is performed with a variety of strategies. Type of policy intentions and research output create a specific context for implementation. The main question

  6. Climate policy in developing countries and conditional transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruebbelke, Dirk T.G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the role international transfers may play in international climate policy in consideration of the policy's ancillary benefits, such as air quality improvements. Ancillary benefits are especially important in many developing countries, while climate protection benefits or primary benefits play a minor role on the political agenda of these countries. In contrast, industrialized countries have a strong interest in combating climate change. These often neglected asymmetries between the developing and industrialized world affect the impacts of transfers. Interestingly, as we will show, the cost differentials between different environmental technologies among countries are the crucial prerequisite for the functioning of a transfer scheme and not the cost differentials in the execution of climate policy. This result has been overlooked by standard pure public good approaches

  7. Transfer Pricing and Developing Economies : A Handbook for Policy Makers and Practitioners

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Joel; Fox, Randall; Loeprick, Jan; Mohindra, Komal

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have seen unprecedented public scrutiny over the tax practices of Multinational Enterprise (MNE) groups. Tax policy and administration concerning international transactions, aggressive tax planning, and tax avoidance have become an issue of extensive national and international debate in developed and developing countries alike. Within this context, transfer pricing, historically a subject of limited specialist interest, has attained name recognition amongst a broader global audie...

  8. Implementation as transfer between policy, research and practice in care.

    OpenAIRE

    Heiligers, P.J.M.; Niet, A. van der

    2010-01-01

    Background: Health Services Research is policy related and results have an impact on practices. Implementation of research output into practices is performed with a variety of strategies. Type of policy intentions and research output create a specific context for implementation. The main question here is: what combinations of background factors and implementation strategies lead to successful implementations in health care? Methods: Sources for this study are evaluations of 72 completed imple...

  9. Nursing performance in the policy transfer of directly observed treatment of tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Káren Mendes Jorge de Souza

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective Analyzing the policy transfer of directly observed treatment of tuberculosis from the perspective of nursing. Method This is a descriptive study with qualitative approach, which had 10 nurses of the Family Health Strategy in São Paulo as subjects. The interviews were carried out between May and June 2013, and were adopted the technique of thematic content analysis and the referential of policy transfer. Results On the signification of this treatment, are related the senses of disciplinary monitoring, the bond and approximation to the context of patients’ lives. Operationally, nurses, community health agents and nursing technicians stand out as agents of implementation of this policy, developing multiple actions of user embracement. The nurse is evidenced as an educator in health, leader in the family health team, and capable of creating emotional bond with users. Conclusion It was found that the innovations proposed in the treatment are incipient in the daily work of nurses.

  10. [Nursing performance in the policy transfer of directly observed treatment of tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Káren Mendes Jorge de; Sá, Lenilde Duarte de; Silva, Laís Mara Caetano da; Palha, Pedro Fredemir

    2014-10-01

    Analyzing the policy transfer of directly observed treatment of tuberculosis from the perspective of nursing. This is a descriptive study with qualitative approach, which had 10 nurses of the Family Health Strategy in São Paulo as subjects. The interviews were carried out between May and June 2013, and were adopted the technique of thematic content analysis and the referential of policy transfer. On the signification of this treatment, are related the senses of disciplinary monitoring, the bond and approximation to the context of patients' lives. Operationally, nurses, community health agents and nursing technicians stand out as agents of implementation of this policy, developing multiple actions of user embracement. The nurse is evidenced as an educator in health, leader in the family health team, and capable of creating emotional bond with users. It was found that the innovations proposed in the treatment are incipient in the daily work of nurses.

  11. From Head Start to Sure Start: Reflections on Policy Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welshman, John

    2010-01-01

    This article uses the history of debates over the US Head Start programme (1965), Early Head Start (1994) and the UK Sure Start initiative (1998), as a window on to policy transfer. In all the three, the aim was that early intervention could offer a means of boosting children's educational attainment and of countering the wider effects of poverty…

  12. Comparative Education and Research Capacity Building: Reflections on International Transfer and the Significance of Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Crossley

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen a resurgence of interest in comparative and international education, along with a fundamental reconceptualisation of this distinctive multidisciplinary field of study. The nature and significance of these developments are explored with particular reference to their implications for broader research capacity building initiatives worldwide. In doing so, a critique of the international transfer of globally dominant research modalities and strategies is presented--along with arguments for increased attention to context sensitivity in both international development cooperation and educational research in general. Illustrative examples that support these arguments are drawn from the author's own research, from an analysis of emergent educational policy debates in the UK, and from related studies being carried out in Malaysia. In concluding, the strategic role of comparative research traditions and perspectives in a rapidly globalizing world is highlighted, while supporting the promotion of new initiative and research centres for comparative and international education.

  13. Assessment of Knowledge Transfer in the Context of Biomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Randolph E.

    2011-01-01

    The dynamic act of knowledge transfer, or the connection of a student's prior knowledge to features of a new problem, could be considered one of the primary goals of education. Yet studies highlight more instances of failure than success. This dissertation focuses on how knowledge transfer takes place during individual problem solving, in…

  14. The Transfer of HRM Policies and Practices in American Multinational Hotels in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Hatem Alkhaldi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Global competition in the international business environment has pushed companies to achieve competitive advantage through mergers, acquisitions and through locating their subsidiaries in less developed counties for cost effectiveness. Consequently, the competitive pressure has increased the significance of human resource management (HRM in multinational companies (MNCs, and MNCs have recognised the significance of the transfer HRM process across borders. This study examines the transfer of HRM policies and practices of US MNCs to their subsidiaries in Saudi Arabia. The aim of the study is to determine the extent to which US MNCs transfer HRM policies and practices from their Headquarters to their subsidiaries in Saudi Arabia; and identify the factors that facilitate and inhibit HRM transfer. The paper is based on an investigation of the interaction between home-country and host-country effects in determining HRM policies and practices in MNCs in the context of the Middle East. The study adopts a mixed methods approach of documentary analysis, focus group interviews of employees and in depth interviews of key informants in four subsidiaries of US owned international hotel chains located in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

  15. A proactive transfer policy for critical patient flow management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Jaime; Ferrer, Juan-Carlos; Cataldo, Alejandro; Rojas, Luis

    2018-02-17

    Hospital emergency departments are often overcrowded, resulting in long wait times and a public perception of poor attention. Delays in transferring patients needing further treatment increases emergency department congestion, has negative impacts on their health and may increase their mortality rates. A model built around a Markov decision process is proposed to improve the efficiency of patient flows between the emergency department and other hospital units. With each day divided into time periods, the formulation estimates bed demand for the next period as the basis for determining a proactive rather than reactive transfer decision policy. Due to the high dimensionality of the optimization problem involved, an approximate dynamic programming approach is used to derive an approximation of the optimal decision policy, which indicates that a certain number of beds should be kept free in the different units as a function of the next period demand estimate. Testing the model on two instances of different sizes demonstrates that the optimal number of patient transfers between units changes when the emergency patient arrival rate for transfer to other units changes at a single unit, but remains stable if the change is proportionally the same for all units. In a simulation using real data for a hospital in Chile, significant improvements are achieved by the model in key emergency department performance indicators such as patient wait times (reduction higher than 50%), patient capacity (21% increase) and queue abandonment (from 7% down to less than 1%).

  16. On transferability and contexts when using simulated grasp databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jimmy Alison; Ellekilde, Lars-Peter; Kraft, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    It has become a common practice to use simulation to generate large databases of good grasps for grasp planning in robotics research. However, the existence of a generic simulation context that enables the generation of high quality grasps that can be used in several different contexts such as bi...

  17. The EU environmental policy context for monitoring for and with raptors in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Guy

    2008-09-01

    This paper outlines the importance of the policy context for monitoring with and for raptors, and, conversely, of the importance of such monitoring for policy. It then outlines two key areas of European Union (EU) environmental policy most relevant to monitoring for and with raptors, namely biodiversity policy and pollution policy. For each of the policy areas, the pertinent objectives and actions of the current EU policy are identified, and their relevance for raptor monitoring is discussed. The potential contribution of raptor monitoring to the further development of these policy areas is also addressed.

  18. Stormwater management the American way: why no policy transfer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P. Dolowitz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available From the 1940s until the 1980s the federal government gradually extended its authority over the structure of the American stormwater management system. The goal was to improve the water quality of the nation’s waterways by regulating the pollution loads entering the system, primarily through the use of gray infrastructure. However during the1980s the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA began to explore new approaches toward the regulation of stormwater pollution. Instead of focusing only on gray mechanisms, the EPA began developing and promoting the use of low impact development (LID techniques as an element municipal governments could use to achieve their total maxim daily load of pollutants allowable under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit system. In light of the incentive offered by the EPA for the use of LID in the management of stormwater, it should be expected to provide a perfect area to observe policy transfer between federal, state and local governments; but it does not. This article will establish why the EPA began promoting a green approach to stormwater management and why this has not led to a widespread transfer of best management practices in the ways the literatures associated with federalism and policy transfer would suggest.

  19. Studying Policy Transfer through the Lens of Social Network Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunæs, Dorthe; Brøgger, Katja; Steiner-Khamsi, Gita

    Studying Policy Transfer through the Lens of Social Network Analysis The panelists present the findings of a joint empirical research project carried out at Aarhus University (DPU/Copenhagen) and at Teachers College, Columbia University (New York). The research project succeeded to identify...... discursive networks of political stakeholders and policy advisors that were considered key actors in the Danish school reform. The research team investigated how these networks interrelate, change over time, and represent different constituents (government, academe, business), at times contradicting...... or collaborating with each other, respectively. Against the backdrop of globalization studies in comparative education, the research project attempted to identify borrowers, translators, and brokers of educational reform drawing on a complementary set of expertise from social network analysis methodology (Oren...

  20. Shaping the Educational Policy Field: "Cross-Field Effects" in the Chinese Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui

    2018-01-01

    This paper theorises how politics, economy and migrant population policies influence educational policy, utilising Bourdieusian theoretical resources to analyse the Chinese context. It develops the work of Lingard and Rawolle on cross-field effects and produces an updated three-step analytical framework. Taking the policy issue of the schooling of…

  1. Situating School District Resource Decision Making in Policy Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spain, Angeline K.

    2016-01-01

    Decentralization and deregulation policies assume that local educational leaders make better resource decisions than state policy makers do. Conceptual models drawn from organizational theory, however, offer competing predictions about how district central office administrators are likely to leverage their professional expertise in devolved…

  2. Local authorities in the context of energy and climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comodi, Gabriele; Cioccolanti, Luca; Polonara, Fabio; Brandoni, Caterina

    2012-01-01

    Several measures to boost the energy system towards a low-carbon future can be planned and implemented by local authorities, such as energy-saving initiatives in public buildings and lighting, information campaigns, and renewable energy pilot projects. This work analyzes the public administration's role in energy and climate policies by assessing carbon-lowering measures for properties and services managed directly by local governments in central Italy. Both short- and long-term schemes were considered in the analysis of local authority energy strategies. The MARKAL-TIMES energy model was applied to long-term energy planning to assess the effect of low-carbon initiatives on public-sector energy consumption up to 2030. Two energy scenarios were built, i.e. a Business As Usual (BAU) scenario based on current or soon-to-be-adopted national policies, and an Exemplary Public Scenario (EPS) including some further virtuous local policies suggested by local authorities. Our results show that a 20% primary energy reduction can be achieved with respect to the baseline year by means of short-term energy policies (5-year time span), while a primary energy saving of about 30% can be reached with longer-term energy policies (25-year time span), even after taking the increase in energy demand into account. This work goes to show the part that local governments can play in energy policy and their contribution to the achievement of climate goals. - Highlights: ► Assessment of Local Administration (LA) role in energy and climate policy. ► Analysis of both short-term and long-term carbon lowering measures. ► Use of MARKAL-TIMES model generator for long-term energy analysis. ► 20% primary energy reduction can be reached with short-term energy policies. ► 30% primary energy reduction can be reached with longer-term energy policies.

  3. Polish Defense Policy in the Context of National Security Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bieniek, Piotr S

    2006-01-01

    ...) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Polish security policy and strategy is shaped by its geographical location, which places Poland in NATO's main strategic area opposite the Russian Federation and Belarus...

  4. ROMANIA’S AUSTERITY POLICIES IN THE EUROPEAN CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todor ARPAD

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic recession starting in 2007 with the collapse of the US Bank Lehman Brothers triggered waves of economic shock across the world. Various states were hit more or less hard through different mechanisms and reacted with different intensities to adjust to the crisis situation. In this article, I employ a comparative methodology to assess the austerity policies undertook by Romania during the Great recession period as regards the policies adopted at the level of other EU member states. Thus, I aim to offer an initial evaluation of the degree of similarity of Romania’s recession policy responses to that of some other EU member states, and the degree to which Romania can be labeled as an outlier. The comparative analysis tests the explanatory power of three different theoretical approaches on the causal factors explaining variation in policy responses: power resources theories, functionalist approaches and blame-avoidance.

  5. Polish Defense Policy in the Context of National Security Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bieniek, Piotr S

    2006-01-01

    ... goals to eliminate current threats and risks such as terrorism. As far as Poland is concerned, its priority is to be an active leader in improving common security policy within the boundaries of the European Union (EU...

  6. Climate change policy instruments in a least regrets context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenstra, W.J.; Bonney, M. [Ministry of Housing, The Hague (Netherlands). Spatial Planning and Environment

    1995-12-31

    The Dutch CO{sub 2} target - which was set down in the National Environmental Policy Plan Plus (NMP-plus) and sent to Parliament in 1990 - is to reduce emissions by 3 to 5 % in 2000 relative to 1989/1990. The second National Environmental Policy Plan (NMP-2), issued in December 1993, confirmed this target but also concluded that policies will have to be enhanced and additional measures taken in order to achieve it. The measures developed in NMP-plus assumed that real energy prices would rise substantially during the 1990`s. However, the prices are at their lowest level since the early 1970`s and official projections now assume that real energy prices will remain more or less constant between 1990 and 2000. Under these conditions, application of existing policy instruments will have to be intensified and additional policy instruments will have to be deployed in order to attain even the 3 % emission reduction target for CO{sub 2}. In December 1993 the Government`s second National Environmental Policy Plan and second Memorandum on Energy Conservation indicated how policy efforts in the area of climate change will be enhanced. Targets were set for improving energy efficiency in different sectors in the period 1989-2000: 23 % for households, 23 % for non-residential buildings, 19 % for industry, 26 % for agriculture, 10 % for transport and 26 % for power stations. The overall efficiency improvement (including renewables) will lead to energy consumption of 2865 PJ in 2000 (550 PJ less than what it would have been without the policy measures; slightly more than what it was in 1990). Energy efficiency (including renewables) will be responsible for roughly two thirds of the CO{sub 2} reduction needed, with the remainder coming from transport, recycling, reduced coal use, afforestation and structural changes

  7. Climate change policy instruments in a least regrets context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenstra, W J; Bonney, M [Ministry of Housing, The Hague (Netherlands). Spatial Planning and Environment

    1996-12-31

    The Dutch CO{sub 2} target - which was set down in the National Environmental Policy Plan Plus (NMP-plus) and sent to Parliament in 1990 - is to reduce emissions by 3 to 5 % in 2000 relative to 1989/1990. The second National Environmental Policy Plan (NMP-2), issued in December 1993, confirmed this target but also concluded that policies will have to be enhanced and additional measures taken in order to achieve it. The measures developed in NMP-plus assumed that real energy prices would rise substantially during the 1990`s. However, the prices are at their lowest level since the early 1970`s and official projections now assume that real energy prices will remain more or less constant between 1990 and 2000. Under these conditions, application of existing policy instruments will have to be intensified and additional policy instruments will have to be deployed in order to attain even the 3 % emission reduction target for CO{sub 2}. In December 1993 the Government`s second National Environmental Policy Plan and second Memorandum on Energy Conservation indicated how policy efforts in the area of climate change will be enhanced. Targets were set for improving energy efficiency in different sectors in the period 1989-2000: 23 % for households, 23 % for non-residential buildings, 19 % for industry, 26 % for agriculture, 10 % for transport and 26 % for power stations. The overall efficiency improvement (including renewables) will lead to energy consumption of 2865 PJ in 2000 (550 PJ less than what it would have been without the policy measures; slightly more than what it was in 1990). Energy efficiency (including renewables) will be responsible for roughly two thirds of the CO{sub 2} reduction needed, with the remainder coming from transport, recycling, reduced coal use, afforestation and structural changes

  8. Validation of the learning transfer system inventory in the South African context (Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W J Coetsee

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to validate the Learning Transfer System Inventory (LTSI in the South African context. The sample used in this study was a convenience sample of 240 employees working for a Banking group. Exploratory factor analysis of the LTSI was used to determine if an interpretable factor structure of latent transfer system constructs when applied in the South African context could be identified. From the results it appears that the factor structure of the LTSI, as revealed by means of the exploratory approach, appears differently in the South African context.

  9. The Budget Policy in the Context of Economic Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasichnik Vladimir A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at disclosing the essence and role of budget policy in the system of socio-economic development of country, defining the institutional approach in the process of its formation and implementation, based on changes in the public environment. The socio-economic development of society at this stage requires the use of budgetary policy as an effective instrument for the State regulation of economic and social relations. It is important to determine the priorities of the budget policy, including the medium-term perspective, based on the basic principles of the socio-economic development of country, improvement of the State regulation in the sphere of generation of budget income, the planning and usage of budget expenditures, the inter-budget relations, which will increase the efficiency of functioning of the economic and budget system as a whole.

  10. Parenting Support: Policy and Practice in the Irish Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Nuala; Devaney, Carmel

    2018-01-01

    Increasing government interest in parenting support has emerged in response to the increasingly diverse form of families, a growing emphasis on children's rights and a policy shift towards prevention and early intervention. This has contributed to a range of stakeholder activity in the area, with the notion that parenting is a set of skills that…

  11. Is a Blanket Elective Single Embryo Transfer Policy Defensible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Y. Adashi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of reducing maternal and neonatal morbidity, elective single transfer (eSET in in vitro fertilization (IVF was first proposed in 1999. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent oral debate between a proponent and an opponent of expanded eSET utilization in an attempt to determine whether a blanket eSET policy, as is increasingly considered, is defensible. While eSET is preferable when possible, and agreed upon by provider and patient, selective double embryo transfer (DET must be seriously entertained if deemed more appropriate or is desired by the patient. Patient autonomy, let alone prolonged infertility and advancing age, demand nothing less. Importantly, IVF-generated twins represent only 15.7% of the national twin birth rate in the United States. Non-IVF fertility treatments have been identified as the main cause of all multiple births for quite some time. However, educational and regulatory efforts over the last decade, paradoxically, have exclusively only been directed at the practice of IVF, although IVF patient populations are rapidly aging. It is difficult to understand why non-IVF fertility treatments, usually applied to younger women, have so far escaped attention. This debate on eSET utilization in association with IVF may contribute to a redirection of priorities.

  12. Temporal Withdrawal Behaviors in an Educational Policy Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Zehava; Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the differential relations between two teacher withdrawal behaviors: work absence and lateness, and two types of school ethics: organizational justice (distributive, procedural) and ethical climate (formal, caring), all in the context of school turbulent environment. Design/methodology/approach:…

  13. Professional Development Policy and Politics across International Contexts: From Mutuality to Measurability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Ian; Ronnerman, Karin; Furu, Eli Moksnes; Salo, Petri; Forsman, Liselott

    2010-01-01

    This article reveals how educational policies and policy contexts in Sweden, Norway, Finland and Australia establish the circumstances which enable and constrain individual and collective teacher professional development as praxis. We provide insights into existing partnerships between universities and schools, and, municipalities and the state as…

  14. Educating Adolescents in the Context of Section 504 Policy: a Comparative Study of Two Middle Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Martha Asterilla

    2002-01-01

    EDUCATING ADOLESCENTS IN THE CONTEXT OF SECTION 504 POLICY: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TWO MIDDLE SCHOOLS By Martha Asterilla Taylor Jean B. Crockett, Ph.D. Chairperson Educational Leadership and Policy Studies (ABSTRACT) Section 504 "prohibits discrimination against persons with disabilities by school districts receiving federal financial assistance" (First & Curcio, 1993, p.33). In public schools, eligible students receive an Individualized Accommodation Plan (IA...

  15. Beliefs in Context: Understanding Language Policy Implementation at a Systems Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on institutional theory, this study describes how cognitive, normative, and regulative mechanisms shape bilingual teachers' language policy implementation in both English-only and bilingual contexts. Aligned with prior educational language policy research, findings indicate the important role that teachers' beliefs play in the policy…

  16. Adjusting policy to institutional, cultural and biophysical context conditions: The case of conservation banking in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsten Mann; James D. Absher

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the political construction of a policy instrument for matching particular institutional, biophysical and cultural context conditions in a social–ecological system, using the case of conservation banking in California as an example. The guiding research question is: How is policy design negotiated between various actors on its way from early...

  17. Family policies in the context of low fertility and social structure

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Fent; Belinda Aparicio Diaz; Alexia Fürnkranz-Prskawetz

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the effectiveness of family policies in the context of the structure of a society. We use an agent-based model to analyse the impact of policies on individual fertility decisions and on fertility at the aggregate level. The crucial features of our model are the interactions between family policies and social structure, the agents´ heterogeneity and the structure and influence of the social network. This modelling framework allows us to disentangle the direct effec...

  18. Effectiveness of State-Level Policies on Solar Market Development in Different State Contexts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Doris, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Krasko, V. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hillman, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-02-01

    In response to public interest in customer-sited distributed solar photovoltaics (PV), state and local policymakers have implemented policy initiatives with the goal of encouraging private investment and building a robust PV market. Policymakers face challenges, including limited budgets and incomplete information about the effectiveness of the various policy options in their specific situation, in crafting and executing policy that supports market development goals. Recent work investigated the effect of the order in which policies are implemented (referred to as 'policy stacking') and the presence of low-cost enabling policies, such as interconnection standards and net metering, can have on the success of states in promoting PV markets. Findings indicate that implementation of interconnection standards and policy related to the valuation of excess electricity (e.g., net metering), along with indicators of long term government support for a solar PV market (e.g., RPS) and a non-policy determinant (population), explain about 70% of the variation among states in new PV capacity. This paper builds on that research to determine the most effective policy strategies for different types of states, as determined by their physical, demographic and macroeconomic context. A number of researchers have investigated the effectiveness of state-level policy using various statistical methods to determine relationships between installed solar PV projects and policy initiatives. In this study, the grouping of states by non-policy factors adds dimension to these analyses by identifying how policies function in different non-policy environments.

  19. Transferring methods to teach business administration from one cultural context to another

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Catalo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available What happens when a teaching method is transferred from one cultural context to another? In this article we investigate this question by looking at how Computer Based Simulations (CBS were transposed from a French context to an Egyptian one. In this article we demonstrate, through the case of Egypt, how culture and the characteristics of the school system impact learning abilities. We describe what happens when Egyptian students are confronted with learning modes they have not encountered prior to University, in the context of an Egyptian-French dual-degree programme in business administration and business informatics. We show that the transfer of CBS as a teaching method revealed cultural differences between French and Egyptian students. As a consequence the teaching objectives of CBS were redefined in order to take the Egyptian context into account.

  20. Optimal Tax-Transfer Policies, Life-Cycle Labour Supply and Present-Biased Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnersen, Lasse Frisgaard; Rasmussen, Bo Sandemann

    Using a two-period model with two types of agents that are characterized by present-biased preferences second-best optimal tax-transfer policies are considered. The paternalistic optimal tax-transfer policy has two main concerns: Income redistribution from high to low ability households...... consequences not only for optimal subsidies to savings but also for optimal marginal income taxes....

  1. The success of a policy model: Irrigation management transfer in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rap, E.R.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis studies the emergence, process and outcomes of the Mexican policy of Irrigation Management Transfer (IMT). Under the influence of neo-liberal government policies, the transfer of government-managed irrigation districts to water users' associations (WUAs) has radically changed irrigation

  2. Exploring Nurse Leaders' Policy Participation Within the Context of a Nursing Conceptual Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Ashley; Adams, Jeffrey M; Fawcett, Jacqueline

    2017-11-01

    This study was designed to describe and quantify the experiences of nurse leaders working to influence policy and to build consensus for priority skills and knowledge useful in policy efforts within the context of a nursing conceptual framework. The conceptual model for nursing and health policy and the Adams influence model were combined into a conceptual framework used to guide this two-round modified Delphi study. Twenty-two nurse leaders who were members of a state action coalition participated in the Round 1 focus group; 15 of these leaders completed the Round 2 electronic survey. Round 1 themes indicated the value of a passion for policy, the importance of clear communication, and an understanding the who and when of policy work. Round 2 data reinforced the importance of clear communication regarding policy engagement; knowing the who and when of policy closely followed, and having a passion for policy work was identified as least important. These themes inform learning objectives for nursing education and preparation for interactions with public officials because influencing policy requires knowledge, skills, and persistence. Study findings begin to describe how nurse leaders influence policy within the context of a nursing conceptual framework and generate implications for research, education, and professional practice.

  3. A Country Specific Approach To IFRS Accounting Policy Choice In The European, Australian And Turkish Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalan Akdogan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available IAS 8 defines the concept of accounting policy as "the specific principles, bases, conventions, rules and practices applied by an entity in preparing and presenting financial statements". Within the framework of this concept, this research that is derived from International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS contributes to the accounting literature by focusing on the alternative accounting policies' debate related to presentation and recognition issues in the European, Australian and Turkish context and concludes that there is an influence of local accounting policies over IFRS practice in Turkey and this influence still exists in Europe and Australia. This shows that as long as diversity in accounting policies of IFRS is present, entities are expected to be inclined to select their local accounting policies by leading to comparability of financial statements within the country rather than between countries in the IFRS context.

  4. The Transfer of HRM Policies and Practices in American Multinational Hotels in Saudi Arabia (P.155-164

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Hatem Alkhaldi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Global   competition   in   the   international   business   environment has   pushed companies to achieve competitive advantage through mergers, acquisitions and through locating their subsidiaries in less developed counties for cost effectiveness. Consequently, the competitive pressure has increased the significance of human resource management (HRM in multinational companies (MNCs, and MNCs have recognised the significance of the transfer HRM process across borders. This study examines the transfer of HRM policies and practices of US MNCs to their subsidiaries in Saudi Arabia. The aim of the study is to determine the extent to which US MNCs transfer HRM policies and practices from their Headquarters to their subsidiaries in Saudi Arabia; and identify the factors that facilitate and inhibit HRM transfer. The paper is based on an investigation of the interaction between home-country and host-country effects in determining HRM policies and practices in MNCs in the context of the Middle East. The study adopts a mixed methods approach of documentary analysis, focus group interviews of employees and in depth interviews of key informants in four subsidiaries of US owned international hotel chains located in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.Keywords: Home  country, host  country, human  resource  managem transfer,Institutional theory, culture conditions.

  5. ENERGY IN THE CONTEXT OF THE PRESENT CHALLENGES TO THE EUROPEAN COMMON SECURITY AND DEFENCE POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel ANDRUSEAC

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Common Security and Defence Policy is a part of the European Union’s Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP and establishes the policy framework for the institutional structures and military instruments which have to deal with the security challenges in Europe’s geopolitical neighborhood. The article aims to identify and analyze the role of energy as one of the present challenges to the European Common Security and Defence Policy in the context of the recent events in the world economy.

  6. U.S. state policies for renewable energy: Context and effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delmas, Magali A.; Montes-Sancho, Maria J.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, state policies on renewable energy have been on the rise in the U.S., providing states with various options for encouraging the generation of renewable electricity. Two promising policies, the Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) and the Mandatory Green Power Option (MGPO), have been implemented in many states but the evidence about their effectiveness is mixed. In this paper, we argue that recognizing the natural, social, and policy context under which MGPO and RPS are adopted is necessary in order to measure their true effectiveness. This is because the context rather than the policy might lead to positive outcomes and there is the possibility for sample bias. When controlling for the context in which the policies are implemented, we find that RPS has a negative impact on investments in renewable capacity. However, we find that investor-owned utilities seem to respond more positively to RPS mandates than publicly owned utilities. By contrast, MGPO appears to have a significant effect on installed renewable capacity for all utilities regardless of the context in which it is implemented. - Research highlights: → We assess whether U.S. state renewable policies are effective at generating investments in renewable capacity. → We find that Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) is ineffective. → We find that Mandatory Green Power Option (MGPO) is effective. → Investor-owned utilities respond more positively to RPS than publicly owned utilities. → The results differ from previous studies because we control for sample bias.

  7. The Practices and Politics of Making Policy: Irrigation Management Transfer in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rap, E.R.; Wester, P.

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that policy making is an interactive and ongoing process that transcends the spatio-temporal boundaries drawn by a linear, rational or instrumental model of policy. We construct this argument by analysing the making of the Irrigation Management Transfer (IMT) policy in Mexico in

  8. Taking the Concept of Citizenship in Mental Health across Countries. Reflections on Transferring Principles and Practice to Different Sociocultural Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiroa-Orosa, Francisco José; Rowe, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Transferring principles and practices to different sociocultural and professional contexts in the field of mental health can be very complex. Previous research on public health policy points to difficulties in different areas such as the understanding the new concepts, their applicability in different health systems, and suitable approaches to its effective implementation. The purpose of this article is to describe and analyze the process of transferring the concept of Citizenship, from its United States origins in mental health outreach work with persons who are homeless to Catalonia, Spain. We define Citizenship as promoting the rights, responsibilities, roles, resources and relationships of persons with mental illnesses, along with a sense of belonging that is validated by other citizens. The process of this transition involves embedding Citizenship in the mental health “first-person” (internationally known as Consumer/Survivor/Peer) movement in Catalonia. The paper includes a discussion of the concept of transference, including a case example of the adoption of the concept of mental health recovery in different countries. Following this, we describe the United States Citizenship model and key elements of its development. We then turn to Spain and the evolution of its mental health system, and then to Catalonia for a brief case history of transference of the principles and practices of Citizenship to that region. The “take home message” of this work is that concepts being brought from one sociocultural and national context to another, must focus on contextualization in the ‘adoptee’s’ practices, including the balance between personal involvement and professional rigor, the involvement of key actors, and ongoing evaluation of actions taken. PMID:28680412

  9. Taking the Concept of Citizenship in Mental Health across Countries. Reflections on Transferring Principles and Practice to Different Sociocultural Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiroa-Orosa, Francisco José; Rowe, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Transferring principles and practices to different sociocultural and professional contexts in the field of mental health can be very complex. Previous research on public health policy points to difficulties in different areas such as the understanding the new concepts, their applicability in different health systems, and suitable approaches to its effective implementation. The purpose of this article is to describe and analyze the process of transferring the concept of Citizenship, from its United States origins in mental health outreach work with persons who are homeless to Catalonia, Spain. We define Citizenship as promoting the rights, responsibilities, roles, resources and relationships of persons with mental illnesses, along with a sense of belonging that is validated by other citizens. The process of this transition involves embedding Citizenship in the mental health "first-person" (internationally known as Consumer/Survivor/Peer) movement in Catalonia. The paper includes a discussion of the concept of transference, including a case example of the adoption of the concept of mental health recovery in different countries. Following this, we describe the United States Citizenship model and key elements of its development. We then turn to Spain and the evolution of its mental health system, and then to Catalonia for a brief case history of transference of the principles and practices of Citizenship to that region. The "take home message" of this work is that concepts being brought from one sociocultural and national context to another, must focus on contextualization in the 'adoptee's' practices, including the balance between personal involvement and professional rigor, the involvement of key actors, and ongoing evaluation of actions taken.

  10. Taking the Concept of Citizenship in Mental Health across Countries. Reflections on Transferring Principles and Practice to Different Sociocultural Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Eiroa-Orosa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Transferring principles and practices to different sociocultural and professional contexts in the field of mental health can be very complex. Previous research on public health policy points to difficulties in different areas such as the understanding the new concepts, their applicability in different health systems, and suitable approaches to its effective implementation. The purpose of this article is to describe and analyze the process of transferring the concept of Citizenship, from its United States origins in mental health outreach work with persons who are homeless to Catalonia, Spain. We define Citizenship as promoting the rights, responsibilities, roles, resources and relationships of persons with mental illnesses, along with a sense of belonging that is validated by other citizens. The process of this transition involves embedding Citizenship in the mental health “first-person” (internationally known as Consumer/Survivor/Peer movement in Catalonia. The paper includes a discussion of the concept of transference, including a case example of the adoption of the concept of mental health recovery in different countries. Following this, we describe the United States Citizenship model and key elements of its development. We then turn to Spain and the evolution of its mental health system, and then to Catalonia for a brief case history of transference of the principles and practices of Citizenship to that region. The “take home message” of this work is that concepts being brought from one sociocultural and national context to another, must focus on contextualization in the ‘adoptee’s’ practices, including the balance between personal involvement and professional rigor, the involvement of key actors, and ongoing evaluation of actions taken.

  11. Mixed tenure communities as a policy instrument for educational outcomes in a deprived urban context?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Oonagh; Kearns, Ade; Gray, Linsay; Bond, Lyndal; Henderson, Marion

    2016-05-03

    This article considers mixed community strategies, enacted through planning and regeneration policies, as a policy approach to the improvement of educational outcomes in schools. Analysis is undertaken of educational outcomes across secondary schools in Glasgow. The level of owner occupation in the catchment is positively associated with both examination results at S4 and positive destinations post-school, particularly at the more deprived end of the school spectrum. The results suggest that tenure mix may be both directly and indirectly related to school performance, with neighbourhood context effects not being entirely mediated through the school context.

  12. Transfer of technology to developing countries: unilateral and multilateral policy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hockman, B.M.; Maskus, K.E.; Saggi, K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes national and international policy options to encourage the international transfer of technology, distinguishing between four major channels of such transfer: trade in products, trade in knowledge and technology, foreign direct investment, and intranational and international movement of people. A typology of countries and appropriate policy rules of thumb are developed as a guide to both national policymakers and multilateral rule making in the WTO. We argue that the optimal policy mix varies across countries and that there is a need for differentiation in the design and application of rules in trade agreements as well as for a more explicit focus on evaluation of the impacts of policies. (author)

  13. Political contexts and maternal health policy: insights from a comparison of south Indian states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephanie L

    2014-01-01

    Nearly 300,000 women die from pregnancy-related complications each year. One-fifth of these deaths occur in India. Maternal survival rose on India's national policy agenda in the mid-2000s, but responsibility for health policy and implementation in the federal system is largely devolved to the state level where priority for the issue and maternal health outcomes vary. This study investigates sources of variation in maternal health policy and implementation sub-nationally in India. The study is guided by four analytical categories drawn from policy process literature: constitutional, governing and social structures; political contexts; actors and ideas. The experiences of two south Indian states-Tamil Nadu a leader and Karnataka a relatively slow mover-are examined. Process-tracing, a case study methodology that helps to identify roles of complex historical events in causal processes, was employed to investigate the research question in each state. The study is informed by interviews with public health policy experts and service delivery professionals, observation of implementation sites and archival document analysis. Historical legacies-Tamil Nadu's non-Brahmin social movement and Karnataka's developmental disparities combined with decentralization-shape the states' political contexts, affecting variation in maternal health policy and implementation. Competition to advance consistent political priorities across regimes in Tamil Nadu offers fertile ground for policy entrepreneurship and strong public health system administration facilitates progress. Inconsistent political priorities and relatively weak public health system administration frustrate progress in Karnataka. These variations offer insights to the ways in which sub-national political and administrative contexts shape health policy and implementation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Relationship between Ethnic Diversity and Classroom Disruption in the Context of Migration Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerman, Gert-Jan M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between ethnic school composition and classroom disruption in secondary education in the context of migration policies. We measured classroom disruption using students' reports from 3533 schools in 20 countries provided by cross-national PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) 2009 data. We employ…

  15. Daisaku Ikeda's Educational Philosophy in the Context of English Education Policy in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, Kazuma

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author considers Daisaku Ikeda's (1928-) educational philosophy in the context of English education policies in Japan. The author begins by explicating Ikeda's concepts of wisdom versus knowledge and "society for education" (e.g., Ikeda, 2000; Sadovnichy & Ikeda, 2002). He then suggests consideration of these…

  16. Leadership for Coping with and Adapting to Policy Change in Deprived Contexts: Lessons from School Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhengu, Thamsanqa Thulani; Myende, Phumlani Erasmus

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores what, from school principals' perspectives, constitutes leadership for coping with and adapting to policy change within deprived school contexts. Using qualitative interpretive research, we drew from the practices of five principals that were purposively selected from a broader study, which focused on school principals'…

  17. MONEY TRANSFERS OF LABOR MIGRANTS IN THE CONTEXT OF INVESTMENTS IN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Osokina

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering the scale of domestic migration flows and remittances, the impact of cash transfers as important alternative source of investment on the development of Ukraine’s economy and income growth is analysed. Migrants remittances unlike other investment sources depend on crisis processes less than others and have a distinct counter-cyclical nature of the formation and operation. If not taking into account the means of IMF, remittances have become the largest external financial resource received by Ukraine because of the reduce of foreign investment. The results obtained from this research show that the easiest way to direct the remittances on economic development is to control this financial flow, its taxation and to require migrants to make transfers through national financial institutions. So, the problem of migrants’ money transfers should be raised on national level and must be identified as an important issue of economic policy.

  18. How to achieve effective knowledge transfer from research to policy and practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albreht, T.; Hansen, J.; Palm, W.; Muscat, N.A.

    2011-01-01

    Context: European health care decision makers are faced with an increasingly complex environment, which calls for better identification and application of scientific evidence. Often proposed solutions to enhance this underpinning of policy decisions are to improve communication channels between the

  19. Inequality and Optimal Redistributive Tax and Transfer Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Howell H Zee

    1999-01-01

    This paper explores the revenue-raising aspect of progressive taxation and derives, on the basis of a simple model, the optimal degree of tax progressivity where the tax revenue is used exclusively to finance (perfectly) targeted transfers to the poor. The paper shows that not only would it be optimal to finance the targeted transfers with progressive taxation, but that the optimal progressivity increases unambiguously with growing income inequality. This conclusion holds up under different a...

  20. Health policy evolution in Lao People's Democratic Republic: context, processes and agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, Kristina; Phoummalaysith, Bounfeng; Wahlström, Rolf; Tomson, Göran

    2015-05-01

    During the last 20 years Lao People's Democratic Republic has successfully developed and adopted some 30 health policies, strategies, decrees and laws in the field of health. Still, the implementation process remains arduous. This article aims at discussing challenges of health policy development and effective implementation by contextualizing the policy evolution over time and by focusing particularly on the National Drug Policy and the Health Care Law. Special attention is given to the role of research in policymaking. The analysis was guided by the conceptual framework of policy context, process, content and actors, combined with an institutional perspective, and showed that effective implementation of a health policy is highly dependent on both structures and agency of those involved in the policy process. The National Drug Policy was formulated and adopted in a short period of time in a resource-scarce setting, but with dedicated policy entrepreneurs and support of concerned international collaborators. Timely introduction of operational health systems research played a crucial role to support the implementation, as well as the subsequent revision of the policy. The development of the Health Care Law took several years and once adopted, the implementation was delayed by institutional legacies and issues concerning the choice of institutional design and financing, despite strong support of the law among the policymakers. Among many factors, timing of the implementation appeared to be of crucial importance, in combination with strong leadership. These two examples show that more research, that problematizes the complex policy environment in combination with improved communication between researchers and policymakers, is necessary to inform about measures for effective implementation. A way forward can be to strengthen the domestic research capacity and the international research collaboration regionally as well as globally. Published by Oxford University Press

  1. PUBLIC POLICIES TO R&D IN ROMANIA IN THE CONTEXT OF THE EU STATE AID POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bacila Nicolae

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available From an economic perspective, the importance of EU state aid policy refers to correcting “market failure” situations that may occur in the economy, aiming at maintaining an undistorted competition in the economic environment. In the context of the Commission focusing its efforts towards promoting R&D investment through Europe 2020 strategy, Romania is a modest innovator and is facing a relatively low level of economic competitiveness. The present paper aims at providing a contribution to the literature on public policies to R&D in the EU, developing both a quantitative and a qualitative analysis of public policies to R&D in Romania in the context of the EU state aid policy. Our research hypothesis considers that public policies to R&D in Romania, as in other Central and Eastern European countries, are following a convergence process with the practices from the EU level. Based on data provided by Eurostat, we have stressed that the existing gap between the national level and the EU level tends to maintain in the state aid field even in the future, in spite of Romanian government sector R&D expenditure tending to converge with the EU level, which highlights the potential of catching up with the European model. We believe that the success of the convergence process will depend in the future, to a large extent, on the implementation of the modernised legal and institutional framework of state aid policy, as well as on the capacity to build consensus by policy makers around the necessity to structure future economic development around R&D investment. In order to successfully address these structural R&D problems, the National Strategy for Research, Development and Innovation aims to establish R&D as engine for increasing economic competitiveness, while at the same time strengthening strategic areas with comparative advantages, supporting public-private partnerships, funding clusters in areas of smart specialisation, developing intellectual

  2. Examining Practice Across International Policy Contexts: Organizational Roles and Distributed Leadership in the US and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornskov, Søren; Bjerg, Helle; Kelley, Carolyn

    nations (Lingard et al., 2016). The similarities in policy content include an increased focus on accountability for school teachers and leaders, augmented testing programs for students, and changes to the working or professional culture for teachers, leaders and other professions often achieved through...... are having on their respective contexts. In Denmark, the Ministry of Education introduced a major school reform in Fall 2014. The reform was the latest initiative in more than a decade of national educational policy marked by the increased focus on accountability, international ranking systems...... the policies that the Ministry of Education has recently issued, and promoting the necessary changes in their school. This policy-driven focus on school leadership aims to realize a scenario in which school principals are expected not only to work closely within the team of formally designated leaders...

  3. Generations in organizations. Ageing workforce and personnel policy as context for intergenerational conflict in local government

    OpenAIRE

    Platteau, Eva

    2013-01-01

    The topic of the dissertation is the collaboration between generations in the workplace. In the first chapter, this topic is situated in the context of the ‘ageing problem’. The question that is addressed is why the collaboration between generations has become a point of attention for the personnel policy, and more specifically for ‘age management’ that is targeted at keeping workers to ‘work longer’. Also, the context of the research, namely Flemish Local Government, is discussed. In the sec...

  4. Ownership Restrictions, Tax Competition and Transfer Pricing Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diaw, K.

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes tax/subsidy competition and transfer pricing regulation between governments involved in trade through a multinational firm and a joint venture using an input provided by the former.The paper takes into account the fact that in absence of bargaining, any model of such JV is

  5. Challenges in implementing individual placement and support in the Australian mental health service and policy context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirling, Yolande; Higgins, Kate; Petrakis, Melissa

    2018-02-01

    Objective Although Australia's service and policy context differs from that of the US, studies have highlighted potential for individual placement and support (IPS) to support competitive employment outcomes for people with severe and persistent mental illness. The aim of the present study was to explore why the model is not yet widely available. Methods A document analysis was conducted to discern reasons for challenges in implementation of IPS practice principles within the Australian service context. Results The document analysis illustrated that although policy acknowledges the importance of increasing employment rates for people with severe and persistent mental illness, consistent measures, change indicators, direction and time frames are lacking in policy and strategy documentation. Further, IPS principles are not consistently evident in guiding operational documentation that government-funded Disability Employment Services (DES) programs are mandated to adhere to. Conclusions For IPS to be readily implemented, it is necessary for government to offer support to agencies to partner and formal endorsement of the model as a preferred approach in tendering processes. Obligations and processes must be reviewed to ensure that model fidelity is achievable within the Australian Commonwealth policy and service context for programs to achieve competitive employment rates comparable to the most successful international programs. What is known about the topic? The IPS model has been established as the most efficacious approach to support people with severe and persistent mental ill health to gain and sustain employment internationally, yet little is known as to why this model has had very limited uptake in the Australian adult mental health service and policy context. What does this paper add? This paper provides an investigation into the achievability of IPS within DES philosophical and contractual arrangements. What are the implications for practitioners? Mental

  6. Computable general equilibrium modelling in the context of trade and environmental policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koesler, Simon Tobias

    2014-10-14

    This thesis is dedicated to the evaluation of environmental policies in the context of climate change. Its objectives are twofold. Its first part is devoted to the development of potent instruments for quantitative impact analysis of environmental policy. In this context, the main contributions include the development of a new computable general equilibrium (CGE) model which makes use of the new comprehensive and coherent World Input-Output Dataset (WIOD) and which features a detailed representation of bilateral and bisectoral trade flows. Moreover it features an investigation of input substitutability to provide modellers with adequate estimates for key elasticities as well as a discussion and amelioration of the standard base year calibration procedure of most CGE models. Building on these tools, the second part applies the improved modelling framework and studies the economic implications of environmental policy. This includes an analysis of so called rebound effects, which are triggered by energy efficiency improvements and reduce their net benefit, an investigation of how firms restructure their production processes in the presence of carbon pricing mechanisms, and an analysis of a regional maritime emission trading scheme as one of the possible options to reduce emissions of international shipping in the EU context.

  7. Computable general equilibrium modelling in the context of trade and environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koesler, Simon Tobias

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is dedicated to the evaluation of environmental policies in the context of climate change. Its objectives are twofold. Its first part is devoted to the development of potent instruments for quantitative impact analysis of environmental policy. In this context, the main contributions include the development of a new computable general equilibrium (CGE) model which makes use of the new comprehensive and coherent World Input-Output Dataset (WIOD) and which features a detailed representation of bilateral and bisectoral trade flows. Moreover it features an investigation of input substitutability to provide modellers with adequate estimates for key elasticities as well as a discussion and amelioration of the standard base year calibration procedure of most CGE models. Building on these tools, the second part applies the improved modelling framework and studies the economic implications of environmental policy. This includes an analysis of so called rebound effects, which are triggered by energy efficiency improvements and reduce their net benefit, an investigation of how firms restructure their production processes in the presence of carbon pricing mechanisms, and an analysis of a regional maritime emission trading scheme as one of the possible options to reduce emissions of international shipping in the EU context.

  8. Doctor-Patient Knowledge Transfer: Innovative Technologies and Policy Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Sára, Zoltán; Csedő, Zoltán; Tóth, Tamás; Fejes, József; Pörzse, Gábor

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to empirically investigate the barriers in doctor-patient communication and knowledge transfer and the role of innovative technologies in overcoming these barriers. We applied qualitative research methods. Our results show that patients extensively use information sources, primarily the Internet before the visits. Patients regularly apply a self-diagnosis regarding their diseases. This implies several risks as many of them are not able to properly inte...

  9. The Use of Transferable Permits in Transport Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Raux, Charles

    2004-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2004.01.001; International audience; This paper considers potential use of domestic transferable, or tradable, permit systems for the purposes of travel management, especially reducing environmental nuisances. The main arguments for and against the use of permits are analyzed. Secondly two case studies of existing permit systems are examined. The main conclusions are that tradable permits can address greenhouse gas and regional atmospheric pollutant emissions, ...

  10. Environmental policy-making in a difficult context: motorized two-wheeled vehicle emissions in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badami, Madhav G.

    2004-01-01

    Motor vehicle activity is growing rapidly in India and other less-industrialized countries in Asia. This growth is contributing to serious health and welfare effects due to vehicle emissions, and energy insecurity, acidification and climate change. This paper applies the problem-structuring tools of 'value-focused thinking' to inform policy-making and implementation related to this complex problem in a difficult context, with specific reference to motorized two-wheeled vehicles, which play an important role in transport air pollution but also provide affordable mobility to millions with few other attractive options. The paper describes the process used to elicit and structure objectives and measures, based on interviews conducted by the author, and demonstrates how the objectives and measures can be used to more effectively characterize policy impacts, and create policy packages that have a better chance of long-term success

  11. Exploring the Contribution of Fiscal Transfers to Protected Area Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maud Borie

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity payments have become an increasingly proposed tool to promote conservation measures. An unexplored issue concerns the potential role of fiscal transfers between the state and infra-national authorities potentially as direct financial incentives for biodiversity conservation. We explore how protected areas can be taken into account in a redistributive fiscal transfer system between the state and local authorities, i.e., municipalities. Different simulations were made in the Mediterranean region of southern France, a major biodiversity hotspot subject to increasing threats. We examined two methods for fiscal transfer: first, a "per hectare" method, based on the surface of the protected area within the boundaries of the municipality and second a "population equivalent" method, in which we convert the surface of protected areas into relative numbers of inhabitants. Our results show that consideration of the population of the municipality in addition to its protected areas' surface can provide a strong incentive to encourage municipalities to designate protected areas. However, this will require increased public funding to buffer financial losses incurred by large municipalities that have a low proportion of their territory within protected areas. We discuss the social feasibility of this tool for green infrastructure implementation and future protected area designation.

  12. Practices, environments and knowledges: ICT Policies in the context of the Colombian higher education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Ernesto Rojas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This review article’s has the purpose to show a state of the art on the academic and investigative reflection produced in the context of the relation: Higher Education and ICT policies. In order to achieve this purpose, the text is structured in three parts. Initially, a historic, brief context of the reflections, and systematization and analysis studies of the theme is accomplished. Said context was limited between the beginning of the nineties and mid 2000. At a later time, the state of the issue is registered in terms of the proposal of problems, used methodologies, obtained results and approached discussions. Finally, some considerations in relation to the found results are done.

  13. THE IMPLEMENTATION OF ENGLISH-ONLY POLICY IN THE TERTIARY EFL CONTEXT IN TAIWAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Dirkwen Wei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The implementation of English-only policy in the English classes at Wenzao Ursuline College of Languages in Taiwan has continued for nearly 40 years. Its advantages and disadvantages have also been debated and challenged because of the rising demands on students’ English proficiency in Taiwan. This study intended to reexamine the efficiency of the implementation of English-only policy in the English learning at a college of languages in Taiwan. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used in the process of data collection. 279 English major and non-English major students were invited to answer questionnaires, and six participants were invited to join interviews. The process of data analysis included the analysis of both the quantitative questionnaire data and the qualitative interview data. This study found students’ progress in English listening and speaking proficiency in the basic and lower-intermediate levels because of English-only policy. However, the interaction between teachers and some students was hampered because of the policy. Also, the ambiguity emerging in the insistence on using English only blocked some learners from comprehending the meanings of the texts they were learning, specifically the texts in the upper-intermediate and intermediate-advanced levels of English reading and writing courses. This study also found that proper tolerance of using both students’ native language and English in TEFL classes in the way of code-switching may help students more than the implementation of English-only policy in a tertiary TEFL context.

  14. National public health policy in a local context--implementation in two Swedish municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Elisabeth; Fosse, Elisabeth; Tillgren, Per

    2011-12-01

    In 2003 the wide-ranging Swedish National Public Health Policy (SNPHP), with a focus on health determinants, was adopted by the Swedish parliament. In the context of multilevel governance, SNPHP implementation is dependent on self-governed municipalities and counties. The aim of the study is, from a municipal perspective, to investigate public-health policies in two municipalities. Content analysis of documents and interviews provided a foundation for an explorative case study. The SNPHP at national level is overriding but politically controversial. At local level, a health-determinants perspective was detectable in the policies implemented, but none regarding to health equality. At local level, the SNPHP is not regarded as implementable; rather, limited parts have, to varying degrees, been reconciled with local public-health goals, according to municipal needs and conditions. A success-promoting factor in the two municipalities was the presence of committed and knowledgeable actors/implementers. Also, the municipality with a more centrally controlled and stable party-political leadership succeeded better in implementing structural and intersectoral community-wide policies for coordinated local health promotion. The contents of national and local public-health policies differ, and municipalities that have implemented their own local health policies do not seem to regard the SNPHP as justifiable or adoptable. If the SNPHP overall aim regarding equal health is to be achieved homogeneously in Swedish municipalities, its contents and purpose need clearer management and negotiation, so that implementation of the national policy locally is understandable and motivated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Biography, policy and language teaching practices in a multilingual context: Early childhood classrooms in Mauritius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Ankiah-Gangadeen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Language policies in education in multilingual postcolonial contexts are often driven by ideological considerations more veered towards socio-economic and political viability for the country than towards the practicality at implementation level. Centuries after the advent of colonisation, when culturally and linguistically homogenous countries helped to maintain the dominion of colonisers, the English language still has a stronghold in numerous countries due to the material rewards it offers. How then are the diversity of languages – often with different statuses and functions in society – reconciled in the teaching and learning process? How do teachers deal with the intricacies that are generated within a situation where children are taught in a language that is foreign to them? This paper is based on a study involving pre-primary teachers in Mauritius, a developing multilingual African country. The aim was to understand how their approach to the teaching of English was shaped by their biographical experiences of learning the language. The narrative inquiry methodology offered rich possibilities to foray into these experiences, including the manifestations of negotiating their classroom pedagogy in relation to their own personal historical biographies of language teaching and learning, the policy environment, and the pragmatic classroom specificities of diverse, multilingual learners. These insights become resources for early childhood education and teacher development in multilingual contexts caught within the tensions between language policy and pedagogy.

  16. Deriving evaluation indicators for knowledge transfer and dialogue processes in the context of climate research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treffeisen, Renate; Grosfeld, Klaus; Kuhlmann, Franziska

    2017-12-01

    Knowledge transfer and dialogue processes in the field of climate science have captured intensive attention in recent years as being an important part of research activities. Therefore, the demand and pressure to develop a set of indicators for the evaluation of different activities in this field have increased, too. Research institutes are being asked more and more to build up structures in order to map these activities and, thus, are obliged to demonstrate the success of these efforts. This paper aims to serve as an input to stimulate further reflection on the field of evaluation of knowledge transfer and dialogue processes in the context of climate sciences. The work performed in this paper is embedded in the efforts of the German Helmholtz Association in the research field of earth and environment and is driven by the need to apply suitable indicators for knowledge transfer and dialogue processes in climate research center evaluations. We carry out a comparative analysis of three long-term activities and derive a set of indicators for measuring their output and outcome by balancing the wide diversity and range of activity contents as well as the different tools to realize them. The case examples are based on activities which are part of the regional Helmholtz Climate Initiative Regional Climate Change (REKLIM) and the Climate Office for Polar Regions and Sea Level Rise at the Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research. Both institutional units have been working on a wide range of different knowledge transfer and dialogue processes since 2008/2009. We demonstrate that indicators for the evaluation must be based on the unique objectives of the individual activities and the framework they are embedded in (e.g., research foci which provide the background for the performed knowledge transfer and dialogue processes) but can partly be classified in a principle two-dimensional scheme. This scheme might serve as a usable basis for climate

  17. Serbian migration policy concerning irregular migration and asylum in the context of the EU integration process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Stojić-Mitrović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I would like to present Serbian migration policy concerning irregular migration and asylum in the context of the attempts of the Serbian state to become a member of the European Union. I would describe the history of the asylum system prior and after the implementation of the independent asylum system in Serbia in 2008. My presentation of the Serbian migration policy would be channelled by the analysis of some particular political issues, such as the externalization of the EU borders’ control, as well as some relevant elements of the European integration process, like visa liberalization. The second, more culturally specific dimension of the issue would be accessed through the demonstration of both legislative and public conceptualizations of the irregular migrants, asylum seekers and refugees in Serbia.

  18. The climate impacts of bioenergy systems depend on market and regulatory policy contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, Derek M; Plevin, Richard J; Cohn, Avery S; Jones, Andrew D; Brandt, Adam R; Vergara, Sintana E; Kammen, Daniel M

    2010-10-01

    Biomass can help reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by displacing petroleum in the transportation sector, by displacing fossil-based electricity, and by sequestering atmospheric carbon. Which use mitigates the most emissions depends on market and regulatory contexts outside the scope of attributional life cycle assessments. We show that bioelectricity's advantage over liquid biofuels depends on the GHG intensity of the electricity displaced. Bioelectricity that displaces coal-fired electricity could reduce GHG emissions, but bioelectricity that displaces wind electricity could increase GHG emissions. The electricity displaced depends upon existing infrastructure and policies affecting the electric grid. These findings demonstrate how model assumptions about whether the vehicle fleet and bioenergy use are fixed or free parameters constrain the policy questions an analysis can inform. Our bioenergy life cycle assessment can inform questions about a bioenergy mandate's optimal allocation between liquid fuels and electricity generation, but questions about the optimal level of bioenergy use require analyses with different assumptions about fixed and free parameters.

  19. International Education Policy Transfer--Borrowing Both Ways: The Hong Kong and England Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forestier, Katherine; Crossley, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses how the impact of international student achievement studies and the recent economic crisis in Europe are influencing the development of educational policy transfer and borrowing, from East to West. This is contrasted with education reform movements in East Asia, which have long legacies of borrowing from so-called…

  20. Stakeholder Engagement Opportunities in Systematic Reviews: Knowledge Transfer for Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keown, Kiera; Van Eerd, Dwayne; Irvin, Emma

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge transfer and exchange is the process of increasing the awareness and use of research evidence in policy or practice decision making by nonresearch audiences or stakeholders. One way to accomplish this end is through ongoing interaction between researchers and interested nonresearch audiences, which provides an opportunity for the two…

  1. Modeling and Simulation of Bus Dispatching Policy for Timed Transfers on Signalized Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hsun-Jung; Lin, Guey-Shii

    2007-12-01

    The major work of this study is to formulate the system cost functions and to integrate the bus dispatching policy with signal control. The integrated model mainly includes the flow dispersion model for links, signal control model for nodes, and dispatching control model for transfer terminals. All such models are inter-related for transfer operations in one-center transit network. The integrated model that combines dispatching policies with flexible signal control modes can be applied to assess the effectiveness of transfer operations. It is found that, if bus arrival information is reliable, an early dispatching decision made at the mean bus arrival times is preferable. The costs for coordinated operations with slack times are relatively low at the optimal common headway when applying adaptive route control. Based on such findings, a threshold function of bus headway for justifying an adaptive signal route control under various time values of auto drivers is developed.

  2. Buyer behaviour in the context of sustainable consumption policy pursued in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslaw Korpysa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The concept of sustainable consumption has been actively promoted among modern societies. It has gained a special importance in the context of pursuing sustainable consumption policy and supporting actions taken as part of corporate social responsibility. The fulfilment of strategic goals defined under this concept minimizes negative effects of industrialization and globalization. Furthermore, it contributes to efficient allocation of natural resources and natural environment protection. It is beyond any doubt that a 21st century consumer should take account of a number of issues while buying and subsequently using goods and services. These issues include wastage reduction, lower emission of pollution and limited production of waste, as well as selection of products whose development conforms to the code of ethics and socio-environmental norms. This awareness is observed in most countries all over the world, nevertheless certain differences can be noticed between the developed and developing states. Although the concept of sustainable consumption is being actively promoted among consumers in the developing countries (e.g. in Poland, they are still less aware of the necessity to conform to socio-ecological norms in the process of consumption. The main aim of the article is to analyse buyer behaviour in the context of sustainable development policy pursued in Poland. The first part will be devoted to theoretical issues relating to the subject of the analysis. In the second part of the paper the author will present the results of a survey examining the aforementioned behaviour.

  3. The European Union's Mediterranean Policy in the Context of the "Arab Spring"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria A. Latkina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the policy of the European Union aimed at the export of its democratic values, acquis communautaire and governance models to the neighbour countries in the Southern Mediterranean. The process of Europeanization reflects a particular case of global megatrend -democratization which in its turn positioned as democracy promotion through soft power instruments. From the EU point of view the goal of the Barcelona process launched in 1995 was to construct Euro-Mediterranean Partnership and common identity in order to promote democratic transitions in Southern Mediterranean. While the EU Foreign Policy in the Mediterranean region was historically conditioned by the security interests of the European Union, it suffered from securitization/democratization dilemma. The article analyses the process of external Europeanization in the Southern Mediterranean as a regional dimension of global democratization process in the context of Union for the Mediterranean development before and after the Arab Spring and new approach in the framework of the ENP Partnership for Democracy and Shared Prosperity with the Southern Mediterranean. The article proposes that the lack of political strategic vision in the EU toward the Arab democratic transition during 2011-2013 narrows its role as a transformative democratic power, hinders Europeanization/ democratization process in the macro-region of North Africa and Middle East and presents the EU with a new dilemma - to continue its traditional democratization policy or to shift towards a more pragmatic approach to cooperating with new Arab regimes.

  4. Nuclear security policy in the context of counter-terrorism in Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khun, Vuthy; Wongsawaeng, Doonyapong

    2016-01-01

    The risk of nuclear or dirty bomb attack by terrorists is one of the most urgent and threatening danger. The Cambodian national strategy to combat weapons of mass destruction (WMD) depicts a layered system of preventive measures ranging from securing materials at foreign sources to interdicting weapons or nuclear or other radioactive materials at ports, border crossings, and within the Cambodian institutions dealing with the nuclear security to manage the preventive programs. The aim of this study is to formulate guidance, to identify scenario of threat and risk, and to pinpoint necessary legal frameworks on nuclear security in the context of counterterrorism based on the International Atomic Energy Agency nuclear security series. The analysis of this study is guided by theoretical review, the review of international laws and politics, by identifying and interpreting applicable rules and norms establishing the nuclear security regime and how well enforcement of the regime is carried out and, what is the likelihood of the future reform might be. This study will examine the existing national legal frameworks of Cambodia in the context of counterterrorism to prevent acts of nuclear terrorism and the threat of a terrorist nuclear attack within the Cambodia territory. It will shed light on departmental lanes of national nuclear security responsibility, and provide a holistic perspective on the needs of additional resources and emphasis regarding nuclear security policy in the context of counterterrorism in Cambodia

  5. Nuclear security policy in the context of counter-terrorism in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khun, Vuthy; Wongsawaeng, Doonyapong

    2016-01-01

    The risk of nuclear or dirty bomb attack by terrorists is one of the most urgent and threatening danger. The Cambodian national strategy to combat weapons of mass destruction (WMD) depicts a layered system of preventive measures ranging from securing materials at foreign sources to interdicting weapons or nuclear or other radioactive materials at ports, border crossings, and within the Cambodian institutions dealing with the nuclear security to manage the preventive programs. The aim of this study is to formulate guidance, to identify scenario of threat and risk, and to pinpoint necessary legal frameworks on nuclear security in the context of counterterrorism based on the International Atomic Energy Agency nuclear security series. The analysis of this study is guided by theoretical review, the review of international laws and politics, by identifying and interpreting applicable rules and norms establishing the nuclear security regime and how well enforcement of the regime is carried out and, what is the likelihood of the future reform might be. This study will examine the existing national legal frameworks of Cambodia in the context of counterterrorism to prevent acts of nuclear terrorism and the threat of a terrorist nuclear attack within the Cambodia territory. It will shed light on departmental lanes of national nuclear security responsibility, and provide a holistic perspective on the needs of additional resources and emphasis regarding nuclear security policy in the context of counterterrorism in Cambodia.

  6. Nuclear security policy in the context of counter-terrorism in Cambodia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khun, Vuthy, E-mail: vuthy.khun@gmail.com; Wongsawaeng, Doonyapong [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, 254 Phayathai Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2016-01-22

    The risk of nuclear or dirty bomb attack by terrorists is one of the most urgent and threatening danger. The Cambodian national strategy to combat weapons of mass destruction (WMD) depicts a layered system of preventive measures ranging from securing materials at foreign sources to interdicting weapons or nuclear or other radioactive materials at ports, border crossings, and within the Cambodian institutions dealing with the nuclear security to manage the preventive programs. The aim of this study is to formulate guidance, to identify scenario of threat and risk, and to pinpoint necessary legal frameworks on nuclear security in the context of counterterrorism based on the International Atomic Energy Agency nuclear security series. The analysis of this study is guided by theoretical review, the review of international laws and politics, by identifying and interpreting applicable rules and norms establishing the nuclear security regime and how well enforcement of the regime is carried out and, what is the likelihood of the future reform might be. This study will examine the existing national legal frameworks of Cambodia in the context of counterterrorism to prevent acts of nuclear terrorism and the threat of a terrorist nuclear attack within the Cambodia territory. It will shed light on departmental lanes of national nuclear security responsibility, and provide a holistic perspective on the needs of additional resources and emphasis regarding nuclear security policy in the context of counterterrorism in Cambodia.

  7. Teacher education policies, practices, and reform in Scotland: Implications in the Indian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar Misra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available India, a country of 1.27 billion, nowadays needs reforms, improvements, and new approaches in teacher education to cater to the demands of changing economy and society. This call to improve teacher education becomes more significant considering the fact that 50% of India’s current population is below the age of 25 and over 65% below 35. There are two ways to proceed in this direction. First, making an internal review and assessment of present scenario of teacher education and suggesting need-based measures. The second one is to learn from those countries that have recently reviewed their teacher education systems and are continuously working for the betterment of teacher education. Following second approach, present paper analyzes teacher education policies, practices, and reform in Scotland, argues that concerns and commitments to reform teacher education in India and Scotland are similar, and suggests implications of Scottish experiences in the Indian context.

  8. Policy Approaches for Regulating Alcohol Marketing in a Global Context: A Public Health Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Marissa B; Jernigan, David H

    2018-04-01

    Alcohol consumption is responsible for 3.3 million deaths globally or nearly 6% of all deaths. Alcohol use contributes to both communicable and noncommunicable diseases, as well as violence and injuries. The purpose of this review is to discuss, in the context of the expansion of transnational alcohol corporations and harms associated with alcohol use, policy options for regulating exposure to alcohol marketing. We first provide an overview of the public health problem of harmful alcohol consumption and describe the association between exposure to alcohol marketing and alcohol consumption. We then discuss the growth and concentration of global alcohol corporations and their marketing practices in low- and middle-income countries, as well as in higher-income societies. We review the use and effectiveness of various approaches for regulating alcohol marketing in various countries before discussing challenges and opportunities to protect public health.

  9. Imagined in Policy, Inscribed on Bodies: Defending an Ethic of Compassion in a Political Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Dave

    2015-01-01

    In response to the International Journal of Health Policy and Management (IJHPM) editorial, this commentary adds to the debate about ethical dimensions of compassionate care in UK service provision. It acknowledges the importance of the original paper, and attempts to explore some of the issues that are raised in the context of nursing practice, research and education. It is argued that each of these fields of the profession are enacted in an escalating culture of corporatism, be that National Health Service (NHS) or university campus, and global neoliberalism. Post-structuralist ideas, notably those of Foucault, are borrowed to interrogate healthcare as discursive practice and disciplinary knowledge; where an understanding of the ways in which power and language operate is prominent. Historical and contemporary evidence of institutional and ideological degradation of sections of humanity, a ‘history of the present,’ serve as reminders of the import, and fragility, of ethical codes. PMID:26673179

  10. Analysing success of regulatory policy transfers: Evidence from Turkish energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dastan, Seyit Ali

    2011-01-01

    Economic regulation of public utilities has become a worldwide phenomenon with the preceding privatisation stream. It is questionable to transfer regulatory models hastily without customising the policy options or introducing necessary institutional reforms enabling the achievement of expected results of regulatory reform. Institutional configuration of a country affects credibility of regulatory commitments, quality of regulatory design, and way of policy transfer. Turkey’s energy market regulation experience confirms the decisive role of institutions in shaping the regulatory framework. - Highlights: ► The last quarter of the 20th century witnessed public sector reforms all over the world. ► The British model of utility regulation swept globally. ► In Turkey’s adoption of the utility regulation model, different factors affected in various ways. ► Higher political stability and regulatory experience provide faith in the regulatory framework.

  11. The core determinants of health expenditure in the African context: some econometric evidence for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Vasudeva N R; Okunade, Albert A

    2009-06-01

    This paper, using cross-sectional data from 44 (83% of all) African countries for year 2001, presents econometric model estimates linking real per-capita health expenditure (HEXP) to a host of economic and non-economic factors. The empirical results of OLS and robust LAE estimators indicate that real per-capita GDP (PRGDP) and real per-capita foreign aid (FAID) resources are both core and statistically significant correlates of HEXP. Our empirical results suggest that health care in the African context is technically, a necessity rather than a luxury good (for the OECD countries). This suggests that the goal of health system in Africa is primarily 'physiological' or 'curative' rather than 'caring' or 'pampering'. The positive association of HEXP with FAID hints that external resource inflows targeting health could be instrumental for spurring economic progress in good policy environments. Most African countries until the late 1990s experienced economic and political instability, and faced stringent structural adjustment mandates of the major international financial institution lenders for economic development. Therefore, our finding a positive effect of FAID on HEXP could suggest that external resource inflows softened some of the macroeconomic fiscal deficit impacts on HEXP in the 2000s. Policy implications of country-specific elasticity estimates are given.

  12. Philosophy of Public Governance: Manpower Policy of Modern Ukraine in the Context of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raisa Naumenko

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The recent global civilization shift from material to non-material production caused the fundamental change in information industry. The globalization concept is usually associated with the brands expansion and the activity of transnational corporations. Mentioned significant markers of globalization describe only the superficial consequences of deeper shifts in society, which have to be discovered and researched for better understanding of contemporary social system. Modern philosophy of public administration has to take into consideration the issue of man. It is necessary for its construction and future explications. It is well known, that human factor is always in charge. In this article author focuses on the philosophical foundations of the state manpower policy and reveal its importance for achieving Ukraine’s strategic stability in the context of globalization. In particular, the current status of some personnel processes in the sphere of public administration is examined and their legal support is analyzed. Moreover, key problems of inefficiency of the state manpower policy are distinguished.

  13. Telemedicine services in the Republic of Ireland: an evolving policy context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarlane, Anne; Murphy, Andrew William; Clerkin, Pauline

    2006-05-01

    The Republic of Ireland is characterised by few urban conurbations and a high rural population, including significant numbers of island dwellers. Information communication technologies (ICT), including telemedicine, present opportunities to address rural health-service delivery issues. As in other countries, the recent National Health Information Strategy is regarded as pivotal to the modernisation of the Irish health care system. There is, however, a dearth of research about telemedicine in Ireland. This paper reports, to the best of our knowledge, the first systematic review of telemedicine in the two regional health boards in the Republic of Ireland. Details of 11 telemedicine services, all initiated by local policy, will be presented. Results of an interview study with service providers about their experiences of the practices and processes involved in telemedicine service delivery are also provided. The focus of our analysis is two-fold. We assess the resonance of these Irish data with the international literature with particular reference to a recently developed model for the normalisation of telemedicine. For the first time, this model which was developed in the United Kingdom is applied to a fresh set of empirical data in a different health care context. We then discuss a number of health information policy issues for Ireland and elsewhere arising from our analysis.

  14. Exploring Context and the Factors Shaping Team-Based Primary Healthcare Policies in Three Canadian Provinces: A Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misfeldt, Renée; Suter, Esther; Mallinson, Sara; Boakye, Omenaa; Wong, Sabrina; Nasmith, Louise

    2017-08-01

    This paper discusses findings from a high-level scan of the contextual factors and actors that influenced policies on team-based primary healthcare in three Canadian provinces: British Columbia, Alberta and Saskatchewan. The team searched diverse sources (e.g., news reports, press releases, discussion papers) for contextual information relevant to primary healthcare teams. We also conducted qualitative interviews with key health system informants from the three provinces. Data from documents and interviews were analyzed qualitatively using thematic analysis. We then wrote narrative summaries highlighting pivotal policy and local system events and the influence of actors and context. Our overall findings highlight the value of reviewing the context, relationships and power dynamics, which come together and create "policy windows" at different points in time. We observed physician-centric policy processes with some recent moves to rebalance power and be inclusive of other actors and perspectives. The context review also highlighted the significant influence of changes in political leadership and prioritization in driving policies on team-based care. While this existed in different degrees in the three provinces, the push and pull of political and professional power dynamics shaped Canadian provincial policies governing team-based care. If we are to move team-based primary healthcare forward in Canada, the provinces need to review the external factors and the complex set of relationships and trade-offs that underscore the policy process. Copyright © 2017 Longwoods Publishing.

  15. A direct healthcare cost analysis of the cryopreserved versus fresh transfer policy at the blastocyst stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaleo, Enrico; Pagliardini, Luca; Vanni, Valeria Stella; Delprato, Diana; Rubino, Patrizia; Candiani, Massimo; Viganò, Paola

    2017-01-01

    A cost analysis covering direct healthcare costs relating to IVF freeze-all policy was conducted. Normal- and high- responder patients treated with a freeze-all policy (n = 63) compared with fresh transfer IVF (n = 189) matched by age, body mass index, duration and cause of infertility, predictive factors for IVF (number of oocytes used for fertilization) and study period, according to a 1:3 ratio were included. Total costs per patient (€6952 versus €6863) and mean costs per live birth were similar between the freeze-all strategy (€13,101, 95% CI 10,686 to 17,041) and fresh transfer IVF (€15,279, 95% CI 13,212 to 18,030). A mean per live birth cost-saving of €2178 (95% CI -1810 to 6165) resulted in a freeze-all strategy owing to fewer embryo transfer procedures (1.29 ± 0.5 versus 1.41 ± 0.7); differences were not significant. Sensitivity analysis revealed that the freeze-all strategy remained cost-effective until the live birth rate is either higher or only slightly lower (≥-0.59%) in the freeze-all group compared with fresh cycles. A freeze-all policy does not increase costs compared with fresh transfer, owing to negligible additional expenses, i.e. vitrification, endometrial priming and monitoring, against fewer embryo transfer procedures required to achieve pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Policies Supporting Innovation In The European Union In The Context Of The Lisbon Strategy And The Europe 2020 Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajewski Marek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of increasing globalization, global competition and rapid change the EU sees innovation and its commercialization as an effective way to build long-term global competitive advantage. Innovation policy is a link between research and technological development policy and industrial policy and makes it possible to create conditions conducive to bringing ideas to the market. It is also closely linked to other EU policies regarding e.g. employment, competitiveness, environment, industry and energy. This paper presents the evolution, conditions and objectives of the innovation policy of the European, and describes the main assumptions of the Lisbon and Europe 2020 strategies. Additionally it indicates possible ways of assessing the measures undertaken within the above-mentioned policies and of determining the tools necessary to implement the strategies.

  17. Information and communication technology (ICT) and eHealth policy in Latin America and the Caribbean: a review of national policies and assessment of socioeconomic context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Marroquin, Maria Carolina; Deber, Raisa; Jadad, Alejandro R

    2014-01-01

    To examine the availability of national information and communication technology (ICT) or eHealth policies produced by countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), and to determine the influence of a country's socioeconomic context on the existence of these policies. Documents describing a national ICT or eHealth policy in any of the 33 countries belonging to the LAC region as listed by the United Nations were identified from three data sources: academic databases; the Google search engine; and government agencies and representatives. The relationship between the existence of a policy and national socioeconomic indicators was also investigated. There has been some progress in the establishment of ICT and eHealth policies in the LAC region. The most useful methods for identifying the policies were 1) use of the Google search engine and 2) contact with Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) country representatives. The countries that have developed a national ICT policy seem to be more likely to have a national eHealth policy in place. There was no statistical significant association between the existence of a policy and a country's socioeconomic context. Governments need to make stronger efforts to raise awareness about existing and planned ICT and eHealth policies, not only to facilitate ease of use and communication with their stakeholders, but also to promote collaborative international efforts. In addition, a better understanding of the effect of economic variables on the role that ICTs play in health sector reform efforts will help shape the vision of what can be achieved.

  18. Aspects of spatial policy planning and fundamentals of protection of the environment in the context of sustainable rural development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Zaremba

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The formulated theme of the article was considered, in the context of the legal recourse to spatial planning in accordance with the countryside balanced development. In the work selected environmental aspects are discussed in the context of the legal instruments governing the spatial policy. The purpose of the article is not so much the presentation of spatial planning instruments as their verification from an environmental point of view.

  19. European Policy for Corporate Social Responsibility: Governance Context, Linkage with Sustainable development and Crisis as a Policy Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taliouris, Evangelos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Political prerequisites for sustainable development (SD in European Union (EU and its member states are environmental innovation as well as transparency, social welfare, good governance and responsible entrepreneurship. The Europe 2020 Strategy and its indicators were a significant step in order EU, its member states and the social stakeholders to deal with crisis negative socioeconomic and environmental outcomes, but also to improve social trust. An important stakeholder towards these is European business sector. Therefore, responsible entrepreneurship via corporate social responsibility (CSR is a policy topic in EU in parallel with other policy topics such as transparency (e.g. non-financial reporting and good governance (e.g. political framework for CSR. The European business community was always a crucial stakeholder for development, but since 2001 CSR is explicitly part of European policy agenda through topics such as public procurement, responsible supply chains, anti-corruption policies, employment generation, reporting and disclosure etc. In EU the applied policy for CSR indicates different approaches and policy tools within the common policy framework and definitions. Moreover, the crisis evolution became an accelerator for CSR policy evolution and convergence between perspectives and member states. The renewed strategy in 2011, the report for CSR public policies in 2014 and the EU steps towards SD Agenda for 2030 in 2015 indicated issues such as corporate citizenship and responsible entrepreneurship as an ongoing policy process that focuses both on EU political convergence at member states level and the European business sector excellence.

  20. Technology transfer of hearing aids to low and middle income countries: policy and market factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelman, Katherine D; Werner, Roye

    2014-09-01

    The competitive market advantages of industry and the balancing force of international governmental organizations (IGOs) are examined to identify market and policy in support of sustainable technology transfer of hearing aids to low and middle income countries. A second purpose is to examine the usefulness of findings for other assistive technologies (AT). Searches of electronic databases, IGO documents, industry reports and journals were supplemented by informal discussions with industry and IGO staff and audiologists. The value chain is used to examine the competitive advantage of industry and the balancing tools of certain IGOs. Both industry and IGOs engage in intellectual property (IP) and competition activities and are active in each segment of the hearing aid value chain. Their market and policy objectives and strategies are different. IGOs serve as balancing forces for the competitive advantages of industry. The hearing aid market configuration and hearing aid fitting process are not representative of other AT products but IP, trade and competition policy tools used by IGOs and governments are relevant to other AT. The value chain is a useful tool to identify the location of price mark-ups and the influence of actors. Market factors and reimbursement and subsidization policies drive hearing aid innovation. UN-related international government organization activities are responsive to the needs of disability populations who cannot afford assistive technology. Policy tools used by international governmental organizations are applicable across assistive technology. A partnership model is important to distribution of hearing aids to low and middle income countries.

  1. The development of health policy in Malawi: The influence of context ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Within the health policy field, a growing literature is attempting to understand the diverse responses of policy makers to research, and to explain why certain research findings make their way into policy while others are effectively ignored. In this paper we apply a policy analysis framework to the development of cotrimoxazole ...

  2. Gender Equity in Physics Practice: The Indian Context & the Social Impact of Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastri, Prajval

    2015-04-01

    The gender gap in the physics profession that is seen world-wide has been attributed to multiple factors. The applicability of these factors is explored in the context of physics practice in India, using available empirical investigations and theoretical insights from gender studies. Indications are that girls are as interested in science as boys at the high-school level. In the profession, however, there is a significant gender gap. Data show that it is caused not only by the discriminatory familial responsibilities that women encounter in their personal lives, but also by gender-discriminatory attitudes in the scientific workplace. Although the Government of India, which is the major funder of scientific research and higher education, has acknowledged the gender disparity and initiated several measures to address it, these measures also come from a gendered perspective, and are therefore likely to be limited in their long-term effectiveness. Policy measures must address the gender discrimination in the workplace as well in order to achieve gender equity.

  3. Combating social exclusion of the youth : Challenges and opportunities of programmes and policies in three different contexts. Commonwealth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeelen, Jacobus

    This paper reports and reflects on studies about the problems encountered in the implementation of education policies in several contexts in developed and developing countries. In these studies special attention is paid to the problems of the youth at risk between education and the labour market. In

  4. Immigration Policy of Spain in the Context of Problems of Ceuta and Melilla in the 90-ies of XX century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E V Salamov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the migration policy of Spain in the context of immigration processes from Morocco through the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla, which are the territory of the European Union. The problem of immigration to the cities is one of the most serious in the relationship between the two countries.

  5. Effects of Transference Work in the Context of Therapeutic Alliance and Quality of Object Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoglend, Per; Hersoug, Anne Grete; Bogwald, Kjell-Petter; Amlo, Svein; Marble, Alice; Sorbye, Oystein; Rossberg, Jan Ivar; Ulberg, Randi; Gabbard, Glen O.; Crits-Christoph, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Transference interpretation is considered as a core active ingredient in dynamic psychotherapy. In common clinical theory, it is maintained that more mature relationships, as well as a strong therapeutic alliance, may be prerequisites for successful transference work. In this study, the interaction between quality of object relations,…

  6. Effectiveness of Macroeconomic Policies in the Context of Closed and Open Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kubendran

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Monetary policy and fiscal policy are the two important macroeconomic policies which are used to achieve certain major macroeconomic goals like economic growth, unemployment reduction, counteract inflation and overall economic development of the nation. The effect of macroeconomic variables may differ in terms of degree, duration, different economic systems and under different exchange rate regimes. This study analyses the effectiveness of monetary policy and fiscal policy on the economy in terms of economic integration and different exchange rate regimes. Regression analysis in this study found that the fiscal policy is more effective in a closed economy and monetary policy is more effective in an open economy. Also the study finds that the fiscal policy is more effective under managed float exchange rate regime and monetary policy is more effective under perfectly flexible exchange rate. So this study also validated Mundell- Fleming model.

  7. 23 CFR 420.205 - What is the FHWA's policy for research, development, and technology transfer funding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the FHWA's policy for research, development, and... TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING AND RESEARCH PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION Research, Development and Technology Transfer Program Management § 420.205 What is the FHWA's policy for research, development, and...

  8. Transferring Motivation from Educational to Extramural Contexts: A Review of the Trans-Contextual Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagger, Martin S.; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L. D.

    2012-01-01

    Students' self-determined or autonomous motivation in educational contexts is associated with adaptive educational and behavioural outcomes including persistence on educational tasks and academic performance. A key question for educators is whether promoting autonomous motivation toward activities in an educational context leads to increased…

  9. The role of international policy transfer within the Multiple Streams Approach: the case of smart electricity metering in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Lovell, Heather

    2016-01-01

    This paper draws on Kingdon’s Multiple Streams Approach (MSA) to consider international flows of policy, not just domestic. It is argued that using the MSA in conjunction with international policy transfer and mobility theories allows for a fuller explanation of the development of smart electricity metering policy in Australia. The MSA is based originally on empirical research within a single country - the USA - in the late 1970s, and all three of the ‘streams’ identified as important to poli...

  10. Model-based economic evaluations in smoking cessation and their transferability to new contexts: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Marrit L; Cheung, Kei Long; Hiligsmann, Mickaël; Evers, Silvia; de Kinderen, Reina J A; Kulchaitanaroaj, Puttarin; Pokhrel, Subhash

    2017-06-01

    To identify different types of models used in economic evaluations of smoking cessation, analyse the quality of the included models examining their attributes and ascertain their transferability to a new context. A systematic review of the literature on the economic evaluation of smoking cessation interventions published between 1996 and April 2015, identified via Medline, EMBASE, National Health Service (NHS) Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED), Health Technology Assessment (HTA). The checklist-based quality of the included studies and transferability scores was based on the European Network of Health Economic Evaluation Databases (EURONHEED) criteria. Studies that were not in smoking cessation, not original research, not a model-based economic evaluation, that did not consider adult population and not from a high-income country were excluded. Among the 64 economic evaluations included in the review, the state-transition Markov model was the most frequently used method (n = 30/64), with quality adjusted life years (QALY) being the most frequently used outcome measure in a life-time horizon. A small number of the included studies (13 of 64) were eligible for EURONHEED transferability checklist. The overall transferability scores ranged from 0.50 to 0.97, with an average score of 0.75. The average score per section was 0.69 (range = 0.35-0.92). The relative transferability of the studies could not be established due to a limitation present in the EURONHEED method. All existing economic evaluations in smoking cessation lack in one or more key study attributes necessary to be fully transferable to a new context. © 2017 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. Model‐based economic evaluations in smoking cessation and their transferability to new contexts: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Marrit L.; Cheung, Kei Long; Hiligsmann, Mickaël; Evers, Silvia; de Kinderen, Reina J. A.; Kulchaitanaroaj, Puttarin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Aims To identify different types of models used in economic evaluations of smoking cessation, analyse the quality of the included models examining their attributes and ascertain their transferability to a new context. Methods A systematic review of the literature on the economic evaluation of smoking cessation interventions published between 1996 and April 2015, identified via Medline, EMBASE, National Health Service (NHS) Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED), Health Technology Assessment (HTA). The checklist‐based quality of the included studies and transferability scores was based on the European Network of Health Economic Evaluation Databases (EURONHEED) criteria. Studies that were not in smoking cessation, not original research, not a model‐based economic evaluation, that did not consider adult population and not from a high‐income country were excluded. Findings Among the 64 economic evaluations included in the review, the state‐transition Markov model was the most frequently used method (n = 30/64), with quality adjusted life years (QALY) being the most frequently used outcome measure in a life‐time horizon. A small number of the included studies (13 of 64) were eligible for EURONHEED transferability checklist. The overall transferability scores ranged from 0.50 to 0.97, with an average score of 0.75. The average score per section was 0.69 (range = 0.35–0.92). The relative transferability of the studies could not be established due to a limitation present in the EURONHEED method. Conclusion All existing economic evaluations in smoking cessation lack in one or more key study attributes necessary to be fully transferable to a new context. PMID:28060453

  12. The emergence of innovation policy as a field: The international context and the Danish experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Lindgaard; Fagerberg, Jan

    2018-01-01

    This chapter traces the development of scholarly interest in innovation and innovation policy in the Western world in general and in Denmark in particular, ranging from the early post-war period to the early years of the new millennium. In the early post-war world, innovation was commonly identif...... of innovation and innovation policy instruments in Denmark gradually evolved under the influence of similar developments elsewhere, and as a response to policy needs and lessons from earlier (industrial) policies....

  13. The 2011 Estonian High School Language Reform in the Context of Critical Language Policy and Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerrett, Delaney Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to situate Estonian language use and policy within the emerging field of critical language policy and planning (CLPP) by investigating the discourses that frame linguistic behaviour. This done by way of an analysis of a series of interviews carried out with key actors in language policy in Estonia. The discourses framing language…

  14. Towards an Analysis of the Policies That Shape Public Education: Setting the Context for School Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Les; Stevenson, Howard

    2015-01-01

    The environment in which school leaders and teachers work is shaped by educational policy. Policy is, in turn, derived from the dominant political ideologies at any particular time. The interrelationship between ideology and policy shapes both the overall organization of education and the operational practices and procedures of staff in schools…

  15. National policies for the promotion of physical activity and healthy nutrition in the workplace context: a behaviour change wheel guided content analysis of policy papers in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuija Seppälä

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health policy papers disseminate recommendations and guidelines for the development and implementation of health promotion interventions. Such documents have rarely been investigated with regard to their assumed mechanisms of action for changing behaviour. The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF and Behaviour Change Techniques (BCT Taxonomy have been used to code behaviour change intervention descriptions, but to our knowledge such “retrofitting” of policy papers has not previously been reported. This study aims first to identify targets, mediators, and change strategies for physical activity (PA and nutrition behaviour change in Finnish policy papers on workplace health promotion, and second to assess the suitability of the Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW approach for this purpose. Method We searched all national-level health policy papers effectual in Finland in August 2016 focusing on the promotion of PA and/or healthy nutrition in the workplace context (n = 6. Policy recommendations targeting employees’ nutrition and PA including sedentary behaviour (SB were coded using BCW, TDF, and BCT Taxonomy. Results A total of 125 recommendations were coded in the six policy papers, and in two additional documents referenced by them. Psychological capability, physical opportunity, and social opportunity were frequently identified (22%, 31%, and 24%, respectively, whereas physical capability was almost completely absent (1%. Three TDF domains (knowledge, skills, and social influence were observed in all papers. Multiple intervention functions and BCTs were identified in all papers but several recommendations were too vague to be coded reliably. Influencing individuals (46% and changing the physical environment (44% were recommended more frequently than influencing the social environment (10%. Conclusions The BCW approach appeared to be useful for analysing the content of health policy papers. Paying more attention to underlying

  16. National policies for the promotion of physical activity and healthy nutrition in the workplace context: a behaviour change wheel guided content analysis of policy papers in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppälä, Tuija; Hankonen, Nelli; Korkiakangas, Eveliina; Ruusuvuori, Johanna; Laitinen, Jaana

    2017-08-02

    Health policy papers disseminate recommendations and guidelines for the development and implementation of health promotion interventions. Such documents have rarely been investigated with regard to their assumed mechanisms of action for changing behaviour. The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) and Behaviour Change Techniques (BCT) Taxonomy have been used to code behaviour change intervention descriptions, but to our knowledge such "retrofitting" of policy papers has not previously been reported. This study aims first to identify targets, mediators, and change strategies for physical activity (PA) and nutrition behaviour change in Finnish policy papers on workplace health promotion, and second to assess the suitability of the Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW) approach for this purpose. We searched all national-level health policy papers effectual in Finland in August 2016 focusing on the promotion of PA and/or healthy nutrition in the workplace context (n = 6). Policy recommendations targeting employees' nutrition and PA including sedentary behaviour (SB) were coded using BCW, TDF, and BCT Taxonomy. A total of 125 recommendations were coded in the six policy papers, and in two additional documents referenced by them. Psychological capability, physical opportunity, and social opportunity were frequently identified (22%, 31%, and 24%, respectively), whereas physical capability was almost completely absent (1%). Three TDF domains (knowledge, skills, and social influence) were observed in all papers. Multiple intervention functions and BCTs were identified in all papers but several recommendations were too vague to be coded reliably. Influencing individuals (46%) and changing the physical environment (44%) were recommended more frequently than influencing the social environment (10%). The BCW approach appeared to be useful for analysing the content of health policy papers. Paying more attention to underlying assumptions regarding behavioural change processes may help to

  17. THE SUSTAINABILITY OF THE FISCAL-BUDGETARY POLICY IN THE CONTEXT OF TAXATION SYSTEM REDUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian MOCAN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of the budgetary impact determined by the Government’s proposition of modifying Law no. 571/2003 regarding the Fiscal code, respectively the diminution of the central levies and taxes (VAT, profit tax, income tax, microenterprises’ income tax, excises, etc., represents a mandatory condition provided by the legislation in the field, having as primary role the observance of the fiscal budgetary policy’s objectives on medium-term and long-term assumed by Romania through the Treaty regarding the stability, coordination and governance in the European Union. The tax sustainability on medium-term and long-term supposes that the Government promotes a cautious fiscal-budgetary policy and an efficient administration of the appeared risks that wouldn’t imply adjustments of the expenses, incomes or a budgetary deficit with adverse economic and social effects.This work intends to analyze the financial impact on Romania’s budget following the proposition of the Government to reduce the central levies and taxes, the opportunity of adopting a high fiscal relaxation while observing the medium-term and long-term budgetary objectives and the consolidation of the existing macroeconomic balances. The data used in the proposed scientific work takes into consideration the estimated VAT and GDP for 2015-2017 in Romania. The set of used data was available in the database of ANAF and the data provided in the Fiscal budgetary strategy 2015-2017.The results of the study highlight the importance of the correct dimensioning of the effects of the first round and those of the second round represented by the fiscal relaxation measures in the revision project of law no. 571/2003 regarding the Fiscal code in the context of using fiscal multipliers and the elasticity of the budgetary aggregates.

  18. PUBLIC EXPENDITURE POLICY IN THE CONTEXT OF ECONOMIC CRISIS - CHALLENGES AND IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrisor Mihai - Bogdan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Public spending is a key component for both public finances and government financial policy. In this situation, government expenditures are made in direct relation with the results of governance with economic and financial crises and global social welfare of the nation. From this perspective, our article aims to highlight the correlation between public expenditure and budgetary financial and economic crisis and, also, state government responses, anticipating their impact on medium and long term. Also, in the context of the crisis and the concomitent lack of public revenue, we identify the pillars on which to base the budget reduction in public expenditure. The implications of the economic crisis in Romania are analyzed along with proposed measures to be followed by the Government through budgetary fiscal strategy. In relation to the purpose and objectives of the research, documentation was made both in terms of bibliographic resources and the plan of legislative documents and quantitative reporting. We believe that the issue of increasing allocative efficiency of resources is vital to counter the current crisis, but also to maximize the positive effects of public interventions in general and from another state, we consider that state and, consequently, public expenditure budget which should be used to replace the market, can not be regarded as some suggest to be founded and we suggest a line for developed countries. This work was supported by the grant “Post-doctoral studies in Economics: program for continuous forming of elite researchers – SPODE”, contract POSDRU/89/1.5/S/61755, project financed by the European Social Fund, by the Operational Sectorial Program Development of Human Resources 2007-2013.

  19. Client-vendor knowledge transfer mechanisms in the context of information systems outsourcing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smuts, H

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available High levels of shared knowledge can positively influence outsourcing performance and the combination of processes designed to transfer explicit and tacit knowledge, has the most influence on the level of shared knowledge. Some organisations...

  20. Comparative and International Education: Policy Transfer, Context Sensitivity and Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Michael; Watson, Keith

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the intellectual and professional contribution of comparative and international studies to the field of education. It explores the nature of the challenges that are currently being faced, and assesses its potential for the advancement of future teaching, research and professional development. Attention is paid to the place of…

  1. Characteristics and determinants of knowledge transfer policies at universities and public institutions in medical research--protocol for a systematic review of the qualitative research literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Rosa; Müller, Olaf; Bozorgmehr, Kayvan

    2015-08-19

    Universities, public institutions, and the transfer of knowledge to the private sector play a major role in the development of medical technologies. The decisions of universities and public institutions regarding the transfer of knowledge impact the accessibility of the final product, making it easier or more difficult for consumers to access these products. In the case of medical research, these products are pharmaceuticals, diagnostics, or medical procedures. The ethical dimension of access to these potentially lifesaving products is apparent and distinguishes the transfer of medical knowledge from the transfer of knowledge in other areas. While the general field of technology transfer from academic and public to private actors is attracting an increasing amount of scholarly attention, the specifications of knowledge transfer in the medical field are not as well explored. This review seeks to provide a systematic overview and analysis of the qualitative literature on the characteristics and determinants of knowledge transfer in medical research and development. The review systematically searches the literature for qualitative studies that focus on knowledge transfer characteristics and determinants at medical academic and public research institutions. It aims at identifying and analyzing the literature on the content and context of knowledge transfer policies, decision-making processes, and actors at academic and public institutions. The search strategy includes the databases PubMed, Web of Science, ProQuest, and DiVa. These databases will be searched based on pre-specified search terms. The studies selected for inclusion in the review will be critically assessed for their quality utilizing the Qualitative Research Checklist developed by the Clinical Appraisal Skills Programme. Data extraction and synthesis will be based on the meta-ethnographic approach. This review seeks to further the understanding of the kinds of transfer pathways that exist in medical

  2. Learning in context: identifying gaps in research on the transfer of medical communication skills to the clinical workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Eertwegh, Valerie; van Dulmen, Sandra; van Dalen, Jan; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; van der Vleuten, Cees P M

    2013-02-01

    In order to reduce the inconsistencies of findings and the apparent low transfer of communication skills from training to medical practice, this narrative review identifies some main gaps in research on medical communication skills training and presents insights from theories on learning and transfer to broaden the view for future research. Relevant literature was identified using Pubmed, GoogleScholar, Cochrane database, and Web of Science; and analyzed using an iterative procedure. Research findings on the effectiveness of medical communication training still show inconsistencies and variability. Contemporary theories on learning based on a constructivist paradigm offer the following insights: acquisition of knowledge and skills should be viewed as an ongoing process of exchange between the learner and his environment, so called lifelong learning. This process can neither be atomized nor separated from the context in which it occurs. Four contemporary approaches are presented as examples. The following shift in focus for future research is proposed: beyond isolated single factor effectiveness studies toward constructivist, non-reductionistic studies integrating the context. Future research should investigate how constructivist approaches can be used in the medical context to increase effective learning and transition of communication skills. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Advance Pricing Agreements and Double Taxation – Key Concepts in the Context of Transfer Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignat (Neacsu Ioana

    2017-01-01

    Results show that an APA presents more advantages than a transfer pricing file, but its disadvantages (regarding the cost and the period of time needed for the issuance have a big impact on the business of a company and determine most of the taxpayers to choose a transfer pricing documentation file rather than to apply for an APPA. The results of this research also show that countries which have concluded a big number of Double Tax Treaties tends to grant much more APAs compared with the other category of countries where the number of Double Tax Treaties is smaller.

  4. Vested interests in addiction research and policy alcohol policies out of context: drinks industry supplanting government role in alcohol policies in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakke, Øystein; Endal, Dag

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we describe an analysis of alcohol policy initiatives sponsored by alcohol producer SABMiller and the International Center on Alcohol Policies, an alcohol industry-funded organization. In a number of sub-Saharan countries these bodies have promoted a 'partnership' role with governments to design national alcohol policies. A comparison was conducted of four draft National Alcohol Policy documents from Lesotho, Malawi, Uganda and Botswana using case study methods. The comparison indicated that the four drafts are almost identical in wording and structure and that they are likely to originate from the same source. The processes and the draft policy documents reviewed provide insights into the methods, as well as the strategic and political objectives of the multi-national drinks industry. This initiative reflects the industry's preferred version of a national alcohol policy. The industry policy vision ignores, or chooses selectively from, the international evidence base on alcohol prevention developed by independent alcohol researchers and disregards or minimizes a public health approach to alcohol problems. The policies reviewed maintain a narrow focus on the economic benefits from the trade in alcohol. In terms of alcohol problems (and their remediation) the documents focus upon individual drinkers, ignoring effective environmental interventions. The proposed policies serve the industry's interests at the expense of public health by attempting to enshrine 'active participation of all levels of the beverage alcohol industry as a key partner in the policy formulation and implementation process'.

  5. Evolutionary Policy Transfer and Search Methods for Boosting Behavior Quality: RoboCup Keep-Away Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff Nitschke

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates various evolutionary search methods to direct neural controller evolution in company with policy (behavior transfer across increasingly complex collective robotic (RoboCup keep-away tasks. Robot behaviors are first evolved in a source task and then transferred for further evolution to more complex target tasks. Evolutionary search methods tested include objective-based search (fitness function, behavioral and genotypic diversity maintenance, and hybrids of such diversity maintenance and objective-based search. Evolved behavior quality is evaluated according to effectiveness and efficiency. Effectiveness is the average task performance of transferred and evolved behaviors, where task performance is the average time the ball is controlled by a keeper team. Efficiency is the average number of generations taken for the fittest evolved behaviors to reach a minimum task performance threshold given policy transfer. Results indicate that policy transfer coupled with hybridized evolution (behavioral diversity maintenance and objective-based search addresses the bootstrapping problem for increasingly complex keep-away tasks. That is, this hybrid method (coupled with policy transfer evolves behaviors that could not otherwise be evolved. Also, this hybrid evolutionary search was demonstrated as consistently evolving topologically simple neural controllers that elicited high-quality behaviors.

  6. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF POLISH AND CROATIAN MARITIME POLICY IN THE CONTEXT OF THE INTEGRATED MARITIME POLICY OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

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    Katarzyna Skrzeszewska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional activities based on sea resources (maritime transport, shipyards, fishery always played the key role in increasing production possibilities of the economies with the access to the sea. The development of technique and technology distinctly contributed to broadening the horizons and diversification of activities based on exploitation of maritime basins. Despite the positive results connected with greater and more intense exploration of seas resources, there also appeared the negative effects. First and foremost, they are connected with degradation of the natural environment and growing conflicts of interests of different groups of the basins users. The issue of split entitlement to use seas resources was brought to the world forum in 1982 by enacting the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS. The European Commission, having contucted consultations on a large scale, accepted the Integrated Maritime Policy of the European Union (IMP EU. It was based on the assumption, that all maritime activities are interconnected and that is why they should be performed in a coordinated manner to achive the established goals. The Integrated Maritime Policy created the framework, in which the member states were to find appropiate solutions to their economy specificity, inter alia – the maritime economy. In the paper, the results of the research of maritime policies of two countries - Poland and Croatia are presented. The goal of the research is to check how far the policies of these two countries are coherent with each other and with the assumptions of the IMP. In the research the deductive method was used - it was based at conclusions from the comparative analysis. The surveys were conducted on the basis of the EU, Polish and Croatian strategic documents.

  7. Transferring a Teaching Learning Sequence between Two Different Educational Contexts: The Case of Greece and Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyrtou, Anna; Lavonen, Jari; Zoupidis, Anastasios; Loukomies, Anni; Pnevmatikos, Dimitris; Juuti, Kalle; Kariotoglou, Petros

    2018-01-01

    In the present paper, we report on the idea of exchanging educational innovations across European countries aiming to shed light on the following question: how feasible and useful is it to transfer an innovation across different national educational settings? The innovation, in this case, Inquiry-Based Teaching Learning Sequences, is recognized as…

  8. The Association between Education and Work Stress: Does the Policy Context Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunau, Thorsten; Siegrist, Johannes; Dragano, Nico; Wahrendorf, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Several studies report socioeconomic differences in work stress, where people in lower socioeconomic positions (SEP) are more likely to experience this burden. In the current study, we analyse associations between education and work stress in a large sample of workers from 16 European countries. In addition we explore whether distinct national labour market policies are related to smaller inequalities in work stress according to educational attainment. Methods We use data collected in 2010/11 in two comparative studies (‘Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe’ and the ‘English Longitudinal Study of Ageing’; N = 13695), with samples of men and women aged 50 to 64 from 16 European countries. We measure highest educational degree according to the international standard classification of education (ISCED) and assess work stress in terms of the demand-control and the effort-reward imbalance model. National labour market policies are measured on the basis of policy indicators which are divided into (1) ‘protective’ policies offering financial compensation to those excluded from the labour market (e.g. replacement rate), and (2) ‘integrative’ policies supporting disadvantaged individuals on the labour market (e.g. investments into active labour market policies or possibilities for further qualification in later life). In addition to country-specific analyses, we estimate multilevel models and test for interactions between the indicators of national policies and individual education. Results Main findings demonstrate consistent associations between lower education and higher levels of work stress in all countries. The strength of this association, however, varies across countries and is comparatively small in countries offering pronounced ‘integrative’ policies, in terms of high investments into measures of an active labor market policy and high participation rates in lifelong learning activities. Conclusions Our results point to

  9. The association between education and work stress: does the policy context matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Lunau

    Full Text Available Several studies report socioeconomic differences in work stress, where people in lower socioeconomic positions (SEP are more likely to experience this burden. In the current study, we analyse associations between education and work stress in a large sample of workers from 16 European countries. In addition we explore whether distinct national labour market policies are related to smaller inequalities in work stress according to educational attainment.We use data collected in 2010/11 in two comparative studies ('Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe' and the 'English Longitudinal Study of Ageing'; N = 13695, with samples of men and women aged 50 to 64 from 16 European countries. We measure highest educational degree according to the international standard classification of education (ISCED and assess work stress in terms of the demand-control and the effort-reward imbalance model. National labour market policies are measured on the basis of policy indicators which are divided into (1 'protective' policies offering financial compensation to those excluded from the labour market (e.g. replacement rate, and (2 'integrative' policies supporting disadvantaged individuals on the labour market (e.g. investments into active labour market policies or possibilities for further qualification in later life. In addition to country-specific analyses, we estimate multilevel models and test for interactions between the indicators of national policies and individual education.Main findings demonstrate consistent associations between lower education and higher levels of work stress in all countries. The strength of this association, however, varies across countries and is comparatively small in countries offering pronounced 'integrative' policies, in terms of high investments into measures of an active labor market policy and high participation rates in lifelong learning activities.Our results point to different types of policies that may help to

  10. The association between education and work stress: does the policy context matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunau, Thorsten; Siegrist, Johannes; Dragano, Nico; Wahrendorf, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Several studies report socioeconomic differences in work stress, where people in lower socioeconomic positions (SEP) are more likely to experience this burden. In the current study, we analyse associations between education and work stress in a large sample of workers from 16 European countries. In addition we explore whether distinct national labour market policies are related to smaller inequalities in work stress according to educational attainment. We use data collected in 2010/11 in two comparative studies ('Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe' and the 'English Longitudinal Study of Ageing'; N = 13695), with samples of men and women aged 50 to 64 from 16 European countries. We measure highest educational degree according to the international standard classification of education (ISCED) and assess work stress in terms of the demand-control and the effort-reward imbalance model. National labour market policies are measured on the basis of policy indicators which are divided into (1) 'protective' policies offering financial compensation to those excluded from the labour market (e.g. replacement rate), and (2) 'integrative' policies supporting disadvantaged individuals on the labour market (e.g. investments into active labour market policies or possibilities for further qualification in later life). In addition to country-specific analyses, we estimate multilevel models and test for interactions between the indicators of national policies and individual education. Main findings demonstrate consistent associations between lower education and higher levels of work stress in all countries. The strength of this association, however, varies across countries and is comparatively small in countries offering pronounced 'integrative' policies, in terms of high investments into measures of an active labor market policy and high participation rates in lifelong learning activities. Our results point to different types of policies that may help to reduce

  11. Student Learning in an International Context: Examining Motivations for Education Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Darbi

    2016-01-01

    This chapter examines the underlying motivations behind why institutions and organizations decide to apply particular policies and practices. By applying a lens of five diffusion models--learning, imitation, competition, normative, and coercion--to understand these motivations, decision makers and implementers will make better choices for…

  12. Unsupervised energy prediction in a smart grid context using reinforcement cross-buildings transfer learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mocanu, E.; Nguyen, P.H.; Kling, W.L.; Gibescu, M.

    2016-01-01

    In a future Smart Grid context, increasing challenges in managing the stochastic local energy supply and demand are expected. This increased the need of more accurate energy prediction methods in order to support further complex decision-making processes. Although many methods aiming to predict the

  13. Integrating Mercury Science and Policy in the Marine Context: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Kathleen F.; Evers, David C.; Warner, Kimberly A.; King, Susannah L.; Selin, Noelle E.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury is a global pollutant and presents policy challenges at local, regional, and global scales. Mercury poses risks to the health of people, fish, and wildlife exposed to elevated levels of mercury, most commonly from the consumption of methylmercury in marine and estuarine fish. The patchwork of current mercury abatement efforts limits the effectiveness of national and multi-national policies. This paper provides an overview of the major policy challenges and opportunities related to mercury in coastal and marine environments, and highlights science and policy linkages of the past several decades. The U.S. policy examples explored here point to the need for a full life cycle approach to mercury policy with a focus on source reduction and increased attention to: (1) the transboundary movement of mercury in air, water, and biota; (2) the coordination of policy efforts across multiple environmental media; (3) the cross-cutting issues related to pollutant interactions, mitigation of legacy sources, and adaptation to elevated mercury via improved communication efforts; and (4) the integration of recent research on human and ecological health effects into benefits analyses for regulatory purposes. Stronger science and policy integration will benefit national and international efforts to prevent, control, and minimize exposure to methylmercury. PMID:22901766

  14. The role of tacit knowledge and the challenges in transferring it in the nuclear power plant context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyttinen, L.; Helminen, N.

    2004-01-01

    Explicit knowledge and implementation of proper IT systems have been of concern of many organizations which recognize the importance of managing knowledge for safety operation and sustainable competitive advantage. Data and document management systems have been implemented to capture, store and distribute explicit knowledge. However, recently also awareness of the existence of tacit knowledge in organizations has arisen. What kind of role this undocumented knowledge, which the employees have acquired through their careers, plays in nuclear power plant context? This paper explores the role of tacit knowledge and the challenges related to its transfer at the two Finnish nuclear power plants. (author)

  15. Public-private Partnership in the Context of Realisation of the State Financial Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostapenko Victoriia M.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the result of the study the article analyses modern tendencies of development of economy of Ukraine. It marks out problems connected with realisation of the state financial policy. It considers the essence of the state financial policy, its directions (such as budget-tax and monetary-credit, structural components and tasks. It emphasises the place of the public-private partnership as an instrument of realisation of the financial policy. It justifies tasks in the process of realisation of goals of the modern financial policy, which could be carried out with the help of the public-private partnership. The prospect of further studies in this direction is formation of practical recommendations on the use of the public-private partnership in the process of realisation of the state financial policy. Further improvement of the public-private partnership is connected with development of efficient mechanisms of its introduction and optimisation of its financial structure.

  16. CERN’s policy in the field of knowledge and technology transfer goes global

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    On 2 November, the Knowledge & Technology Transfer (KTT) Group presented to the Directorate three proposals that aim to enhance KTT activities. One important aspect of the proposals is the direct involvement of all members of CERN, who are strongly encouraged to communicate any ideas for additional applications of their work. KTT is a high-priority activity area because of its potential to demonstrate the role of CERN as a source of innovation, delivering tangible benefits to society. In particular, through its know-how and its leadership, CERN is today generating innovations applicable in domains such as medical sciences, energy and the environment, as well as many others. “The measures endorsed by the Directorate on 2 November include a comprehensive policy for managing the intellectual property related to CERN technologies”, explains Claudio Parrinello, head of the KTT Group in the DG Department. “This includes a proposal to redistribute part of the income generated by ...

  17. THREE MODELS OF NATIONAL CRIMINAL POLICY IN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kleymenov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The author identifies three models of national criminal policy: the sovereign, reformist and experimental. The main criteria of such differentiation are the exposure to global influence, the criminological soundness and stability of criminal policy. Identification of the model of criminal policy in a particular state is a complex task that requires independent research.The subject. The article is devoted to modeling of the national criminal policy in modern conditions of globalization. The article discusses various models of criminal policy in the conditions of globalization.The purpose of the author is to describe the basic models of national criminal policy in modern conditions of globalization.The methodology. The author uses the method of analysis and synthesis, formal legal method as well as sociological methods (survey.The results, scope of application. The author identifies three models of national criminal policy: the sovereign, reformist and experimental. The main criteria of such differentiation are the exposure to global influence, the criminological soundness and stability of criminal policy. The sovereign model is based on doctrine of weak state and a strong combat criminal activity. It is distinguished by the pursuit of the realization of the equality of all before the law, criminal strategic and political planning system with a clear definition of goals and objectives; criminological security. The reform of criminal policy is characterized byuncertainty goals and objectives, utopianism and pretentiousness, dependence on standards of the international organization, the lower prestige of criminology, reduction of social programs, lobbying of group interests, permanent amendments to the criminal and criminal procedure legislation. Experimental model of criminal policy is connected with approbation of such technologies of management of society that are criminal and contrary to human experience in fighting crime.Conclusions. Criminal

  18. Freeze-all policy: fresh vs. frozen-thawed embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Matheus; Valle, Marcello; Guimarães, Fernando; Sampaio, Marcos; Geber, Selmo

    2015-05-01

    To compare in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes between fresh embryo transfer (ET) and frozen-thawed ET (the "freeze-all" policy), with fresh ET performed only in cases without progesterone (P) elevation. Prospective, observational, cohort study. Private IVF center. A total of 530 patients submitted to controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone-antagonist protocol, and cleavage-stage, day-3 ET. None. Ongoing pregnancy rates. A total of 530 cycles were included in the analysis: 351 in the fresh ET group (when P levels were ≤1.5 ng/mL on the trigger day); and 179 cycles in the freeze-all group (ET performed after endometrial priming with estradiol valerate, at 6 mg/d, taken orally). For the fresh ET group vs. the freeze-all group, respectively, the implantation rate was 19.9% and 26.5%; clinical pregnancy rate was 35.9% and 46.4%; and ongoing pregnancy rate was 31.1% and 39.7%. The IVF outcomes were significantly better in the group using the freeze-all policy, compared with the group using fresh ET. These results suggest that even in a select group of patients that underwent fresh ET (P levels ≤1.5 ng/mL), endometrial receptivity may have been impaired by COS, and outcomes may be improved by using the freeze-all policy. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Co-financing of Social Policy in the Brazilian Federalism Context of XXI Century

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    Evilasio Salvador

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The federal arrangement post Constitution comes indicating greater accountability of federal units and municipalities in the implementation of social policies at the same time as it gave greater autonomy in tax collection. From the 2000s, the new rules of social policies in education, health and social assitance has required a greater effort of budgetary resources of the states, the Federal District and municipalities, without the creation or injection of additional tax revenue. In social policies, important legislative changes mark the first decade of this century in Brazil with direct implications on federal arrangement and therefore the co-financing of social policies. The main objective of this article is to analyze the amount of funds invested by the federal government, states, Federal District and municipalities in budget functions: social assistance, health and education, from 2002 to 2012, highlighting the co-financing these social policies. As well as to identify some obstacles created by the fiscal adjustment underway in the country to expand the co-financing of social policies.

  20. Using of Protectionism Policy Tools in the context of WTO from the Perspective of Dependency Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göksel KARAŞ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s, when neoliberal policies have been intensively implemented, the distribution of income between developed and less developed countries in the world has begun to increase inequality. There are discourses that the neoliberal view suggests that today's wealthy countries are successful with free market economics, so that all countries in the world must move to a free market economy system and that neoliberal policies are the only way for development. According to the neoliberal policy which advocates the state neutrality in the economy, the role of the state in the economy should be reduced. As a result, weakening the effectiveness of government policy-setting and implementation in the economy is intended. Thus, developed countries direct the underdeveloped or developing countries in the direction of their own interests. The result of these discourses, the theory of dependence which states that there is a relationship between developed and underdeveloped countries based on power and control, that underdevelopment of underdeveloped countries should be sought in the development process of developed countries has come out. The aim of the study is to assess the results of the use of defense measures in the trade policy implemented under the World Trade Organization (WTO, based on the assumptions of the dependency theory. When the use of defense instruments in trade policy is examined, it appears that these instruments have been effectively used by developed countries that advocate and enforce the free market economy in the world.

  1. Examining the motivators of training transfer in an enterprise systems context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arasanmi, Chris Niyi; Wang, William Yu Chung; Singh, Harminder

    2017-09-01

    Enterprise systems (ES) are large software packages that have been widely adopted, but are complex to deploy. One way to obtain more value from them is to train end-users. However, little is known about the effectiveness of ES training. This study examines post-training behaviour in the ES environment through the concept of training transfer and the theoretical framework of self-determination theory. It proposes that end-users' computer self-efficacy (CSE) and mastery orientation (MO), as well as the perceived ease-of-use (PEOU) of a system, influence their motivation to transfer the skills they have gained during training to their work environment and to use the system. Data was collected from 170 ES end-users, who had previously attended ES training, through a survey. Partial least squares modelling was used to analyse the data, and all of the hypotheses were supported. This study is among the first few studies that investigate the more distal impact of information systems training.

  2. Diversity policy, social dominance, and intergroup relations: predicting prejudice in changing social and political contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimond, Serge; Crisp, Richard J; De Oliveira, Pierre; Kamiejski, Rodolphe; Kteily, Nour; Kuepper, Beate; Lalonde, Richard N; Levin, Shana; Pratto, Felicia; Tougas, Francine; Sidanius, Jim; Zick, Andreas

    2013-06-01

    In contrast to authors of previous single-nation studies, we propose that supporting multiculturalism (MC) or assimilation (AS) is likely to have different effects in different countries, depending on the diversity policy in place in a particular country and the associated norms. A causal model of intergroup attitudes and behaviors, integrating both country-specific factors (attitudes and perceived norms related to a particular diversity policy) and general social-psychological determinants (social dominance orientation), was tested among participants from countries where the pro-diversity policy was independently classified as low, medium, or high (N = 1,232). Results showed that (a) anti-Muslim prejudice was significantly reduced when the pro-diversity policy was high; (b) countries differed strongly in perceived norms related to MC and AS, in ways consistent with the actual diversity policy in each country and regardless of participants' personal attitudes toward MC and AS; (c) as predicted, when these norms were salient, due to subtle priming, structural equation modeling with country included as a variable provided support for the proposed model, suggesting that the effect of country on prejudice can be successfully accounted by it; and (d) consistent with the claim that personal support for MC and AS played a different role in different countries, within-country mediation analyses provided evidence that personal attitudes toward AS mediated the effect of social dominance orientation on prejudice when pro-diversity policy was low, whereas personal attitudes toward MC was the mediator when pro-diversity policy was high. Thus, the critical variables shaping prejudice can vary across nations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. China's optimal stockpiling policies in the context of new oil price trend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Nan; Yan, Zhijun; Zhou, Yi; Huang, Wenjun

    2017-01-01

    Optimizing the size of oil stockpiling plays a fundamental role in the process of making national strategic petroleum reserve (SPR) policies. There have been extensive studies on the operating strategies of SPR. However, previous literatures have paid more attention to a booming or stable international oil market, while few studies analyzed the impact of a long-term low oil price on SPR policy. As a supplement, this paper extends a static model to study China's optimal stockpiling policy under different oil price trends, and in response to different current oil prices. A new variable “FC”, which demonstrates the appreciation and depreciation of the reserved oil economic value, has been taken into account to assess the optimal size of SPR. In this paper, a more multi-perspective of view is provided to consider the policies of China's SPR, especially under the different trend of international oil price fluctuations. - Highlights: • We extended a static model to study optimal stockpiling size of China's SPR. • A new variable “FC” was applied to illustrate the shifting financial value of SPR. • We analyzed how current oil price and varied prediction influence optimal size. • Operational measures could be adjusted at the end of each decision-making period. • A more multifaceted of view might be provided for China's SPR policy-making.

  4. Climate policy instruments and industry-effects and potential responses in the Swedish context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Bengt

    2006-01-01

    Efficient policy instruments for reducing the emission of greenhouse gases are essential for the realisation of a successful climate policy. General economic policy instruments have the potential for providing efficient emission reduction as they equalise marginal costs for emission reduction between different actors. They also provide incentives for a great variety of responses such as energy efficiency improvements, fuel substitution and reduced consumption of carbon intensive products. However, as a result of the fact that it has so far been impossible to implement policy instruments on a global scale, these instruments are often adapted in such a way that some of their potential advantages are eliminated. In this paper the possibility of different policy instruments to contribute to reductions in industrial CO 2 emissions, while preserving the competitiveness of industry, is evaluated theoretically. The consequences of increasing the cost of CO 2 emission in various industrial sectors are also discussed. Attention is directed towards carbon taxes, emission trading (ET), and regulation. CO 2 taxes without tax reductions and ET with allocation through auctioning have theoretical advantages in a global climate regime but may lead to significant disadvantages if implemented in a single or a small groups of countries. ET with free intensity-based allocation would in this case have a major advantage in combining incentives for emission reductions through efficiency improvements and fuel substitution, with little impact on production levels

  5. Financing national policy on oral health in Brazil in the context of the Unified Health System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Alfredo Pucca Junior

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the model of oral health care implemented in the Unified Health System of Brazil in the last decade. This model was conceived as a sub-sector policy that, over the years, has sought to improve the quality of life of the Brazilian population. Through a chronological line, the study presents the National Policy on Oral Health as a counter-hegemonic patient care model for the dentistry practices existing in the country before this policy was implemented. The reorganization of the levels of oral health care, the creation of reference facilities for secondary and tertiary care, through Centers of Dental Specialties and Regional Dental Prosthesis Laboratories, and the differential funding and decentralized management of financial resources were able to expand the actions of oral health for more than 90 million inhabitants. The evolution shown after the deployment of the National Oral Health Policy, as of 2004, demonstrates the greater integration of oral health care under the Unified Health System and provides feedback information to help this policy to continue to be prioritized by the Federal Government and receive more support from the state and local levels in the coming years.

  6. Competitive low-tech manufacturing and challenges for regional policy in the European context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Teis; Winther, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Today, low-tech firms in high-wage countries are focusing on increasing investments in highly skilled labour and advanced machinery, incremental innovation and high value-added niches. Danish policy, however, gives little attention to the new specificities of low-tech manufacturing......, and the understanding of innovation in national and regional strategies is dominated by a science-based perspective. There is a strong policy focus on human capital and research and development in manufacturing. Human capital is vital to manufacturing in general, but the latter is of less importance for low-tech firms....... Conversely, user–producer interactions and machinery investments, which are critical to low-tech competitiveness, are disregarded by policies....

  7. Mexican energy and climate change policies in a North American context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, M.E.

    2002-01-01

    A review of Mexican energy and climate change policies was presented with reference to the implications for Mexico regarding energy supply, security and climate change policies. Mexico's development and energy indicators are considerably behind those of Canada and the United States, but its greenhouse gas emissions are also low in comparison. Mexican energy consumption and gross domestic product levels per capita are far below those of the United States and Canada. Although Mexico, a signatory of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol, is not obligated to commit itself to any target greenhouse gas emissions, it has implemented an active climate change policy that promotes energy efficiency, fuel substitution, development of alternative energy sources, forest conservation and reforestation, and climate change research. The author concluded that in addition to constitutional reform, a fully integrated North American energy market would need physical connections for electricity and natural gas. 4 figs

  8. Strategic Social Action Plan for MERCOSUR: Income transfer programs in the context of a neoliberal offensive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosilaine Coradini Guilherme

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the Strategic Social Action Plan for the Common Market of the South (MERCOSUR, based on its relationship with the Millennium Development Goals, which means articulating the reflection to the context of the neoliberal offensive in Latin America. Epistemologically the study is based on the dialectical-critical method, involving exploratory research, with a survey of documentary and bibliographic sources. This research revealed that the focus of the social agenda is the establishment of an exit door or the sustained emancipation of families, by means of individual training, based on the theory of human capital and neoliberal ideology. The scope of the study presupposes presenting the contents of the historic processes and the theoretical concepts that permeate the proposals contained in the Strategic Plan, to stimulate the debate about the issue.

  9. An evaluation of incentives and policies that affect research institutions' knowledge transfer activities at researcher and management level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, R.N.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the effects of incentives and policies on transferring research results from public organisations (e.g. universities, public research centres) to firms. The views in this paper are, for a large part, based on the findings of an extensive survey of academic papers and reports

  10. LATERAL MARKETING IN THE CONTEXT OF THE SUCCESSFUL PRODUCT POLICY OF WINERIES IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana GHENOVA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This scientific publication is aimed at solving application of lateral marketing the issues of in the context of commodity policy of wineries in the Republic of Moldova. Currently, Moldovan wineries face with a high level of competition,both in foreign and domestic market of alcoholic beverages, which leads to an unstable dynamics of growth of volumes of production and sales of their products. We have also studied examples of applying the lateral technology of Moldovan wineries, which revealed the level of the problem and their implementation. Along with this, a number of recommendations have been made in the framework of lateral marketing at the product level, market and marketing mix, allowing increasing the efficiency of commodity policy of domestic wineries.

  11. Activism within Music Education: Working towards Inclusion and Policy Change in the Finnish Music School Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laes, Tuulikki; Schmidt, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how interactions between policy, institutions and individuals that reinforce inclusive music education can be framed from an activist standpoint. Resonaari, one among many music schools in Finland, provides an illustrative case of rather uncommonly inclusive practices among students with special educational needs. By exploring…

  12. Plurilingual Pedagogical Practices in a Policy-Constrained Context: A Northern Ugandan Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiria, Doris Maandebo; Early, Margaret; Kendrick, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    Uganda is a linguistically diverse nation where plurilingualism is common. Its language education policy dictates that, except in large urban areas, one local language be selected as the medium of instruction (MoI), to Primary 3, transitioning to English MoI, in Primary 4. Yet, as Ramanathan and Morgan ([Ramanathan, V., 2007]) argue, "the…

  13. CHOICE IN CONTEXT: RATIONALITY, CONTINGENCY AND RISK IN THE DIVIDEND POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcis Tulbure

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a critical review of the recent literature regarding the dividend policy with regards to the different conceptualizations of rationality demonstrated by managers of companies or individual investors. This approach gives us the opportunity to reassess the latest contributions to dividend policy analysis and to adopt an alternative perspective to those of authors that have split the literature on dividends in the normative vs. descriptive approaches, empirical vs. theoretical contributions, according to the distinct paradigms various approaches illustrate, or according to chronological criteria. We surmise that the issue of rationality / irrationality occasions a better understanding of the latest contributions to corporate finance from the subfields of behavioral finance and of cultural finance. Such contributions challenge the premises of rational choice, one that is foundational for the neoclassic paradigm. Behavioral corporate finance and cultural corporate finance underline the role of psychological and socio-cultural factors for the dividend policy. They facilitate the emergence of notions of situated / contingent rationality considered responsible for the diverse shapes taken by the financial policies of the corporation.

  14. Leading Schools of Education in the Context of Academic Capitalism: Deans' Responses to State Policy Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Kevin R.; Teitelbaum, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    State education policy changes have contributed to a reduced interest in teaching and a decreased enrollment in education degree programs in North Carolina, USA. Pressure to cut budgets and generate revenue has added to a climate of academic capitalism influencing the ways in which deans lead schools of education. The purpose of this mixed-methods…

  15. Argentina: resettling refugees within the context of an open migration policy

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Cavaleri

    2012-01-01

    Argentina’s human rights-based migration policy has helped regulariseregional migrant flows and has also benefitted refugees with specialprotection needs. Far from jeopardizing the local economy orundermining social cohesion, migrants and resettled refugeeshave been instrumental in Argentina’s swift economic recoveryin recent years.

  16. Argentina: resettling refugees within the context of an open migration policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cavaleri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Argentina’s human rights-based migration policy has helped regulariseregional migrant flows and has also benefitted refugees with specialprotection needs. Far from jeopardizing the local economy orundermining social cohesion, migrants and resettled refugeeshave been instrumental in Argentina’s swift economic recoveryin recent years.

  17. Institutionalized Ghosting: Policy Contexts and Language Use in Erasing the Person with Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Boyd H.; Pope, Charlene

    2010-01-01

    The ordinary social engagement of human life would not usually be considered an arena for language policy. Yet clinical evidence mounts that social interaction improves our lives as we age. Since social engagement decreases cardiovascular risks (Ramsay et al. in "Ann Epidemiol" 18:476-483, 2008) and delays memory loss among those living in…

  18. The Cross-Border Education Policy Context: Educational Hubs, Trade Liberalization, and National Sovereignty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Jason E.; Kinser, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    International branch campuses (IBCs) operate in national and international policy environments that are still rapidly evolving. While IBCs have been operating for several decades, most of that time they have operated below the domestic regulatory radar of either the exporting (home) or importing (host) governments. As the number of such…

  19. Innovation in agro-food supply chains – The EU policy context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Materia, V.C.; Dries, L.K.E.; Pascucci, S.

    2014-01-01

    This report provides insights into the definition of innovation and specifically how policies affect knowledge creation and innovation in agro-food supply chains (D9.1a, objective 1), considering innovation as a key determinant for competitiveness. The innovation system – rather than the linear

  20. The Development of Shared Understandings of Assessment Policy: Travelling between Global and Local Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adie, Lenore

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, teachers' enactment of assessment policy within demands for accountability and consistency of teacher judgements is considered. Evidence is drawn from a qualitative study involving 50 middle school teachers from Queensland, Australia, who participated in online social moderation meetings with teachers located in dispersed areas…

  1. Education Policy and National Security in Brazil in the Post-1964 Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Rene Trentin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyse and show in detail the influence of the National Security and Development Doctrine, the main ideological prop of the 1964 civilian-military coup, on the education policy implemented by the regime. Special attention is given to the MEC-USAID agreements, the setting up of the Meira Matos Commission and the…

  2. A Race to the Bottom--Prison Education and the English and Welsh Policy Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerniawski, Gerry

    2016-01-01

    This article examines prison education in England and Wales arguing that a disjuncture exists between the policy rhetoric of entitlement to education in prison at the European level and the playing out of that entitlement in English and Welsh prisons. Caught between conflicting discourses around a need to combat recidivism and a need for…

  3. National Degree of Computerization: A Context for Evaluating Computer Education Policies in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Barry W.

    Developing countries should take immediate steps to avoid some of the serious problems that are now facing the United States in regard to the pool of trained computer professionals. Problem areas which should be reconciled involve a diverse range of topics from general national policy to salary structures and conversions efforts. By using the…

  4. Parents' Assessment of Their Preschool Children's Bilingual Development in the Context of Family Language Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mila; Moin, Victor

    2012-01-01

    Parents' assessment of children's development in the first and the second language is an essential part of their family language policy (FLP) and an important component of parent-child communication. This paper presents a pilot study focused on Russian-speaking immigrant parents' assessment of their children's language knowledge in Russian as a…

  5. Using supervised machine learning to code policy issues: Can classifiers generalize across contexts?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burscher, B.; Vliegenthart, R.; de Vreese, C.H.

    2015-01-01

    Content analysis of political communication usually covers large amounts of material and makes the study of dynamics in issue salience a costly enterprise. In this article, we present a supervised machine learning approach for the automatic coding of policy issues, which we apply to news articles

  6. Academic Performance in the Context of a "Three Excused Absences" Psychiatry Clerkship Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillerstrom, Jason E.; Lutz, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In order to better manage medical student absences during the psychiatry clerkship, a policy allowing students to miss up to 3 days without penalty was developed. The purpose of this study was to describe absence patterns and compare academic performance between students with and without absences. Method: Authors reviewed the academic…

  7. A Methodological Framework for Studying Policy-Oriented Teacher Inquiry in Qualitative Research Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka

    2014-01-01

    System-based and collaborative teacher inquiry has unexplored potential that can impact educational policy in numerous ways. This impact can be increased when teacher inquiry builds momentum from classrooms and teaching practices and simultaneously addresses district, state, and national discourses and networks. In this conceptual paper, I…

  8. Changes in the Field of Finance of Education in Turkey within the Context of Neoliberal Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soydan, Tarik; Abali, Hüseyin Gürkan

    2014-01-01

    In today's world characterized by increasingly effective neoliberal policies, not only the sphere of public services is being constricted but also the concept of "public service" --which traditionally has been pointing at a responsible state providing public services based on social principles and methods-- is being transformed. In…

  9. Family Language Policy and School Language Choice: Pathways to Bilingualism and Multilingualism in a Canadian Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavkov, Nikolay

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on a survey with 170 school-age children growing up with two or more languages in the Canadian province of Ontario where English is the majority language, French is a minority language, and numerous other minority languages may be spoken by immigrant or Indigenous residents. Within this context the study focuses on minority…

  10. Trophic transfer of essential elements in the clownfish Amphiprion ocellaris in the context of ocean acidification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Jacob

    Full Text Available Little information exists on the effects of ocean acidification (OA on the digestive and post-digestive processes in marine fish. Here, we investigated OA impacts (Δ pH = 0.5 on the trophic transfer of select trace elements in the clownfish Amphiprion ocellaris using radiotracer techniques. Assimilation efficiencies of three essential elements (Co, Mn and Zn as well as their other short-term and long-term kinetic parameters in juvenile clownfish were not affected by this experimental pH change. In complement, their stomach pH during digestion were not affected by the variation in seawater pH. Such observations suggest that OA impacts do not affect element assimilation in these fish. This apparent pCO2 tolerance may imply that clownfish have the ability to self-regulate pH shifts in their digestive tract, or that they can metabolically accommodate such shifts. Such results are important to accurately assess future OA impacts on diverse marine biota, as such impacts are highly species specific, complex, and may be modulated by species-specific metabolic processes.

  11. Technical change and economic policy: science and technology in the new economic and social context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Links between scientific research, technological development, and economic growth by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development are analyzed. The analysis is broken into four parts: (1) The New Economic and Social Context; (2) Trends in R and D and Innovation; (3) Technological Change and the Economy; and (4) Conclusions and Recommendations. The long-term structural nature of many of the problems facing western Europe are emphasized, and the limitations of short-term-demand management strategies in solving them.

  12. Exploring the influence of context and policy on health district productivity in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensor, Tim; So, Sovannarith; Witter, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Cambodia has been reconstructing its economy and health sector since the end of conflict in the 1990s. There have been gains in life expectancy and increased health expenditure, but Cambodia still lags behind neighbours One factor which may contribute is the efficiency of public health services. This article aims to understand variations in efficiency and the extent to which changes in efficiency are associated with key health policies that have been introduced to strengthen access to health services over the past decade. The analysis makes use of data envelopment analysis (DEA) to measure relative efficiency and changes in productivity and regression analysis to assess the association with the implementation of health policies. Data on 28 operational districts were obtained for 2008-11, focussing on the five provinces selected to represent a range of conditions in Cambodia. DEA was used to calculate efficiency scores assuming constant and variable returns to scale and Malmquist indices to measure productivity changes over time. This analysis was combined with qualitative findings from 17 key informant interviews and 19 in-depth interviews with managers and staff in the same provinces. The DEA results suggest great variation in the efficiency scores and trends of scores of public health services in the five provinces. Starting points were significantly different, but three of the five provinces have improved efficiency considerably over the period. Higher efficiency is associated with more densely populated areas. Areas with health equity funds in Special Operating Agency (SOA) and non-SOA areas are associated with higher efficiency. The same effect is not found in areas only operating voucher schemes. We find that the efficiency score increased by 0.12 the year any of the policies was introduced. This is the first study published on health district productivity in Cambodia. It is one of the few studies in the region to consider the impact of health policy changes

  13. Using decision-analytic modelling to transfer international evidence from health technology assessment to the context of the German health care system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siebert, Uwe

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this Health Technology Assessment (HTA methods report was to examine and to assess decision analysis (DA as a method to transfer and adapt international scientific evidence in HTA to the German health care context. Furthermore, we sought to develop a systematic framework to facilitate the selection, transfer, adaptation, and synthesis of these data in German HTA projects. In this report, we review and summarise the concepts and methods of DA; present potential areas of applications, and provide a basis for the critical assessment of decision-analytic studies. The two main methods of DA, decision trees and Markov models, as well as various approaches to sensitivity analyses are described. Examples of typical situations for the use of DA in scientific evidence transfer are described, and a list of main health care domains and parameters in evidence transfer is presented. Finally, we developed a framework to transfer and apply international evidence to the national health care context. The strengths and limitations of the decision-analytic approach are critically examined. In summary, this HTA report describes different situations, in which decision-analytic models can be useful, and demonstrates the utility of DA in transferring and applying international evidence to the national health care context. We developed a systematic instrument to transfer international evidence to the context of other countries and successfully applied this instrument in two German HTA projects. The use of this instrument is recommended in further HTA projects dealing with the application of international evidence to the German health care context. The use of decision-analytic models to transfer international evidence is endorsed. However, the limitations of DA should be clearly stated discussed transparently in all HTA reports.

  14. Policy Contexts of Social Work in Britain: the wider implications of 'New' Labour and the 'New Legal Regime'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Several commentators have expressed disappointment with New Labour's apparent adherence to the policy frameworks of the previous Conservative administrations. The employment orientation of its welfare programmes, the contradictory nature of the social exclusion initiatives, and the continuing obsession with public sector marketisation, inspections, audits, standards and so on, have all come under critical scrutiny (c.f., Blyth 2001; Jordan 2001; Orme 2001. This paper suggests that in order to understand the socio-economic and political contexts affecting social work we need to examine the relationship between New Labour's modernisation project and its insertion within an architecture of global governance. In particular, membership of the European Union (EU, International Monetary Fund (IMF and World Trade Organisation (WTO set the parameters for domestic policy in important ways. Whilst much has been written about the economic dimensions of 'globalisation' in relation to social work rather less has been noted about the ways in which domestic policy agenda are driven by multilateral governance objectives. This policy dimension is important in trying to respond to various changes affecting social work as a professional activity. What is possible, what is encouraged, how things might be done, is tightly bounded by the policy frameworks governing practice and affected by those governing the lives of service users. It is unhelpful to see policy formulation in purely national terms as the UK is inserted into a network governance structure, a regulatory framework where decisions are made by many countries and organisations and agencies. Together, they are producing a 'new legal regime', characterised by a marked neo-liberal policy agenda. This paper aims to demonstrate the relationship of New Labour's modernisation programme to these new forms of legality by examining two main policy areas and the welfare implications they are enmeshed in. The first is

  15. The Policies Concerning the Strength of Intellectual Property Rights Protection: The Choices for Estonia in Wider Context of EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tõnu Roolaht

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The foreign direct investment (FDI can be substitute for the contractual transfer of intellectual property rights in a situation where these rights are weakly protected. Hence, stronger intellectual property rights protection may reduce incentives for FDI. This is, however, only one line of reasoning. Stronger intellectual property protection can also increase motivation to invest into completely new products and processes. Thus, from the slightly different perspective FDI and strength of intellectual property protection can be seen as complementary. This duality of impact makes the search for efficient protection very difficult and complex. The aim of this paper is to outline the policy choices open for Estonia in influencing the relative strength of intellectual property rights protection and its impact on FDI. The vital secondary research agenda by this concerns the influence of EU-membership on the autonomy of such policy choices. Given the fact that there exist European patents and patent registry, certain intellectual property rights protection measures and legislative practices are undoubtedly pre-determined by this embeddedness into EU-wide protection systems. The national level policies and enforcement issues may still vary.

  16. Notices and Policies for Retractions, Expressions of Concern, Errata and Corrigenda: Their Importance, Content, and Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Dobránszki, Judit

    2017-04-01

    A retraction notice is an essential scientific historical document because it should outline the reason(s) why a scientific manuscript was retracted, culpability (if any) and any other factors that have given reason for the authors, editors, or publisher, to remove a piece of the literature from science's history books. Unlike an expression of concern (EoC), erratum or corrigendum, a retraction will usually result in a rudimentary vestige of the work. Thus, any retraction notice that does not fully indicate a set of elements related to the reason and background for the retraction serves as a poor historical document. Moreover, poorly or incompletely worded retraction notices in fact do not serve their intended purpose, i.e., to hold all parties accountable, and to inform the scientific and wider public of the problem and reason for the paper's demise. This paper takes a look at the definitions and the policies of clauses for retractions, EoCs, errata and corrigenda in place by 15 leading science, technology and medicine (STM) publishers and four publishing-related bodies that we believe have the greatest influence on the current fields of science, technology and medicine. The primary purpose was to assess whether there is a consistency among these entities and publishers. Using an arbitrary 5-scale classification system, and evaluating the different categories of policies separately, we discovered that in almost all cases (88.9 %), the wording used to define these four categories of polices differs from that of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), which is generally considered to be the guiding set of definitions in science publishing. In addition, as much as 61 % deviation in policies (wording and meaning), relative to COPE guidelines, was discovered. When considering the average pooled deviation across all categories of policies, we discovered that there was either no deviation or a small deviation, only in the wording, in the definition of policies when

  17. Sovereign wealth funds – public investment vehicles, foreign policy element. Comparative evolution in the international context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doina Drăniceanu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sovereign funds are an important actor occurring on international financial markets in the last decade, being, in fact, state controlled international investments. Generally, they are financed from foreign currency reserves of the emergent countries they are constituted in, being managed apart of the official reserves and used for external expansion; they are likely to be detrimental to certain strategic interests. As public financial vehicles, they own, endorse or manage public funds of some emergent countries, freely invested by them in a great number of assets, being seen as a foreign policy element.

  18. The absorption of UE funds in the current context of the cohesion policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitrescu, A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Romania continues to be affected by the global recession. It has suffered a significant reduction in foreign investment since the start of the recession, as investors have moved away from emerging markets in search for security. Developing an appropriate, focused strategy for the allocation of EU funds is only the first, though perhaps the most important step in implementing the EU cohesion policy. The successful implementation of EU co-funded projects is contingent not only upon the effectiveness of these countries’ administrative systems, but also on the activity of the potential beneficiaries.

  19. Prospects of Renewable Energies Evolution in the Context of EU Energy Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Amel Ghediri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Generally, EU countries are not provided with sufficient amount of energy resources to satisfy an internal energy demand. According to this, such issues as country's energy security, usage of new energy sources, its economy and environmental consequences of irrational use of energy resources are becoming more acute. The article is devoted to various kinds of alternative energy sources, in particular, "green energy" and the issue of increasing use of renewable energy sources. The main goal of the publication is to analyze the energy policy of the EU countries, the expansion of renewable energy potential as the most energy-efficient sources.

  20. Support schemes and ownership structures - The policy context for fuel cell based micro-combined heat and power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ropenus, S.; Thorsten Schroeder, S.; Costa, A.; Obe, E.

    2010-05-15

    In recent years, fuel cell based micro-combined heat and power has received increasing attention due to its potential contribution to energy savings, efficiency gains, customer proximity and flexibility in operation and capacity size. The FC4Home project assesses technical and economic aspects of the ongoing fuel cell based micro-combined heat and power (mCHP) demonstration projects by addressing the socio-economic and systems analyses perspectives of a large-scale promotion scheme of fuel cells. This document constitutes the deliverable of Work Package 1 of the FC4Home project and provides an introduction to the policy context for mCHP. Section 1 describes the rationale for the promotion of mCHP by explaining its potential contribution to European energy policy goals. Section 2 addresses the policy context at the supranational European level by outlining relevant EU Directives on support schemes for promoting combined heat and power and energy from renewable sources. These Directives are to be implemented at the national level by the Member States. Section 3 conceptually presents the spectrum of national support schemes, ranging from investment support to market-based operational support. The choice of support scheme simultaneously affects risk and technological development, which is the focus of Section 4. Subsequent to this conceptual overview, Section 5 takes a glance at the national application of support schemes for mCHP in practice, notably in the three country cases of the FC4Home project, Denmark, France and Portugal. Another crucial aspect for the diffusion of the mCHP technology is possible ownership structures. These may range from full consumer ownership to ownership by utilities and energy service companies, which is discussed in Section 6. Finally, a conclusion (Section 7) wraps up previous findings and provides a short 'preview' of the quantitative analyses in subsequent Work Packages by giving some food for thought on the way. (author)

  1. Main directions and priorities of Ukraine state migration policy in the context of its european integration changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    К.V. Shymanska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The exceptional socio-economic importance of migration and its significant impact on the living standards and welfare of the population, labor market, ethnic and religious profile of Ukrainians, cultural and educational environment and migration activation social context cause the raising of the relevance of the research issues on international migration. This article is devoted to the study of existing approaches to identification of main directions and priorities of state migration policy for eliminating of external migration negative effects in Ukraine, ensuring an adequate level of social and economic protection of people and national security of Ukraine. The article considers the current problems of Ukraine's migration policy formation, characterizes the main priorities of Ukraine's migration policy according to its basic component, and describes the tendencies of migration processes in Ukraine and over the world. It is determined that the cooperation between Ukraine and the EU in the case of migratory flow regulating will have a number of advantages including the reduction of illegal migration, preservation of the professional level of Ukrainian migrants and receiving work experience abroad, strengthening their social protection and reduction of illegal employed migrants.

  2. Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne; Aarkrog, Vibe

    Bogen er den første samlede indføring i transfer på dansk. Transfer kan anvendes som praksis-filosofikum. Den giver en systematisk indsigt til den studerende, der spørger: Hvordan kan teoretisk viden bruges til at reflektere over handlinger i situationer, der passer til min fremtidige arbejdsplads?...

  3. Globalization, Governance and Public Policy Transference Globalización, gobierno y transferenciade políticas públicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Flores Crespo

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Globalization and governance pave the way for the ocurrence of policy transfer processes. This article shows that higher education policy in Mexico has been historically influenced by foreign educational models. By using the Policy Transfer Framework, this article also makes three claims: (1 the academic debate has been generally focused on the role of specific international organizations, so a limited perspective about the policy transfer approach emerges; (2 the process of identifying what objects are being transferred to Mexican educational agenda is blurred, and thus, (3 as a consequence of methodological weaknesses, it is difficult to validate whether or not policy transfer processes are taking place in this Latin American country. Therefore, further research needs to be done in order to broaden the understanding of the policy transfer processes in Mexico. La globalización impacta significativamente sobre las formas de gobierno las cuales, a su vez, crean una nueva institucionalidad que sirve de base para la transferencia de políticas públicas. En este artículo se utiliza el Marco de la Transferencia de Políticas para analizar el caso de la educación superior en México, y se sostiene que históricamente el sistema universitario mexicano ha usado de manera recurrente la experiencia externa para la elaboración de sus propias estrategias en materia educativa. Asimismo, se destaca que: (1 el análisis general sobre la adopción o copia de políticas educativas en México se ha centrado básicamente en el papel que desempeñan algunos organismos internacionales lo que genera una visión limitada de la transferencia de políticas; (2 es difícil identificar qué objetos se están realmente transfiriendo de estos organismos a la agenda educativa nacional y, por lo tanto, (3 validar la existencia de una transferencia de políticas educativas es un proceso complicado y abierto a cuestionamientos de tipo metodológico. Por lo tanto, se

  4. Arguments for Polycentricity in Romanian Regional Development in the Context of European Union Cohesion Policy

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    Clipa Raluca Irina

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Our study aims at analysing the monocentric/polycentric trends in Romanian regional developmentand formulating the recommendations regarding public policy for the attenuation of present developmentdisparities. In order to achieve this goal, we used as variables the annual GDP rates of each region, viewed asrepresentations of their development level, for the period of 2008-2013, based on the data supplied by theNational Commission of Prognosis (Comisia Naţională de Prognoză. As a result, we observed a regression ofgrowth rates directly influenced by development levels. We draw the following conclusions: there is apotential, in Romania, for reducing the existent development lag among its regional divisions, through theemergence and sustainable development of new growth poles within poorer regions. The solution for theattenuation of present economic disparities is, consequently, a balanced polycentric development at regionallevel, opposed to a monocentric development. By placing our analysis at a normative level, a balancedterritorial development can be achieved by orienting public policies in two directions: the stimulation ofeconomic growth within slower-growing regions and the dispersion of economic growth from moredeveloped regions towards less developed ones, through a national redistribution process. It is important thatthe principles based on 'the ability to generate income' must prevail over those based on 'incomediscrepancies'. Our study can constitute itself as a starting point for future research on the role ofagglomerations within a possible configuration of a balanced Romanian territorial development.

  5. Environmental Tax Policy in Romania in the Context of the EU: Double Dividend Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Radulescu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, environment protection gained much more significance in designing the economic policies in the European Union (EU countries. There are many economic and policy differences between the European countries, despite of the harmonization process inside the EU area. The path of implementation of the environmental tax reforms in the EU countries differs greatly from one country to another and the effects of such taxation in the economic and environmental areas are manifold. The authors of this paper have agreed to undertake the task of testing the double dividend hypothesis of the environmental taxation in Romania (an energy-intensive country versus the EU area as a whole, using Vector Error Correction Model (VECM techniques and Ordinary Least Squares (OLS estimations. Our findings show that this hypothesis is validated neither in Romania (in the economic growth area nor in the EU area as a whole (in the unemployment area. Therefore, Romania cannot increase the level of the environmental tax for supporting economic growth, but it can grant environmental subsidies for decreasing the emissions and supporting the economic growth. This could be achieved by expanding the tax labor base and by collecting higher budgetary revenues to sustain such environmental subsidies. As far as the EU area is concerned, it is a necessary measure to continue the descending trend for the labor taxation to achieve the goal of improving the employment rate.

  6. Curriculum policies and teaching evaluation in the Ibero-American context

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    Rosanne Evangelista Dias

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Teaching has become a central issue in the Ibero-American discourses for basic education, in order to attribute, as a privilege, to the teaching work the guarantee of students‟ school success and, consequently, reach quality in education. From such discourses, the policy texts have defended the production of evaluation policies aiming at controlling the curriculums of teaching education (initial and continuous development and action. In this paper, which is theoretically and methodologically guided by Ernesto Laclau‟s and Chantal Mouffe‟s Discourse Theory, I analyze the processes of discourse articulation present in the texts by Organização dos Estados Iberoamericanos – OEI (Ibero-American States Organization and UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, highlighting the significant performance as the focus of evaluation. In the analysis of discourses regarding teachers‟ education and work established as a target for the Ibero-American region, with focus on the professional performance, the competences gain importance as a model of curricular organization. I conclude pointing out that the attempts to control the teaching professional community regarding their education and work assign new roles, marked by accountability, to the teachers.

  7. China’s regional CH_4 emissions: Characteristics, interregional transfer and mitigation policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Bo; Yang, T.R.; Chen, B.; Sun, X.D.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • China’s CH_4 emissions have significant contributions to global climate change. • The total CH_4 emissions in 2010 amount to 44.3 Tg, half from energy activities. • Half of the national total direct emissions are embodied in interregional trade. • 2/3 of the embodied emission transfers via domestic trade are energy-related. • A national comprehensive action plan to reduce CH_4 emissions should be designed. - Abstract: Methane (CH_4), the second largest greenhouse gas emitted in China, hasn’t been given enough attention in the country’s policies and actions for addressing climate change. This paper aims to perform a bottom-up estimation and multi-regional input–output analysis for China’s anthropogenic CH_4 emissions from both production-based and consumption-based insights. As the world’s largest CH_4 emitter, China’s total anthropogenic CH_4 emissions in 2010 are estimated at 44.3 Tg and correspond to 1507.9 Mt CO_2-eq by the lower global warming potential factor of 34. Energy activities as the largest contributor hold about half of the national total emissions, mainly from coal mining. Inherent economic driving factors covering consumption, investment and international exports play an important role in determining regional CH_4 emission inventories. Interregional transfers of embodied emissions via domestic trade are equivalent to half of the national total emissions from domestic production, of which two thirds are energy-related embodied emissions. Most central and western regions as net interregional CH_4 exporters such as Shanxi and Inner Mongolia have higher direct emissions, while the eastern coastal regions as net interregional importers such as Guangdong and Jiangsu always have larger embodied emissions. Since China’s CH_4 emissions have significant contributions to global climate change, a national comprehensive action plan to reduce CH_4 emissions should be designed by considering supply-side and demand

  8. Criminal law policy of Latvia in the context of European Union: The treaty of Lisbon

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    Vilks A.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of the content of EU Treaty of Lisbon, which deals with ensurance of freedom, security and justice in the joint European space. The Treaty of Lisbon describes the attempts of the European Union to ensure a high security level to prevent and fight crime, rasism and xenophobia, to develop particular measures of coordination and cooperation between police and judicial authorities and other competent authorities for their further development, as well as for the mutual recognition of judgements in criminal matters. Correspondingly, the implementation of the requirements of the Treaty of Lisbon identifies the need to form an adequate national criminal law policy in our country as well.

  9. RURAL DEVELOPMENT AND AGRICULTURAL POLICY IN THE CONTEXT OF NEGOTIATING THE EUROPEAN UNION ACQUIS

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    Marius Spiridon

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Elaborated during the first half of 2004 as an UNDP-financed project and never published in a complete form before, this study documents the failures of prolonged and significant state interference in the agricultural sector in Romania, focusing on the post-communist period. Given the unavoidable facts that in the absence of private property it is impossible to have either a rational allocation of resources and the right incentives, we reach the conclusion that the failures of the Romanian agriculture were not at all accidental, but inherent in its statist design. An assessment of the European Common Agricultural Policy and its potential impact on our agricultural sector is provided in the last part of the study.

  10. Privacy in context technology, policy, and the integrity of social life

    CERN Document Server

    Nissenbaum, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Privacy is one of the most urgent issues associated with information technology and digital media. This book claims that what people really care about when they complain and protest that privacy has been violated is not the act of sharing information itself—most people understand that this is crucial to social life —but the inappropriate, improper sharing of information. Arguing that privacy concerns should not be limited solely to concern about control over personal information, Helen Nissenbaum counters that information ought to be distributed and protected according to norms governing distinct social contexts—whether it be workplace, health care, schools, or among family and friends. She warns that basic distinctions between public and private, informing many current privacy policies, in fact obscure more than they clarify. In truth, contemporary information systems should alarm us only when they function without regard for social norms and values, and thereby weaken the fabric of social life.

  11. German coal and the Ruhrkohle AG in an energy policy context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hessling, M.

    1993-01-01

    German coal output has fallen since 1957. The Ruhrkohle AG was established in 1968 to reorganise the mining industry in the Ruhr district. It comprised 52 collieries with 186000 employees. The number of collieries was reduced to 15 and the number of employees to 79000 by 1992. Output fell from 91 to 46 mill. t/a. A time frame was created by Coal Concept 2005. The contribution of German coal to energy supply has been reduced for financial policy reasons, but the mining industry has acquired long-term prospects. The required retrenchment is already extremely difficult to implement and handle according to the agreements of November 1991, but the current steel crisis has necessitated that the measures be brought forward. (orig.)

  12. Current policies, strategies and aspects of environmental impact assessment in a transboundary context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) has already shown its value for implementing and strengthening sustainable development, as it combines the precautionary principles with the principle of preventing environmental damage and also arranges for public participation. EIA is already used as an effective instrument for improving the quality of the environment at the national level and it is understood that the EIA Convention will lead to environmentally sound and sustainable development by providing information on the interrelationship between economic activities and their environmental consequences in particular in a transboundary context. The Convention obliges Parties to assess the environmental impacts at an early stage of planning and includes measures and procedures to prevent, control or reduce any significant adverse effect on the environment, particularly any transboundary effect, which is likely to be caused by a proposed activity or any major change to an existing activity

  13. FINANCING POLICY OF FIRMS IN THE CONTEXT OF CRISIS-INDUCED VULNERABILITIES

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    Mihaela Brindusa Tudose

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Our study analyses the changes in the financial structure of the firms in the context of the vulnerabilities induced by the financial crisis. The study show that there have been registered a reconfiguration of firms’ financial structure which has triggered an increase in their financial fragility and vulnerability to crises. The results obtained confirm that the effects of financing differ depending on the economic conditions in particular period (normal periods and crisis periods. In tranquil times solvency is more important for the firms than liquidity. After crisis, the firms became more cautious regarding liquidity, solvency and the prospect of securing long-term financial balance. These firms have abandoned the objective of maximizing the positive effects of debt financing adopting a more prudent financing.

  14. Energy policy in the Caribbean green economy context and the Institutional Analysis and Design (IAD) framework as a proposed tool for its development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Kalim U.; Niles, Keron

    2016-01-01

    Market integration efforts of Caribbean small island developing states have become transposed on the growing paradigm shift towards green economy pathways. Central to this is the challenge of implementing Caribbean energy policy in a manner that is aligned with green economy ideals and face the realities of regional indebtedness and environmental impacts. Here we analyze the current state of the Caribbean energy policy development arena and propose that the currently weak policy and institutional design regime might potentially benefit from the application of the Institutional Analysis and Design (IAD) model especially within the operational context of the green economy. It allows us to identify current policy dilemmas, bottlenecks and discrepancies and to disentangle some of them while offering up a way forward with others. We do not so much offer distinct recommendations but focus more on delineating how to clear the pathway for sound policy intervention and outcomes. By doing so we set forth a challenging agenda for future policy analysis research that will advance Caribbean energy policy in more robust ways. - Highlights: • Un-coordinated Caricom energy policy can benefit from an institutional analysis and design approach. • Policy reform hinges on the patterns of interaction among key actors in the regional context. • Regional policy remains weak across efficiency, equity, accountability and adaptability parameters.

  15. Feed-in Tariff Pricing and Social Burden in Japan: Evaluating International Learning through a Policy Transfer Approach

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    Yugo Tanaka

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Feed-in tariff (FiT policy approaches for renewable energy (RE deployment are employed in many nations around the world. Although FiTs are considered effective in boosting RE deployment, the issue of increasing energy bills and social burden is an often-reported negative impact of their use. The FiT has been employed in Japan since 2012, following after many developed countries, and, as was experienced in other nations, led to a social burden imparted on society significantly higher than initial government estimates. Although policy decision making does not necessarily reflect international policy experience, it is still prudent to ask how international policy experiences of social burden increase were considered within the Japanese approach. In this research, we analyzed the transfer process by adapting a conventional model to develop more objective observations than was previously possible, by setting a benchmark for evaluation based on prior international experiences. We identified two streams of policy transfer, each led by different actors; the government and representatives of the National Diet of Japan (Diet. Both actors were exposed to the same experiences, however the interpretation, application to policy development and priority settings employed were vastly different. Although the framework can only assess policy learning processes, we have found that the government undertook a reasonable and rational process toward learning, while, on the other hand, the modified bill developed by the Diet members did not thoroughly derive learnings in the same way, due to cognitive and political reasons, and specifically, the issue of limiting social burden was not addressed.

  16. A Framework for Ontological Policy Reconstruction : Academic Knowledge Transfer in the Netherlands as a Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pauly, Marc

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a framework for analyzing the ontology underlying a given public policy, i.e. the categories and concepts used by the policy. It pro- vides a set of questions concerning the language, logic and deontology of a policy and their development over time. The framework is applied to a

  17. Remote hearing aid fitting: Tele-audiology in the context of Brazilian Public Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penteado, Silvio Pires; Ramos, Sueli de Lima; Battistella, Linamara Rizzo; Marone, Silvio Antonio Monteiro; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Currently, the Brazilian government has certificated nearly 140 specialized centers in hearing aid fittings through the Brazilian National Health System (SUS). Remote fitting through the Internet can allow a broader and more efficient coverage with a higher likelihood of success for patients covered by the SUS, as they can receive fittings from their own homes instead of going to the few and distant specialized centers. Aim: To describe a case of remote fitting between 2 cities, with revision of the literature. Method: Computer gears, a universal interface, and hearing aids were used. Case study: An audiologist located in a specialized center introduced a new hearing aid and its fitting procedure to a remote center (200 km away). The specialized center helped the remote center in fitting a hearing aid in 2 patients, and performed fitting in one of its own patients. The whole process was done through the Internet with audio and video in real time. Results: Three patients were fitted remotely. Three audiologists were remotely trained on how to fit the hearing aids. Conclusions: Remote fitting of hearing aids is possible through the Internet, as well as further supplying technical training to a remote center about the fitting procedures. Such a technological approach can help the government advance public policies on hearing rehabilitation, as patients can be motivated about maintaining their use of hearing aids with the option to ask for help in the comfort of their own homes. PMID:25991960

  18. FLOOD RISK FACTORS IN SUBURBAN AREA IN THE CONTEXT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION POLICIES – CASE STUDY OF WROCLAW, POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymon Szewrański

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The uncontrolled sprawl of urban development exerts environmental impact in rural areas. The aim of this study is to identify areas vulnerable to climate change in the context of implementation of policies adapting to climate change at the local level. Such areas can be defined as those where the negative implication of flesh flood overlapping with soil sealing is observed. The study areas composed of municipalities which are influenced by the urban sprawl process of the city of Wroclaw, Poland. The analyses were performed using publicly available spatial data from aerial orthophotomaps from 2004–2012, the satellite images; archival and current land use maps. The database CORINE 1990, 2000, 2006; Urban Atlas and geodatabase of the European Environment Agency were also of an important usage for this study.

  19. [Mass culling in the context of animal disease outbreaks--veterinarians caught between ethical issues and control policies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnack, Sonja; Doherr, Marcus G; Grimm, Herwig; Kunzmann, Peter

    2009-04-01

    In recent years controversial discussions arose during major animal disease outbreaks in the EU about the ethical soundness of mass culling. In contrast to numerous publications about ethical issues and laboratory animals/animal experiments, literature concerning ethical deliberations in the case of mass culling as a means of outbreak control remain scarce. Veterinarians in charge of decision about and implementation of mass culling actions find themselves in an area of conflict in between the officially required animal disease control policy and a public that is increasingly critical. Those veterinarians are faced with the challenge to defend the relevant decisions against all stakeholders and also themselves. In this context an interdisciplinary workshop was initiated in Switzerland in October 2007 with ethicians and (official) veterinarians from Germany, Switzerland and Austria. With the aim to identify ethical components of animal disease control for official veterinarians, talks and moderated group discussions took place. This article summarizes selected discussion points and conclusions.

  20. Exploring Eco-Costs and Externalities Absorption Policies and Procedures in the Context of Global Warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Raluca Guse

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A set of recent international studies reveal the scarcity of coherent entity-level estimation systems able to lead to an adequate identification and valuation of social and environmental performance, despite the large number of entities claiming their concern for the environmental impact of their business activities.The status quo is mainly caused by the lack of domain-specific accounting regulation, along with a general "information gap" in the field of the potential benefits eco-costs and externalities absorption may generate. Eco-costs and externalities absorption technologies for the costing model are still going through their experimental stages, aiming to reflect both the historicalpolitical context and the philosophical motivations of an organization's management and stakeholders. We held as appropriate (and the paper at hand will speak for the intent to promote this class of technologies for the Romanianbusiness environment, mainly by reviewing the relevant literature in the field and developing an eco-costing model able to provide cost levels consistent with the sustainable development goals.

  1. Free movement of capital in the context of the implementation of monetary policy in EMU and the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majlinda Tafaj

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Free movement of capital has been one of the main objectives of Article 3 of the EC Treaty, as part of the development of the common market. Nowadays, the domestic market and almost all of other freedoms (eg. workers, goods and services depends on the freedom of movement of capital. Unlike other freedoms, freedom of movement is more liberalized. European investment, cross-border transfers, bank accounts, purchases and authorization of purchases of real estate, inheritance etc., are included in the free movement of capital. Free movement of capital has lost somehow its sense with the entry into force of EMU and the introduction of the Euro. This liberalization aimed at realizing a collaboration and coordination of economic policies and to some extent even political at the higher levels of the central banks where the fulfillment of the convergence criteria (four criteria, was a prerequisite for a country to adopt the single currency. But EMU and its implementation in the third phase brought significant consequences with regard to the institutional, economic and monetary policy having an impact directly on the free movement of capital in the EU, which will be the object of analysis in this paper.

  2. The USA Space Policy in the Context of the Termination of the Arms Race

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    L. V. Zhuravlova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The USA Space Policy as one of the leading factors in the process of the arms race’ stop in late 80’s and early 90’s has been examined in the article. American Presidential Directives, international agreements and a wide range of research provided an opportunity to make informative conclusions about the positive role of space topics in the process of a detente and «Cold War» ending. It is important to note that the development of astronautics became one of the spin-offs from «Cold War» and the arms race, as it was the nuclear race logic that stimulated the development of weapons. At the same time, in the process of US-Soviet competition, space became a new sphere of international relations. Therefore, the cooperation in the space sphere became a symbol of the compromise and good will that were required during the most difficult negotiations about arms reduction. The warming and detente periods of international relations have been indicated. Furthermore, the majority of American and Russian researchers conclude that the Strategic Defense Initiative of Reagan became an important element of the USA strategy on the Soviet Union’s pressure, pushing it to more constructive position in negotiations on disarmament. Further results showed the effectiveness of the detente policies’ process of the USA government in this sphere. In addition, the uncertainty in the possibilities of the Soviet economy to respond to the challenge of a new stage of the space systems’ scientific and technological rivalry led to the reduction of armaments of the Soviet Union. At the same time, it was space topics discussion that provided the deepening of the detente process. It is worth to note, that space cooperation relations, which recovered during 80’s-early 90’s, have turned into an important political signal transmission channel between the two countries and caused the facilitating interaction between the parties on wider range of problems. And in the

  3. AZERBAIJAN’S BALANCED FOREIGN POLICY TRAPPED IN A VOLATILE GEOPOLITICAL CONTEXT

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    Sabina STRIMBOVSCHI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Following a study visit in Baku, the author exposes in this paper some of the research results, being also embedded the opinions of Azerbaijanis experts that were interviewed. The aim is to perform an analysis on the evolution of Azerbaijani state interpreted both from the European and Azerbaijani perspective. On the one hand, it is approached the development of the Republic of Azerbaijan after the collapse of Soviet Union and the way the Nagorno-Karabakh unsolved conflict has influenced Azerbaijan’s foreign policy. On the other hand, it is researched the manner in which the European Union – Azerbaijan relations have evolved since 1991, but especially once the Eastern Partnership has been created. Considering the fundamental purpose of the European Neighborhood Union, to ensure security, stability and prosperity in the EU’s vicinity, it is analyzed the impact of two multilateral platforms within the Eastern Partnership (Democracy, good governance and stability, and Energy security was achieved on the Republic of Azerbaijan. At the same time, it is investigated whether the European Union should accept an authoritarian leadership, as a legitimate actor and partner on the international stage just because the EU has a strategic interest to diversify its energy sources and, eventually, reduce the dependence on Russian Federation, or it should change its approach and adopt a firmer stance. Last but not least, are revealed the geopolitical frictions in the South Caucasus region and the reasons for which Azerbaijan tries to maintain its status as a sovereign and independent country, avoiding to ally with any geopolitical bloc, but opting for economic, energy and military cooperation with both sides.

  4. Between reason and coercion: ethically permissible influence in health care and health policy contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal-Barby, J S

    2012-12-01

    In bioethics, the predominant categorization of various types of influence has been a tripartite classification of rational persuasion (meaning influence by reason and argument), coercion (meaning influence by irresistible threats-or on a few accounts, offers), and manipulation (meaning everything in between). The standard ethical analysis in bioethics has been that rational persuasion is always permissible, and coercion is almost always impermissible save a few cases such as imminent threat to self or others. However, many forms of influence fall into the broad middle terrain-and this terrain is in desperate need of conceptual refining and ethical analysis in light of recent interest in using principles from behavioral science to influence health decisions and behaviors. This paper aims to address the neglected space between rational persuasion and coercion in bioethics. First, I argue for conceptual revisions that include removing the "manipulation" label and relabeling this space "nonargumentative influence," with two subtypes: "reason-bypassing" and "reason-countering." Second, I argue that bioethicists have made the mistake of relying heavily on the conceptual categories themselves for normative work and instead should assess the ethical permissibility of a particular instance of influence by asking several key ethical questions, which I elucidate, that relate to (1) the impact of the form of influence on autonomy and (2) the relationship between the influencer and the influenced. Finally, I apply my analysis to two examples of nonargumentative influence in health care and health policy: (1) governmental agencies such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) trying to influence the public to be healthier using nonargumentative measures such as vivid images on cigarette packages to make more salient the negative effects of smoking, and (2) a physician framing a surgery in terms of survival rates instead of mortality rates to influence her patient to consent to

  5. Ethanol as a transportation fuel : Canadian policies and challenges in the context of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooqi, R.; Sam, A.G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviewed the current and potential scenarios in Canada's Ethanol Expansion Program with particular reference to the adequacy of a 10 per cent blending target in one third of Canada's gasoline by 2010, and the actual amount of reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that can be achieved. The cost of these reductions was also examined. Emissions from transportation are increasing faster than the average for all emissions. Therefore, the use of a blended gasoline as a transportation fuel has received much attention as a means for Canada to meet its Kyoto target of reducing GHGs to 6 per cent below 1990 levels during the 2008-2012 period. In order to compare the actual GHGs that are emitted during the production and use of ethanol itself and make informed decisions about the development of these fuels, policy and decision-makers need data on the potential impact of ethanol fuels on GHG emissions in Canada. This study examined the currently known emissions data on ethanol production data and usage. The ethanol related initiatives in the United States were also summarized. The study revealed that ethanol production in Canada would have to increase by more than 6 times the current levels of 238 million litres per year in order to achieve the Federal Ethanol Plan's 2010 target. If the target is achieved, GHG reductions can be expected to be in the order of 1.8 MT of carbon dioxide equivalent per year. The cost of reduction would be $264 per tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent in subsidies to the ethanol industry. It was concluded that the outlook of sustained growth of ethanol as a transportation fuel is limited due to expensive production costs and limited feedstock supply. refs., tabs., figs

  6. Sustainability of egg production in the United States--the policy and market context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mench, J A; Sumner, D A; Rosen-Molina, J T

    2011-01-01

    The US egg industry is being pressured from many directions to change its production practices, particularly to address concerns about hen welfare in conventional cage systems. Responding to similar pressures, in 1999, the European Union banned conventional laying cages starting in 2012. This now impending European ban has led to the development of several alternative housing systems. These include noncage systems like aviaries and modified (enriched or furnished) cages that include perches, areas in which the hens can forage and dustbathe, and nests. Understanding the European experience is valuable as the United States considers the future direction of the egg industry. In the United States, the proportion of eggs produced in alternative systems is small (less than 5% of output) but growing, in part due to market and political incentives for systems that provide hens with more behavioral freedom than conventional cages. Animal welfare, however, is only one element of a sustainable production system. Other elements include those related to public values, the environment, economics, worker health, and food safety and quality. Eggs are a primary source of animal protein globally, and the United States is the third largest producer of eggs in the world, behind China and the European Union. The national table egg flock comprises about 280 million hens housed in all regions but with approximately 60% of eggs produced in the 10 leading states. Adopting new housing systems will have substantial effects on costs and other aspects of egg production on both a regional and national scale, with some positive effects but also potential negative effects that need to be carefully considered. This paper discusses the US egg industry in the context of legislation and standards related to hen housing systems. It also addresses initiatives by retailers, nongovernmental organizations, and private certification organizations to shape production practices in the egg industry as well as

  7. Culture, mobility and human rights: considerations on social occupational therapy in the context of immigrants municipal policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Takao Sato

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to discuss the need to revise education and professional action, in the context of social occupational therapy, facing the growing phenomenon of international migration, especially in the current construction of the municipal policy for immigrant populations in São Paulo, SP. The discussion is methodologically structured into three complementary lines of analysis results from documentary research accompanied by field study, visits, participations in meetings, inter-institutional forums, public hearings, thematic debates, in addition to literature review. In the first analysis axis, we discuss the current legislation in Brazil, the construction of migration policy at the municipal level and civil society articulations about human mobility, understood as a fundamental right. In the second, we discuss people care services, families and groups in migratory situation in São Paulo, SP. Finally, on the third axis, we discuss the cultural developments in social occupational therapy for professional action and training in the field of human mobility. As a result it was observed that the current panorama poses new professional challenges, forcing the occupational therapist to review its technical-political position face to the new realities of the contemporary world.

  8. What is going to change in EU rural development policies after 2013? Main implications in different national contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Mantino

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper will address the changes the CAP post‐2013 may bring to its second pillar in EU countries. After the presentation of the legislative package put forward by the European Commission, a debate emerged in some countries on how to define rural development strategies for the period 2014‐2020. The paper will discuss positive innovations and main challenges of the new rural development policies with respect to what happened in the 2007‐2013 period. In particular, the paper intends to focus on the following issues: 1 which relevant changes have been introduced in the rural development framework; 2 how these changes can influence the preparation of the next programming period 2014-2020, looking more in depth at three countries (Italy, Spain and France; 3 what lessons can be drawn from this reform and the initial implementation in three countries in terms of institutional changes and their likely success and failure. This analysis concludes that the success or failure of the 2014-2020 reform of rural development will significantly depend on what types of transaction costs and incentive systems will be brought about within the programming system. These two factors in turn will strongly depend on the way the different actors will perceive the different costs and incentives, their expectations on the role of rural development programmes in a context where budget for agriculture is shrinking everywhere, and finally their capability to build new strategic alliances and cooperation at every level (national, regional and local with other economic and social actors. Future policy scenarios might bring new and heavy constraints to rural development policies and consequently might also reduce the opportunities of institutional innovations.

  9. Energy trends, policies and role of nuclear energy in the Indian context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, M.R.; Mahadeva Rao, K.V.

    1986-10-01

    India has an area of 3.3 million square kilometres and a population of over 700 million. Major energy resources in India are coal, hydro and nuclear. Oil and gas resources are relatively much smaller. India has pursued a consistent policy with regard to the development of nuclear energy for power generation over the last three decades. In order to enable full utilisation of the limited uranium resource and the vast thorium resource, development of all fuel cycle activities has been pursued vigorously and indigenous capability established. Current nuclear power projects have an indigenous content over 90%. Indigenous capabilities have also been established in efficient operation and maintenance of nuclear power stations. Results of environmental surveys at Tarapur, Rajasthan and Kalpakkam confirm that there has been no adverse impact on the environment from the operation of nuclear power stations. Besides the three stations in operation and two projects at Narora and Kakrapar under construction, work on two more projects each consisting of 2x235 MW at Kaiga and Rajasthan has been initiated. It is proposed to set up 4 additional units of 235 MW each and 12 units of 500 MW each by the year 2000 increasing the installed capacity for nuclear power to about 10,000 MW. The Fast Breeder Test Reactor at Kalpakkam has been commissioned and design of a 500 MW prototype Fast Breeder Reactor of pool type has been taken up. The capital cost of nuclear power projects in India has remained stable around US$ 1000/KW (1985 US$). All the operating nuclear power units in India are supplying electricity cheaper than coal based electricity in the region. MAPS, the most recent unit supplies power at 34 mills/KWh. The coal fired thermal power station at Raichur in the same region supplies power at 60 mills/KWh. Nuclear power has reached a stage of maturity and is the only available energy technology that can supplement coal, hydro and oil. Indian experience has demonstrated that the usual

  10. TRANSFER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports on further studies on long range energy transfer between curcumine as donor and another thiazine dye, thionine, which is closely related to methylene blue as energy harvester (Figure 1). Since thionine is known to have a higher quantum yield of singlet oxygen sensitization than methylene blue [8], it is ...

  11. Mode of foreign entry, technology transfer, and foreign direct investment policy

    OpenAIRE

    Mattoo, Aaditya; Olarreaga, Marcelo; Saggi, Kamal

    2001-01-01

    Foreign direct investment can take place through the direct entry of foreign firms or the acquisition of existing domestic firms. Mattoo, Olarreaga, and Saggi examine the preferences of a foreign firm and the host country government with respect to these two modes of foreign direct investment in the presence of costly technology transfer. The tradeoff between technology transfer and market...

  12. IVF policy and global/local politics: the making of multiple-embryo transfer regulation in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Ling

    2012-08-01

    This paper analyzes the regulatory trajectory of multiple-embryo transfer in in-vitro fertilization (IVF) in Taiwan. Taking a latecomer to policy-making as the case, it argues the importance of conceptualizing the global/local dynamics in policy-making for assisted reproductive technology (ART). The conceptual framework is built upon recent literature on standardization, science policy, and global assemblage. I propose three interrelated features that reveal the "global in the local": (1) the power relationships among stakeholders, (2) the selected global form that involved actors drew upon, and (3) the re-contextualized assemblage made of local networks. Data included archives, interviews, and participant observation. In different historical periods the specific stakeholders selected different preferred global forms for Taiwan, such as Britain's code of ethics in the 1990s, the American guideline in the early 2000s, and the European trend in the mid-2000s. The global is heterogeneous. The failure to transfer the British regulation, the revision of the American guideline by adding one more embryo than it specified, and the gap between the cited European trend and the "no more than four" in Taiwan's 2007 Human Reproduction Law all show that the local network further transforms the selected global form, confining it to rhetoric only or tailoring it to local needs. Overall, Taiwanese practitioners successfully maintained their medical autonomy to build a 'flexible standardization'. Multiple pregnancy remains the most common health risk of IVF in Taiwan. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. International Small Arms and Light Weapons Transfers: U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grimmett, Richard F

    2006-01-01

    In recent years attention has been focused by international organizations and nongovernmental organizations in various fora on the issue of international small arms and light weapons transfers (SA/LW...

  14. Technology Transfer Policy Applied to the U.S. Army Military History Institute Collection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bell, William

    1998-01-01

    .... This cooperative process is called technology transfer. The main point of the laws is to allow commercial vendors and the organizations of the federal government to enter into cooperative research and development agreements (CRADAs...

  15. State Theory, Grassroots Agency, and Global Policy Transfer: The Life and Death of Colombia's "Escuela Nueva in Brazil" (1997-2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarlau, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes the transfer and 15-year policy trajectory of Colombia's "global best practice" "Escuela Nueva in Brazil." This program, initially transferred to Brazil in 1997 with the help of the World Bank, was largely unknown for the first decade of its life span. Then, between 2008 and 2011, "after" the…

  16. [The significance of sickle cell anemia within the context of the Brazilian government's 'racial policies' (1995-2004)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Peter H

    2005-01-01

    This essay reflects on the social significance of growing interest in sickle cell anemia and other illnesses associated with the black body in Brazil. I explore the discursive network that has taken shape around the disease within the social context of its production. I first summarize anthropologist Melbourne Tapper's analysis of the United States program to fight sickle cell anemia in the 1970s, shortly after blacks attained victories in the civil rights movement. Tapper (1999) argues that one of the consequences of this policy was the creation of a responsible black citizenry. In the late 1990s, the Brazilian government developed a program (Programa de Anemia Falciforme) that counted on the heavy participation of black activists and that also contributed to the formation of a "responsible black community". My argument is that sickle cell anemia becomes much more than an illness to be eradicated. The discourse surrounding it is a powerful element in the process of naturalization of the "black race" (and, by logical and political complement, the "white race") in a country that until recently imagined itself a biologically and culturally hybrid nation.

  17. Management of School Infrastructure in the Context of a No-Fee Schools Policy in Rural South African Schools: Lessons from the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marishane, Ramodikoe Nylon

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the management of school infrastructure in the context of the "no-fee schools" policy introduced in the South African education delivery system. Focusing on four rural schools, the study applied a qualitative method, which involved observation of infrastructure conditions prevailing at four selected schools and…

  18. Re-Conceptualizing Teachers' Continuous Professional Development within a New Paradigm of Change in the Indian Context: An Analysis of Literature and Policy Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subitha, G. V.

    2018-01-01

    Located within the context of Indian education reforms, this study is a critique of the current model of continuous professional development of teachers. The study, by reviewing national policy documents and research literature, argues that there is a need to re-conceptualize and re-define the current model of professional development of teachers.…

  19. Technology transfer to US oil producers: A policy tool to sustain or increase oil production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowd, W. T.

    1990-03-01

    The Department of Energy provided the Interstate Oil Compact Commission with a grant to identify and evaluate existing technology transfer channels to operators, to devise and test improvements or new technology transfer channels and to make recommendations as to how the Department of Energy's oil and gas technology transfer methods could be improved. The IOCC conducted this effort in a series of four tasks: a structural analysis to characterize the oil producing industry according to operator production size class, geographic location, awareness and use of reservoir management technologies, and strategies for adding reserves and replacing produced reserves; targeted interviews conducted with some 300 oil and gas industry participants to identify current technology transfer channels and their relative usefulness for various classes of industry participants; a design and testing phase, in which the IOCC critiqued the current technology transfer structure, based on results of the structural analysis and targeted interviews, and identified several strategies for improvement; and an evaluation of existing state outreach programs to determine whether they might provide a model for development of additional outreach programs in other producing states.

  20. Unraveling the evolutionary history of the phosphoryl-transfer chain of the phosphoenolpyruvate:phosphotransferase system through phylogenetic analyses and genome context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zúñiga Manuel

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase system (PTS plays a major role in sugar transport and in the regulation of essential physiological processes in many bacteria. The PTS couples solute transport to its phosphorylation at the expense of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP and it consists of general cytoplasmic phosphoryl transfer proteins and specific enzyme II complexes which catalyze the uptake and phosphorylation of solutes. Previous studies have suggested that the evolution of the constituents of the enzyme II complexes has been driven largely by horizontal gene transfer whereas vertical inheritance has been prevalent in the general phosphoryl transfer proteins in some bacterial groups. The aim of this work is to test this hypothesis by studying the evolution of the phosphoryl transfer proteins of the PTS. Results We have analyzed the evolutionary history of the PTS phosphoryl transfer chain (PTS-ptc components in 222 complete genomes by combining phylogenetic methods and analysis of genomic context. Phylogenetic analyses alone were not conclusive for the deepest nodes but when complemented with analyses of genomic context and functional information, the main evolutionary trends of this system could be depicted. Conclusion The PTS-ptc evolved in bacteria after the divergence of early lineages such as Aquificales, Thermotogales and Thermus/Deinococcus. The subsequent evolutionary history of the PTS-ptc varied in different bacterial lineages: vertical inheritance and lineage-specific gene losses mainly explain the current situation in Actinobacteria and Firmicutes whereas horizontal gene transfer (HGT also played a major role in Proteobacteria. Most remarkably, we have identified a HGT event from Firmicutes or Fusobacteria to the last common ancestor of the Enterobacteriaceae, Pasteurellaceae, Shewanellaceae and Vibrionaceae. This transfer led to extensive changes in the metabolic and regulatory networks of these bacteria

  1. Limitations of gaze transfer: without visual context, eye movements do not to help to coordinate joint action, whereas mouse movements do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Romy; Helmert, Jens R; Pannasch, Sebastian

    2014-10-01

    Remote cooperation can be improved by transferring the gaze of one participant to the other. However, based on a partner's gaze, an interpretation of his communicative intention can be difficult. Thus, gaze transfer has been inferior to mouse transfer in remote spatial referencing tasks where locations had to be pointed out explicitly. Given that eye movements serve as an indicator of visual attention, it remains to be investigated whether gaze and mouse transfer differentially affect the coordination of joint action when the situation demands an understanding of the partner's search strategies. In the present study, a gaze or mouse cursor was transferred from a searcher to an assistant in a hierarchical decision task. The assistant could use this cursor to guide his movement of a window which continuously opened up the display parts the searcher needed to find the right solution. In this context, we investigated how the ease of using gaze transfer depended on whether a link could be established between the partner's eye movements and the objects he was looking at. Therefore, in addition to the searcher's cursor, the assistant either saw the positions of these objects or only a grey background. When the objects were visible, performance and the number of spoken words were similar for gaze and mouse transfer. However, without them, gaze transfer resulted in longer solution times and more verbal effort as participants relied more strongly on speech to coordinate the window movement. Moreover, an analysis of the spatio-temporal coupling of the transmitted cursor and the window indicated that when no visual object information was available, assistants confidently followed the searcher's mouse but not his gaze cursor. Once again, the results highlight the importance of carefully considering task characteristics when applying gaze transfer in remote cooperation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Transformational Leadership and Transfer of Teacher Professional Development to the Classroom in the Kuwait Public High School Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winokur, Ilene Kay

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how teachers' perceptions of transformational leadership behavior of head of department (HOD) as instructional leader related to their motivation to transfer learning through professional development in public high schools in Kuwait. The study also addressed two other training transfer factors: ability to…

  3. Avenues to improve success in SME business transfers: reflections on theories, research and policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lex van Teeffelen

    2012-01-01

    Every year I talk to many entrepreneurs about business transfers and acquisitions. Only rarely do they tell me that it was a cinch. Buying or selling a business is complex. For a start, a business should be shipshape from an organizational and administrative perspective, while several legal

  4. Juvenile Transfer and Deterrence: Reexamining the Effectiveness of a "Get-Tough" Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Kareem L.; Myers, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Although research has examined the effectiveness of juvenile transfer on recidivism, there has been a lack of research done in assessing how well juvenile waiver to adult court meets the criteria necessary for deterrence to occur (i.e., certainty, severity, and swiftness of punishment). The purpose of this study is to assess how well juvenile…

  5. The International Trade Policy for Technology Transfers: Legal and Economic Dilemmas on Multilateralism versus Bilateralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yi Shin

    In the book, the Researcher addresses the importance of international technology transfers for economic development, as well as the underlying causes for the different institutional arrangements that promote such activity. The work provides a systematic interpretation of the wide range of interests...

  6. The effect of replenishment policies on the bullwhip effect : a transfer function approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaksic, M.; Rusjan, B.

    2008-01-01

    An important phenomenon in supply chain management, known as the bullwhip effect, suggests that demand variability increases as one moves up a supply chain. This paper examines the influence of different replenishment policies on the occurrence of the bullwhip effect. The paper demonstrates that

  7. Reunion of Crimea and Russia in the Context of Trends and Contradictions of Contemporary Policy-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina G. Kirsanova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The process of reunification of Crimea and the Russian Federation is considered in the context of the content, the basic trends and contradictions of the modern political process at the global, regional and national government levels. Analyzing the reunification of Crimea with Russia, the authors reveal the problem of observing the principle of sovereign equality of the states, territorial integrity, non-interference into the internal affairs of the states, the right of peoples to self-determination. The authors highlight the geopolitical threats and risks arising from the violation of the principle of force non-use or threat of force in the situation of “Ukrainian crisis”. This process is analyzed through the prism of the political history of Russia, the establishment and strengthening of its statehood. Interpreted documentary sources reveal the organizational, legal, and political contradictions of the transfer of Crimean region from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic to the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic in 1954. Socio-political importance of the reunification of Crimea and the Russian Federation for the present stage of modernization transformations of the society and the state are considered. The possible scenarios of development of the internal political and international situation with regard to the sanctions confrontation of Russia and some foreign countries are analyzed. The authors identified the resources for: effective assertion of the national interests of the Russian Federation; ensuring stability and security of life for all people living on its territory; permanent reproduction of national elite abilities (political, administrative, military, economic, etc. to act decisively in critical situations, to make fateful decisions of geopolitical nature. The article uses the results of sociological surveys of public opinion about the attitude of the Russians and citizens of Ukraine to the process of reunification

  8. Weapons to widgets: Organic systems and public policy for tech transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargo, Russell A.

    1994-01-01

    Large cuts in defense spending cause serious repercussions throughout the American economy. One means to counter the negative effects of defense reductions is to redirect federal dollars to temporarily prop up defense industries and, over the longer-term, stimulate growth of new nondefense industries. The creation of non-defense products and industries by channeling ideas from public laboratories into the private sector manufacturing facilities, known as technology transfer, is being undertaken in a massive program that has high visibility, large amounts of money, and broad federal agency involvement. How effectively federal money can be directed toward stimulating the creation of non-defense products will define the strength of the economy, (i.e., tax base, employment level, trade balance, capital investments, etc.), over the next decade. Key functions of the tech transfer process are technology and market assessment, capital formation, manufacturing feasibility, sales and distribution, and business organization creation. Those, however, are not functions typically associated with the federal government. Is the government prepared to provide leadership in those areas? This paper suggests organic systems theory as a means to structure the public sector's actions to provide leadership in functional areas normally outside their scope of expertise. By applying new ideas in organization theory, can we design government action to efficiently and effectively transfer technologies?

  9. Royal Policy and the Transfer ot the Consulado under the Old Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan J. KUETHE

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The abrupt transfer of the Casa de la Contratación and the Consulado de Cargadores a Indias from Seville to Cádiz in 1717 opened a political struggle between the two cities that would not be completely resolved until the enlightened absolutism of the Marqués de la Ensenada imposed its will. This struggle witnessed old regime politics at both their best and their worst. The present work seeks to analyze the several manifestations of this competition as well as the broader settings in which they occurred. While the new absolutism first appeared through the abad Alberoni in the original transfer and again through its affirmation by the duque de Ripperdá, with the hand of Queen Isabel not far beneath the surface, the traditional culture of consultation and compromise would eventually emerge and permit Seville to retain important powers until much later. Then, in a new era with much different priorities, which were heavily influenced by the coming of the War of the Asiento, royal absolutism as personified by Ensenada and his immediate predecessors would strip Sevilla of its remaining rights and at long last complete the transfer that had begun over twenty-six years before. 

  10. An Evaluation of the Policy Context on Psychosocial Risks and Mental Health in the Workplace in the European Union: Achievements, Challenges, and the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavroula Leka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the developments both in hard and soft law policies in the European Union in relation to mental health and psychosocial risks in the workplace, a review of these policies at EU level has not been conducted to identify strengths, weaknesses, and gaps to be addressed in the future. Keeping in mind that the aim should be to engage employers in good practice, ideally such policies should include key definitions and elements of the psychosocial risk management process, covering risk factors, mental health outcomes, risk assessment and preventive actions, or interventions. The current paper aims to fill this gap by reviewing hard and soft law policies on mental health in the workplace and psychosocial risks applicable at EU level and conducting a gap analysis according to a set of dimensions identified in models of good practice in this area. Our review of ninety-four policies in total revealed several gaps, especially in relation to binding in comparison to nonbinding policies. These are discussed in light of the context of policy-making in the EU, and recommendations are offered for future actions in this area.

  11. An Evaluation of the Policy Context on Psychosocial Risks and Mental Health in the Workplace in the European Union: Achievements, Challenges, and the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leka, Stavroula; Jain, Aditya; Di Tecco, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Despite the developments both in hard and soft law policies in the European Union in relation to mental health and psychosocial risks in the workplace, a review of these policies at EU level has not been conducted to identify strengths, weaknesses, and gaps to be addressed in the future. Keeping in mind that the aim should be to engage employers in good practice, ideally such policies should include key definitions and elements of the psychosocial risk management process, covering risk factors, mental health outcomes, risk assessment and preventive actions, or interventions. The current paper aims to fill this gap by reviewing hard and soft law policies on mental health in the workplace and psychosocial risks applicable at EU level and conducting a gap analysis according to a set of dimensions identified in models of good practice in this area. Our review of ninety-four policies in total revealed several gaps, especially in relation to binding in comparison to nonbinding policies. These are discussed in light of the context of policy-making in the EU, and recommendations are offered for future actions in this area. PMID:26557655

  12. An Evaluation of the Policy Context on Psychosocial Risks and Mental Health in the Workplace in the European Union: Achievements, Challenges, and the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leka, Stavroula; Jain, Aditya; Iavicoli, Sergio; Di Tecco, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Despite the developments both in hard and soft law policies in the European Union in relation to mental health and psychosocial risks in the workplace, a review of these policies at EU level has not been conducted to identify strengths, weaknesses, and gaps to be addressed in the future. Keeping in mind that the aim should be to engage employers in good practice, ideally such policies should include key definitions and elements of the psychosocial risk management process, covering risk factors, mental health outcomes, risk assessment and preventive actions, or interventions. The current paper aims to fill this gap by reviewing hard and soft law policies on mental health in the workplace and psychosocial risks applicable at EU level and conducting a gap analysis according to a set of dimensions identified in models of good practice in this area. Our review of ninety-four policies in total revealed several gaps, especially in relation to binding in comparison to nonbinding policies. These are discussed in light of the context of policy-making in the EU, and recommendations are offered for future actions in this area.

  13. Interdisciplinary Approach to the Study of Evolution of Humanities : Reviewing The History of Translation Movement in the Context of Public Policy-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Shah Abadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It is about forty years that some of Iran’s policy makers and experts in social and human sciences are of the opinion that there should be an evolution in humanities. They are of the view that principles and basic assumptions of current humanities are in conflict with Islamic framework and consequently these doctrines are not appropriate to address local issues of Islamic countries. Since the Islamic Revolution of Iran of 1979, any change in these doctrines has been a matter of debate. But we need a new plan for making a change in our policies. Applying interdisciplinary approach permit us to find a new way for policy making in society. History is full of lessons to guide us in our present situations. Therefore, by taking into account, the sociology of science and issues of policy-making, we study the Translation Movement. This article shows the transfer and transformation of Greek philosophy to Islamic philosophy in 7- 10 A.D. in Islamic civilization and also proposes an alternative approach for the policy makers. We identify actors of transferring knowledge, scientific translators and the Abbasid State. Research model of this paper has been chosen from the sociology of science and also makes use of "Implication Research Methodology” with regard to history. Our suggestion is "Transformational Translation (Transforlation " that includes selecting best texts, translations, correction, explanation, criticism and innovation. Accordingly, policies should be revised after identifying discipline on Transforlation Chain and structures and human resources have to be formalized on the basis of revised policies.

  14. Photovoltaic power: public policies and economic impacts. The French choices in the international context (1973-2013)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricaud, Alain

    2013-01-01

    This article summarizes 40 years of international public policies in favour of solar cells development and deployment with their economic impacts: strengths and weaknesses of solar energy and its societal impact; French R and D, financial support, competition and national energy policy; the US pioneering role; the Japanese take over; the German example; the European Union federating role; the Chinese leading position

  15. Photovoltaic power: public policies and economic impacts. The French choices in the international context 1973-2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricaud, Alain

    2013-06-01

    This article summarizes 40 years of international public policies in favour of solar cells development and deployment with their economic impacts: strengths and weaknesses of solar energy and its societal impact; French R and D, financial support, competition and national energy policy; the US pioneering role; the Japanese take over; the German example; the European Union federating role; the Chinese leading position

  16. Middle Managers' Experience of Policy Implementation and Mediation in the Context of the Scottish Quality Enhancement Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Murray; Sin, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses how middle managers perform and experience their role in enacting policy in Scottish higher education institutions. The policy focus is the quality enhancement framework (QEF) for learning and teaching in higher education, which was launched in 2003. The data-set was collected between 2008 and 2010, during the evaluation of the…

  17. Public Policy Issues Associated with Tsunami Hazard Mitigation, Response and Recovery: Transferable Lessons from Recent Global Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L.

    2014-12-01

    Since 2004, a sequence of devastating tsunamis has taken the lives of more than 300,000 people worldwide. The path of destruction left by each is typically measured in hundreds of meters to a few kilometers and its breadth can extend for hundreds even thousands of kilometers, crossing towns and countries and even traversing an entire oceanic basin. Tsunami disasters in Indonesia, Chile, Japan and elsewhere have also shown that the almost binary nature of tsunami impacts can present some unique risk reduction, response, recovery and rebuilding challenges, with transferable lessons to other tsunami vulnerable coastal communities around the world. In particular, the trauma can motivate survivors to relocate homes, jobs, and even whole communities to safer ground, sometimes at tremendous social and financial costs. For governments, the level of concentrated devastation usually exceeds the local capacity to respond and thus requires complex inter-governmental arrangements with regional, national and even international partners to support the recovery of impacted communities, infrastructure and economies. Two parallel projects underway in California since 2011—the SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) tsunami scenario project and the California Tsunami Policy Working Group (CTPWG)—have worked to digest key lessons from recent tsunami disasters, with an emphasis on identifying gaps to be addressed in the current state and federal policy framework to enhance tsunami risk awareness, hazard mitigation, and response and recovery planning ahead of disaster and also improve post-disaster implementation practices following a future California or U.S. tsunami event.

  18. Learning in context: identifying gaps in research on the transfer of medical communication skills to the clinical workplace.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eertwegh, V. van den; Dulmen, S. van; Dalen, J. van; Scherpbier, A.J.J.A.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In order to reduce the inconsistencies of findings and the apparent low transfer of communication skills from training to medical practice, this narrative review identifies some main gaps in research on medical communication skills training and presents insights from theories on learning

  19. Learning in context: identifying gaps in research on the transfer of medical communication skills to the clinical workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eertwegh, V. van den; Dulmen, S. van; Dalen, J. Van; Scherpbier, A.J.J.A.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In order to reduce the inconsistencies of findings and the apparent low transfer of communication skills from training to medical practice, this narrative review identifies some main gaps in research on medical communication skills training and presents insights from theories on learning

  20. TRANSFERS BETWEEN GENERATIONS AND GENDERS. THE CASE OF DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE 2 IN A POOR URBAN CONTEXT OF CHIAPAS, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Zapata-Martelo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The transfer between generations of populations with diabetes mellitus type 2, play an important role in adherence to the treatment or disease control. The objective of the present study is to identify the magnitude, characteristics and reasons of the intergenerational transfers, and their effect on the absence of medical control from those who have diabetes mellitus type 2. The present study is inserted into the project: prevalence of chronic diseases in Chiapas. Epidemiology, social barriers and attention needs in the adult population (ECPA, in the city of Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas; the information was obtained from September 2005 to April 2006. For purposes of the present study were considered people of 40 years and older with diabetes mellitus type 2 previously diagnosed, resulting in the selection of 125 people with those characteristics: 43 men and 82 women. The results showed that approximately 90% of the people received any type of economical or emotional transfer, there is greater support from children to mothers, and the reasons for transfers were mainly voluntary. The effect of emotional support in women it’s greater than in men in the adherence to treatment and disease control.

  1. Intrastate Dynamics in the Context of Hegemonic Decline: A Case Study of China’s Arms Transfer Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifan Luo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The decline of a hegemon can create openings for lesser powers to expand their influence in the world-system. Is this what China is currently attempting to do? This paper contributes to this on-going debate by examining China’s arms transfer activities from a historical perspective. Using data from the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute arms transfer database and the World Military Expenditures and Arms Transfers database, I argue that the Chinese arms transfer regime has evolved through three phases. In Phase One, China used gifts of arms to compete with the Soviet Union and to expand influence among Third World countries. In Phase Two, China used arms exports mainly to assist national developmental projects. Only evidence in Phase Three supports the emergence of a global strategy that attempts to extend China’s economic, political, and possibly military outreach. This paper suggests that though China has not yet become a contender for world hegemony as Arrighi argues (2007, China has formulated a globally-focused agenda which, in the medium-term, could extend its influence in regions where U.S. domination is relatively weak.

  2. Transferring water management knowledge: how actors, interaction and context influence the effectiveness of Dutch-funded projects in Romania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinke-de Kruijf, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    Countries around the world face pressing, often similar, water problems. International projects in which knowledge is transferred from one country to another can contribute to solving these problems. Building on the experiences of three Dutch-funded flood risk management projects in Romania, this

  3. Cultivating sustainable development? An analysis of the Brazilian public policy for biodiesel within the context of sustainable development and environmental management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gucciardi Garcez, C.A.

    2007-07-01

    The objective of this article is to contribute to the analysis of the Brazilian public policy related to biodiesel within the context of sustainable development and environmental management. Biofuels have been steadily increasing in popularity on a global scale. Brazil, a country that boasts abundant natural resources and agricultural land, has emerged as a world leader in the production of biofuels. In order to verify biodiesel's potential to contribute to sustainable development, it is necessary to analyze the biofuel in a larger social, environmental, and economic context. The methodology applied to this study included a brief review of the evolution of the concept of sustainable development and instruments of environmental management, which served as a basis to evaluate the policy documents and data relating to the policy's implementation. Although the implementation is still within its initial stage, significant weakness has been found in the policy. One consequence is the domination of soy as a primary material for biodiesel. Other weaknesses identified are related to the Selo (''certification of a socially inclusive fuel'') to promote social inclusion, as well as a lack of support for family-based agriculture to aggregate value to the primary material that they produce. (auth)

  4. Are Self-Perception Measures Used in School Library Research Transferable to the Context of Public Library Summer Reading Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnone, Marilyn P.; Small, Ruth V.; Weng, Shicheng

    2016-01-01

    Several instruments previously validated for use in school library research were tested for their appropriateness in the context of public libraries' summer reading programs for youth. The researchers were also interested in whether the connection between perceived competence in one's own information skills and perceived competence in one's own…

  5. Inter-genomic displacement via lateral gene transfer of bacterial trp operons in an overall context of vertical genealogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyhani Nemat O

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The growing conviction that lateral gene transfer plays a significant role in prokaryote genealogy opens up a need for comprehensive evaluations of gene-enzyme systems on a case-by-case basis. Genes of tryptophan biosynthesis are frequently organized as whole-pathway operons, an attribute that is expected to facilitate multi-gene transfer in a single step. We have asked whether events of lateral gene transfer are sufficient to have obscured our ability to track the vertical genealogy that underpins tryptophan biosynthesis. Results In 47 complete-genome Bacteria, the genes encoding the seven catalytic domains that participate in primary tryptophan biosynthesis were distinguished from any paralogs or xenologs engaged in other specialized functions. A reliable list of orthologs with carefully ascertained functional roles has thus been assembled and should be valuable as an annotation resource. The protein domains associated with primary tryptophan biosynthesis were then concatenated, yielding single amino-acid sequence strings that represent the entire tryptophan pathway. Lateral gene transfer of several whole-pathway trp operons was demonstrated by use of phylogenetic analysis. Lateral gene transfer of partial-pathway trp operons was also shown, with newly recruited genes functioning either in primary biosynthesis (rarely or specialized metabolism (more frequently. Conclusions (i Concatenated tryptophan protein trees are congruent with 16S rRNA subtrees provided that the genomes represented are of sufficiently close phylogenetic spacing. There are currently seven tryptophan congruency groups in the Bacteria. Recognition of a succession of others can be expected in the near future, but ultimately these should coalesce to a single grouping that parallels the 16S rRNA tree (except for cases of lateral gene transfer. (ii The vertical trace of evolution for tryptophan biosynthesis can be deduced. The daunting complexities engendered

  6. Governança global e transferência de política: influências do Protocolo de Cartagena na Política Nacional de Biossegurança Gobernanza global y transferencia de la política: influencias del Protocolo de Cartagena en la Política Nacional de Bioseguridad Global governance and transfer policy: influences of the Cartagena Protocol on Brazilian National Policy on Biosafety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuna Fontoura

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available No contexto de governança global, analisamos o tema da transferência de política, no qual a formulação de políticas públicas é influenciada por experiências de contextos políticos diferentes. Neste sentido, questionamos de que forma o Protocolo de Cartagena influenciou a formulação da Política Nacional de Biossegurança (PNB. A pesquisa empírica foi realizada por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas com respondentes qualificados, que atuaram direta ou indiretamente na formulação da PNB. No tratamento dos dados adotamos uma abordagem qualitativa, por meio da utilização da análise de conteúdo. Os resultados revelam que houve transferência de política no formato de aprendizado (ou lesson drawing do Protocolo de Cartagena à PNB.En el contexto de la gobernancia global, se analiza el tema de la política de transferencia, en que la formulación de la política pública está influenciada por las experiencias de los diferentes contextos políticos. En este sentido, nos preguntamos cómo el Protocolo de Cartagena ha influido en la formulación de la Política Nacional de Bioseguridad (PNB. La investigación empírica se realizó a través de entrevistas semi-estructuradas con informantes calificados, que trabajaban directa o indirectamente en la formulación de la PNB. En el procesamiento de los datos seguimos un enfoque cualitativo, a través del uso de análisis de contenido. Los resultados muestran que ocorre una política de transferencia en la forma de aprendizaje (o lesson drawing del Protocolo de Cartagena sobre PNB.In the context of global governance, we analyze the topic of policy transfer in which the formulation of public policies is influenced by experiences of different political contexts. Thus, we question how the Cartagena Protocol influenced the formulation of the Brazilian National Biosafety Policy (PNB. The empirical research was accomplished through semi-structured interviews with qualified respondents who

  7. The social transmission of metacontrol policies: Mechanisms underlying the interpersonal transfer of persistence and flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommel, Bernhard; Colzato, Lorenza S

    2017-10-01

    Humans often face binary cognitive-control dilemmas, with the choice between persistence and flexibility being a crucial one. Tackling these dilemmas requires metacontrol, i.e., the control of the current cognitive-control policy. As predicted from functional, psychometric, neuroscientific, and modeling approaches, interindividual variability in metacontrol biases towards persistence or flexibility could be demonstrated in metacontrol-sensitive tasks. These biases covary systematically with genetic predispositions regarding mesofrontal and nigrostriatal dopaminergic functioning and the individualistic or collectivistic nature of the cultural background. However, there is also evidence for mood- and meditation-induced intraindividual variability (with negative mood and focused-attention meditation being associated with a bias towards persistence, and positive mood and open-monitoring meditation being associated with a bias towards flexibility), suggesting that genetic and cultural factors do not determine metacontrol settings entirely. We suggest a theoretical framework that explains how genetic predisposition and cultural learning can lead to the implementation of metacontrol defaults, which however can be shifted towards persistence or flexibility by situational factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The taxation of unhealthy energy-dense foods (EDFs) and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs): An overview of patterns observed in the policy content and policy context of 13 case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagenaars, Luc Louis; Jeurissen, Patrick Paulus Theodoor; Klazinga, Niek Sieds

    2017-08-01

    Taxation of energy-dense foods (EDFs) and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is increasingly of interest as a novel public health and fiscal policy instrument. However academic interest in policy determinants has remained limited. We address this paucity by comparing the policy content and policy context of EDF/SSB taxes witnessed in 13 case studies, of which we assume the tax is sufficiently high to induce behavioural change. The observational and non-randomized studies published on our case studies seem to indicate that the EDF/SSB taxes under investigation generally had the desired effects on prices and consumption of targeted products. The revenue collection of EDF/SSB taxes is minimal yet significant. Administrative practicalities in tax levying are important, possibly explaining why a drift towards solely taxing SSBs can be noted, as these can be demarcated more easily, with levies seemingly increasing in more recent case studies. Despite the growing body of evidence suggesting that EDF/SSB taxes have the potential to improve health, fiscal needs more often seem to lay their policy foundation rather than public health advocacy. A remarkable amount of conservative/liberal governments have adopted these taxes, although in many cases revenues are earmarked for benefits compensating regressive income effects. Governments voice diverse policy rationales, ranging from explicitly describing the tax as a public health instrument, to solely explicating revenue raising. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. O Bolsa Família: problematizando questões centrais na política de transferência de renda no Brasil The Family Allowance Program: reflecting on core issues in Brazil's income transfer policy

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    Maria Ozanira da Silva e Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O Programa Bolsa Família foi criado em 2003 com o objetivo de unificar os Programas de Transferência de Renda iniciados em nível municipal, estadual e federal desde 1995. É concebido como uma expressão do processo de desenvolvimento desses programas no Brasil. Transferência de renda é entendida enquanto uma transferência monetária direta efetuada a indivíduos ou a famílias. O pressuposto central é de que articular uma transferência de renda com políticas e programas estruturantes, principalmente no campo da educação, saúde e trabalho, direcionados a famílias pobres, pode interromper o ciclo vicioso da pobreza do presente e sua reprodução no futuro. Portanto, uma articulação entre uma transferência monetária com políticas e programas estruturantes, direcionados a famílias pobres, pode possibilitar a construção de uma política de enfrentamento à pobreza e à desigualdade social. Nesse artigo, é apresentado o desenvolvimento histórico dos Programas de Transferência de Renda, no Brasil, orientado por um esforço problematizador do significado e do alcance desses programas no âmbito das políticas sociais brasileiras, considerando suas potencialidades e limites enquanto política de inclusão social.Introduced in 2003, Brazil's Family Allowance Program was intended to unite several Income Transfer Programs run at the Municipal, State and Federal levels since 1995. Designed as an expression of the development of direct monetary transfers to families or individuals, its key assumption is that linking income transfers to poor families with structural policies and programs (mainly in the fields of education, healthcare and jobs could break through the vicious cycle of poverty in the present and halt its future replication. Linking cash transfers to structuring policies and programs for poor families might well underpin a policy combating poverty and social inequality. This paper presents a retrospective of these Income

  10. Defining context-specific scenarios to design vegetated buffer zones that limit pesticide transfer via surface runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carluer, N; Lauvernet, C; Noll, D; Munoz-Carpena, R

    2017-01-01

    When used in addition to environmentally friendly cultural practices, buffer zones can limit the water transfer of pollutants, in particular pesticides, towards water resources. The choice of the buffer zones' type and positioning, considering water pathways and flow components, is crucial. When this choice has been performed, buffer zones dimensions must still be optimized, according to the environment characteristics, which strongly influence their effectiveness. This article presents a method and its associated tools, including VFSMOD model, which aim at optimizing vegetative buffer zones (VFS) sizes, by simulating their transfer mitigation effectiveness. A first application of this methodology is illustrated on a small agricultural watershed in Brittany. A second application, based on the simulation of a large number of scenarios, leads to the elaboration of nomograms. They allow optimizing VFS size in a simpler way from the user's point of view. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Role of Book Features in Young Children's Transfer of Information from Picture Books to Real-World Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strouse, Gabrielle A; Nyhout, Angela; Ganea, Patricia A

    2018-01-01

    Picture books are an important source of new language, concepts, and lessons for young children. A large body of research has documented the nature of parent-child interactions during shared book reading. A new body of research has begun to investigate the features of picture books that support children's learning and transfer of that information to the real world. In this paper, we discuss how children's symbolic development, analogical reasoning, and reasoning about fantasy may constrain their ability to take away content information from picture books. We then review the nascent body of findings that has focused on the impact of picture book features on children's learning and transfer of words and letters, science concepts, problem solutions, and morals from picture books. In each domain of learning we discuss how children's development may interact with book features to impact their learning. We conclude that children's ability to learn and transfer content from picture books can be disrupted by some book features and research should directly examine the interaction between children's developing abilities and book characteristics on children's learning.

  12. The Role of Book Features in Young Children's Transfer of Information from Picture Books to Real-World Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strouse, Gabrielle A.; Nyhout, Angela; Ganea, Patricia A.

    2018-01-01

    Picture books are an important source of new language, concepts, and lessons for young children. A large body of research has documented the nature of parent-child interactions during shared book reading. A new body of research has begun to investigate the features of picture books that support children's learning and transfer of that information to the real world. In this paper, we discuss how children's symbolic development, analogical reasoning, and reasoning about fantasy may constrain their ability to take away content information from picture books. We then review the nascent body of findings that has focused on the impact of picture book features on children's learning and transfer of words and letters, science concepts, problem solutions, and morals from picture books. In each domain of learning we discuss how children's development may interact with book features to impact their learning. We conclude that children's ability to learn and transfer content from picture books can be disrupted by some book features and research should directly examine the interaction between children's developing abilities and book characteristics on children's learning. PMID:29467690

  13. The Role of Book Features in Young Children's Transfer of Information from Picture Books to Real-World Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle A. Strouse

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Picture books are an important source of new language, concepts, and lessons for young children. A large body of research has documented the nature of parent-child interactions during shared book reading. A new body of research has begun to investigate the features of picture books that support children's learning and transfer of that information to the real world. In this paper, we discuss how children's symbolic development, analogical reasoning, and reasoning about fantasy may constrain their ability to take away content information from picture books. We then review the nascent body of findings that has focused on the impact of picture book features on children's learning and transfer of words and letters, science concepts, problem solutions, and morals from picture books. In each domain of learning we discuss how children's development may interact with book features to impact their learning. We conclude that children's ability to learn and transfer content from picture books can be disrupted by some book features and research should directly examine the interaction between children's developing abilities and book characteristics on children's learning.

  14. Acute Sleep Deprivation Induces a Local Brain Transfer Information Increase in the Frontal Cortex in a Widespread Decrease Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Joan F; Romero, Sergio; Mañanas, Miguel A; Alcalá, Marta; Antonijoan, Rosa M; Giménez, Sandra

    2016-04-14

    Sleep deprivation (SD) has adverse effects on mental and physical health, affecting the cognitive abilities and emotional states. Specifically, cognitive functions and alertness are known to decrease after SD. The aim of this work was to identify the directional information transfer after SD on scalp EEG signals using transfer entropy (TE). Using a robust methodology based on EEG recordings of 18 volunteers deprived from sleep for 36 h, TE and spectral analysis were performed to characterize EEG data acquired every 2 h. Correlation between connectivity measures and subjective somnolence was assessed. In general, TE showed medium- and long-range significant decreases originated at the occipital areas and directed towards different regions, which could be interpreted as the transfer of predictive information from parieto-occipital activity to the rest of the head. Simultaneously, short-range increases were obtained for the frontal areas, following a consistent and robust time course with significant maps after 20 h of sleep deprivation. Changes during sleep deprivation in brain network were measured effectively by TE, which showed increased local connectivity and diminished global integration. TE is an objective measure that could be used as a potential measure of sleep pressure and somnolence with the additional property of directed relationships.

  15. Acute Sleep Deprivation Induces a Local Brain Transfer Information Increase in the Frontal Cortex in a Widespread Decrease Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan F. Alonso

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sleep deprivation (SD has adverse effects on mental and physical health, affecting the cognitive abilities and emotional states. Specifically, cognitive functions and alertness are known to decrease after SD. The aim of this work was to identify the directional information transfer after SD on scalp EEG signals using transfer entropy (TE. Using a robust methodology based on EEG recordings of 18 volunteers deprived from sleep for 36 h, TE and spectral analysis were performed to characterize EEG data acquired every 2 h. Correlation between connectivity measures and subjective somnolence was assessed. In general, TE showed medium- and long-range significant decreases originated at the occipital areas and directed towards different regions, which could be interpreted as the transfer of predictive information from parieto-occipital activity to the rest of the head. Simultaneously, short-range increases were obtained for the frontal areas, following a consistent and robust time course with significant maps after 20 h of sleep deprivation. Changes during sleep deprivation in brain network were measured effectively by TE, which showed increased local connectivity and diminished global integration. TE is an objective measure that could be used as a potential measure of sleep pressure and somnolence with the additional property of directed relationships.

  16. Smallholder Livelihood Adaptation in the Context of Neoliberal Policy Reforms: A Case of Maize Farmers in Southern Veracruz, Mexico.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewald, S.F.; Berg, van den M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Governments around the world have embraced trade liberalisation as a means of enhancing efficiency to realise economic growth and alleviate poverty. Likewise, the Mexican government implemented neoliberal policy reforms, the NAFTA in particular, to stimulate sustainable development. Using the

  17. Overview of the infant and young child feeding policy environment in Pakistan: Federal, Sindh and Punjab context

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    Hana Mahmood

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Appropriate infant and young child feeding (IYCF practices have been identified as important for appropriate child growth and development. (Ministry of Planning and Development, Ministry of National Health Services, Regulations and Coordination (2012 Children in Pakistan still experience high rates of malnutrition, indicating a likely need for stronger IYCF policy. The purpose of this study was to identify major stakeholders who shape the IYCF policy environment and analyze which policies protect, promote and support IYCF practices, either directly or indirectly. Methods This study was conducted at the federal level, and in the provinces of Sindh and Punjab. We identified policies relevant to IYCF using a matrix developed by the South Asian Infant Feeding Research Network (SAIFRN, designed to capture policies at a range of levels (strategic policy documents through to implementation guidelines in sectors relevant to IYCF. We analyzed the content using predetermined themes focused on support for mothers, and used narrative synthesis to present our findings. For the stakeholder analysis, we conducted four Net-Map activities with 49 interviewees using the Net-Map methodology. We analyzed the quantitative data using Organizational Risk Analyzer ORA and used the qualitative data to elucidate further information regarding relationships between stakeholders. Results We identified 19 policy documents for analysis. Eleven of these were nutrition and/or IYCF focused and eight were broader policies with IYCF as a component. The majority lacked detail relevant to implementation, particularly in terms of: ownership of the policies by a specific government body; sustainability of programs/strategies (most are donor funded, multi-sectoral collaboration; and effective advocacy and behavior change communication. Data collected through four Net-Map activities showed that after devolution of health ministry, provincial health departments were

  18. Overview of the infant and young child feeding policy environment in Pakistan: Federal, Sindh and Punjab context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Hana; Suleman, Yasmeen; Hazir, Tabish; Akram, Durre Samin; Uddin, Shahadat; Dibley, Michael J; Abassi, Saleem; Shakeel, Amara; Kazmi, Narjis; Thow, Anne Marie

    2017-06-13

    Appropriate infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices have been identified as important for appropriate child growth and development. (Ministry of Planning and Development, Ministry of National Health Services, Regulations and Coordination (2012)) Children in Pakistan still experience high rates of malnutrition, indicating a likely need for stronger IYCF policy. The purpose of this study was to identify major stakeholders who shape the IYCF policy environment and analyze which policies protect, promote and support IYCF practices, either directly or indirectly. This study was conducted at the federal level, and in the provinces of Sindh and Punjab. We identified policies relevant to IYCF using a matrix developed by the South Asian Infant Feeding Research Network (SAIFRN), designed to capture policies at a range of levels (strategic policy documents through to implementation guidelines) in sectors relevant to IYCF. We analyzed the content using predetermined themes focused on support for mothers, and used narrative synthesis to present our findings. For the stakeholder analysis, we conducted four Net-Map activities with 49 interviewees using the Net-Map methodology. We analyzed the quantitative data using Organizational Risk Analyzer ORA and used the qualitative data to elucidate further information regarding relationships between stakeholders. We identified 19 policy documents for analysis. Eleven of these were nutrition and/or IYCF focused and eight were broader policies with IYCF as a component. The majority lacked detail relevant to implementation, particularly in terms of: ownership of the policies by a specific government body; sustainability of programs/strategies (most are donor funded), multi-sectoral collaboration; and effective advocacy and behavior change communication. Data collected through four Net-Map activities showed that after devolution of health ministry, provincial health departments were the key actors in the government whereas UNICEF and

  19. Message framing in the context of the national menu-labelling policy: a comparison of public health and private industry interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Rachel C; Colgrove, James; Lee, Grace; Truong, Michelle; Wingood, Gina M

    2017-04-01

    We conducted a content analysis of public comments to understand the key framing approaches used by private industry v. public health sector, with the goal of informing future public health messaging, framing and advocacy in the context of policy making. Comments to the proposed menu-labelling policy were extracted from Regulations.gov and analysed. A framing matrix was used to organize and code key devices and themes. Documents were analysed using content analysis with Dedoose software. Recent national nutrition-labelling regulations in the USA provide a timely opportunity to understand message framing in relation to obesity prevention and policy. We examined a total of ninety-seven documents submitted on behalf of organizations (private industry, n 64; public health, n 33). Public health focused on positive health consequences of the policy, used a social justice frame and supported its arguments with academic data. Industry was more critical of the policy; it used a market justice frame that emphasized minimal regulation, depicted its members as small, family-run businesses, and illustrated points with humanizing examples. Public health framing should counter and consider engaging directly with non-health-related arguments made by industry. Public health should include more powerful framing devices to convey their messages, including metaphors and humanizing examples.

  20. Carbon Emission Mitigation Potentials of Different Policy Scenarios and Their Effects on International Aviation in the Korean Context

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    Sungwook Yoon

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to seek better policy options for greenhouse gas (GHG emission reduction in Korea’s international aviation industry by analyzing economic efficiency and environmental effectiveness with a system dynamics (SD model. Accordingly, we measured airlines sales and CO2 emission reductions to evaluate economic efficiency and environmental effectiveness, respectively, for various policies. The results show that the average carbon emission reduction rates of four policies compared to the business-as-usual (BAU scenario between 2015 and 2030 are 4.00% (Voluntary Agreement, 7.25% (Emission Trading System or ETS-30,000, 8.33% (Carbon Tax or CT-37,500, and 8.48% (Emission Charge System or EC-30,000. The average rate of decrease in airline sales compared to BAU for the ETS policy is 0.1% at 2030. Our results show that the ETS approach is the most efficient of all the analyzed CO2 reduction policies in economic terms, while the EC approach is the best policy to reduce GHG emissions. This study provides a foundation for devising effective response measures pertaining to GHG reduction and supports decision making on carbon tax and carbon credit pricing.

  1. Can the EVIDEM Framework Tackle Issues Raised by Evaluating Treatments for Rare Diseases: Analysis of Issues and Policies, and Context-Specific Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Monika; Khoury, Hanane; Willet, Jacob; Rindress, Donna; Goetghebeur, Mireille

    2016-03-01

    The multiplicity of issues, including uncertainty and ethical dilemmas, and policies involved in appraising interventions for rare diseases suggests that multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) based on a holistic definition of value is uniquely suited for this purpose. The objective of this study was to analyze and further develop a comprehensive MCDA framework (EVIDEM) to address rare disease issues and policies, while maintaining its applicability across disease areas. Specific issues and policies for rare diseases were identified through literature review. Ethical and methodological foundations of the EVIDEM framework v3.0 were systematically analyzed from the perspective of these issues, and policies and modifications of the framework were performed accordingly to ensure their integration. Analysis showed that the framework integrates ethical dilemmas and issues inherent to appraising interventions for rare diseases but required further integration of specific aspects. Modification thus included the addition of subcriteria to further differentiate disease severity, disease-specific treatment outcomes, and economic consequences of interventions for rare diseases. Scoring scales were further developed to include negative scales for all comparative criteria. A methodology was established to incorporate context-specific population priorities and policies, such as those for rare diseases, into the quantitative part of the framework. This design allows making more explicit trade-offs between competing ethical positions of fairness (prioritization of those who are worst off), the goal of benefiting as many people as possible, the imperative to help, and wise use of knowledge and resources. It also allows addressing variability in institutional policies regarding prioritization of specific disease areas, in addition to existing uncertainty analysis available from EVIDEM. The adapted framework measures value in its widest sense, while being responsive to rare disease

  2. Review of the book From transnational language policy transfer to local appropriation: The case of the National Bilingual Program in Medellín, Colombia

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    Norbella Miranda

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Usma Wilches, J. A. (2015. From transnational language policy transfer to local appropriation: The case of the National Bilingual Program in Medellín, Colombia. Deep University Press. 158 pages ISBN-10: 1939755204 ISBN-13: 978-1939755209

  3. Predecessor-Successor Transitions in Institutional and Interpersonal Contexts. On the Development of a Theory of the Transfer of Personal Objects

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    Franz Breuer

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article outlines the development of a theory of predecessor-successor transitions in social contexts using a grounded theory approach. The theory can be applied to such diverse phenomena as the transfer of family businesses to the next generation, university chair succession, the passing on of parental roles (for example in the case of adoption or remarriage, and organ transplantation. The core conceptual category that emerged was "the transfer of personal objects". This concept refers to the transfer of the power of disposal over objects that are fundamental to the identity and the identification of the owner. A number of theoretical dimensions of the category were identified. Methodologically speaking, the theory generated can be classified as a formal grounded theory. In other words, the comparison of different empirical fields and cases using hermeneutical analysis yielded a transdisciplinary social science category that can be employed to conceptualise the dynamics of the development of interpersonal, social, or institutional structures, especially with regard to the links and the interplay between material and symbolic components, between the individual and the social, and the past and the present. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1102165

  4. Whose Education Policies in Aid-Receiving Countries? A Critical Discourse Analysis of Quality and Normative Transfer through Cambodia and Laos

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Critical discourse analysis of policy contexts and documents has been employed in this research to analyze the role of language in promoting normative positions affecting the quality of education in Cambodia and Laos. The article examines the ways institutional normative influences at multiple levels within the Education for All (EFA) program have…

  5. Future of Allotment Gardens in the Context of City Spatial Policy – A Case Study of Poznań

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    Poniży Lidia

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Multifunctional allotment gardens are an important part of the green infrastructure of cities. In spite of this, they are given little attention in the plans and policies of cities. One of the major threats to the existence of allotment gardens within the spatial structure of cities is the pressure of investment, which results from an underestimation of the role of gardens. The task of preserving allotment gardens in the ecosystems of cities rests with the local spatial planning. Urban spatial policy towards allotment gardening is exemplified by the case study of Poznan. The bases for the analysis include the study of the conditions and directions of spatial planning, as the spatial policy document that sets forth the city and local spatial development plans, which are Acts of local laws.

  6. Beyond physical access: a qualitative analysis into the barriers to policy implementation and service provision experienced by persons with disabilities living in a rural context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neille, Joanne; Penn, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Persons with disabilities make up approximately 15% of the world's population, with vulnerable communities disproportionately affected by the incidence of disability. Research reflects that persons with disabilities are vulnerable to stigma and discrimination, social isolation, and have physical barriers to accessing support services, all of which serve to perpetuate a sense of uncertainty and vulnerability within their lives. Recently a number of policies and models of intervention have been introduced intended to protect the rights of those affected by disability, yet limited research has been conducted into the lived experiences of persons with disabilities, particularly in rural contexts. This implies that little is known about the impact of the rural context on the lived experience of disability and the ways in which context impacts on the implementation of policies and practices. The current study employed a qualitative design underpinned by the principles of narrative inquiry and participant observation. Thirty adults with a variety of congenital and acquired disabilities (15 men and 15 women, ranging in age from 19 to 83 years) living in 12 rural communities in the Mpumalanga Province of South Africa were recruited through snowball sampling. Data collection comprised a combination of narrative inquiry and participant observation. Narratives were collected in SiSwati with the assistance of a SiSwati-speaking research mediator and were transcribed and translated into English. Data were analysed inductively according to the principles of thematic analysis. Findings confirmed that the experience of living with a disability in a rural area is associated with discrimination, social exclusion, and isolation and barriers to accessing services, underpinned by numerous context-specific experiences, including mortality rates, exposure to numerous and repeated forms of violence across the lifespan, and corruption and lack of transparency in the implementation of

  7. Teenage Pregnancy and Parenting at School in Contemporary South African Contexts: Deconstructing School Narratives and Understanding Policy Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefer, Tamara; Bhana, Deevia; Morrell, Robert

    2013-01-01

    South African national education policy is committed to promoting gender equality at school and to facilitating the successful completion of all young people's schooling, including those who may become pregnant and parent while at school. However, the experience of being pregnant and parenting while being a learner is shaped by broader social and…

  8. The «Special» Relationship between Germany and China in the Context of Germany’s China Policy

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    Anatoly V. Tsvyk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Federal Republic of Germany and the People's Republic of China are both economic powers in Asia and Europe with a shared international responsibility in many international fields. Germany is China's number-one trade partner in the EU and China is the top foreign investment destination for German companies. This article highlights the relationship between Germany and China since the beginning of Gerhard Schroeder's «Wandel dutch Handel» policy in 1998. Germany's policy toward China was based on the idea that economic exchange and increase in trade between both countries would lead to political and societal change in China. In the author's point of view Germany's China policy shifted significantly to one which focused more heavily on human rights at the beginning of the first term under Chancellor Angela Merkel in 2005. The author argues that Germany's China policy at present time is motivated first of all by economic interests and the needs of its exporters. In recent years, there have been efforts to extend cooperation to other fields like security and world order. The author comes to the conclusion that both Germany and China increasingly consider a strategic partnership within mutual interest.

  9. Implications for Equity and Diversity of Increasing International Student Numbers in European Universities: Policies and Practice in Four National Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapakoski, Jani; Pashby, Karen

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the main rationales for and possible implications of the policy of increasing international student numbers in higher education (HE). Drawing on critical discourse analysis, we map key themes emerging from two sets of data--university strategy documents and interviews with staff--collected at eight universities in four national…

  10. Evidence-based health promotion for older people and instrumentalisation: comparing the influence of policy contexts in Austria and England

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, P.; Lang, G.; Resch, K.

    2012-01-01

    Health promotion (HP) amongst older people is an increasingly prominent policy concern for governments. The development of an evidence-base and the advocacy of effective interventions in the light of this act as legitimation tools for the overall HP phenomenon - assisting the growth of state and

  11. Interests and Conflicts: Exploring the Context for Early Implementation of a Dual Language Policy in One Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Dual language immersion program models represent a potentially effective way to serve growing numbers of English language learners (ELLs) in schools and districts. However, local challenges, such as interpersonal conflict, can impact the process of implementing dual language policies and programs, limiting the extent to which they are able to meet…

  12. A Critical Study of Stationary Energy Storage Policies in Australia in an International Context: The Role of Hydrogen and Battery Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Moore

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a critical study of current Australian and leading international policies aimed at supporting electrical energy storage for stationary power applications with a focus on battery and hydrogen storage technologies. It demonstrates that global leaders such as Germany and the U.S. are actively taking steps to support energy storage technologies through policy and regulatory change. This is principally to integrate increasing amounts of intermittent renewable energy (wind and solar that will be required to meet high renewable energy targets. The relevance of this to the Australian energy market is that whilst it is unique, it does have aspects in common with the energy markets of these global leaders. This includes regions of high concentrations of intermittent renewable energy (Texas and California and high penetration rates of residential solar photovoltaics (PV (Germany. Therefore, Australian policy makers have a good opportunity to observe what is working in an international context to support energy storage. These learnings can then be used to help shape future policy directions and guide Australia along the path to a sustainable energy future.

  13. Inclusive Cultures, Policies and Practices in Spanish Compulsory Secondary Education Schools: Teachers' Perceptions in Ordinary and Specific Teaching Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moliner, Odet; Sales, Auxiliadora; Ferrandez, Reina; Traver, Joan

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a study that attempts to inquire into the indicators related with inclusive education by taking into account teachers' responses in the ordinary and specific teaching contexts (experts in special education needs, specialists in therapeutic pedagogy and compensatory education or specific programmes organised to accommodate…

  14. Analysis of Drug Policy in the Republic of Slovenia and in the EU Context: A Platform for Prevention in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvaternik, Ines; Rihter, Liljana

    2012-01-01

    Aims: This article presents an overview of the strategies and measures used in the context of school-based prevention in Slovenia, both on a declaratory and on a practical level. Methods: A review of the Resolution on the National Programme on Drugs in the Republic of Slovenia [ReNPPD (2004). Resolucija o nacionalnem programu na podrocju drog…

  15. Immigration policies of the government of Quebec in the context of Canadian multicultural policies. Contextual Notes for a social work ethnic environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique E. Raya Lozano

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The English-speaking Canada and the rebellious Frenchspeaking «province» of Quebec are going through a broad and deep identity crisis that dates back to the 19th century, but intensified in the new age of globalization. A country created by immigration, it is still a country of immigration and one of the most multiethnic countries in the world. Multiculturalism is the model of political management that belongs to this diversity and the ideology that legitimates it —a Canadian inventio— at the same time that it recognizes, ignores and eludes the internal conflict —the Canada-Quebec conflict— that implicitly determines the differentiated migratory policies of both political communities. On its part, Quebequian multiculturalism («interculturalism» shows two different models (pro-assimilation and pro differentiation. These tensions, ambiguities, and diversity of models shape the current Canadian and Quebequian debate about citizenship, which conditions and functions as a frame of reference for social work (professional social intervention with immigrants, very developed both in theory and in practice in this American country, and that is aware of the political challenges offered by multiculturalism in Ottawa and Quebec. The study and evaluation of this dynamic reality can be extremely useful in Europe, both North and South, for working out public policies and organizing social work in a multiethnic environment.

  16. The Economic Sovereignty of the State as the Defining Instrument of Economic Policy in the Context of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykytas Viktoriia V.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The modern world is characterized by rapid integration and globalization processes, which have both a positive and a negative impact on the development of each country. National economies operate in the midst of global uncertainty, which is becoming the platform for the formation and implementation of the State economic policy, which should not only describe the conditions for strategic development of country but also adequately respond to the risks emerging out of the complex integration processes. The failure of the State to respond in a timely and adequate manner to the risks will result in lesser benefits and positive effects of integration processes than the impact of destabilizing factors. In such circumstances, economic sovereignty becomes the most important instrument of the State through which it can defend its national economic interests and form an effective economic policy.

  17. The impact of labor policies on the health of young children in the context of economic globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, Jody; Earle, Alison; McNeill, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Globalization has transformed the workplace at the same time that increasing numbers of children live in families in which all adults work for pay outside the home. Extensive research evidence demonstrates the importance of parental involvement in the early years of a child's life. Yet, parents caring for young children may face challenges in fulfilling both work and family responsibilities under current labor force conditions. In this article, we review the evidence on the importance of parental care for meeting young children's routine care needs, preventive health care needs, and curative medical treatment requirements. We examine the evidence regarding the impact of four policies in particular on young children's health and development: parental leave, breastfeeding breaks, early childhood care and education, and leave for children's health needs. Last, we examine the availability of these policies worldwide and discuss the potential economic implications.

  18. Loose policy and local adaptation : a comparative study of masters degrees in the context of the Bologna Process

    OpenAIRE

    Sin, Cristina; Saunders, Murray

    2012-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis focuses on a comparative analysis of six master programmes in Physics in three European countries (England, Portugal and Denmark) in the context of the implementation of reforms triggered by the Bologna Agreement. It undertakes the programme comparison with a particular interest in two dimensions: first, conceptions of master degrees, i.e. what people consider a master degree is, referred to as the ontology of the degree; second, teaching and learning pra...

  19. Evaluating the influence of goal setting on intravenous catheterization skill acquisition and transfer in a hybrid simulation training context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brydges, Ryan; Mallette, Claire; Pollex, Heather; Carnahan, Heather; Dubrowski, Adam

    2012-08-01

    Educators often simplify complex tasks by setting learning objectives that focus trainees on isolated skills rather than the holistic task. We designed 2 sets of learning objectives for intravenous catheterization using goal setting theory. We hypothesized that setting holistic goals related to technical, cognitive, and communication skills would result in superior holistic performance, whereas setting isolated goals related to technical skills would result in superior technical performance. We randomly assigned practicing health care professionals to set holistic (n = 14) or isolated (n = 15) goals. All watched an instructional video and studied a list of 9 goals specific to their group. Participants practiced independently in a hybrid simulation (standardized patient combined with an arm simulator). The first and the last practice trials were videotaped for analysis. One-week later, participants completed a transfer test in another hybrid simulation scenario. Blinded experts evaluated performance on all 3 trials using the Direct Observation of Procedural Skills tool. The holistic group scored higher than the isolated group on the holistic Direct Observation of Procedural Skills score for all 3 trials [mean (SD), 45.0 (9.16) vs. 38.4 (9.17); P = 0.01]. The isolated group did not perform better than the holistic group on the technical skills score [10.3 (2.73) vs. 11.6 (3.01); P = 0.11]. Our results suggest that asking learners to set holistic goals did not interfere with their attaining competent holistic and technical skills during hybrid simulation training. This exploratory trial provides preliminary evidence for how to consider integrating hybrid simulation into medical curricula and for the design of learning goals in simulation-based education.

  20. Policy stakeholders and deployment of wind power in the sub-national context: A comparison of four U.S. states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischlein, Miriam; Larson, Joel; Hall, Damon M.; Chaudhry, Rumika; Rai Peterson, Tarla; Stephens, Jennie C.; Wilson, Elizabeth J.

    2010-01-01

    As climate change mitigation gains attention in the United States, low-carbon energy technologies such as wind power encounter both opportunities and barriers en route to deployment. This paper provides a state-level context for examining wind power deployment and presents research on how policy stakeholders perceive wind energy in four states: Massachusetts, Minnesota, Montana, and Texas. Through semi-structured interviews, state-level energy policy stakeholders were asked to explain their perceptions of wind energy technology within their state. Interview texts were coded to assess how various drivers promote or hinder the deployment of wind power in sub-national contexts. Responses were dominated by technical, political, and economic frames in all four states, but were often driven by a very different rationale. Environmental, aesthetic, and health/safety frames appeared less often in the discourse. This analysis demonstrates that each state arrived at its current level of deployment via very different political, economic, and technical paths. In addition to helping explain why and how wind technology was - or was not - deployed in each of these states, these findings provide insight into the diversity of sub-national dialogues on deployment of low-carbon energy technologies.

  1. Securing a Stop to the Summer Setback: Policy Considerations in the Future Expansion of the Summer Electronic Benefit Transfer for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Laura C; Hooker, Neal H; Gunther, Carolyn

    2017-09-01

    The Summer Electronic Benefits Transfer for Children (SEBTC) has been proposed as a solution to address the problem of child food security during the summer. Initial SEBTC findings from a demonstration project show promise and the federal government has approved substantial funding for its continuation. This report reviews empirical assessments of SEBTC and Electronic Benefits Transfer research, and presents policy considerations in the program's future expansion. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The role of the University in the context of Inclusive Education Policy: reflections about human resources formation and knowledge production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Glat

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present text aims to discuss and present, briefly action lines about the role of University in the promotion of psicossocial and educational development of people with handicap and other special needs. Taking the framework of specialized literature, it brings different questions dealing with human resources formation, specially, teacher formation, and the production of knowledge in the area of Special Education, obtained through research and extension projects, done, preferentially, in partnership with the educational agents that work in the field. It also analyses how these actions may influence the implementation of policies regarding school, labor, and social inclusion of people with handicap and other developmental disorders.

  3. Support schemes and ownership structures - the policy context for fuel cell based micro-combined heat and power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Sascha Thorsten; Costa, Ana; Obé, Elisabeth

    In recent years, fuel cell based micro-combined heat and power (mCHP) has received increasing attention due to its potential contribution to European energy policy goals, i.e., sustainability, competitiveness and security of supply. Besides technical advances, regulatory framework and ownership structures are of crucial importance in order to achieve greater diffusion of the technology in residential applications. This paper analyses the interplay of policy and ownership structures for the future deployment of mCHP. Furthermore, it regards the three country cases Denmark, France and Portugal. Firstly, the implications of different kinds of support schemes on investment risk and the diffusion of a technology are explained conceptually. Secondly, ownership arrangements are addressed. Then, a cross-country comparison on present support schemes for mCHP and competing technologies discusses the national implementation of European legislation in Denmark, France and Portugal. Finally, resulting implications for ownership arrangements on the choice of support scheme are explained. From a conceptual point of view, investment support, feed-in tariffs and price premiums are the most appropriate schemes for fuel cell mCHP. This can be used for improved analysis of operational strategies. The interaction of this plethora of elements necessitates careful balancing from a private- and socio-economic point of view.

  4. Institutional Transition from Welfare Enterprise to Social Enterprise: the Localization of Legislation and Policy in Chinese Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaomeng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Welfare enterprises, which are intended to create jobs for disabled people, are the core component of China's welfare system. As the economic environment and regulations change, China's welfare enterprises, which cannot take effective measures from within and emerge strong in market competition, are stuck in a bottleneck where further development is difficult. Welfare enterprises have hit the ceiling in their development for lacking sustainable sources of capital and capabilities of capital operation, inefficient management model and uncompetitive products and services. To reverse the trend of decline and grow into strong market players, the transformation from welfare enterprise to social enterprise, embracing the features of enterprise and social objectives, as an alternative is of crucial importance. As a new hybrid economic form, social enterprise combines the efficiency of businesses and the public-good nature of welfare enterprises, representing win-win cooperation among the government, society, and business sector. Such development is an institutional transformation which boosts competitiveness and tackles tough issues welfare enterprises are facing. Shifting from welfare enterprises to social enterprises means an institutional transition, during the process of which international experience in legislation shall be learned and localized. This paper analyzes the development history of welfare enterprises by taking a comprehensive look at the salient points of existing laws, policies promulgated throughout history, implementation and performance, major problems etc. so as to explore the institutional transition from welfare enterprises to social enterprises, revealing possible legal and policy problems and making suggestions.

  5. The management of conflict in nutrition policy formulation: choosing growth-monitoring indicators in the context of dual burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoey, Lesli; Pelletier, David L

    2011-06-01

    We argue in this paper that a shared desire to find a solution to malnutrition and agreement at a broad level concerning priority, evidence-based interventions are important but not sufficient conditions for effective policy development. This paper illustrates this point, and draws out general implications, through a detailed analysis of a case in which conflict emerged when committed nutrition policy actors began discussing the details of program design and implementation. The case involves one country's effort to select "the best" anthropometric indicator for use in its national child growth-monitoring program. In this case the interested parties approached this deceptively simple decision for different reasons, using different sources and standards of evidence and focusing their attention on opposite, but equally critical, operational considerations, while being heavily influenced by global, national, and interorganizational events and relationships. We suggest that actors seeking to translate political commitment for nutrition into effective action should recognize the technical and sociopolitical complexity of seemingly simple decisions related to intervention design and employ more systematic, intentional, and inclusive decision-making procedures. Without attention to such practical matters, the current window of opportunity to reduce malnutrition on a global scale may quickly close.

  6. The Effect of a Reduced Allowance and Pension Taper Rate: Policy Simulations Using the Melbourne Institute Tax and Transfer Simulator

    OpenAIRE

    Guyonne Kalb; Hsein Kew

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the results of two policy simulations for couples with and without children. The first policy involves a reduction of the highest withdrawal rate from 70 to 60 per cent. The second policy reduces all withdrawal rates of 70 and 50 per cent to 30 per cent. A comparison is made between the two policies to determine the magnitude of the impact on government expenditure and labour supply responses. Both policies have the effect of increasing the net income of those who are eith...

  7. Context in a wider context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Traxler

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to review and reconsider the role of context in mobile learning and starts by outlining definitions of context-aware mobile learning as the technologies have become more mature, more robust and more widely available and as the notion of context has become progressively richer. The future role of context-aware mobile learning is considered within the context of the future of mobile learning as it moves from the challenges and opportunities of pedagogy and technology to the challenges and opportunities of policy, scale, sustainability, equity and engagement with augmented reality, «blended learning», «learner devices», «user-generated contexts» and the «internet of things». This is essentially a perspective on mobile learning, and other forms of technology-enhanced learning (TEL, where educators and their institutions set the agenda and manage change. There are, however, other perspectives on context. The increasing availability and use of smart-phones and other personal mobile devices with similar powerful functionality means that the experience of context for many people, in the form of personalized or location-based services, is an increasingly social and informal experience, rather than a specialist or educational experience. This is part of the transformative impact of mobility and connectedness on our societies brought about by these universal, ubiquitous and pervasive technologies. This paper contributes a revised understanding of context in the wider context (sic of the transformations taking place in our societies. These are subtle but pervasive transformations of jobs, work and the economy, of our sense of time, space and place, of knowing and learning, and of community and identity. This leads to a radical reconsideration of context as the notions of ‹self› and ‹other› are transformed.

  8. The concept of «soft power» in the context of strategy of foreign policy of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Korotkov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the basic principles and conceptual approaches to the concept of «power». Modern globalizational processes in the world (political, economic influence the emergence of new concepts of power. The basic theoretical concepts of international relations ­ «hard power» and «soft power» and the possibility of using them in  ukrainian foreign policy are under consideration. The causes of emergence of the «soft power» concept is studied in the article. Among the mentioned causes we examine the end of «Cold War» and formation of multipolar international system. It brings us to the changes of the nature of the power itself and makes the strategy of «soft power» more potential. The attention is drawn to the relevance of the essence of the «soft power» concept and possibility of its usage in  ukrainian foreign policy, in its political scientific discussions. The annexation of the Crimea in 2014 and the military conflict with Russia influenced the future implementation of this concept. The potential of the «soft power» concept in Ukraine is already exhausted. The «Orange Revolution» in 2004 and «Revolution of Dignity» in 2014 are the symbolic events of modern Ukraine and the main tools of the «soft power». These events formed a positive image of Ukraine in Europe. It is necessary to restrict (financially and informationally the usage of this concept and give priority to the «hard power». Concept of «soft power» is only effective in the countries with significant military and economic potential. The events in Ukraine show that in order to ensure its national security for the ‘second­tier’ states the development of its own military force should be on a priority basis.

  9. Is it a policy crisis or it is a health crisis? The Egyptian context--analysis of the Egyptian health policy for the H1N1 flu pandemic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seef, Sameh; Jeppsson, Anders

    2013-01-01

    A new influenza virus that was first detected in people in April 2009, was initially referred to colloquially as "swine flu", since it contained genes from swine, avian and human influenza viruses. It can, however, not be transmitted by eating pork or dealing with pigs. In Egypt, several hundred thousand pigs were killed in May, in spite of advice from global health authorities that such an action was unnecessary. Pigs are raised and consumed mainly by the Christian minority, which constitute some 10% of the population. Health Ministry estimated there were between 300,000-350,000 pigs in Egypt. This paper will analyze the Egyptian health policy for controlling the pandemic H1N1 flu, exploring its context, content, process, and actors. The analysis is based on the Leichter Context, which refers to systemic factors-political, economic and social, both national and international-that may have an effect on health policy, and is based on data collected from literature review and policy documents. The International health officials said the swine flu virus that has caused worldwide fear is not transmitted by pigs, and that pig slaughters do nothing to stop its spread. The WHO stopped using the term "swine flu" to avoid confusion. In Egypt, even the editor of a pro-government newspaper criticized the order to slaughter: "Killing (pigs) is not a solution, otherwise, we should kill the people, because the virus spreads through them," wrote Abdullah Kamal of the daily Rose El-Youssef. The World Health organization also criticized the decision. The extinction of the Egyptian pigs is an example of how a health issue can be used to persecute a minority within a country. Although the current influenza has nothing whatsoever to do with pigs, the previous name of the epidemic was used as an argument to violate the rights of the Christian minority in Egypt.

  10. Transfer and Social Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billett, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    Transfer involves disembodying knowledge and transferring it for use in different contexts. Vocational knowledge arises in communities of practice, and difficulties arise in transferring it from one distinct community, such as a workplace, to another, such as a classroom. (SK)

  11. Science Policy at the Wrong Scale and Without Adequate Political Institutions: Parallels between the U.S. 19th Century and the 21st Century Global Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, K. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Constitution of the United States is a document for economic development written by people wary of government failure at the extremes, whether too heavy handed a central government or too loose a confederation. The strong central government favored by Hamilton, Industrialists and later by forward thinking men of the 19th century created a discontinuity wherein government institutions designed to facilitate agriculture were incapable of regulating corporations operating on a national scale, which made mineral and other natural resource exploitation needed to support industrialization enormously profitable. At the same time, Agriculturalists and other conservative citizens sought to control the economy by protecting their rural interests and power. The political institutional power remained with states as agriculturalists and industrialists struggled for economic superiority in the 19th century. As Agriculture moved west, Science warned of the dangers of extending Homesteading regulations into arid regions to no avail. The west was settled in townships without concern for watersheds, carrying capacity, or climatic variability. Gold seekers ignored the consequences of massive hydraulic mining techniques. The tension resident in the Constitution between strong local control of government (states' rights) and a strong central government (nationalism) provided no institutional context to resolve mining problems or other 19th century policy problems linked to rapid population expansion and industrialization. Environmental protection in the late 20th century has been the last wave of nationalized policy solutions following the institution-building blueprint provided by electoral successes in the Progressive, New Deal, and Great Society eras. Suddenly in the 21st century, scientific warnings of dangers again go unheeded, this time as evidence of global warming mounts. Again, tension in policy making exists in all political arenas (executive, legislative and judicial at

  12. Promoting the International Transfer of Low-Carbon Technologies: Evidence and Policy Challenges. Report for the Commissariat general a la strategie et a la prospective (French Center for Policy Planning)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glachant, Matthieu; Dussaux, Damien; Meniere, Yann; Dechezlepretre, Antoine; Auverlot, Dominique

    2013-10-01

    The international diffusion of technologies with a potential to reduce carbon emissions is at the core of current climate change negotiations. North-to-South technology transfer is of particular importance since technologies have so far been mostly developed in industrialized countries, but are urgently required to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in fast-growing emerging economies. Against this background, the primary objective of this study is to give recommendations on how the transfer of low-carbon technologies could be promoted. Our contribution to the current debate is threefold. First, we provide an up-to-date picture of the climate-related technology transfer landscape, based on a combination of patent data, bilateral trade data and foreign investment data. Second, we develop and implement a methodology to identify which technologies should be given priority and which recipient countries should be targeted. Third, we discuss the potential of different policy approaches and the instruments available to promote technology transfer. The picture of technology diffusion is totally different for emerging economies and least-developed countries. The latter group of countries is hardly visible in the data simply because they do not import climate-mitigation technologies. In contrast, technologies are already flowing into emerging economies through market channels such as the import of capital goods, local investment by multinational enterprises that own technologies, and the associated circulation of skilled workers (about 16-30% of global transfer flows, depending on the indicator, a percentage in line with their contribution to world GDP). South-South technology transfer is, however, very limited, as technology providers are mostly located in industrialized countries. Several countries - China, South Africa, Mexico and, to a lesser extent, Brazil - seem particularly well connected to global technology flows. Fewer technologies are transferred towards other

  13. A Longitudinal Study of State Strategies and Policies to Accelerate Evidence-Based Practices in the Context of Systems Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieckmann, Traci; Abraham, Amanda; Zwick, Janet; Rasplica, Caitlin; McCarty, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Objective To profile state agency efforts to promote implementation of three evidence-based practices (EBPs): screening and brief intervention (SBIRT), psychosocial interventions, and medication-assisted treatment (MAT). Data Sources/Study Setting Primary data collected from representatives of 50 states and the District of Columbia’s Single State Authorities from 2007 to 2009. Study Design/Data Collection The study used mixed methods, in-depth, semistructured interviews and quantitative surveys. Interviews assessed state and provider strategies to accelerate implementation of EBPs. Principal Findings Statewide implementation of psychosocial interventions and MAT increased significantly over 3 years. In the first two assessments, states that contracted directly with providers were more likely to link use of EBPs to reimbursement, and states with indirect contract, through counties and other entities, increased recommendations, and some requirements for provision of specific EBPs. The number of states using legislation as a policy lever to promote EBPs was unchanged. Conclusions Health care reform and implementation of parity in coverage increases access to treatment for alcohol and drug use. Science-based substance abuse treatment will become even more crucial as payers seek consistent quality of care. This study provides baseline data on service delivery, contracting, and financing as state agencies and treatment providers prepare for implementation of the Affordable Care Act. PMID:25532616

  14. Imagined in Policy, Inscribed on Bodies: Defending an Ethic of Compassion in a Political Context: Comment on "Why and How Is Compassion Necessary to Provide Good Quality Healthcare?".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Dave

    2015-07-10

    In response to the International Journal of Health Policy and Management (IJHPM) editorial, this commentary adds to the debate about ethical dimensions of compassionate care in UK service provision. It acknowledges the importance of the original paper, and attempts to explore some of the issues that are raised in the context of nursing practice, research and education. It is argued that each of these fields of the profession are enacted in an escalating culture of corporatism, be that National Health Service (NHS) or university campus, and global neoliberalism. Post-structuralist ideas, notably those of Foucault, are borrowed to interrogate healthcare as discursive practice and disciplinary knowledge; where an understanding of the ways in which power and language operate is prominent. Historical and contemporary evidence of institutional and ideological degradation of sections of humanity, a 'history of the present,' serve as reminders of the import, and fragility, of ethical codes. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  15. Changes of Changes: Personal Life Strategy in the Context of Regional Social and Labour Policy: Purchase of Accommodation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda Sergeevna Zemlyanukhina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the first of three articles in cycle that is dedicated to the regional aspect of change of Russians life strategy in solving the important personal problems like provision of housing, acquisition of income in terms of the profession and merited pension maintenance in the context of the current and prospective changes. The first article concentrates on the solution of housing problem by young Russians and young families. The methods, which are accessible for the citizens of Saratov, were analyzed in terms of the hardest ways without privileges and government support: pledge, housing rent and deposit. The authors presented the digital data on comparison between the popular pledge of OJSC Sberbank and similar ones at the start conditions of housing rent and deposits. Theyve specified the possibility of the reducing time and the amount of payment of the purchased apartment from 20 years, where is the amount of overpayment is 1 850 498, to 4.5-7 years, altogether without overpayments. The basic risks when using discussed ways of the accommodation purchase were demonstrated and specific examples of risks in Saratov were given. There are no absolute priorities when choosing the way of the accommodation purchase, there are examples in the article of a sharp increase of the efficiency within the pledge, and the rent on condition that only one factor has changed. Besides, there are examples of mixed ways including social housing and service housing. Nowadays there is a psychological aspect of the underestimate of the cost-effectively housing rent. As a result we made a conclusion that in spite of the real impossibility to plan and predict the changes, the success of individual strategy of life in solving housing and other important problems depends on the perception and understanding of the changes, on the early use for practical purposes and on the existing life stereotypes.

  16. Building Pathways to Transfer: Community Colleges That Break the Chain of Failure for Students of Color. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civil Rights Project / Proyecto Derechos Civiles, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This study followed all freshman community college students in California who had demonstrated the intent to transfer from 1996, 1997, and 1998. Outcomes were assessed for each of the three entering cohorts after six years (2002-2004) and students were linked with their high schools of origin and the 4-year colleges to which they transferred. The…

  17. TRANSFORMATION THE ROLE OF THINK TANKS IN THE PROCESS OF GOVERNMENT POLICY FORMATION IN THE CONTEXT OF WORLD FINANCIAL CRISIS IN 2008-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Антон Юрьевич Барсуков

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The study is dedicated to the evolution of think tanks role as a political tool of government policy formation in the context of world financial crisis. The main purpose of the study was the description of such evolution, revealing of the basic differences with the analytical centers, founded before 2008 in China, and finding-out of think tank’ role in the process of anticrisis campaign.The actuality of the study is obvious, proceeding from there are not any other study dedicated to the Chinese “new type” think tanks in Russian politologycal science.The appearance of “new type” think tanks in the PRC is mentioned in the study. The special meaning devoted to the increasing of returnees’ role in the process of government policy formation. The author makes the conclusion that “new type” think tanks have a very important meaning just as in the process of anticrisis campaign so in the public life. “New type” think tanks have more independence from the official authorities. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-4-38

  18. TRANSFORMATION THE ROLE OF THINK TANKS IN THE PROCESS OF GOVERNMENT POLICY FORMATION IN THE CONTEXT OF WORLD FINANCIAL CRISIS IN 2008-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barsukov Anton Yuryevich

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study is dedicated to the evolution of think tanks role as a political tool of government policy formation in the context of world financial crisis. The main purpose of the study was the description of such evolution, revealing of the basic differences with the analytical centers, founded before 2008 in China, and finding-out of think tank’ role in the process of anticrisis campaign. The actuality of the study is obvious, proceeding from there are not any other study dedicated to the Chinese “new type” think tanks in Russian politologycal science. The appearance of “new type” think tanks in the PRC is mentioned in the study. The special meaning devoted to the increasing of returnees’ role in the process of government policy formation. The author makes the conclusion that “new type” think tanks have a very important meaning just as in the process of anticrisis campaign so in the public life. “New type” think tanks have more independence from the official authorities.

  19. International application of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) taxation in obesity reduction: factors that may influence policy effectiveness in country-specific contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, Judy; Techakehakij, Win

    2012-09-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) taxation is becoming of increasing interest as a policy aimed at addressing the rising prevalence of obesity in many countries. Preliminary evidence indicates its potential to not only reduce obesity prevalence, but also generate public revenue. However, differences in country-specific contexts create uncertainties in its possible outcomes. This paper urges careful consideration of country-specific characteristics by suggesting three points in particular that may influence the effectiveness of a volume-based soft drink excise tax: population obesity prevalence, soft drink consumption levels, and existing baseline tax rates. Data from 19 countries are compared with regard to each point. The authors suggest that SSB or soft drink taxation policy may be more effective in reducing obesity prevalence where existing obesity prevalence and soft drink consumption levels are high. Conversely, in countries where the baseline tax rate is already considered high, SSB taxation may not have a noticeable impact on consumption patterns or obesity prevalence, and may incur negative feedback from the beverage industry or the general public. Thorough evaluation of these points is recommended prior to adopting SSB or soft drink taxation as an obesity reduction measure in any given country. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Recent Change in the Italian Policies for Photovoltaics: Effects on the Energy Demand Coverage of Grid-Connected PV Systems Installed in Urban Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Orioli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In July 2013, the Italian photovoltaic (PV support policies changed the feed-in tariff (FIT mechanism and turned to a tax credits program, which is currently in force. The aim of this paper is to investigate how such a radical change has influenced the electricity demand coverage of the PV systems installed in urban contexts. A methodology, which connects the economic assessment to a detailed architectural and energy suitability analysis, was applied to some case studies to analyse the relationships between the physical parameters related to multi-storey buildings (roof shapes, number of floors and area of flats and the most relevant economic and financial features affecting the viability of rooftop PV systems. The study, which considers only the electricity produced by the PV systems that are economically profitable, highlighted that the tax credits scheme is even more effective in covering the electrical consumption of densely urbanised Italian city districts. The results, which are significantly influenced by the latitude of the analysed districts, underline the opportunity for governments to adopt PV promoting policies that are more sensitive to the amount of solar energy available in the different regions of their national territory.

  1. The transferability of Western concepts to other cultures: validation of the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire in a Saudi Arabic context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Syed Imran; Daim, Syed Abdul; Borleffs, Jan C C; Heijne-Penninga, Marjolein; Schönrock-Adema, Johanna

    2015-04-01

    The importance of medical education research in Saudi Arabia has been acknowledged increasingly and a lot of concepts used have been derived from the Western world. The question arises, however, whether Western concepts and questionnaires are transferable to societies with different cultures. The aim of this study was to investigate the instrument structure and the reliability of the Arabic version of the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire-medium (ZKPQ-m). Three statistical methods with decreased amount of strictness were used to analyse our data: Confirmatory Factor Analysis, Procrustes rotation and Principal Component Analysis. Our outcomes did not confirm the original instrument structure. Instead, we found four interpretable components: Emotional Instability, Impulse-seeking, Activeness and Self-Control. However, the amount of explained variance was not very high and the internal consistencies ranged from unsatisfactory to only moderate. The data showed a high percentage of respondents agreeing with more than three items of the Infrequency scale, which may be attributable to the collectivistic culture in Saudi Arabia. We did not succeed in replicating the ZKPQ structure in the Arabic context. Social desirability, a common characteristic in collectivistic cultures, may have reduced the replicability of the internal structure of the ZKPQ-m. Different methods to measure concepts in collectivistic cultures may help to get round social desirability.

  2. An Analysis of Second-Tier Arms Producing Countries’ Offset Policies: Technology Transfer and Defense Industrial Base Establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    stment, technology transfer, and countertrade , which entails barter, counter-purchase, and buyback. : those that ar ended. During the Cold War...overseas investment, technology transfer, and countertrade . Each of these areas is briefly described in the remainder of this section. 18 Co...and a foreign entity. 19 Countertrade . In addition to the types of offset defined above, various types of commercial countertrade arrangements

  3. The position of place in governing global problems: A mechanistic account of place-as-context, and analysis of transitions towards spatially explicit approaches to climate science and policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacGillivray, Brian H.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Place is a central yet undertheorised concept within sustainability science. • Introduces an account of place as the context in which social and environmental mechanisms operate. • Uses this account to critique historical aspatial approaches to climate science and policy. • Traces out shifts towards spatially explicit approaches to climate governance. • A focus on place, heterogeneity, and context maximizes the credibility and policy-relevance of climate science. - Abstract: Place is a central concept within the sustainability sciences, yet it remains somewhat undertheorised, and its relationship to generalisation and scale is unclear. Here, we develop a mechanistic account of place as the fundamental context in which social and environmental mechanisms operate. It is premised on the view that the social and environmental sciences are typically concerned with causal processes and their interaction with context, rather than with a search for laws. We deploy our mechanistic account to critique the neglect of place that characterised the early stages of climate governance, ranging from the highly idealised general circulation and integrated assessment models used to analyze climate change, to the global institutions and technologies designed to manage it. We implicate this neglect of place in the limited progress in tackling climate change in both public and policy spheres, before tracing out recent shifts towards more spatially explicit approaches to climate change science and policy-making. These shifts reflect a move towards an ontology which acknowledges that even where causal drivers are in a sense global in nature (e.g. atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases), their impacts are often mediated through variables that are spatially clustered at multiple scales, moderated by contextual features of the local environment, and interact with the presence of other (localised) stressors in synergistic rather than additive ways. We conclude that a

  4. Exposure to Secondhand Smoke Among Nonsmokers in New York City in the Context of Recent Tobacco Control Policies: Current Status, Changes Over the Past Decade, and National Comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Sharon E; Chernov, Claudia; Farley, Shannon M; Greene, Carolyn M; Aldous, Kenneth M; Freeman, Amy; Rodriguez-Lopez, Jesica; Thorpe, Lorna E

    2016-11-01

    years ago allows for an assessment of changes in the last decade in the context of municipal tobacco control policies. Results may be helpful to jurisdictions considering implementing similar tobacco control policies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Adapting Tropical Forest Policy and Practice in the Context of the Anthropocene: Opportunities and Challenges for the El Yunque National Forest in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen A. McGinley

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Tropical forest management increasingly is challenged by multiple, complex, intersecting, and in many cases unprecedented changes in the environment that are triggered by human activity. Many of these changes are associated with the Anthropocene—a new geologic epoch in which humans have become a dominating factor in shaping the biosphere. Ultimately, as human activity increasingly influences systems and processes at multiple scales, we are likely to see more extraordinary and surprising events, making it difficult to predict the future with the level of precision and accuracy needed for broad-scale management prescriptions. In this context of increasing surprise and uncertainty, learning, flexibility, and adaptiveness are essential to securing ecosystem resilience and sustainability, particularly in complex systems such as tropical forests. This article examines the experience to date with and potential for collaborative, adaptive land and resource management in the El Yunque National Forest (EYNF—the only tropical forest in the U.S. National Forest System. The trajectory of EYNF policy and practice over time and its capacity for learning, flexibility, and adaptiveness to change and surprise are analyzed through an historical institutionalism approach. EYNF policies and practices have shifted from an early custodial approach that focused mostly on protection and prevention to a top-down, technical approach that eventually gave way to an ecosystem approach that has slowly incorporated more flexible, adaptive, and active learning elements. These shifts in EYNF management mostly have been reactive and incremental, with some rarer, rapid changes primarily in response to significant changes in national-level policies, but also to local level conditions and changes in them. Looking to the future, it seems the EYNF may be better positioned than ever before to address increasing uncertainty and surprise at multiple scales. However, it must be able

  6. A transferência de tecnologia universidade-empresa no contexto brasileiro: uma revisão de estudos científicos publicados entre os anos 2005 e 2009 University-industry technology transfer in the brazilian context: a review of scientific studies published from 2005 to 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiane Quadrado Closs

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O tema da gestão da inovação e transferência de tecnologia (TT no contexto de interação universidade-empresa é relativamente novo no Brasil e emergente em âmbito internacional (REISMAN, 2005, assim, seus dados e teorias ainda se apresentam de modo fragmentado. Considerando essa fragilidade, este estudo objetivou identificar e analisar pesquisas recentes publicadas no Brasil sobre o tema, buscando contribuir para a consolidação desse corpo teórico. O trabalho, de cunho exploratório, revisou as pesquisas publicadas em periódicos nacionais entre 2005 e 2009, sob uma abordagem qualitativa. Os objetivos, métodos e principais resultados desses estudos foram sintetizados e discutidos. A análise coletiva desses trabalhos sugere que a cooperação universidade-empresa (U-E gera inovações, aprendizados e benefícios mútuos. Esta aponta ainda existir muito espaço para ampliar a transferência de tecnologia U-E. O estudo identificou os métodos usados nas pesquisas; motivadores, facilitadores e obstáculos ao processo; elementos das estruturas universitárias, bem como políticas das IES e do governo intervenientes no processo; características de empresas geradas a partir de spillovers acadêmicos; o papel social exercido pelas IES; diferentes formas de TT na interação U-E; lacunas de pesquisas e sugestões para a realização de estudos futuros.Innovation management and technology transfer (TT in the context of university-industry interaction is a relatively new topic in Brazil and an emerging field internationally (REISMAN, 2005; thus, the data and theories related to it are still presented in a fragmented way. Therefore, the present study aimed to identify and analyze recent studies published in Brazil on the subject seeking to contribute to the consolidation of this theoretical framework. This exploratory study reviewed articles published in national journals between 2005 and 2009 using a qualitative approach. The goals, methods

  7. Educational Policy Transfer in an Era of Globalization: Theory--History--Comparison. Comparative Studies Series. Volume 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappleye, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    As education becomes increasingly global, the processes and politics of transfer have become a central focus of research. This study provides a comprehensive analysis of contemporary theoretical and analytical work aimed at exploring international educational reform and reveals the myriad ways that globalization is now fundamentally altering our…

  8. Policy-Relevant Context of Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking among University Students in Six Countries Across the Eastern Mediterranean Region: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, Ramzi G; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen; Hamadeh, Randah; Thomas, Justin; Mostafa, Aya; Yusufali, Afzalhussein; Kheirallah, Khalid A; Macauda, Mark M; Theis, Ryan P; Kadi, Lama El; Johnson, Evan J; Darawad, Muhammad W; Nakkash, Rima

    2017-01-01

    Background: Waterpipe tobacco smoking rates in the Eastern Mediterranean region are some of the highest worldwide, especially among young people. This study aimed to improve our knowledge of the policy-relevant context of waterpipe smoking among six countries in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted in Bahrain, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine, and the United Arab Emirates. Participants were young adult university students (18-29 years) from both genders who had ever smoked the waterpipe, recruited from universities participating in this study. Directed content analysis was used to analyze the transcripts. Results: A total of 53 in-depth interviews were conducted in Arabic in 2016. Findings were organized around 5 themes: waterpipe product characteristics; patterns of waterpipe smoking; the waterpipe café setting; perceived health consequences; and health warning labels. Waterpipe smoking was commonly perceived as a safe alternative to cigarettes. Waterpipe tobacco was reported to be widely accessible and affordable to young participants. There is a lack of knowledge among waterpipe smokers about the associated health effects. Warning labels are effective at communicating health risks associated with waterpipe smoking. Conclusions: Regulatory frameworks for waterpipe tobacco smoking should be developed and enforced, including waterpipe-specific health warning labels that elucidate the harmful effects of waterpipe smoking. PMID:28952296

  9. Rationing hepatitis C treatment in the context of austerity policies in France and Cameroon: A transnational perspective on the pharmaceuticalization of healthcare systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabrol, Fanny; David, Pierre-Marie; Krikorian, Gaëlle

    2017-08-01

    New powerful drugs against hepatitis C can cure the disease, but they are not widely distributed because their exorbitant prices are destabilizing healthcare systems in both African and European countries. This article takes access to hepatitis C treatments since 2013 in France and in Cameroon as a lens to analyze the rationing of pharmaceutical treatments in relation to recent transformations of health systems. Access to these treatments is analyzed thanks to ethnographic observation and interviews lead in Paris and Yaoundé, with patients, associations, health professionals and public health experts. In Cameroon, rationing takes place through various layers of socio-economic restrictions, and no patient organization advocates for hepatitis treatment. In France, access to hepatitis C treatments has become politicized, and collective mobilizations have denounced rationing as a threat to the promise of universal social security. In this study, we examine Africa's long experience with rationing in the context of structural adjustment, and we bring together experiences in France and Cameroon. This article analyses the phenomenon of the pharmaceuticalization of healthcare systems, that is to say the growing use of pharmaceuticals in healthcare systems, by documenting the social and political construction of scarcity. Indeed, whereas pharmaceuticalization is a concept that has often been used in situations of drugs abundance, a parallel analysis of rationing highlights a political economy of pharmaceuticals that shapes public health debates and policies according to an economy of scarcity, especially in times of austerity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. How do macro-level contexts and policies affect the employment chances of chronically ill and disabled people? Part I: The impact of recession and deindustrialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Paula; Burström, Bo; Whitehead, Margaret; Diderichsen, Finn; Dahl, Espen; Barr, Ben; Nylén, Lotta; Chen, Wen-Hao; Thielen, Karsten; van der Wel, Kjetil A; Clayton, Stephen; Uppal, Sharanjit

    2011-01-01

    Low employment rates of chronically ill and disabled people are of serious concern. Being out of work increases the risk of poverty and social exclusion, which may further damage the health of these groups, exacerbating health inequalities. Macro-level policies have a potentially tremendous impact on their employment chances, and these influences urgently need to be understood as the current economic crisis intensifies. In Part I of this two-part study, the authors examine employment trends for people who report a chronic illness or disability, by gender and educational level, in Canada, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom in the context of economic booms and busts and deindustrialization. People with the double burden of chronic illness and low education have become increasingly marginalized from the labor market. Deindustrialization may have played a part in this process. In addition, periods of high unemployment have sparked a downward trend in employment for already marginalized groups who did not feel the benefits when the economy improved. Norway and Sweden have been better able to protect the employment of these groups than the United Kingdom and Canada. These contextual differences suggest that other macro-level factors, such as active and passive labor market polices, may be important, as examined in part II.

  11. Placenta accreta spectrum disorder trends in the context of the universal two-child policy in China and the risk of hysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Chanjuan; Yang, Mengyuan; Ding, Yiling; Duan, Siqi; Zhou, Yang

    2018-03-01

    To identify both the trends in placenta accreta spectrum (PAS) disorders in the context of the universal two-child policy in China and risk factors for hysterectomy. The present retrospective analysis included confirmed PAS disorders during cesarean delivery at a tertiary hospital in Changsha, Hunan, China, from January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2016. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the risk of hysterectomy. During the 10-year study period, the overall incidence of cesarean delivery was 51.6% (13 530/26 214) and that of PAS disorders was 1.2% (302/26 214). The PAS rate increased from 0.1% (5/4617) in 2007-2008 to 2.1% (133/6351) in 2015-2016, alongside a rise in elective repeat cesarean delivery from 5.0% (106/2124) to 38.4% (1385/3603). Previous cesarean delivery greatly increased the likelihood of PAS disorders (odds ratio [OR] 97.4; PChina. The main predictor of hysterectomy was invasive depth. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  12. Understanding the historical institutional context by using content analysis of local policy and planning documents : Assessing the interactions between tourism and landscape on the Island of Terschelling in the Wadden Sea Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heslinga, Jasper; Groote, Peter; Vanclay, Frank

    2018-01-01

    Content analysis is a valuable tool to identify changes in policy. By analysing historical documents, policymakers and planners can improve their understanding of the institutional context in which decisions were made. Using the Island of Terschelling in the UNESCO World Heritage Wadden region of

  13. Policy-Based mobility Management for Heterogeneous Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihovska, Albena D.

    2007-01-01

    Next generation communications will be composed of flexible, scalable and context-aware, secure and resilient architectures and technologies that allow full mobility of the user and enable dynamic management policies that ensure end-to-end secure transmission of data and services across heterogen......Next generation communications will be composed of flexible, scalable and context-aware, secure and resilient architectures and technologies that allow full mobility of the user and enable dynamic management policies that ensure end-to-end secure transmission of data and services across...... access technology (RAT) association, user and flow context transfer, handover decision, and deployment priority. Index Terms— distributed RRM, centralized...

  14. Bypassing health facilities for childbirth in the context of the JSY cash transfer program to promote institutional birth: A cross-sectional study from Madhya Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabde, Yogesh; Chaturvedi, Sarika; Randive, Bharat; Sidney, Kristi; Salazar, Mariano; De Costa, Ayesha; Diwan, Vishal

    2018-01-01

    Bypassing health facilities for childbirth can be costly both for women and health systems. There have been some reports on this from Sub-Saharan African and from Nepal but none from India. India has implemented the Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY), a large national conditional cash transfer program which has successfully increased the number of institutional births in India. This paper aims to study the extent of bypassing the nearest health facility offering intrapartum care in three districts of Madhya Pradesh, India, and to identify individual and facility determinants of bypassing in the context of the JSY program. Our results provide information to support the optimal utilization of facilities at different levels of the healthcare system for childbirth. Data was collected from 96 facilities (74 public) and 720 rural mothers who delivered at these facilities were interviewed. Multilevel logistic regression was used to analyze the data. Facility obstetric care functionality was assessed by the number of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) signal functions performed in the last three months. Thirty eighth percent of the mothers bypassed the nearest public facility for their current delivery. Primiparity, higher education, arriving by hired transport and a longer distance from home to the nearest facility increased the odds of bypassing a public facility for childbirth. The variance partition coefficient showed that 37% of the variation in bypassing the nearest public facility can be attributed to difference between facilities. The number of basic emergency obstetric care signal functions (AOR = 0.59, 95% CI 0.37-0.93), and the availability of free transportation at the nearest facility (AOR = 0.11, 95% CI 0.03-0.31) were protective factors against bypassing. The variation between facilities (MOR = 3.85) was more important than an individual's characteristics to explain bypassing in MP. This multilevel study indicates that in this setting, a focus on increasing the level

  15. Bypassing health facilities for childbirth in the context of the JSY cash transfer program to promote institutional birth: A cross-sectional study from Madhya Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabde, Yogesh; Chaturvedi, Sarika; Randive, Bharat; Sidney, Kristi; Salazar, Mariano; De Costa, Ayesha; Diwan, Vishal

    2018-01-01

    Bypassing health facilities for childbirth can be costly both for women and health systems. There have been some reports on this from Sub-Saharan African and from Nepal but none from India. India has implemented the Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY), a large national conditional cash transfer program which has successfully increased the number of institutional births in India. This paper aims to study the extent of bypassing the nearest health facility offering intrapartum care in three districts of Madhya Pradesh, India, and to identify individual and facility determinants of bypassing in the context of the JSY program. Our results provide information to support the optimal utilization of facilities at different levels of the healthcare system for childbirth. Data was collected from 96 facilities (74 public) and 720 rural mothers who delivered at these facilities were interviewed. Multilevel logistic regression was used to analyze the data. Facility obstetric care functionality was assessed by the number of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) signal functions performed in the last three months. Thirty eighth percent of the mothers bypassed the nearest public facility for their current delivery. Primiparity, higher education, arriving by hired transport and a longer distance from home to the nearest facility increased the odds of bypassing a public facility for childbirth. The variance partition coefficient showed that 37% of the variation in bypassing the nearest public facility can be attributed to difference between facilities. The number of basic emergency obstetric care signal functions (AOR = 0.59, 95% CI 0.37–0.93), and the availability of free transportation at the nearest facility (AOR = 0.11, 95% CI 0.03–0.31) were protective factors against bypassing. The variation between facilities (MOR = 3.85) was more important than an individual’s characteristics to explain bypassing in MP. This multilevel study indicates that in this setting, a focus on increasing the

  16. Study protocol: Addressing evidence and context to facilitate transfer and uptake of consultation recording use in oncology: A knowledge translation implementation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruether J Dean

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The time period from diagnosis to the end of treatment is challenging for newly diagnosed cancer patients. Patients have a substantial need for information, decision aids, and psychosocial support. Recordings of initial oncology consultations improve information recall, reduce anxiety, enhance patient satisfaction with communication, and increase patients' perceptions that the essential aspects of their disease and treatment have been addressed during the consultation. Despite the research evidence supporting the provision of consultation recordings, uptake of this intervention into oncology practice has been slow. The primary aim of this project is to conduct an implementation study to explicate the contextual factors, including use of evidence, that facilitate and impede the transfer and uptake of consultation-recording use in a sample of patients newly diagnosed with breast or prostate cancer. Methods Sixteen oncologists from cancer centres in three Canadian cities will participate in this three-phase study. The preimplementation phase will be used to identify and address those factors that are fundamental to facilitating the smooth adoption and delivery of the intervention during the implementation phase. During the implementation phase, breast and prostate cancer patients will receive a recording of their initial oncology consultation to take home. Patient interviews will be conducted in the days following the consultation to gather feedback on the benefits of the intervention. Patients will complete the Digital Recording Use Semi-Structured Interview (DRUSSI and be invited to participate in focus groups in which their experiences with the consultation recording will be explored. Oncologists will receive a summary letter detailing the benefits voiced by their patients. The postimplementation phase includes a conceptual framework development meeting and a seven-point dissemination strategy. Discussion Consultation

  17. International technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Won Gi

    1991-11-01

    This book introduces technology progress and economic growth, theoretical consideration of technology transfer, policy and mechanism on technology transfer of a developed country and a developing country, reality of international technology transfer technology transfer and industrial structure in Asia and the pacific region, technology transfer in Russia, China and Eastern Europe, cooperation of science and technology for development of Northeast Asia and strategy of technology transfer of Korea.

  18. Energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrester, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    The author places the energy problem in the context of world economy. The various obstacles encountered in the United States to spell out a viable national energy policy are cited. A certain number of practical proposals is given to lead to an 'effective policy' which would allow energy economy at the same time as energy development, that is, including nuclear energy [fr

  19. The Use of the Persian Translation of the Learning Transfer System Inventory in the Context of Agricultural Sustainability Learning in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Naser; Ataei, Pouria; Bates, Reid

    2016-01-01

    The Learning Transfer System Inventory considers 16 factors likely to influence the transfer of training to the workplace. This study uses the Persian translation of the inventory and applies it to agricultural sustainability learning in Iran. The aim is to examine the internal structure and predictive ability of the inventory as translated into…

  20. What can we learn from the existing evidence of the business case for investments in nursing care: importance of content, context, and policy environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakusheva, Olga; Wholey, Douglas; Frick, Kevin D

    2013-04-01

    Decisions of health care institutions to invest in nursing care are often guided by mixed and conflicting evidence of effects of the investments on organizational function and sustainability. This paper uses new evidence generated through Interdisciplinary Nursing Quality Research Initiative (INQRI)-funded research and published in peer-reviewed journals, to illustrate where the business case for nursing investments stands and to discuss factors that may limit the existing evidence and its transferability into clinical practice. We conclude that there are 3 limiting factors: (1) the existing business case for nursing investments is likely understated due to the inability of most studies to capture spillover and long-run dynamic effects, thus causing organizations to forfeit potentially viable nursing investments that may improve long-term financial stability; (2) studies rarely devote sufficient attention to describing the content and the organization-specific contextual factors, thus limiting generalizability; and (3) fragmentation of the current health care delivery and payment systems often leads to the financial benefits of investments in nursing care accruing outside of the organization incurring the costs, thus making potentially quality-improving and cost-saving interventions financially unattractive from the organization's perspective. The payment reform, with its emphasis on high-quality affordable patient-centered care, is likely to strengthen the business case for investments in nursing care. Methodologically rigorous approaches that focus on broader societal implications of investments in nursing care, combined with a thorough understanding of potential barriers and facilitators of nursing change, should be an integral part of future research and policy efforts.

  1. Effects of Poland’s Pro‑Export Policy Implementation in the Context of the Plan for Responsible Development – a Preliminary Comparative Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wysokińska Zofia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the results of a preliminary assessment of Poland’s export expansion policy in relation to the export of commodities, which is a result of the Government’s Plan for Responsible Development, in the context of existing barriers and the external and internal conditions reported by small and medium‑sized enterprises sector (SMEs. In the latest ranking of its competitive position in the global market for the period 2016-2017, Poland ranked 36th in the world. It should also be stressed that in this most recent world ranking Poland held the 16th position among EU Member States. A positive phenomenon in relation to Poland’s foreign trade in 2016, as compared to previous years, was that the value of export exceeded import, which allowed for a turnover surplus of nearly EUR 4.8 billion, i.e. two times higher than in 2015. In 2016 (and also in the first half of 2017 there was a favorable diversification of Polish export, demonstrating an increase in export to non‑EU markets of economically developed countries. After two years of relatively slow growth, export to this group of countries in 2016 increased by 5.6% (to EUR 12 billion, i.e. nearly 2.5 times faster than the total export. Despite the tariff‑free and quota‑free access to the single European market, there are still limits and barriers to the free movement of goods, and especially services. There are also many internal barriers in small and medium‑sized enterprises’ export to foreign markets, which limit their export expansion. Despite the gradual increase in export observed in recent years, the internationalization of non‑Polish enterprises is still much lower than in Western European countries. As a result, the share of Polish SMEs in the EU market is one third smaller than the EU average.

  2. To transfer or not to transfer? Evidence from validity and reliability tests for international transfers of non-market adaptation benefits in river basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreopoulos, Dimitrios; Damigos, Dimitrios

    2017-01-01

    The attempt to design cost-effective adaptation policies incorporating non-market values to inhibit climate change impacts on water resources may increase the interest in applying the Benefit Transfer method. Benefit Transfer is a practical way to consider non-market values using functions and estimates acquired through primary valuation methods from other sites. Among the primary methods, Choice Experiments appear to particularly accommodate Benefit Transfer. Nevertheless, validity and reliability of international value transfers obtained from Choice Experiments have not been adequately examined. To this end, two identical Choice Experiments were conducted in Greece and Italy in the context of river services adaptation, testing validity and reliability of Benefit Transfer. The application of validity and reliability tests for different types of transfers is supportive for the use of Benefit Transfer, at least for the value transfer types. In particular the reliability of value transfer was higher when income adjustments were taken into account. Overall, Benefit Transfer can be attentively considered to evaluate cost-effective adaptation policies across countries experiencing similar climate change trends. The latter gains more importance given that an international Benefit Transfer setting as regards the non-market benefits of adaptation to climate change for river services is absent in the relevant literature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Research for health policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bell, Erica

    2010-01-01

    ... Explicit, implicit, and pragmatic dimensions of policy-maker's needs and context 31 Constraints on policy-makers 32 Deciphering trade-offs 33 The policy-problem: deciphering uncertainty and the problem of innovation 34 A tool for deciphering policy problems 35 The different components of the policy problem 37 Recommended reading 38 Case studies in...

  4. The demand-side innovation policies in the context of small EU member country. Nõudluspoolsed innovatsioonipoliitikad Euroopa Liidu väikese liikmesriigi kontekstis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tõnu Roolaht

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Demand-side innovation policies, in the form of regulations, public procurement, subsidies for private demand, and other measures, are often viewed as valuable additions to more traditional supply-side policies. The demand-side innovation policies should enable to facilitate the emergence of vital and sustainable links between innovation outputs and various markets. However, without sufficient institutional framework and policy experiences such measures could also contribute to new market distortions or crowding-out effects, which do not facilitate sustainable growth in innovations. The charting of possible risks of such policies should help to outline the criteria for aiming at sustainable effects. The purpose of this contribution is to offer suggestions about preconditions and policy characteristics, which should help to avoid the misuse of demand-side measures and facilitate the sustainability of desired changes in society. It is predominantly conceptual contribution but draws also extensively on case evidence about the effects of relevant policies and their discontinuation

  5. Optimal transfer, ordering and payment policies for joint supplier-buyer inventory model with price-sensitive trapezoidal demand and net credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nita H.; Shah, Digeshkumar B.; Patel, Dushyantkumar G.

    2015-07-01

    This study aims at formulating an integrated supplier-buyer inventory model when market demand is variable price-sensitive trapezoidal and the supplier offers a choice between discount in unit price and permissible delay period for settling the accounts due against the purchases made. This type of trade credit is termed as 'net credit'. In this policy, if the buyer pays within offered time M1, then the buyer is entitled for a cash discount; otherwise the full account must be settled by the time M2; where M2 > M1 ⩾ 0. The goal is to determine the optimal selling price, procurement quantity, number of transfers from the supplier to the buyer and payment time to maximise the joint profit per unit time. An algorithm is worked out to obtain the optimal solution. A numerical example is given to validate the proposed model. The managerial insights based on sensitivity analysis are deduced.

  6. How federalism shapes public health financing, policy, and program options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Lydia L

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, fiscal and functional federalism strongly shape public health policy and programs. Federalism has implications for public health practice: it molds financing and disbursement options, including funding formulas, which affect allocations and program goals, and shapes how funding decisions are operationalized in a political context. This article explores how American federalism, both fiscal and functional, structures public health funding, policy, and program options, investigating the effects of intergovernmental transfers on public health finance and programs.

  7. The Formation of Accounting Policies for Processing Enterprises in the Context of Adaptation of National Regulations to the International Standards of Accounting and Reporting

    OpenAIRE

    Rozheliuk Viktoriia M.; Denchuk Pavlo N.

    2017-01-01

    The article defines principles for preparation of accounting policies using both domestic and foreign experience, generalizes scientific and theoretical approaches, and improves the wordings of the concept of «accounting policy». The feasibility of conducting a preliminary assessment of efficiency of organizational activities through the use of the criteria generalized in the accounting policy has been substantiated, the legal and regulatory levels have been highlighted, taking into considera...

  8. Community ultrasound. A study of the factors influencing transfer into primary care in the context of a shift in service provision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitken, V.

    1999-01-01

    Background: An ultrasound service has properties, which make it an attractive proposition as a community service in line with Government strategy. This transfer is a unique opportunity to study the change in the light of Government reforms to the National Health Service. Objectives: To identify the issues that are important when the transfer of ultrasound into a community setting is considered. To develop knowledge about the views of the users and providers of ultrasound services in relation to a community-based ultrasound service. To enhance understanding of the forces acting upon the decision process about the transfer of ultrasound into a community setting. Design: The study began by addressing qualitatively the views of eight focus groups from the major providers and users involved in the transfer of ultrasound into the community. Two of the key issues addressed in the focus groups were the criteria for successful transfer of the service and the perceived problems. Having identified the relevant areas via theme analysis, a questionnaire was developed and 1167 users and providers of ultrasound were approached to obtain a regional view. Results: There was good response with 353 health professionals and 495 patients completing the questionnaire. A suitable service suggested by the sample was either a low risk obstetric or gynaecology service, located at a Health Centre or a GP Surgery and staffed by radiographers. Three issues identified as important to the transfer of ultrasound were the maintenance of 'good communication links', 'provision of a high quality service' and making sure 'staff were appropriately trained'. Guidelines have been developed to assist in the transfer of decision-making process. Conclusion: Overall the health professionals rated ultrasound as suitable for community service, and the patients were happy to use such a service. However, there were concerns held by hospital clinicians that should be heeded. (author)

  9. Holidays for Children and Families in Need: An Exploration of the Research and Policy Context for Social Tourism in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel, Neal

    2005-01-01

    Although provision of holidays for families in need has been mainstreamed within the social care policies of many countries in the rest of Europe, "social tourism" has yet to be adopted in the United Kingdom. This article reports on a scoping study of research and policy in this area. While there is limited robust research on the impact…

  10. Managerial technology transfer

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Organisations need to think globally, but act locally - with a full appreciation of the diversity of local cultures. Major global companies must recognise that policies need to be managed with the broad context of business strategy and integrated into the work culture with the support of all elements of human resources management. Most currently, companies are accommodating national cultural differences while preserving work culture principals that encourage people to effectively execute the company's strategic objectives. Even to the casual observer, it is apparent that culture- a society's programming of the mind- has both a pervasive and changing influence on each national business environment. Global managers must recognise the influence of culture and be prepared to either respond to it or change it. This book examines current research in the study of managerial technology transfer.

  11. Mere Objectives or Hard Law? A Case Study on the EU‘s Social Policy in the Context of Free Market Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Jędrzejowska-Schiffauer

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this contribution is to assess the impact of the EU Internal Market rules on the development of Union’s social policy. To that end the author analyses trends in the EU’s social policy over time, also following the outbreak of the economic and financial crisis in 2008, synthesising selected Union’s legislation, soft measures and case law relating to social policy, with a view to determining their immediate or potential impact on social rights and social protection. It is submitted that to date, the Union has made but a very restricted use of its powers to develop the social dimension of its Single Market, which contributes to the difficulties in reconciling social and labour rights with competition law and economic freedoms. This problem is ascribed not exclusively to the commonly blamed inequality of arms resulting from the prevalence of soft measures in the area of social policy and the hard law regulatory framework for the implementation of the Single Market rules. Its core is identified in the lack of will on the part of national governments to advance economic integration on common (European social foundations. Hence the necessary prerequisite for the further advance of the EU social policy and a sustainable European socio-economic model is the attitude change in the Member States.

  12. Research Ethics in the Context of Transition: Gaps in Policies and Programs on the Protection of Research Participants in the Selected Countries of Central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famenka, Andrei

    2016-12-01

    This paper examines the ability of countries in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) to ensure appropriate protection of research participants in the field of increasingly globalizing biomedical research. By applying an analytical framework for identifying gaps in policies and programs for human subjects protection to four countries of CEE-Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland, substantial gaps in the scope and content of relevant policies and major impediments to program performance have been revealed. In these countries, public policies on the protection of research participants lack consistency and reliable mechanisms for their implementation. Impediments to program performance most often relate to inadequacies in the national research ethics systems with regard to organizational structure, budgetary support, supervision, and training. The level of research ethics capacity varies from country to country and depends on socio-economic and political factors of post-communist transition. The breadth and depth of the problems identified suggest that the current level of protection for research participants in CEE might be inadequate to the challenges posed by the globalization of biomedical research. In CEE countries, there is a need for strengthening research ethics capacity through modification of relevant policies and improvement of program management. The differences among the countries call for further research on identifying the best approaches for filling the gaps in the policies and programs aimed at ensuring effective protection of research participants.

  13. Implementing Local Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation Actions: The Role of Various Policy Instruments in a Multi-Level Governance Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Carina H. Keskitalo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, considerable focus, e.g., in the fifth IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Assessment Report (2014 has been trained on why adaptation and mitigation have not been developed more than at present, with relatively few local government actions taken compared with, for example, more discursive policy agreement on the importance of the issue of climate change. Going beyond a focus on general limits and barriers, this comment suggests that one important issue is that climate change has not yet been sufficiently integrated into the state regulative structure of legislation and policy-making. A comparison between three cases suggests that local developments that are not supported in particular by binding regulation are unlikely to achieve the same general level of implementation as issues for which such regulative demands (and thereby also requirements for prioritization exist. This constitutes an important consideration for the development of adaptation and mitigation as policy areas, including on the local level.

  14. What the United States can learn from Brazil in response to HIV/AIDS: international reputation and strategic centralization in a context of health policy devolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Eduardo J

    2010-11-01

    Contrary to what many may expect, this article argues that Brazil did a better job than the USA when it came to responding to HIV/AIDS. Because of the Brazilian government's concern about its international reputation and the partnerships it has forged with international donors and civil society, the government has been committed to strengthening decentralization processes by introducing both formal and informal re-centralization measures that strengthen health policy devolution, while effectively targeting the biggest at-risk groups. The US, in contrast, has not achieved these objectives, due to its lack of interest in increasing its international reputation and its focus on bi-lateral aid rather than investing in domestic policy. The paper closes by explaining the lessons that Brazil can teach the US and other large federations seeking to ensure that decentralization and prevention policy work more effectively.

  15. Decision makers, scientists and the public as stakeholders: the connection between traffic intervention policy and air quality in a local context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiand, L.; von Schneidemesser, E.; Schmitz, S.; Niehoff, N.

    2017-12-01

    Urban mobility is a key issue to make cities more inclusive, safer, and more environmentally friendly. To ensure a sustainable future, local policy should, among other actions, aim to improve access to sustainable transport systems and enhance mobility opportunities, while at the same time addressing critical environmental and health targets. In order to assess whether these objectives are met, measures should be informed and evaluated from a social and environmental perspective. Citizens' opinions and the acceptance of environmental policies are crucial to successful implementation of urban mobility measures. The complexity of urban air quality issues require transparent decision-making processes that are grounded in evidence-based research and embrace local knowledge. From this basis, our research group and the city council collaborated to assess a new policy action intended to address environmental and health targets. This talk will present the results from the assessment of this new policy, that was implemented in large part to alleviate air quality exceedances, from the perspective of public acceptability of the measure and the approach taken by the city council to implement the measure. Parallel to assessing the effect of this policy on the recorded levels of air pollution and traffic counts, we conducted a social survey to examine public opinions of this measure, as well as the link between air quality awareness and mobility decisions. 4661 responses were collected over a one month period. Survey participants were those most affected by the traffic measure, including commuters and local residents. The results show that there is an overall low acceptance rate of the measure (8%) as well as low concern for air quality (2,90 - where 1 = not concerned and 6 = very concerned). We also found that there is a negative relationship between air quality rating and air quality concern. A similar approach was taken to understand climate change concern, which will be

  16. Sexual Behavior Among Young Carers in the Context of a Kenyan Empowerment Program Combining Cash-Transfer, Psychosocial Support, and Entrepreneurship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Michael L; Selwyn, Beatrice J; Morgan, Robert O; Lloyd, Linda E; Mwongera, Moses; Gitari, Stanley; Keiser, Philip H

    2016-01-01

    This study examined associations between sexual initiation, unprotected sex, and having multiple sex partners in the past year with participation in a three-year empowerment program targeting orphan and vulnerable children (OVC). The Kenya-based program combines community-conditioned cash transfer, psychosocial empowerment, health education, and microenterprise development. Program participants (n = 1,060) were interviewed in a cross-sectional design. Analyses used gender-stratified hierarchical logit models to assess program participation and other potential predictors. Significant predictors of increased female sexual activity included less program exposure, higher age, younger age at most recent parental death, fewer years of schooling, higher food consumption, higher psychological resilience, and lower general self-efficacy. Significant predictors of increased male sexual activity included more program exposure, higher age, better food consumption, not having a living father, and literacy. Findings support a nuanced view of current cash transfer programs, where female sexual activity may be reduced through improved financial status but male sexual activity may increase. Targeting of OVC sexual risk behaviors would likely benefit from being tailored according to associations found in this study. Data suggest involving fathers in sexual education, targeting women who lost a parent at a younger age, and providing social support for female OVC may decrease risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission.

  17. Rural Education as Rural Development: Understanding the Rural School-Community Well-Being Linkage in a 21st-Century Policy Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafft, Kai A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the significant proportions of rural Americans, schools, and public school students situated in the geographic peripheries of an increasingly urbanizing country, rural education in the United States has consistently occupied both scholarly and policy peripheries. This is to the detriment of rural America, especially to the extent that…

  18. Historical overview of development policies and institutions in the Netherlands, in the context of private sector development and (productive) employment creation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kazimierczuk, A.H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the Dutch development cooperation policies for the years 1949-2015 with particular attention for private sector development (PSD). Over the years, poverty alleviation, private sector development and security have been dominant focus areas of Dutch development cooperation, with PSD

  19. Conceptions and Expectations of Research Collaboration in the European Social Sciences: Research Policies, Institutional Contexts and the Autonomy of the Scientific Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeau, Yann; Papatsiba, Vassiliki

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the interactions between policy drivers and academic practice in international research collaboration. It draws on the case of the Open Research Area (ORA), a funding scheme in the social sciences across four national research agencies, seeking to boost collaboration by supporting "integrated" projects. The paper…

  20. Attitudes to Agricultural Policy and Farming Futures in the Context of the 2003 CAP Reform: A Comparison of Farmers in Selected Established and New Member States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorton, Matthew; Douarin, Elodie; Davidova, Sophia; Latruffe, Laure

    2008-01-01

    Farmers' attitudes, to agricultural production, diversification and policy support, and behavioural intentions in five Member States of the EU (France, Lithuania, Slovakia, Sweden, England) are analysed comparatively. Groups of farmers with similarly held attitudes are identified using cluster analysis to investigate whether differences in…

  1. Security of medical data transfer and storage in Internet. Cryptography, antiviral security and electronic signature problems, which must be solved in nearest future in practical context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasztelowicz, Piotr; Czubenko, Marek; Zieba, Iwona

    2003-01-01

    The informatical revolution in computer age, which gives significant benefit in transfer of medical information requests to pay still more attention for aspect of network security. All known advantages of network technologies--first of all simplicity of copying, multiplication and sending information to many individuals can be also dangerous, if illegal, not permitted persons get access to medical data bases. Internet is assumed to be as especially "anarchic" medium, therefore in order to use it in professional work any security principles should be bewared. In our presentation we will try to find the optimal security solution in organisational and technological aspects for any medical network. In our opinion the harmonious co-operation between users, medical authorities and network administrators is core of the success.

  2. Problems of Participation and Issues of Sustainability in the Public Irrigation System in the Context of Management Transfer: Some Sociological Observations from Eastern Terai, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laya Prasad Uprety

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been ascertained that participatory processes did not involve learning component from both agency and water users’ association for institutional and technical sustainability. The overall process of participation was superficial. There was a need of participation that underscored the empowerment of WUA with accountability. As Vermillion (2005 shares that empowerment with partnership is an emergent institutional paradigm for the irrigation sector development that places water users in the role of irrigation system governance, and government in the roles of regulator and provider of support services. There is a need to re-train the irrigation staff on the emergent institutional paradigm to empower the water users. For the empowerment with accountability, water users are to be provided enough institutional strengthening. There is the need to promote user-agency relationship positively and develop faith and confidence of the users and agency in the regime of transparency. Social scientists point out potential benefits of building successful local organizations. These benefits, for the local people, are in aspects such as empowerment, confidence-building, forming social capital, and reduction of dependency. Given the fact that participation is a process, it cannot be achieved in a short span of time with little institutional inputs. Sustainability of the management transferred irrigation systems/sub-systems definitely hinges on the broad-based and inclusive participatory processes. Keywords: participation; sustainability; management transfer; social capital and empowerment DOI: 10.3126/dsaj.v4i0.4512 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol.4 2010 pp.41-64

  3. Transfer Students in Higher Education: Building Foundations for Policies, Programs, and Services that Foster Student Success. The First-Year Experience Monograph Series No. 54

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisel, Mark Allen, Ed.; Joseph, Sonya, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Transfer Students in Higher Education" presents what individuals know about transfer students, addresses assumptions and myths about the transfer experience, and explores the changing demographics of this student group. Adopting a student-centered approach, the monograph offers strategies to begin (and continue) the work of serving students and…

  4. Social justice in the context of adaptation to climate change – reflecting on different policy approaches to distribute and allocate flood risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Thaler, Thomas; Fuchs, Sven; Priest, Sally J.; Doorn, Neelke

    2018-01-01

    Editorial to a special edition of the journal. Consequences of extreme hydrological events, such as those recently experienced in United States (e.g. Hurricane Harvey or Irma in 2017), floods in South Asia in 2017, or the Central European floods in 2013 and 2016, have again focused the attention of society, policy makers and academic scholars on questions of how to reduce vulnerability to such events, especially when faced with the dual challenges of climate and societal change. Not only is t...

  5. How do macro-level contexts and policies affect the employment chances of chronically ill and disabled people? Part II: The impact of active and passive labor market policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Paula; Nylén, Lotta; Thielen, Karsten; van der Wel, Kjetil A; Chen, Wen-Hao; Barr, Ben; Burström, Bo; Diderichsen, Finn; Andersen, Per Kragh; Dahl, Espen; Uppal, Sharanjit; Clayton, Stephen; Whitehead, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigate three hypotheses on the influence of labor market deregulation, decommodification, and investment in active labor market policies on the employment of chronically ill and disabled people. The study explores the interaction between employment, chronic illness, and educational level for men and women in Canada, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom, countries with advanced social welfare systems and universal health care but with varying types of active and passive labor market policies. People with chronic illness were found to fare better in employment terms in the Nordic countries than in Canada or the United Kingdom. Their employment chances also varied by educational level and country. The employment impact of having both chronic illness and low education was not just additive but synergistic. This amplification was strongest for British men and women, Norwegian men, and Danish women. Hypotheses on the disincentive effects of tighter employment regulation or more generous welfare benefits were not supported. The hypothesis that greater investments in active labor market policies may improve the employment of chronically ill people was partially supported. Attention must be paid to the differential impact of macro-level policies on the labor market participation of chronically ill and disabled people with low education, a group facing multiple barriers to gaining employment.

  6. Knowledge gaps in relation to radionuclide levels and transfer to wild plants and animals, in the context of environmental impact assessments, and a strategy to fill them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J.E. (ed.); Gjelsvik, R. (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway)); Saxen, R.; Mattila, J. (STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland))

    2009-01-15

    International activities with regards the development of methods for assessing impacts on the environment from ionising radiation have been substantial in recent years. In developing these methods, there are requirements (i) to determine the transfer of radionuclides within ecosystems and (ii) to determine background dose-rates arising from the presence of naturally occurring radionuclides, in a satisfactory manner. It has quickly become evident that fulfilling these 2 requirements is not entirely straightforward reflecting a lack of data in many cases. This report specifies exactly where these data-gaps lie through analyses of data generated from the most recent studies conducted internationally on this topic. It is evident that information is limited for numerous radionuclides from U-238 and Th-232 decay series and notably, in view of its importance as a contributor to dose-rates in plants and animals, Po-210. The simple way to rectify these data deficiencies is to organise target field campaigns focusing on particular species and radionuclides where information is lacking. To this end, field sampling has been conducted in a semi-natural mountain ecosystem in Norway and freshwater aquatic systems in Finland. It is envisaged that the data derived from the studies briefly described in this report will provide fundamental information for our understanding of the behaviour and fate of natural decay series radionuclides in terrestrial and aquatic systems and provide the basis for more robust way. (au)

  7. Knowledge gaps in relation to radionuclide levels and transfer to wild plants and animals, in the context of environmental impact assessments, and a strategy to fill them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.E.; Saxen, R.; Mattila, J.

    2009-01-01

    International activities with regards the development of methods for assessing impacts on the environment from ionising radiation have been substantial in recent years. In developing these methods, there are requirements (i) to determine the transfer of radionuclides within ecosystems and (ii) to determine background dose-rates arising from the presence of naturally occurring radionuclides, in a satisfactory manner. It has quickly become evident that fulfilling these 2 requirements is not entirely straightforward reflecting a lack of data in many cases. This report specifies exactly where these data-gaps lie through analyses of data generated from the most recent studies conducted internationally on this topic. It is evident that information is limited for numerous radionuclides from U-238 and Th-232 decay series and notably, in view of its importance as a contributor to dose-rates in plants and animals, Po-210. The simple way to rectify these data deficiencies is to organise target field campaigns focusing on particular species and radionuclides where information is lacking. To this end, field sampling has been conducted in a semi-natural mountain ecosystem in Norway and freshwater aquatic systems in Finland. It is envisaged that the data derived from the studies briefly described in this report will provide fundamental information for our understanding of the behaviour and fate of natural decay series radionuclides in terrestrial and aquatic systems and provide the basis for more robust way. (au)

  8. MOBILE MONEY TRANSFER DIGITAL ECONOMY IN GAINING COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE OVER MFIS IN RWANDAN CONTEXT: AS A CASE STUDY OF SACCOS IN RWANDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Government of Rwanda has adopted a very ambitious financial sectordevelopment plan which is at the implementation stage. This has made the administration to create atleast one SACCO at every administrative level hence known as '' umurenge''. This plan is captured in the vision 2020 under the Economic Development and Poverty Reduction Strategy (EDPRS. It is realized that micro financial institutions MFIs is an important sector in mobilising savings and availability of credit at reasonable rates and other financial services for investment to the rural majority. However, despite all these effort by Government, the level of domestic savings remains very low and the financial exclusion highly alarming. MFIs is a strategy to eradicate poverty amongst the vulnerable youth and women. Mobile money is a tool to allow individuals to transact using cell phone technology. The study will explore how Digital Economy has gained competitive advantage over SACCOs/ MFIs. The study is motivated by the acceptance and embracing of technology (ICT amongst low income earners giving it competitive advantage and encouraging e-commerce services in Rwanda. A qualitative analysis will be undertaken, and an in depth examination of the variables using business models to establish a relationship in the Rwandan context.

  9. How do macro-level contexts and policies affect the employment chances of chronically ill and disabled people? Part I: The impact of recession and deindustrialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holland, Paula; Burström, Bo; Whitehead, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Low employment rates of chronically ill and disabled people are of serious concern. Being out of work increases the risk of poverty and social exclusion, which may further damage the health of these groups, exacerbating health inequalities. Macro-level policies have a potentially tremendous impact......, periods of high unemployment have sparked a downward trend in employment for already marginalized groups who did not feel the benefits when the economy improved. Norway and Sweden have been better able to protect the employment of these groups than the United Kingdom and Canada. These contextual...

  10. How do macro-level contexts and policies affect the employment chances of chronically ill and disabled people? Part II: The impact of active and passive labor market policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holland, Paula; Nylén, Lotta; Thielen, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    level for men and women in Canada, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom, countries with advanced social welfare systems and universal health care but with varying types of active and passive labor market policies. People with chronic illness were found to fare better in employment terms...... in the Nordic countries than in Canada or the United Kingdom. Their employment chances also varied by educational level and country. The employment impact of having both chronic illness and low education was not just additive but synergistic. This amplification was strongest for British men and women, Norwegian...... men, and Danish women. Hypotheses on the disincentive effects of tighter employment regulation or more generous welfare benefits were not supported. The hypothesis that greater investments in active labor market policies may improve the employment of chronically ill people was partially supported...

  11. The device of gymnastics in the context of nineteenth-century spanish social medicine. From hygiene policies to the foundational discourses of “physical education”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Vicente-Pedraz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the first half of the c.19, hygienic and therapeutic gymnastic techniques were established throughout Europe as a device of knowledge/power concerning care and control over the body that, on the one hand, allowed the development of professional medical exploitation and, on the other, served as a justification for implementing and legitimising physical education in schools. Through a process of the localising, selecting and interpreting of documents, the object of this paper is to identify the genealogy of such a device within the Spanish context. To this end, particular attention has been placed on the technical manifestations perceptible in both the conflicts and discourses on which this new professional space was constructed. Emphasis has been given to the constitutive doctrinal texture of gymnastics, whose mark–in terms of regularity, stability, moral and physical self-restraint–would be present in the foundational justifications of physical education in schools.

  12. Facilitating Transfers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    to specific logics of temporalisation and spatial expansion of a diverse set of social processes in relation to, for example, the economy, politics, science and the mass media. On this background, the paper will more concretely develop a conceptual framework for classifying different contextual orders...... that the essential functional and normative purpose of regulatory governance is to facilitate, stabilise and justify the transfer of condensed social components (such as economic capital and products, political decisions, legal judgements, religious beliefs and scientific knowledge) from one social contexts...

  13. Transferência de informação e transferência de tecnologia no modelo de comunicação extensiva: a babel.com The Information and Technology transfer in the context of Extensive Communication: the Babel.com

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Miranda

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Se parte del enfoque que considera a la automatización de las técnicas de comunicación desde el modelo de comunicación extensiva y se infiere no solo un ordenamiento sino también la dispersión y uso universales de la información. La visión propiciada por la teoría de sistemas inspira al modelo extensivo, dado que en la práctica informacional, separa a las instituciones de sus stocks de información, cada agente (o individuo desarrolla un papel colectivo, dependiente de una política de transferencia de la información. Los sistemas de información, en consecuencia, actúan en una línea de producción que comprende políticas, objetivos y metas con una necesidad mediática de las estructuras formales e informales para el tratamiento y diseminación de los contenidos. En el sistema de comunicación científica tradicional, las bibliotecas, los archivos, las librerías y las editoras, son los principales mediadores en la oferta de servicios de producción, almacenamiento e diseminación de documentos, con fuerte influencia de las formas convencionales de organización y control bibliográfico. En contraposición al modelo tradicional, que privilegia el almacenamiento de la información en perjuicio de su uso, el modelo de comunicación extensiva es un sistema dinámico, en un escenario de acciones multidimensionales, caracterizado por la inserción de herramientas que promueven la interactividad, la hipertextualidad y la hipermediación.The automation of the communication techniques gives relevance to extensive communication where the focus is not only on the information storage but also on the dispersion and universal use of the information. The vision brought about by the theory of systems reveals the extensive model and different information practices where the institutions and individuals develop a collective role, depending on a policy of information transfer. The information systems, consequently, act in a production line that

  14. Road Safety Data, Collection, Transfer and Analysis DaCoTa. Deliverable 1.6: Final Report of WP1 – road safety policy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muhlrad, N. Papadimitriou, E. & Yannis, G.

    2015-01-01

    The ‘Policy’ Work Package of DaCoTA was designed to fill in the gap in knowledge on road safety policy making processes, their institutional framework and the data, methods and technical tools needed to base policy formulation and adoption on scientifically-established evidence. More specifically,

  15. Context Sensitive Health Informatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    involves careful consideration of both human and organizational factors. This book presents the proceedings of the Context Sensitive Health Informatics (CSHI) conference, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2013. The theme of this year’s conference is human and sociotechnical approaches. The Human...... different healthcare contexts. Healthcare organizations, health policy makers and regulatory bodies globally are starting to acknowledge this essential role of human and organizational factors for safe and effective health information technology. This book will be of interest to all those involved......Healthcare information technologies are now routinely deployed in a variety of healthcare contexts. These contexts differ widely, but the smooth integration of IT systems is crucial, so the design, implementation, and evaluation of safe, effective, efficient and easy to adopt health informatics...

  16. Point Climat no. 32 'One billion tonnes of CO2 avoided since 2005 in Europe: half due to energy-climate policies and half due to economic context'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloaguen, Olivier; Alberola, Emilie

    2013-01-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Climate Briefs' presents, in a few pages, hot topics in climate change policy. This issue addresses the following points: - CO 2 emissions generated by installations covered by the EU ETS decreased by 12.3 % since 2005, i.e a decline by 2.6% per year during Phase 2 of the EU ETS while the emission cap increased by 1% per year. - The EU ETS ended Phase 2 with a surplus of 1,742 million of allowances. All sectors recorded an overall net surplus, except for the power generation and co-generation sectors. - Based on a 'business-as-usual' scenario, we estimate that around 1.1 GtCO 2 were avoided between 2005 and 2011: around 30% of the reduction was the result of a fall in manufacturing output, while around 60% of the reduction was caused by the development of renewable energy and the improvement of the energy intensity

  17. Imagined in Policy, Inscribed on Bodies: Defending an Ethic of Compassion in a Political Context; Comment on “Why and How Is Compassion Necessary to Provide Good Quality Healthcare?”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Mercer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In response to the International Journal of Health Policy and Management (IJHPMeditorial, this commentary adds to the debate about ethical dimensions of compassionate care in UK service provision. It acknowledges the importance of the original paper, and attempts to explore some of the issues that are raised in the context of nursing practice, research and education. It is argued that each of these fields of the profession are enacted in an escalating culture of corporatism, be that National Health Service (NHS or university campus, and global neoliberalism. Post-structuralist ideas, notably those of Foucault, are borrowed to interrogate healthcare as discursive practice and disciplinary knowledge; where an understanding of the ways in which power and language operate is prominent. Historical and contemporary evidence of institutional and ideological degradation of sections of humanity, a ‘history of the present,’ serve as reminders of the import, and fragility, of ethical codes.

  18. Operation Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stüben, Henning; Tietjen, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: This paper seeks to challenge the notion of context from an operational perspective. Can we grasp the forces that shape the complex conditions for an architectural or urban design within the notion of context? By shifting the gaze towards the agency of architecture, contextual analysis...

  19. Adapting public policy theory for public health research: A framework to understand the development of national policies on global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Catherine M; Clavier, Carole; Potvin, Louise

    2017-03-01

    National policies on global health appear as one way that actors from health, development and foreign affairs sectors in a country coordinate state action on global health. Next to a burgeoning literature in which international relations and global governance theories are employed to understand global health policy and global health diplomacy at the international level, little is known about policy processes for global health at the national scale. We propose a framework of the policy process to understand how such policies are developed, and we identify challenges for public health researchers integrating conceptual tools from political science. We developed the framework using a two-step process: 1) reviewing literature to establish criteria for selecting a theoretical framework fit for this purpose, and 2) adapting Real-Dato's synthesis framework to integrate a cognitive approach to public policy within a constructivist perspective. Our framework identifies multiple contexts as part of the policy process, focuses on situations where actors work together to make national policy on global health, considers these interactive situations as spaces for observing external influences on policy change and proposes policy design as the output of the process. We suggest that this framework makes three contributions to the conceptualisation of national policy on global health as a research object. First, it emphasizes collective action over decisions of individual policy actors. Second, it conceptualises the policy process as organised interactive spaces for collaboration rather than as stages of a policy cycle. Third, national decision-making spaces are opportunities for transferring ideas and knowledge from different sectors and settings, and represent opportunities to identify international influences on a country's global health policy. We discuss two sets of challenges for public health researchers using interdisciplinary approaches in policy research. Copyright

  20. Becoming Context-Free

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    2017-01-01

    In this lecture I will discuss how we – as department, faculty and university – may enhance our research, teaching and knowledge transfer endeavour. This lecture builds on the current challenges in these three areas and inter alia discusses the impact on the AAU PBL model. As the title suggests...... the lecture has to major components: Sociology of Knowledge and Becoming Context-Free. What the title does not explicitly state, but what glues these two together – and what happens to be my passion – is the notion of ‘newness’. Through my lecture I will argue that ‘becoming context-free’ in pursuit...... of ‘newness’ is essential in our efforts to enhance our inter-disciplinary research and teaching, innovate our PBL model, excel in knowledge transfer – all aimed at enriching social impact of our academic endeavour. Clearly this is not the way, but it may contribute to our holistic academic efforts....

  1. TRANSFERENCE BEFORE TRANSFERENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaminio, Vincenzo

    2017-10-01

    This paper is predominantly a clinical presentation that describes the transmigration of one patient's transference to another, with the analyst functioning as a sort of transponder. It involves an apparently accidental episode in which there was an unconscious intersection between two patients. The author's aim is to show how transference from one case may affect transference in another, a phenomenon the author calls transference before transference. The author believes that this idea may serve as a tool for understanding the unconscious work that takes place in the clinical situation. In a clinical example, the analyst finds himself caught up in an enactment involving two patients in which he becomes the medium of what happens in session. © 2017 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  2. Corporate Language Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    This paper offers a review of literature dealing with language policies in general and corporate language policies in particular. Based on a discussion of various definitions of these concepts within two research traditions, i.e. sociolinguistics and international management, a three......-level definition of corporate language policies is presented, emphasising that a corporate language policy is a context-specific policy about language use. The three-level definition is based on the argument that in order to acquire a complete understanding of what corporate language policies involve, one needs...... to consider three progressive questions; 1) what is a policy? 2) what is a language policy?, and ultimately, 3) what is a corporate language policy?...

  3. Corporate Language Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a review of literature dealing with language policies in general and corporate language policies in particular. Based on a discussion of various definitions of these concepts within two research traditions, i.e. sociolinguistics and international management, a three......-level definition of corporate language policies is presented, emphasising that a corporate language policy is a context-specific policy about language use. The three-level definition is based on the argument that in order to acquire a complete understanding of what corporate language policies involve, one needs...... to consider three progressive questions; 1) what is a policy? 2) what is a language policy?, and ultimately, 3) what is a corporate language policy?...

  4. Context matters!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Anders

    2004-01-01

    for granted and unproblematic, although it is agreed to be of great importance. By crystallising three different modes of contextualised competence thinking (prescriptive, descriptive and analytical) the paper shows that the underlying assumptions about context - the interaction between the individual...... and the social - has major consequences for the specific enactment of competence. The paper argues in favour of a second order observation strategy for the context of competence. But in doing so it also shows that prevailing second-order competence theories so far, in criticising (counter) positions (and...

  5. Analysing Policy Contexts as a Political Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, Krishnavani Shervani

    2014-01-01

    The transformation of South Africa from a deeply iniquitous apartheid regime to a more inclusive democratic dispensation remains a huge challenge for all South Africans and its social institutions. The university remains one institution that is under severe pressure to transform. This pressure is exacerbated by the deeply entrenched apartheid…

  6. The interference of paid work with household demands in different social policy contexts: perceived work-household conflict in Sweden, the UK, the Netherlands, Hungary, and the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandh, Mattias; Nordenmark, Mikael

    2006-12-01

    The article explores whether people experiences a lower level of work-household conflict in a context that is characterized by extensive family policies (Sweden and to some extent Hungary and Czech Republic) aimed at facilitating participation in the labour market. This is done by studying perceived work-household conflict among women and men living in Sweden, the UK, the Netherlands, Hungary, and the Czech Republic. The analyses are based on the answers to a questionnaire distributed to nearly 6,000 randomly selected individuals within the framework of the European Union financed 'Household, Work, and Flexibility' (HWF) study. The results show that women in Sweden experience conflicts between work and household demands to a higher degree than any other category in all five countries. The differences between Swedish women and women living in the Netherlands and the UK are explained by variables indicating qualifications and workload in the main job, but the lower degree of work-household conflict among Czech and Hungarian women is still significant when controlling for household composition and working conditions. Data indicate that a possible explanation for this can be found in the interplay between men's and women's attitudes toward gender roles and the actual situation in terms of division of labour.

  7. Legitimizing policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Bak

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this article is on representations of irregular migration in a Scandinavian context and how irregular migrants are constructed as a target group. A common feature in many (Western-)European states is the difficult attempt to navigate between an urge for control and respecting......, upholding and promoting humanitarian aspects of migration management. Legitimizing policies therefore become extremely important as governments have to appease national voters to remain in power and have to respect European regulations and international conventions. Doing so raises questions of social...

  8. Global energy context: future scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beretta, Gian Paolo

    2006-01-01

    After a brief analysis of the history of global energy consumption, this paper discusses a plausible scenario of energy needs and related carbon emissions for the rest of the century. The global outlook and the probable evolution of several factors that impact on energy policy considerations - even on the local scale - demonstrate the great complexity and planetary dimension of the problems, as well as the almost certain sterility of out-of-context domestic energy-policy measures [it

  9. The Effects of Flattening the Effective Marginal Rate Structure in Australia: Policy Simulations Using the Melbourne Institute Tax and Transfer Simulator

    OpenAIRE

    John Creedy; Guyonne Kalb; Hsein Kew

    2001-01-01

    This paper uses the Melbourne Institute Tax and Transfer Simulator (MITTS) to examine the effects of a reduction in the means-tested benefit taper, or withdrawal, rates in Australia to 30 per cent. That is, all taper rates of 50 per cent and 70 per cent in the 1998 system are reduced to 30 per cent, while leaving all basic benefit levels unchanged. This change is therefore expected to ‘flatten’ the tax structure by reducing the high marginal tax rates applying to those with relatively low inc...

  10. Generative Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, Dan Allen

    Educational research has identified how science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) practice and education have underperforming metrics in racial and gender diversity, despite decades of intervention. These disparities are part of the construction of a culture of science that is alienating to these populations. Recent studies in a social science framework described as "Generative Justice" have suggested that the context of social and scientific practice might be modified to bring about more just and equitable relations among the disenfranchised by circulating the value they and their non-human allies create back to them in unalienated forms. What is not known are the underlying principles of social and material space that makes a system more or less generative. I employ an autoethnographic method at four sites: a high school science class; a farm committed to "Black and Brown liberation"; a summer program geared towards youth environmental mapping; and a summer workshop for Harlem middle school students. My findings suggest that by identifying instances where material affinity, participatory voice, and creative solidarity are mutually reinforcing, it is possible to create educational contexts that generate unalienated value, and circulate it back to the producers themselves. This cycle of generation may help explain how to create systems of justice that strengthen and grow themselves through successive iterations. The problem of lack of diversity in STEM may be addressed not merely by recruiting the best and the brightest from underrepresented populations, but by changing the context of STEM education to provide tools for its own systematic restructuring.

  11. Navigating benefit transfer for salmon improvements in the Western US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew August Weber

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A perennial problem in environmental resource management is targeting an efficient level of resource provision that maximizes societal well-being. Such management requires knowledge of both costs and benefits associated with varying management options. This paper illustrates the challenge of estimating the benefits of an improvement in a marine resource when secondary data must be used, and when total economic benefits include non-use values. An example of non-use values is existence value, which is not contingent on resource extraction nor recreational activities. State of the art techniques for adapting secondary data, or benefit transfer, are reviewed in the context of increasing anadromous salmon for an example Western US policy scenario. An extensive summary of applicable primary studies is provided, compiling observations from several studies surveying several thousand Western US households. The studies consistently indicate a high willingness to pay for increased salmon abundance. Analytical techniques for transferring data are described, with calculation examples using published tools, focusing on meta-regression and structural benefit transfer. While these advanced benefit transfer tools offer perspective on benefits beyond what can be learned by relying on a single study, they also represent a variety of challenges limiting their usefulness. While transparently navigating these issues, a monetized estimate of increased salmon for the policy case is provided, along with discussion on interpreting benefit transfer techniques and their results more generally. From this synthesis, several suggestions are also made for future primary salmon valuation studies.

  12. Understanding tobacco control policy at the national level: bridging the gap between public policy and tobacco control advocacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc C. Willemsen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background While some countries have advanced tobacco control policies, other countries struggle to adopt and implement FCTC's measures. This presentation uncovers the main factors that explain such variations, taking insights from public policy and political science as a starting point for a case study. Methods A case study of tobacco control policy making in the Netherlands, covering the period from the 1960s until the present. The study consisted of a systematic search and analysis of documents and proceedings of parliamentary debates on tobacco policy, supplemented with 22 interviews with key informants from the government, health organisations, politicians, and the tobacco industry. In addition, documents from the Truth Tobacco Industry Documents database, pertaining to the influence of the tobacco industry on Dutch policy making, were analysed. Results The Dutch government started relatively late to regulate tobacco. The choices in tobacco control policy making at the national level and the tempo in which they are made are explained by the interaction of the five main elements of the tobacco control policy making process: Relatively stable context factors (constitutional structures, 'rules of the policy making game', national cultural values Relatively dynamic context factors (regime changes, EU regulation and FCTC guidelines, changing social norms, public support Transfer of ideas (availability and interpretation of scientific evidence Pro and anti-tobacco control networks and coalitions (their organisational and lobby strength Agenda-setting (changes in problem definition, issue framing, media advocacy Conclusions Despite worldwide convergence of tobacco control policies, accelerated by the ratification of the FCTC treaty by most nations, governments develop approaches to tobacco control in line with cultural values, ideological preferences and specific national institutional arrangements. There is no one-size-fits-all approach. The

  13. Family and gender policies in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlung, Liera

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The NorSpaR project aims to analyse the main public policy initiatives by which Norway and Spain cope with the new social and economic challenges derived from the so-called New Social Risks (NSR. Although both countries present significant differences in their institutional settings (such as Spanish EU membership, or its belonging to diverse welfare regimes types (Norway is generally included in the Nordic regime, while Spain is part of the Mediterranean one, both countries share a common interest in addressing the aforementioned challenges while maintaining social cohesion. In the last decade, governments in both countries have tried to respond to those challenges by reforming their labour markets, adapting their unemployment schemes, as well as their gender, family and long-term care policies. The analysis covered in this project includes three areas of public policy addressing NSR. First, dependency is one of the most daunting challenges for post-industrial societies experiencing population ageing and with an increasing number of frail people in need of care. This situation is forcing governments to rethink their long-term care policies. Second, family and gender public programs need to respond to the growing difficulties of families in reconciling professional and family life. Third, in the transition to a post-industrial order, and in a context of mass unemployment, social protection systems have a renewed prominence. Along with the so-called passive policies offering financial support to the unemployed, active labour market policies are geared to put people back into work. In our analysis we try to find answers to the following questions: What are the challenges that each of these policies have been trying to address in recent years? How have these policies evolved? What kinds of reforms have been implemented, and which ones have been neglected? Have the policy goals and targets of welfare programs been modified in any significant way

  14. Unemployment and activation policies in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barth, Erling

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The NorSpaR project aims to analyse the main public policy initiatives by which Norway and Spain cope with the new social and economic challenges derived from the so-called New Social Risks (NSR. Although both countries present significant differences in their institutional settings (such as Spanish EU membership, or its belonging to diverse welfare regimes types (Norway is generally included in the Nordic regime, while Spain is part of the Mediterranean one, both countries share a common interest in addressing the aforementioned challenges while maintaining social cohesion. In the last decade, governments in both countries have tried to respond to those challenges by reforming their labour markets, adapting their unemployment schemes, as well as their gender, family and long-term care policies. The analysis covered in this project includes three areas of public policy addressing NSR. First, dependency is one of the most daunting challenges for post-industrial societies experiencing population ageing and with an increasing number of frail people in need of care. This situation is forcing governments to rethink their long-term care policies. Second, family and gender public programs need to respond to the growing difficulties of families in reconciling professional and family life. Third, in the transition to a post-industrial order, and in a context of mass unemployment, social protection systems have a renewed prominence. Along with the so-called passive policies offering financial support to the unemployed, active labour market policies are geared to put people back into work. In our analysis we try to find answers to the following questions: What are the challenges that each of these policies have been trying to address in recent years? How have these policies evolved? What kinds of reforms have been implemented, and which ones have been neglected? Have the policy goals and targets of welfare programs been modified in any significant way

  15. Atmospheric sciences transfer between research advances and energy-policy assessments (ASTRAEA). Final report, 1 April 1996--31 December 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slinn, W.G.N.

    1997-12-10

    Consistent with the prime goal of the ASTRAEA project, as given in its peer-reviewed proposal, this final report is an informal report to DOE managers about a perceived DOE management problem, specifically, lack of vision in DOE`s Atmospheric Chemistry Program (ACP). After presenting a review of relevant, current literature, the author suggests a framework for conceiving new visions for ACP, namely, multidisciplinary research for energy policy, tackling tough (e.g., nonlinear) problems as a team, ahead of political curves. Two example visions for ACP are then described, called herein the CITIES Project (the Comprehensive Inventory of Trace Inhalants from Energy Sources Project) and the OCEAN Project (the Ocean-Circulation Energy-Aerosol Nonlinearities Project). Finally, the author suggests methods for DOE to provide ACP with needed vision.

  16. DISCUSSANT'S COMMENTS FOR AMERICAN AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS ASSOCIATION ANNUAL MEETING, SELECTED PAPERS SESSION SP-2BB: "FOOD DEMAND, FOOD POLICY, AND FOOD MARKET ISSUES"

    OpenAIRE

    Jonk, Yvonne

    1998-01-01

    These papers investigate issues in food demand, food processing, and food markets. Policy issues are examined, both in the context of the food stamp program in the domestic market and the industrial policy options in the food sector in emerging Central European economies. The Effect of an Electronic Benefit Transfer (EBT) System on Food Expenditure of Food Stamp Recipients: Evidence from the Maryland Statewide Implementation, J. William Levedahl. Incorporating Nutrients in Food Demand Analysi...

  17. Digital Citizenship within Global Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searson, Michael; Hancock, Marsali; Soheil, Nusrat; Shepherd, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    EduSummIT 2013 featured a working group that examined digital citizenship within a global context. Group members recognized that, given today's international, regional, political, and social dynamics, the notion of "global" might be more aspirational than practical. The development of informed policies and practices serving and involving…

  18. Development of innovation complexes as a mechanism of technologies transfer and an instrument of social-economic policy in the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Sukhovey

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article is developed a role of innovation complexes of a region at the base of analysis of foreign and domestic experience of organization science-technological complexes. Main reasons, braking innovation transformations in Russia are cleared. For example of Russia it is shown, that unsystematic forming objects of innovation infrastructure without interaction with needs of development region and state its science-technical and industrial potential do not taken to positive change at economy and do not help to activation of innovation processes. Peculiarity different innovation complexes as instrument of social-economic policy, its participation at decision, those actual problems as overcoming of decline traditional branches of industry, forming high-tech sector, rise of outlaying districts, rise of competitive ability of industry were cleared. It is given special attention to possibility of innovation complexes as effective mechanism passing of technologies, allowing to create favorable conditions to subjects of innovation activity and to speed up process “research — production”. Measures to foundation of effective innovation infrastructure as one conditions of acceleration innovation development in Russia are offered.

  19. The environmental public policy context in the prevention and control aspects of oil incidents for the exploration and production phases in Brazil; O contexto das politicas publicas ambientais nos aspectos de prevencao e controle dos incidentes com oleo durante as etapas de exploracao e producao de petroleo no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifert Junior, Carlos Alberto; Walter, Tatiana; Nicolodi, Joao Luis [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), RS (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    It is not possible to state that Brazil is unprepared to respond oil incidents emergencies, in Coastal Zone, Continental Shelf and EEZ oil E and P, without an analysis with clear premises. First, we need to understand the context that lays this question, which it is not limited in the National Contingency Plan, as lately evidenced in media. Thus, we note that Brazil has a complex political and legal arrangements targeted to oil incidents prevention and control. In this context, comes this paper, in order to reveal this curtain, listing actors, legislation and other aspects that underlie the public policy governance in reference. (author)

  20. Equity Impacts of Environmental Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio M. Bento

    2013-01-01

    This article surveys recent literature on the equity impacts of environmental policy. We focus on studies that look at the distribution of costs and benefits of alternative environmental policies. We also examine potentially important trade-offs between efficiency and equity that arise in the context of environmental policy, as well as transition effects. In many of the applications surveyed here, environmental policies can be regressive. Strategies are discussed to reduce this regressivity t...

  1. Environmental policy between repair and prevention. An introduction, with reference to the Federal Republic of Germany in the international context. Umweltpolitik zwischen Reparatur und Vorbeugung. Eine Einfuehrung am Beispiel Bundesrepublik im internationalen Kontext

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaeser, B

    1989-01-01

    With reference to the Federal Republic of Germany, the author first of all describes the origin and development of a national environmental policy and its instruments. Subsequently, selected problem fields (air, water, soil, waste, chemicals) are dealt with in greater detail. Basic facts and issues of 'transfrontier environmental pollution' of an 'external policy for the environment', and of environmental policy in developing countries form the objects of the following chapters. At last the 'consequences for environmental strategies in industrialized and developing countries' are discussed. The author pleads for greater emphasis to be placed on ecological ethics and calls for a more preventively oriented, i.e. prospective and anticipatory, environmental policy. (orig.).

  2. Applying design thinking elsewhere : Organizational context matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, F.E.H.M.; Dorst, K.; Vermaas, P.E.

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution design thinking is taken as a transfer of design methods from product development to other domains. It is argued that the success of this transfer depends on the organisational context offered to design thinking in these other domains. We describe the application of design

  3. Can Social Protection Weaken Clientelism? Considering Conditional Cash Transfers as Political Reform in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Ranga Swamy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since poverty is often believed to be a root cause of clientelism, government policies to reduce poverty should also help to reduce clientelism. However, scholars studying clientelism are more likely to view social policy as a potential resource for clientelist politicians. This article examines this paradox in the Philippine context by offering a general framework to identify when social welfare policies are likely to reduce clientelism, and by applying this framework to the Philippines, focusing on the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino conditional cash transfer programme, or Pantawid. I argue that the policies that are most likely to undercut clientelism are universal social protection policies that provide poor families with security, although these are the least acceptable to middle-class taxpayers. This is exemplified by the Philippines, which has tended to introduce social policies that increase the scope for clientelism by making discretionary allocation more likely, rather than policies that offer income security to the poor. The Pantawid programme attempts to overcome these problems by introducing a centralised targeting mechanism to identify beneficiaries and by guaranteeing the benefit to all eligible families, but like all conditional cash transfer programs falls short of guaranteed and universal social protection.

  4. O significado da anemia falciforme no contexto da 'política racial' do governo brasileiro 1995-2004 The significance of sickle cell anemia within the context of the Brazilian government's 'racial policies' (1995-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter H. Fry

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste ensaio é refletir sobre o significado social de um crescente interesse pela anemia falciforme e outras doenças associadas ao corpo negro no Brasil. Investigarei a rede discursiva que se formou em torno da doença no contexto social da sua produção. Começo resumindo a analise feita do antropólogo Melbourne Tapper, do programa de combate à Anemia Falciforme nos Estados Unidos nos anos 70, logo após as vitórias dos negros na luta pelos direitos civis. Tapper (1999 argumenta que uma das conseqüências dessa política foi a criação de uma comunidade negra cidadã e responsável. O Programa de Anemia Falciforme, desenvolvido pelo governo brasileiro com participação de ativistas negros a partir da década de 1990, também contribui para a formação e de uma "comunidade negra responsável". O argumento do artigo é que a anemia falciforme torna-se muito mais que uma doença a ser erradicada. O discurso em torno dela é um poderoso elemento no processo de naturalização da "raça negra" (e, por oposição lógica e política, da "raça branca" num país que se imaginava como biológica e culturalmente híbrido.This essay reflects on the social significance of growing interest in sickle cell anemia and other illnesses associated with the black body in Brazil. I explore the discursive network that has taken shape around the disease within the social context of its production. I first summarize anthropologist Melbourne Tapper's analysis of the United States program to fight sickle cell anemia in the 1970s, shortly after blacks attained victories in the civil rights movement. Tapper (1999 argues that one of the consequences of this policy was the creation of a responsible black citizenry. In the late 1990s, the Brazilian government developed a program (Programa de Anemia Falciforme that counted on the heavy participation of black activists and that also contributed to the formation of a "responsible black community. My

  5. 32 CFR 174.4 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COMMUNITIES AND ADDRESSING IMPACTS OF REALIGNMENT Policy § 174.4 Policy. It is DoD policy to: (a) Act... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 174.4 Section 174.4 National Defense... will, when feasible, be accelerated to facilitate the transfer of real property for community reuse. In...

  6. Nuclear safeguards policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    Claims have been made that Australia's nuclear safeguards policy, announced in 1977, has changed. However, examination of the texts of nuclear safeguards agreements negotiated by Australia shows that the policy has been implemented and adhered to. The purpose of these agreements is to obtain assurance that uranium exported is used exclusively for peaceful purposes. The questions of reprocessing, transfer to third countries and the application of IAEA safeguards are discussed

  7. Science transfer for development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salam, A.

    1985-01-01

    Despite the recent realisation that science and technology are the sustenance and major hope for economic betterment, the third world, barring a few countries like Argentina, Brazil, China and India, has taken to science - as distinct from technology - as only a marginal activity. This is also true of the aid - giving agencies of the richer countries, of the agencies of the UN and also unfortunately of the scientific communities of the developed countries which might naturally be expected to be the Third World's foremost allies. Policy makers, prestigious commissions (like the Brandt Commission) as well as aid-givers, speak uniformly of problems of technology transfer to the developing countries as if that is all that is involved. Very few within the developing world appear to stress that for long term effectiveness, technology transfers must always be accompanied by science transfers; that the science of today is the technology of tomorrow. Science transfer is effected by and to communities of scientists. Such communities (in developing countries) need building up to a critical size in their human resources and infrastructure. This building up calls for wise science policies, with long term commitment, generous patronage, self governance and free international contacts. Further, in our countries, the high level scientist must be allowed to play a role in nation building as an equal partner to the professional planner, the economist and the technologist. Few developing countries have promulgated such policies: few aid agencies have taken it as their mandate to encourage and help build up the scientific infrastructure. (author)

  8. Heat transfer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Heat transfer. Heat conduction in solid slab. Convective heat transfer. Non-linear temperature. variation due to flow. HEAT FLUX AT SURFACE. conduction/diffusion.

  9. Heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Heat transfer takes place between material systems as a result of a temperature difference. The transmission process involves energy conversions governed by the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The heat transfer proceeds from a high-temperature region to a low-temperature region, and because of the finite thermal potential, there is an increase in entropy. Thermodynamics, however, is concerned with equilibrium states, which includes thermal equilibrium, irrespective of the time necessary to attain these equilibrium states. But heat transfer is a result of thermal nonequilibrium conditions, therefore, the laws of thermodynamics alone cannot describe completely the heat transfer process. In practice, most engineering problems are concerned with the rate of heat transfer rather than the quantity of heat being transferred. Resort then is directed to the particular laws governing the transfer of heat. There are three distinct modes of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and radiation. Although these modes are discussed separately, all three types may occur simultaneously

  10. Bayesian policy reuse

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rosman, Benjamin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Keywords Policy Reuse · Reinforcement Learning · Online Learning · Online Bandits · Transfer Learning · Bayesian Optimisation · Bayesian Decision Theory. 1 Introduction As robots and software agents are becoming more ubiquitous in many applications.... The agent has access to a library of policies (pi1, pi2 and pi3), and has previously experienced a set of task instances (τ1, τ2, τ3, τ4), as well as samples of the utilities of the library policies on these instances (the black dots indicate the means...

  11. Globalization, crises and industrial policy; Globalizacion, crisis y politica industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vives, X.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper we review the fundamentals of industrial policy and its implementation in the European context. We also analyze the relationship between industrial policy and competition policy. (Author) 6 refs.

  12. Planning, climate change, and transportation : thoughts on policy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    Ideally, policy should be informed by social welfare analyses that carefully assess costs and benefits. In the context of : GHG policies, such analyses face particular challenges. The decades-long span of GHG policy-making will require introduction :...

  13. Transfer Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2014-01-01

    Against a background of rather mixed evidence about transfer pricing practices in multinational enterprises (MNEs) and varying attitudes on the part of tax authorities, this paper explores how multiple aims in transfer pricing can be pursued across four different transfer pricing regimes. A MNE h...

  14. Internet of Thing Context Awareness Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrick Ntalasha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to address key concept of context awareness in the Internet of Things (IoT domain by providing a model that proactively monitors behaviour of devices and services. This concept represents context into two types of information representation, namely set based and mark-up based ontology for the purpose of defining a context awareness model that accurately represent context in IoT. The context model is defined using Resources, Actors, Ambients and Policies. The model adds value to the next stage of IoT evolution by using context ambients to bring about predictive and proactive modelling in understanding context and context awareness. IoT context is represented using the hierarchical hybrid context model. This model provides a method of representing contexts based on context quality and availability in an entity relation hierarchy form. The model is exemplified using the context management application based on agents. Experimental results indicate that context awareness in the Internet of Things can be enhanced by the proposed model.

  15. Iran's energy policy current dilemmas and perspective for a sustainable energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massarrat, M.

    2005-01-01

    Iran is facing large challenges in the area of energy policy. In order to illuminate these challenges and the problems and possibilities they present, first I will analyze the current energy consumption patterns in Iran as well as the energy policy of the Iranian government-Including its atomic energy programs. Based on this analysis, I will then formulate alternative concepts for Iran's future energy and national security policy. The increase in energy usage in Iran is distinctly out of proportion with the development of economic productivity. Negative structural characteristics of this system are: first, an above-average energy intensity; second, an increase in energy consumption in the traffic sector; third, a high growth rate in the use of electrical energy; and lastly, an above-average amount of stress to the environment. Traditionally, Iran's energy policy has focused on satisfying the growing demand for energy by oil and, in the last fifteen years, by successively expanding natural gas. However, the further development of the natural gas supply only makes sense within the context of a holistic energy policy, which takes into account the principles of sustainable development. In the short term, such a policy would take advantage of both considerable energy-saving techniques, as well as potential renewable energy sources. In the long term, such a policy would strive for the complete transfer to renewable energy sources and technology. The atomic energy program is not a good answer to the future energy needs of Iran, and better solutions should be envisaged for Iran's legitimate security concerns

  16. Policies as translation: situating the transnational social policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Stubbs

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores some of the implications of the development of an anthropology or ethnography of the transnational dimensions of policies. The fi rst part explains the basic conceptual apparatus, in terms of policies as a generator of meanings. The second part examines policies as translation and explores its implications in terms of the transnationalization of the policies and, in particular, it seeks to contrast the translation of policies with more orthodox knowledge of policies transference. The third part explores the translation of policies through a refl exive ethnographical approach, analyzing a number of cases based on the practical involvement of the authors in social policies reforms in regions of the Central Europe and the East. The fourth part presents some conclusions and indicates certain theoretical and ethical objections that can and must be raised with regard to the presented approach.

  17. Optimal Policy in OG Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghiglino, Christian; Tvede, Mich

    for generations, through fiscal policy, i.e. monetary transfers and taxes. Both situations with and without time discounting are considered. It is shown that if the discount factor is suffciently close to one then the optimal policy stabilizes the economy, i.e. the equilibrium path has the turnpike property...

  18. Optimal Policy in OG Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghiglino, Christian; Tvede, Mich

    2000-01-01

    for generations, through fiscal policy, i.e., monetary transfers and taxes. Situations both with and without time discounting are considered. It is shown that if the discount factor is sufficiently close to one then the optimal policy stabilizes the economy, i.e. the equilibrium path has the turnpike property...

  19. Technology Policy and Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Bruce

    1983-01-01

    Current social and economic problems in the United Kingdom are placed in the context of long-term trends in labor economics and the impact of new technology. The relationship of technological change and economic recovery is analyzed. Policy implications and the university's role are discussed. (MSE)

  20. Climate policies in a second-best world-A case study on India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathy, Sandrine; Guivarch, Celine

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyze the potential for synergies between climate policies and development in a case study on India focusing on the power sector sub-optimalities. To do so, we use IMACLIM-R, a dynamic recursive energy-economy model that represents a second best world with market imperfections and short-run adjustments constraints along a long-term growth path. The analysis suggests (i) global carbon pricing induces prohibitive macroeconomic costs for the Indian economy, even in the case of significant financial transfers associated with a global cap-and-trade system and a 'Contraction and Convergence in 2100' allocation scheme and (ii) the most cost efficient climate policies are not uniform carbon pricing only. The implementation of domestic policies suited to the national context, for instance targeting sub-optimalities in the power sector for India, allows reducing significantly the macroeconomic costs induced by international mitigation policies.

  1. The energy geo-policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duval, M.

    2005-01-01

    This analysis updates and develops the analysis of the energy geo-policy proposed by the French Review of geo-policy. In this framework the today policies of the different sate and geographical actors, as suppliers and consumers of petroleum energy, are examined. Then the author analyzes the political problems resulting from, this petroleum energy transfers by earth and sea and the problems resulting specifically from the nuclear energy. The last part brings the author own opinions. (A.L.B.)

  2. Knowledge transfer isn’t simply transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dao, Li; Napier, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines micro dynamic aspects of knowledge sharing and learning in international joint venture settings. Learning of expatriate and local managers appears far more complex and mutually dependent than conventionally speculated in existing literature. The paper proposes that the effect ...... Danish and Vietnamese firms. The paper suggests that learning in IJVs, even in the context of one-way knowledge transfer from the foreign parent, should be managed in a mutual perspective and with thoughtful coordination of individual learning....... and outcome of knowledge transfer from joint venture parents and learning in IJVs are dependent on how individual managers (including both expatriate and local) learn, perceive their learning roles, and enact a learning agenda. Empirical evidence is drawn from two cases of international joint ventures between...

  3. Expressions of agency within complex policy structures: science teachers' experiences of education policy reforms in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Jim; Lidar, Malena; Lundqvist, Eva; Östman, Leif

    2018-03-01

    We explore the experiences of school science teachers as they enact three linked national curriculum and assessment policy reforms in Sweden. Our goal is to understand teachers' differing responses to these reforms. A sample of 13 teachers engaged in 2 interviews over a 6-9-month period. Interviews included exploration of professional background and school context, perceptions of the aims of the policy reforms and experiences of working with these reforms in the classroom. Analysis was guided by an individual-oriented sociocultural perspective on professional agency. Here teaching is conceptualised as an ongoing interplay between teachers' knowledge, skills and personal goals, and the characteristics of the social, institutional and policy settings in which they work. Our analysis shows that navigating the ensuing continuities and contradictions results in many different expressions of teacher agency, e.g. loss of autonomy and trust, pushing back, subversion, transfer of authority, and creative tensions. Typically, an individual teacher's enactment of these reforms involved several of these expressions of agency. We demonstrate that the sociocultural perspective provides insights into teachers' responses to education policy reform likely to be missed by studies that focus largely on individual teacher knowledge/beliefs about reform or skills in 'implementing' reform practices.

  4. Transfer Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Carsten; Rossing, Christian Plesner

    trade internally as the units have to decide what prices should be paid for such inter-unit transfers. One important challenge is to uncover the consequences that different transfer prices have on the willingness in the organizational units to coordinate activities and trade internally. At the same time...... the determination of transfer price will affect the size of the profit or loss in the organizational units and thus have an impact on the evaluation of managers‟ performance. In some instances the determination of transfer prices may lead to a disagreement between coordination of the organizational units...

  5. System characteristics of tourism policy

    OpenAIRE

    Marin Neshkov

    2012-01-01

    In the article there is made a systemic characterization and is clarified the nature of tourism policy. A more specific object of attention are some issues connected with the following: the interpretation of the interrelation „policy - tourism”; the clarific ation of the notion of „policy” in the context of tourism; theoretical overview and analysis of specialized literature; systemic characterization of policy in tourism and definition of the notion of „tourism policy”. There are defined and...

  6. Benefit Transfer Studies: Myths, Pragmatism, and Idealism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Kevin J.; Bergstrom, John C.

    1992-03-01

    Benefit transfer has been an ongoing, practical analysis for years in legal proceedings and government policy analyses where timely benefit estimates are critically dependent on the use of existing data. Most benefit transfer studies to date have been conducted behind closed doors and have not been open to scholarly review, and no systematic research agenda has been established to determine whether benefit transfer estimates are valid for public policy analyses. In this paper we propose a systematic, conceptual foundation for conducting benefit transfer studies, and suggest a research agenda to identify conditions under which valid benefit transfer estimates can be derived. We conclude, however, that this research agenda must be accompanied by improved conduct and reporting of original valuation studies before benefit transfer can become a widely used tool in public policy analyses.

  7. Energy and environmental policy in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibbard, P.J.; Tierney, S.F

    2003-08-15

    The energy and environmental policies of the United States are, like those of any nation, greatly shaped by a particular economic, institutional and political context. Understanding that context is useful for providing insights into the substance of US energy and environmental policy, the challenges and opportunities associated with it, and future potential for change. This article examines this policy context, focusing on the interaction of energy and environmental policies related to the electric industry. (author)

  8. Energy and environmental policy in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibbard, P.J.; Tierney, S.F.

    2003-08-01

    The energy and environmental policies of the United States are, like those of any nation, greatly shaped by a particular economic, institutional and political context. Understanding that context is useful for providing insights into the substance of US energy and environmental policy, the challenges and opportunities associated with it, and future potential for change. This article examines this policy context, focusing on the interaction of energy and environmental policies related to the electric industry. (author)

  9. A Nordic Perspective on Early Childhood Education and Care Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karila, Kirsti

    2012-01-01

    The national policies and historical roots of early childhood education (ECE) vary from society to society. In the Nordic countries, early childhood education and care (ECEC) policies have been built in the context of the welfare state. As such, they are closely connected to other welfare policy areas such as social policy, family policy and…

  10. Abusive Transfer Pricing and Economic Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Bo; Schindler, Dirk; Schjelderup, Guttorm

    This paper investigates how concealment costs of transfer pricing and the probability of detection affect transfer pricing and firm behavior. We find that transfer pricing in intermediate production factors does not affect real activity of a multinational firm if the firm’s concealment effort...... its production structure. A policy implication of the paper is that it should be preferable to condition audits on the amount of income shifted rather than on the distortion of the transfer price proper. Another policy finding is that improving the quality of tax law might be superior to higher...

  11. Giving Birth to a Good Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Untener, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the need for sound policies to help faculty members balance family life with career issues. Many human-resource policies--for example, those governing conflicts of interest--can be developed almost independently of other policies and have a high degree of transferability from one campus to the next. A…

  12. Evaluation and Policy Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Højlund, Steven

    2015-01-01

    This article examines how evaluation induces policy learning – a question largely neglected by the scholarly literature on evaluation and policy learning. Following a learner's perspective, the article attempts to ascertain who the learners are, and what, and how, learners actually learn from...... evaluations. In so doing, it focuses on what different types of learners actually learn within the context of the evaluation framework (the set of administrative structures defining the evaluation goals and process). Taking the empirical case of three EU programme evaluations, the patterns of policy learning...... emanating from them are examined. The findings are that only two types of actors involved in the evaluation are actually learning (programme units and external evaluators), that learners learn different things (programme overview, small-scale programme adjustments, policy change and evaluation methods...

  13. Cultural Context and Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏

    2009-01-01

    cultural context plays an important role in translation. Because translation is a cross-culture activity, the culture context that influ-ences translating is consisted of both the culture contexts of source language and target language. This article firstly analyzes the concept of context and cultural context, then according to the procedure of translating classifies cultural context into two stages and talks about how they respectively influence translating.

  14. Out-of-pocket expenditures for childbirth in the context of the Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) cash transfer program to promote facility births: who pays and how much? Studies from Madhya Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidney, Kristi; Salazar, Mariano; Marrone, Gaetano; Diwan, Vishal; DeCosta, Ayesha; Lindholm, Lars

    2016-05-03

    High out-of-pocket expenditures (OOPE) make delivery care difficult to access for a large proportion of India's population. Given that home deliveries increase the risk of maternal mortality, in 2005 the Indian Government implemented the Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) program to incentivize poor women to deliver in public health facilities by providing a cash transfer upon discharge. We study the OOPE among JSY beneficiaries and women who deliver at home, and predictors of OOPE in two districts of Madhya Pradesh. September 2013 to April 2015 a cross-sectional community-based survey was performed. All recently delivered women were interviewed to elicit delivery costs, socio-demographic characteristics and delivery related information. Most women (n = 1995, 84 %) delivered in JSY public health facility, the remaining 16 % (n = 386) delivered at home. Women who delivered under JSY program had a higher median, IQR OOPE ($8, 3-18) compared to home ($6, 2-13). Among JSY beneficiaries, poorest women had twice net gain ($20) versus wealthiest ($10) post cash transfer. Informal payments (64 %) and food/baby items (77 %) were the two most common sources of OOPE. OOPE made among JSY beneficiaries was pro-poor: poorer women made proportionally less expenditures compared to wealthier women. In an adjusted model, delivering in a JSY public facility increased odds of incurring expenditures (OR: 1.58, 95 % CI: 1.11-2.25) but at the same time to a 16 % (95 % CI: 0.73-0.96) decrease in the amount paid compared to home deliveries. OOPE is prevalent among JSY beneficiaries as well in home deliveries. In JSY, OOPE varies by income quintile: wealthier quintiles pay more OOPE. However the cash incentive is adequate enough to provide a net gain for all quintiles. OOPE was largely due to indirect costs and not direct medical payments. The program seems to be effective in providing financial protection for the most vulnerable groups.

  15. The Structural Underpinnings of Policy Learning: A Classroom Policy Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Stephen

    This paper investigates the relationship between the centrality of individual actors in a social network structure and their policy learning performance. In a dynamic comparable to real-world policy networks, results from a classroom simulation demonstrate a strong relationship between centrality in social learning networks and grade performance. Previous research indicates that social network centrality should have a positive effect on learning in other contexts and this link is tested in a policy learning context. Second, the distinction between collaborative learning versus information diffusion processes in policy learning is examined. Third, frequency of interaction is analyzed to determine whether consistent, frequent tics have a greater impact on the learning process. Finally, the data arc analyzed to determine if the benefits of centrality have limitations or thresholds when benefits no longer accrue. These results demonstrate the importance of network structure, and support a collaborative conceptualization of the policy learning process.

  16. Sustainability Policy and Environmental Policy

    OpenAIRE

    John C. V. Pezzey

    2001-01-01

    A theoretical, representative agent economy with a depletable resource stock, polluting emissions and productive capital is used to contrast environmental policy, which internalises externalised environmental values, with sustainability policy, which achieves some form of intergenerational equity. The obvious environmental policy comprises an emissions tax and a resource stock subsidy, each equal to the respective external cost or benefit. Sustainability policy comprises an incentive affectin...

  17. "Transfer Shock" or "Transfer Ecstasy?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickens, John M.

    The alleged characteristic drop in grade point average (GPA) of transfer students and the subsequent rise in GPA was investigated in this study. No statistically significant difference was found in first term junior year GPA between junior college transfers and native Florida State University students after the variance accounted for by the…

  18. TRANSFERABILITY OF ADMINISTRATIVE REFORMS: NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT AS AN EXAMPLE

    OpenAIRE

    Kapucu, Naim; Kösecik, Muhammet

    2002-01-01

    This article begins with the examination of models of analyzing the process of policy transfer, lesson drawing and policy streams with regard to initiating and directing factors and dynamics of the process. The paper continues with the assessment of administrative reform transferring by evaluating the necessity, major themes and transferability of administrative reform. Strategies for successful administrative reform transferring are emphasized. Special reference is given to New Public Manage...

  19. Peculiarities of Modern Foreign Policy of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V I Yourtaev

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is focuses on the analysis of the main peculiarities of modern foreign policy of iranian President M. Ahmadinejad, his constructive interaction concept in foreign policy. The formation of the nuclear gate for entering into world policy and basic problems of Iranian development as a new regional leader in the context of globalization and international relations transformation process are considered.

  20. Energy policy of France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revol, H.

    2001-01-01

    In November 1997, the French senate decided the creation of an inquiry commission in order to start up a study about the future of the French energy policy. The commission has interviewed the overall actors of the energy policy: ministers, heads of energy companies, higher officials, syndicates, consumer and environment protection associations, scientists and economists. The inquiry has been extended to other countries of the European community, and also to China, Japan, the USA and Canada. Despite various economical contexts and resources, all these countries have developed energy policies which aim at ensuring an energy independence and at supplying energy at the best price for a better economic competitiveness. This report presents first the French experience and the evolution of the French energy policy during the last 50 years with respect to the economical and political constraints encountered. The second part is a reflection about the principles that will guide the French energy policy in the context of deregulation of the European energy market and of the environmental constraints imposed by the Kyoto summit. Detailed proposals for the increase of the French energy independence are presented in conclusion of the report. (J.S.)

  1. Energy in Ireland: context, management and research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saintherant, N.; Lerouge, Ch.; Welcker, A.

    2008-01-01

    In the framework of the climatic change and the fossil fuels shortage, the Ireland defined a new energy policy. The priority is the energy supply security and the research programs present a great interest in the ocean energies, which represent an important source in Ireland. The report presents the context, the irish energy policy, the research programs on energy and the different actors of the domain. (A.L.B.)

  2. HRM Practices and MNC Knowledge Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minbaeva, Dana

    2003-01-01

    ABSTRACTThe paper supports the idea that organizations can institute various internal structures,policies and practices to overcome transfer barriers and facilitate the degree of knowledgetransfer. I discuss a framework for future empirical research on the relations betweenhuman resource management...

  3. Station Transfers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — ixed rail transit external system transfers for systems within the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. The modes of...

  4. Technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    On the base of technological opportunities and of the environmental target of the various sectors of energy system this paper intend to conjugate the opportunity/objective with economic and social development through technology transfer and information dissemination [it

  5. Implementing evidence-based policy in a network setting: road safety policy in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bax, Charlotte; de Jong, Martin; Koppenjan, Joop

    2010-01-01

    In the early 1990s, in order to improve road safety in The Netherlands, the Institute for Road Safety Research (SWOV) developed an evidence-based "Sustainable Safety" concept. Based on this concept, Dutch road safety policy, was seen as successful and as a best practice in Europe. In The Netherlands, the policy context has now changed from a sectoral policy setting towards a fragmented network in which safety is a facet of other transport-related policies. In this contribution, it is argued that the implementation strategy underlying Sustainable Safety should be aligned with the changed context. In order to explore the adjustments needed, two perspectives of policy implementation are discussed: (1) national evidence-based policies with sectoral implementation; and (2) decentralized negotiation on transport policy in which road safety is but one aspect. We argue that the latter approach matches the characteristics of the newly evolved policy context best, and conclude with recommendations for reformulating the implementation strategy.

  6. Building Fitnes for Transfer - Transfering Manufacturing Knowledge Across Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Madsen, Erik Skov; Riis, Jens Ove

    2009-01-01

    A key problem of manufacturing transfer remains that it is often difficult to explain what a company really knows, or why what it does really works. Still, practice indicates that attention is focused on planning the physical move and on the knowledge associated with normal operations. Introduction...... elements of dispatching capacity and places it in a model in a broader context....

  7. Accident on the gas transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heugel, J.

    1991-10-01

    An accident has happened on the Vivitron gas transfer system on the 7 th August 1991. This report presents the context, facts and inquiries, analyses the reasons and explains also how the repairing has been effected

  8. Privacy Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home → NLM Privacy Policy URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/privacy.html NLM Privacy Policy To ... out of cookies in the most popular browsers, http://www.usa.gov/optout_instructions.shtml. Please note ...

  9. World energy, technology and climate policy outlook 2030. WETO 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Starting from a set of clear key assumptions on economic activity, population and hydrocarbon resources, WETO describes in detail scenarios for the evolution of World and European energy systems, power generation technologies and impacts of climate change policy in the main world regions or countries.It presents a coherent framework to analyse the energy, technology and environment trends and issues over the period to 2030, focusing on Europe in a world context. Three of the key results of this work are: (1) in a Reference scenario, i.e.if no strong specific policy initiatives and measures are taken, world CO2 emissions are expected to double in 2030 and, with a share of 90%, fossil fuels will continue to dominate the energy system; (2) the great majority of the increase in oil production will come from OPEC countries and the EU will rely predominantly on natural gas imported from the CIS; and (3) as the largest growing energy demand and CO2 emissions originate from developing countries (mainly China and India), Europe will have to intensify its co-operation, particularly in terms of transfer of technologies. The analysis of long-term scenarios and a particular attention to the energy world context, is an important element for efficient energy, technology and environment policies towards a sustainable world

  10. The policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laruelle, Ph.; Snegaroff, Th.; Moreau, S.; Tellenne, C.; Brunel, S.

    2005-01-01

    Fourth chapter of the book on the geo-policy of the sustainable development, this chapter deal with the different and international policies concerned by the problem. The authors analyze the american energy attitude and policy, the economical equilibrium facing the environmental equilibrium for the european policy, the sanctified and sacrificed nature and the japanese attitude, India and China, the great fear of the 21 century and the sustainable development in Africa. (A.L.B.)

  11. Trade Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Murray Gibbs

    2007-01-01

    In an otherwise insightful and thoughtful article, Sebastian Pfotenhauer (Trade Policy Is Science Policy,” Issues, Fall 2013) might better have entitled his contribution “Trade Policy Needs to Be Reconciled with Science Policy.” The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the agreements administered by the World Trade Organization, particularly the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), were adopted to promote international trade and i...

  12. Supporting the diffusion of healthy public policy in Canada: the Prevention Policies Directory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politis, Christopher E; Halligan, Michelle H; Keen, Deb; Kerner, Jon F

    2014-01-01

    Healthy public policy plays an essential role in a comprehensive public health approach to preventing cancer and chronic disease. Public policies spread through the 'policy diffusion' process, enabling governments to learn from another's enacted policy solutions. The Prevention Policies Directory (the Directory), an online database of municipal, provincial/territorial, and federal cancer and chronic disease prevention policies from across Canada, was developed to facilitate the diffusion of healthy public policies and support the work of prevention researchers, practitioners, and policy specialists. This information technology solution was implemented, through a participatory engagement approach, as a communication channel or policy knowledge transfer tool. It also addressed the intrinsic shortcomings of environmental scanning for policy surveillance and monitoring. A combination of quantitative web metrics and qualitative anecdotal evidence have illustrated that the Directory is becoming an important tool for healthy public policy surveillance and policy diffusion in Canada.

  13. Postings and transfers in the Ghanaian health system: a study of health workforce governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwamie, Aku; Asiamah, Miriam; Schaaf, Marta; Agyepong, Irene Akua

    2017-09-15

    Decision-making on postings and transfers - that is, the geographic deployment of the health workforce - is a key element of health workforce governance. When poorly managed, postings and transfers result in maldistribution, absenteeism, and low morale. At stake is managing the balance between organisational (i.e., health system) and individual (i.e., staff preference) needs. The negotiation of this potential convergence or divergence of interests provides a window on practices of postings and transfers, and on the micro-practices of governance in health systems more generally. This article explores the policies and processes, and the interplay between formal and informal rules and norms which underpin postings and transfers practice in two rural districts in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight district managers and 87 frontline staff from the district health administration, district hospital, polyclinic, health centres and community outreach compounds across two districts. Interviews sought to understand how the postings and transfers process works in practice, factors in frontline staff and district manager decision-making, personal experiences in being posted, and study leave as a common strategy for obtaining transfers. Differential negotiation-spaces at regional and district level exist and inform postings and transfers in practice. This is in contrast to the formal cascaded rules set to govern decision-making authority for postings and transfers. Many frontline staff lack policy clarity of postings and transfers processes and thus 'test' the system through informal staff lobbying, compounding staff perception of the postings and transfers process as being unfair. District managers are also challenged with limited decision-space embedded in broader policy contexts of systemic hierarchy and resource dependence. This underscores the negotiation process as ongoing, rather than static. These findings point to

  14. Public policy and regulatory strategies in the global climate change context: opportunities and limitations of programmatic CDM; Politicas publicas e estrategias regulatorias no contexto das mudancas climaticas globais: oportunidades e limitacoes do MDL programatico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romeiro, Viviane; Simoes, Andre Felipe; Januzzi, Gilberto M. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos

    2008-07-01

    Carbon Market and its implications to reduce green house effect has been broadly discussed in the context of global climate change. This paper intends to analyze the new regulation of global climate change since Programmatic CDM was created, describing the proceeds to its implementation and discussing limitations and opportunities analyzes of this mechanism as a tool to obtain alternative energy source. It is discussed the challenges and opportunities about CDM programs in the international legal system in which Kyoto Protocol is based, as well as its contribution to attain benefits to global climate system and quality of social life. (author)

  15. Nuclear propulsion for orbital transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beale, G.A.; Lawrence, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    The state of the art in nuclear propulsion for orbital transfer is discussed. Cryogenic propulsion, electric propulsion, solar-thermal propulsion and direct nuclear propulsion are examined in this context. New technologies with exceptional promise are addressed, emphasizing the particle test bed nuclear engine

  16. The Global Context of Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine O'Rourke - Lang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This issue of Global Education Review examines the global context of disability and how in different geographic locations, socioeconomic factors, domestic policy, and disability perspectives impact access to special education services, and the types of resources and interventions available to individuals with diverse learning needs. Practices in countries including India, Singapore, South Korea, Hong Kong, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Liberia, and Kenya were studied and implications for meeting the special education needs for children and adults with disabilities and their families are discussed

  17. An integrated approach towards technology transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, L.F. van der; Eldering, C.J.J.; Putten, N.J. van

    2010-01-01

    In 2001 the European Space Agency (ESA), the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs and the Netherlands Organisation of applied scientific research TNO initiated the Dutch Technology Transfer Programme (DTTP). Since then, 'technology transfer' has been a relevant part of Dutch space policy. The DTTP

  18. Towards a more conservative energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forman, N.

    1977-01-01

    The subject is treated under the following headings: the meaning of energy policy; previous attempts to formulate United Kingdom energy policy; patterns of energy supply and demand (in the UK) (current and future); towards a more conservative energy policy (the use of energy in the various sectors, the conversion and distribution of energy (coal, nuclear power, electricity, oil and gas, renewable sources)); energy policy in broader perspective (international context, cost benefit assessments, contrasting patterns of energy use, ethical issues). (U.K.)

  19. Foreign Policy: Approaches, Levels Of Analysis, Dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Šoljan

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of key issues related to foreign policy and foreign policy theories in the wider context of political science. Discussing the origins and development of foreign policy analysis (FPA), as well as scholarly work produced over time, it argues that today FPA encompasses a variety of theoretical approaches, models and tools. These share the understanding that foreign policy outputs cannot be fully explained if analysis is confined to the systemic level. Furthermore,...

  20. Technology Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nanette R.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this summer's work was to attempt to enhance Technology Application Group (TAG) ability to measure the outcomes of its efforts to transfer NASA technology. By reviewing existing literature, by explaining the economic principles involved in evaluating the economic impact of technology transfer, and by investigating the LaRC processes our William & Mary team has been able to lead this important discussion. In reviewing the existing literature, we identified many of the metrics that are currently being used in the area of technology transfer. Learning about the LaRC technology transfer processes and the metrics currently used to track the transfer process enabled us to compare other R&D facilities to LaRC. We discuss and diagram impacts of technology transfer in the short run and the long run. Significantly, it serves as the basis for analysis and provides guidance in thinking about what the measurement objectives ought to be. By focusing on the SBIR Program, valuable information regarding the strengths and weaknesses of this LaRC program are to be gained. A survey was developed to ask probing questions regarding SBIR contractors' experience with the program. Specifically we are interested in finding out whether the SBIR Program is accomplishing its mission, if the SBIR companies are providing the needed innovations specified by NASA and to what extent those innovations have led to commercial success. We also developed a survey to ask COTR's, who are NASA employees acting as technical advisors to the SBIR contractors, the same type of questions, evaluating the successes and problems with the SBIR Program as they see it. This survey was developed to be implemented interactively on computer. It is our hope that the statistical and econometric studies that can be done on the data collected from all of these sources will provide insight regarding the direction to take in developing systematic evaluations of programs like the SBIR Program so that they can

  1. Public Policies of Solar Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouvier, Yves; Pehlivanian, Sophie; Teissier, Pierre; Chauvin-Michel, Marion; Forget, Marie; Raymond, Roland; Hyun Jin Yu, Julie; Popiolek, Nathalie; Guthleben, Denis

    2013-01-01

    This dossier about the Public Policies of Solar Energy brings together the presentations given in June 2013 at a colloquium organised by the Savoie university of Chambery (France): Introduction (Yves Bouvier, Sophie Pehlivanian); Passive solar energy in the shade of the French energy policy, 1945-1986 (Pierre Teissier); Solar architectures and energy policies in France: from oil crisis to solar crisis (Marion Chauvin-Michel); Sun in media, between promotion and contestation (Sophie Pehlivanian); Public policies of solar energy and territorial jurisdictions: the example of village photovoltaic power plants (Marie Forget); Energy social system and ordinary creative movement (Roland Raymond); The Historical Evolution of South Korea's Solar PV Policies since the 1970's (Julie Hyun Jin Yu, Nathalie Popiolek); Research on solar energy from yesterday to the present day: an historical project (Denis Guthleben); Photovoltaic power: public policies and economical consequences. The French choices in the international context - 1973-2013 (Alain Ricaud)

  2. French nuclear energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, A.; Bertel, E.

    1980-11-01

    The French energy policy is supported by a lucid view of the situation of our country and the constraints linked to the international context. This statement implies, the definition of a French policy or energy production essentially based on national resources, uranium, and especially for long term, technical know how which allows using plutonium in breeder reactors. This policy implies an effort in R and D, and industrial development of nuclear field, both in reactor construction and at all levels of fuel cycle. This coherent scientific and financial effort has been pursued since the beginning of years 60, and has placed France among the first nuclear countries in the world. Now this effort enables the mastership of a strong nuclear industry capable to assure the energy future of the country [fr

  3. Energy policy and externalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertel, E.; Fraser, P.

    2002-01-01

    External costs of energy have been assessed in a number of authoritative and reliable studies based upon widely accepted methodologies such as life cycle analysis (LCA). However, although those costs are recognised by most stakeholders and decision makers, results from analytical work on externalities and LCA studies are seldom used in policy making. The International Energy Agency (IEA) and the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) convened a joint workshop in November 2001 to offer experts and policy makers an opportunity to present state-of-the-art results from analytical work on externalities and debate issues related to the relevance of external costs and LCA for policy-making purposes. The findings from the workshop highlight the need for further work in the field and the potential rote of international organisations like the IEA and the NEA in this context. (authors)

  4. Dementia knowledge transfer project in a rural area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, C; Innes, A; Szymczynska, P; Forrest, L; Proctor, K

    2013-01-01

    Rural Scotland has an ageing population. There has been an increase in the number of people with dementia and as the proportion of people aged over 75 years continues to rise, this will increase still further. The Scottish Government has produced a dementia strategy and implementing this will be a challenge for rural Scotland. Transferring academic knowledge into practice is challenging. A Knowledge Transfer Partnership was formed between NHS Highland and the University of Stirling. A literature review was undertaken of the rural dementia literature; local services were surveyed and described; and interviews were undertaken with people with dementia and carers. Work was conducted on training, diagnostic service provision and local policy. Throughout the project, a collaborative approach was used, which aimed at the joint production of knowledge. Involving University staff in local service development had a substantial impact. Reviewing existing research knowledge and setting it in the context of local services, and of experience of service use, allowed the relevant priorities to be identified. As well as identifying training needs and providing training, the work influenced local decisions on diagnostic service design and standards, and on policy. This embedded engagement model appeared to produce more rapid change than traditional models of use of academic knowledge.

  5. Technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boury, C.

    1986-01-01

    This paper emphasizes in the specific areas of design, engineering and component production. This paper presents what Framatome has to offer in these areas and its export oriented philosophy. Then, a typical example of this technology transfer philosophy is the collaboration with the South Korean firm, Korea Heavy Industries Corporation (KHIC) for the supply of KNU 9 and KNU 10 power stations

  6. Electricity pricing policy: A neo-institutional, developmental and cross-national policy design map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koundinya, Sridarshan Umesh

    inter-relationships among various elements at different levels of the policy design map in a cross-national context. The study adds value with a comprehensive design map that helps to organize and give coherence to the policy prescriptions made by Indian experts as they converge on one institutional model. Thus the dissertation contributes to the transfer of knowledge about regulatory practice from the US to India.

  7. Theorising the Intersection of Public Policy and Personal Lives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2011-08-02

    Aug 2, 2011 ... Theorising the Intersection of Public Policy and. Personal ..... of implementation contexts, as a result of changing policy, the vagaries of life, and the ... which is greatly dependent on the vagaries of the seasons and climate. It is.

  8. Experimental Evidence on Transfer Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Quoc H.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We use incentivized economics experiments to test both the point predictions and comparative static predictions of optimal transfer pricing models, comparing behavior under varying conditions, including wholly versus partially-owned subsidiaries and different tariff and tax rates. As predicted, we find that transfer prices are responsive to relative tax and tariff rates as well as ownership proportions. Additionally, we examine convergence and learning in this setting. While individuals do not choose optimal transfer prices, their choices converge to optimal levels with experience. This paper thus makes two important contributions. First, by comparing behavior with theoretical predictions it provides evidence of whether (and when individuals set transfer prices optimally. Second, by comparing behavior under conditions of full and partial ownership it provides evidence on the impact of policy interventions (like regulating ownership proportions by MNEs on tax revenues.

  9. Technology transfer at TRIUMF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, P.

    1994-06-01

    TRIUMF is Canada's major national research centre for sub-atomic physics. For the past five or six years, there has been an increasing emphasis on commercializing the technology that has emanated from the scientific research at the facility. This emphasis on technology transfer reflects a national policy trend of the Canadian federal government, which is the funding source for the majority of the research performed at TRIUMF. In TRIUMF's case, however, the initiative and funding for the commercialization office came from the provincial, or local government. This paper will describe the evolution of technology transfer at the TRIUMF facility, identifying the theory, policies and practical procedures that have been developed and followed. It will also include TRIUMF's experiences in finding exploitable technologies, protecting those technologies, and locating and linking with suitable industry partners to commercialize the technologies. There will be a discussion of resource allocation, and how TRIUMF has endeavoured to establish a portfolio of projects of assorted risks and expected returns. (author). 15 refs

  10. Description logics of context

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Klarman, S

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We introduce Description Logics of Context (DLCs) - an extension of Description Logics (DLs) for context-based reasoning. Our approach descends from J. McCarthy's tradition of treating contexts as formal objects over which one can quantify...

  11. Evaluation of a municipal program of selective collection in the context of the national policy of solid waste - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i4.16095

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosimeire Suzuki Lima

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The selective collection of domestic solid waste occurs in a fragmented and disorganized way in most parts of Brazil, through the anonymous and precarious work of informal garbage collectors. The Brazilian law 12.305/2010 (BRASIL, 2010 meets the social need for a regulatory milestone of this waste management and makes it clear the intention to include recylable material collectors. This paper aimed to evaluate the implementation of a program of selective collection of domestic solid waste with the segregation at origin and the participation of recyclable material collectors in the assistance established by PNRS (National Policy for Solid Waste. The research strategy used was a case study of the program of selective waste collection in the city of Londrina, Paraná State, Brazil. The project included document analysis, visits to the sorting units and collection areas in order to monitor the data collection process. The adverse aspects of the program were concentrated on technological and health dimensions, and the positive aspects were concentrated on environmental, social, cultural, economic and political dimensions. This article provides important data and indicators to the authorities responsible for managing solid waste, leading to reflection on the actions to be implemented, and also instruction on investments and planning actions.  

  12. Assessment in the global context: From ozone to ecosystems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scholes, B

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This presentation discusses the assessment in the global context: From ozone to ecosystems. Process to evaluate the status of knowledge on complex problems relevant to societies. A key element of the contemporary science-policy interface....

  13. Economic Dimensions of Urban Agriculture in the Context of Urban ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Economic Dimensions of Urban Agriculture in the Context of Urban Poverty ... price crisis and the threat of climate change to traditional sources of food security. ... its 2017 call for proposals to establish Cyber Policy Centres in the Global South.

  14. Globalization and new policy concerns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Swinbank, Alan

    2015-01-01

    The transfer of some decision-making authority from the domestic to the supranational arena as a result of the establishment of the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 1995 potentially changed domestic policy dynamics. The WTO agreements reflect the trade policy concerns addressed in the Uruguay...... Round in the late 1980s and early 1990s. This article applies and adapts historical institutionalism to explain how international organizations may constrain and facilitate certain domestic policy options. It demonstrates that, while the WTO legal framework has become more receptive of environmental...

  15. Knowledge Management and Innovation Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhonny Antonio Pabón Cadavid

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of knowledge management strategies and administration of intellectual capital defines the effectiveness of national innovation policies. This article analyses the intersection between national policies and organizational strategies to transfer value to the economy and society. It studies the recent scholarship related to this intersection. The article introduces and defines the main concepts that are relevant for the understanding of the topic. The article stresses that democratization of education and knowledge production should be part of the analysis of innovation models. The importance of intellectual capital valuation is highlighted with special emphasis on national and organizational policies regarding human capital, knowledge assets and education.

  16. Globalization, Edu-Business and Network Governance: The Policy Sociology of Stephen J. Ball and Rethinking Education Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingard, Bob; Sellar, Sam

    2013-01-01

    This paper traces developments across Stephen J. Ball's policy sociology in education "oeuvre" and considers their implications for doing research on education policy today. It begins with an account of his policy sociology trilogy from the 1990s, which outlined his conception of the policy cycle consisting of the contexts of influence,…

  17. Technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Illustrated by the example of the FRG's nuclear energy exports, it is shown that the nuclear technology transfer leads to new dimensions of intergovernmental relations, which hold within themselves on account of multiple state-to-state, scientific, industrial and - last but not least - personal contacts the chance of far-reaching friendships between countries and people. If the chance is taken, this can also be seen as an important contribution towards maintaining the peace. (orig.) [de

  18. Transfer Zymography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Daniel; Wilson, Karl A; Tan-Wilson, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The technique described here, transfer zymography, was developed to overcome two limitations of conventional zymography. When proteolytic enzymes are resolved by nonreducing SDS-PAGE into a polyacrylamide gel with copolymerized protein substrate, the presence of the protein substrate can result in anomalous, often slower, migration of the protease and an estimated mass higher than its actual mass. A further drawback is that the presence of a high background of substrate protein interferes with proteomic analysis of the protease band by excision, tryptic digestion, and LC-MS/MS analysis. In transfer zymography, the proteolytic enzymes are resolved by conventional nonreducing SDS-PAGE, without protein substrate in the gel. The proteins in the resolving gel are then electrophoretically transferred to a receiving gel that contains the protein substrate, by a process similar to western blotting. The receiving gel is then processed in a manner similar to conventional zymography. SDS is removed by Triton X-100 and incubated in conditions suitable for the proteolytic activity. After protein staining, followed by destaining, bands representing regions with active protease are visualized as clear bands in a darkly stained background. For proteomic analysis, electrophoresis is carried out simultaneously on a second resolving gel, and the bands corresponding to the clear regions in the receiving gel after zymogram development are excised for proteomic analysis.

  19. Cash transfers and early childhood care and education in Zimbabwe: A critical inquiry to discourse, theory and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilton Nyamukapa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cash transfer based social protection can potentially contribute positively upon targeted beneficiaries on a variety of developmental aspects. This study explored the pilot and scaled-up phases of the Harmonised Social Cash Transfer program to determine impacts towards improving under-eight children’s access to food, education, and health services. Stories of significant change were gathered in retrospect from purposively sampled caregivers and children beneficiaries. Based on thematic and guided analysis, it emerged that the programmes’ theoretical and practical approaches renders the interventions less effective as impact assessment is narrowed to the early childhood cohort. This is furthered by relatively insufficient size of grants disbursed per household and commodity supply-side challenges. Consequently, a review to theoretical and practical tenets of the cash transfer approach becomes imminent in the Zimbabwean context. Targeting criteria needs refinement and supplemented with policy and multi-faceted public investment to address underlying limitations to impact on young children.

  20. Por uma política de acesso aos direitos das mulheres: sujeitos feministas em disputa no contexto brasileiro For a policy of access to women's rights: feminist subjects in dispute on the brazilian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Galvão Adrião

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Pretendemos discutir sobre o tema dos "sujeitos feministas no campo político", levando em consideração as transformações discursivas pelas quais o campo do movimento feminista vem passando nas ultimas décadas. Esses discursos mostravam-se consoantes com os contextos de embates políticos atuais, indicando: a novas ações no mundo político, b disputas pelo reconhecimento de novas identidades dentro do feminismo, e c a evidência da problemática do(s sujeito(s do feminismo como uma questão central para o movimento feminista brasileiro na atualidade. Nosso objetivo com este artigo é discutir essas mudanças no interior do feminismo brasileiro a partir da análise comparativa de dois momentos distintos: o 3º e o 10º 'Encontro Feminista Latino-Americano e do Caribe', ambos ocorridos no Brasil, respectivamente, em 1985 e em 2005.We intend to discuss the theme "feminist subjects on the political field", considering the discursive changes for which the field of the feminist movement has been going in the last decades. These discourses showed consonance with the contexts of the late political struggles, indicating: a new actions in the political environment, b disputes on recognizing new identities within the feminism, and c the evidence of the problematic of feminist subjects as a central theme for the Brazilian feminist movement nowadays. Our goal with this article is to discuss these changes within Brazilian feminism through the comparative analysis of two distinct moments: the third and the tenth 'Latin-American and Caribbean Feminist Meeting' both happened in Brazil, in 1985 and 2005, respectively.

  1. Challenges for decommissioning policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riotte, H.

    2007-01-01

    In the coming years, OECD member countries will be increasingly faced with the need to make appropriate provisions, in terms of policy, finance and management, for all aspects of decommissioning. Decommissioning requires regulatory approval and oversight, the directions of which are guided by national policy. In several instances, governments have only recently begun to address their approaches to decommissioning policy and regulation in national legislation, and international overviews of such approaches, which may eventually lead to international harmonization, are only now beginning to emerge. In parallel, policy and regulation have been evolving and a broadened competence has developed in relevant regulatory authorities. The challenge lying ahead is to establish a framework that will allow for the growth of nuclear industrial activities in competitive, globalized markets, while maintaining and assuring the safety of decommissioning for the public and for workers. Within this context, institutional arrangements, stakeholder issues, costs and funding, waste management and policies for release from regulatory control, as well as the availability of technologies and skills, need to be reviewed. (author)

  2. Enabling cleanup technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditmars, J. D.

    2002-01-01

    Technology transfer in the environmental restoration, or cleanup, area has been challenging. While there is little doubt that innovative technologies are needed to reduce the times, risks, and costs associated with the cleanup of federal sites, particularly those of the Departments of Energy (DOE) and Defense, the use of such technologies in actual cleanups has been relatively limited. There are, of course, many reasons why technologies do not reach the implementation phase or do not get transferred from developing entities to the user community. For example, many past cleanup contracts provided few incentives for performance that would compel a contractor to seek improvement via technology applications. While performance-based contracts are becoming more common, they alone will not drive increased technology applications. This paper focuses on some applications of cleanup methodologies and technologies that have been successful and are illustrative of a more general principle. The principle is at once obvious and not widely practiced. It is that, with few exceptions, innovative cleanup technologies are rarely implemented successfully alone but rather are implemented in the context of enabling processes and methodologies. And, since cleanup is conducted in a regulatory environment, the stage is better set for technology transfer when the context includes substantive interactions with the relevant stakeholders. Examples of this principle are drawn from Argonne National Laboratory's experiences in Adaptive Sampling and Analysis Programs (ASAPs), Precise Excavation, and the DOE Technology Connection (TechCon) Program. The lessons learned may be applicable to the continuing challenges posed by the cleanup and long-term stewardship of radioactive contaminants and unexploded ordnance (UXO) at federal sites

  3. Evaluation and Policy Analysis: A Communicative Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Wallat

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge for the next generation of students of human development is to help shape the paradigms by which we analyze and evaluate public policies for children and families. Advocates of building research and policy connections point to health care and stress experiences across home, school, and community as critical policy issues that expand the scope of contexts and outcomes studied. At a minimum, development researchers and practitioners will need to be well versed in available methods of inquiry; they will need to be "methodologically multilingual" when conducting evaluation and policy analysis, producing reports, and reporting their interpretations to consumer and policy audiences. This article suggests how traditional approaches to policy inquiry can be reconsidered in light of these research inquiry and communicative skills needed by all policy researchers. A fifteen year review of both policy and discourse processes research is presented to suggest ways to conduct policy studies within a communicative framework.

  4. ENERGY POLICY

    OpenAIRE

    Avrupa Topluluğu Enstitüsü, Marmara Üniversitesi

    2015-01-01

    John Mitchell considers EU policies on energy supply security; Tera Allas on energy security of supply in the UK: the way forward; Peter Odell assesses public/private partnerships on the UKCS; Olivier Appert provides an overview of French energy policy.

  5. Imagining Another Context during Encoding Offsets Context-Dependent Forgetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masicampo, E. J.; Sahakyan, Lili

    2014-01-01

    We tested whether imagining another context during encoding would offset context-dependent forgetting. All participants studied a list of words in Context A. Participants who remained in Context A during the test recalled more than participants who were tested in another context (Context B), demonstrating the standard context-dependent forgetting…

  6. Transfer Pricing - An Innovative Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona MAXIM

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents transfer pricing and elements of drafting the transfer pricing file by the big companies. The transfer pricing procedure was founded based upon Order no. 442/2016 and the Fiscal Procedure Code and it represents a method upon which the tax base is transferred from a high tax country to a country with low taxation. This legislation outlines the conditions which companies must observe in order to draft the transfer pricing documentation and the significance thresholds. The purpose to draft a transfer pricing file is to reduce the differences between prices and market value and the actual results of company taxation. Economic double taxation occurs when tax authorities apply price adjustments because the company did not respect the principle of market value. Keeping records of transfer pricing and practicing a price aligned to market requirements contribute to an understanding of business development and the creation of appropriate tax planning. Taking into account all these aspects and the fact that any taxpayer is tempted to pay the lowest possible fees, tax havens become an option. In this context we can speak of a tax haven as a loophole in the use of the market price.

  7. Educational Values and Sexual Difference: Reality and educational policies in the Spanish context Educación en Valores y Diferencia Sexual:Realidad y Políticas Educativas en el Contexto Español

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Carrillo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the policies promoted during the conservatiSpanish government of the partido popular and the changes implemented by the 2002 Act of Educational quality and their impact on gender issues, in particular women’s human rights. This article will contend that the Act did not guarantee equality of opportunity for women. The 2000 Act’s objective was to search for solutions to contemporary technological changes and market criteria by implementing an educational reform oriented to “review, adjust and improve the life of schools”. To do so, the conservative government proposed that “quality” was the mechanism to “reach bigger social and economical progress”. This article concludes that the new socialist government, elected in March of 2004, must introduce an alternative model for the current transition, implementing both bold and transforming measures. Este artículo analiza para el contexto español las políticas promovidas en los últimos años por el gobierno conservador del partido popular y los cambios que conllevaron la entrada en vigor, en el 2002, de la Ley de Calidad de la Enseñanza. Los mismos no parecen garantizar la igualdad de oportunidades para las mujeres, pues nos encontramos ante una Ley cuya finalidad es buscar respuestas a los cambios tecnológicos y los criterios de mercado, llegando a afirmarse que las reformas educativas son necesarias para la “revisión, ajuste y mejora”, siendo la “calidad” el mecanismo para “el logro de cotas más elevadas de progreso social y económico”. A pesar de que la exposición de motivos de la Ley alude al bienestar individual y social –sin explicitar abiertamente el significado que les otorga-, los planteamientos neoliberales de las economías capitalistas se insertan en el discurso y se habla, como se ha indicado, de la necesidad de ajustes que en estas perspectivas no garantizan el avance en la lucha contra la exclusión y la

  8. International Transfer Pricing in Multinational Enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Christian Plesner; Cools, Martine; Rohde, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Current curricula in management accounting stress the role of transfer pricing as a tool for measuring the performance of responsibility centers and their managers. Recently, however, multinational enterprises (MNEs) have felt increasing pressure to comply with transfer pricing tax regulation...... of responsibility accounting. Specifically, the case study is a fictional MNE, allowing you to apply the OECD Guidelines in practice to cross-border transfers within an MNE, and to discuss the implications of tax-based transfer pricing for responsibility accounting. As a basis for working on the case study....... As a result, tax risk management considerations play a key role in the transfer pricing decisions of MNEs today. This case seeks to provide you with examples of the core principles of international transfer pricing, as well as to allow you to discuss international transfer pricing in the context...

  9. Gryffindor, Hufflepuff, Ravenclaw or Slytherin: Your Context influences Your Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindahl Thomassen, Mette; Williams Middleton, Karen; Breum Ramsgaard, Michael

    , little has been transferred into research of how educators and educational designers can actively work with their context. Implications With this study, we are introducing context as a design parameter for entrepreneurship educators. Nonetheless, there are still a number of unanswered questions...... environment for their students....

  10. Evaluation of Students' Understanding of Thermal Concepts in Everyday Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hye-Eun; Treagust, David F.; Yeo, Shelley; Zadnik, Marjan

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the underlying conceptual structure of the thermal concept evaluation (TCE) questionnaire, a pencil-and-paper instrument about everyday contexts of heat, temperature, and heat transfer, to investigate students' conceptual understanding of thermal concepts in everyday contexts across several school years and…

  11. Improving policy making through government-industry policy learning: The case of a novel Swedish policy framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stigson, Peter; Dotzauer, Erik; Yan Jinyue

    2009-01-01

    Climate change poses an unprecedented challenge for policy makers. This paper analyzes how industry sector policy expertise can contribute to improved policy making processes. Previous research has identified that policy making benefit by including non-governmental policy analysts in learning processes. Recent climate and energy policy developments, including amendments and the introduction of new initiatives, have rendered current policy regimes as novel to both governments and the industry. This increases business investment risk perceptions and may thus reduce the effectiveness and efficiency of the policy framework. In order to explore how government-industry policy learning can improve policy making in this context, this article studied the Swedish case. A literature survey analyzed how policy learning had been previously addressed, identifying that the current situation regarding novel policies had been overlooked. Interviews provided how industrial actors view Swedish policy implementation processes and participatory aspects thereof. The authors conclude that an increased involvement of the industry sector in policy design and management processes can be an important measure to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of climate and energy policies

  12. School Autonomy and 21st Century Learning: The Canadian Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Paul; da Costa, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on the policy and practice contexts for school autonomy and twenty-first century learning in Canadian provinces. Design/methodology/approach: This paper reports on an analysis of policies in Canadian provinces (particularly the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan). The authors review policies…

  13. Learning Outcomes in Professional Contexts in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prøitz, Tine S.; Havnes, Anton; Briggs, Mary; Scott, Ian

    2017-01-01

    With the policy of developing a transparent and competitive European higher education sector, learning outcomes (LOs) are attributed a foundation stone role in policy and curriculum development. A premise for their implementation is that they bear fundamental similarities across national, institutional or professional/disciplinary contexts. In…

  14. Data Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Parsons

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The first purpose of data policy should be to serve the objectives of the organization or project sponsoring the collection of the data. With research data, data policy should also serve the broader goals of advancing scientific and scholarly inquiry and society at large. This is especially true with government-funded data, which likely comprise the vast majority of research data. Data policy should address multiple issues, depending on the nature and objectives of the data. These issues include data access requirements, data preservation and stewardship requirements, standards and compliance mechanisms, data security issues, privacy and ethical concerns, and potentially even specific collection protocols and defined data flows. The specifics of different policies can vary dramatically, but all data policies need to address data access and preservation. Research data gain value with use and must therefore be accessible and preserved for future access. This article focuses on data access. While policy might address multiple issues, at a first level it must address where the data stand on what Lyon (2009 calls the continuum of openness. Making data as openly accessible as possible provides the greatest societal benefit, and a central purpose of data policy is to work toward ethically open data access. An open data regime not only maximizes the benefit of the data, it also simplifies most of the other issues around effective research data stewardship and infrastructure development.

  15. Can Social Inclusion Policies Reduce Health Inequalities in Sub-Saharan Africa?—A Rapid Policy Appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palha de Sousa, César A.D; Molomo, Boitumelo G

    2009-01-01

    The global resurgence of interest in the social determinants of health provides an opportunity for determined action on unacceptable and unjust health inequalities that exist within and between countries. This paper reviews three categories of social inclusion policies: cash-transfers; free social services; and specific institutional arrangements for programme integration in six selected countries—Botswana, Mozambique, South Africa, Ethiopia, Nigeria, and Zimbabwe. The policies were appraised as part of the Social Exclusion Knowledge Network (SEKN) set up under the auspices of the World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health. The paper highlights the development landscape in sub-Saharan Africa and presents available indicators of the scale of inequity in the six countries. A summary of the policies appraised is presented, including whether or what the impact of these policies has been on health inequalities. Cross-cutting benefits include poverty alleviation, notably among vulnerable children and youths, improved economic opportunities for disadvantaged households, reduction in access barriers to social services, and improved nutrition intake. The impact of these benefits, and hence the policies, on health status can only be inferred. Among the policies reviewed, weaknesses or constraints were in design and implementation. The policy design weaknesses include targeting criteria, their enforcement and latent costs, inadequate parti-cipation of the community and failure to take the cultural context into account. A major weakness of most policies was the lack of a monitoring and evaluation system, with clear indicators that incorporate system responsiveness. The policy implementation weaknesses include uneven regional implementation with rural areas worst affected; inadequate or poor administrative and implementation capacity; insufficient resources; problems of fraud and corruption; and lack of involvement of civil servants, exacerbating

  16. Can social inclusion policies reduce health inequalities in sub-Saharan Africa?--A rapid policy appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispel, Laetitia C; de Sousa, César A D Palha; Molomo, Boitumelo G

    2009-08-01

    The global resurgence of interest in the social determinants of health provides an opportunity for determined action on unacceptable and unjust health inequalities that exist within and between countries. This paper reviews three categories of social inclusion policies: cash-transfers; free social services; and specific institutional arrangements for programme integration in six selected countries--Botswana, Mozambique, South Africa, Ethiopia, Nigeria, and Zimbabwe. The policies were appraised as part of the Social Exclusion Knowledge Network (SEKN) set up under the auspices of the World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health. The paper highlights the development landscape in sub-Saharan Africa and presents available indicators of the scale of inequity in the six countries. A summary of the policies appraised is presented, including whether or what the impact of these policies has been on health inequalities. Cross-cutting benefits include poverty alleviation, notably among vulnerable children and youths, improved economic opportunities for disadvantaged households, reduction in access barriers to social services, and improved nutrition intake. The impact of these benefits, and hence the policies, on health status can only be inferred. Among the policies reviewed, weaknesses or constraints were in design and implementation. The policy design weaknesses include targeting criteria, their enforcement and latent costs, inadequate participation of the community and failure to take the cultural context into account. A major weakness of most policies was the lack of a monitoring and evaluation system, with clear indicators that incorporate system responsiveness. The policy implementation weaknesses include uneven regional implementation with rural areas worst affected; inadequate or poor administrative and implementation capacity; insufficient resources; problems of fraud and corruption; and lack of involvement of civil servants, exacerbating

  17. Caliper Context Annotation Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-30

    To understand the performance of parallel programs, developers need to be able to relate performance measurement data with context information, such as the call path / line numbers or iteration numbers where measurements were taken. Caliper provides a generic way to specify and collect multi-dimensional context information across the software stack, and provide ti to third-party measurement tools or write it into a file or database in the form of context streams.

  18. Technology Transfer in Poland: An Investment of U.S. Government, U.S. Corporate, and Polish Government Strategies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hays, Susan

    1998-01-01

    This case study examines how U.S. Government (USG) policy, U.S. corporate policy, and Polish government policy affect the strategy of technology transfer of military and/or dual-use technologies in Poland...

  19. Context Sensitive Health Informatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuziemsky, Craig; Nøhr, Christian; Aarts, Jos

    2013-01-01

    Context is a key consideration when designing and evaluating health information technology (HIT) and cannot be overstated. Unintended consequences are common post HIT implementation and even well designed technology may not achieve desired outcomes because of contextual issues. While context should...... be considered in the design and evaluation of health information systems (HISs) there is a shortcoming of empirical research on contextual aspects of HIT. This conference integrates the sociotechnical and Human-Centered-Design (HCD) approaches and showcases current research on context sensitive health...... informatics. The papers and presentations outlines theories and models for studying contextual issues and insights on how we can better design HIT to accommodate different healthcare contexts....

  20. Transfer of learning between 2D and 3D sources during infancy: Informing theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Rachel

    2010-06-01

    The ability to transfer learning across contexts is an adaptive skill that develops rapidly during early childhood. Learning from television is a specific instance of transfer of learning between a 2-Dimensional (2D) representation and a 3-Dimensional (3D) object. Understanding the conditions under which young children might accomplish this particular kind of transfer is important because by 2 years of age 90% of US children are viewing television on a daily basis. Recent research shows that children can imitate actions presented on television using the corresponding real-world objects, but this same research also shows that children learn less from television than they do from live demonstrations until they are at least 3 years old; termed the video deficit effect. At present, there is no coherent theory to account for the video deficit effect; how learning is disrupted by this change in context is poorly understood. The aims of the present review are (1) to review the conditions under which children transfer learning between 2D images and 3D objects during early childhood, and (2) to integrate developmental theories of memory processing into the transfer of learning from media literature using Hayne's (2004) developmental representational flexibility account. The review will conclude that studies on the transfer of learning between 2D and 3D sources have important theoretical implications for general developmental theories of cognitive development, and in particular the development of a flexible representational system, as well as policy implications for early education regarding the potential use and limitations of media as effective teaching tools during early childhood.