WorldWideScience

Sample records for policy system favoring

  1. [Who is against prevention? A map of policy actors favoring smoking in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero, Lluís; Villalbí, Joan Ramón; Gallego, Raquel

    2004-01-01

    For a comprehensive approach to policies on smoking, the map of actors related to tobacco and their political ties needs to be identified. The present article constitutes the first attempt at this task in Spain. Analysis of the press, industry publications, and interviews with key people. Active actors favoring smoking in Spain were identified and classified according to their characteristics, the sphere in which they act, and their preferred territorial arena. We identified tobacco companies (Altadis and Philip Morris dominate the market), tobacco trade organizations (tobacconists), front-line organizations created by the tobacco industry (The Smokers for Tolerance Club), organizations of tobacco growers, and processing companies. Distribution to retailers is dominated by Logista, owned by Altadis. Other sectors to take into account are vending companies and those manufacturing related products (cigarette paper, matches or lighters). The contacts of these actors with the public administration are reviewed, notable among which are the role of the Commissioner for the Tobacco Market, the Ministry of Agriculture, the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of the Economy. Ties were also found with employers' organizations, some political parties, and unions, as well as with other sectors with social influence such as the media and advertising sectors. The map of actors favoring smoking in Spain is complex and goes beyond the confines of the tobacco industry. Understanding this web is crucial to promoting comprehensive prevention policies.

  2. Are Press Depictions of Affordable Care Act Beneficiaries Favorable to Policy Durability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    status, age, gender, and race/ethnicity appear to receive little attention. Existing literature suggests that these portrayal patterns may both support and limit ACA durability. In favor of durability is that ACA beneficiaries are depicted in terms that have been associated with deservingness in past American social policy--particularly being cast as workers and insiders. Yet, the results also give three reasons for caution. First, ACA insurance-losers are also portrayed as deserving. Second, it is unclear how the portrayal patterns found may impact the durability of the ACA's efforts to cut insurance disparities by age, health status, and especially race/ethnicity. Third, portrayals' strong casting of beneficiaries as workers, and limited attention to beneficiaries' economic heterogeneity and to young adults, may do little to help cultivate beneficiary political engagement around the ACA.

  3. Policy Feedback System (PFS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Policy Feedback System (PFS) is a web application developed by the Office of Disability Policy Management Information (ODPMI) team that gathers empirical data...

  4. Policies in favor of the bicycle development.; Politiques en faveur du developpement du velo. Bonnes pratiques de villes europeennes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallar, J.P.; Kerveillan, A.

    2001-07-01

    This study presents, ten cases of european towns which realized a policy in favor of the bicycle development. With the incitation to the displacement on foot and the public transportation, it is a good and efficient way of environmental quality. For each case, the following points are presented: global policy of the local government, technical aspects and organization, economic, environmental aspects and behavior, future orientations and contacts. (A.L.B.)

  5. Favorable Decision Upholding Radioactive/Hazardous Mixed Waste Storage Civil Enforcement Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains a copy of the U.S. Court of Appeals (District of Columbia Circuit) decision in Edison Electric Institute, et al. v. EPA, No. 91-1586, which upheld the EPA's August 29, 1991, radioactive/hazardous 'mixed waste' storage civil enforcement policy

  6. THE EUROPEAN UNION’S EXTERNAL AFFAIRS POLICY – THE HIGH REPRESENTATIVE OF THE UNION FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS AND SECURITY POLICY – A FAVORABLE FRAMEWORK FOR CREATING A SINGLE VOICE FOR THE EUROPEAN DIPLOMATIC SYSTEM OR JUST A NEW BUREAUCRATIC STRUCTURE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Bogdan CALANCE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Starting with the Lisbon Treaty, which establishes the new European diplomatic landscape structure, this paper analyses the difference between the objectives expressed in the treaties governing the European Union's foreign policy, and the diplomatic European and international reality. The main objective of this paper is to reveal the extent in which the European Union runs a coherent and unified foreign policy, especially highlighting the problems faced by these institutions in the current international environment, after five years since the creation of the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, as well as the European External Action Service The results of this paper show that, although from a legal standpoint it was attempted to clearly outline how the Union's external policies should work, on a practical level, this area still faces difficulties in performing at its full capacity.

  7. PolicyNet Publication System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The PolicyNet Publication System project will merge the Oracle-based Policy Repository (POMS) and the SQL-Server CAMP system (MSOM) into a new system with an Oracle...

  8. Favorable effect of moderate dose caffeine on the skeletal system in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folwarczna, Joanna; Pytlik, Maria; Zych, Maria; Cegieła, Urszula; Kaczmarczyk-Sedlak, Ilona; Nowińska, Barbara; Sliwiński, Leszek

    2013-10-01

    Caffeine, a methylxanthine present in coffee, has been postulated to be responsible for an increased risk of osteoporosis in coffee drinkers; however, the data are inconsistent. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a moderate dose of caffeine on the skeletal system of rats with normal and decreased estrogen level (developing osteoporosis due to estrogen deficiency). The experiments were carried out on mature nonovariectomized and ovariectomized Wistar rats, divided into control rats and rats receiving caffeine once daily, 20 mg/kg p.o., for 4 wk. Serum bone turnover markers, bone mass, mass of bone mineral, calcium and phosphorus content, histomorphometric parameters, and bone mechanical properties were examined. Caffeine favorably affected the skeletal system of ovariectomized rats, slightly inhibiting the development of bone changes induced by estrogen deficiency (increasing bone mineralization, and improving the strength and structure of cancellous bone). Moreover, it favorably affected mechanical properties of compact bone. There were no significant effects of caffeine in rats with normal estrogen levels. In conclusion, results of the present study indicate that low-to-moderate caffeine intake may exert some beneficial effects on the skeletal system of mature organisms. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Displacement policy favoring the walk in the towns. Actions of european towns; Politiques de deplacement favorisant la marche a pied en ville. Actions de villes europeenne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallar, J.P.; Wagenaar, D.

    2003-07-01

    Many towns in Europe began policies favoring the walk. By an evaluation of the actions realized, this study presents the results in four main topics: the planning, the organization, the communication and public information, the evaluation of the initiatives and the perspectives. (A.L.B.)

  10. Favorable circulatory system outcomes as adjuvant traditional Chinese medicine (TCM treatment for cerebrovascular diseases in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsienhsueh Elley Chiu

    Full Text Available This study searches the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD used in a previous project, aiming for reconstructing possible cerebrovascular disease-related groups (DRG,and estimating the costs between cerebrovascular disease and related diseases.We conducted a nationwide retrospective cohort study in stroke inpatients, we examined the overall costs in 3 municipalities in Taiwan, by evaluating the possible costs of the expecting diagnosis related group (DRG by using the international classification of diseases version-9 (ICD-9 system, and the overall analysis of the re-admission population that received traditional Chinese medicine (TCM treatment and those who did not.The trend demonstrated that the non-participant costs were consistent with the ICD-9 categories (430 to 437 because similarities existed between years 2006 to 2007. Among the TCM patients, a wide variation and additional costs were found compared to non-TCM patients during these 2 years. The average re-admission duration was significantly shorter for TCM patients, especially those initially diagnosed with ICD 434 during the first admission. In addition, TCM patients demonstrated more severe general symptoms, which incurred high conventional treatment costs, and could result in re-admission for numerous reasons. However, in Disease 7 of ICD-9 category, representing the circulatory system was most prevalent in non-TCM inpatients, which was the leading cause of re-admission.We concluded that favorable circulatory system outcomes were in adjuvant TCM treatment inpatients, there were less re-admission for circulatory system events and a two-third reduction of re-admission within ICD-9 code 430 to 437, compared to non-TCM ones. However, there were shorter re-admission duration other than circulatory system events by means of unfavorable baseline condition.

  11. System characteristics of tourism policy

    OpenAIRE

    Marin Neshkov

    2012-01-01

    In the article there is made a systemic characterization and is clarified the nature of tourism policy. A more specific object of attention are some issues connected with the following: the interpretation of the interrelation „policy - tourism”; the clarific ation of the notion of „policy” in the context of tourism; theoretical overview and analysis of specialized literature; systemic characterization of policy in tourism and definition of the notion of „tourism policy”. There are defined and...

  12. Public Health and Legal Arguments in Favor of a Policy to Cap the Portion Sizes of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Christina A; Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2015-11-01

    In 2012, the New York City Board of Health passed a regulation prohibiting the sale of sugar-sweetened beverages in containers above 16 ounces in the city's food service establishments. The beverage industry and various retailers sued the city to prevent enforcement of the law, arguing that the board had overstepped its authority. In June 2014, the state's highest court agreed and struck down the regulation. Here we report the results of a content analysis of the public testimony related to the case submitted to the New York City Department of Mental Health and Hygiene. We identified major arguments in support of and against the sugar-sweetened beverage portion limit policy. We offer legal and scientific arguments that challenge the major anti-policy arguments and contend that, although this policy was not implemented in New York City, it can be legally pursued by other legislatures.

  13. Balanced bilinguals favor lexical processing in their opaque language and conversion system in their shallow language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buetler, Karin A; de León Rodríguez, Diego; Laganaro, Marina; Müri, René; Nyffeler, Thomas; Spierer, Lucas; Annoni, Jean-Marie

    2015-11-01

    Referred to as orthographic depth, the degree of consistency of grapheme/phoneme correspondences varies across languages from high in shallow orthographies to low in deep orthographies. The present study investigates the impact of orthographic depth on reading route by analyzing evoked potentials to words in a deep (French) and shallow (German) language presented to highly proficient bilinguals. ERP analyses to German and French words revealed significant topographic modulations 240-280 ms post-stimulus onset, indicative of distinct brain networks engaged in reading over this time window. Source estimations revealed that these effects stemmed from modulations of left insular, inferior frontal and dorsolateral regions (German>French) previously associated to phonological processing. Our results show that reading in a shallow language was associated to a stronger engagement of phonological pathways than reading in a deep language. Thus, the lexical pathways favored in word reading are reinforced by phonological networks more strongly in the shallow than deep orthography. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Decentralized supply of electricity is a favorable development. Analysis of system options and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faber, A.; Ros, J.; De Boer-Meulman, P.; In 't Groen, B.

    2010-01-01

    Decentralised electricity systems can provide a significant contribution to the development of environment-friendly techniques such as solar power and electric vehicles. However, there are also some obstacles and uncertainties. Not only does the balancing of supply and demand constitute an important challenge; the development of smart grids is also crucial to the improvement of reliability and system efficiency of the decentralized grids. Especially the distribution of investment costs is a decisive factor for the success rate of decentralized electricity systems. What is more, it is still uncertain whether an extensive decentralized system would have a higher score in cleanliness, affordability and reliability than a future central system. The system variants can be distinguished based on the deployment of six possible energy technologies for the future: PV (solar power), micro-CHP, small-scale wind energy in the built environment (urban wind), heat pumps, electric vehicles and air-conditioning. [nl

  15. Macroprudential policies on banking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionuţ Mircea

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The macro-prudential tool kit deals with those risks that contributed to the outbreak of the last economic crisis or materialized during it, namely the excessive credit growth, the excessive price assets growth driven by the credit growth, the excessive increase in leverage, the liquidity risk, the volatile capital flows and foreign currency lending. It can be argued that macro-prudential policies underestimated the systemic risks mentioned, although they were better positioned than other policies aimed at financial stability. The impact of macro-prudential policy is difficult to be determined, because is usually applied simultaneously and in the same direction with other macroeconomic policies. Thus, it is necessary a better coordination of policies and a better calibration of instruments in order to get a quick and effective response during their implementation. These must be in line with national specificities and the risks identified. Until the new macro-prudential tools introduced by Basel III will prove their effectiveness, the issue of finding proper tools is still open.

  16. The Rush to Remediate: Long Term Performance Favors Passive Systems at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, D.; Cauthen, K.; Beul, R. R.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the long-term performance of groundwater remediation systems at SRS and compare active versus passive systems. The presentation will focus on the limited effectiveness of active pump and treat systems and share the experience with more passive and natural systems such as soil vapor extraction, barometric pumping, bioremediation, and phytoremediation. Three remediation projects are presented. In each case the waste source is capped with clay or synthetic barriers; however, extensive groundwater contamination remains. The first project features the cleanup of the largest plume in the United States. The second project entails solvent and vinyl chloride remediation of groundwater beneath a hazardous waste landfill. The third project discusses tritium containment from a 160-acre radioactive waste disposal area. Special emphasis is placed on performance data from alternate technology cleanup. The goals are to share remediation data, successes and lessons learned, while making a case for passive systems use in groundwater remediation

  17. Expression of CD64 on Circulating Neutrophils Favoring Systemic Inflammatory Status in Erythema Nodosum Leprosum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Schmitz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Erythema Nodosum Leprosum (ENL is an immune reaction in leprosy that aggravates the patient´s clinical condition. ENL presents systemic symptoms of an acute infectious syndrome with high leukocytosis and intense malaise clinically similar to sepsis. The treatment of ENL patients requires immunosuppression and thus needs to be early and efficient to prevent both disabilities and permanent nerve damage. Some patients experience multiple episodes of ENL and prolonged use of immunosuppressive drugs may lead to serious adverse effects. Thalidomide treatment is extremely effective at ameliorating ENL symptoms. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the efficacy of thalidomide in ENL, including the inhibition of TNF production. Given its teratogenicity, thalidomide is prohibitive for women of childbearing age. A rational search for molecular targets during ENL episodes is essential to better understand the disease mechanisms involved, which may also lead to the discovery of new drugs and diagnostic tests. Previous studies have demonstrated that IFN-γ and GM-CSF, involved in the induction of CD64 expression, increase during ENL. The aim of the present study was to investigate CD64 expression during ENL and whether thalidomide treatment modulated its expression. Leprosy patients were allocated to one of five groups: (1 Lepromatous leprosy, (2 Borderline leprosy, (3 Reversal reaction, (4 ENL, and (5 ENL 7 days after thalidomide treatment. The present study demonstrated that CD64 mRNA and protein were expressed in ENL lesions and that thalidomide treatment reduced CD64 expression and neutrophil infiltrates-a hallmark of ENL. We also showed that ENL blood neutrophils exclusively expressed CD64 on the cell surface and that thalidomide diminished overall expression. Patient classification based on clinical symptoms found that severe ENL presented high levels of neutrophil CD64. Collectively, these data revealed that ENL neutrophils express CD64

  18. Atomistic modeling to investigate the favored composition for metallic glass formation in the Ca-Mg-Ni ternary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, S; Li, J H; An, S M; Li, S N; Liu, B X

    2017-05-17

    A realistic interatomic potential was first constructed for the Ca-Mg-Ni system and then applied to Monte Carlo simulations to predict the favored composition for metallic glass formation in the ternary system. The simulations not only predict a hexagonal composition region, within which the Ca-Mg-Ni metallic glass formation is energetically favored, but also pinpoint an optimized sub-region within which the amorphization driving force, i.e. the energy difference between the solid solution and disordered phase, is larger than that outside. The simulations further reveal that the physical origin of glass formation is the solid solution collapsing when the solute atom exceeds the critical solid solubility. Further structural analysis indicates that the pentagonal bi-pyramids dominate in the optimized sub-region. The large atomic size difference between Ca, Mg and Ni extends the short-range landscape and facilitates the development of a hybridized packing model in the medium-range, and eventually enhancing the glass formation in the system. The predictions are well supported by the experimental observations reported so far, and could be of help for designing the ternary glass formation.

  19. Policy Driven Development: Flexible Policy Insertion for Large Scale Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demchak, Barry; Krüger, Ingolf

    2012-07-01

    The success of a software system depends critically on how well it reflects and adapts to stakeholder requirements. Traditional development methods often frustrate stakeholders by creating long latencies between requirement articulation and system deployment, especially in large scale systems. One source of latency is the maintenance of policy decisions encoded directly into system workflows at development time, including those involving access control and feature set selection. We created the Policy Driven Development (PDD) methodology to address these development latencies by enabling the flexible injection of decision points into existing workflows at runtime , thus enabling policy composition that integrates requirements furnished by multiple, oblivious stakeholder groups. Using PDD, we designed and implemented a production cyberinfrastructure that demonstrates policy and workflow injection that quickly implements stakeholder requirements, including features not contemplated in the original system design. PDD provides a path to quickly and cost effectively evolve such applications over a long lifetime.

  20. Policies for Reintegrating Crop and Livestock Systems: A Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael D. Garrett

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The reintegration of crop and livestock systems within the same land area has the potential to improve soil quality and reduce water and air pollution, while maintaining high yields and reducing risk. In this study, we characterize the degree to which federal policies in three major global food production regions that span a range of socioeconomic contexts, Brazil, New Zealand, and the United States, incentivize or disincentivize the use of integrated crop and livestock practices (ICLS. Our analysis indicates that Brazil and New Zealand have the most favorable policy environment for ICLS, while the United States provides the least favorable environment. The balance of policy incentives and disincentives across our three cases studies mirrors current patterns of ICLS usage. Brazil and New Zealand have both undergone a trend toward mixed crop livestock systems in recent years, while the United States has transitioned rapidly toward continuous crop and livestock production. If transitions to ICLS are desired, particularly in the United States, it will be necessary to change agricultural, trade, environmental, biofuels, and food safety policies that currently buffer farmers from risk, provide too few incentives for pollution reduction, and restrict the presence of animals in crop areas. It will also be necessary to invest more in research and development in all countries to identify the most profitable ICLS technologies in each region.

  1. Dynamic Systems Modeling in Educational System Design & Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groff, Jennifer Sterling

    2013-01-01

    Over the last several hundred years, local and national educational systems have evolved from relatively simple systems to incredibly complex, interdependent, policy-laden structures, to which many question their value, effectiveness, and direction they are headed. System Dynamics is a field of analysis used to guide policy and system design in…

  2. Public Policies Analysis and the Prince System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behxhet Brajshori

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Public Policies present governmental sectorial policies and according to several scholars those are defined based on "what does the Government do". In fact, those are mandatory state's principles for the Government that aims the implementation of the strategy, objectives and Government's goals in the function of its promises' fulfilment towards the electors and all of the country's citizens. Public Policies Analysis has to do with the monitoring of government's agenda which directly can influence on a specific community. The idea of public policies analysis in linked with the need that the Government through statistical data has to prove what is being worked. Public Policies Analysis evolves in terms of design, implementation and public policies' effects. One of the methods for predicting the probability that a specifi c public policy will be implemented or not, is the Prince System. The Prince System, actually, presents a technique for assessing the relative support or opposition to a particular policy from individuals, groups or organizations.

  3. Policy development: a more formal systems approach process

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greeff, AP

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Policy developers in corporate and governance roles are often developing policies by means of policy development cycles that typically resemble a system life cycle approach. Although policy development cycles often vary, depending on the applicable...

  4. Is Model-Based Development a Favorable Approach for Complex and Safety-Critical Computer Systems on Commercial Aircraft?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo

    2014-01-01

    A system is safety-critical if its failure can endanger human life or cause significant damage to property or the environment. State-of-the-art computer systems on commercial aircraft are highly complex, software-intensive, functionally integrated, and network-centric systems of systems. Ensuring that such systems are safe and comply with existing safety regulations is costly and time-consuming as the level of rigor in the development process, especially the validation and verification activities, is determined by considerations of system complexity and safety criticality. A significant degree of care and deep insight into the operational principles of these systems is required to ensure adequate coverage of all design implications relevant to system safety. Model-based development methodologies, methods, tools, and techniques facilitate collaboration and enable the use of common design artifacts among groups dealing with different aspects of the development of a system. This paper examines the application of model-based development to complex and safety-critical aircraft computer systems. Benefits and detriments are identified and an overall assessment of the approach is given.

  5. Innovation system approach to agricultural development: Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several other relevant macro economic and meso level factors such as policy and legislative framework and nature of human capital, physical infrastructure, finance and investment climate and system for facilitating information and knowledge flows were not considered as important. The emerging reforms and changes in

  6. Policy and System Approach (PSA: A primer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakant Lahariya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of public health challenges have emerged at global and national level in the last two decades. The response to these challenges has rarely been swift and often “knee-jerk.” The national and state level program officials responsible for the activities often apportion the blame on weak health systems or fragmented health service delivery mechanisms, amongst other. In India, the viral illnesses (including those due to dengue and chikungunya are becoming the increasing realities. The Public health response of early identification, disease surveillance, reporting and the preventive and curative measures, remains suboptimal. The health challenges which require multidimensional interventions are usuallyattempted to be resolved through piece meal solutions. This article proposes “policy and system approach (PSA,” combining concepts of “Health in all policies” for intersectoral coordination and “health system approach” for intra-sectoral tackling of the emerging and existing health challenges.

  7. Entrepreneurship policies and the development of regional innovation systems: theory, policy and practice

    OpenAIRE

    Lawton-Smith, Helen

    2017-01-01

    The paper provides an appraisal and synthesis of the regional innovation systems approach in relation to entrepreneurship policies. It addresses a number of areas where theoretical, empirical and policy-based issues are currently under-developed in relation to entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship policy.

  8. Information Security Policy Modeling for Network Security Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Sergeevich Chernyavskiy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Policy management for network security systems (NSSs is one of the most topical issues of network security management. Incorrect configurations of NSSs lead to system outages and appearance of vulnerabilities. Moreover, policy management process is a time-consuming task, which includes significant amount of manual work. These factors reduce efficiency of NSSs’ utilization. The paper discusses peculiarities of policy management process and existing approaches to policy modeling, presents a model aimed to formalize policies for NSSs independently on NSSs’ platforms and select the most effective NSSs for implementation of the policies.

  9. The role of policy for documentary systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mata Caravaca

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the role that policies have in guaranteeing the quality of creation, management and maintenance of digital resources, and offers an overview of national and international policies and standards that refer to records management and digital preservation. Finally, the article illustrates ICCROM’s records management manual and its digital preservation policy and strategy.

  10. Policies for 100% Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Frede

    2014-01-01

    The official Danish energy policy goal is both to increase the wind power share of electricity consumption from 33% in 2014 to 50% by 2020 and to have a 100% renewable energy based energy system by 2050. This is a huge technological change from stored, scarce and polluting fossil fuels...... to fluctuating, abundant and clean energy sources. “Stored” fossil fuels can be used when needed; fluctuating energy sources must be captured when available and transformed to meet the energy needs of society in the right amounts and at the right time. We are amidst this change. Renewable energy has come of age...... and is no longer a minor technology experimenting in the corner of the energy scene, but has become a large new technology taking away considerable market shares from the old fossil fuel technologies....

  11. 75 FR 60749 - Policy on Payment System Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM [Docket No. OP-1345] Policy on Payment System Risk AGENCY: Board of... of its Policy on Payment System Risk (PSR). The revisions explicitly recognize the role of the... payment flows for the banking system, while also helping to mitigate credit exposures of the Federal...

  12. Optimizing Input/Output Using Adaptive File System Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhyastha, Tara M.; Elford, Christopher L.; Reed, Daniel A.

    1996-01-01

    Parallel input/output characterization studies and experiments with flexible resource management algorithms indicate that adaptivity is crucial to file system performance. In this paper we propose an automatic technique for selecting and refining file system policies based on application access patterns and execution environment. An automatic classification framework allows the file system to select appropriate caching and pre-fetching policies, while performance sensors provide feedback used to tune policy parameters for specific system environments. To illustrate the potential performance improvements possible using adaptive file system policies, we present results from experiments involving classification-based and performance-based steering.

  13. Sectoral Systems and Innovation and Technology Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Malerba

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo usa o conceito de sistema setorial de inovações que permite a utilização de uma visão multidimensional integrada e dinâmica da inovação em seus setores. Sistemas setoriais apresentam três dimensões que afetam tanto a geração e adoção de novas tecnologias quanto a organização da inovação e produção nos seguintes níveis setoriais: conhecimento, atores e redes e instituições. O artigo discute o escopo conceitual dos sistemas setoriais, apresenta cinco análises de setores principais e examina suas tendências principais, seus desafios e suas transformações. O artigo também oferece uma análise sobre implicações políticas públicas e sugestões do ponto de vista do sistema setorial de inovações.This paper uses the concept of sectoral system of innovation which aims to provide a multidimensional, integrated and dynamic view of innovation in sectors. Sectoral systems have three dimensions that affect the generation and adoption of new technologies and the organization of innovation and production at the sectoral level: knowledge (and the related boundaries, actors and networks, and institutions. The paper discusses the conceptual framework of sectoral systems, presents five main sectoral systems and examines their major trends, challenges and transformation. The paper then examines which are the main policy implications and indications in a sectoral system perspective.

  14. ¿Quién se opone a la prevención?: Un mapa de los actores pro tabaco en España Who is against prevention?: A map of policy actors favoring smoking in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluís Granero

    2004-10-01

    the press, industry publications, and interviews with key people. Active actors favoring smoking in Spain were identified and classified according to their characteristics, the sphere in which they act, and their preferred territorial arena. Results: We identified tobacco companies (Altadis and Philip Morris dominate the market, tobacco trade organizations (tobacconists, front-line organizations created by the tobacco industry (The Smokers for Tolerance Club, organizations of tobacco growers, and processing companies. Distribution to retailers is dominated by Logista, owned by Altadis. Other sectors to take into account are vending companies and those manufacturing related products (cigarette paper, matches or lighters. The contacts of these actors with the public administration are reviewed, notable among which are the role of the Commissioner for the Tobacco Market, the Ministry of Agriculture, the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of the Economy. Ties were also found with employers' organizations, some political parties, and unions, as well as with other sectors with social influence such as the media and advertising sectors. Conclusions: The map of actors favoring smoking in Spain is complex and goes beyond the confines of the tobacco industry. Understanding this web is crucial to promoting comprehensive prevention policies.

  15. Policy analysis of multi-actor systems

    CERN Document Server

    Enserink, Bert; Kwakkel, Jan; Thissen, Wil; Koppenjan, Joop; Bots, Pieter

    2010-01-01

    Policy analysts love solving complex problems. Their favorite problems are not just technically complex but also characterized by the presence of many different social actors that hold conflicting interests, objectives, and perceptions and act strategically to get the best out of a problem situation. This book offers guidance for policy analysts who want to assess if and how their analysis could be of help, based on the premise that problem formulation is the cornerstone in addressing complex problems. This book positions policy analysis within the theories on processes of policy making, and f

  16. Information systems security policies: a survey in Portuguese public administration

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Isabel Maria; Sá-Soares, Filipe de

    2010-01-01

    Information Systems Security is a relevant factor for present organizations. Among the security measures, policies assume a central role in literature. However, there is a reduced number of empirical studies about the adoption of information systems security policies. This paper contributes to mitigate this flaw by presenting the results of a survey in the adoption of Information System Security Policies in Local Public Administration in Portugal. The results are discussed in light of literat...

  17. Tank waste remediation system characterization project quality policies. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trimble, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    These Quality Policies (QPs) describe the Quality Management System of the Tank Waste Characterization Project (hereafter referred to as the Characterization Project), Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS), Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The Quality Policies and quality requirements described herein are binding on all Characterization Project organizations. To achieve quality, the Characterization Project management team shall implement this Characterization Project Quality Management System

  18. A research on EU trade policy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Sitong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The EU is the world’s largest trade group, occupying an important position in the world trade in goods and services, especially in the field of service trade. The EU trade in services exports and imports are higher than the United States and Japan, and the EU is the world’s largest capital output and input group, and the world’s largest foreign aid providers. With the deepening of the European integration process, Europe’s position in the world economy and trade is on the rise. Therefore, the EU’s trade policy has increasingly become the focus of attention. From the vertical point of view, research directions can be divided into trade in goods policy, trade in services policy, international direct investment policy, trade-related intellectual property policy four field. In this paper, the four vertical areas are illustrated as the focus of the study.

  19. Transport systems and policies for sustainable cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučić Vukan R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The 20th century witnessed revolutionary developments in transportation technology with major impacts on the form and character of cities. Progress in increasing mobility has brought many benefits as well as serious problems, particularly in deterioration of livability and sustainability. Increase in auto ownership led to serious problems of chronic traffic congestion. Attempts to rebuild cities to provide full accommodation of private cars have led to serious problems of auto dependency and deterioration of cities. Experiences from recent decades have shown that urban transportation is much more complex than usually realized. Livable and sustainable cities require policies that lead to creation of a transportation system consisting of coordinated public transit and private cars, and encourages pedestrian environment and efficient, sustainable development. Great need for better understanding of the complex problems in implementing incentives and disincentives aimed at achieving intermodal balance is emphasized. Brief descriptions of cities which lead in achieving such livable conditions is followed by a summary of lessons and guidelines for the future.

  20. Energy policies and renewable energy systems monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Nisio, Attilio; Savino, Mario; Spadavecchia, Maurizio [Electrical and Electronic Measurements Laboratory, Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering - Politecnico di Bari, Bari (Italy)], e-mails: dinisio@misure.poliba.it, savino@misure.poliba.it, spadavecchia@misure.poliba.it

    2011-07-01

    Full text: The global energy crisis is forcing every country worldwide to review its policies on energy. The environmental disaster at Japan's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant has accelerated this process. Many people around the world are citing the disaster as evidence that nuclear power would endanger the survival of mankind on earth and should be banned. Today we need to focus more substantially on energy saving, especially using smart devices with low power consumption. We have also to review the approach to the exploitation of energy and move from a philosophy 'from the ground to the subsurface' to another 'from the earth to the sun'. This paper highlights the increasing importance of solar power in meeting energy needs while achieving security of supply and minimising carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. It deals also with the development of solar power plants, which require a supervisory control system that improves their efficiency and reliability. (author)

  1. New package systems for EDF recycling policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leboucher, I.; Michels, L.; Hugon, F.C. [COGEMA Logistics (AREVA Group) (France); Penoty, C. [EDF - Electricite de France (France); Froment, A. [COGEMA (AREVA Group) (France)

    2004-07-01

    Since the beginning of the nineties, EDF (Electricite France) has been carrying out a policy towards increasing burn-up. As a consequence and to keep energetic performances of the MOX (Mixed OXide uranium and plutonium) fresh fuel assemblies at parity with UO2 fuel, the concentration in plutonium increased up to 7.1%, soon up to 8.65% and even more. To take into account the increased dose rate and the increased thermal power of these MOX fresh fuels in the transportation system, COGEMA LOGISTICS designed, manufactured and licensed the MX8 package to replace the previous packaging. Simultaneously new high-secured transport system was developed. Due to the capacity of the reactor pool, the spent fuel assemblies must be evacuated with a short cooling time and high residual power. Because of the neutron source of these future MOX spent fuel assemblies, the TNa12/2 packaging, which has been in operation since 1980's to transport UO2 or MOX spent fuel to COGEMA La Hague, from EDF, other European and Japanese NPP lacks flexibility. COGEMA LOGISTICS is designing a new cask (TN trademark 112) to transport the future EDF MOX spent fuel assemblies. The TN trademark 112 has to comply with the 1996 edition of the IAEA transport regulations and with the transport and handling equipment presently used for the transport of spent fuel in France. It can be loaded with 12 assemblies, either MOX or UO2. This paper gives a description of two packages belonging to the new generation: - one for fresh MOX fuel assemblies transportation, used on EDF's power plants for MOX reloads, - one for spent MOX fuel assemblies transportation, presently under development with a first transport planned for mid-2007.

  2. New package systems for EDF recycling policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leboucher, I.; Michels, L.; Hugon, F.C.; Penoty, C.; Froment, A.

    2004-01-01

    Since the beginning of the nineties, EDF (Electricite France) has been carrying out a policy towards increasing burn-up. As a consequence and to keep energetic performances of the MOX (Mixed OXide uranium and plutonium) fresh fuel assemblies at parity with UO2 fuel, the concentration in plutonium increased up to 7.1%, soon up to 8.65% and even more. To take into account the increased dose rate and the increased thermal power of these MOX fresh fuels in the transportation system, COGEMA LOGISTICS designed, manufactured and licensed the MX8 package to replace the previous packaging. Simultaneously new high-secured transport system was developed. Due to the capacity of the reactor pool, the spent fuel assemblies must be evacuated with a short cooling time and high residual power. Because of the neutron source of these future MOX spent fuel assemblies, the TN 12/2 packaging, which has been in operation since 1980's to transport UO2 or MOX spent fuel to COGEMA La Hague, from EDF, other European and Japanese NPP lacks flexibility. COGEMA LOGISTICS is designing a new cask (TN trademark 112) to transport the future EDF MOX spent fuel assemblies. The TN trademark 112 has to comply with the 1996 edition of the IAEA transport regulations and with the transport and handling equipment presently used for the transport of spent fuel in France. It can be loaded with 12 assemblies, either MOX or UO2. This paper gives a description of two packages belonging to the new generation: - one for fresh MOX fuel assemblies transportation, used on EDF's power plants for MOX reloads, - one for spent MOX fuel assemblies transportation, presently under development with a first transport planned for mid-2007

  3. Economic and policy analysis for solar PV systems in Indiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jinho; Tyner, Wallace E.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the energy market in the US and globally is expanding the production of renewable energy. Solar energy for electricity is also expanding in the US. Indiana is one of the states expanding solar energy with solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. Therefore, we conduct benefit cost analysis with several uncertain input variables to determine the economics of adopting solar PV systems in Indiana based on policy instruments that could increase adoption of solar PV systems. The specific objectives are analyses of the cost distribution of solar PV systems compared with grid electricity in homes and estimating the probability that solar can be cheaper than electricity from grids under different policy combinations. We first do the analysis under current policy and then the analysis under potential policy options for a variety of scenarios. Also, the results inform government policy makers on how effective the alternative policies for encouraging solar PV systems are. The results show that current policies are important in reducing the cost of solar PV systems. However, with current policies, there is only 50–50 chance of solar being cheaper than electricity from grids. If potential policies are implemented, solar PV systems can be more economical than grid electricity. - Highlights: • We investigate the economics of solar PV systems based on policy instruments. • We do scenario analyses under different combinations of policies. • We examine the probability of solar being cheaper than grid electricity for each scenario. • With current policies, there is 50–50 chance of solar being cheaper than the grid. • With depreciation and carbon tax, solar is much more economical than the grid

  4. Cultural Requirements of Policy Making System for Hijab and Dignity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Bagheri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Policy making and policy measures is important in the social system. occurs. Policy maker aimed to achieve cultural requirements of policy making system by interaction stale and society. After the Islamic Revolution of Iran. the strengths and weaknesses of the different levels of the system politically has been accompanied in the field of moral and sexual dignity and chastity, aside from the basic necessity of building systems - Iranian, coordination and harmony of the system was not relevant. That is in the realm of theoretical ideas and goals are expressed in practice, the relationship between logical and measurable programs are executed with the goals and policies have been developed. measures to improve processes, motivate and educate individuals and groups, and to monitor the development of information systems.

  5. Promotion of Agricultural Innovation Systems Approach: Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Policy Implications for Maize Extension and Advisory Services in Tanzania .... GDP, provides 85% of exports, and employs about 80% of the ... for agricultural development (URT, 2012). The study .... in Tanzania.A Dissertation for Award of.

  6. Health policy, health systems research and analysis capacity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Health Policy and Systems Research and Analysis (HPSR&A) is an applied science that deals with complexity as it tries to provide lessons, tools and methods to understand and improve health systems and health policy. It is defined by the kinds of questions asked rather than a particular methodology.

  7. Quality of Financial Policies and Financial System Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Udaibir S Das; Plamen Yossifov; Richard Podpiera; Dmitriy L Rozhkov

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we develop multi-country indices of financial system stress and quality of financial policies and use them in regression analysis of the determinants of financial stress. We find that countries with higher quality of financial policies are better able to contain the effects of macroeconomic pressures on the overall level of stress in the financial system. They are also in a better position to ensure sustainable development of the financial system.

  8. Macro-Prudential Policies to Mitigate Financial System Vulnerabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessens, S.; Ghosh, S.R.; Mihet, R.

    2014-01-01

    Macro-prudential policies aimed at mitigating systemic financial risks have become part of the policy toolkit in many emerging markets and some advanced countries. Their effectiveness and efficacy are not well-known, however. Using panel data regressions, we analyze how changes in balance sheets of

  9. A bivariate optimal replacement policy for a multistate repairable system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yuanlin; Yam, Richard C.M.; Zuo, Ming J.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a deteriorating simple repairable system with k+1 states, including k failure states and one working state, is studied. It is assumed that the system after repair is not 'as good as new' and the deterioration of the system is stochastic. We consider a bivariate replacement policy, denoted by (T,N), in which the system is replaced when its working age has reached T or the number of failures it has experienced has reached N, whichever occurs first. The objective is to determine the optimal replacement policy (T,N)* such that the long-run expected profit per unit time is maximized. The explicit expression of the long-run expected profit per unit time is derived and the corresponding optimal replacement policy can be determined analytically or numerically. We prove that the optimal policy (T,N)* is better than the optimal policy N* for a multistate simple repairable system. We also show that a general monotone process model for a multistate simple repairable system is equivalent to a geometric process model for a two-state simple repairable system in the sense that they have the same structure for the long-run expected profit (or cost) per unit time and the same optimal policy. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the theoretical results

  10. Biotechnology and Innovation Systems: The Role of Public Policy ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-02-29

    Feb 29, 2012 ... This book explores how policies targeting public research institutions, ... such approaches work under different economic and social conditions. ... innovation systems, higher education, and development will find this book an ...

  11. A condition-based maintenance policy for stochastically deteriorating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grall, A.; Berenguer, C.; Dieulle, L.

    2002-01-01

    We focus on the analytical modeling of a condition-based inspection/replacement policy for a stochastically and continuously deteriorating single-unit system. We consider both the replacement threshold and the inspection schedule as decision variables for this maintenance problem and we propose to implement the maintenance policy using a multi-level control-limit rule. In order to assess the performance of the proposed maintenance policy and to minimize the long run expected maintenance cost per unit time, a mathematical model for the maintained system cost is derived, supported by the existence of a stationary law for the maintained system state. Numerical experiments illustrate the performance of the proposed policy and confirm that the maintenance cost rate on an infinite horizon can be minimized by a joint optimization of the maintenance structure thresholds, or equivalently by a joint optimization of a system replacement threshold and the aperiodic inspection schedule

  12. Assessing youth policies. A system of indicators for local government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planas, Anna; Soler, Pere; Vilà, Montserrat

    2014-08-01

    In the current European climate of economic, financial and political crisis and the questioning of the welfare state, assessing public policies assume a primary and strategic relevance in clarifying the results and contributions of policy actions. In this article, we aim to present the current situation in relation to youth policy assessment so as to formulate a system of assessment indicators in the sphere of Spanish local government youth policy. A review is conducted of some of the principal contributions in the field of constructing indicators for evaluating youth policies. We have found that most of these evaluation tools exist on a national or state level and that there is a dearth of local or municipal tools. The article concludes with a concrete proposal for an assessment tool: the SIAPJove (Sistema d'Indicadors d'Avaluació per a les Polítiques Municipals de Joventut or System of Assessment Indicators for Local Government Youth Policies) (web page: http://siapjove.udg.edu/). It provides both quantitative and qualitative indicators for local youth policy managers to obtain assessment reports with relative ease in 12 possible areas for assessment within youth policy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Verification of Security Policy Enforcement in Enterprise Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Puneet; Stoller, Scott D.

    Many security requirements for enterprise systems can be expressed in a natural way as high-level access control policies. A high-level policy may refer to abstract information resources, independent of where the information is stored; it controls both direct and indirect accesses to the information; it may refer to the context of a request, i.e., the request’s path through the system; and its enforcement point and enforcement mechanism may be unspecified. Enforcement of a high-level policy may depend on the system architecture and the configurations of a variety of security mechanisms, such as firewalls, host login permissions, file permissions, DBMS access control, and application-specific security mechanisms. This paper presents a framework in which all of these can be conveniently and formally expressed, a method to verify that a high-level policy is enforced, and an algorithm to determine a trusted computing base for each resource.

  14. Cross-Layer Admission Control Policy for CDMA Beamforming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Wei

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel admission control (AC policy is proposed for the uplink of a cellular CDMA beamforming system. An approximated power control feasibility condition (PCFC, required by a cross-layer AC policy, is derived. This approximation, however, increases outage probability in the physical layer. A truncated automatic retransmission request (ARQ scheme is then employed to mitigate the outage problem. In this paper, we investigate the joint design of an AC policy and an ARQ-based outage mitigation algorithm in a cross-layer context. This paper provides a framework for joint AC design among physical, data-link, and network layers. This enables multiple quality-of-service (QoS requirements to be more flexibly used to optimize system performance. Numerical examples show that by appropriately choosing ARQ parameters, the proposed AC policy can achieve a significant performance gain in terms of reduced outage probability and increased system throughput, while simultaneously guaranteeing all the QoS requirements.

  15. Finland: Innovation Policy Tools under National Innovation System Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria A. Vorobeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the for a long time Finland’s national innovation system (NIS had been being one of the most successful and effective in the world. But some years ago the situation changed: Finland’s NIS run into system crisis. And today Finnish government tries to work out anticrisis innovation policy. So the purpose of this article is to show up the innovation policy instruments which are able put an end to the crisis and to determine conditions of their successful use. Methods: the article is based on the national innovation systems concept and government policy-mix aimed at the NIS development. Results: the authors show up how Finnish government looks for optimal policy-mix to overcome the crisis, demonstrate in details complementary components of the relevant innovation policy, describe conditions for their success and effectiveness to consider whether they are useful in other countries. Conclusions and Relevance: to overcome the NIS crisis the Finnish government uses such instruments as strategic programs of socio-economic development with targets which can’t be achieved without adequate high technology and innovative development complemented by incentives to make business innovate actively. The conditions of such policy success are: 1 such feature of Finnish society as all stakeholders of economic development consensus on one issue: the main factor of development are innovations; 2 anticrisis stage of Finnish innovative policy is based previously accumulated knowledge and know-how. 

  16. Globally reasoning about localised security policies in distributed systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez, Alejandro Mario

    In this report, we aim at establishing proper ways for model checking the global security of distributed systems, which are designed consisting of set of localised security policies that enforce specific issues about the security expected. The systems are formally specified following a syntax......, defined in detail in this report, and their behaviour is clearly established by the Semantics, also defined in detail in this report. The systems include the formal attachment of security policies into their locations, whose intended interactions are trapped by the policies, aiming at taking access...... control decisions of the system, and the Semantics also takes care of this. Using the Semantics, a Labelled Transition System (LTS) can be induced for every particular system, and over this LTS some model checking tasks could be done. We identify how this LTS is indeed obtained, and propose an alternative...

  17. Information System for Educational Policy and Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, J. C., Jr.

    Educational Information System (EIS) is a proposed computer-based data processing system to help schools solve current educational problems more efficiently. The system would allow for more effective administrative operations in student scheduling, financial accounting, and long range planning. It would also assist school trustees and others in…

  18. 21 CFR 203.34 - Policies and procedures; administrative systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... distribution security and audit system, including conducting random and for-cause audits of sales... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Policies and procedures; administrative systems...; administrative systems. Each manufacturer or authorized distributor of record that distributes drug samples shall...

  19. Tank waste remediation system characterization project quality policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Board, D.C.

    1997-01-01

    This quality plan describes the system used by Characterization Project management to achieve quality. This plan is comprised of eleven quality policies which, when taken together, form a management system deployed to achieve quality. This quality management system is based on the customer's quality requirements known as the 'RULE', 10 CFR 830.120, Quality Assurance

  20. A Policy Analysis of Public School Retirement Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Tara; Teeter, Matt

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this policy analysis was to examine the Missouri Public School Retirement System (PSRS). The team investigated the under-funding of PSRS, relating to sustainability and the feasibility of the system's use of one lever, contribution rate, to stabilize the retirement system, and to meet actuary needs and governmental requirements. The…

  1. A policy system for Grid Management and Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stagni, Federico; Santinelli, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Organizations using a Grid computing model are faced with non-traditional administrative challenges: the heterogeneous nature of the underlying resources requires professionals acting as Grid Administrators. Members of a Virtual Organization (VO) can use a subset of available resources and services in the grid infrastructure and in an ideal world, the more resources are exploited the better. In the real world, the less faulty services, the better: experienced Grid administrators apply procedures for adding and removing services, based on their status, as it is reported by an ever-growing set of monitoring tools. When a procedure is agreed and well-exercised, a formal policy could be derived. For this reason, using the DIRAC framework in the LHCb collaboration, we developed a policy system that can enforce management and operational policies, in a VO-specific fashion. A single policy makes an assessment on the status of a subject, relative to one or more monitoring information. Subjects of the policies are monitored entities of an established Grid ontology. The status of a same entity is evaluated against a number of policies, whose results are then combined by a Policy Decision Point. Such results are enforced in a Policy Enforcing Point, which provides plug-ins for actions, like raising alarms, sending notifications, automatic addition and removal of services and resources from the Grid mask. Policy results are shown in the web portal, and site-specific views are provided also. This innovative system provides advantages in terms of procedures automation, information aggregation and problem solving.

  2. A policy system for Grid Management and Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagni, Federico; Santinelli, Roberto; LHCb Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    Organizations using a Grid computing model are faced with non-traditional administrative challenges: the heterogeneous nature of the underlying resources requires professionals acting as Grid Administrators. Members of a Virtual Organization (VO) can use a subset of available resources and services in the grid infrastructure and in an ideal world, the more resoures are exploited the better. In the real world, the less faulty services, the better: experienced Grid administrators apply procedures for adding and removing services, based on their status, as it is reported by an ever-growing set of monitoring tools. When a procedure is agreed and well-exercised, a formal policy could be derived. For this reason, using the DIRAC framework in the LHCb collaboration, we developed a policy system that can enforce management and operational policies, in a VO-specific fashion. A single policy makes an assessment on the status of a subject, relative to one or more monitoring information. Subjects of the policies are monitored entities of an established Grid ontology. The status of a same entity is evaluated against a number of policies, whose results are then combined by a Policy Decision Point. Such results are enforced in a Policy Enforcing Point, which provides plug-ins for actions, like raising alarms, sending notifications, automatic addition and removal of services and resources from the Grid mask. Policy results are shown in the web portal, and site-specific views are provided also. This innovative system provides advantages in terms of procedures automation, information aggregation and problem solving.

  3. Storage Policies and Optimal Shape of a Storage System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaerpour, N.; De Koster, René; Yu, Yugang

    2013-01-01

    The response time of a storage system is mainly influenced by its shape (configuration), the storage assignment and retrieval policies, and the location of the input/output (I/O) points. In this paper, we show that the optimal shape of a storage system, which minimises the response time for single

  4. Analysis of Access Control Policies in Operating Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong

    2009-01-01

    Operating systems rely heavily on access control mechanisms to achieve security goals and defend against remote and local attacks. The complexities of modern access control mechanisms and the scale of policy configurations are often overwhelming to system administrators and software developers. Therefore, mis-configurations are common, and the…

  5. Public perceptions of energy system risks: some policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, K.; Otway, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction; perceptions, beliefs and attitudes; the survey of public perceptions and attitudes towards energy systems; attitudes towards the five energy systems (nuclear, coal, oil, solar and hydro); perceptions of energy systems - the underlying dimensions of belief (economic benefits; environmental risk; psychological and physical risk; indirect risk; technology development); differential analysis of the perceptions of those pro and con nuclear energy; summary of perceptions of energy systems - relevance to the Austrian dilemma; policy implications. (U.K.)

  6. Knowledge Systems and Natural Resources: Management, Policy ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2007-10-31

    Oct 31, 2007 ... Knowledge Systems and Natural Resources is a unique collection of case studies from Nepal. ... and students of social and political sciences and natural resource management. ... Nepal and founding Editor of the Journal of Forest and Livelihood. ... Ideas from the global climate change hotspot research.

  7. Better Policies Accelerate Clean Energy Transition. Policy brief - Focus on energy system flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karimi, Farid; Lund, Peter; Skytte, Klaus

    2018-01-01

    The use of variable renewable energy sources will increase in the Nordic and Baltic countries in the future. This will call for increased flexibility in the electricity market to ensure both high energy security and efficient use of renewable power in all circumstances. The barriers and hence also...... policies to energy system flexibility are numerous. In this brief, we focus on policy recommendations for two important barriers to flexibility in the Nordic electricity market, namely insufficient market signals to some stakeholders, and uneven market frameworks for different renewable energy resources...

  8. Applications of system dynamics modelling to support health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Jo-An M; Wells, Robert; Page, Andrew; Dominello, Amanda; Haines, Mary; Wilson, Andrew

    2015-07-09

    The value of systems science modelling methods in the health sector is increasingly being recognised. Of particular promise is the potential of these methods to improve operational aspects of healthcare capacity and delivery, analyse policy options for health system reform and guide investments to address complex public health problems. Because it lends itself to a participatory approach, system dynamics modelling has been a particularly appealing method that aims to align stakeholder understanding of the underlying causes of a problem and achieve consensus for action. The aim of this review is to determine the effectiveness of system dynamics modelling for health policy, and explore the range and nature of its application. A systematic search was conducted to identify articles published up to April 2015 from the PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Embase, ScienceDirect and Google Scholar databases. The grey literature was also searched. Papers eligible for inclusion were those that described applications of system dynamics modelling to support health policy at any level of government. Six papers were identified, comprising eight case studies of the application of system dynamics modelling to support health policy. No analytic studies were found that examined the effectiveness of this type of modelling. Only three examples engaged multidisciplinary stakeholders in collective model building. Stakeholder participation in model building reportedly facilitated development of a common 'mental map' of the health problem, resulting in consensus about optimal policy strategy and garnering support for collaborative action. The paucity of relevant papers indicates that, although the volume of descriptive literature advocating the value of system dynamics modelling is considerable, its practical application to inform health policy making is yet to be routinely applied and rigorously evaluated. Advances in software are allowing the participatory model building approach to be extended to

  9. Knowledge Systems and Natural Resources : Management, Policy ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    31 oct. 2007 ... Depuis quelques années, les chercheurs, les responsables des politiques et les militants du développement s'intéressent fortement aux systèmes de connaissances. Knowledge Systems and Natural Resources est un recueil unique d'études de cas réalisées au Népal. Cet ouvrage apporte un éclairage ...

  10. On finite capacity queueing systems with a general vacation policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Loris-Teghem

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a Poisson arrival queueing system with finite capacity and a general vacation policy as described in Loris-Teghem [Queueing Systems 3 (1988, 41-52]. From our previous results regarding the stationary queue length distributions immediately after a departure and at an arbitrary epoch, we derive a relation between both distributions which extends a result given in Frey and Takahashi [Operations Research Letters 21 (1997, 95-100] for the particular case of an exhaustive service multiple vacation policy.

  11. Enterprise systems backup and recovery a corporate insurance policy

    CERN Document Server

    de Guise, Preston

    2008-01-01

    The success of information backup systems does not rest on IT administrators alone. Rather, a well-designed backup system comes about only when several key factors coalesce-business involvement, IT acceptance, best practice designs, enterprise software, and reliable hardware. Enterprise Systems Backup and Recovery: A Corporate Insurance Policy provides organizations with a comprehensive understanding of the principles and features involved in effective enterprise backups.Instead of focusing on any individual backup product, this book recommends corporate procedures and policies that need to be established for comprehensive data protection. It provides relevant information to any organization, regardless of which operating systems or applications are deployed, what backup system is in place, or what planning has been done for business continuity. It explains how backup must be included in every phase of system planning, development, operation, and maintenance. It also provides techniques for analyzing and impr...

  12. Policy Options for the Improvement of the European Patent System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen; Cowin, Robin; Van de Eijck, Wim

    2007-01-01

    , the Working Group recognizes that the protection and enforcement of the rights of inventors through the patent system must be done in a manner to stimulate innovation and the diffusion of knowledge. In order to propose meaningful policy options that meet these objectives as much as possible, the evidence put......The present report is based on an independent, policy-oriented investigation of the current European patent system. The central premise of the report is that the patent system has so far been a positive factor in promoting innovation and the diffusion of knowledge, and thus that the system...... is contributing in a constructive way to economic and social welfare objectives. In acknowledging the importance of the patent system in relation to many aspects of society, it is also essential to continually evaluate whether the system is working as effectively as it could be. In addition, because of some...

  13. The Flask Security Architecture: System Support for Diverse Security Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Flask microkernel -based operating sys­ tem, that successfully overcomes these obstacles to pol- icy flexibility. The cleaner separation of mechanism and...other object managers in the system to en- force those access control decisions. Although the pro­ totype system is microkernel -based, the security...mecha­ nisms do not depend on a microkernel architecture and will easily generalize beyond it. The resulting system provides policy flexibility. It sup

  14. Promoting a Culture of Tailoring for Systems Engineering Policy Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, Van A.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has developed an integrated systems engineering approach to promote a culture of tailoring for program and project policy requirements. MSFC's culture encourages and supports tailoring, with an emphasis on risk-based decision making, for enhanced affordability and efficiency. MSFC's policy structure integrates the various Agency requirements into a single, streamlined implementation approach which serves as a "one-stop-shop" for our programs and projects to follow. The engineers gain an enhanced understanding of policy and technical expectations, as well as lesson's learned from MSFC's history of spaceflight and science missions, to enable them to make appropriate, risk-based tailoring recommendations. The tailoring approach utilizes a standard methodology to classify projects into predefined levels using selected mission and programmatic scaling factors related to risk tolerance. Policy requirements are then selectively applied and tailored, with appropriate rationale, and approved by the governing authorities, to support risk-informed decisions to achieve the desired cost and schedule efficiencies. The policy is further augmented by implementation tools and lifecycle planning aids which help promote and support the cultural shift toward more tailoring. The MSFC Customization Tool is an integrated spreadsheet that ties together everything that projects need to understand, navigate, and tailor the policy. It helps them classify their project, understand the intent of the requirements, determine their tailoring approach, and document the necessary governance approvals. It also helps them plan for and conduct technical reviews throughout the lifecycle. Policy tailoring is thus established as a normal part of project execution, with the tools provided to facilitate and enable the tailoring process. MSFC's approach to changing the culture emphasizes risk-based tailoring of policy to achieve increased flexibility, efficiency

  15. Internet Acceptable User Policies in Alabama School Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Feng; McLean, James E.

    The purpose of this study was to determine the current status of and need for acceptable use policies (AUPs) for students' use of the Internet in Alabama school systems. Alabama superintendents were questioned using an electronic survey that could be returned via e-mail on an anonymous Internet site. Primary questions were: (1) What is your level…

  16. Building Capacity in Health Systems and Policy Analysis in sub ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Building Capacity in Health Systems and Policy Analysis in sub-Saharan Africa. Since 2005, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation has been financing the master's program in health and population at the Institut supérieure des sciences de la population (ISSP), Université de Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. However, after ...

  17. 78 FR 69286 - Electric System Construction Policies and Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service 7 CFR Part 1726 Electric System Construction Policies and Procedures CFR Correction In Title 7 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 1600 to 1759, revised as of January 1, 2013, on page 246, in Sec. 1726.14, the second definition of Minor modification...

  18. Impact of Scheduling Policies on Control System Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøler, Henrik; Ravn, Anders Peter; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard

    2003-01-01

    It is well known that jitter has an impact on control system performance, and this is often used as an argument for static scheduling policies, e.g. a time triggered architecture. However, it is only completion jitter that seriously disturbs standard linear control algorithms in a way similar to ...

  19. Ideas for Changing Educational Systems, Educational Policy and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Pat; Lingard, Bob; Wrigley, Terry

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues the need for new ideas to assist in the creation of a new social imaginary post-neo-liberalism to frame rethought educational systems, policy and schooling. This is an attempt to reclaim progressive, democratic and social justice purposes for schooling well beyond dominant human capital renditions. While acknowledging the…

  20. A Systemic Perspective on Innovation from Energy Efficiency Policy efforts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruby, Tobias Møller

    In order to reduce climate change, resource scarcity and other global environmental issues major increases in energy efficiency are necessary throughout our energy system. Despite this daunting outlook and the fact that energy efficiency in most instances makes economic and environmental sense...... efficiency innovation activities where market demand and policy efforts appear to have the most impact. The thesis also goes in depth with a single sector to describe the complexities of innovation processes in energy efficiency and the noticeable role of policy. Overall the doctoral thesis provides...

  1. Air Force IT System Security Compliance with Law and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    monetary burden on 3 system owners as there is “…a significant cost benefit to building in IA during the development phase” 4 of a system. Current...16 Option 4 : Cloud Computing to Eliminate Policy and Methodology Requirements ....17 Option 4 : Application...Assurance ( IA ) (data integrity) to support mission assurance. To ensure IA and to support the mission, changes need to be made to Air Force IT

  2. A Food Systems Approach To Healthy Food And Agriculture Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Roni A; Merrigan, Kathleen; Wallinga, David

    2015-11-01

    Food has become a prominent focus of US public health policy. The emphasis has been almost exclusively on what Americans eat, not what is grown or how it is grown. A field of research, policy, and practice activities addresses the food-health-agriculture nexus, yet the work is still often considered "alternative" to the mainstream. This article outlines the diverse ways in which agriculture affects public health. It then describes three policy issues: farm-to-school programming, sustainability recommendations in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, and antibiotic use in animal agriculture. These issues illustrate the progress, challenges, and public health benefits of taking a food systems approach that brings together the food, agriculture, and public health fields. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  3. Optimization of ACC system spacing policy on curved highway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Qian, Kun; Gong, Zaiyan

    2017-05-01

    The paper optimizes the original spacing policy when adopting VTH (Variable Time Headway), proposes to introduce the road curve curvature K to the spacing policy to cope with following the wrong vehicle or failing to follow the vehicle owing to the radar limitation of curve in ACC system. By utilizing MATLAB/Simulink, automobile longitudinal dynamics model is established. At last, the paper sets up such three common cases as the vehicle ahead runs at a uniform velocity, an accelerated velocity and hits the brake suddenly, simulates these cases on the curve with different curvature, analyzes the curve spacing policy in the perspective of safety and vehicle following efficiency and draws the conclusion whether the optimization scheme is effective or not.

  4. The reorientation of spatial planning systems and policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galland, Daniel; Enemark, Stig

    2012-01-01

    Danish spatial planning has been increasingly subjected to profound reorientations over the past two decades. The comprehensive frame wherein planning policies and practices operated across different levels of administration has become significantly altered. This has been particularly evident after...... the implementation of a structural reform that changed the political and administrative structure in the country. Most importantly, the reform abolished the county level, which caused that planning policies, functions and responsibilities were re-scaled to municipal and national levels. This situation brought about...... radical shifts in terms of the scope of planning policies, the implementation of land-use tasks as well as the performance of the institutional arrangements operating within and beyond the planning system. Based on an in-depth analysis concerned with these changes, the paper endeavours into discussing how...

  5. LHCb: A Policy System for Grid Management and Monitoring

    CERN Multimedia

    Stagni, F; Sapunov, M

    2010-01-01

    Organizations using a Grid computing model are faced with non-traditional administrative challenges: the heterogeneous nature of the underlying resources requires professionals acting as Grid Administrators. Members of a Virtual Organization (VO) can use a mask composed by services exposed b y local resources. In an ideal world, the more services in a mask, the better. In the real world, the less faulty services, the better: experienced Grid administrators apply procedures for adding and removing services, based on their status, as it is reported by an ever-growing set of monitoring tools. When a procedure is agreed and well-exercised, a formal policy could be derived. For this reason, using the DIRAC framework in the LHCb collaboration, we developed a policy system that can enforce management and operational policies, in a VO-specific fashion. A single policy makes an assessment on the status of a subject, relative to one or more monitoring information. Subjects of the policies are monitored entities of an e...

  6. Sociology, systems and (patient) safety: knowledge translations in healthcare policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Casper Bruun

    2008-03-01

    In 2000 the American Institute of Medicine, adviser to the federal government on policy matters relating to the health of the public, published the report To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System, which was to become a call to arms for improving patient safety across the Western world. By re-conceiving healthcare as a system, it was argued that it was possible to transform the current culture of blame, which made individuals take defensive precautions against being assigned responsibility for error - notably by not reporting adverse events, into a culture of safety. The IOM report draws on several prominent social scientists in accomplishing this re-conceptualisation. But the analyses of these authors are not immediately relevant for health policy. It requires knowledge translation to make them so. This paper analyses the process of translation. The discussion is especially pertinent due to a certain looping effect between social science research and policy concerns. The case here presented is thus doubly illustrative: exemplifying first how social science is translated into health policy and secondly how the transformation required for this to function is taken as an analytical improvement that can in turn be redeployed in social research.

  7. ANALYISIS OF TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS AND TRANSPORTATION POLICIES IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Payıdar AKGÜNGÖR

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Transportation systems have to be considered and analysed as a whole while transportation demand, becoming as a natural outcome of socioeconomic and socio-cultural structure, is being evaluated. It is desired that transportation system, which will be selected for both passenger and freight transport, should be rapid, economic, safe, causing least harm to environment and appropriate for the conditions of a country. However, it is difficult for a transportation system to have all these properties. Every transportation system has advantages and disadvantages over each other. Therefore, comprehensive plans for future periods have to be prepared and how the sources of the country should be reasonably distributed among transportation systems must be investigated. Also, transportation plans have to be prepared to get coordinated operations among transportation systems while great investments are instituted in the entire country. There is no doubt that it is possible with combined transportation instead of concentration on one transportation system. Transportation policies in Turkey should be questioned since the level of highway transportation usage reaches to 95 % and level of sea transportation usage drops to less than 1 % in spite of being surrounded with sea in three sides of our land. In this paper, transportation systems and transportation policies in Turkey are evaluated in general and problems are analysed. Proposals are presented for the solutions of these problems.

  8. Household Food Security Policy Analysis A System Dynamics Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isdore Paterson Guma

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Household food security FS is complex and requires multiple stakeholder intervention. Systemic approach aids stakeholders to understand the mechanisms and feedback between complexities in food security providing effective decision making as global resource consumption continues to grow. The study investigated food security challenges and a system dynamics model was developed for evaluating policies and intervention strategies for better livelihood at household level. Dynamic synthesis methodology questionnaires and interview guide were used to unearth food security challenges faced by households. A causal loop diagram was drawn. The model demonstrates a balance between food stock seeds preserved seeds for sale and consumption from crop harvest throughout the food cycles. This research makes contribution to the literature by evaluating dynamic synthesis methodology and FS policy discussions from a feedback point of view.

  9. Optimisation of the test policy of stand-by systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signoret, J.P.; Muron, O.; Cohen, G.

    1980-09-01

    In a nuclear power plant there are several systems which are on stand-by position as, for instance, safety systems. These stand-by systems have to be ready to start as soon as any situation for which they have be designed occurs. A test policy is then necessary in order to know the state of such a system and repair the possible failures. The tests are normally performed at regular intervals of time according to a scheduled sequence. We have already shown during the 'IIIeme Congres National de Fiabilite' held in Perros-Guirec in 1976 how it is possible in this case to find the optimum test interval leading to the best mean availability of the system. It is, in fact, possible, to improve that by considering that if the test interval is fixed 'a priori' this does not allow to take into account information we have on the system state every time [fr

  10. 78 FR 70046 - Payment System Risk Policy; Daylight Overdraft Posting Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM [Docket No. OP--1471] Payment System Risk Policy; Daylight Overdraft... Reserve Policy on Payment System Risk (PSR policy) to eliminate certain posting rules to conform with... Services Analyst (202- 452-2404), Division of Reserve Bank Operations and Payment Systems. For users of...

  11. Pension system in Romania. Long term imbalances and inconsistent policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. D. Associate Professor Razvan Papuc

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Public policies on retirement, both in Romania and in other EU countries, have been and still are conditioned by numerous short-term budgetary constaints and by long term major sustainability problems. Alongside objective, demographic developments known in all European countries , support systems for the elderly are facing numerous constraints, both due to government policies marked by fiscal indiscipline and lack of consistency of decisions and, hence, credibility phenomena caused by the phenomenon "the captive politician of a redistributive policy model". Modeling support institutions for pensioners by political actors was most of the times the expression of elections marked by Weberian instrumental rationality and not by wertrationalitat, using the axiom- guide for the behaviour of decision markers to "meet social interests in order to come to power" and not by the concern for a more long term efficient trans-redistributive approach. This paper aims to pursue the most important imbalances that chartacterize the public pension system in Romania, expression of decisions determined by aggregating in group individual preferences and noy by both rational and ethical analysis without redistribution centres.

  12. The Audit Logic: Policy Compliance in Distributed Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cederquist, J.G.; Corin, R.J.; Dekker, M.A.C.; Etalle, Sandro; den Hartog, Jeremy; Lenzini, Gabriele

    2006-01-01

    We present a distributed framework where agents can share data along with usage policies. We use an expressive policy language including conditions, obligations and delegation. Our framework also supports the possibility to refine policies. Policies are not enforced a-priori. Instead policy

  13. Rethinking Study and Management of Agricultural Systems for Policy Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Baumgärtner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a concern that agriculture will no longer be able to meet, on a global scale, the growing demand for food. Facing such a challenge requires new patterns of thinking in the context of complexity and sustainability sciences. This paper, focused on the social dimension of the study and management of agricultural systems, suggests that rethinking the study of agricultural systems entails analyzing them as complex socio-ecological systems, as well as considering the differing thinking patterns of diverse stakeholders. The intersubjective nature of knowledge, as studied by different philosophical schools, needs to be better integrated into the study and management of agricultural systems than it is done so far, forcing us to accept that there are no simplistic solutions, and to seek a better understanding of the social dimension of agriculture. Different agriculture related problems require different policy and institutional approaches. Finally, the intersubjective nature of knowledge asks for the visualization of different framings and the power relations taking place in the decision-making process. Rethinking management of agricultural systems implies that policy making should be shaped by different principles: learning, flexibility, adaptation, scale-matching, participation, diversity enhancement and precaution hold the promise to significantly improve current standard management procedures.

  14. Implementing drought early warning systems: policy lessons and future needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Ana; Werner, Micha; Maia, Rodrigo; Garrote, Luis; Nyabeze, Washington

    2014-05-01

    Drought forecasting and Warning provides the potential of reducing impacts to society due to drought events. The implementation of effective drought forecasting and warning, however, requires not only science to support reliable forecasting, but also adequate policy and societal response. Here we propose a protocol to develop drought forecasting and early warning based in the international cooperation of African and European institutions in the DEWFORA project (EC, 7th Framework Programme). The protocol includes four major phases that address the scientific knowledge and the social capacity to use the knowledge: (a) What is the science available? Evaluating how signs of impending drought can be detected and predicted, defining risk levels, and analysing of the signs of drought in an integrated vulnerability approach. (b) What are the societal capacities? In this the institutional framework that enables policy development is evaluated. The protocol gathers information on vulnerability and pending hazard in advance so that early warnings can be declared at sufficient lead time and drought mitigation planning can be implemented at an early stage. (c) How can science be translated into policy? Linking science indicators into the actions/interventions that society needs to implement, and evaluating how policy is implemented. Key limitations to planning for drought are the social capacities to implement early warning systems. Vulnerability assessment contributes to identify these limitations and therefore provides crucial information to policy development. Based on the assessment of vulnerability we suggest thresholds for management actions to respond to drought forecasts and link predictive indicators to relevant potential mitigation strategies. Vulnerability assessment is crucial to identify relief, coping and management responses that contribute to a more resilient society. (d) How can society benefit from the forecast? Evaluating how information is provided to

  15. New Systems Thinking and Policy Means for Sustainable Energy Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I.

    2011-01-01

    Sustainable energy development requires attention to both the demand and supply side. On the demand side there is an urgent need for efficient policy means promoting energy conservation. This includes changes in the institutional and economic framework to compensate for the short comings...... of the dominating neoclassical economy and the short time horizon of the present market system. On the supply side fossil fuels are becoming a central problem being the dominating global energy source while at the same time presenting serious problems in relation to global warming and limited resources (“peak oil......”). Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop alternative strategies and policy means in order to promote sustainable development. THE FULL TEXT IS IN RUSSIAN IN THE JOURNAL....

  16. New Systems Thinking and Policy Means for Sustainable Energy Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable energy development requires attention to both the demand and supply side. On the demand side there is an urgent need for efficient policy means promoting energy conservation. This includes changes in the institutional and economic framework to compensate for the short comings...... of the dominating neoclassical economy and the short time horizon of the present market system. On the supply side fossil fuels are becoming a central problem being the dominating global energy source while at the same time presenting serious problems in relation to global warming and limited resources (“peak oil......”). Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop alternative strategies and policy means in order to promote sustainable development....

  17. Public policies for the development of solar photovoltaic energy and the impacts on dynamics of technology systems and markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Hyun Jin Julie

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, climate change has been a subject of serious international negotiations. Solar photovoltaic (PV) energy has caught the eyes of many governments as one of the front-runner technologies for the low carbon energy transition in the global community. Solar PV systems have experienced strong market growth over the last decade supported by favorable political reactions in the energy transition context. However, despite these favorable conditions, paradoxically, the global PV market recently went through a chaotic time encountering the overproduction issue, the industry crisis and the long-lasting trade disputes. Furthermore, as the level of PV penetration increases, many problematics started to appear with negative systemic impacts on the electricity sector. This thesis started from these problematics to understand the PV policy mechanisms and the context change. In order to define those issues, a systemic approach is taken to provide an accurate comprehension of the overall mechanisms of PV public policies. The concrete systemic vision of PV policy mechanisms is constructed based on theoretical and historical analysis by defining key variables and the context (Part I). A retrospective analysis using the proposed mapping tools is conducted to understand critical limits and challenges of PV development and to identify risks factors in the sector (Part II). This thesis also demonstrates how the nature of policy context changes in combined with the dynamic features of the PV sector. This helps anticipate possible risks of PV development in the future. The thesis highlights the nationwide PV policy dynamics was broken with the arrival of China in the PV sector. Taken the defined critical limits and challenges into account, this thesis eventually proposes strategic orientations of PV development at the two dimensions from both national and international perspectives (Part III). At the national level, this thesis discusses on PV self-consumption as the

  18. Energy policies avoiding a tipping point in the climate system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahn, Olivier [GERAD and Department of Management Sciences, HEC Montreal, Montreal (Qc) (Canada); Edwards, Neil R. [Earth and Environmental Sciences, CEPSAR, Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Knutti, Reto [Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zurich, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Stocker, Thomas F. [Climate and Environmental Physics, Physics Institute, and Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2011-01-15

    Paleoclimate evidence and climate models indicate that certain elements of the climate system may exhibit thresholds, with small changes in greenhouse gas emissions resulting in non-linear and potentially irreversible regime shifts with serious consequences for socio-economic systems. Such thresholds or tipping points in the climate system are likely to depend on both the magnitude and rate of change of surface warming. The collapse of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC) is one example of such a threshold. To evaluate mitigation policies that curb greenhouse gas emissions to levels that prevent such a climate threshold being reached, we use the MERGE model of Manne, Mendelsohn and Richels. Depending on assumptions on climate sensitivity and technological progress, our analysis shows that preserving the THC may require a fast and strong greenhouse gas emission reduction from today's level, with transition to nuclear and/or renewable energy, possibly combined with the use of carbon capture and sequestration systems. (author)

  19. Optimizing Multireservoir System Operating Policies Using Exogenous Hydrologic Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, Jasson; Tilmant, Amaury; Côté, Pascal

    2017-11-01

    Stochastic dual dynamic programming (SDDP) is one of the few available algorithms to optimize the operating policies of large-scale hydropower systems. This paper presents a variant, called SDDPX, in which exogenous hydrologic variables, such as snow water equivalent and/or sea surface temperature, are included in the state space vector together with the traditional (endogenous) variables, i.e., past inflows. A reoptimization procedure is also proposed in which SDDPX-derived benefit-to-go functions are employed within a simulation carried out over the historical record of both the endogenous and exogenous hydrologic variables. In SDDPX, release policies are now a function of storages, past inflows, and relevant exogenous variables that potentially capture more complex hydrological processes than those found in traditional SDDP formulations. To illustrate the potential gain associated with the use of exogenous variables when operating a multireservoir system, the 3,137 MW hydropower system of Rio Tinto (RT) located in the Saguenay-Lac-St-Jean River Basin in Quebec (Canada) is used as a case study. The performance of the system is assessed for various combinations of hydrologic state variables, ranging from the simple lag-one autoregressive model to more complex formulations involving past inflows, snow water equivalent, and winter precipitation.

  20. Optimum policies for a system with general imperfect maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheu, S.-H.; Lin, Y.-B.; Liao, G.-L.

    2006-01-01

    This study considers periodic preventive maintenance policies, which maximizes the availability of a repairable system with major repair at failure. Three types of preventive maintenance are performed, namely: imperfect preventive maintenance (IPM), perfect preventive maintenance (PPM) and failed preventive maintenance (FPM). The probability that preventive maintenance is perfect depends on the number of imperfect maintenances conducted since the previous renewal cycle, and the probability that preventive maintenance remains imperfect is not increasing. The optimum preventive maintenance time that maximizes availability is derived. Various special cases are considered. A numerical example is given

  1. System Dynamics Simulation of Large-Scale Generation System for Designing Wind Power Policy in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linna Hou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the impacts of renewable energy policy on a large-scale power generation system, including thermal power, hydropower, and wind power generation. As one of the most important clean energy, wind energy has been rapidly developed in the world. But in recent years there is a serious waste of wind power equipment and investment in China leading to many problems in the industry from wind power planning to its integration. One way overcoming the difficulty is to analyze the influence of wind power policy on a generation system. This paper builds a system dynamics (SD model of energy generation to simulate the results of wind energy generation policies based on a complex system. And scenario analysis method is used to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of these policies. The case study shows that the combinations of lower portfolio goal and higher benchmark price and those of higher portfolio goal and lower benchmark price have large differences in both effectiveness and efficiency. On the other hand, the combinations of uniformly lower or higher portfolio goal and benchmark price have similar efficiency, but different effectiveness. Finally, an optimal policy combination can be chosen on the basis of policy analysis in the large-scale power system.

  2. A review of the Australian healthcare system: A policy perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambasivan, Murali

    2018-01-01

    This article seeks to review the Australian healthcare system and compare it to similar systems in other countries to highlight the main issues and problems. A literature search for articles relating to the Australian and other developed countries’ healthcare systems was conducted by using Google and the library of Victoria University, Melbourne. Data from the websites of the Commonwealth of Australia, the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, the Australian Productivity Commission, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Bank have also been used. Although care within the Australian healthcare system is among the best in the world, there is a need to change the paradigm currently being used to measure the outcomes and allocate resources. The Australian healthcare system is potentially dealing with two main problems: (a) resource allocation, and (b) performance and patient outcomes improvements. An interdisciplinary research approach in the areas of performance measurement, quality and patient outcomes improvement could be adopted to discover new insights, by using the policy implementation error/efficiency and bureaucratic capacity. Hospital managers, executives and healthcare management practitioners could use an interdisciplinary approach to design new performance measurement models, in which financial performance, quality, healthcare and patient outcomes are blended in, for resource allocation and performance improvement. This article recommends that public policy implementation error and the bureaucratic capacity models be applied to healthcare to optimise the outcomes for the healthcare system in Australia. In addition, it highlights the need for evaluation of the current reimbursement method, freedom of choice to patients and a regular scrutiny of the appropriateness of care. PMID:29686869

  3. Disability Policy Evaluation: Combining Logic Models and Systems Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claes, Claudia; Ferket, Neelke; Vandevelde, Stijn; Verlet, Dries; De Maeyer, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Policy evaluation focuses on the assessment of policy-related personal, family, and societal changes or benefits that follow as a result of the interventions, services, and supports provided to those persons to whom the policy is directed. This article describes a systematic approach to policy evaluation based on an evaluation framework and an…

  4. Health policy and systems research agendas in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez-Block Miguel A

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health policy and systems research (HPSR is an international public good with potential to orient investments and performance at national level. Identifying research trends and priorities at international level is therefore important. This paper offers a conceptual framework and defines the HPSR portfolio as a set of research projects under implementation. The research portfolio is influenced by factors external to the research system as well as internal to it. These last include the capacity of research institutions, the momentum of research programs, funding opportunities and the influence of stakeholder priorities and public opinion. These dimensions can vary in their degree of coordination, leading to a complementary or a fragmented research portfolio. Objective The main objective is to identify the themes currently being pursued in the research portfolio and agendas within developing countries and to quantify their frequency in an effort to identify current research topics and their underlying influences. Methods HPSR topics being pursued by developing country producer institutions and their perceived priorities were identified through a survey between 2000 and 2002. The response to a call for letters of intent issued by the Alliance in 2000 for a broad range of topics was also analyzed. The institutions that were the universe of this study consisted of the 176 institutional partners of the Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research producing research in low and middle income countries outside Europe. HPSR topics as well as the beneficiaries or issues and the health problems addressed were content analyzed. Topics were classified into 19 categories and their frequency analyzed across groups of countries with similar per capita income. Agendas were identified by analyzing the source of funding and of project initiation for projects under implementation. Results The highest ranking topic at the aggregate level is

  5. Mapping healthcare systems: a policy relevant analytic tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhri Feachem, Neelam; Afshar, Ariana; Pruett, Cristina; Avanceña, Anton L V

    2017-07-01

    In the past decade, an international consensus on the value of well-functioning systems has driven considerable health systems research. This research falls into two broad categories. The first provides conceptual frameworks that take complex healthcare systems and create simplified constructs of interactions and functions. The second focuses on granular inputs and outputs. This paper presents a novel translational mapping tool - the University of California, San Francisco mapping tool (the Tool) - which bridges the gap between these two areas of research, creating a platform for multi-country comparative analysis. Using the Murray-Frenk framework, we create a macro-level representation of a country's structure, focusing on how it finances and delivers healthcare. The map visually depicts the fundamental policy questions in healthcare system design: funding sources and amount spent through each source, purchasers, populations covered, provider categories; and the relationship between these entities. We use the Tool to provide a macro-level comparative analysis of the structure of India's and Thailand's healthcare systems. As part of the systems strengthening arsenal, the Tool can stimulate debate about the merits and consequences of different healthcare systems structural designs, using a common framework that fosters multi-country comparative analyses. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  6. Towards Static Analysis of Policy-Based Self-adaptive Computing Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheri, Andrea; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    For supporting the design of self-adaptive computing systems, the PSCEL language offers a principled approach that relies on declarative definitions of adaptation and authorisation policies enforced at runtime. Policies permit managing system components by regulating their interactions...... and by dynamically introducing new actions to accomplish task-oriented goals. However, the runtime evaluation of policies and their effects on system components make the prediction of system behaviour challenging. In this paper, we introduce the construction of a flow graph that statically points out the policy...... evaluations that can take place at runtime and exploit it to analyse the effects of policy evaluations on the progress of system components....

  7. Application of system dynamics on nuclear policy model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, N. S.; Kim, J. C.; Kim, D. W.; Kang, S. C.

    2000-01-01

    A system dynamics model for a nuclear energy policy in Korea (SIMNEP) was developed to analyze the Korea nuclear system and to predict the influence of the nuclear energy policy in the future. Two cases were analyzed using SIMNEP. The first case is to see the effect of the occurrence of severe nuclear accident in foreign country on the Korean government support. In the beginning, the Korean government support drops but jump up to the higher value than normal support due to the intelligentsia support influenced by the delay time of perception. Then, the national government support converges to the normal support. This turns out that the intelligentsia support plays a major role in increasing the government support. The second case is to see the effect of prior efforts on the foreign factors and/or on domestic factors on the U.S. government support. In the short term, effort on the U.S. government is more effective to increase U.S. government support but in the long term (about after 5 years), efforts on the domestic factors influence on the U.S. government support more than efforts on the foreign factors. The Korean government counter reaction among the influencing factors on the U.S. government support plays a major role to explain this result

  8. State Responses to Alcohol Use and Pregnancy: Findings From the Alcohol Policy Information System (APIS)

    OpenAIRE

    DRABBLE, LAURIE; THOMAS, SUE; O’CONNOR, LISA; ROBERTS, SARAH CM

    2014-01-01

    This article describes U.S. state policies related to alcohol use during pregnancy, using data from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Alcohol Policy Information System (APIS). Specifically, this study examines trends in policies enacted by states over time and types of policies enacted across states in the U.S., with a focus on whether laws were supportive or punitive toward women. Findings revealed substantial variability in characteristics of policies (19 primar...

  9. Energy policies avoiding a tipping point in the climate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahn, Olivier; Edwards, Neil R.; Knutti, Reto; Stocker, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01

    Paleoclimate evidence and climate models indicate that certain elements of the climate system may exhibit thresholds, with small changes in greenhouse gas emissions resulting in non-linear and potentially irreversible regime shifts with serious consequences for socio-economic systems. Such thresholds or tipping points in the climate system are likely to depend on both the magnitude and rate of change of surface warming. The collapse of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC) is one example of such a threshold. To evaluate mitigation policies that curb greenhouse gas emissions to levels that prevent such a climate threshold being reached, we use the MERGE model of Manne, Mendelsohn and Richels. Depending on assumptions on climate sensitivity and technological progress, our analysis shows that preserving the THC may require a fast and strong greenhouse gas emission reduction from today's level, with transition to nuclear and/or renewable energy, possibly combined with the use of carbon capture and sequestration systems. - Research Highlights: → Preserving the THC may require a fast and strong greenhouse gas emission reduction. → This could be achieved through strong changes in the energy mix. → Similar results would apply to any climate system tipping points.

  10. Public policy, health system, and community actions against illness as platforms for response to NCDs in Tanzania: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metta, Emmy; Msambichaka, Beverly; Mwangome, Mary; Nyato, Daniel J; Dieleman, Marjolein; Haisma, Hinke; Klatser, Paul; Geubbels, Eveline

    2014-01-01

    Most low- and middle- income countries are facing a rise of the burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) alongside the persistent burden of infectious diseases. This narrative review aims to provide an inventory of how the existing policy environment, health system, and communities are addressing the NCDs situation in Tanzania and identify gaps for advancing the NCD research and policy agenda. A literature search was performed on PubMed and Google scholar with full text retrieval from HINARI of English language articles published between 2000 and 2012. Documents were read to extract information on what Tanzanian actors were doing that contributed to NCDs prevention, treatment, and control, and a narration was written out of these. Reference lists of all retrieved articles were searched for additional relevant articles. Websites of organizations active in the field of NCDs including the Government of Tanzania and WHO were searched for reports and grey literature. Lack of a specific and overarching NCD policy has slowed and fragmented the implementation of existing strategies to prevent and control NCDs and their determinants. The health system is not prepared to deal with the rising NCD burden although there are random initiatives to improve this situation. How the community is responding to these emerging conditions is still unknown, and the current health-seeking behavior and perceptions on the risk factors may not favor control of NCDs and their risk factors. There is limited information on the burden and determinants of NCDs to inform the design of an integrative and multisectorial policy. Evidence on effective interventions for NCD services in primary care levels and on community perceptions on NCDs and their care seeking is virtually absent. Research and public health interventions must be anchored in the policy, health system, and community platforms for a holistic response.

  11. The effect of Ontario's transmission system policies on cogeneration projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, J.

    1999-01-01

    The impact that the establishment of transmission tariffs would have on the viability of cogeneration projects in Ontario was discussed. The proposal to establish such tariffs on the basis of a 'postage stamp' rate would ensure that all electricity users have access to electricity at the same price. However, this would unfairly penalize short-haul transmission transactions and would possibly result in the inappropriate location of new generation facilities. Electricity users would ultimately be burdened with these inefficiencies. This presentation also discussed another public policy which proposes to determine what parts of the electricity system should have their costs recovered at postage stamp rates. The costs would include not only transmission charges but also distribution and generation costs. The restructuring of Ontario Hydro into the Ontario Power Generation Company (OPGC) and the Ontario Hydro Services Company (OHSC) and its impact on the cogeneration projects was also discussed

  12. Anti-corruption policy in the system of legal measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Viktorovna Filonenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to determine the scientificmethodological foundations of anticorruption policy. Methods dialectical approach to cognition of social phenomena allows to explore the combination of objective and subjective factors influencing the formation and implementation of anticorruption policy. The author39s model of anticorruption policy is based on the wide range of logical methods of information processing modeling abstraction analysis analogy. Scientific hypothesis and formal legal analysis were also used. Results basing on comparison of the recent theoreticallegal criminallegal and criminological research in the field of legal and anticorruption policy the scientificmethodological foundations of anticorruption policy are disclosed. The authors attempt to systematize the scientific interpretation of anticorruption policy. The concept of legal policy its forms tools subjects and typesare discussed. As a result it becomes possible to describe the current anticorruption policy using terminology from the theory of legal policy. This approach can increase the effectiveness of modern anticorruption policy as it allows to clearly see the gaps and shortcomings in lawmaking and law enforcement during the anticorruption policy implementation. Scientific novelty the article makes an attempt to describe the current anticorruption policy with the use of terminology and models developed in the theoretical and legal research for the characterization of legal policy and its particular directions. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and pedagogical work when considering questions about the nature and trends of the modern anticorruption policy development. The applied approach allows to bring together criminal law criminology and theoreticallegal research of anticorruption policy. nbsp

  13. Engaging Actors for Integrating Health Policy and Systems Research into Policy Making: Case Study from Haryana State in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Prinja

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objective: Good examples of evidence generation using Health Policy and Systems Research (HPSR in low and middle income countries (LMIC; and its application in policy making are scarce. In this paper, we describe the experience of establishing a system of HPSR from the Haryana state in India, outline how the HPSR is being utilized for policy making and programmatic decision making, and analyse the key factors which have been critical to the implementation and uptake of HPSR. Methods: Multiple methods are employed in this case study, ranging from unstructured in-depth interviews, review of the program and policy documents, and participatory notes from the meetings. The steps towards creation of a knowledge partnership between stakeholders are outlined. Four case studies i.e. development of a plan for universal health care (UHC, nutrition policy, centralized drug procurement system and use of RAPID appraisal method highlight the use of research evidence in agenda setting, policy formulation and policy implementation respectively. Results: Our analysis shows that the most important factor which contributed to Haryana model of HPSR was the presence of a dedicated and motivated team in National Rural Health Mission (NRHM at state level, many of whom were researchers by previous training. Overall, we conclude by highlighting the need for establishing an institutional mechanism at Central and State level where health service administrators and managers, academicians and researchers working in the field of health system from medical colleges, public health schools, management and technology institutions and social science universities can identify health system research priorities. Increased budgetary allocation for HPSR is required.

  14. Engaging Actors for Integrating Health Policy and Systems Research into Policy Making: Case Study from Haryana State in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Prinja

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objective: Good examples of evidence generation using Health Policy and Systems Research (HPSR in low and middle income countries (LMIC; and its application in policy making are scarce. In this paper, we describe the experience of establishing a system of HPSR from the Haryana state in India, outline how the HPSR is being utilized for policy making and programmatic decision making, and analyse the key factors which have been critical to the implementation and uptake of HPSR. Methods: Multiple methods are employed in this case study, ranging from unstructured in-depth interviews, review of the program and policy documents, and participatory notes from the meetings. The steps towards creation of a knowledge partnership between stakeholders are outlined. Four case studies i.e. development of a plan for universal health care (UHC, nutrition policy, centralized drug procurement system and use of RAPID appraisal method highlight the use of research evidence in agenda setting, policy formulation and policy implementation respectively. Results: Our analysis shows that the most important factor which contributed to Haryana model of HPSR was the presence of a dedicated and motivated team in National Rural Health Mission (NRHM at state level, many of whom were researchers by previous training. Overall, we conclude by highlighting the need for establishing an institutional mechanism at Central and State level where health service administrators and managers, academicians and researchers working in the field of health system from medical colleges, public health schools, management and technology institutions and social science universities can identify health system research priorities. Increased budgetary allocation for HPSR is required.

  15. 75 FR 36089 - Payment System Risk Policy; Daylight Overdraft Posting Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM [OP-1385] Payment System Risk Policy; Daylight Overdraft Posting Rules... Payment System Risk Policy, the Board is announcing posting rules for a new same-day automated clearing... Kirkpatrick, Senior Financial Services Analyst, Payment System Risk (202-452-2796), or Jennifer Davidson...

  16. 77 FR 22666 - Payment System Risk Policy; Daylight Overdraft Posting Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM 12 CFR Part 204 [Docket No. OP-1440] Payment System Risk Policy; Daylight.... SUMMARY: The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (Board) has revised its Policy on Payment...), Division of Reserve Bank Operations and Payment Systems. For users of Telecommunications Device for the...

  17. OPTIMAL TRAINING POLICY FOR PROMOTION - STOCHASTIC MODELS OF MANPOWER SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S.S. Yadavalli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the optimal planning of manpower training programmes in a manpower system with two grades is discussed. The planning of manpower training within a given organization involves a trade-off between training costs and expected return. These planning problems are examined through models that reflect the random nature of manpower movement in two grades. To be specific, the system consists of two grades, grade 1 and grade 2. Any number of persons in grade 2 can be sent for training and after the completion of training, they will stay in grade 2 and will be given promotion as and when vacancies arise in grade 1. Vacancies arise in grade 1 only by wastage. A person in grade 1 can leave the system with probability p. Vacancies are filled with persons in grade 2 who have completed the training. It is assumed that there is a perfect passing rate and that the sizes of both grades are fixed. Assuming that the planning horizon is finite and is T, the underlying stochastic process is identified as a finite state Markov chain and using dynamic programming, a policy is evolved to determine how many persons should be sent for training at any time k so as to minimize the total expected cost for the entire planning period T.

  18. Tools and techniques for developing policies for complex and uncertain systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankes, Steven C

    2002-05-14

    Agent-based models (ABM) are examples of complex adaptive systems, which can be characterized as those systems for which no model less complex than the system itself can accurately predict in detail how the system will behave at future times. Consequently, the standard tools of policy analysis, based as they are on devising policies that perform well on some best estimate model of the system, cannot be reliably used for ABM. This paper argues that policy analysis by using ABM requires an alternative approach to decision theory. The general characteristics of such an approach are described, and examples are provided of its application to policy analysis.

  19. Integrated dynamic policy management methodology and system for strategic environmental assessment of golf course installation policy in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ching-Ho; Liu, Wei-Lin; Liaw, Shu-Liang

    2011-01-01

    Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) focuses primarily on assessing how policies, plans, and programs (PPPs) influence the sustainability of the involved regions. However, the processes of assessing policies and developing management strategies for pollution load and resource use are usually separate in the current SEA system. This study developed a policy management methodology to overcome the defects generated during the above processes. This work first devised a dynamic management framework using the methods of systems thinking, system dynamics, and Managing for Results (MFRs). Furthermore, a driving force-pressure-state-impact-response (DPSIR) indicator system was developed. The golf course installation policy was applied as a case study. Taiwan, counties of Taiwan, and the golf courses within those individual counties were identified as a system, subsystems, and objects, respectively. This study identified an object-linked double-layer framework with multi-stage-option to simultaneously to quantify golf courses in each subsystem and determine ratios of abatement and allocation for pollution load and resource use of each golf course. The DPSIR indicator values for each item of each golf course in each subsystem are calculated based on the options taken in the two decision layers. The summation of indicator values for all items of all golf courses in all subsystems according to various options is defined as the sustainability value of the policy. An optimization model and a system (IDPMS) were developed to obtain the greatest sustainability value of the policy, while golf course quantity, human activity intensity, total quantities of pollution load and resource use are simultaneously obtained. The solution method based on enumeration of multiple bounds for objectives and constraints (EMBOC) was developed for the problem with 1.95 x 10 128 combinations of possible options to solve the optimal solution in ten minutes using a personal computer with 3.0 GHz CPU

  20. The mental health system in Brazil: Policies and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razzouk Denise

    2008-09-01

    long-stay patients. However, services are unequally distributed across the regions of the country, and the growth of the elderly population, combined with an existing treatment gap is increasing the burden on mental health care. This gap may get even wider if funding does not increase and mental health services are not expanded in the country. There is not yet a good degree of integration between primary care and the mental health teams working at CAPS level, and it is necessary to train professionals to act as mental health planners and as managers. Research on service organization, policy and mental health systems evaluation are strongly recommended in the country. There are no firm data to show the impact of such policies in terms of community service cost-effectiveness and no tangible indicators to assess the results of these policies.

  1. Uncertainty-accounting environmental policy and management of water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baresel, Christian; Destouni, Georgia

    2007-05-15

    Environmental policies for water quality and ecosystem management do not commonly require explicit stochastic accounts of uncertainty and risk associated with the quantification and prediction of waterborne pollutant loads and abatement effects. In this study, we formulate and investigate a possible environmental policy that does require an explicit stochastic uncertainty account. We compare both the environmental and economic resource allocation performance of such an uncertainty-accounting environmental policy with that of deterministic, risk-prone and risk-averse environmental policies under a range of different hypothetical, yet still possible, scenarios. The comparison indicates that a stochastic uncertainty-accounting policy may perform better than deterministic policies over a range of different scenarios. Even in the absence of reliable site-specific data, reported literature values appear to be useful for such a stochastic account of uncertainty.

  2. Policy and practice in Myanmar's protected area system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint Aung, U

    2007-07-01

    Myanmar's protected area (PA) system began nearly 150 years ago under royal patronage. Park policies and practices, embodied in 19 pieces of legislation developed sporadically during and after the colonial period. As a result of the FAO-UNDP's Nature Conservation and National Parks Project (1981-1985) the government established the Nature & Wildlife Conservation Division and placed it within the Forest Department as the agency responsible for PA management. As a consequence the number of parks increased from 14 to 33. Myanmar's median park size is less than 50 km(2), but only five parks (15%) are larger than 1000 km(2). Most parks conserve terrestrial habitats; parks encompassing inland wetlands, mangrove, and marine habitats are limited in number and size. Existing PAs unequally represent Myanmar's ecosystems; the Malay Transition, Burmese coast, Burmese Transition and Cardamom Mountains bio-units are under-represented within the system. The effective total PA size (i.e., area of all parks less the area of 13 paper parks) is currently about 2.1%. Budgetary support for parks increased 11% since 1996, but is insufficient to address park needs, particularly in remote parks that are understaffed. Limited education and training of PA staff is a major factor limiting effective park management. Fifty-eight percent of park wardens are educated as foresters, and 42% have university degrees. The average posting in a park is 4 years, which is less than ideal for management continuity. Recommended actions to secure Myanmar's PAs include evaluation and reformulation of policies, increasing representation of Myanmar's habitats within the PA system, management planning, and standardizing protocols for anti-poaching patrols and other forms of law enforcement. Improved leadership training for wardens and range forest officers can also improve park management. Funding for community relations and more integrated management of parks and people can reduce conflicts, while

  3. Policy and systems analysis for nuclear installation decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Jiande

    1995-01-01

    On the basis of introducing into principal concept for nuclear installation decommissioning, form policy, sciences point of view, the author analyses present problems in the policy, the administrative and programme for decommissioning work in China. According to the physical process of decommissioning, the author studied engineering economics, derived method and formulas to estimate decommissioning cost. It is pointed out that basing on optimization principle for radiation protection and analysing cost-benefit for decommissioning engineering, the corresponding policy decision can be made

  4. Health Policy Making System in Islamic Republic of Iran: Review an Experience

    OpenAIRE

    B Larijani; A Delavari; B Damari; A Vosoogh Moghadam; R Majdzadeh

    2009-01-01

    "nIn Iran, the policy making process still has room for improvement. These include the opportunities for better co-ordina­tion of policies on medical education, health research and service provision; improvement of decision making mecha­nisms; a more evidence-based policy making process, and more involvement of stakeholders; reducing fragmentation of policy making foci; and establishing a qualified institution for system analyses and progress monitoring. The Health Pol&am...

  5. A system-evolutionary approach for innovation policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Ruud E.H.M.; Kuhlmann, Stefan; Teubal, Morris

    2010-01-01

    A leading question addressed in this book is how to improve public policy, using insights from innovation studies and theory as well as from innovation practice and innovation policy. Innovation in this book is seen as a dynamic interactive process taking place in heterogeneous, more or less

  6. Priority setting and health policy and systems research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett Sara C

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health policy and systems research (HPSR has been identified as critical to scaling-up interventions to achieve the millennium development goals, but research priority setting exercises often do not address HPSR well. This paper aims to (i assess current priority setting methods and the extent to which they adequately include HPSR and (ii draw lessons regarding how HPSR priority setting can be enhanced to promote relevant HPSR, and to strengthen developing country leadership of research agendas. Priority setting processes can be distinguished by the level at which they occur, their degree of comprehensiveness in terms of the topic addressed, the balance between technical versus interpretive approaches and the stakeholders involved. When HPSR is considered through technical, disease-driven priority setting processes it is systematically under-valued. More successful approaches for considering HPSR are typically nationally-driven, interpretive and engage a range of stakeholders. There is still a need however for better defined approaches to enable research funders to determine the relative weight to assign to disease specific research versus HPSR and other forms of cross-cutting health research. While country-level research priority setting is key, there is likely to be a continued need for the identification of global research priorities for HPSR. The paper argues that such global priorities can and should be driven by country level priorities.

  7. Dynamic versus static allocation policies in multipurpose multireservoir systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmant, A.; Goor, Q.; Pinte, D.; van der Zaag, P.

    2007-12-01

    As the competition for water is likely to increase in the near future due to socioeconomic development and population growth, water resources managers will face hard choices when allocating water between competing users. Because water is a vital resource used in multiple sectors, including the environment, the allocation is inherently a political and social process, which is likely to become increasingly scrutinized as the competition grows between the different sectors. Since markets are usually absent or ineffective, the allocation of water between competing demands is achieved administratively taking into account key objectives such as economic efficiency, equity and maintaining the ecological integrity. When crop irrigation is involved, water is usually allocated by a system of annual rights to use a fixed, static, volume of water. In a fully-allocated basin, moving from a static to a dynamic allocation process, whereby the policies are regularly updated according to the hydrologic status of the river basin, is the first step towards the development of river basin management strategies that increase the productivity of water. More specifically, in a multipurpose multireservoir system, continuously adjusting release and withdrawal decisions based on the latest hydrologic information will increase the benefits derived from the system. However, the extent to which such an adjustment can be achieved results from complex spatial and temporal interactions between the physical characteristics of the water resources system (storage, natural flows), the economic and social consequences of rationing and the impacts on natural ecosystems. The complexity of the decision-making process, which requires the continuous evaluation of numerous trade-offs, calls for the use of integrated hydrologic-economic models. This paper compares static and dynamic management approaches for a cascade of hydropower-irrigation reservoirs using stochastic dual dynamic programming (SDDP

  8. Optimal maintenance policy incorporating system level and unit level for mechanical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Chaoqun; Deng, Chao; Wang, Bingran

    2018-04-01

    The study works on a multi-level maintenance policy combining system level and unit level under soft and hard failure modes. The system experiences system-level preventive maintenance (SLPM) when the conditional reliability of entire system exceeds SLPM threshold, and also undergoes a two-level maintenance for each single unit, which is initiated when a single unit exceeds its preventive maintenance (PM) threshold, and the other is performed simultaneously the moment when any unit is going for maintenance. The units experience both periodic inspections and aperiodic inspections provided by failures of hard-type units. To model the practical situations, two types of economic dependence have been taken into account, which are set-up cost dependence and maintenance expertise dependence due to the same technology and tool/equipment can be utilised. The optimisation problem is formulated and solved in a semi-Markov decision process framework. The objective is to find the optimal system-level threshold and unit-level thresholds by minimising the long-run expected average cost per unit time. A formula for the mean residual life is derived for the proposed multi-level maintenance policy. The method is illustrated by a real case study of feed subsystem from a boring machine, and a comparison with other policies demonstrates the effectiveness of our approach.

  9. The Appreciative System of Urban ICT Policies: An Analysis of Perceptions of Urban Policy Makers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen-Blankshtain, G.; Nijkamp, P.

    2004-01-01

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has become an important tool to promote a variety of public goals and policies. In the past years much attention has been given to the expected social benefits from deploying ICTs in different urban fields (transportation, education, public

  10. Empirical Evidence and Policy Implications from National Systems of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will focus on two critical topics in the current innovation policy ... data provided by innovation surveys in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and ... long-term climate action to reduce social inequality, promote greater gender ...

  11. Information System Security: Army Web Site Administration, Policies, and Practices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    .... The Policy requires heads of DoD Components to establish a process to identify appropriate information for posting to Web sites and to review all information placed on publicly accessible Web sites...

  12. Using the social security system to deliver housing policy

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Louise, Gee Wing

    2016-01-01

    This thesis examines the interaction between housing policy and the social security benefits that support housing costs. Analysis concerns the extent and type of State intervention in housing, thus explaining the dynamic between State and individual responsibility in housing policy. This thesis involves an exploration of the different treatment of the owner-occupied and the rented housing sectors, with reference to the social security benefits which fund ongoing housing costs. This thesis see...

  13. Effectiveness of policy measures in transforming the energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, P.D.

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of public policy measures in creating energy impacts were investigated through 20 policy cases on renewable energy and efficient energy use. The policies were grouped into subsidy-type and catalyzing measures based on the use of the public financial resources. The policy cost of subsidies ranged from 1 Euro/MWh up to over 100 Euro/MWh, the feed-in tariffs being clearly the most expensive choice. The public measures that strive for catalyzing market breakthroughs lie in the range 0.1-1 Euro/MWh, but some business driven and procurement type measures could come down to even 0.01 Euro/MWh. The policy costs observed could decrease by 25-60% if accounting for lagging energy impacts. The better policy efficiency of catalytic measures is most likely due to a stronger market and business sensitiveness, understanding of market needs, and focusing more on the end-use sector with active stakeholder involvement. The magnitude of the energy impacts were in average larger from the subsidy instruments but a few end-use technologies linked to catalytic measures reached even higher effects due to the strong market penetration achieved. (author)

  14. Effectiveness of policy measures in transforming the energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, P.D.

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of public policy measures in creating energy impacts were investigated through 20 policy cases on renewable energy and efficient energy use. The policies were grouped into subsidy-type and catalyzing measures based on the use of the public financial resources. The policy cost of subsidies ranged from 1 Euro /MWh up to over 100 Euro /MWh, the feed-in tariffs being clearly the most expensive choice. The public measures that strive for catalyzing market breakthroughs lie in the range 0.1-1 Euro /MWh, but some business driven and procurement type measures could come down to even 0.01 Euro /MWh. The policy costs observed could decrease by 25-60% if accounting for lagging energy impacts. The better policy efficiency of catalytic measures is most likely due to a stronger market and business sensitiveness, understanding of market needs, and focusing more on the end-use sector with active stakeholder involvement. The magnitude of the energy impacts were in average larger from the subsidy instruments but a few end-use technologies linked to catalytic measures reached even higher effects due to the strong market penetration achieved

  15. Analyzing interdependencies between policy mixes and technological innovation systems : The case of offshore wind in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reichardt, Kristin; Negro, Simona O.; Rogge, Karoline S.; Hekkert, Marko P.

    2016-01-01

    One key approach for studying emerging technologies in the field of sustainability transitions is that of technological innovation systems (TIS). While most TIS studies aim at deriving policy recommendations - typically by identifying system barriers - the actual role of these proposed policies in

  16. The Policy-Making Process of the State University System of Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Sandra M.

    The policy-making process of the State University System of Florida is described using David Easton's model of a political system as the conceptual framwork. Two models describing the policy-making process were developed from personal interviews with the primary participants in the governance structure and from three case studies of policy…

  17. Intermittently Connected Cloudlet System to Obtain an Optimal Offloading Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadim Akhtar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The great potential has been shown over the performance enhancement for offloading the mobile devices within intensive parts of computation within mobile cloud application. The complete realization for the potential which being mismatch within the particular mobile devices on the resource computing demand and that provide an offer. The request over offloading is connecting the variable network where cloud services are always being in the required process within infrequent, variable connectivity of network and quick response time for relatively incurring the times for long setup and quanta for long time are may be indifferent for the connectivity of network. The requirement over the mobile application is needed more resources for executing the single device task within the fact of mobile devices enhanced capabilities. The problems have been addressed for several computation of offloading the remote cloud services and resources which is locating the computing resources in the cloudlets. The proposed concept is proposing an experimental approach for highlighting the tradeoff of offloading. The proposed architecture of the generic algorithm is performing an integration of mobile cloud computing for automatic offloading to improve the application response time when minimizing the consumption of energy for mobile device. Offloading task within a remote machine is not better than performing task particularly. The particular performance of the task is always better than remote machine. The proposed system is developing an algorithm of optimal offloading for mobile user which considering over the cloudlets availability and local load of user’s. The solution and formulation of the MDP (Markov Decision Process model is for obtaining a policy to the user mobile and minimizing the objective of offloading cost and computation cost.

  18. Predictive maintenance policy for a gradually deteriorating system subject to stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deloux, E. [IRCCyN/Ecole des Mines de Nantes, Nantes (France); Castanier, B. [IRCCyN/Ecole des Mines de Nantes, Nantes (France)], E-mail: bruno.castanier@emn.fr; Berenguer, C. [Universite de Technologie de Troyes/CNRS, Troyes (France)

    2009-02-15

    This paper deals with a predictive maintenance policy for a continuously deteriorating system subject to stress. We consider a system with two failure mechanisms which are, respectively, due to an excessive deterioration level and a shock. To optimize the maintenance policy of the system, an approach combining statistical process control (SPC) and condition-based maintenance (CBM) is proposed. CBM policy is used to inspect and replace the system according to the observed deterioration level. SPC is used to monitor the stress covariate. In order to assess the performance of the proposed maintenance policy and to minimize the long-run expected maintenance cost per unit of time, a mathematical model for the maintained system cost is derived. Analysis based on numerical results are conducted to highlight the properties of the proposed maintenance policy in respect to the different maintenance parameters.

  19. Predictive maintenance policy for a gradually deteriorating system subject to stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deloux, E.; Castanier, B.; Berenguer, C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with a predictive maintenance policy for a continuously deteriorating system subject to stress. We consider a system with two failure mechanisms which are, respectively, due to an excessive deterioration level and a shock. To optimize the maintenance policy of the system, an approach combining statistical process control (SPC) and condition-based maintenance (CBM) is proposed. CBM policy is used to inspect and replace the system according to the observed deterioration level. SPC is used to monitor the stress covariate. In order to assess the performance of the proposed maintenance policy and to minimize the long-run expected maintenance cost per unit of time, a mathematical model for the maintained system cost is derived. Analysis based on numerical results are conducted to highlight the properties of the proposed maintenance policy in respect to the different maintenance parameters

  20. A Systemic Innovation Policy Framework: The Cases of Scottish and Dutch Agrifood Innovation Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lamprinopoulou-Kranis, Chrysa; Renwick, Alan W.; Klerkx, Laurens; Hermans, Frans; Islam, Md. Mofakkarul; Roep, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Innovation and knowledge exchange are receiving increased attention among policy makers as a means to address sustainable economic development challenges (European Commission, 2011). However, a range of factors such as inappropriate structures and institutional or capabilities barriers may negatively influence the spread or direction of processes of innovation and knowledge exchange (Klein-Woolthuis et al., 2005). These problems are often referred to as systemic weaknesses or failures, and hi...

  1. Policy choices in dementia care-An exploratory analysis of the Alberta continuing care system (ACCS) using system dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepoiu-Martin, Monica; Bischak, Diane P

    2018-02-01

    The increase in the incidence of dementia in the aging population and the decrease in the availability of informal caregivers put pressure on continuing care systems to care for a growing number of people with disabilities. Policy changes in the continuing care system need to address this shift in the population structure. One of the most effective tools for assessing policies in complex systems is system dynamics. Nevertheless, this method is underused in continuing care capacity planning. A system dynamics model of the Alberta Continuing Care System was developed using stylized data. Sensitivity analyses and policy evaluations were conducted to demonstrate the use of system dynamics modelling in this area of public health planning. We focused our policy exploration on introducing staff/resident benchmarks in both supportive living and long-term care (LTC). The sensitivity analyses presented in this paper help identify leverage points in the system that need to be acknowledged when policy decisions are made. Our policy explorations showed that the deficits of staff increase dramatically when benchmarks are introduced, as expected, but at the end of the simulation period, the difference in deficits of both nurses and health care aids are similar between the 2 scenarios tested. Modifying the benchmarks in LTC only versus in both supportive living and LTC has similar effects on staff deficits in long term, under the assumptions of this particular model. The continuing care system dynamics model can be used to test various policy scenarios, allowing decision makers to visualize the effect of a certain policy choice on different system variables and to compare different policy options. Our exploration illustrates the use of system dynamics models for policy making in complex health care systems. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Unpacking policy processes for addressing systemic problems in technological innovation systems : The case of offshore wind in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reichardt, Kristin; Rogge, Karoline S.; Negro, Simona O.

    2017-01-01

    While empirical studies on technological innovation systems (TIS) usually focus on policy instruments and their suitability for curing identified weaknesses of such emerging systems, the underlying policy processes and their effects have been largely disregarded. We address this gap by exploring the

  3. The Impact of the Introduction of Web Information Systems (WIS) on Information Policies: An Analysis of the Canadian Federal Government Policies Related to WIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Christine; Bergeron, Pierette

    2002-01-01

    Presents results of an analysis of the Canadian federal government information policies that govern its Web information systems (WIS) that was conducted to better understand how the government has adapted its information policies to the WIS. Discusses results that indicate new policies have been crafted to take into account the WIS context.…

  4. State-age-dependent maintenance policies for deteriorating systems with Erlang sojourn time distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    This paper investigates state-age-dependent maintenance policies for multistate deteriorating systems with Erlang sojourn time distributions. Since Erlang distributions are serial combinations of exponential phases, the deteriorating process can be modeled by a multi-phase Markovian model and hence easily analyzed. Based on the Markovian model, the optimal phase-dependent inspection and replacement policy can be obtained by using a policy improvement algorithm. However, since phases are fictitious and can not be identified by inspections, two procedures are developed to construct state-age-dependent policies based on the optimal phase-dependent policy. The properties of the constructed state-age-dependent policies are further investigated and the performance of the policy is evaluated through a numerical example

  5. Sustainability indicator system and policy processes in Malaysia: a framework for utilisation and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hezri, A A

    2004-12-01

    Formulation of effective sustainability indicators for national assessment demands a comprehensive understanding of the utilisation, diffusion and dissemination of information in policy processes. To illustrate the dynamic of sustainability assessment within the context of policy processes, this paper uses a case study of national sustainability indicators development in Malaysia. Subsequently, this paper ascribes the limited achievement of national sustainability assessment in Malaysia to four types of constraints: meta-policy issues; technical capacities; communication concerns; and the inherent knowledge gaps within the indicator developer community vis-a-vis their theoretical limitations. It is proposed that such constraints will be encountered in many countries. Drawing from the literature on public policy, this paper outlines a framework for investigating indicator behaviour within policy processes based on well-established concepts such as knowledge utilisation and policy learning. I conclude this paper by elaborating on the corresponding future challenges that must be addressed before effective integration of sustainability indicators within policy systems can occur.

  6. Policy and Environmental Implications of Photovoltaic Systems in Farming in Southeast Spain: Can Greenhouses Reduce the Greenhouse Effect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Carreño-Ortega

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Solar photovoltaic (PV systems have grown in popularity in the farming sector, primarily because land area and farm structures themselves, such as greenhouses, can be exploited for this purpose, and, moreover, because farms tend to be located in rural areas far from energy production plants. In Spain, despite being a country with enormous potential for this renewable energy source, little is being done to exploit it, and policies of recent years have even restricted its implementation. These factors constitute an obstacle, both for achieving environmental commitments and for socioeconomic development. This study proposes the installation of PV systems on greenhouses in southeast Spain, the location with the highest concentration of greenhouses in Europe. Following a sensitivity analysis, it is estimated that the utilization of this technology in the self-consumption scenario at farm level produces increased profitability for farms, which can range from 0.88% (worst scenario to 52.78% (most favorable scenario. Regarding the Spanish environmental policy, the results obtained demonstrate that the impact of applying this technology mounted on greenhouses would bring the country 38% closer to reaching the 2030 greenhouse gas (GHG target. Furthermore, it would make it possible to nearly achieve the official commitment of 20% renewable energies by 2020. Additionally, it would have considerable effects on the regional socioeconomy, with increases in job creation and contribution to gross domestic product (GDP/R&D (Research and Development, allowing greater profitability in agrifood activities throughout the entire region.

  7. Access to essential medicines in Pakistan: policy and health systems research concerns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shehla Zaidi

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Inadequate access to essential medicines is a common issue within developing countries. Policy response is constrained, amongst other factors, by a dearth of in-depth country level evidence. We share here i gaps related to access to essential medicine in Pakistan; and ii prioritization of emerging policy and research concerns. METHODS: An exploratory research was carried out using a health systems perspective and applying the WHO Framework for Equitable Access to Essential Medicine. Methods involved key informant interviews with policy makers, providers, industry, NGOs, experts and development partners, review of published and grey literature, and consultative prioritization in stakeholder's Roundtable. FINDINGS: A synthesis of evidence found major gaps in essential medicine access in Pakistan driven by weaknesses in the health care system as well as weak pharmaceutical regulation. 7 major policy concerns and 11 emerging research concerns were identified through consultative Roundtable. These related to weaknesses in medicine registration and quality assurance systems, unclear and counterproductive pricing policies, irrational prescribing and sub-optimal drug availability. Available research, both locally and globally, fails to target most of the identified policy concerns, tending to concentrate on irrational prescriptions. It overlooks trans-disciplinary areas of policy effectiveness surveillance, consumer behavior, operational pilots and pricing interventions review. CONCLUSION: Experience from Pakistan shows that policy concerns related to essential medicine access need integrated responses across various components of the health systems, are poorly addressed by existing evidence, and require an expanded health systems research agenda.

  8. The Role of Gender Policy in Turkish VET System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korchynska, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    The article examines the evolution of gender policies in the field of vocational education in Turkey since the beginning of the 20th century up to the present. Schools for girls started to emerge in Turkey at the beginning of the republican era. Their aim was to teach students about gender roles consistent with the trend of modernization and…

  9. Appraisal of Cashless Policy on the Nigerian Financial System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian economy, the cashless policy will have the desired impact only if a lot ... for citizenship empowerment, proposes a set of flexible ... money stock and price levels that will do the job of ... funds, make payments or receive balance enquiries ... in which the cashless economy will improve the quality of life. These include:.

  10. Wheeling and transmission system service policy in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casazza, J.A.; Schultz, A.J.; Limmer, H.D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides a review and discussion of the status of wheeling in the USA and Canada; the pros and cons of the new policies that are evolving and under consideration for wheeling and transmission access; specific case examples of some of the difficulties that have arisen; and the potential for new transmission technology. (author)

  11. Population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    Participants in the Seminar on Population Policies for Top-level Policy Makers and Program Managers, meeting in Thailand during January 1987, examined the challenges now facing them regarding the implementation of fertility regulation programs in their respective countries -- Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. This Seminar was organized to coincide with the completion of an Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) study investigating the impact and efficiency of family planning programs in the region. Country studies were reviewed at the Seminar along with policy issues about the status of women, incentive and disincentive programs, and socioeconomic factors affecting fertility. In Bangladesh the government recognizes population growth as its top priority problem related to the socioeconomic development of the country and is working to promote a reorientation strategy from the previous clinic-oriented to a multidimensional family welfare program. China's family planning program seeks to postpone marraige, space the births of children between 3-5 years, and promote the 1-child family. Its goal is to reduce the rate of natural increase from 12/1000 in 1978 to 5/1000 by 1985 and 0 by 2000. India's 7th Five-Year-Plan (1986-90) calls for establishing a 2-child family norm by 2000. In Indonesia the government's population policy includes reducing the rate of population growth, achieving a redistribution of the population, adjusting economic factors, and creating prosperous families. The government of Indonesia reversed its policy to reduce the population growth rate in 1984 and announced its goal of achieving a population of 70 million by 2100 in order to support mass consumption industries. It has created an income tax deduction system favoring large families and maternity benefits for women who have up to 5 children as incentives. Nepal's official policy is to

  12. State autonomy, policy paralysis: paradoxes of institutions and culture in the French health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochaix, Lise; Wilsford, David

    2005-01-01

    In this article, we assess the recent performance of the French state at containing costs in health care using political science concepts such as path dependency and incentives, which are central to an economic approach. The article focuses on institutional capacities and cultural immobilism and attempts to lay bare the tensions at play in seizing (or not) opportunities for structural change. In particular, we attempt to delineate what constitutes real change in this policy arena (big reforms versus the accumulation of many small policy movements) and to understand the variables at play in the coming together of conjunctures that provide for the big, as well as the underlying structures that allow the accumulation of the small. Except in cases of favorable conjuncture, the analysis bodes very ill for nonincremental reform and, indeed, for significant change over the long term.

  13. Policy-Relevant Systematic Reviews to Strengthen Health Systems: Models and Mechanisms to Support Their Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Sandra; Dickson, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    Support for producing systematic reviews about health systems is less well developed than for those about clinical practice. From interviewing policy makers and systematic reviewers we identified institutional mechanisms which bring systematic reviews and policy priorities closer by harnessing organisational and individual motivations, emphasising…

  14. A Multi-Pathfinder for Developing Adaptive Robust Policies in System Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamarat, C.; Pruyt, E.; Loonen, E.T.

    2013-01-01

    Adaptivity is essential for dynamically complex and uncertain systems. Adaptive policymaking is an approach to design policies that can be adapted over time to how the future unfolds. It is crucial for adaptive policymaking to specify under what conditions and how to adapt the policy. The

  15. Sports policy systems in regulated Rhineland welfare states : Differences in financial structures of sports clubs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pamela Wicker; Jeroen Scheerder; Steven Vos; Christoph Breuer

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the resource dependencies of voluntary sports club in two Rhineland welfare states with differences in their organizational arrangements of sports (e.g. the centralization of the Sport for All policy). On the basis of the VOCASPORT typology of sports policy systems and the

  16. Innovation Happens in Systems: Implications for Science, Technology and Innovation Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Holbrook, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    This report addresses the regional systems of innovation in Canada, and looks at the ways that policy instruments play a role in the process. Recommendations are made to encourage the development of policies that foster the development of innovation clusters in Canada.

  17. Interim Policy Options for Commercialization of Solar Heating and Cooling Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezdek, Roger

    This interim report reviews the major incentive policy options available to accelerate market penetration of solar heating and cooling (SHAC) systems. Feasible policy options designed to overcome existing barriers to commercial acceptance and market penetration are identified and evaluated. The report is divided into seven sections, each dealing…

  18. MODERN APPROACHES TO THE IMPLEMENTATION OF MONETARY POLICY AND THE REGULATION OF FINANCIAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu CUHAL

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study determines the modern approaches to the implementation of monetary policy and regulation of financial systems. Set of measures to prevent and overcome the financial crisis is grounded taking into consideration different areas of research and the IMF. New tasks of monetary policy in central banks are specified and they are intended to ensure the financial stability of the state (within the common fiscal policy. The main directions of elaboration and implementation of new monetary policy mechanism, which is intended to ensure the effective solution of problems in macro prudential supervision and financial stability, are examined.

  19. Modern approaches to the implementation of monetary policy and the regulation of financial systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basistîi Nicolae

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study determines the modern approaches to the implementation of monetary policy and regulation of financial systems. Set of measures to prevent and overcome the financial crisis is grounded taking into consideration different areas of research and the IMF.New tasks of monetary policy in central banks are specified and they are intended to ensure the financial stability of the state (within the common fiscal policy.The main directions of elaboration and implementation of new monetary policy mechanism, which is intended to ensure the effective solution of problems in macro prudential supervision and financial stability, are examined.

  20. Implementing hospital quality assurance policies in Iran: balancing licensing, annual evaluation, inspections and quality management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaei Hashjin, Asgar; Delgoshaei, Bahram; Kringos, Dionne S; Tabibi, Seyed Jamaladin; Manouchehri, Jila; Klazinga, Niek S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of applied hospital quality assurance (QA) policies in Iran. A mixed method (quantitative data and qualitative document analysis) study was carried out between 1996 and 2010. The QA policy cycle forms a tight monitoring system to assure hospital quality by combining mandatory and voluntary methods in Iran. The licensing, annual evaluation and grading, and regulatory inspections statutorily implemented by the government as a national package to assure and improve hospital care quality, while implementing quality management systems (QMS) was voluntary for hospitals. The government's strong QA policy legislation role and support has been an important factor for successful QA implementation in Iran, though it may affected QA assessment independency and validity. Increased hospital evaluation independency and repositioning, updating standards, professional involvement and effectiveness studies could increase QA policy impact and maturity. The study highlights the current QA policy implementation cycle in Iranian hospitals. It provides a basis for further quality strategy development in Iranian hospitals and elsewhere. It also raises attention about finding the optimal balance between different QA policies, which is topical for many countries. This paper describes experiences when implementing a unique approach, combining mandatory and voluntary QA policies simultaneously in a developing country, which has invested considerably over time to improve hospital quality. The experiences with a mixed obligatory/voluntary approach and comprehensive policies in Iran may contain lessons for policy makers in developing and developed countries.

  1. Accomplishing Water Strategy Policies in Hospitals: The Role of Management Information Systems and Managerial Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Naranjo-Gil

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Hospitals are using more sophisticated and comprehensive management information systems to implement multiple strategic policies towards water cost saving and water quality enhancement. However, they do not always achieve the intended strategic goals. This paper analyzes how managerial styles interact with sophisticated management information systems to achieve different water strategic priorities. How proactive vs. reactive managerial styles moderate the effects of management information systems on water cost saving and water quality enhancement is analyzed. Relationships are explored using data collected from 122 general services directors in Spanish public hospitals. The findings show a positive effect of sophisticated management information systems on the achievement of water policies focused on cost saving and quality enhancement. Results also show a different moderated effect of managerial styles; thus, sophisticated management information systems with a proactive managerial style facilitate managers to achieve better water quality policies rather than water cost saving policies.

  2. Off-policy integral reinforcement learning optimal tracking control for continuous-time chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Qing-Lai; Song Rui-Zhuo; Xiao Wen-Dong; Sun Qiu-Ye

    2015-01-01

    This paper estimates an off-policy integral reinforcement learning (IRL) algorithm to obtain the optimal tracking control of unknown chaotic systems. Off-policy IRL can learn the solution of the HJB equation from the system data generated by an arbitrary control. Moreover, off-policy IRL can be regarded as a direct learning method, which avoids the identification of system dynamics. In this paper, the performance index function is first given based on the system tracking error and control error. For solving the Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman (HJB) equation, an off-policy IRL algorithm is proposed. It is proven that the iterative control makes the tracking error system asymptotically stable, and the iterative performance index function is convergent. Simulation study demonstrates the effectiveness of the developed tracking control method. (paper)

  3. Nitrogen in Agricultural Systems: Implications for Conservation Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Ribaudo, Marc; Delgado, Jorge; Hansen, LeRoy T.; Livingston, Michael J.; Mosheim, Roberto; Williamson, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen is an important agricultural input that is critical for crop production. However, the introduction of large amounts of nitrogen into the environment has a number of undesirable impacts on water, terrestrial, and atmospheric resources. This report explores the use of nitrogen in U.S. agriculture and assesses changes in nutrient management by farmers that may improve nitrogen use effi ciency. It also reviews a number of policy approaches for improving nitrogen management and identifi e...

  4. A critical analysis of national policies, systems, and structures of patient empowerment in England and Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudioni, Markella; McLaren, Susan; Lister, Graham

    2017-01-01

    Comparison of patient empowerment (PE) policies in European countries can provide evidence for improvement and reform across different health systems. It may also influence patient and public involvement, patient experience, preference, and adherence. The objective of this study was to compare PE within national policies, systems, and structures in England and Greece for achieving integrated people-centered health services. We performed a critical search and review of policy and legislation papers in English and Greek languages. This included 1) general health policy and systems papers, 2) PE, patient and/or public involvement or patients' rights policy and legislation (1990-2015), and 3) comparative or discussion papers for England and/or Greece. A total of 102 papers on PE policies, systems, and structures were identified initially; 80 papers were included, in which 46 were policy, legislative, and discussion papers about England, 21 were policy, legislation, and discussion papers about Greece, and 13 were comparative or discussion papers including both the countries. In England, National Health Service policies emphasized patient-centered services, involvement, and empowerment, with recent focus on patients' rights; while in Greece, they emphasized patients' rights and quality of services, with recent mentions on empowerment. The health ombudsman is a very important organization across countries; however, it may be more powerful in Greece, because of the nonexistence of local mediating bodies. Micro-structures at trusts/hospitals are comparable, but legislation gives more power to the local structures in Greece. PE policies and systems have been developed and expressed differently in these countries. However, PE similarities, comparable dimensions and mechanisms, were identified. For both the countries, comparative research and these findings could be beneficial in building connections and relationships, contributing to wider European and international

  5. A Causal Mechanism of Policy Innovation: The Reform of Colombia’s Oil-Rents Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayron Paz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes policy innovation in Colombia, through the adoption of a new centralized oil-rent management system in 2011, after 20 years of decentralized policies. Using a policy-design framework, we identify a causal mechanism linking the opening of a policy window to policy change as a combination of the emergence of a new policy network, the adoption of a new policy paradigm and the selection of a new instruments mix. Drawing on Bayesian statistics, the 11 tests conducted on the causal mechanism show the importance of State resources of information, authority, treasury and organization to assess the outcome of policy change.

  6. Balancing economic freedom against social policy principles: EC competition law and national health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossialos, Elias; Lear, Julia

    2012-07-01

    EU Health policy exemplifies the philosophical tension between EC economic freedoms and social policy. EC competition law, like other internal market rules, could restrict national health policy options despite the subsidiarity principle. In particular, European health system reforms that incorporate elements of market competition may trigger the application of competition rules if non-economic gains in consumer welfare are not adequately accounted for. This article defines the policy and legal parameters of the debate between competition law and health policy. Using a sample of cases it analyses how the ECJ, national courts, and National Competition Authorities have applied competition laws to the health services sector in different circumstances and in different ways. It concludes by considering the implications of the convergence of recent trends in competition law enforcement and health system market reforms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. An Item Bank to Measure Systems, Services, and Policies: Environmental Factors Affecting People With Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jin-Shei; Hammel, Joy; Jerousek, Sara; Goldsmith, Arielle; Miskovic, Ana; Baum, Carolyn; Wong, Alex W; Dashner, Jessica; Heinemann, Allen W

    2016-12-01

    To develop a measure of perceived systems, services, and policies facilitators (see Chapter 5 of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health) for people with neurologic disabilities and to evaluate the effect of perceived systems, services, and policies facilitators on health-related quality of life. Qualitative approaches to develop and refine items. Confirmatory factor analysis including 1-factor confirmatory factor analysis and bifactor analysis to evaluate unidimensionality of items. Rasch analysis to identify misfitting items. Correlational and analysis of variance methods to evaluate construct validity. Community-dwelling individuals participated in telephone interviews or traveled to the academic medical centers where this research took place. Participants (N=571) had a diagnosis of spinal cord injury, stroke, or traumatic brain injury. They were 18 years or older and English speaking. Not applicable. An item bank to evaluate environmental access and support levels of services, systems, and policies for people with disabilities. We identified a general factor defined as "access and support levels of the services, systems, and policies at the level of community living" and 3 local factors defined as "health services," "community living," and "community resources." The systems, services, and policies measure correlated moderately with participation measures: Community Participation Indicators (CPI) - Involvement, CPI - Control over Participation, Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders - Ability to Participate, Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders - Satisfaction with Role Participation, Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Ability to Participate, PROMIS Satisfaction with Role Participation, and PROMIS Isolation. The measure of systems, services, and policies facilitators contains items pertaining to health services, community living, and community resources. Investigators and clinicians can measure

  8. Engaging policy-makers, heath system managers, and policy analysts in the knowledge synthesis process: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricco, Andrea C; Zarin, Wasifa; Rios, Patricia; Nincic, Vera; Khan, Paul A; Ghassemi, Marco; Diaz, Sanober; Pham, Ba'; Straus, Sharon E; Langlois, Etienne V

    2018-02-12

    It is unclear how to engage a wide range of knowledge users in research. We aimed to map the evidence on engaging knowledge users with an emphasis on policy-makers, health system managers, and policy analysts in the knowledge synthesis process through a scoping review. We used the Joanna Briggs Institute guidance for scoping reviews. Nine electronic databases (e.g., MEDLINE), two grey literature sources (e.g., OpenSIGLE), and reference lists of relevant systematic reviews were searched from 1996 to August 2016. We included any type of study describing strategies, barriers and facilitators, or assessing the impact of engaging policy-makers, health system managers, and policy analysts in the knowledge synthesis process. Screening and data abstraction were conducted by two reviewers independently with a third reviewer resolving discrepancies. Frequency and thematic analyses were conducted. After screening 8395 titles and abstracts followed by 394 full-texts, 84 unique documents and 7 companion reports fulfilled our eligibility criteria. All 84 documents were published in the last 10 years, and half were prepared in North America. The most common type of knowledge synthesis with knowledge user engagement was a systematic review (36%). The knowledge synthesis most commonly addressed an issue at the level of national healthcare system (48%) and focused on health services delivery (17%) in high-income countries (86%). Policy-makers were the most common (64%) knowledge users, followed by healthcare professionals (49%) and government agencies as well as patients and caregivers (34%). Knowledge users were engaged in conceptualization and design (49%), literature search and data collection (52%), data synthesis and interpretation (71%), and knowledge dissemination and application (44%). Knowledge users were most commonly engaged as key informants through meetings and workshops as well as surveys, focus groups, and interviews either in-person or by telephone and emails

  9. Developing a DSR-HNS policy making framework for electric energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyar-Naimi, H.; Vaez-Zadeh, S.

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable Development (SD) has played a major role as a foundation of several policy making frameworks developed mainly by international organizations. In this paper, some critical points regarding the origination and formulation of the SD concept are discussed. It is argued that the SD concerns with selected sectors and regions rather than the whole society and all regions of the world. To tackle these shortcomings, the conventional definition of SD is extended in this paper according to a broad philosophy of harmonizing key aspects of human, nature and systems performances over generations. Based on this extended definition, an improved Driving Force–State–Response (DSR-HNS) policy making framework is introduced. The main contribution is the modeling of the state block by human, nature and systems components to design overall and coherent policies. A procedure using the framework is also elaborated to monitor the current policies and design new ones, which provides a dynamic, nonlinear, feedback controlled policy making practice, not accommodated by existing policy making frameworks. Finally, a case study is presented to evaluate the effectiveness of the modified framework and the proposed model. The study assesses Iran's electric power generation system from sustainability point of view and develops new policies. - Highlights: ► Some critical points regarding the Sustainable Development (SD) concept are discussed. ► Based on this extended definition, a policy making framework is introduced. ► A policy making procedure based on the framework is elaborated. ► A case study is presented to evaluate the effectiveness of the modified framework. ► New policies are developed for Iran's power generation system.

  10. Systems Thinking and Simulation Modeling to Inform Childhood Obesity Policy and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Kenneth E; Kibbe, Debra L; Ferencik, Rachel; Soderquist, Chris; Phillips, Mary Ann; Vall, Emily Anne; Minyard, Karen J

    In 2007, 31.7% of Georgia adolescents in grades 9-12 were overweight or obese. Understanding the impact of policies and interventions on obesity prevalence among young people can help determine statewide public health and policy strategies. This article describes a systems model, originally launched in 2008 and updated in 2014, that simulates the impact of policy interventions on the prevalence of childhood obesity in Georgia through 2034. In 2008, using information from peer-reviewed reports and quantitative estimates by experts in childhood obesity, physical activity, nutrition, and health economics and policy, a group of legislators, legislative staff members, and experts trained in systems thinking and system dynamics modeling constructed a model simulating the impact of policy interventions on the prevalence of childhood obesity in Georgia through 2034. Use of the 2008 model contributed to passage of a bill requiring annual fitness testing of schoolchildren and stricter enforcement of physical education requirements. We updated the model in 2014. With no policy change, the updated model projects that the prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents aged ≤18 in Georgia would hold at 18% from 2014 through 2034. Mandating daily school physical education (which would reduce prevalence to 12%) and integrating moderate to vigorous physical activity into elementary classrooms (which would reduce prevalence to 10%) would have the largest projected impact. Enacting all policies simultaneously would lower the prevalence of childhood obesity from 18% to 3%. Systems thinking, especially with simulation models, facilitates understanding of complex health policy problems. Using a simulation model to educate legislators, educators, and health experts about the policies that have the greatest short- and long-term impact should encourage strategic investment in low-cost, high-return policies.

  11. When and why are reliable organizations favored?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ethiraj, Sendil; Yi, Sangyoon

    of the ensuing work examined only corollary implications of this observation. We treat the observation as a research question and ask: when and why are reliable organizations favored by evolutionary forces? Using a simple theoretical model, we direct attention at a minimal set of variables that are implicated...... shocks, reliable organizations can in fact outperform their less reliable counterparts if they can take advantage of the knowledge resident in their historical choices. While these results are counter-intuitive, the caveat is that our results are only an existence proof for our theory rather than...

  12. European Transportation in the Greenhouse — System and Policy Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    The transport sector in Europe is growing in both absolute and relative terms. Not only because the number of European Union states have increased – 10 new members, including Cyprus welcomed in 2004 - but also because transport is a highly expansive sector in both old and new Member Countries....... The purpose of this paper is to give a brief overall account of the present situation and outlook in terms of transport energy use and GHG emissions in the context of European Union transport policy. The present assessment is based on a personal selection of some indicators that the author belives are key...

  13. System Merits or Failures? Policies for Transition to Sustainable P and N Systems in The Netherlands and Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hoppe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P cycles are absolutely vital in maintaining sustainable food systems. Human activities disturb the natural balance of these cycles by creating enormous additional nutrient fluxes, causing eutrophication of waterways and pollution in land systems. To tackle this problem, sustainable nutrient management is required. This paper addresses sustainable nutrient management in two countries: The Netherlands and Finland. We adopt a critical perspective on resource politics, especially towards opportunistic policy strategies for the pollutant management of N and P. Two research questions are considered. First, what are the key systemic and policy failures that occurred in the N and P systems in the Netherlands and Finland between 1970 and 2015? And second, which lessons can be drawn when addressing the policy responses in the two countries to cope with these failures? The cases are analyzed within Weber and Rohracher’s framework that addresses “failures” preventing sustainable transitions. The results show that a number of failures occurred, besides market failures (over-exploitation of the commons, externalization of costs: lack of directionality, policy coordination, institutions, capabilities, infrastructure, demand articulation, and reflexivity. Policy responses in both countries resulted in ponderous policy frameworks that were adequate to tackle nutrient problems from the industrial sector and municipalities. However, both countries provided only a moderate response in terms of system-wide integrated policy frameworks to cope with sectoral-transcending issues. The agricultural use of N and P, in contrast to detergents, has not been subjected to strong regulatory measures.

  14. The Brazil socio-educational care system: contribution for an analysis critical of the policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candida de Souza

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Socio-Educational system is the policy of care for juvenile delinquents in Brazil. This policy is challenged to differentiate the prison system, because it’s pedagogic and sanctionatory in the same time. In this paper we propose to make a critical analysis of the implementation of the policy of children and adolescents in Brazil, especially the socio-educational system, under a critical view, with foundation in dialectical historical materialism. So we present the historical evolution of the attention to the rights of children and adolescents in Brazil and aim the limitations and possibilities of this policy today, in addition to the current operation of this policy, followed by an analysis based on critical criminology. Finally, we indicate that the juvenile justice system, the socio-educational system and all social practices relating to offenses should be seen as part of an historical and social process that has as its central point the materiality of social relations, the relationship between society, market and State and the consequent contradictions that are placed there. As the socio-educational project is linked to a contemporary neoliberal state, he does not escape the pressure of capitalism. That is, you can not understand the socio-educational institutions and logic that supports policies so displaced from this broader socio-political system that perpetuates unevenly and exclusive.

  15. Security, development and human rights: normative, legal and policy challenges for the international drug control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Damon

    2010-03-01

    This commentary addresses some of the challenges posed by the broader normative, legal and policy framework of the United Nations for the international drug control system. The 'purposes and principles' of the United Nations are presented and set against the threat based rhetoric of the drug control system and the negative consequences of that system. Some of the challenges posed by human rights law and norms to the international drug control system are also described, and the need for an impact assessment of the current system alongside alternative policy options is highlighted as a necessary consequence of these analyses. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Information for mental health systems: an instrument for policy-making and system service quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora, A; Lesage, A; Pathare, S; Levav, I

    2017-08-01

    Information is crucial in mental healthcare, yet it remains undervalued by stakeholders. Its absence undermines rationality in planning, makes it difficult to monitor service quality improvement, impedes accountability and human rights monitoring. For international organizations (e.g., WHO, OECD), information is indispensable for achieving better outcomes in mental health policies, services and programs. This article reviews the importance of developing system level information with reference to inputs, processes and outputs, analyzes available tools for collecting and summarizing information, highlights the various goals of information gathering, discusses implementation issues and charts the way forward. Relevant publications and research were consulted, including WHO studies that purport to promote the use of information systems to upgrade mental health care in high- and low-middle income countries. Studies have shown that once information has been collected by relevant systems and analyzed through indicator schemes, it can be put to many uses. Monitoring mental health services, represents a first step in using information. In addition, studies have noted that information is a prime resource in many other areas such as evaluation of quality of care against evidence based standards of care. Services data may support health services research where it is possible to link mental health data with other health and non-health databases. Information systems are required to carefully monitor involuntary admissions, restrain and seclusion, to reduce human rights violations in care facilities. Information has been also found useful for policy makers, to monitor the implementation of policies, to evaluate their impact, to rationally allocate funding and to create new financing models. Despite its manifold applications, Information systems currently face many problems such as incomplete recording, poor data quality, lack of timely reporting and feedback, and limited

  17. Evaluating Evaluation Systems: Policy Levers and Strategies for Studying Implementation of Educator Evaluation. Policy Snapshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlach, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation studies can provide feedback on implementation, support continuous improvement, and increase understanding of evaluation systems' impact on teaching and learning. Despite the importance of educator evaluation studies, states often need support to prioritize and fund them. Successful studies require expertise, time, and a shared…

  18. Tailoring Enterprise Systems Engineering Policy for Project Scale and Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Renee I.; Thomas, L. Dale

    2014-01-01

    Space systems are characterized by varying degrees of scale and complexity. Accordingly, cost-effective implementation of systems engineering also varies depending on scale and complexity. Recognizing that systems engineering and integration happen everywhere and at all levels of a given system and that the life cycle is an integrated process necessary to mature a design, the National Aeronautic and Space Administration's (NASA's) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has developed a suite of customized implementation approaches based on project scale and complexity. While it may be argued that a top-level system engineering process is common to and indeed desirable across an enterprise for all space systems, implementation of that top-level process and the associated products developed as a result differ from system to system. The implementation approaches used for developing a scientific instrument necessarily differ from those used for a space station. .

  19. Exchange rate system and policy in the present world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grubišić Zoran

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The choice of exchange rate regime is important, not only in terms of its effect on trade flows, but also with respect to inflation expectations. Countries facing disinflation may find that pegs regimes are more appropriate solution. But where the trade balance account is significantly deteriorated and growth has been sluggish, a more flexible regime might be called for. The natural classification in eighties and early nineties suggests that intermediate regimes may provide important advantages – to capture some of the benefits of both extremes while avoiding many of the costs. However today many experts predicted that exchange rate regimes would move in a "bipolar" manner to the extremes of "hard" pegs or free floats. An increasing number of countries did announce their intent to allow greater exchange rate flexibility. But, in practice, countries had a "fear of floating ". Distinction is made among advanced, emerging and other developing countries. Emerging markets have stronger links to international capital markets than do other developing economies. Thus, while non-emerging market developing economies may gain credibility through pegging their exchange rates, emerging markets find it harder to do so and could benefit from investing in "learning to float". More advanced economies with their access to international capital market are best positioned to enjoy the benefits of flexibility. It is found that the proportion of countries adopting intermediate regimes has indeed been shrinking in favor of greater flexibility or greater fixity, especially for countries more integrated with international markets. But, there is no final conclusion on the idea that intermediate regimes will dissapear.

  20. Environmental management policy analysis using complex system simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Eeckhout, E.; Roberts, D.; Oakes, R.; Shieh, A.; Hardie, W.; Pope, P.

    1999-01-01

    The two primary modules of Envirosim (the model of Los Alamos TA-55 and the WIPP transport/storage model) have been combined into one application, with the simulated waste generated by TA-55 operations being fed to storage, packaging, and transport simulation entities. Three simulation scenarios were executed which demonstrate the usefulness of Envirosim as a policy analysis tool for use in planning shipments to WIPP. A graphical user interface (GUI) has been implemented using IDL (Interactive Data Language) which allows the analyst to easily view simulation results. While IDL is not necessarily the graphics interface that would be selected for a production version of Envirosim, it does provide some powerful data manipulation capabilities, and it runs on a variety of platforms

  1. Sustainability science: accounting for nonlinear dynamics in policy and social-ecological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resilience is an emergent property of complex systems. Understanding resilience is critical for sustainability science, as linked social-ecological systems and the policy process that governs them are characterized by non-linear dynamics. Non-linear dynamics in these systems mean...

  2. Design integration of favorable geometry, structural support and containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purcell, J.A.; McGehee, G.A.

    1991-07-01

    In designs for fissile processes at Savannah River site, different approaches have been used to provide engineered margins of safety for criticality with containment and seismic resistance as additional requirements. These requirements are frequently at odds in engineered systems. This paper proposes a plan to take advantage of vessels with favorable geometry to provide seismic resistance and to support a glovebox for containment. Thin slab tanks, small diameter pencil tanks, annular tanks, and other novel designs have been used for criticality safety. The requirement for DBE seismic resistance and rigid control of dimensions leads the designer to consider annular tanks for meeting these requirements. The high strength of annular tanks may logically be used to support secondary containment. Hands-on access to all instruments, piping etc. within containment can be provided through gloveports, thus a specialized glovebox. This paper examines the advantages of using an annular tank design to provide favorable geometry, structural support and containment

  3. Optimized preventive replacement policy for large cascade systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretzen, H.H.

    1986-01-01

    The repair-bottleneck problem as a limiting factor for system reliability can be overcome. Design need only cover the steady state, wearout induced accumulations of failures being precluded by preventive replacements with subsequent recycling. As a result, a reliable system appears to be feasible on an economic basis, optimization in detail to be left to more precised cost-benefit studies. As a reference system the radio-frequency-generator cascade of a single-cell linear accelerator is considered. (DG)

  4. ANALYISIS OF TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS AND TRANSPORTATION POLICIES IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Payıdar AKGÜNGÖR; Abdulmuttalip DEMİREL

    2004-01-01

    Transportation systems have to be considered and analysed as a whole while transportation demand, becoming as a natural outcome of socioeconomic and socio-cultural structure, is being evaluated. It is desired that transportation system, which will be selected for both passenger and freight transport, should be rapid, economic, safe, causing least harm to environment and appropriate for the conditions of a country. However, it is difficult for a transportation system to have all these properti...

  5. A systematic policy approach to changing the food system and physical activity environments to prevent obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Gary; Swinburn, Boyd A; Lawrence, Mark A

    2008-06-05

    As obesity prevention becomes an increasing health priority in many countries, including Australia and New Zealand, the challenge that governments are now facing is how to adopt a systematic policy approach to increase healthy eating and regular physical activity. This article sets out a structure for systematically identifying areas for obesity prevention policy action across the food system and full range of physical activity environments. Areas amenable to policy intervention can be systematically identified by considering policy opportunities for each level of governance (local, state, national, international and organisational) in each sector of the food system (primary production, food processing, distribution, marketing, retail, catering and food service) and each sector that influences physical activity environments (infrastructure and planning, education, employment, transport, sport and recreation). Analysis grids are used to illustrate, in a structured fashion, the broad array of areas amenable to legal and regulatory intervention across all levels of governance and all relevant sectors. In the Australian context, potential regulatory policy intervention areas are widespread throughout the food system, e.g., land-use zoning (primary production within local government), food safety (food processing within state government), food labelling (retail within national government). Policy areas for influencing physical activity are predominantly local and state government responsibilities including, for example, walking and cycling environments (infrastructure and planning sector) and physical activity education in schools (education sector). The analysis structure presented in this article provides a tool to systematically identify policy gaps, barriers and opportunities for obesity prevention, as part of the process of developing and implementing a comprehensive obesity prevention strategy. It also serves to highlight the need for a coordinated approach to

  6. Monetary Policy of the Federal Reserve System from the Perspective of Exit Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Nocoń

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Central banks, after the experience of the global financial crisis, are now starting the implementation of the exit strategies, which are the process of normalization of monetary policy. The pace of monetary policy normalization process depends on the market reaction to central bank's decisions and macroeconomic conditions, in which they will be implemented. The main aim of the study is to present the principles of the exit strategy of the Federal Reserve System (Fed, on the background of the changes that have occurred in the United States within the monetary policy during the global financial crisis.

  7. Social Policies in Contemporary Latin America: Families and Poverty in the Social Protection Systems

    OpenAIRE

    González, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the impact of social policies on the living conditions of poor families—particularly women—in Latin America from the late 1980s to the present. It identifies three distinct trends of familialism in the region’s social protection systems. The first social policy trend is characterized by poverty alleviation policies addressing the family in an “elliptical” way, taking for granted the idea of a nuclear family. The distinguishing trait of the second trend is the appearance ...

  8. Policy incentives and grid-connected photovoltaics system development in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jing; Xu Yugao

    2007-07-01

    China has made considerable progress in solar PV generation technology. However, compared with conventional generation technologies or even other renewables such as wind and biomass, grid-connected PV technology is in its early stage and has not reached an adequate level of economic performance. Therefore, policy incentives will play important roles in attracting more social investments to facilitate the development of grid-connected PV generation. This paper is focused on analyzing the role of incentive policies in enhancing the market competitiveness of grid-connected solar PV systems in the context of China with an economic model and some policy suggestions are given based on simulation modeling efforts. (auth)

  9. Public policy and medical tourism: ethical implications for the Egyptian health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Bob

    2011-01-01

    Egypt's medical tourism industry has been experiencing tremendous growth. However, Egypt continues to lack the necessary investment in its public health system to effectively care for its population. Current policy and the emergence of medical tourism have led to unequal health care access, resulting in high a prevalence of infectious diseases and lack of resources for its most vulnerable populations. As a new Egyptian government emerges, it is important for policymakers to understand the critical issues and ethical concerns of existing health policy. This understanding may be used to propose new policy that more effectively allocates to care for Egypt's population.

  10. Proposed revision of the Cumberland System Power Marketing Policy and subsequent contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Southeastern Power Administration has prepared an Environmental Assessment (DOE/EA-0811) evaluating the proposed revision of the Cumberland System Power Marketing Policy and Subsequent Contracts. The findings of the Environmental Assessment (EA) are: the only significant change from the existing policy will be the term of the contracts executed under the revised policy; and there will be no addition of major new generation resources; there will be no new loads; there will be no major changes in the operating parameters of power generation resources. This paper discusses the need for action, the alternative and the environmental impacts

  11. Adoption of an information systems security policy in small and medium sized enterprises.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Maria Lopes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Information Systems Security (ISS is a relevant fact for current organizations. This paper focuses on Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs. This article aims to constitute an empirical study on the applicability of the Action Research (AR method in information systems, more specifically by assessing the adoption of an ISS policy in six SMEs, and identifying the critical success factors in adopting an ISS policy. The research question we intend to answer is to what extent this research method is adequate to reach the proposed goal. The results of the study suggest that AR is a promising means for the evaluation of ISS policies adoption. It can both act as a research method that improves the understanding about the reasons why the policy has been abandoned, and as a change method, assisting practitioners to overcome barriers and suggesting measures to be implemented.

  12. Condition-based inspection/replacement policies for non-monotone deteriorating systems with environmental covariates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Xuejing [Universite de Technologie de Troyes, Institut Charles Delaunay and STMR UMR CNRS 6279, 12 rue Marie Curie, 10010 Troyes (France); School of mathematics and statistics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Fouladirad, Mitra, E-mail: mitra.fouladirad@utt.f [Universite de Technologie de Troyes, Institut Charles Delaunay and STMR UMR CNRS 6279, 12 rue Marie Curie, 10010 Troyes (France); Berenguer, Christophe [Universite de Technologie de Troyes, Institut Charles Delaunay and STMR UMR CNRS 6279, 12 rue Marie Curie, 10010 Troyes (France); Bordes, Laurent [Universite de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, LMA UMR CNRS 5142, 64013 PAU Cedex (France)

    2010-08-15

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the problem of modelling and optimising condition-based maintenance policies for a deteriorating system in presence of covariates. The deterioration is modelled by a non-monotone stochastic process. The covariates process is assumed to be a time-homogenous Markov chain with finite state space. A model similar to the proportional hazards model is used to show the influence of covariates on the deterioration. In the framework of the system under consideration, an appropriate inspection/replacement policy which minimises the expected average maintenance cost is derived. The average cost under different conditions of covariates and different maintenance policies is analysed through simulation experiments to compare the policies performances.

  13. Condition-based inspection/replacement policies for non-monotone deteriorating systems with environmental covariates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xuejing; Fouladirad, Mitra; Berenguer, Christophe; Bordes, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the problem of modelling and optimising condition-based maintenance policies for a deteriorating system in presence of covariates. The deterioration is modelled by a non-monotone stochastic process. The covariates process is assumed to be a time-homogenous Markov chain with finite state space. A model similar to the proportional hazards model is used to show the influence of covariates on the deterioration. In the framework of the system under consideration, an appropriate inspection/replacement policy which minimises the expected average maintenance cost is derived. The average cost under different conditions of covariates and different maintenance policies is analysed through simulation experiments to compare the policies performances.

  14. Satellite Navigation Systems: Policy, Commercial and Technical Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rycroft, M.

    2003-12-01

    This book adopts a broad perspective on positioning and navigation systems which rely on Earth orbiting satellites for their successful operation. The first of such global systems was the US Global Positioning System (GPS), and the next the Russian GLONASS system. Now studies relating to Europe's future Galileo system are gaining momentum and other nations are planning regional augmentation systems. All such systems are discussed here, particularly relating to political, commercial, legal and technical issues. The opportunities - and also the problems - of having three similar systems in operation simultaneously are examined, and several novel applications are proposed. These range from improved vehicular transport by land, sea and air, to more accurate surveying, more efficient agricultural practices and safer operations in mountainous regions. Everyone who is challenged by these topics will find this volume invaluable. ISU WWW Server; http://www.isunet.edu. Further information on ISU Symposia may also be obtained by e-mail from symposium@isu.isunet.edu Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1678-6

  15. Health policy and systems research training: global status and recommendations for action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancred, Tara M; Schleiff, Meike; Peters, David H

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate the characteristics of health policy and systems research training globally and to identify recommendations for improvement and expansion. Methods We identified institutions offering health policy and systems research training worldwide. In 2014, we recruited participants from identified institutions for an online survey on the characteristics of the institutions and the courses given. Survey findings were explored during in-depth interviews with selected key informants. Findings The study identified several important gaps in health policy and systems research training. There were few courses in central and eastern Europe, the Middle East, North Africa or Latin America. Most (116/152) courses were instructed in English. Institutional support for courses was often lacking and many institutions lacked the critical mass of trained individuals needed to support doctoral and postdoctoral students. There was little consistency between institutions in definitions of the competencies required for health policy and systems research. Collaboration across disciplines to provide the range of methodological perspectives the subject requires was insufficient. Moreover, the lack of alternatives to on-site teaching may preclude certain student audiences such as policy-makers. Conclusion Training in health policy and systems research is important to improve local capacity to conduct quality research in this field. We provide six recommendations to improve the content, accessibility and reach of training. First, create a repository of information on courses. Second, establish networks to support training. Third, define competencies in health policy and systems research. Fourth, encourage multidisciplinary collaboration. Fifth, expand the geographical and language coverage of courses. Finally, consider alternative teaching formats. PMID:27429488

  16. Global Health Systems and Policy Development: Implications for Health Literacy Research, Theory and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, Gillian; Dodson, Sarity; Leung, Angela; Levin-Zamir, Diane

    2017-01-01

    Accessible and responsive health systems are critical to population health and human development. While progress has been made toward global health and development targets, significant inequities remain within and between countries. Expanding health inequities suggest a widespread and systemic neglect of vulnerable citizens, and a failure to enshrine within policies a responsibility to tailor care to the variable capabilities of citizens. Implementation of health and social policies that drive the design of accessible health systems, services, products and infrastructure represents the next frontier for health reform. Within this chapter we argue the need to consider health and health literacy across policy domains, to operationalize the intent to address inequities in health in meaningful and pragmatic ways, and to actively monitor progress and impact within the context of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We contend that viewing and developing policies and systems within a health literacy framework will assist in placing citizens and equity considerations at the center of development efforts. In this chapter, we explore the relationship between health literacy and equitable access to health care, and the role of health system and policy reform. We first explore international policies, health literacy, and the SDGs. We then explore national policies and the role that national and local services and systems play in building health literacy, and responding to the health literacy challenges of citizens. We discuss the World Health Organization's (WHO) Framework for Integrated People-Centered Health Services and the way in which health services are being encouraged to understand and respond to citizen health literacy needs. Each section of the chapter ends with a summary and a review of health literacy research and practice. Throughout, we illustrate our points through 'vignettes' from around the world.

  17. Policies for the Energy Technology Innovation System (ETIS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grubler, A.; Aguayo, F.; Gallagher, K.; Hekkert, M.P.; Jiang, K.; Mytelka, L.; Neij, L.; Nemet, G.; Wilson, C.

    2012-01-01

    Innovation and technological change are integral to the energy system transformations described in the Global Energy Assessment (GEA) pathways. Energy technology innovations range from incremental improvements to radical breakthroughs and from technologies and infrastructure to social institutions

  18. Policy options for the improvement of the European patent system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew J.

    2008-01-01

    This project has been initiated - and this report written - in order to assess how the European patent system best fulfils its objective of defining the exclusive rights granted to inventors so as to further the goal of enhancing social and economic welfare by means of encouraging inventions...... and their distribution. Finding the right balance is important, since the reward offered to inventors in the form of exclusive rights provides the incentive to innovate, but if the reward is too excessive, it may hamper innovation and the distribution of knowledge. The general premise of this report is that the European...... patent system has so far been a positive factor in promoting innovation. Therefore, it is not the objective of the report to evaluate whether such system should or should not exist. Rather, the report works from the starting position that the European patent system may be operating in certain ways...

  19. Policy implications in developing a land use management information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landini, A. J.

    1975-01-01

    The current land use map for the city of Los Angeles was developed by the guesstimation process and provides single stage information for each level in the critical geographical hierarchy for land use planning management. Processing and incorporation of LANDSAT data in the land use information system requires special funding; however, computergraphic maps are able to provide a viable information system for city planning and management.

  20. A Biological Security Motivation System for Potential Threats: Are There Implications for Policy-Making?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Z Woody

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Research indicates that there is a specially adapted, hard-wired brain circuit, the security motivation system, which evolved to manage potential threats, such as the possibility of contamination or predation. The existence of this system may have important implications for policy-making related to security. The system is sensitive to partial, uncertain cues of potential danger, detection of which activates a persistent, potent motivational state of wariness or anxiety. This state motivates behaviours to probe the potential danger, such as checking, and to correct for it, such as washing. Engagement in these behaviours serves as the terminating feedback for the activation of the system. Because security motivation theory makes predictions about what kinds of stimuli activate security motivation and what conditions terminate it, the theory may have applications both in understanding how policy-makers can best influence others, such as the public, and also in understanding the behavior of policy-makers themselves.

  1. Online maintenance policy for a deteriorating system with random change of mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saassouh, B. [Laboratoire de Modelisation et Surete des Systemes, Institut Charles Delaunay-FRE CNRS 2848, Universite de Technologie de Troyes, 12, rue Marie Curie-BP 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France); Dieulle, L. [Laboratoire de Modelisation et Surete des Systemes, Institut Charles Delaunay-FRE CNRS 2848, Universite de Technologie de Troyes, 12, rue Marie Curie-BP 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France); Grall, A. [Laboratoire de Modelisation et Surete des Systemes, Institut Charles Delaunay-FRE CNRS 2848, Universite de Technologie de Troyes, 12, rue Marie Curie-BP 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France)]. E-mail: antoine.grall@utt.fr

    2007-12-15

    Most of maintenance policies proposed in the literature for gradually deteriorating systems, consider a stationary deterioration process. This paper is an attempt to take into account stochastically deteriorating systems which are subject to a sudden change in their degradation process. A technical device subject to gradual degradation is considered. It is assumed that the level of degradation can be resumed by a single scalar variable. An online maintenance decision rule is proposed, which makes it possible to take into account in real time the online information available on the operating mode of the system as well as its actual deterioration level. We show the efficiency of considering online decision rules for maintenance with respect to traditional maintenance policies based on a static alarm threshold. Numerical simulations are given, to assess and optimize the performance of the maintained system from its asymptotic unavailability point of view. It is compared to the results obtained with classical control-limit maintenance policies.

  2. Security Policies for Mitigating the Risk of Load Altering Attacks on Smart Grid Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryutov, Tatyana; AlMajali, Anas; Neuman, Clifford

    2015-04-01

    While demand response programs implement energy efficiency and power quality objectives, they bring potential security threats to the Smart Grid. The ability to influence load in a system enables attackers to cause system failures and impacts the quality and integrity of power delivered to customers. This paper presents a security mechanism to monitor and control load according to a set of security policies during normal system operation. The mechanism monitors, detects, and responds to load altering attacks. We examined the security requirements of Smart Grid stakeholders and constructed a set of load control policies enforced by the mechanism. We implemented a proof of concept prototype and tested it using the simulation environment. By enforcing the proposed policies in this prototype, the system is maintained in a safe state in the presence of load drop attacks.

  3. The EVOTION Decision Support System: Utilizing It for Public Health Policy-Making in Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katrakazas, Panagiotis; Trenkova, Lyubov; Milas, Josip; Brdaric, Dario; Koutsouris, Dimitris

    2017-01-01

    As Decision Support Systems start to play a significant role in decision making, especially in the field of public-health policy making, we present an initial attempt to formulate such a system in the concept of public health policy making for hearing loss related problems. Justification for the system's conceptual architecture and its key functionalities are presented. The introduction of the EVOTION DSS sets a key innovation and a basis for paradigm shift in policymaking, by incorporating relevant models, big data analytics and generic demographic data. Expected outcomes for this joint effort are discussed from a public-health point of view.

  4. On preventive maintenance policy of a critical reliability level for system subject to degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Y.X.

    2003-01-01

    Conventional preventive maintenance (PM) policies generally hold same time interval for PM actions and are often applied with known failure modes. The same time interval will give unavoidably decreasing reliabilities at the PM actions for degradation system with imperfect PM effect and the known failure modes may be inaccurate in practice. Therefore, field managers would prefer policy with an acceptable reliability level to keep system often at a good state. A PM policy with the critical reliability level is presented to address the preference of field managers. Through assuming that system after a PM action starts a new failure process, a parameter so-called degradation ratio is introduced to represent the imperfect effect. The policy holds a law that there is same number of failures in the time intervals of various PM cycles, and same degradation ratio for the system reliability or benefit parameters such as the optimal time intervals and the hazard rates between the neighboring PM cycles. This law is valid to any of the failure modes that could be appropriately referred as a 'general isodegrading model', and the degradation ratio as a 'general isodegrading ratio'. In addition, life cycle availability and cost functions are derived for system with the policy. An analysis of the field data of a loading and unloading machine indicates that the reliability, availability and cost in life cycle might be well modeled by the present theory and approach

  5. Exploring health systems research and its influence on policy processes in low income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Shamsuzzoha B

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interface between research and policymaking in low-income countries is highly complex. The ability of health systems research to influence policy processes in such settings face numerous challenges. Successful analysis of the research-policy interface in these settings requires understanding of contextual factors as well as key influences on the interface. Future Health Systems (FHS: Innovations for Equity is a consortium conducting research in six countries in Asia and Africa. One of the three cross-country research themes of the consortium is analysis of the relationship between research (evidence and policy making, especially their impact on the poor; insights gained in the initial conceptual phase of FHS activities can inform the global knowledge pool on this subject. Discussion This paper provides a review of the research-policy interface in low-income countries and proposes a conceptual framework, followed by directions for empirical approaches. First, four developmental perspectives are considered: social institutional factors; virtual versus grassroots realities; science-society relationships; and construction of social arrangements. Building on these developmental perspectives three research-policy interface entry points are identified: 1. Recognizing policy as complex processes; 2. Engaging key stakeholders: decision-makers, providers, scientists, and communities; and 3. Enhancing accountability. A conceptual framework with three entry points to the research-policy interface – policy processes; stakeholder interests, values, and power; and accountability – within a context provided by four developmental perspectives is proposed. Potential empirical approaches to the research-policy interface are then reviewed. Finally, the value of such innovative empirical analysis is considered. Conclusion The purpose of this paper is to provide the background, conceptual framework, and key research directions for

  6. Appeals court reverses verdict favoring drug companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-02

    An appeals court reversed a verdict favoring drug companies after the widow of a hemophiliac, whose death was linked to HIV-tainted blood products, sued four pharmaceutical companies to pay damages. The four companies, Alpha Therapeutic Corp., Miles Laboratories Inc., Armour Pharmaceutical Co., and Baxter Travenol Laboratories Inc., provided Factor VIII, a clotting concentrate, to [name removed] [name removed], the plaintiff's husband, from 1972 until his death in 1987. [Name removed]'s wife sued the companies, alleging that the defendants negligently solicited blood plasma from paid donors who had a high risk of having HIV, failed to determine whether any lots of Factor VIII contained plasma from an at-risk donor, failed to warn consumers of possible risks, and failed to heat-treat HIV and other viruses in Factor VIII, despite industry-wide knowledge of the risk of infection. The three-judge panel said the trial judge's decision to avoid ruling on the antigenic stimulation theory, based on insufficient evidence, was improper. In addition, the appeals court said a retrial is necessary because of improper remarks made by Alpha's attorney.

  7. An Exploration of the System Dynamics Field : A Model-Based Policy Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rose, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents a first look study at the field of System Dynamics. The objective of the study is to perform a model-based policy analysis in order to investigate the future advancement of the System Dynamics field. The aim of this investigation is to determine what this advancement should look

  8. Enhancing the Resilience of the Australian National Electricity Market: Taking a Systems Approach in Policy Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Newell

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available As the complexity and interconnectedness of present-day social-ecological systems become steadily more apparent, there is increasing pressure on governments, policy makers, and managers to take a systems approach to the challenges facing humanity. However, how can this be done in the face of system complexity and uncertainties? In this paper we briefly discuss practical ways that policy makers can take up the systems challenge. We focus on resilience thinking, and the use of influence diagrams, causal-loop diagrams, and system archetypes. As a case study, set in the context of the climate-energy-water nexus, we use some of these system concepts and tools to carry out an initial exploration of factors that can affect the resilience of the Australian National Electricity Market. We stress the need for the electricity sector to prepare for the impacts of global change by encouraging innovation and diversity, supporting modularity and redundancy, and embracing the need for a policy making approach that takes account of the dynamics of the wider social-ecological system. Finally, taking a longer term view, we conclude by recommending that policy makers work to reduce reliance on conventional market mechanisms, institute continuing cross-sector dialogue, and promote basic education in system dynamics.

  9. Efficiency and Equity within European Education Systems and School Choice Policy: Bridging Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poder, Kaire; Kerem, Kaie; Lauri, Triin

    2013-01-01

    We seek out the good institutional features of the European choice policies that can enhance both equity and efficiency at the system level. For causality analysis we construct the typology of 28 European educational systems by using fuzzy-set analysis. We combine five independent variables to indicate institutional features of school choice…

  10. International Education Policy: Its Influence on the Conception of VET and the VET System in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deissinger, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Inquiries into vocational education and training (VET) systems are normally characterised by looking at institutions and steering mechanisms. That aside, however, it is culture which underlies both the practice and the theory as well as the policy of VET in various countries. Specific problems arise when it comes to harmonising VET systems through…

  11. In search of synergies between policy-based systems management and economic models for autonomic computing

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Policy-based systems management (PBM) and economics-based systems management (EBM) are two of the many techniques available for implementing autonomic systems, each having specific benefits and limitations, and thus different applicability; choosing the most appropriate technique is\\ud the first of many challenges faced by the developer. This talk begins with a critical discussion of the general design goals of autonomic systems and the main issues involved with their development and deployme...

  12. Appraisal of Cashless Policy on the Nigerian Financial System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    security.Taking it from another perspective, Ochei [13], studying the effective strategies for monitoring and controlling overspending in a cashless society as lessons for citizenship .... sophisticated system as to scale the hurdle of cyber- attacks which are ... upper class citizens of Nigeria who do business beyond the stated ...

  13. The South African Higher Education System: Performance and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloete, Nico

    2014-01-01

    Transformation in higher education in South Africa over the last 20 years has been strongly shaped by post-apartheid pressures. Recent research shows that South Africa's current higher education system can be described as medium knowledge-producing and differentiated, with low participation and high attrition. In the decade following 1994, both…

  14. Pre-emptive policy for systemic banking crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.; Suarez, J.

    2000-01-01

    Systemic banking crises often result from widespread imprudent lending, driven by strong incentives for risk taking and connected lending. This paper identifies a counterbalancing incentive for in-dividual banks to act prudently in the face of widespread risk taking among its competitors. In

  15. WinHPC System Policies | High-Performance Computing | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    ) cluster. The WinHPC login node (WinHPC02) is intended to allow users with approved access to connect to also be run from the login node. There is a single login node for this system so any applications

  16. Impact of structural reforms on planning systems and policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galland, Daniel; Enemark, Stig

    2013-01-01

    spatial development processes. The reasoning behind this argument stems from the case of Denmark, where a structural reform that changed the country’s geographies of inter-governmental arrangements significantly transformed the configuration and functioning of the national spatial planning system. Once...... concerning how the scope of Danish spatial planning has been reoriented over time in light of three interrelated strands of understanding....

  17. Resource Allocation and Public Policy in Alberta's Postsecondary System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barneston, Bob; Boberg, Alice

    2000-01-01

    Resource allocation in Alberta's postsecondary system has changed substantially since 1994, designed to reapportion financial responsibility for higher education, increase vocational outcomes of postsecondary education, and increase transfer of knowledge and technology to the private sector. This paper outlines how resource allocation has been…

  18. The significance of digital data systems for smart city policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kourtit, Karima; Nijkamp, Peter; Steenbruggen, John

    2017-01-01

    Our planet is gradually moving towards an urbanized world. Modern urban agglomerations tend to turn nowadays into advanced information hubs supporting a smart management of dynamic urban systems. The currently popular notion of ‘smart cities’ aims to provide a new perspective for sustainable and

  19. Challenges of the Unemployment Protection System and Active Policies in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Pino, Eloísa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The NorSpaR project aims to analyse the main public policy initiatives by which Norway and Spain cope with the new social and economic challenges derived from the so-called New Social Risks (NSR. Although both countries present significant differences in their institutional settings (such as Spanish EU membership, or its belonging to diverse welfare regimes types (Norway is generally included in the Nordic regime, while Spain is part of the Mediterranean one, both countries share a common interest in addressing the aforementioned challenges while maintaining social cohesion. In the last decade, governments in both countries have tried to respond to those challenges by reforming their labour markets, adapting their unemployment schemes, as well as their gender, family and long-term care policies. The analysis covered in this project includes three areas of public policy addressing NSR. First, dependency is one of the most daunting challenges for post-industrial societies experiencing population ageing and with an increasing number of frail people in need of care. This situation is forcing governments to rethink their long-term care policies. Second, family and gender public programs need to respond to the growing difficulties of families in reconciling professional and family life. Third, in the transition to a post-industrial order, and in a context of mass unemployment, social protection systems have a renewed prominence. Along with the so-called passive policies offering financial support to the unemployed, active labour market policies are geared to put people back into work. In our analysis we try to find answers to the following questions: What are the challenges that each of these policies have been trying to address in recent years? How have these policies evolved? What kinds of reforms have been implemented, and which ones have been neglected? Have the policy goals and targets of welfare programs been modified in any significant way

  20. Genomic sequencing: assessing the health care system, policy, and big-data implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kathryn A; Trosman, Julia R; Kelley, Robin K; Pletcher, Mark J; Douglas, Michael P; Weldon, Christine B

    2014-07-01

    New genomic sequencing technologies enable the high-speed analysis of multiple genes simultaneously, including all of those in a person's genome. Sequencing is a prominent example of a "big data" technology because of the massive amount of information it produces and its complexity, diversity, and timeliness. Our objective in this article is to provide a policy primer on sequencing and illustrate how it can affect health care system and policy issues. Toward this end, we developed an easily applied classification of sequencing based on inputs, methods, and outputs. We used it to examine the implications of sequencing for three health care system and policy issues: making care more patient-centered, developing coverage and reimbursement policies, and assessing economic value. We conclude that sequencing has great promise but that policy challenges include how to optimize patient engagement as well as privacy, develop coverage policies that distinguish research from clinical uses and account for bioinformatics costs, and determine the economic value of sequencing through complex economic models that take into account multiple findings and downstream costs. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  1. A Systemic and Systematic Approach to the Development of a Policy Mix for Material Resource Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Ekvall

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing material use efficiency is important to mitigate future supply risks and minimize environmental impacts associated with the production of the materials. The policy mix presented in this paper aims to contribute to reducing the use of virgin metals in the EU by 80% by 2050 without significant shifting of burdens to other material resources, environmental impacts, or parts of the world. We used a heuristic framework and a systems perspective for designing the policy mix that combines primary instruments designed to increase material efficiency, recycling and substitution of materials (a materials tax, the extended producer responsibility, technical regulations, and environmental taxes and supportive instruments aimed to reduce barriers to implementing the primary instruments and to contribute towards the policy objectives (e.g., research and development support, and advanced recycling centers. Furthermore, instruments were designed so as to increase political feasibility: e.g., taxes were gradually increased as part of a green fiscal reform, and border-tax adjustments were introduced to reduce impacts on competitiveness. However, even in such a policy mix design ongoing ex-ante assessments indicate that the policy mix will be politically difficult to implement—and also fall short of achieving the 80% reduction target. Nonetheless, we suggest combining primary and supportive instruments into coherent and dynamic policy mixes as a promising step towards system reconfigurations for sustainability.

  2. A dynamic predictive maintenance policy for complex multi-component systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Horenbeek, Adriaan; Pintelon, Liliane

    2013-01-01

    The use of prognostic methods in maintenance in order to predict remaining useful life is receiving more attention over the past years. The use of these techniques in maintenance decision making and optimization in multi-component systems is however a still underexplored area. The objective of this paper is to optimally plan maintenance for a multi-component system based on prognostic/predictive information while considering different component dependencies (i.e. economic, structural and stochastic dependence). Consequently, this paper presents a dynamic predictive maintenance policy for multi-component systems that minimizes the long-term mean maintenance cost per unit time. The proposed maintenance policy is a dynamic method as the maintenance schedule is updated when new information on the degradation and remaining useful life of components becomes available. The performance, regarding the objective of minimal long-term mean cost per unit time, of the developed dynamic predictive maintenance policy is compared to five other conventional maintenance policies, these are: block-based maintenance, age-based maintenance, age-based maintenance with grouping, inspection condition-based maintenance and continuous condition-based maintenance. The ability of the predictive maintenance policy to react to changing component deterioration and dependencies within a multi-component system is quantified and the results show significant cost savings

  3. Guidance to employers on integrating e-cigarettes/electronic nicotine delivery systems into tobacco worksite policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitsel, Laurie P; Benowitz, Neal; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Bullen, Chris; Goldstein, Fred; Matthias-Gray, Lena; Grossmeier, Jessica; Harris, John; Isaac, Fikry; Loeppke, Ron; Manley, Marc; Moseley, Karen; Niemiec, Ted; OʼBrien, Vince; Palma-Davis, LaVaughn; Pronk, Nico; Pshock, Jim; Stave, Gregg M; Terry, Paul

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, new products have entered the marketplace that complicate decisions about tobacco control policies and prevention in the workplace. These products, called electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) or electronic nicotine delivery systems, most often deliver nicotine as an aerosol for inhalation, without combustion of tobacco. This new mode of nicotine delivery raises several questions about the safety of the product for the user, the effects of secondhand exposure, how the public use of these products should be handled within tobacco-free and smoke-free air policies, and how their use affects tobacco cessation programs, wellness incentives, and other initiatives to prevent and control tobacco use. In this article, we provide a background on e-cigarettes and then outline key policy recommendations for employers on how the use of these new devices should be managed within worksite tobacco prevention programs and control policies.

  4. Agricultural policy and childhood obesity: a food systems and public health commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallinga, David

    2010-01-01

    For thirty-five years, U.S. agriculture has operated under a "cheap food" policy that spurred production of a few commodity crops, not fruit or vegetables, and thus of the calories from them. A key driver of childhood obesity is the consumption of excess calories, many from inexpensive, nutrient-poor snacks, sweets, and sweetened beverages made with fats and sugars derived from these policy-supported crops. Limiting or eliminating farm subsidies to commodity farmers is wrongly perceived as a quick fix to a complex agricultural system, evolved over decades, that promotes obesity. Yet this paper does set forth a series of policy recommendations that could help, including managing commodity crop oversupply and supporting farmers who produce more fruit and vegetables to build a healthier, more balanced agricultural policy.

  5. Guideline of Cyber Security Policy for Digital I and C Systems in Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Zeen; Kim, Jang Seong; Kim, Kwang Jo [Information and Communications University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Young Doo; Kim, Dai Il; Jeong, Choong Heui [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-15

    Recently computers and communication systems have been developed very fast and applied to various areas in many applications. This development has raised new vulnerabilities that may endanger the critical systems for nuclear safety and physical protection at the facilities. In order to protect the critical infrastructures from these new cyber attacks, we clearly need deep considerations on the risks and threats through the cyberspace. Based on these needs, many organizations which related to nuclear power plants suggested various cyber security protection methods based on regulation or technical safeguard. Even if security countermeasures against various cyber attacks are important, it is required to establish the best practices of cyber security policy by the vendor and licensee. Based on the policy they can evaluate their activities against various cyber attacks throughout the whole life cycle. In this paper, we discuss how to establish the cyber security policy for digital instrumentation and control (I and C) systems in nuclear power plants.

  6. Guideline of Cyber Security Policy for Digital I and C Systems in Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Zeen; Kim, Jang Seong; Kim, Kwang Jo; Kang, Young Doo; Kim, Dai Il; Jeong, Choong Heui

    2007-01-01

    Recently computers and communication systems have been developed very fast and applied to various areas in many applications. This development has raised new vulnerabilities that may endanger the critical systems for nuclear safety and physical protection at the facilities. In order to protect the critical infrastructures from these new cyber attacks, we clearly need deep considerations on the risks and threats through the cyberspace. Based on these needs, many organizations which related to nuclear power plants suggested various cyber security protection methods based on regulation or technical safeguard. Even if security countermeasures against various cyber attacks are important, it is required to establish the best practices of cyber security policy by the vendor and licensee. Based on the policy they can evaluate their activities against various cyber attacks throughout the whole life cycle. In this paper, we discuss how to establish the cyber security policy for digital instrumentation and control (I and C) systems in nuclear power plants

  7. An example of system integration for RCRA policy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonn, B.; Goeltz, R.; Schmidt, K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the synthesis of various computer technologies and software systems used on a project to estimate the costs of remediating Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) that fall under the corrective action provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The project used two databases collected by Research Triangle Institute (RTI) that contain information on SWMUs and a PC-based software system called CORA that develops cost estimates for remediating SWMUs. The project team developed rules to categorize every SWMU in the databases by the kinds of technologies required to clean them up. These results were input into CORA, which estimated costs associated with the technologies. Early on, several computing challenges presented themselves. First, the databases have several hundred thousand records each. Second, the categorization rules could not be written to cover all combinations of variables. Third, CORA is run interactively and the analysis plan called for running CORA tens of thousands of times. Fourth, large data transfers needed to take place between RTI and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Solutions to these problems required systems integration. SWMU categorization was streamlined by using INTERNET as was the data transfer. SAS was used to create files used by a program called SuperKey that was used to run CORA. Because the analysis plan required the generation of hundreds of thousands of cost estimates, memory management software was needed to allow the portable IBM P70 to do the job. During the course of the project, several other software packages were used, including: SAS System for Personal Computers (SAS/PC), DBase III, LOTUS 1-2-3, PIZAZZ PLUS, LOTUS Freelance Plus, and Word Perfect. Only the comprehensive use of all available hardware and software resources allowed this project to be completed within the time and budget constraints. 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Great Basin geologic framework and uranium favorability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, L.T.; Beal, L.H.

    1978-01-01

    Work on this report has been done by a team of seven investigators assisted over the project span by twenty-three undergraduate and graduate students from May 18, 1976 to August 19, 1977. The report is presented in one volume of text, one volume or Folio of Maps, and two volumes of bibliography. The bibliography contains approximately 5300 references on geologic subjects pertinent to the search for uranium in the Great Basin. Volume I of the bibliography lists articles by author alphabetically and Volume II cross-indexes these articles by location and key word. Chapters I through IV of the Text volume and accompanying Folio Map Sets 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, discuss the relationship of uranium to rock and structural environments which dominate the Great Basin. Chapter 5 and Map Sets 6 and 7 provide a geochemical association/metallogenic grouping of mineral occurrences in the Great Basin along with information on rock types hosting uranium. Chapter VI summarizes the results of a court house claim record search for 'new' claiming areas for uranium, and Chapter VII along with Folio Map Set 8 gives all published geochronological data available through April 1, 1977 on rocks of the Great Basin. Chapter VIII provides an introduction to a computer analysis of characteristics of certain major uranium deposits in crystalline rocks (worldwide) and is offered as a suggestion of what might be done with uranium in all geologic environments. We believe such analysis will assist materially in constructing exploration models. Chapter IX summarizes criteria used and conclusions reached as to the favorability of uranium environments which we believe to exist in the Great Basin and concludes with recommendations for both exploration and future research. A general summary conclusion is that there are several geologic environments within the Great Basin which have considerable potential and that few, if any, have been sufficiently tested

  9. Retail value: A more favorable offer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Alirio Ramírez Rusinque

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The most important transformation introduced by Law 1150 of 2007 in public procurement was the determination of goodwill as the absolute best deal for State entities, when concerned with the acquisition or provision of godos and services of uniform technical characteristics and common use. Therefore, an analysis from the point of legal and policy perspective is needed in order to establish whether the reform brought the concept of absolute best deal; or whether the solution was detrimental by affecting the duty of objective selection, the principles of equality, effectiveness, transparency, planning, and financial equilibrium of the contract and the constitutional principle of competition. Is the model of goodwill as a criterion for the absolute best deal legally effective in the field of public procurement?

  10. Challenges and opportunities for policy decisions to address health equity in developing health systems: case study of the policy processes in the Indian state of Orissa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopalan Saji S

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Achieving health equity is a pertinent need of the developing health systems. Though policy process is crucial for planning and attaining health equity, the existing evidences on policy processes are scanty in this regard. This article explores the magnitude, determinants, challenges and prospects of 'health equity approach' in various health policy processes in the Indian State of Orissa - a setting comparable with many other developing health systems. Methods A case-study involving 'Walt-Gilson Policy Triangle' employed key-informant interviews and documentary reviews. Key informants (n = 34 were selected from the departments of Health and Family Welfare, Rural Development, and Women and Child Welfare, and civil societies. The documentary reviews involved various published and unpublished reports, policy pronouncements and articles on health equity in Orissa and similar settings. Results The 'health policy agenda' of Orissa was centered on 'health equity' envisaging affordable and equitable healthcare to all, integrated with public health interventions. However, the subsequent stages of policy process such as 'development, implementation and evaluation' experienced leakage in the equity approach. The impediment for a comprehensive approach towards health equity was the nexus among the national and state health priorities; role, agenda and capacity of actors involved; and existing constraints of the healthcare delivery system. Conclusion The health equity approach of policy processes was incomprehensive, often inadequately coordinated, and largely ignored the right blend of socio-medical determinants. A multi-sectoral, unified and integrated approach is required with technical, financial and managerial resources from different actors for a comprehensive 'health equity approach'. If carefully geared, the ongoing health sector reforms centered on sector-wide approaches, decentralization, communitization and involvement of

  11. Optimization of series-parallel multi-state systems under maintenance policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nourelfath, Mustapha; Ait-Kadi, Daoud

    2007-01-01

    In the redundancy optimization problem, the design goal is achieved by discrete choices made from components available in the market. In this paper, the problem is to find, under reliability constraints, the minimal cost configuration of a multi-state series-parallel system, which is subject to a specified maintenance policy. The number of maintenance teams is less than the number of repairable components, and a maintenance policy specifies the priorities between the system components. To take into account the dependencies resulting from the sharing of maintenance teams, the universal generating function approach is coupled with a Markov model. The resulting optimization approach has the advantage of being mainly analytical

  12. CERN’s Computing rules updated to include policy for control systems

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2008-01-01

    The use of CERN’s computing facilities is governed by rules defined in Operational Circular No. 5 and its subsidiary rules of use. These rules are available from the web site http://cern.ch/ComputingRules. Please note that the subsidiary rules for Internet/Network use have been updated to include a requirement that control systems comply with the CNIC(Computing and Network Infrastructure for Control) Security Policy. The security policy for control systems, which was approved earlier this year, can be accessed at https://edms.cern.ch/document/584092 IT Department

  13. Restructuring energy systems for sustainability? Energy transition policy in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, Florian; Smith, Adrian

    2008-01-01

    Increasingly, researchers and policy makers are confronting the challenge of restructuring energy systems into more sustainable forms. A 'transition management' model, and its adoption in the Netherlands, is attracting attention. Starting from the socio-technical multi-level theory that informs 'transition management', we analyse the 'energy transition' project carried out by the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs. Despite considerable achievements, their approach risks capture by the incumbent energy regime, thereby undermining original policy ambitions for structural innovation of the energy system. This experience presents generic dilemmas for transitions approaches

  14. Design an optimum safety policy for personnel safety management - A system dynamic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaji, P.

    2014-01-01

    Personnel safety management (PSM) ensures that employee's work conditions are healthy and safe by various proactive and reactive approaches. Nowadays it is a complex phenomenon because of increasing dynamic nature of organisations which results in an increase of accidents. An important part of accident prevention is to understand the existing system properly and make safety strategies for that system. System dynamics modelling appears to be an appropriate methodology to explore and make strategy for PSM. Many system dynamics models of industrial systems have been built entirely for specific host firms. This thesis illustrates an alternative approach. The generic system dynamics model of Personnel safety management was developed and tested in a host firm. The model was undergone various structural, behavioural and policy tests. The utility and effectiveness of model was further explored through modelling a safety scenario. In order to create effective safety policy under resource constraint, DOE (Design of experiment) was used. DOE uses classic designs, namely, fractional factorials and central composite designs. It used to make second order regression equation which serve as an objective function. That function was optimized under budget constraint and optimum value used for safety policy which shown greatest improvement in overall PSM. The outcome of this research indicates that personnel safety management model has the capability for acting as instruction tool to improve understanding of safety management and also as an aid to policy making

  15. Design an optimum safety policy for personnel safety management - A system dynamic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balaji, P. [The Glocal University, Mirzapur Pole, Delhi- Yamuntori Highway, Saharanpur 2470001 (India)

    2014-10-06

    Personnel safety management (PSM) ensures that employee's work conditions are healthy and safe by various proactive and reactive approaches. Nowadays it is a complex phenomenon because of increasing dynamic nature of organisations which results in an increase of accidents. An important part of accident prevention is to understand the existing system properly and make safety strategies for that system. System dynamics modelling appears to be an appropriate methodology to explore and make strategy for PSM. Many system dynamics models of industrial systems have been built entirely for specific host firms. This thesis illustrates an alternative approach. The generic system dynamics model of Personnel safety management was developed and tested in a host firm. The model was undergone various structural, behavioural and policy tests. The utility and effectiveness of model was further explored through modelling a safety scenario. In order to create effective safety policy under resource constraint, DOE (Design of experiment) was used. DOE uses classic designs, namely, fractional factorials and central composite designs. It used to make second order regression equation which serve as an objective function. That function was optimized under budget constraint and optimum value used for safety policy which shown greatest improvement in overall PSM. The outcome of this research indicates that personnel safety management model has the capability for acting as instruction tool to improve understanding of safety management and also as an aid to policy making.

  16. Design an optimum safety policy for personnel safety management - A system dynamic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, P.

    2014-10-01

    Personnel safety management (PSM) ensures that employee's work conditions are healthy and safe by various proactive and reactive approaches. Nowadays it is a complex phenomenon because of increasing dynamic nature of organisations which results in an increase of accidents. An important part of accident prevention is to understand the existing system properly and make safety strategies for that system. System dynamics modelling appears to be an appropriate methodology to explore and make strategy for PSM. Many system dynamics models of industrial systems have been built entirely for specific host firms. This thesis illustrates an alternative approach. The generic system dynamics model of Personnel safety management was developed and tested in a host firm. The model was undergone various structural, behavioural and policy tests. The utility and effectiveness of model was further explored through modelling a safety scenario. In order to create effective safety policy under resource constraint, DOE (Design of experiment) was used. DOE uses classic designs, namely, fractional factorials and central composite designs. It used to make second order regression equation which serve as an objective function. That function was optimized under budget constraint and optimum value used for safety policy which shown greatest improvement in overall PSM. The outcome of this research indicates that personnel safety management model has the capability for acting as instruction tool to improve understanding of safety management and also as an aid to policy making.

  17. Competing health policies: insurance against universal public systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa Ebba Cristina Laurell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This article analyzes the content and outcome of ongoing health reforms in Latin America: Universal Health Coverage with Health Insurance, and the Universal and Public Health Systems. It aims to compare and contrast the conceptual framework and practice of each and verify their concrete results regarding the guarantee of the right to health and access to required services. It identifies a direct relationship between the development model and the type of reform. The neoclassical-neoliberal model has succeeded in converting health into a field of privatized profits, but has failed to guarantee the right to health and access to services, which has discredited the governments. The reform of the progressive governments has succeeded in expanding access to services and ensuring the right to health, but faces difficulties and tensions related to the permanence of a powerful, private, industrial-insurance medical complex and persistence of the ideologies about medicalized 'good medicine'. Based on these findings, some strategies to strengthen unique and supportive public health systems are proposed.

  18. Coping with System Failure: Why Connectivity Matters to Innovation Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricard, Lykke Margot

    2015-01-01

    system to create new institutional structures in the economy. A major social network analysis examines how connectivity in two specific European ‘technology’ platforms’ networks has changed and evolved in relation to researching the solutions to solving major societal problems, and therefore has also...... it to reach its climate goals for 2020. The chapter’s research strategy stresses the importance of relations rather than the determinism of technology or ideas. As a result, the chapter’s structural analysis shows how firms in the modern European economy work, on a collective level, from within the political...... driven innovation towards new business opportunities. The analysis shows how connectivity and network relations play an important role in innovation, as opposed to arm-length anonymous interactions as presumed in mainstream economic thinking....

  19. Policy-induced market introduction of Generation IV reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heek, Aliki Irina van; Roelofs, Ferry

    2011-01-01

    Almost 10 years ago the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) started the Generation IV Initiative (GenIV) with 9 other national governments with a positive ground attitude towards nuclear energy. Some of these Generation IV systems, like the fast reactors, are nearing the demonstration stage. The question on how their market introduction will be implemented becomes increasingly urgent. One main topic for future reactor technologies is the treatment of radioactive waste products. Technological solutions to this issue are being developed. One possible process is the transformation of long-living radioactive nuclides into short living ones; a process known as transmutation, which can be done in a nuclear reactor only. Various Generation IV reactor concepts are suitable for this process, and of these systems most experience has been gained with the sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR). However, both these first generation SFR plants and their Generation IV successors are designed as electricity generating plants, and therefore supposed to be commercially viable in the electricity markets. Various studies indicate that the generation costs of a combined LWR-(S)FR nuclear generating park (LWR: light water reactor) will be higher than that of an LWR-only park. To investigate the effects of the deployment of the different reactors and fuel cycles on the waste produced, resources used and costs incurred as a function of time, a dynamic fuel cycle assessment is performed. This study will focus on the waste impact of the introduction of a fraction of fast reactors in the European nuclear reactor park with a cost increase as described in the previous paragraph. The nuclear fuel cycle scenario code DANESS is used for this, as well as the nuclear park model of the EU-27 used for the previous study. (orig.)

  20. Cooperation networks and innovation: A complex system perspective to the analysis and evaluation of a EU regional innovation policy programme

    OpenAIRE

    Russo, Margherita; Rossi, Federica

    2008-01-01

    Recent developments in innovation theory and policy have led policymakers to assign particular importance to supporting networks of cooperation among heterogeneous economic actors, especially in production systems composed of small and medium enterprises. Such innovative policies call for parallel innovations in policy analysis, monitoring and assessment. Our analysis of a policy experiment aimed at supporting innovation networks in the Italian region of Tuscany intends to address some issues...

  1. Social Policies in Contemporary Latin America: Families and Poverty in the Social Protection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina González

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the impact of social policies on the living conditions of poor families—particularly women—in Latin America from the late 1980s to the present. It identifies three distinct trends of familialism in the region’s social protection systems. The first social policy trend is characterized by poverty alleviation policies addressing the family in an “elliptical” way, taking for granted the idea of a nuclear family. The distinguishing trait of the second trend is the appearance of social programs aimed at families and stressing the role of women as chief caregivers and administrators. And finally, the third policy trend is defined by an expansion of more universal social programs targeting children and the elderly. Despite the recent emergence of programs with gender specific goals, social policies continue to put a great burden on female workers. For example, many subsidies to poor families deliver money directly to women, improving their intra-family bargaining power, but this translates also into an increase of responsibilities and the ensuing overload of work. Consequently, social policies in Latin America need to aim at encouraging a more egalitarian distribution of housework and care work within the family, especially given how well-established androcentrism is in the region.

  2. Health financing for universal coverage and health system performance: concepts and implications for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutzin, Joseph

    2013-08-01

    Unless the concept is clearly understood, "universal coverage" (or universal health coverage, UHC) can be used to justify practically any health financing reform or scheme. This paper unpacks the definition of health financing for universal coverage as used in the World Health Organization's World health report 2010 to show how UHC embodies specific health system goals and intermediate objectives and, broadly, how health financing reforms can influence these. All countries seek to improve equity in the use of health services, service quality and financial protection for their populations. Hence, the pursuit of UHC is relevant to every country. Health financing policy is an integral part of efforts to move towards UHC, but for health financing policy to be aligned with the pursuit of UHC, health system reforms need to be aimed explicitly at improving coverage and the intermediate objectives linked to it, namely, efficiency, equity in health resource distribution and transparency and accountability. The unit of analysis for goals and objectives must be the population and health system as a whole. What matters is not how a particular financing scheme affects its individual members, but rather, how it influences progress towards UHC at the population level. Concern only with specific schemes is incompatible with a universal coverage approach and may even undermine UHC, particularly in terms of equity. Conversely, if a scheme is fully oriented towards system-level goals and objectives, it can further progress towards UHC. Policy and policy analysis need to shift from the scheme to the system level.

  3. National innovation system as a focus of state in-novation policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olexandr Fedirko

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The article offers a systematic review of tools and mechanisms utilised by developed countries (United States, Japan, EU to pursue their innovation policies, and classifies methods which support innovation and ways that help to strengthen the innovation capacity. It describes the evolution of research and development (R&D policy in other countries. The article examines arguments in support of a trend in the innovation policy which promotes the development of national innovation systems. It reviews the substance and components of the national innovation system. It also explores the trends of R&D cooperation. The article outlines the variety of domestic tools which regulate innovation in EU countries (framework programs, the European Research Area Initiative.

  4. From Product to System Approaches in European Sustainable Product Policies: Analysis of the Package Concept of Heating Systems in Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Calero-Pastor

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Different policies with the goal of reducing energy consumption and other environmental impacts in the building sector coexist in Europe. Sustainable product polices, such as the Ecodesign and Energy Labelling Directives, have recently broadened the scope of their target product groups from a strict product approach to extended product and system approaches. Indeed, there is a potential for greater savings when the focus is at a system level rather than on regulating individual products. Product policies for space and water heating systems have recently introduced and implemented the package label, which is a modular approach, standing between the extended product and the system approaches. This paper presents a systematic analysis of the different system approaches of various policies from an engineering perspective. It analyses in detail the package concept and its features through a practical application using a real case study. It focuses on how the package concept can support decisions made in the building design phase and, in particular, how can support the choice of appropriate components based on estimating system performances. This brings building engineers and regulators closer regarding the use of more consistent data on energy performance. Finally, this paper highlights the need to improve the alignment of the building-related product policies with the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive.

  5. Study on Enhanceing Mechanisim and Policy on Energy Efficiency of Electrical Motor System in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ren; Zhao, Yuejin; Liu, Meng; Chen, Lili; Yang, Ming

    2017-12-01

    Motor is a kind of terminal energy-consumption equipment with the maximum power consumption in China every year; compared with international advanced level, the technical innovation of motor equipment, speed regulating system, drive system and automatic intelligent control technique in China still lag behind relatively; the standard technical service support system of motor system is not complete, the energy conserving transformation mode needs to be innovated, and the market development mechanism of motor industry is not perfect, etc. This paper analyzes the promotion mechanism and policy on energy efficiency of the motor system in China in recent years, studies the demonstration cases of successful promotion of high-efficiency motor, standard labeling, financial finance and tax policy, and puts forward suggestions on promotion of high-efficiency motor in China.

  6. Modeling a hierarchical structure of factors influencing exploitation policy for water distribution systems using ISM approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasiulewicz-Kaczmarek, Małgorzata; Wyczółkowski, Ryszard; Gładysiak, Violetta

    2017-12-01

    Water distribution systems are one of the basic elements of contemporary technical infrastructure of urban and rural areas. It is a complex engineering system composed of transmission networks and auxiliary equipment (e.g. controllers, checkouts etc.), scattered territorially over a large area. From the water distribution system operation point of view, its basic features are: functional variability, resulting from the need to adjust the system to temporary fluctuations in demand for water and territorial dispersion. The main research questions are: What external factors should be taken into account when developing an effective water distribution policy? Does the size and nature of the water distribution system significantly affect the exploitation policy implemented? These questions have shaped the objectives of research and the method of research implementation.

  7. Accountability in Teenage Dating Violence: A Comparative Examination of Adult Domestic Violence and Juvenile Justice Systems Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zosky, Diane L.

    2010-01-01

    Unlike in the adult criminal justice system, where domestic violence policies hold perpetrators accountable for their violence, the juvenile justice system rarely addresses teenage dating violence. Although the adult criminal justice system has pursued policies toward intimate partner violence grounded on a "zero tolerance" ideology, the juvenile…

  8. Translating EU renewable energy policy for insular energy systems: Reunion Island's quest for energy autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Sawatzky

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of the negative impacts of climate change has led to agreement on the need to decarbonise energy systems through the employment of renewable energy. With many national and transnational policies in place, the options available to insular energy systems (IES differ from those of interconnected areas due to fragility in their production and distribution networks. Based on the concepts of policy mobility and translation, this study examines the interplay of EU renewable energy policy and insular governance processes aimed at achieving energy autonomy through renewable energy development. Reunion Island, a French Overseas Department and Region, is used as a case study to examine local energy governance processes, aspects that shape regional translation of national and EU policy, and the potential effects that create structures and pathways of energy transition. The study shows that Reunion Island’s regional Energy Governance Committee has significant application potential as a governance tool in other IES and small islands within the EU, but that renewable energy development is restricted due to national policy measures and path dependent governance structural constraints.

  9. Financing national policy on oral health in Brazil in the context of the Unified Health System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Alfredo Pucca Junior

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the model of oral health care implemented in the Unified Health System of Brazil in the last decade. This model was conceived as a sub-sector policy that, over the years, has sought to improve the quality of life of the Brazilian population. Through a chronological line, the study presents the National Policy on Oral Health as a counter-hegemonic patient care model for the dentistry practices existing in the country before this policy was implemented. The reorganization of the levels of oral health care, the creation of reference facilities for secondary and tertiary care, through Centers of Dental Specialties and Regional Dental Prosthesis Laboratories, and the differential funding and decentralized management of financial resources were able to expand the actions of oral health for more than 90 million inhabitants. The evolution shown after the deployment of the National Oral Health Policy, as of 2004, demonstrates the greater integration of oral health care under the Unified Health System and provides feedback information to help this policy to continue to be prioritized by the Federal Government and receive more support from the state and local levels in the coming years.

  10. Promoting Health Through Policy and Systems Change: Public Health Students and Mentors on the Value of Policy Advocacy Experience in Academic Internships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Daniela; Pell, Dylan; Forster-Cox, Sue; Garcia, Evelyn; Ornelas, Sophia; Bandstra, Brenna; Mata, Holly

    2017-05-01

    Emerging professionals and new Certified Health Education Specialists often lack academic training in and actual experience in National Commission for Health Education Credentialing Area of Responsibility VII: Communicate, Promote, and Advocate for Health, Health Education/Promotion, and the Profession. For undergraduate and graduate students who have an opportunity to complete an internship or practicum experience, gaining experience in Competencies 7.2: Engage in advocacy for health and health education/promotion and 7.3: Influence policy and/or systems change to promote health and health education can have a profound impact on their career development and their ability to advocate for policies that promote health and health equity. Compelling evidence suggests that interventions that address social determinants of health such as poverty and education and those that change the context through improved policy or healthier environments have the greatest impact on public health, making it vital for emerging public health professionals to gain experience in policy advocacy and systems change. In this commentary, students and faculty from two large universities in the U.S.-Mexico border region reflect on the value of policy advocacy in academic internship/fieldwork experiences. Based on their experiences, they highly recommend that students seek out internship opportunities where they can participate in policy advocacy, and they encourage university faculty and practicum preceptors to provide more opportunities for policy advocacy in both classroom and fieldwork settings.

  11. Is there a relationship between patient satisfaction and favorable outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Gregory D; Tevis, Sarah E; Kent, K Craig

    2014-10-01

    Patient satisfaction with the health care experience has become a top priority for Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. With resources and efforts directed at patient satisfaction, we evaluated whether high patient satisfaction measured by HCAHPS (Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems) surveys correlates with favorable outcomes. Medical centers were identified from the University HealthSystem Consortium database from 2011 to 2012. Variables included hospital characteristics, process measure compliance, and surgical outcomes. Chi-squared analysis was used to evaluate for variables associated with high patient satisfaction (defined as hospitals that scored above the 50th percentile of top box scores). We identified 171 hospitals with complete data. The following variables were significantly associated with high overall patient satisfaction: large hospitals, high surgical volume, and low mortality (P patient satisfaction. Low mortality index was consistently found to be associated with high satisfaction across 9 of 10 HCAHPS domains. We found that hospital size, surgical volume, and low mortality were associated with high overall patient satisfaction. However, with the exception of low mortality, favorable surgical outcomes were not consistently associated with high HCAHPS scores. With existing satisfaction surveys, we conclude that factors outside of surgical outcomes appear to influence patients' perceptions of their care.

  12. Optimizing preventive maintenance policy: A data-driven application for a light rail braking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corman, Francesco; Kraijema, Sander; Godjevac, Milinko; Lodewijks, Gabriel

    2017-10-01

    This article presents a case study determining the optimal preventive maintenance policy for a light rail rolling stock system in terms of reliability, availability, and maintenance costs. The maintenance policy defines one of the three predefined preventive maintenance actions at fixed time-based intervals for each of the subsystems of the braking system. Based on work, maintenance, and failure data, we model the reliability degradation of the system and its subsystems under the current maintenance policy by a Weibull distribution. We then analytically determine the relation between reliability, availability, and maintenance costs. We validate the model against recorded reliability and availability and get further insights by a dedicated sensitivity analysis. The model is then used in a sequential optimization framework determining preventive maintenance intervals to improve on the key performance indicators. We show the potential of data-driven modelling to determine optimal maintenance policy: same system availability and reliability can be achieved with 30% maintenance cost reduction, by prolonging the intervals and re-grouping maintenance actions.

  13. A Decision Support System for integrated tourism development: Rethinking tourism policies and management strategies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bousset, J. P.; Skuras, D.; Těšitel, Jan; Marsat, J. B.; Petrou, A.; Fiallo-Pantziou, E.; Kušová, Drahomíra; Bartoš, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 4 (2007), s. 387-404 ISSN 1461-6688 Grant - others:-(XE) QLK5-CT-2000-01211-SPRITE Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Integrated tourism * policy formulation * participatory approaches * simulation models * decision support system Subject RIV: AE - Management ; Administration

  14. Can European sustainability and innovation policies accelerate the uptake of product-service systems?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, A.R.; Diaz Lopez, F.J.; Mudgal, S.; Tukker, A.

    2013-01-01

    This review paper presents preliminary results from on-going research on PSS policies in Europe. Despite the apparent potential of product-service systems (PSS) as more profitable, resource efficient and socially responsible, there has seemingly been limited uptake of this type of business model. A

  15. Money, the Banking System and Monetary Policy in Canada: A Teaching Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Douglas C. A.; Staunton, Ted, Ed.

    One of a series of teaching units designed to introduce secondary school students to the Canadian economy, this handbook contains instructional materials on Canada's monetary system and policy. Material is organized and presented in terms of specific topic readings and illustrative activities. The topics covered in six sections are money, the…

  16. Seizing the Opportunity: Building PK3 Systems in New Jersey's School Districts. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Cynthia

    2008-01-01

    This policy brief discusses how the implementation of high quality preschool required by the expansion initiative can set the stage for a more expansive view of the first stage of children's education: the development of a preschool-through third-grade (PK3) system. By adopting a broader view of early childhood education as a period extending from…

  17. Energy systems and climate policy - Long-term scenarios for an uncertain future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren, D.P. van

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis various forms of scenario analysis are discussed both to explore 1) how energy system and associated greenhouse gas emissions may develop in the absence of climate policy and 2) how strategies aimed at drastically reducing greenhouse gas emissions may turn out. As uncertainties

  18. 78 FR 63276 - Interim Policy, FAA Review of Solar Energy System Projects on Federally Obligated Airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... the orientation and tilt of the solar energy panels, reflectance, environment, and ocular factors are... energy systems on the airport must attach the SGHAT report, outlining solar panel glare and ocular impact... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Interim Policy, FAA Review of Solar...

  19. Policies on and Practices of Cultural Inclusivity in Learning Management Systems: Perspectives of Indigenous Holistic Pedagogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreamson, Neal; Thomas, Gary; Lee Hong, Anita; Kim, Soyoung

    2017-01-01

    Online learning has become a conventional term and practice in Australian higher education, yet cultural inclusivity for Indigenous (Indigenous for the purposes of this paper refers to Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples) students is insufficiently reflected in learning management system (LMS) policies and design. This study…

  20. [Recommendations for implementing the quality policy and organisation of a quality management system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daunizeau, A

    2013-06-01

    Preliminary issues to implement a quality management system are described. They include the definition of the structure, a hierarchical and functional organization chart and the engagement of the whole personnel to apply the requirements of the standard EN ISO 15189. The policy has to be translated into objectives.

  1. A policy iteration approach to online optimal control of continuous-time constrained-input systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modares, Hamidreza; Naghibi Sistani, Mohammad-Bagher; Lewis, Frank L

    2013-09-01

    This paper is an effort towards developing an online learning algorithm to find the optimal control solution for continuous-time (CT) systems subject to input constraints. The proposed method is based on the policy iteration (PI) technique which has recently evolved as a major technique for solving optimal control problems. Although a number of online PI algorithms have been developed for CT systems, none of them take into account the input constraints caused by actuator saturation. In practice, however, ignoring these constraints leads to performance degradation or even system instability. In this paper, to deal with the input constraints, a suitable nonquadratic functional is employed to encode the constraints into the optimization formulation. Then, the proposed PI algorithm is implemented on an actor-critic structure to solve the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation associated with this nonquadratic cost functional in an online fashion. That is, two coupled neural network (NN) approximators, namely an actor and a critic are tuned online and simultaneously for approximating the associated HJB solution and computing the optimal control policy. The critic is used to evaluate the cost associated with the current policy, while the actor is used to find an improved policy based on information provided by the critic. Convergence to a close approximation of the HJB solution as well as stability of the proposed feedback control law are shown. Simulation results of the proposed method on a nonlinear CT system illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Copyright © 2013 ISA. All rights reserved.

  2. Policies and initiatives for carbon neutrality in nordic heating and transport systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, Jakob Glarbo; Wu, Qiuwei; Ostergaard, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Policies and initiatives promoting carbon neutrality in the Nordic heating and transport systems are presented. The focus within heating systems is the propagation of heat pumps while the focus within transport systems is initiatives regarding electric vehicles (EVs). It is found that conversion...... to heat pumps in the Nordic region rely on both private economic and national economic incentives. Initiatives toward carbon neutrality in the transport system are mostly concentrated on research, development and demonstration for deployment of a large number of EVs. All Nordic countries have plans...... for the future heating and transport systems with the ambition of realizing carbon neutrality....

  3. 12 CFR 560.110 - Most favored lender usury preemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Most favored lender usury preemption. 560.110... INVESTMENT Lending and Investment Provisions Applicable to all Savings Associations § 560.110 Most favored... permits its most favored lender to charge late fees, then a savings association located in that state may...

  4. 11 CFR 7.20 - Gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Gifts, entertainment, and favors. 7.20 Section... of Special Commission Employees § 7.20 Gifts, entertainment, and favors. Except as provided at 11 CFR... a gift, gratuity, loan, entertainment, or favor for himself or herself, or for another person...

  5. Optimal maintenance policy for a system subject to damage in a discrete time process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien, Yu-Hung; Sheu, Shey-Huei; Zhang, Zhe George

    2012-01-01

    Consider a system operating over n discrete time periods (n=1, 2, …). Each operation period causes a random amount of damage to the system which accumulates over time periods. The system fails when the cumulative damage exceeds a failure level ζ and a corrective maintenance (CM) action is immediately taken. To prevent such a failure, a preventive maintenance (PM) may be performed. In an operation period without a CM or PM, a regular maintenance (RM) is conducted at the end of that period to maintain the operation of the system. We propose a maintenance policy which prescribes a PM when the accumulated damage exceeds a pre-specified level δ ( ⁎ and N ⁎ and discuss some useful properties about them. It has been shown that a δ-based PM outperforms a N-based PM in terms of cost minimization. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the optimization of this class of maintenance policies.

  6. Towards the sustainable energy system. The future of the transition policy for energy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggink, J.J.C.

    2006-11-01

    Inaugural speech at the occasion of the acceptance of the office for Energy Transition and Sustainable Development at the Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences of the Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam, Netherlands, November 21, 2006. The transition policy in the Netherlands towards a sustainable energy supply system succeeded in creating a basis in the Dutch society, although at the cost of making clear choices with regard to concrete projects, new policy tools and financial means. In order to accelerate those choices the Dutch government needs to take decisive measures [nl

  7. Designing, Capturing and Validating History-Sensitive Security Policies for Distributed Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez, Alejandro Mario; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2011-01-01

    has the capability of combining both history-sensitive and future-sensitive policies, providing even more flexibility and power. Moreover, we propose a global Logic for reasoning about the systems designed with this language. We show how the Logic can be used to validate the combination of security...... this approach with history-based components, as is traditional in reference-monitor-based approaches to mandatory access control. Our developments are performed in an Aspect-oriented coordination language, aiming to describe the Bell-LaPadula policy as elegantly as possible. Furthermore, the resulting language...

  8. Proposed Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina system power marketing policy and subsequent contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an Environmental Assessment (Assessment) (DOE/EA-0935) evaluating the Power Marketing Policy and Subsequent Contracts between Southeastern and its customers. The Assessment evaluates two alternatives and the no action alternative. The proposed action is to market the power and energy available in the Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina System during the next ten years, with new power sales contracts of ten-year durations, to the customers set forth in Appendix A of the Assessment. In addition to the proposed alternative, the Assessment evaluates the alternative of extending existing contracts under the current marketing policy

  9. Impact of Quota System and Catchment Area Policy on the University Admissions in North Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Chinweike Omeje

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The quota system and the catchment areas are federal government policies formulated to bridge the gap between the educationally developed states and the educationally less developed states. Sequel to the enactment of these policies, government established several universities across the country to create equal opportunity for all candidates. In spite of the astronomical growth of the universities in Nigeria, both the federal and the state governments have not been able to contend with the surging demand for the university education, hence the adoption of the quota system and catchment area policies. Serious concerns were expressed by relevant stakeholders on their perceived impact of the quota system and the catchment area on admissions into the federal and state universities in North Central Nigeria. This study therefore examined the impact of the quota system and catchment area policies on students’ admissions in North Central Nigeria. A research question and a null hypothesis guided the study. Descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. The population for the study was 14,347 staff in the federal and state universities in North Central Nigeria. A sample of 1,435 was drawn through stratified proportionate sampling technique. Data were collected using questionnaire and interviews. Mean scores and standard deviations were used to answer the research question, whereas t-test statistics were used to test the hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the results showed, among others, that the impact of the quota system and catchment area policies on students’ admission was to a high extent.

  10. On the nexus of monetary policy and financial stability: Is the financial system more resilient?

    OpenAIRE

    Mora, Patricia Palhau; Januska, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Monetary policy and financial stability are closely intertwined, and the resilience of the financial system carries weight in this relationship. This paper explores whether the financial system is more resilient as a result of the G20's post-crisis agenda for financial regulatory reform. It summarizes the agenda's key measures and implementation schedules, both internationally and in Canada, reviews the effectiveness of the reform measures in preventing and addressing financial imbalances, an...

  11. Distributed Solar PV for Electricity System Resiliency: Policy and Regulatory Considerations (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-11-01

    Distributed Solar PV systems have the potential of increasing the grid's resiliency to unforeseen events, such as extreme weather events and attacks. This paper presents the role that distributed PV can play in electric grid resiliency, introduces basic system design requirements and options, and discusses the regulatory and policy options for supporting the use of distributed PV for the purpose of increased electricity resiliency.

  12. People-centred science: strengthening the practice of health policy and systems research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Health policy and systems research (HPSR) is a transdisciplinary field of global importance, with its own emerging standards for creating, evaluating, and utilizing knowledge, and distinguished by a particular orientation towards influencing policy and wider action to strengthen health systems. In this commentary, we argue that the ability of the HPSR field to influence real world change hinges on its becoming more people-centred. We see people-centredness as recognizing the field of enquiry as one of social construction, requiring those conducting HPSR to locate their own position in the system, and conduct and publish research in a manner that foregrounds human agency attributes and values, and is acutely attentive to policy context. Change occurs at many layers of a health system, shaped by social, political, and economic forces, and brought about by different groups of people who make up the system, including service users and communities. The seeds of transformative practice in HPSR lie in amplifying the breadth and depth of dialogue across health system actors in the conduct of research – recognizing that these actors are all generators, sources, and users of knowledge about the system. While building such a dialogic practice, those conducting HPSR must strive to protect the autonomy and integrity of their ideas and actions, and also clearly explain their own positions and the value-basis of their work. We conclude with a set of questions that health policy and systems researchers may wish to consider in making their practice more people-centred, and hence more oriented toward real-world change. PMID:24739525

  13. Making health system performance measurement useful to policy makers: aligning strategies, measurement and local health system accountability in ontario

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veillard, Jeremy; Huynh, Tai; Ardal, Sten; Kadandale, Sowmya; Klazinga, Niek S.; Brown, Adalsteinn D.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the experience of the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care in enhancing its stewardship and performance management role by developing a health system strategy map and a strategy-based scorecard through a process of policy reviews and expert consultations, and linking

  14. Implementation Of Conservation Policy Through The Protection Of Life Support System In The Karimunjawa National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyani, Nur Anisa Eka; Kismartini

    2018-02-01

    The Karimunjawa National Park as the only one marine protected area in Central Java, managed by zonation system has decreased natural resources in the form of decreasing mangrove forest area, coral cover, sea biota population such as clams and sea cucumbers. Conservation has been done by Karimunjawa National Park Authority through protection of life support system activities in order to protect the area from degradation. The objective of the research is to know the implementation of protection and security activities of Karimunjawa National Park Authority for the period of 2012 - 2016. The research was conducted by qualitative method, processing secondary data from Karimunjawa National Park Authority and interview with key informants. The results showed that protection and security activities in The Karimunjawa National Park were held with three activities: pre-emptive activities, preventive activities and repressive activities. Implementation of conservation policy through protection of life support system is influenced by factors of policy characteristic, resource factor and environmental policy factor. Implementation of conservation policy need support from various parties, not only Karimunjawa National Park Authority as the manager of the area, but also need participation of Jepara Regency, Central Java Provinces, communities, NGOs, researchers, developers and tourism actors to maintain and preserve existing biodiversity. Improving the quality of implementors through education and training activities, the availability of the state budget annually and the support of stakeholders is essential for conservation.

  15. Integrating Information and Communication Technology for Health Information System Strengthening: A Policy Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzuki, Nuraidah; Ismail, Saimy; Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Ehsan, Fauziah Z; Chan, Chee-Khoon; Ng, Chiu-Wan

    2015-11-01

    Despite the high costs involved and the lack of definitive evidence of sustained effectiveness, many low- and middle-income countries had begun to strengthen their health information system using information and communication technology in the past few decades. Following this international trend, the Malaysian Ministry of Health had been incorporating Telehealth (National Telehealth initiatives) into national health policies since the 1990s. Employing qualitative approaches, including key informant interviews and document review, this study examines the agenda-setting processes of the Telehealth policy using Kingdon's framework. The findings suggested that Telehealth policies emerged through actions of policy entrepreneurs within the Ministry of Health, who took advantage of several simultaneously occurring opportunities--official recognition of problems within the existing health information system, availability of information and communication technology to strengthen health information system and political interests surrounding the national Multimedia Super Corridor initiative being developed at the time. The last was achieved by the inclusion of Telehealth as a component of the Multimedia Super Corridor. © 2015 APJPH.

  16. Adaptive Neuro-fuzzy Inference System as Cache Memory Replacement Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHUNG, Y. M.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To date, no cache memory replacement policy that can perform efficiently for all types of workloads is yet available. Replacement policies used in level 1 cache memory may not be suitable in level 2. In this study, we focused on developing an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS as a replacement policy for improving level 2 cache performance in terms of miss ratio. The recency and frequency of referenced blocks were used as input data for ANFIS to make decisions on replacement. MATLAB was employed as a training tool to obtain the trained ANFIS model. The trained ANFIS model was implemented on SimpleScalar. Simulations on SimpleScalar showed that the miss ratio improved by as high as 99.95419% and 99.95419% for instruction level 2 cache, and up to 98.04699% and 98.03467% for data level 2 cache compared with least recently used and least frequently used, respectively.

  17. Joint cost of energy under an optimal economic policy of hybrid power systems subject to uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz, Guzmán; Planas, Estefanía; Andreu, Jon; Kortabarria, Iñigo

    2015-01-01

    Economical optimization of hybrid systems is usually performed by means of LCoE (levelized cost of energy) calculation. Previous works deal with the LCoE calculation of the whole hybrid system disregarding an important issue: the stochastic component of the system units must be jointly considered. This paper deals with this issue and proposes a new fast optimal policy that properly calculates the LCoE of a hybrid system and finds the lowest LCoE. This proposed policy also considers the implied competition among power sources when variability of gas and electricity prices are taken into account. Additionally, it presents a comparative between the LCoE of the hybrid system and its individual technologies of generation by means of a fast and robust algorithm based on vector logical computation. Numerical case analyses based on realistic data are presented that valuate the contribution of technologies in a hybrid power system to the joint LCoE. - Highlights: • We perform the LCoE calculation with the stochastic component jointly considered. • We propose a fast an optimal policy that minimizes the LCoE. • We compare the obtained LCoEs by means of a fast and robust algorithm. • We take into account the competition among gas prices and electricity prices

  18. Investigation of existing financial incentive policies for solar photovoltaic systems in U.S. regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes some of the existing incentives for solar photovoltaic (PV energy generation in the U.S. Four types of buildings (e.g., hospitals, large offices, large hotels, and secondary schools located in five different U.S. states, each having their own incentives, are selected and analyzed for the PV incentive policies. The payback period of the PV system is chosen as an indicator to analyze and critique the effectiveness of each incentive by comparing the payback periods before and after taking the incentive into consideration. Then a parametric analysis is conducted to determine the influence of the variation in key parameters, such as PV system capacity, capital cost of PV, sell back ratio and the performance-based incentive rate, on the performance of the PV system. The results show how the existing incentives can be effectively used to promote the PV systems in the U.S. and how variations of the parameters can impact the payback period of the PV systems. Through the evaluation of the existing incentive policies and the parametric study, this paper demonstrates that the type and level of incentives should be carefully determined in policy-making processes to effectively promote the PV systems.

  19. Technology and Policy Challenges in the Adoption and Operation of Health Information Exchange Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hyerim; Yoo, Sooyoung; Heo, Eun-Young; Hwang, Hee; Kim, Jeong-Whun

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to identify problems and issues that arise with the implementation of online health information exchange (HIE) systems in a medical environment and to identify solutions to facilitate the successful operation of future HIE systems in primary care clinics and hospitals. In this study, the issues that arose during the establishment and operation of an HIE system in a hospital were identified so that they could be addressed to enable the successful establishment and operation of a standard-based HIE system. After the issues were identified, they were reviewed and categorized by a group of experts that included medical information system experts, doctors, medical information standard experts, and HIE researchers. Then, solutions for the identified problems were derived based on the system development, operation, and improvement carried out during this work. Twenty-one issues were identified during the implementation and operation of an online HIE system. These issues were then divided into four categories: system architecture and standards, documents and data items, consent of HIE, and usability. We offer technical and policy recommendations for various stakeholders based on the experiences of operating and improving the online HIE system in the medical field. The issues and solutions identified in this study regarding the implementation and operate of an online HIE system can provide valuable insight for planners to enable them to successfully design and operate such systems at a national level in the future. In addition, policy support from governments is needed.

  20. The Bank Lending Channel of Monetary Policy Transmission in A Dual Banking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansor H. Ibrahim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of monetary policy on bank lending in a dual banking system, i.e. Malaysia. Making use of an unbalanced panel data set of 38 Islamic and conventional banks covering mostly 2001-2014, we find evidence that variations in monetary policy affect lending growth of Islamic banks and, to some extent, conventional banks. The results further reveal that, in conformity with studies using aggregate Islamic financing data, the Islamic financing growth reacts more strongly to monetary policy changes. Moreover, we find no marked difference between full-fledged Islamic banks and Islamic bank subsidiaries in their responses to monetary policy. While we also document some evidence indicating the significant relations between bank-specific variables and lending growth, the bank-specific variables do not seem to have any role in impacting the potency of the bank lending channel. Finally, we find that lending growth is directly related to economic growth, suggesting procyclicality of bank lending/financing in Malaysia. These results have important implications for effective implementation of monetary policy and further development of Islamic banks in Malaysia.

  1. Knowledge mobilisation for policy development: implementing systems approaches through participatory dynamic simulation modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freebairn, Louise; Rychetnik, Lucie; Atkinson, Jo-An; Kelly, Paul; McDonnell, Geoff; Roberts, Nick; Whittall, Christine; Redman, Sally

    2017-10-02

    Evidence-based decision-making is an important foundation for health policy and service planning decisions, yet there remain challenges in ensuring that the many forms of available evidence are considered when decisions are being made. Mobilising knowledge for policy and practice is an emergent process, and one that is highly relational, often messy and profoundly context dependent. Systems approaches, such as dynamic simulation modelling can be used to examine both complex health issues and the context in which they are embedded, and to develop decision support tools. This paper reports on the novel use of participatory simulation modelling as a knowledge mobilisation tool in Australian real-world policy settings. We describe how this approach combined systems science methodology and some of the core elements of knowledge mobilisation best practice. We describe the strategies adopted in three case studies to address both technical and socio-political issues, and compile the experiential lessons derived. Finally, we consider the implications of these knowledge mobilisation case studies and provide evidence for the feasibility of this approach in policy development settings. Participatory dynamic simulation modelling builds on contemporary knowledge mobilisation approaches for health stakeholders to collaborate and explore policy and health service scenarios for priority public health topics. The participatory methods place the decision-maker at the centre of the process and embed deliberative methods and co-production of knowledge. The simulation models function as health policy and programme dynamic decision support tools that integrate diverse forms of evidence, including research evidence, expert knowledge and localised contextual information. Further research is underway to determine the impact of these methods on health service decision-making.

  2. Using a trauma-informed policy approach to create a resilient urban food system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Amelie A; Biehl, Erin; Buzogany, Sarah; Neff, Roni A

    2018-07-01

    Food insecurity is associated with toxic stress and adverse long-term physical and mental health outcomes. It can be experienced chronically and also triggered or exacerbated by natural and human-made hazards that destabilize the food system. The Baltimore Food System Resilience Advisory Report was created to strengthen the resilience of the city's food system and improve short- and long-term food security. Recognizing food insecurity as a form of trauma, the report was developed using the principles of trauma-informed social policy. In the present paper, we examine how the report applied trauma-informed principles to policy development, discuss the challenges and benefits of using a trauma-informed approach, and provide recommendations for others seeking to create trauma-informed food policy. Report recommendations were developed based on: semi-structured interviews with food system stakeholders; input from community members at outreach events; a literature review; Geographic Information System mapping; and other analyses. The present paper explores findings from the stakeholder interviews. Baltimore, Maryland, USA. Baltimore food system stakeholders stratified by two informant categories: organizations focused on promoting food access (n 13) and community leaders (n 12). Stakeholder interviews informed the recommendations included in the report and supported the idea that chronic and acute food insecurity are experienced as trauma in the Baltimore community. Applying a trauma-informed approach to the development of the Baltimore Food System Resilience Advisory Report contributed to policy recommendations that were community-informed and designed to lessen the traumatic impact of food insecurity.

  3. Robust Allocation of Reserve Policies for a Multiple-Cell Based Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Lan, Tian; Heussen, Kai

    2018-01-01

    modifications. The LDR method can effectively adapt the participation factors of reserve providers to respond to system imbalance signals. The policies considered the covariance of historic system imbalance signals to reduce the overall reserve cost. When applying this method to the cell-based power system...... for a certain horizon, the influence of different time resolutions on policy-making is also investigated, which presents guidance for its practical application. The main results illustrate that: (a) the LDR-based method shows better performance, by producing smaller reserve costs compared to the costs given...... by a reference method; and (b) the cost index decreases with increased time intervals, however, longer intervals might result in insufficient reserves, due to low time resolution. On the other hand, shorter time intervals require heavy computational time. Thus, it is important to choose a proper time interval...

  4. Role of renewable energy policies in energy dependency in Finland: System dynamics approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslani, Alireza; Helo, Petri; Naaranoja, Marja

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A system dynamics model for evaluating renewable energy policies on dependency is proposed. • The model considers the role of diversification on dependency and security of energy supply in Finland. • Dependency on imported sources will decrease depends on the defined scenarios in Finland. - Abstract: Objective: We discuss the role of diversification on dependency and security of energy supply. A system dynamics model with especial focus on the role of renewable energy resources (as a portfolio) on Finland’s energy dependency is developed. The purpose is also to cover a part of research gap exists in the system dynamics modeling of energy security investigations. Methods: A causal loops diagram and a system dynamics model evaluate Finnish scenarios of renewable energy policies. The analysis describes the relationship between dynamic factors such as RE encouragement packages, dependency, and energy demand. Results: A causal loops diagram and a system dynamics model evaluate three different Finnish scenarios of renewable energy policies by 2020. Conclusion: Analysis shows that despite 7% electricity/heat consumption growth by 2020 in Finland, dependency on imported sources will decrease between 1% and 7% depend on the defined scenarios. Practice Implications: The proposed model not only helps decision makers to test their scenarios related to renewable energy polices, it can be implemented by other countries

  5. Policies and Livestock Systems Driving Brucellosis Re-emergence in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauvais, Wendy; Coker, Richard; Nurtazina, Gulzhan; Guitian, Javier

    2017-06-01

    Brucellosis is a considerable public health and economic burden in many areas of the world including sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East and former USSR countries. The collapse of the USSR has been cited as a driver for re-emergence of diseases including brucellosis, and human incidence rates in the former Soviet republics have been estimated as high as 88 per 100,000 per year. The aim of this paper is to examine the historical trends in brucellosis in Kazakhstan and to explore how livestock systems, veterinary services and control policies may have influenced them. In conclusion, a brucellosis epidemic most likely began before the collapse of the USSR and high livestock densities may have played an important role. Changes to the livestock systems in Kazakhstan, as well as other factors, are likely to have an impact on the success of brucellosis policies in the future. Incentives and practicalities of different policies in smallholder settings should be considered. However, the lack of reliable estimates of brucellosis prevalence and difficulties in understanding exactly how policy is being applied in Kazakhstan, which is a vast country with low population density, prevent firm conclusions from being drawn.

  6. Nurturing Diversified Farming Systems in Industrialized Countries: How Public Policy Can Contribute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastair Iles

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available If diversified farming systems (DFS are to thrive again in the United States, policies and preferences must evolve to reward the environmental and social benefits of sustainable farming and landscape management. Compared with conventional agricultural policies, policies aiding ecological diversification are underdeveloped and fragmented. We consider several examples of obstacles to the adoption and spread of diversified farming practices in the U.S. industrialized agricultural system. These include the broader political economic context of industrialized agriculture, the erosion of farmer knowledge and capacity, and supply chain and marketing conditions that limit the ability of farmers to adopt sustainable practices. To overcome these obstacles and nurture DFS, policy makers, researchers, industry, farmers, consumers, and local communities can play pivotal roles to transform agricultural research, develop peer-to-peer learning processes, support the recruitment and retention of new farmers through access to credit and land, invest in improved agricultural conservation programs, provide compensation for provision of ecological services in working landscapes, and develop links to consumer and institutional markets.

  7. MONETARY POLICY SHOCKS AND ISLAMIC BANKS DEPOSITS IN INDONESIAN DUAL BANKING SYSTEM AFTER THE FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Affandi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Use of riba (usury in the economic system remained a key factor that led to financial crisis since theinception of modern economy in the late of 17th century. Implementation of interest based monetary policystipulated rampant speculation as common practices in the global financial sector. Although Islamic bankingwas governed by syariah (Divine Law, which was assumed to be resilient from distress, the volatility ofinterest movement would generally affect Islamic banks operations in a dual banking system. This paperwould look at this issue and would empirically explore the dynamic inter-relationships between deposits ofIslamic banks with monetary policy variables in Indonesia. In terms of market share, as of 2009, Islamicbanking asset in Indonesia was a meager 2%. The industry had been affected by few monetary policy shockson its deposits and financing. The study would employ vector auto regression model (VAR to explore thedynamics between the variables. The study would focus on data from 2004 to 2008 or performance after theAsian financial crisis. The results from these tests determined that shariah based deposits played significantrole in transmitting monetary policy effects to the economy. This study found that Islamic banking depositsin Indonesia were not sensitive to monetary policy changes. This study also concluded that IndonesianIslamic banks were resilient to financial crisis.

  8. Biomass gasification in district heating systems - The effect of economic energy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetterlund, Elisabeth; Soederstroem, Mats

    2010-01-01

    Biomass gasification is considered a key technology in reaching targets for renewable energy and CO 2 emissions reduction. This study evaluates policy instruments affecting the profitability of biomass gasification applications integrated in a Swedish district heating (DH) system for the medium-term future (around year 2025). Two polygeneration applications based on gasification technology are considered in this paper: (1) a biorefinery plant co-producing synthetic natural gas (SNG) and district heat; (2) a combined heat and power (CHP) plant using integrated gasification combined cycle technology. Using an optimisation model we identify the levels of policy support, here assumed to be in the form of tradable certificates, required to make biofuel production competitive to biomass based electricity generation under various energy market conditions. Similarly, the tradable green electricity certificate levels necessary to make gasification based electricity generation competitive to conventional steam cycle technology, are identified. The results show that in order for investment in the SNG biorefinery to be competitive to investment in electricity production in the DH system, biofuel certificates in the range of 24-42 EUR/MWh are needed. Electricity certificates are not a prerequisite for investment in gasification based CHP to be competitive to investment in conventional steam cycle CHP, given sufficiently high electricity prices. While the required biofuel policy support is relatively insensitive to variations in capital cost, the required electricity certificates show high sensitivity to variations in investment costs. It is concluded that the large capital commitment and strong dependency on policy instruments makes it necessary that DH suppliers believe in the long-sightedness of future support policies, in order for investments in large-scale biomass gasification in DH systems to be realised.

  9. Health system strengthening in Cambodia-a case study of health policy response to social transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, John; Khut, Qiu Yi; Oum, Sophal; Annear, Peter; Ky, Veng

    2009-10-01

    Cambodia, following decades of civil conflict and social and economic transition, has in the last 10 years developed health policy innovations in the areas of health contracting, health financing and health planning. This paper aims to outline recent social, epidemiological and demographic health trends in Cambodia, and on the basis of this outline, to analyse and discuss these policy responses to social transition. Sources of information included a literature review, participant observation in health planning development in Cambodia between 1993 and 2008, and comparative analysis of demographic health surveys between 2000 and 2005. In Cambodia there have been sharp but unequal improvements in child mortality, and persisting high maternal mortality rates. Data analysis demonstrates associations between location, education level and access to facility based care, suggesting the dominant role of socio-economic factors in determining access to facility based health care. These events are taking place against a background of rapid social transition in Cambodian history, including processes of decentralization, privatization and the development of open market economic systems. Primary policy responses of the Ministry of Health to social transition and associated health inequities include the establishment of health contracting, hospital health equity funds and public-private collaborations. Despite the internationally recognized health policy flexibility and innovation demonstrated in Cambodia, policy response still lags well behind the reality of social transition. In order to minimize the delay between transition and response, new policy making tactics are required in order to provide more flexible and timely responses to the ongoing social transition and its impacts on population health needs in the lowest socio-economic quintiles.

  10. Policy implications of considering pre-commitments in U.S. aggregate energy demand system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowland, Christopher S.; Mjelde, James W.; Dharmasena, Senarath

    2017-01-01

    Linear approximations of the Generalized Almost Ideal Demand System and Almost Ideal Demand System for U.S. energy are compared to contrast the explicit inclusion and exclusion of pre-committed consumption levels. Results indicate that pre-commitment levels, the quantity of a good that is consumed in the short run with little regard for price, helps to better explain energy demand in the U.S. compared to the system that does not explicitly consider pre-commitments. Policy implications are if pre-commitments are a legitimate assumption, larger price changes are necessary to achieve a given policy objective than if there are no pre-commitments. - Highlights: • Pre-commitments are the quantity that is consumed with little regard for price. • Demand systems with pre-commitment levels better explain energy demand. • Elasticities from assuming pre-commitments are more elastic. • Estimated elasticities apply to discretionary and not pre-commitment consumption. • Pre-commitments require larger price changes to achieve a given policy objective.

  11. A fuzzy logic expert system for evaluating policy progress towards sustainability goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros-Montemayor, Andrés M; Singh, Gerald G; Cheung, William W L

    2017-12-16

    Evaluating progress towards environmental sustainability goals can be difficult due to a lack of measurable benchmarks and insufficient or uncertain data. Marine settings are particularly challenging, as stakeholders and objectives tend to be less well defined and ecosystem components have high natural variability and are difficult to observe directly. Fuzzy logic expert systems are useful analytical frameworks to evaluate such systems, and we develop such a model here to formally evaluate progress towards sustainability targets based on diverse sets of indicators. Evaluation criteria include recent (since policy enactment) and historical (from earliest known state) change, type of indicators (state, benefit, pressure, response), time span and spatial scope, and the suitability of an indicator in reflecting progress toward a specific objective. A key aspect of the framework is that all assumptions are transparent and modifiable to fit different social and ecological contexts. We test the method by evaluating progress towards four Aichi Biodiversity Targets in Canadian oceans, including quantitative progress scores, information gaps, and the sensitivity of results to model and data assumptions. For Canadian marine systems, national protection plans and biodiversity awareness show good progress, but species and ecosystem states overall do not show strong improvement. Well-defined goals are vital for successful policy implementation, as ambiguity allows for conflicting potential indicators, which in natural systems increases uncertainty in progress evaluations. Importantly, our framework can be easily adapted to assess progress towards policy goals with different themes, globally or in specific regions.

  12. Analyzing the effect of gain time on soft task scheduling policies in real-time systems

    OpenAIRE

    Búrdalo Rapa, Luis Antonio; Terrasa Barrena, Andrés Martín; Espinosa Minguet, Agustín Rafael; García Fornes, Ana María

    2012-01-01

    In hard real-time systems, gain time is defined as the difference between the Worst Case Execution Time (WCET) of a hard task and its actual processor consumption at runtime. This paper presents the results of an empirical study about how the presence of a significant amount of gain time in a hard real-time system questions the advantages of using the most representative scheduling algorithms or policies for aperiodic or soft tasks in fixed-priority preemptive systems. The work presented here...

  13. Decision support tool to evaluate alternative policies regulating wind integration into autonomous energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouros, N.; Contaxis, G.C.; Kabouris, J.

    2005-01-01

    Integration of wind power into autonomous electricity systems strongly depends on the specific technical characteristics of these systems; the regulations applied should take into account physical system constraints. Introduction of market rules makes the issue even more complicated since the interests of the market participants often conflict each other. In this paper, an integrated tool for the comparative assessment of alternative regulatory policies is presented along with a methodology for decision-making, based on alternative scenarios analysis. The social welfare concept is followed instead of the traditional Least Cost Planning

  14. Assessing the Impact of Wind/PV Power Generation and Market Policies on Decentralized Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    S.M. Arnoux, Luciana; Santiago, Leonardo

    In this paper, we offer a comprehensive approach to assess the impact of wind and photovoltaic power generation on decentralized hybrid systems. In particular, we focus on three performance measures of the energy system, namely reliability, costs, and efficiency. Most of the current studies focus...... level. Therefore, we appropriately assess the inherent uncertainty and design options. First, we use linear and quantile regression models to estimate the wind speed and solar insolation. Then, we use different quantiles as an input for the hybrid system design to assess market policies (e.g., net...

  15. Strategic and policy issues raised by the transition from thermal to fast nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The renewed interest in nuclear energy triggered by concerns about global climate change and security of supply, which could lead to substantial growth in nuclear electricity generation, enhances the attractiveness of fast neutron reactors with closed fuel cycles. Moving from the current fleet of thermal neutron reactors to fast neutron systems will require many decades and extensive RD-D efforts. This book identifies and analyses key strategic and policy issues raised by such a transition, aiming at providing guidance to decision makers on the best approaches for implementing transition scenarios. The topics covered in this book will be of interest to government and nuclear industry policy makers as well as to specialists working on nuclear energy system analyses and advanced fuel cycle issues. (author)

  16. Institutional interactions in developing a transportation system under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denny, S.H.

    1986-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) recognizes that the success of its efforts to develop and operate a system for transporting nuclear waste under the provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA) depends in large measure on the effectiveness of Departmental interactions with the affected parties. To ensure the necessary network of communication, the DOE is establishing lines of contact with those who are potential participants in the task of developing the policies and procedures for the NWPA transportation system. In addition, a number of measures have been initiated to reinforce broad-based involvement in program development. The Transportation Institutional Plan provides a preliminary road map of DOE's projected interactions over the next decade and is discussed in this paper

  17. Off-Policy Actor-Critic Structure for Optimal Control of Unknown Systems With Disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ruizhuo; Lewis, Frank L; Wei, Qinglai; Zhang, Huaguang

    2016-05-01

    An optimal control method is developed for unknown continuous-time systems with unknown disturbances in this paper. The integral reinforcement learning (IRL) algorithm is presented to obtain the iterative control. Off-policy learning is used to allow the dynamics to be completely unknown. Neural networks are used to construct critic and action networks. It is shown that if there are unknown disturbances, off-policy IRL may not converge or may be biased. For reducing the influence of unknown disturbances, a disturbances compensation controller is added. It is proven that the weight errors are uniformly ultimately bounded based on Lyapunov techniques. Convergence of the Hamiltonian function is also proven. The simulation study demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed optimal control method for unknown systems with disturbances.

  18. An Adaptable System to Support Provenance Management for the Public Policy-Making Process in Smart Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barkha Javed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Government policies aim to address public issues and problems and therefore play a pivotal role in people’s lives. The creation of public policies, however, is complex given the perspective of large and diverse stakeholders’ involvement, considerable human participation, lengthy processes, complex task specification and the non-deterministic nature of the process. The inherent complexities of the policy process impart challenges for designing a computing system that assists in supporting and automating the business process pertaining to policy setup, which also raises concerns for setting up a tracking service in the policy-making environment. A tracking service informs how decisions have been taken during policy creation and can provide useful and intrinsic information regarding the policy process. At present, there exists no computing system that assists in tracking the complete process that has been employed for policy creation. To design such a system, it is important to consider the policy environment challenges; for this a novel network and goal based approach has been framed and is covered in detail in this paper. Furthermore, smart governance objectives that include stakeholders’ participation and citizens’ involvement have been considered. Thus, the proposed approach has been devised by considering smart governance principles and the knowledge environment of policy making where tasks are largely dependent on policy makers’ decisions and on individual policy objectives. Our approach reckons the human dimension for deciding and defining autonomous process activities at run time. Furthermore, with the network-based approach, so-called provenance data tracking is employed which enables the capture of policy process.

  19. Role of the national energy system modelling in the process of the policy development

    OpenAIRE

    Merse Stane; Urbancic Andreja; Sucic Boris; Pusnik Matevz

    2012-01-01

    Strategic planning and decision making, nonetheless making energy policies and strategies, is very extensive process and has to follow multiple and often contradictory objectives. During the preparation of the new Slovenian Energy Programme proposal, complete update of the technology and sector oriented bottom up model of Reference Energy and Environmental System of Slovenia (REES-SLO) has been done. During the redevelopment of the REES-SLO model trade-off between the simulation and opt...

  20. Adaptation of Agricultural and Food Systems to Climate Change: An Economic and Policy Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    John M. Antle; Susan M. Capalbo

    2010-01-01

    Adaptation of agricultural and food systems to climate change involves private and public investment decisions in the face of climate and policy uncertainties. The authors present a framework for analysis of adaptation as an investment, based on elements of the economics, finance, and ecological economics literatures. They use this framework to assess critically impact and adaptation studies, and discuss how research could be designed to support public and private investment decisions. They t...

  1. The Concept of Extraordinary Crime in Indonesia Legal System: is the Concept an Effective Criminal Policy?

    OpenAIRE

    Prahassacitta, Vidya

    2016-01-01

    The concept of extraordinary crime was a common concept in Indonesia. Adopts from the concept of the most serious crime in Rome Statute and adjusted with the Indonesian legal system. Then it developed wider and introduced into terrorism, corruption, drug abuse offenses, and child sexual abuse in legislations and Constitutional Court verdicts. The implementation of this concept generated some consequences in drafting and formulating the legislation as part of penal policy. This leads to two le...

  2. Intra Sector Policy Interventions for Improvement of Iranian Health Financing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peivand Bastani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: To determine an appropriate financial model for the health system of Iran, several studies have been conducted. But it seems that these studies were not comprehensive and further investigation is required. So to design a valid and enforceable mechanism, the study of policy interventions will be considered through consensus of all stakeholders. This investigation was done to determine the necessary policies and internal interventions for health care system financial improvement in Iran. Materials and methods: The present work was carried out through investigating all key stakeholders in the medical system and the related sectors in Iran, along with the analysis of internal and external communication by using SWOT and STEEP.V methods. Results: Strategic management of health-care costs, the development of a new financial system, clarity of costs, benefiting from health national accounts, the regulation of budget based on operations, preparing the credit of per capita from prepayment and risk accumulation, the development of referral systems and mechanisms, the establishment of public fund for services purchase, preventing the involvement of insurances in non-insurance cases, competing services with the private sector and increasing resources for the promotion of equality level have been determined as the key proposed interventions. Conclusion: It seems that the interventions based to the development of improving health financial system including the deployment of full accrual basis instead of cash basis, preparing and using services cost and operational budgeting and finally, cost management and productivity are the prerequisites of reforming health financial system.

  3. Analytical method for optimization of maintenance policy based on available system failure data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coria, V.H.; Maximov, S.; Rivas-Dávalos, F.; Melchor, C.L.; Guardado, J.L.

    2015-01-01

    An analytical optimization method for preventive maintenance (PM) policy with minimal repair at failure, periodic maintenance, and replacement is proposed for systems with historical failure time data influenced by a current PM policy. The method includes a new imperfect PM model based on Weibull distribution and incorporates the current maintenance interval T 0 and the optimal maintenance interval T to be found. The Weibull parameters are analytically estimated using maximum likelihood estimation. Based on this model, the optimal number of PM and the optimal maintenance interval for minimizing the expected cost over an infinite time horizon are also analytically determined. A number of examples are presented involving different failure time data and current maintenance intervals to analyze how the proposed analytical optimization method for periodic PM policy performances in response to changes in the distribution of the failure data and the current maintenance interval. - Highlights: • An analytical optimization method for preventive maintenance (PM) policy is proposed. • A new imperfect PM model is developed. • The Weibull parameters are analytically estimated using maximum likelihood. • The optimal maintenance interval and number of PM are also analytically determined. • The model is validated by several numerical examples

  4. The Concept of Extraordinary Crime in Indonesia Legal System: is The Concept An Effective Criminal Policy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya Prahassacitta

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of extraordinary crime was a common concept in Indonesia. Adopts from the concept of the most serious crime in Rome Statute and adjusted with the Indonesian legal system. Then it developed wider and introduced into terrorism, corruption, drug abuse offenses, and child sexual abuse in legislations and Constitutional Court verdicts. The implementation of this concept generated some consequences in drafting and formulating the legislation as part of penal policy. This leads to two legal problems; first, what was the categorization of the concept of extraordinary crime? and second, what were the consequences of the concept extraordinary crime in accordance with penal policy?. Normative law research with literature study method, This was a conducted as the response of both legal problems. Using secondary data from legislation, Constitutional Court verdicts, book and journal, this research concludes that; the concept of extraordinary crime parts of criminal policy does not have any standard for the categorization. Then, as consequences of the implementation of the concept of extraordinary crime in several penal efforts are formulating in legislations. The penalty effort is not limited to criminalization and sentencing aspects but wider and shall be in line with the strategy of crime eradication and welfare protection purposes. To reach the effectiveness of the criminal policy of the concept of extraordinary crime, the penalty effort shall be in line with criminal law principles and human right basic principles.

  5. Simulation tools for developing policies for complex systems: modeling the health and safety of refugee communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James; Chaturvedi, Alok; Cibulskis, Mike

    2007-12-01

    The U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants estimated that there were over 33 million refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs) in the world at the beginning of 2005. IDP/Refugee communities behave in complex ways making it difficult to make policy decisions regarding the provision of humanitarian aid and health and safety. This paper reports the construction of an agent-based model that has been used to study humanitarian assistance policies executed by governments and NGOs that provide for the health and safety of refugee communities. Agent-based modeling (ABM) was chosen because the more widely used alternatives impose unrealistic restrictions and assumptions on the system being modeled and primarily apply to aggregate data. We created intelligent agents representing institutions, organizations, individuals, infrastructure, and governments and analyzed the resulting interactions and emergent behavior using a Central Composite Design of Experiments with five factors. The resulting model allows policy makers and analysts to create scenarios, to make rapid changes in parameters, and provides a test bed for concepts and strategies. Policies can be examined to see how refugee communities might respond to alternative courses of action and how these actions are likely to affect the health and well-being of the community.

  6. [eHealth in Peru: implementation of policies to strengthen health information systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curioso, Walter H

    2014-01-01

    Health information systems play a key role in enabling high quality, complete health information to be available in a timely fashion for operational and strategic decision-making that makes it possible to save lives and improve the health and quality of life of the population. In many countries, health information systems are weak, incomplete, and fragmented. However, there is broad consensus in the literature of the need to strengthen health information systems in countries around the world. The objective of this paper is to present the essential components of the conceptual framework to strengthen health information systems in Peru. It describes the principal actions and strategies of the Ministry of Health of Peru during the process of strengthening health information systems. These systems make it possible to orient policies for appropriate decision-making in public health.

  7. Water bodies typology system: a Chilean case of scientific stakeholders and policy makers dialogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Fuster

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this project was to obtain a scientists-validated Typology System, which would allow to classify the surface waters bodies in Chile and, therefore, to facilitate the environmental institutional water management in the country. For this, during the years 2009 and 2011, a Typology System for the surface freshwater bodies was developed for Chile based on the methodology described by the Water Framework Directive of the European Union, which was adapted to local features through the knowledge of limnologist experts in the country, as well as policy makers' experience and their management requirements . In a first stage, national ecoregions were developed and abiotic variables were defined to compose the Typology System. The resulted Typology System for lakes and rivers was generated following an a priori and top down approach to difference biocenosis, based on geomorphologic, hydrologic and physic criteria. In a second stage, the proposed Typology System was validated by experts and policy makers, in which process new arrangements were included in the system. The working methodology used for both stages was bibliographic review, interviews to local experts in biocenosis and workshops. It is specially highlighted the participative processes and discussions in which all the agents involved were present, all of which resulted in the creation of a valid system from a scientific point of view and a product that is applicable to the necessities of the environmental institutions of the country. This work represents a successful experience in the improvement of the communication between scientists and politicians in Chile, which is a relevant factor for the elaboration of more efficient and effective environmental policies, integrating not only management and economic issues, but also more technical aspects that can influence in the final success of any long term strategy. For this reason, the replication of this kind of experiences, as well as

  8. Catchment scale water resource constraints on UK policies for low-carbon energy system transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konadu, D. D.; Fenner, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    Long-term low-carbon energy transition policy of the UK presents national scale propositions of different low-carbon energy system options that lead to meeting GHG emissions reduction target of 80% on 1990 levels by 2050. Whilst national-scale assessments suggests that water availability may not be a significant constrain on future thermal power generation systems in this pursuit, these analysis fail to capture the appropriate spatial scale where water resource decisions are made, i.e. at the catchment scale. Water is a local resource, which also has significant spatio-temporal regional and national variability, thus any policy-relevant water-energy nexus analysis must be reflective of these characteristics. This presents a critical challenge for policy relevant water-energy nexus analysis. This study seeks to overcome the above challenge by using a linear spatial-downscaling model to allocate nationally projected water-intensive energy system infrastructure/technologies to the catchment level, and estimating the water requirements for the deployment of these technologies. The model is applied to the UK Committee on Climate Change Carbon Budgets to 2030 as a case study. The paper concludes that whilst national-scale analyses show minimal long-term water related impacts, catchment level appraisal of water resource requirements reveal significant constraints in some locations. The approach and results presented in this study thus, highlights the importance of bringing together scientific understanding, data and analysis tools to provide better insights for water-energy nexus decisions at the appropriate spatial scale. This is particularly important for water stressed regions where the water-energy nexus must be analysed at appropriate spatial resolution to capture the full water resource impact of national energy policy.

  9. Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technological innovation system in China: Structure, function evaluation and policy implication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai Xianjin; Ye Zhonghua; Xu Zhengzhong; Husar Holmes, Maja; Henry Lambright, W.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) can be an important technology option for China in addressing global climate change and developing clean energy technologies. Promoted by international climate conventions and supported by government research and development programs, an increasing number of CCS pilot and demonstration projects have been launched in China. In this study, we analyze the structure of China’s CCS effort from a technological innovation system (TIS) perspective. Within this system, key socio-political components, including institutions, actor-networks, and technology development, are examined to evaluate the state of the innovation system. The study assessed the perceived capacity of seven functional areas of the CCS innovation system through a survey of key CCS actors and stakeholders. The findings suggest that China’s CCS innovation system has a strong functional capacity for knowledge and technology development. It is significantly weaker in the innovative functions of knowledge diffusion, market formation, facilitating entrepreneurs and new entrants into the CCS market. Based on the evaluation of China’s technological innovation system to develop CCS, the article articulates specific public policies to formulate a more robust innovation system to traverse the “valley of death” from research and development to commercial deployment and accelerate energy innovation in China. - Highlights: ► We analyze and evaluate China’s CCS innovation system from TIS perspective. ► Strong and systematic CCS innovation system structure has come into being in China. ► The system has acquired high knowledge development and accumulation. ► Weak innovation functions are identified: market creation, guidance, etc. ► Public policies are needed to improve the innovation system performance.

  10. Reaching the limits of reciprocity in favor exchange: The effects of generous, stingy, and matched favor giving on social status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Kan; Xu, Erica; Huang, Xu; Liu, Wu; Tang, Yipeng

    2018-06-01

    Group members gain social status via giving favors to others, but why and when they do so remain unclear in the literature. Building on social exchange theory and social status literature, we identify three types of favor giving among group members (generous, stingy, and matched) and propose that an affective mechanism (i.e., gratitude) and a cognitive mechanism (i.e., perceived competence) underlie the relationship between favor giving and status attainment. Specifically, generous/stingy favor giving has a linear relationship with status attainment through both gratitude and perceived competence, whereas matched favor giving has a curvilinear relationship with status attainment only through perceived competence. An experimental study and a field study lend support to our propositions. Our study complements the literature by offering a complete picture of how three types of favor giving among group members shape their social status in different ways. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. The impact of price and tobacco control policies on the demand for electronic nicotine delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jidong; Tauras, John; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2014-07-01

    While much is known about the demand for conventional cigarettes, little is known about the determinants of demand for electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS or e-cigarettes). The goal of this study is to estimate the own and cross-price elasticity of demand for e-cigarettes and to examine the impact of cigarette prices and smoke-free policies on e-cigarette sales. Quarterly e-cigarette prices and sales and conventional cigarette prices from 2009 to 2012 were constructed from commercial retail store scanner data from 52 U.S. markets, for food, drug and mass stores, and from 25 markets, for convenience stores. Fixed-effects models were used to estimate the own and cross-price elasticity of demand for e-cigarettes and associations between e-cigarette sales and cigarette prices and smoke-free policies. Estimated own price elasticities for disposable e-cigarettes centred around -1.2, while those for reusable e-cigarettes were approximately -1.9. Disposable e-cigarette sales were higher in markets where reusable e-cigarette prices were higher and where less of the population was covered by a comprehensive smoke-free policy. There were no consistent and statistically significant relationships between cigarette prices and e-cigarette sales. E-cigarette sales are very responsive to own price changes. Disposable e-cigarettes appear to be substitutes for reusable e-cigarettes. Policies increasing e-cigarette retail prices, such as limiting rebates, discounts and coupons and imposing a tax on e-cigarettes, could potentially lead to significant reductions in e-cigarette sales. Differential tax policies based on product type could lead to substitution between different types of e-cigarettes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. The impact of price and tobacco control policies on the demand for electronic nicotine delivery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jidong; Tauras, John; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2014-01-01

    Background While much is known about the demand for conventional cigarettes, little is known about the determinants of demand for electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS or e-cigarettes). The goal of this study is to estimate the own and cross-price elasticity of demand for e-cigarettes and to examine the impact of cigarette prices and smoke-free policies on e-cigarette sales. Methods Quarterly e-cigarette prices and sales and conventional cigarette prices from 2009 to 2012 were constructed from commercial retail store scanner data from 52 US markets, for food, drug and mass stores, and from 25 markets, for convenience stores. Fixed-effects models were used to estimate the own and cross-price elasticity of demand for e-cigarettes and associations between e-cigarette sales and cigarette prices and smoke-free policies. Results Estimated own price elasticities for disposable e-cigarettes centred around −1.2, while those for reusable e-cigarettes were approximately −1.9. Disposable e-cigarette sales were higher in markets where reusable e-cigarette prices were higher and where less of the population was covered by a comprehensive smoke-free policy. There were no consistent and statistically significant relationships between cigarette prices and e-cigarette sales. Conclusions E-cigarette sales are very responsive to own price changes. Disposable e-cigarettes appear to be substitutes for reusable e-cigarettes. Policies increasing e-cigarette retail prices, such as limiting rebates, discounts and coupons and imposing a tax on e-cigarettes, could potentially lead to significant reductions in e-cigarette sales. Differential tax policies based on product type could lead to substitution between different types of e-cigarettes. PMID:24935898

  13. Eating patterns and food systems: critical knowledge requirements for policy design and implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guyomard Hervé

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Eating patterns are important for building sustainable food and agricultural systems. This paper begins by presenting the main features of eating patterns worldwide. These eating patterns include the relative convergence of diets, more rapid food transition in emerging and developing countries, development of a more complex food chain, and substantial food losses and waste at distribution and final consumption stages. These patterns have negative consequences on health and the environment. The drivers of these patterns are examined to identify knowledge gaps, the filling of which should facilitate the design and implementation of actions and policies aimed at making food systems more sustainable.

  14. A maintenance policy for two-unit parallel systems based on imperfect monitoring information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Anne [Department Genie des Systems Industiels (GSI), Universite de technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes, Cedex (France)]. E-mail: anne.barros@utt.fr; Berenguer, Christophe [Department Genie des Systems Industiels (GSI), Universite de technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes, Cedex (France); Grall, Antoine [Department Genie des Systems Industiels (GSI), Universite de technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes, Cedex (France)

    2006-02-01

    In this paper a maintenance policy is optimised for a two-unit system with a parallel structure and stochastic dependences. Monitoring problems are taken into account in the optimisation scheme: the failure time of each unit can be not detected with a given probability. Conditions on the system parameters (unit failure rates) and on the non-detection probabilities must be verified to make the optimisation scheme valid. These conditions are clearly identified. Numerical experiments allow to show the relevance of taking into account monitoring problems in the maintenance model.

  15. A maintenance policy for two-unit parallel systems based on imperfect monitoring information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Anne; Berenguer, Christophe; Grall, Antoine

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a maintenance policy is optimised for a two-unit system with a parallel structure and stochastic dependences. Monitoring problems are taken into account in the optimisation scheme: the failure time of each unit can be not detected with a given probability. Conditions on the system parameters (unit failure rates) and on the non-detection probabilities must be verified to make the optimisation scheme valid. These conditions are clearly identified. Numerical experiments allow to show the relevance of taking into account monitoring problems in the maintenance model

  16. Medical tourism and policy implications for health systems: a conceptual framework from a comparative study of Thailand, Singapore and Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Pocock, Nicola S; Phua, Kai Hong

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Medical tourism is a growing phenomenon with policy implications for health systems, particularly of destination countries. Private actors and governments in Southeast Asia are promoting the medical tourist industry, but the potential impact on health systems, particularly in terms of equity in access and availability for local consumers, is unclear. This article presents a conceptual framework that outlines the policy implications of medical tourism's growth for health systems, draw...

  17. Uranium favorability of late Eocene through Pliocene rocks of the South Texas Coastal Plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quick, J.V.; Thomas, N.G.; Brogdon, L.D.; Jones, C.A.; Martin, T.S.

    1977-02-01

    The results of a subsurface uranium favorability study of Tertiary rocks (late Eocene through Pliocene) in the Coastal Plain of South Texas are given. In ascending order, these rock units include the Yegua Formation, Jackson Group, Frio Clay, Catahoula Tuff, Oakville Sandstone, and Goliad Sand. The Vicksburg Group, Anahuac Formation, and Fleming Formation were not considered because they have unfavorable lithologies. The Yegua Formation, Jackson Group, Frio Clay, Catahoula Tuff, Oakville Sandstone, and Goliad Sand contain sandstones that may be favorable uranium hosts under certain environmental and structural conditions. All except the Yegua are known to contain ore-grade uranium deposits. Yegua and Jackson sandstones are found in strand plain-barrier bar systems that are aligned parallel to depositional and structural strike. These sands grade into shelf muds on the east, and lagoonal sediments updip toward the west. The lagoonal sediments in the Jackson are interrupted by dip-aligned fluvial systems. In both units, favorable areas are found in the lagoonal sands and in sands on the updip side of the strand-plain system. Favorable areas are also found along the margins of fluvial systems in the Jackson. The Frio and Catahoula consist of extensive alluvial-plain deposits. Favorable areas for uranium deposits are found along the margins of the paleo-channels where favorable structural features and numerous optimum sands are present. The Oakville and Goliad Formations consist of extensive continental deposits of fluvial sandstones. In large areas, these fluvial sandstones are multistoried channel sandstones that form very thick sandstone sequences. Favorable areas are found along the margins of the channel sequences. In the Goliad, favorable areas are also found on the updip margin of strand-plain sandstones where there are several sandstones of optimum thickness.

  18. Uranium favorability of late Eocene through Pliocene rocks of the South Texas Coastal Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quick, J.V.; Thomas, N.G.; Brogdon, L.D.; Jones, C.A.; Martin, T.S.

    1977-02-01

    The results of a subsurface uranium favorability study of Tertiary rocks (late Eocene through Pliocene) in the Coastal Plain of South Texas are given. In ascending order, these rock units include the Yegua Formation, Jackson Group, Frio Clay, Catahoula Tuff, Oakville Sandstone, and Goliad Sand. The Vicksburg Group, Anahuac Formation, and Fleming Formation were not considered because they have unfavorable lithologies. The Yegua Formation, Jackson Group, Frio Clay, Catahoula Tuff, Oakville Sandstone, and Goliad Sand contain sandstones that may be favorable uranium hosts under certain environmental and structural conditions. All except the Yegua are known to contain ore-grade uranium deposits. Yegua and Jackson sandstones are found in strand plain-barrier bar systems that are aligned parallel to depositional and structural strike. These sands grade into shelf muds on the east, and lagoonal sediments updip toward the west. The lagoonal sediments in the Jackson are interrupted by dip-aligned fluvial systems. In both units, favorable areas are found in the lagoonal sands and in sands on the updip side of the strand-plain system. Favorable areas are also found along the margins of fluvial systems in the Jackson. The Frio and Catahoula consist of extensive alluvial-plain deposits. Favorable areas for uranium deposits are found along the margins of the paleo-channels where favorable structural features and numerous optimum sands are present. The Oakville and Goliad Formations consist of extensive continental deposits of fluvial sandstones. In large areas, these fluvial sandstones are multistoried channel sandstones that form very thick sandstone sequences. Favorable areas are found along the margins of the channel sequences. In the Goliad, favorable areas are also found on the updip margin of strand-plain sandstones where there are several sandstones of optimum thickness

  19. Modelling the Effects of Parking Charge and Supply Policy Using System Dynamics Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Mei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reasonable parking charge and supply policy are essential for the regular operation of the traffic in city center. This paper develops an evaluation model for parking policies using system dynamics. A quantitative study is conducted to examine the effects of parking charge and supply policy on traffic speed. The model, which is composed of three interrelated subsystems, first summarizes the travel cost of each travel mode and then calibrates the travel choice model through the travel mode subsystem. Finally, the subsystem that evaluates the state of traffic forecasts future car speed based on bureau of public roads (BPR function and generates new travel cost until the entire model reaches a steady state. The accuracy of the model is verified in Hangzhou Wulin business district. The related error of predicted speed is only 2.2%. The results indicate that the regular pattern of traffic speed and parking charge can be illustrated using the proposed model based on system dynamics, and the model infers that reducing the parking supply in core area will increase its congestion level and, under certain parking supply conditions, there exists an interval of possible pricing at which the service reaches a level that is fairly stable.

  20. Moving towards an Educational Policy for Inclusion? Main Reform Stages in the Development of the Norwegian Unitary School System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Sven

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to study the development of educational policy in Norway in the field of the unitary school system and to analyse whether the development can be seen as a move towards increasing inclusion. The educational policy, when seen over a long time span, has progressively aimed towards the development of a common compulsory…

  1. Dynamic water allocation policies improve the global efficiency of storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niayifar, Amin; Perona, Paolo

    2017-06-01

    Water impoundment by dams strongly affects the river natural flow regime, its attributes and the related ecosystem biodiversity. Fostering the sustainability of water uses e.g., hydropower systems thus implies searching for innovative operational policies able to generate Dynamic Environmental Flows (DEF) that mimic natural flow variability. The objective of this study is to propose a Direct Policy Search (DPS) framework based on defining dynamic flow release rules to improve the global efficiency of storage systems. The water allocation policies proposed for dammed systems are an extension of previously developed flow redistribution rules for small hydropower plants by Razurel et al. (2016).The mathematical form of the Fermi-Dirac statistical distribution applied to lake equations for the stored water in the dam is used to formulate non-proportional redistribution rules that partition the flow for energy production and environmental use. While energy production is computed from technical data, riverine ecological benefits associated with DEF are computed by integrating the Weighted Usable Area (WUA) for fishes with Richter's hydrological indicators. Then, multiobjective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) are applied to build ecological versus economic efficiency plot and locate its (Pareto) frontier. This study benchmarks two MOEAs (NSGA II and Borg MOEA) and compares their efficiency in terms of the quality of Pareto's frontier and computational cost. A detailed analysis of dam characteristics is performed to examine their impact on the global system efficiency and choice of the best redistribution rule. Finally, it is found that non-proportional flow releases can statistically improve the global efficiency, specifically the ecological one, of the hydropower system when compared to constant minimal flows.

  2. Agrosilvopastoral Systems in Northern Thailand and Northern Laos: Minority Peoples’ Knowledge versus Government Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalathon Choocharoen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditional agrosilvopastoral systems have been an important component of the farming systems and livelihoods of thousands of ethnic minority people in the uplands of Mainland Southeast Asia. Drawing on a combination of qualitative and participatory inquiries in nine ethnic minority communities, this study emphasizes the complex articulation of local farmers’ knowledge which has been so far excluded from governmental development and conservation policies in the northern uplands of Thailand and Laos. Qualitative analysis of local knowledge systems is performed using the Agroecological Knowledge Toolkit (AKT5 software. Results show that ethnic minorities in the two countries perceive large ruminants to be a highly positive component of local forest agro-ecosystems due to their contribution to nutrient cycling, forest fire control, water retention, and leaf-litter dispersal. The knowledge and perceptions of agrosilvopastoral farmers are then contrasted with the remarkably different forestry policy frameworks of the two countries. We find that the knowledge and diversity of practices exercised by ethnic minority groups contrasts with the current simplified and negative image that government officials tend to construct of agrosilvopastoral systems. We conclude that local knowledge of forest-livestock systems can offer alternative or complementary explanations on ecological cause-and-effect relationships which may need further scientific investigation and validation.

  3. Adaptive optimal control of unknown constrained-input systems using policy iteration and neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modares, Hamidreza; Lewis, Frank L; Naghibi-Sistani, Mohammad-Bagher

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents an online policy iteration (PI) algorithm to learn the continuous-time optimal control solution for unknown constrained-input systems. The proposed PI algorithm is implemented on an actor-critic structure where two neural networks (NNs) are tuned online and simultaneously to generate the optimal bounded control policy. The requirement of complete knowledge of the system dynamics is obviated by employing a novel NN identifier in conjunction with the actor and critic NNs. It is shown how the identifier weights estimation error affects the convergence of the critic NN. A novel learning rule is developed to guarantee that the identifier weights converge to small neighborhoods of their ideal values exponentially fast. To provide an easy-to-check persistence of excitation condition, the experience replay technique is used. That is, recorded past experiences are used simultaneously with current data for the adaptation of the identifier weights. Stability of the whole system consisting of the actor, critic, system state, and system identifier is guaranteed while all three networks undergo adaptation. Convergence to a near-optimal control law is also shown. The effectiveness of the proposed method is illustrated with a simulation example.

  4. On applications of excess level processes to (N,D-policy bulk queueing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jewgeni H. Dshalalow

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with queueing systems in which N- and D-policies are combined into one. This means that an idle or vacationing server will resume his service if the queueing or workload process crosses some specified fixed level N or D, respectively. For the proposed (N,D-policy we study the queueing processes in models with and without server vacations, with compound Poisson input, and with generally distributed service and vacation periods. The analysis of the models is essentially based on fluctuation techniques for two-dimensional marked counting processes newly developed by the author. The results enable us to arrive at stationary distributions for the embedded and continuous time parameter queueing processes in closed analytic forms, enhancing the well-known Kendall formulas and their modifications.

  5. Dimensions of sustainability in social systems: implications for energy and public policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choucri, N.

    1995-01-01

    Many fundamental dilemmas and obstacles to achieving sustainable development are being explored in both academic and policy-making circles. Central to sustainability are the provision and use of energy - for all societies and at all levels of development. This paper presents the essential foundations of an integrated view of sustainable development and illustrates their applicability to energy requirements in developing countries. The essential foundations are framed in terms of interactions among four dimensions of complexity: (i) ecology, (ii) economy, (iii) institutions, and (iv) decision. Jointly, these provide the bounds for modeling the dynamics of sustainability for social systems. Special attention is given here to the dual domains of institutions and decision, with reference to both national policy and corporate strategy at all levels of development. (author) 3 figs., tabs., 11 refs

  6. Data Analysis of Heating Systems for Buildings—A Tool for Energy Planning, Policies and Systems Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Noussan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Heating and cooling in buildings is a central aspect for adopting energy efficiency measures and implementing local policies for energy planning. The knowledge of features and performance of those existing systems is fundamental to conceiving realistic energy savings strategies. Thanks to Information and Communication Technologies (ICT development and energy regulations’ progress, the amount of data able to be collected and processed allows detailed analyses on entire regions or even countries. However, big data need to be handled through proper analyses, to identify and highlight the main trends by selecting the most significant information. To do so, careful attention must be paid to data collection and preprocessing, for ensuring the coherence of the associated analyses and the accuracy of results and discussion. This work presents an insightful analysis on building heating systems of the most populated Italian region—Lombardy. From a dataset of almost 2.9 million of heating systems, selected reference values are presented, aiming at describing the features of current heating systems in households, offices and public buildings. Several aspects are considered, including the type of heating systems, their thermal power, fuels, age, nominal and measured efficiency. The results of this work can be a support for local energy planners and policy makers, and for a more accurate simulation of existing energy systems in buildings.

  7. Insights into the government's role in food system policy making: improving access to healthy, local food alongside other priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, Jessica; Raine, Kim D; Hanning, Rhona M

    2012-11-12

    Government actors have an important role to play in creating healthy public policies and supportive environments to facilitate access to safe, affordable, nutritious food. The purpose of this research was to examine Waterloo Region (Ontario, Canada) as a case study for "what works" with respect to facilitating access to healthy, local food through regional food system policy making. Policy and planning approaches were explored through multi-sectoral perspectives of: (a) the development and adoption of food policies as part of the comprehensive planning process; (b) barriers to food system planning; and (c) the role and motivation of the Region's public health and planning departments in food system policy making. Forty-seven in-depth interviews with decision makers, experts in public health and planning, and local food system stakeholders provided rich insight into strategic government actions, as well as the local and historical context within which food system policies were developed. Grounded theory methods were used to identify key overarching themes including: "strategic positioning", "partnerships" and "knowledge transfer" and related sub-themes ("aligned agendas", "issue framing", "visioning" and "legitimacy"). A conceptual framework to illustrate the process and features of food system policy making is presented and can be used as a starting point to  engage multi-sectoral stakeholders in plans and actions to facilitate access to healthy food.

  8. High performance work systems: the gap between policy and practice in health care reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggat, Sandra G; Bartram, Timothy; Stanton, Pauline

    2011-01-01

    Studies of high-performing organisations have consistently reported a positive relationship between high performance work systems (HPWS) and performance outcomes. Although many of these studies have been conducted in manufacturing, similar findings of a positive correlation between aspects of HPWS and improved care delivery and patient outcomes have been reported in international health care studies. The purpose of this paper is to bring together the results from a series of studies conducted within Australian health care organisations. First, the authors seek to demonstrate the link found between high performance work systems and organisational performance, including the perceived quality of patient care. Second, the paper aims to show that the hospitals studied do not have the necessary aspects of HPWS in place and that there has been little consideration of HPWS in health system reform. The paper draws on a series of correlation studies using survey data from hospitals in Australia, supplemented by qualitative data collection and analysis. To demonstrate the link between HPWS and perceived quality of care delivery the authors conducted regression analysis with tests of mediation and moderation to analyse survey responses of 201 nurses in a large regional Australian health service and explored HRM and HPWS in detail in three casestudy organisations. To achieve the second aim, the authors surveyed human resource and other senior managers in all Victorian health sector organisations and reviewed policy documents related to health system reform planned for Australia. The findings suggest that there is a relationship between HPWS and the perceived quality of care that is mediated by human resource management (HRM) outcomes, such as psychological empowerment. It is also found that health care organisations in Australia generally do not have the necessary aspects of HPWS in place, creating a policy and practice gap. Although the chief executive officers of health

  9. Autoras africanas: A favor de las mujeres=African authors: In favor of women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Socorro Suárez Lafuente

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: La cultura occidental produce binomios de poder fuertemente inscritos en el lenguaje y el imaginario colectivo. Las subversiones aparecen primero en la zona dominante, como el feminismo, que se extiende, posteriormente, a otros feminismos, igualmente lógicos y reivindicativos, pero con menos capacidad de visibilización en un mundo globalizado. Las mujeres de grupos minorizados que han conseguido acceder a la educación han levantado sus voces y utilizado su potencial creativo a favor de las silenciadas de su cultura, a las que no alcanzaban el feminismo blanco occidental. Amma Darko, Bessie Head y Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie son algunos de los nombres que encabezan un movimiento africano feminista, que prioriza la libertad individual de las mujeres y les hace sentirse orgullosas de ser africanas.   Abstract Western culture produces binaries of power that are deeply inscribed both in language and in the collective imaginarium. Subversions tend to appear in the more affluent class, as is the case with feminism, which later extend to other feminisms, equally important and vindicatory, but with fewer opportunities to become visible within a globalized world. Many women from minoritized groups have had access to education, have been able to use their creative force and have become the voice of many silent women who were not included in the successive waves of Western feminisms. Amma Darko, Bessie Head and Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie are but a few names at the forefront of African feminism, a movement that fights for the individual rights of women and makes them feel proud of their Africanism.

  10. Designing Observation and Modeling Systems to Inform Decisions and Policies on Freshwater Objectives in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baisden, W. T.; Ellis, T.; Rissman, C.; Moore, C.; Matthews, A.

    2016-12-01

    Declines in New Zealand's freshwater quality have led to legislation - the 2014 National Policy Statement on Freshwater Management (NPS-FM) - which requires regional governments to set "objectives" and design policies accordingly. In most regions, increases in freshwater contaminants are derived largely from intensifying agriculture and come as nitrogen, phosphorous or sediment, or a combination thereof. Here, the development and application of N and O isotopes as natural tracers for nitrate is examined as a case study, in the context of a wider hierarchy of observations such as N concentrations, flow and broader hydrochemistry used for NPS-FM implementation. The analysis of N and O isotopes in nitrate provides specific information on sources and removal processes that cannot be obtained by other measurements. Yet, despite considerable development of the technical methodology and environment-specific interpretation, application of measurements has faced barriers. Many may be typical of science in a small advanced nation with a population of 4.5 million, but others are unique due to New Zealand's limited rural population base and large diversity in physical geography, as well as a unique economic reliance on highly productive pastoral agricultural systems. Seventeen different regional governments are empowered to regulate in ways consistent with local consultation and democracy within their catchment boundaries, but with limited resources to align highly technical observational data to policies and decisions, as well as supporting models. The resulting gaps in communication and technical capability combine with a diversity of approaches to pose both challenges and opportunities for development and application of hierarchical observation systems. Success appears to lie in ensuring decision frameworks can be `mapped', so that different frameworks can be compared, and the benefits of sophisticated observations understood directly in relation to influence on regional

  11. Health system strengthening: prospects and threats for its sustainability on the global health policy agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimoli, Joseph F; Saxena, Sweta; Hatt, Laurel E; Yarrow, Kristina M; White, Trenton M; Ifafore-Calfee, Temitayo

    2018-01-01

    In 2013, Hafner and Shiffman applied Kingdon's public policy process model to explain the emergence of global attention to health system strengthening (HSS). They questioned, however, HSS's sustainability on the global health policy agenda, citing various concerns. Guided by the Grindle and Thomas interactive model of policy implementation, we advance and elaborate a proposition: a confluence of developments will contribute to maintaining HSS's prominent place on the agenda until at least 2030. Those developments include (1) technical, managerial, financial, and political responses to unpredictable public health crises that imperil the routine functioning of health systems, such as the 2014-2015 Ebola virus disease (Ebola) epidemic in West Africa; (2) similar responses to non-crisis situations requiring fully engaged, robust health systems, such as the pursuit of the new Sustainable Development Goal for health (SDG3); and (3) increased availability of new knowledge about system change at macro, meso, and micro levels and its effects on people's health and well-being. To gauge the accuracy of our proposition, we carried out a speculative assessment of credible threats to our premise by discussing all of the Hafner-Shiffman concerns. We conclude that (1) the components of our proposition and other forces that have the potential to promote continuing attention to HSS are of sufficient strength to counteract these concerns, and (2) prospective monitoring of HSS agenda status and further research on agenda sustainability can increase confidence in our threat assessment. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. A maintenance policy for a system with multi-state components: an approximate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerler, Uelkue; Kaya, Alev

    2002-01-01

    For maintenance and quality assessment purposes, various performance levels for both systems and components are identified, usually as a function of the deterioration. In this study, we consider a multicomponent system where the lifetime of each component is described by several stages, (0,...,S), which are further classified as good, doubtful, preventive maintenance due (PM due) and down. A control policy is suggested where the system is replaced when a component enters a PM due or a down state and the number of components in the doubtful states (K,...,S-2) is at least N. All maintenance activities are assumed to take negligible time. The exact description of the underlying stochastic model under the policy is very complicated. We therefore propose some approximations, which allow an explicit expression for the long run average cost function, which is minimized w.r.t. (K,N) by numerical methods. Sensitivity of the model to system parameters and the performance of the approximation are investigated through several examples

  13. Periodic dynamics of delayed Lotka–Volterra competition systems with discontinuous harvesting policies via differential inclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Zuowei; Huang, Lihong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A more practical form of harvesting management policy (DHP) has been proposed. • We analyze the periodic dynamics of a class of discontinuous and delayed Lotka–Volterra competition systems. • We present a new method to obtain the existence of positive periodic solutions via differential inclusions. • The global convergence in measure of harvesting solution is discussed. -- Abstract: This paper considers a general class of delayed Lotka–Volterra competition systems where the harvesting policies are modeled by discontinuous functions or by non-Lipschitz functions. By means of differential inclusions theory, cone expansion and compression fixed point theorem of multi-valued maps and nonsmooth analysis theory with generalized Lyapunov approach, a series of useful criteria on existence, uniqueness and global asymptotic stability of the positive periodic solution is established for the delayed Lotka–Volterra competition systems with discontinuous right-hand sides. Moreover, the global convergence in measure of harvesting solution is discussed. Our results improve and extend previous works on periodic dynamics of delayed Lotka–Volterra competition systems with not only continuous or even Lipschitz continuous but also discontinuous harvesting functions. Finally, we give some corollaries and numerical examples to show the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed criteria

  14. State Electricity Regulatory Policy and Distributed Resources: Distributed Resources and Electric System Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowart, R.; Harrington, C.; Moskovitz, D.; Shirley, W.; Weston, F.; Sedano, R.

    2002-10-01

    Designing and implementing credit-based pilot programs for distributed resources distribution is a low-cost, low-risk opportunity to find out how these resources can help defer or avoid costly electric power system (utility grid) distribution upgrades. This report describes implementation options for deaveraged distribution credits and distributed resource development zones. Developing workable programs implementing these policies can dramatically increase the deployment of distributed resources in ways that benefit distributed resource vendors, users, and distribution utilities. This report is one in the State Electricity Regulatory Policy and Distributed Resources series developed under contract to NREL (see Annual Technical Status Report of the Regulatory Assistance Project: September 2000-September 2001, NREL/SR-560-32733). Other titles in this series are: (1) Accommodating Distributed Resources in Wholesale Markets, NREL/SR-560-32497; (2) Distributed Resources and Electric System Re liability, NREL/SR-560-32498; (3) Distribution System Cost Methodologies for Distributed Generation, NREL/SR-560-32500; (4) Distribution System Cost Methodologies for Distributed Generation Appendices, NREL/SR-560-32501.

  15. Essential evidence for guiding health system priorities and policies: anticipating epidemiological transition in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byass, Peter; de Savigny, Don; Lopez, Alan D

    2014-01-01

    Despite indications that infection-related mortality in sub-Saharan Africa may be decreasing and the burden of non-communicable diseases increasing, the overwhelming reality is that health information systems across most of sub-Saharan Africa remain too weak to track epidemiological transition in a meaningful and effective way. We propose a minimum dataset as the basis of a functional health information system in countries where health information is lacking. This would involve continuous monitoring of cause-specific mortality through routine civil registration, regular documentation of exposure to leading risk factors, and monitoring effective coverage of key preventive and curative interventions in the health sector. Consideration must be given as to how these minimum data requirements can be effectively integrated within national health information systems, what methods and tools are needed, and ensuring that ethical and political issues are addressed. A more strategic approach to health information systems in sub-Saharan African countries, along these lines, is essential if epidemiological changes are to be tracked effectively for the benefit of local health planners and policy makers. African countries have a unique opportunity to capitalize on modern information and communications technology in order to achieve this. Methodological standards need to be established and political momentum fostered so that the African continent's health status can be reliably tracked. This will greatly strengthen the evidence base for health policies and facilitate the effective delivery of services.

  16. Essential evidence for guiding health system priorities and policies: anticipating epidemiological transition in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Byass

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite indications that infection-related mortality in sub-Saharan Africa may be decreasing and the burden of non-communicable diseases increasing, the overwhelming reality is that health information systems across most of sub-Saharan Africa remain too weak to track epidemiological transition in a meaningful and effective way. Proposals: We propose a minimum dataset as the basis of a functional health information system in countries where health information is lacking. This would involve continuous monitoring of cause-specific mortality through routine civil registration, regular documentation of exposure to leading risk factors, and monitoring effective coverage of key preventive and curative interventions in the health sector. Consideration must be given as to how these minimum data requirements can be effectively integrated within national health information systems, what methods and tools are needed, and ensuring that ethical and political issues are addressed. A more strategic approach to health information systems in sub-Saharan African countries, along these lines, is essential if epidemiological changes are to be tracked effectively for the benefit of local health planners and policy makers. Conclusion: African countries have a unique opportunity to capitalize on modern information and communications technology in order to achieve this. Methodological standards need to be established and political momentum fostered so that the African continent's health status can be reliably tracked. This will greatly strengthen the evidence base for health policies and facilitate the effective delivery of services.

  17. Food system policy, public health, and human rights in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Kerry L; Kim, Brent F; McKenzie, Shawn E; Lawrence, Robert S

    2015-03-18

    The US food system functions within a complex nexus of social, political, economic, cultural, and ecological factors. Among them are many dynamic pressures such as population growth, urbanization, socioeconomic inequities, climate disruption, and the increasing demand for resource-intensive foods that place immense strains on public health and the environment. This review focuses on the role that policy plays in defining the food system, particularly with regard to agriculture. It further examines the challenges of making the food supply safe, nutritious, and sustainable, while respecting the rights of all people to have access to adequate food and to attain the highest standard of health. We conclude that the present US food system is largely unhealthy, inequitable, environmentally damaging, and insufficiently resilient to endure the impacts of climate change, resource depletion, and population increases, and is therefore unsustainable. Thus, it is imperative that the US embraces policy reforms to transform the food system into one that supports public health and reflects the principles of human rights and agroecology for the benefit of current and future generations.

  18. Health at the center of health systems reform: how philosophy can inform policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturmberg, Joachim P; Martin, Carmel M; Moes, Mark M

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary views hold that health and disease can be defined as objective states and thus should determine the design and delivery of health services. Yet health concepts are elusive and contestable. Health is neither an individual construction, a reflection of societal expectations, nor only the absence of pathologies. Based on philosophical and sociological theory, empirical evidence, and clinical experience, we argue that health has simultaneously objective and subjective features that converge into a dynamic complex-adaptive health model. Health (or its dysfunction, illness) is a dynamic state representing complex patterns of adaptation to body, mind, social, and environmental challenges, resulting in bodily homeostasis and personal internal coherence. The "balance of health" model-emergent, self-organizing, dynamic, and adaptive-underpins the very essence of medicine. This model should be the foundation for health systems design and also should inform therapeutic approaches, policy decision-making, and the development of emerging health service models. A complex adaptive health system focused on achieving the best possible "personal" health outcomes must provide the broad policy frameworks and resources required to implement people-centered health care. People-centered health systems are emergent in nature, resulting in locally different but mutually compatible solutions across the whole health system.

  19. 41 CFR 105-64.106 - What is GSA's policy on information accuracy in a system of records?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... information accuracy in a system of records? 105-64.106 Section 105-64.106 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION... Responsibilities § 105-64.106 What is GSA's policy on information accuracy in a system of records? System managers...

  20. A condition-based maintenance policy for multi-component systems with Lévy copulas dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Heping; Deloux, Estelle; Dieulle, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new condition-based maintenance policy for multi-component systems taking into account stochastic and economic dependences. The stochastic dependence between components due to common environment is modelled by Lévy copulas. Its influence on the maintenance optimization is investigated with different dependence degrees. On the issue of economic dependence providing opportunities to group maintenance activities, a new maintenance decision rule is proposed which permits maintenance grouping. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed maintenance policy, we compare it to the classical maintenance policies. - Highlights: • A new adaptive maintenance policy for grouping maintenance actions is proposed. • The impacts of both economic and stochastic dependences are investigated. • The performance of the proposed maintenance policy is evaluated under different system configurations. • The stochastic dependence is modelled by Lévy copulas. • The proposed maintenance decision rule can take full advantage of economic and stochastic dependences.

  1. Why Koreans are More Likely to Favor "Apology," While Americans are More Likely to Favor "Thank You"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Eun; Park, Hee Sun

    2011-01-01

    Two studies investigated whether apologies or thanks are preferred in asking favors in the United States and Korea, and how this relates to perceptions of reduction in positive and negative face threats. In the first study (n = 224), participants composed an e-mail message where a favor was asked. In the second (n = 807), participants completed…

  2. Knowledge-based changes to health systems: the Thai experience in policy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Wibulpholprasert, Suwit; Nitayaramphong, Sanguan

    2004-10-01

    Over the past two decades the government in Thailand has adopted an incremental approach to extending health-care coverage to the population. It first offered coverage to government employees and their dependents, and then introduced a scheme under which low-income people were exempt from charges for health care. This scheme was later extended to include elderly people, children younger than 12 years of age and disabled people. A voluntary public insurance scheme was implemented to cover those who could afford to pay for their own care. Private sector employees were covered by the Social Health Insurance scheme, which was implemented in 1991. Despite these efforts, 30% of the population remained uninsured in 2001. In October of that year, the new government decided to embark on a programme to provide universal health-care coverage. This paper describes how research into health systems and health policy contributed to the move towards universal coverage. Data on health systems financing and functioning had been gathered before and after the founding of the Health Systems Research Institute in early 1990. In 1991, a contract capitation model had been used to launch the Social Health Insurance scheme. The advantages of using a capitation model are that it contains costs and provides an acceptable quality of service as opposed to the cost escalation and inefficiency that occur under fee-for-service reimbursement models, such as the one used to provide medical benefits to civil servants. An analysis of the implementation of universal coverage found that politics moved universal coverage onto the policy agenda during the general election campaign in January 2001. The capacity for research on health systems and policy to generate evidence guided the development of the policy and the design of the system at a later stage. Because the reformists who sought to bring about universal coverage (who were mostly civil servants in the Ministry of Public Health and members of

  3. Development of a spatial planning support system for agricultural policy formulation related to land and water resources in Borkhar & Meymeh district, Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farhadi Bansouleh, B.F.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, a system was developed to support agricultural planners and
    policy makers in land resource analysis, policy formulation, identification of
    possible policy measures and policy impact analysis. The research is part of a
    larger programme, aiming at development of a

  4. Ex-ante evaluation of profitability and government's subsidy policy on vehicle-to-grid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Junhee; Koo, Yoonmo; Jeong, Gicheol; Lee, Jongsu

    2012-01-01

    Abstact: Although the electric vehicle reduces pollutant emissions and results in reduced energy costs, lack of battery charging infrastructure and relatively high vehicle prices create challenges to the automobile industry and affect government support policies. To create a battery charging infrastructure, such as a vehicle-to-grid system, stakeholders need a quantitative analysis that decreases profitability uncertainty. The high cost of an electric vehicle can be offset by government subsidies that promote early marketing efforts, but an ex-ante evaluation of consumer demand is needed to analyze the effectiveness of any policy. This study provides information about optimal pricing based on consumer demand as well as the social welfare change effected by possible government subsidy polices for electric vehicles. Results show that the maximum profit for a vehicle-to-grid service provider will be 1.27 trillion Korean won/year with an annual subscription fee of 0.65 million Korean won. The government subsidy of 1 trillion Korean won, given annually, will increase social welfare by 1.94 trillion won and also boost the profit of vehicle-to-grid service provider to 1.98 trillion won. - Highlights: ▶ We evaluate consumer preference on electric vehicle and V2G service. ▶ Based on the consumer preference, we calculate profitability of V2G service. ▶ Also, the effect of government subsidy on electric vehicle market is analyzed. ▶ The empirical results will be useful to the V2G service providers and policy makers

  5. Policy learning for flood mitigation: a longitudinal assessment of the community rating system in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Samuel D; Zahran, Sammy; Highfield, Wesley E; Bernhardt, Sarah P; Vedlitz, Arnold

    2009-06-01

    Floods continue to inflict the most damage upon human communities among all natural hazards in the United States. Because localized flooding tends to be spatially repetitive over time, local decisionmakers often have an opportunity to learn from previous events and make proactive policy adjustments to reduce the adverse effects of a subsequent storm. Despite the importance of understanding the degree to which local jurisdictions learn from flood risks and under what circumstances, little if any empirical, longitudinal research has been conducted along these lines. This article addresses the research gap by examining the change in local flood mitigation policies in Florida from 1999 to 2005. We track 18 different mitigation activities organized into four series of activities under the Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA) Community Rating System (CRS) for every local jurisdiction in Florida participating in the FEMA program on a yearly time step. We then identify the major factors contributing to policy changes based on CRS scores over the seven-year study period. Using multivariate statistical models to analyze both natural and social science data, we isolate the effects of several variables categorized into the following groups: hydrologic conditions, flood disaster history, socioeconomic and human capital controls. Results indicate that local jurisdictions do in fact learn from histories of flood risk and this process is expedited under specific conditions.

  6. Analysis of Transport Policy Effect on CO2 Emissions Based on System Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available CO2 emission from the transport sector attracts the attention of both transport and climate change policymakers because of its share in total green house gas emissions and the forecast of continuous growth reported in many countries. This paper takes the urban transport in Beijing as a case and builds a system dynamics model for analysis of the motorization trend and the assessment of CO2 emissions mitigation policy. It is found that the urban transport condition and CO2 emissions would be more serious with the growth of vehicle ownership and travel demand. Compared with the baseline do-nothing scenario, the CO2 emissions could be reduced from 3.8% to 24.3% in 2020 by various transport policies. And the policy of controlling the number of passenger cars which has been carried out in Beijing and followed by some cities could achieve good results, which may help to increase the proportion of public transit to 55.6% and reduce the CO2 emission by 18.3% compared with the baseline scenario in 2020.

  7. Recent Developments of Photovoltaics Integrated with Battery Storage Systems and Related Feed-In Tariff Policies: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel A. Bayod-Rújula

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of the recent developments of photovoltaics integrated with battery storage systems (PV-BESs and related to feed-in tariff policies. The integrated photovoltaic battery systems are separately discussed in the regulatory context of Germany, Italy, Spain, United Kingdom, Australia, and Greece; the attention of this paper is focused on those integrated systems subject to incentivisation policies such as feed-in tariff. Most of the contributions reported in this paper consider already existing incentive schemes; the remaining part of the contributions proposes interesting and novel feed-in tariff schemes. All the contributions provide an important resource for carrying out further research on a new era of incentive policies in order to promote storage technologies and integrated photovoltaic battery systems in smart grids and smart cities. Recent incentive policies adopted in Germany, Italy, Spain, and Australia are also discussed.

  8. Three propositions on why characteristics of performance management systems converge across policy areas with different levels of task complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnholt, Bente; Lindholst, Andrej Christian; Agger Nielsen, Jeppe

    2014-01-01

    of task complexity amidst a lack of formal and overarching, government-wide policies. We advance our propositions from a case study comparing the characteristics of performance management systems across social services (eldercare) and technical services (park services) in Denmark. Contrary to expectations......This article investigates the differences and similarities between performance management systems across public services. We offer three propositions as to why the characteristics of performance management systems may still converge across policy areas in the public sector with different levels...... for divergence due to differences in task complexity, the characteristics of performance management systems in the two policy areas are observed to converge. On the basis of a case study, we propose that convergence has occurred due to 1) similarities in policy-specific reforms, 2) institutional pressures, and 3...

  9. The Monetary Policy in the System of State Regulation of the Indian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V. Galistcheva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main task of this research is the analysis of India's monetary policy and its place in the system of state regulation of the economy. The article highlights the main directions of the Indian monetary policy in 1990-2000s aiming to raise competitiveness of the Indian goods on the foreign markets as well as stimulating the inflow of foreign capital in necessary volumes into the national economy. The author focuses on the main instruments of the modern Indian monetary policy, pursued in line with providing the undervalued rupee, which include the manipulating of the bank rate and currency interventions, directed mainly at sterilization of excessive inflow of foreign currency to the country. The article also underlines all the advantages and costs of the monetary policy. One of its main advantages is stimulation of national production's exports and among costs there are difficulties of importing machines and equipment into the country, increase of inflation rate as a result of massive inflow of export revenue, difficulties at external debt's service. The author notes the gradual nature of introduction of current account rupee convertibility and reasons for delay in achieving its full convertibility. Among them there are rather high level of fiscal deficit of the consolidated budget, essential average annual level of inflation, problems of non-performed assets in the economy, high liquidity ratio for commercial banks. The article also presents statistical data on the present state of the Indian foreign exchange reserves as well as dynamics in nominal and real effective exchange rate of rupee in 2005/06 - 2013/14 fiscal year.

  10. School feeding, moving from practice to policy: reflections on building sustainable monitoring and evaluation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelli, Aulo; Espejo, Francisco

    2013-06-01

    To provide an overview of the status of monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of school feeding across sub-Saharan Africa and to reflect on the experience on strengthening M&E systems to influence policy making in low-income countries. Literature review on the M&E of school feeding programmes as well as data from World Food Programme surveys. Sub-Saharan Africa. Countries implementing school feeding. Only two randomized controlled impact evaluations have been implemented in sub-Saharan Africa. Where M&E data collection is underway, the focus is on process and service delivery and not on child outcomes. M&E systems generally operate under the Ministry of Education, with other Ministries represented within technical steering groups supporting implementation. There is no internationally accepted standardized framework for the M&E of school feeding. There have been examples where evidence of programme performance has influenced policy: considering the popularity of school feeding these cases though are anecdotal, highlighting the opportunity for systemic changes. There is strong buy-in on school feeding from governments in sub-Saharan Africa. In response to this demand, development partners have been harmonizing their support to strengthen national programmes, with a focus on M&E. However, policy processes are complex and can be influenced by a number of factors. A comprehensive but simple approach is needed where the first step is to ensure a valid mandate to intervene, legitimizing the interaction with key stakeholders, involving them in the problem definition and problem solving. This process has been facilitated through the provision of technical assistance and exposure to successful experiences through South–South cooperation and knowledge exchange.

  11. Limiting Global Warming to Well Below 2 °C: Energy System Modelling and Policy Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book presents the energy system roadmaps necessary to limit global temperature increase to below 2°C, in order to avoid the catastrophic impacts of climate change. It provides a unique perspective on and critical understanding of the feasibility of a well-below-2°C world by exploring energy...... and at a global scale to offer scientific evidence to underpin complex policy decisions relating to climate change mitigation and interrelated issues like energy security and the energy–water nexus. It includes several chapters directly related to the Nationally Determined Contributions proposed in the context...

  12. Evaluation of Community-Based Policy, Systems, and Environment Interventions Targeting the Vending Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Kristen M; Garney, Whitney R; Primm, Kristin M; McLeroy, Kenneth R

    The American Heart Association conducted policy, systems, and environmental (PSE) focused interventions to increase healthy vending in 8 communities. PSE interventions were assessed using the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey Vending Assessment to see changes in the food environment. Baseline and follow-up assessments were conducted with 3 settings and a total of 19 machines. PSE changes resulted in increased availability of healthy options and decreased unhealthy options. Implementation of PSE interventions targeting the food environment can be an effective method of providing increased access to healthy foods and beverages with the goal of increasing consumption to decrease chronic diseases.

  13. [Priorities for health policy and systems research focused on human resources in health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveiz, Ludovic; Chapman, Evelina; Flórez, Carlos E Pinzón; Torres, Rubén

    2013-11-01

    Identify priorities for health policy and systems research related to human resources in Latin America and Caribbean countries. An online survey was designed based on a search in PubMed, Cochrane Library, and LILACS that contributed previously prioritized research questions. Respondents, mainly researchers and decision-makers, were identified through various sources. The first round, directed at researchers, aimed at refining and adding research questions and prioritizing questions that researchers regarded as relevant or very relevant. The second round was directed at researchers and decision-makers. A question was considered a priority when 50% (or more) of respondents described it as "relevant" or "very relevant." The first round included 20 questions on human resources and 33/66 researchers responded. Questions suggested by the researchers were added, resulting in 26 questions for the second round, which were sent to 121 researchers and decision-makers. Respondent representation by country was uniform in both rounds. In the second round, 14/26 (54%) questions were described as very relevant. Priority issues related to regulation of the market, integration of education and health care needs, and distribution of human resources. The response rate was 50% in the first round (33/66), and 34% in the second round (41/121). The results of this exercise provide a starting point for mobilization of resources for health policy and systems research. Identification of health systems research priorities is an effective and efficient strategy for reorienting political, financial, management, and social organization efforts for attaining universal health coverage.

  14. The growth of corporate private hospitals in Malaysia: policy contradictions in health system pluralism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraclough, S

    1997-01-01

    The rapid growth of corporate investment in the Malaysian private hospital sector has had a considerable impact on the health care system. Sustained economic growth, the development of new urban areas, an enlarged middle class, and the inclusion of hospital insurance in salary packages have all contributed to a financially lucrative investment environment for hospital entrepreneurs. Many of Malaysia's most technologically advanced hospitals employing leading specialists are owned and operated as corporate business ventures. Corporate hospital investment has been actively encouraged by the government, which regards an expanded private sector as a vital complement to the public hospital system. Yet this rapid growth of corporately owned private hospitals has posed serious contradictions for health care policy in terms of issues such as equity, cost and quality, the effect on the wider health system, and the very role of the state in health care provision. This article describes the growth of corporate investment in Malaysia's private hospital sector and explores some of the attendant policy contradictions.

  15. A Transforming Electricity System: Understanding the Interactions Between Clean Energy Technologies, Markets, and Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, David

    The U.S. electricity system is currently undergoing a dramatic transformation. State-level renewable portfolio standards, abundant natural gas at low prices, and rapidly falling prices for wind and solar technologies are among the factors that have ushered in this transformation. With objective, rigorous, technology-neutral analysis, NREL aims to increase the understanding of energy policies, markets, resources, technologies, and infrastructure and their connections with economic, environmental, and security priorities. The results of these analyses are meant to inform R&D, policy, and investment decisions as energy-efficient and renewable energy technologies advance from concept to commercial application to market penetration. This talk will provide an overview of how NREL uses high-fidelity data, deep knowledge of energy technology cost and performance, and advanced models and tools to provide the information needed to ensure this transformation occurs economically, while maintaining system reliability. Examples will be explored and will include analysis of tax credit impacts on wind and solar deployment and power sector emissions, as well as analysis of power systems operations in the Eastern Interconnection under 30% wind and solar penetration scenarios. Invited speaker number 47185.

  16. Impact of few failure data on the opportunistic replacement policy for multi-component systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laggoune, Radouane; Chateauneuf, Alaa; Aissani, Djamil

    2010-01-01

    In continuous operating units, the production loss is often very large during the system shut down. Their economic profitability is conditioned by the implementation of suitable maintenance policy that could increase the availability and reduce the operating costs. In this paper, an opportunistic replacement policy is proposed for multi-component series system in the context of data uncertainty, where the expected total cost per unit time is minimized under general lifetime distribution. When the system is down, either correctively or preventively, the opportunity to replace preventively non-failed components is considered. To deal with the problem of the small size of failure data samples, the Bootstrap technique is applied, in order to model the uncertainties in parameter estimates. The Weibull parameters are considered as random variables rather than just deterministic point estimates. A solution procedure based on Monte Carlo simulations with informative search method is proposed and applied to the optimization of preventive maintenance plan for a hydrogen compressor in an oil refinery.

  17. Informal Payments in the Health Care System - Research, Media and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Răzvan Cherecheş

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Informal payments in the health system refer to any payment made outside the legal funding framework. The existence of the phenomenon in Central and Eastern European countries relates to the characteristics of the health systems in the communist period. The analysis is based on three types of data: a set of data gathered from literature review; a second set of data gathered from online media; and a third set of data collected from legislative and public policy. The analysis was pursued using the key words such as informal payment, under-the-table payment, out-of-pocket payment, envelope payment, healthcare corruption, under-the-counter payment. As reflected in the media reports and even publicly recognized by the officials of the Ministry of Health, informal payments are a serious problem of the Romanian healthcare system. Nevertheless, the studies pursued by local researchers are inconsistent with the actual magnitude of the problem. Besides that, there is a serious gap between the findings in this area and the policies intended to reduce the phenomenon.

  18. On buffer overflow duration in a finite-capacity queueing system with multiple vacation policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempa, Wojciech M.

    2017-12-01

    A finite-buffer queueing system with Poisson arrivals and generally distributed processing times, operating under multiple vacation policy, is considered. Each time when the system becomes empty, the service station takes successive independent and identically distributed vacation periods, until, at the completion epoch of one of them, at least one job waiting for service is detected in the buffer. Applying analytical approach based on the idea of embedded Markov chain, integral equations and linear algebra, the compact-form representation for the cumulative distribution function (CDF for short) of the first buffer overflow duration is found. Hence, the formula for the CDF of next such periods is obtained. Moreover, probability distributions of the number of job losses in successive buffer overflow periods are found. The considered queueing system can be efficienly applied in modelling energy saving mechanisms in wireless network communication.

  19. An optimal replacement policy for a repairable system based on its repairman having vacations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan Li [School of Aerospace Engineering and Applied Mechanics, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Xu Jian, E-mail: xujian@tongji.edu.c [School of Aerospace Engineering and Applied Mechanics, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2011-07-15

    This paper studies a cold standby repairable system with two different components and one repairman who can take multiple vacations. If there is a component which fails and the repairman is on vacation, the failed component will wait for repair until the repairman is available. In the system, assume that component 1 has priority in use. After repair, component 1 follows a geometric process repair, while component 2 can be repaired as good as new after failures. Under these assumptions, a replacement policy N based on the failed times of component 1 is studied. The system will be replaced if the failure times of component 1 reach N. The explicit expression of the expected cost rate is given, so that the optimal replacement time N{sup *} is determined. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the theoretical results of the model.

  20. Policy-based secure communication with automatic key management for industrial control and automation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernoguzov, Alexander; Markham, Thomas R.; Haridas, Harshal S.

    2016-11-22

    A method includes generating at least one access vector associated with a specified device in an industrial process control and automation system. The specified device has one of multiple device roles. The at least one access vector is generated based on one or more communication policies defining communications between one or more pairs of devices roles in the industrial process control and automation system, where each pair of device roles includes the device role of the specified device. The method also includes providing the at least one access vector to at least one of the specified device and one or more other devices in the industrial process control and automation system in order to control communications to or from the specified device.

  1. Policy Analysis Screening System (PASS) demonstration: sample queries and terminal instructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-10-16

    This document contains the input and output for the Policy Analysis Screening System (PASS) demonstration. This demonstration is stored on a portable disk at the Environmental Impacts Division. Sample queries presented here include: (1) how to use PASS; (2) estimated 1995 energy consumption from Mid-Range Energy-Forecasting System (MEFS) data base; (3) pollution projections from Strategic Environmental Assessment System (SEAS) data base; (4) diesel auto regulations; (5) diesel auto health effects; (6) oil shale health and safety measures; (7) water pollution effects of SRC; (8) acid rainfall from Energy Environmental Statistics (EES) data base; 1990 EIA electric generation by fuel type; sulfate concentrations by Federal region; forecast of 1995 SO/sub 2/ emissions in Region III; and estimated electrical generating capacity in California to 1990. The file name for each query is included.

  2. Cyber-intrusion Auto-response and Policy Management System (CAPMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lusk, Steve [ViaSat Inc., Boston, MA (United States); Lawrence, David [Duke Energy, Charlotte, NC (United States); Suvana, Prakash [Southern California Edison, Rosemead, CA (United States)

    2015-11-11

    The Cyber-intrusion Auto-response and Policy Management System (CAPMS) project was funded by a grant from the US Department of Energy (DOE) Cybersecurity for Energy Delivery Systems (CEDS) program with contributions from two partner electric utilities: Southern California Edison (SCE) and Duke Energy. The goal of the project was to demonstrate protecting smart grid assets from a cyber attack in a way that “does not impede critical energy delivery functions.” This report summarizes project goals and activities for the CAPMS project and explores what did and did not work as expected. It concludes with an assessment of possible benefits and value of the system for the future.

  3. Foster Care Dynamics and System Science: Implications for Research and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulczyn, Fred; Halloran, John

    2017-10-05

    Although system is a word frequently invoked in discussions of foster care policy and practice, there have been few if any attempts by child welfare researchers to understand the ways in which the foster care system is a system. As a consequence, insights from system science have yet to be applied in meaningful ways to the problem of making foster care systems more effective. In this study, we draw on population biology to organize a study of admissions and discharges to foster care over a 15-year period. We are interested specifically in whether resource constraints, which are conceptualized here as the number of beds, lead to a coupling of admissions and discharges within congregate care. The results, which are descriptive in nature, are consistent with theory that ties admissions and discharges together because of a resource constraint. From the data, it is clear that the underlying system exerts an important constraint on what are normally viewed as individual-level decisions. Our discussion calls on extending efforts to understand the role of system science in studies of child welfare systems, with a particular emphasis on the role of feedback as a causal influence.

  4. Economic impact and policy implications from urban shared transportation: The case of Pittsburgh's shared bike system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelechrinis, Konstantinos; Zacharias, Christos; Kokkodis, Marios; Lappas, Theodoros

    2017-01-01

    During the last years the number of cities that have installed and started operating shared bike systems has significantly increased. These systems provide an alternative and sustainable mean of transportation to the city dwellers. Apart from the energy sustainability benefits, shared bike systems can have a positive effect on residents' health, air quality and the overall condition of the currently crumbling road network infrastructure. Anecdotal stories and survey studies have also identified that bike lanes have a positive impact on local businesses. In this study, driven by the rapid adoption of shared bike systems by city governments and their potential positive effects on a number of urban life facets we opt to study and quantify the value of these systems. We focus on a specific aspect of this value and use evidence from the real estate market in the city of Pittsburgh to analyze the effect on dwellers' properties of the shared bike system installed in the city in June 2015. We use quasi-experimental techniques and find that the shared bike system led to an increase in the housing prices (both sales and rental prices) in the zip codes where shared bike stations were installed. We further bring into the light potential negative consequences of this impact (i.e., gentrification) and discuss/propose two public policies that can exploit the impact of the system for the benefit of both the local government as well as the city dwellers.

  5. Economic impact and policy implications from urban shared transportation: The case of Pittsburgh's shared bike system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Pelechrinis

    Full Text Available During the last years the number of cities that have installed and started operating shared bike systems has significantly increased. These systems provide an alternative and sustainable mean of transportation to the city dwellers. Apart from the energy sustainability benefits, shared bike systems can have a positive effect on residents' health, air quality and the overall condition of the currently crumbling road network infrastructure. Anecdotal stories and survey studies have also identified that bike lanes have a positive impact on local businesses. In this study, driven by the rapid adoption of shared bike systems by city governments and their potential positive effects on a number of urban life facets we opt to study and quantify the value of these systems. We focus on a specific aspect of this value and use evidence from the real estate market in the city of Pittsburgh to analyze the effect on dwellers' properties of the shared bike system installed in the city in June 2015. We use quasi-experimental techniques and find that the shared bike system led to an increase in the housing prices (both sales and rental prices in the zip codes where shared bike stations were installed. We further bring into the light potential negative consequences of this impact (i.e., gentrification and discuss/propose two public policies that can exploit the impact of the system for the benefit of both the local government as well as the city dwellers.

  6. Harm reduction as a complex adaptive system: A dynamic framework for analyzing Tanzanian policies concerning heroin use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, Eric A; Kaduri, Pamela; Masao, Frank; Mbwambo, Jessie K K; McCurdy, Sheryl A

    2016-04-01

    Contrary to popular belief, policies on drug use are not always based on scientific evidence or composed in a rational manner. Rather, decisions concerning drug policies reflect the negotiation of actors' ambitions, values, and facts as they organize in different ways around the perceived problems associated with illicit drug use. Drug policy is thus best represented as a complex adaptive system (CAS) that is dynamic, self-organizing, and coevolving. In this analysis, we use a CAS framework to examine how harm reduction emerged around heroin trafficking and use in Tanzania over the past thirty years (1985-present). This account is an organizational ethnography based on of the observant participation of the authors as actors within this system. We review the dynamic history and self-organizing nature of harm reduction, noting how interactions among system actors and components have coevolved with patterns of heroin us, policing, and treatment activities over time. Using a CAS framework, we describe harm reduction as a complex process where ambitions, values, facts, and technologies interact in the Tanzanian sociopolitical environment. We review the dynamic history and self-organizing nature of heroin policies, noting how the interactions within and between competing prohibitionist and harm reduction policies have changed with patterns of heroin use, policing, and treatment activities over time. Actors learn from their experiences to organize with other actors, align their values and facts, and implement new policies. Using a CAS approach provides researchers and policy actors a better understanding of patterns and intricacies in drug policy. This knowledge of how the system works can help improve the policy process through adaptive action to introduce new actors, different ideas, and avenues for communication into the system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The right to health, health systems development and public health policy challenges in Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azétsop, Jacquineau; Ochieng, Michael

    2015-02-15

    There is increasing consensus that the right to health can provide ethical, policy and practical groundings for health systems development. The goals of the right to health are congruent with those of health systems development, which are about strengthening health promotion organizations and actions so as to improve public health. The poor shape and performance of health systems in Chad question the extent of realization of the right to health. Due to its comprehensiveness and inclusiveness, the right to health has the potential of being an organizational and a normative backbone for public health policy and practice. It can then be understood and studied as an integral component of health systems development. This paper uses a secondary data analysis of existing documents by the Ministry of Public Health, Institut National de la Statistique, des Etudes Economiques et Démographiques (INSEED), the Ministry of Economy and Agence Française de Cooperation to analyze critically the shape and performance of health systems in Chad based on key concepts and components of the right to health contained in article 12 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, and on General Comment 14. The non-realization of the right to health, even in a consistently progressive manner, raises concerns about the political commitment of state officials to public health, about the justice of social institutions in ensuring social well-being and about individual and public values that shape decision-making processes. Social justice, democratic rule, transparency, accountability and subsidiarity are important groundings for ensuring community participation in public affairs and for monitoring the performance of public institutions. The normative ideals of health systems development are essentially democratic in nature and are rooted in human rights and in ethical principles of human dignity, equality, non-discrimination and social justice. These ideals are grounded

  8. Tradeable emission permits in Dutch environmental policy. A utopia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuurman, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    Because of the lack of experience with permits in the Netherlands, and in view of the similarities between various other tradeable permit systems, the functioning of Dutch systems of tradeable fish, milk and manure quotas is discussed. Evaluation of these systems is based on criteria of effectiveness, target-group efficiency and government efficiency. These systems of tradeable permits appear to constitute a successful addition to the Dutch policy of direct regulation. Considering this, and the favorable American experience with the Emissions Trading Program, tradeable emission permits deserve a chance to be implemented in Dutch environmental policy. The question remains, however, whether the Dutch government is ready for such a step. 28 refs

  9. Association mapping and favorable QTL alleles for fiber quality traits ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A total of 201 markers were polymorphic and generated 394 ... identified favorable QTL alleles and typical accessions for fiber quality are excellent genetic resources for future cotton .... Field management followed respective local practices.

  10. Paleozoic unconformities favorable for uranium concentration in northern Appalachian basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennison, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Unconformities can redistribute uranium from protore rock as ground water moves through poorly consolidated strata beneath the erosion surface, or later moves along the unconformity. Groundwater could migrate farther than in present-day lithified Paleozoic strata in the Appalachian basin, now locally deformed by the Taconic and Allegheny orogenies. Several paleoaquifer systems could have developed uranium geochemical cells. Sandstone mineralogy, occurrences of fluvial strata, and reduzate facies are important factors. Other possibilities include silcrete developed during desert exposure, and uranium concentrated in paleokarst. Thirteen unconformities are evaluated to determine favorable areas for uranium concentration. Cambrian Potsdam sandstone (New York) contains arkoses and possible silcretes just above crystalline basement. Unconformities involving beveled sandstones and possible fluvial strata include Cambrian Hardyston sandstone (New Jersey), Cambrian Potsdam Sandstone (New York), Ordovician Oswego and Juniata formations (Pennsylvania and New York), Silurian Medina Group (New York), and Silurian Vernon, High Falls, and Longwood formations (New York and New Jersey). Devonian Catskill Formation is beveled by Pennsylvanian strata (New York and Pennsylvania). The pre-Pennsylvanian unconformity also bevels Lower Mississippian Pocono, Knapp, and Waverly strata (Pennsylvania, New York, and Ohio), truncates Upper Mississippian Mauch Chunk Formation (Pennsylvania), and forms paleokarst on Mississippian Loyalhanna Limestone (Pennsylvania) and Maxville Limestone (Ohio). Strata associated with these unconformities contain several reports of uranium. Unconformities unfavorable for uranium concentration occur beneath the Middle Ordovician (New York), Middle Devonian (Ohio and New York), and Upper Devonian (Ohio and New York); these involve marine strata overlying marine strata and probably much submarine erosion

  11. An evaluation of China's new rural cooperative medical system: achievements and inadequacies from policy goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengyue; Hou, Yilin; Sun, Mei; Lu, Jun; Wang, Ying; Li, Xiaohong; Chang, Fengshui; Hao, Mo

    2015-10-23

    Although much public scrutiny and academic attention has focused on the evaluations of system implementation since the beginning of New Rural Cooperative Medical System (NRCMS) in China, few studies have systematically evaluated the achievements of the stated policy goals. The purpose of this study is to examine to what extent the policy goals of NRCMS have been achieved. Using multistage sampling processes, two rounds of cross-sectional household surveys including 9787 and 7921 rural households were conducted in Eastern China in year 2000 and year 2008, respectively. A pre- and post-implementation comparison was used to evaluate the achievement of policy goals in three measures: impoverishment from major health hazards, household financial risk from medical expenses, and rural income inequity. Intention surveys were also applied to find out potential obstacles in the implementation of NRCMS. The rate of re-impoverishment from health hazard was reduced from 2.69 % ex ante to 2.12 % ex post, a decrease of 21.13 %. The severity of impoverishment fell from a previous 4.66 % to 3.02 %, a decline of 35.18 %. Economic risk of medical treatment population relative to the whole population fell from 2.62 ex ante to 2.03 ex post, a 22.52 % reduction. As indication of effect on improving income equity, the Gini coefficient fell from 0.4629 to 0.4541. The effects of NRCMS were significantly better than those of RCMS. Despite the preliminary achievements, our intention survey of key respondents identified that technical difficulties in actuarial funding and more sustainable reimbursement schedules has become the most challenging barriers in achieving the goals of NRCMS, while raising the insurance premium on NRCMS was no longer as big a barrier. With NRCMS, China has established a medical security system to reduce the financial burden of healthcare on rural residents. NRCMS has achieved some positive though limited effects; but technical difficulties in the implementation of

  12. A periodic inspection and replacement policy for systems subject to competing failure modes due to degradation and traumatic events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huynh, K.T., E-mail: tuan.huynh@utt.f [Universite de technologie de Troyes, Institut Charles Delaunay and STMR UMR CNRS 6279-12, rue Marie Curie, BP2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France); Barros, A., E-mail: anne.barros@utt.f [Universite de technologie de Troyes, Institut Charles Delaunay and STMR UMR CNRS 6279-12, rue Marie Curie, BP2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France); Berenguer, C., E-mail: christophe.berenguer@utt.f [Universite de technologie de Troyes, Institut Charles Delaunay and STMR UMR CNRS 6279-12, rue Marie Curie, BP2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France); Castro, I.T., E-mail: inmatorres@unex.e [Departamento de Matematicas, Escuela Politecnica, 10071 Caceres (Spain)

    2011-04-15

    This paper deals with the condition-based maintenance of single-unit systems which are subject to the competing and dependent failures due deterioration and traumatic shock events. The main aim is to provide a model to assess the value of condition monitoring information for the maintenance decision-making. A condition-based periodic inspection/replacement policy is developed and compared with a benchmark time-based block replacement policy. Numerical results show that it is indeed useful to follow closely the actual evolution of the system to adapt the maintenance decisions to the true system state to improve the performance of maintenance policies. The analysis of the maintenance costs savings can be used to justify or not the choice to implement a policy based on condition monitoring information and to invest in condition monitoring devices.

  13. A periodic inspection and replacement policy for systems subject to competing failure modes due to degradation and traumatic events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynh, K.T.; Barros, A.; Berenguer, C.; Castro, I.T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the condition-based maintenance of single-unit systems which are subject to the competing and dependent failures due deterioration and traumatic shock events. The main aim is to provide a model to assess the value of condition monitoring information for the maintenance decision-making. A condition-based periodic inspection/replacement policy is developed and compared with a benchmark time-based block replacement policy. Numerical results show that it is indeed useful to follow closely the actual evolution of the system to adapt the maintenance decisions to the true system state to improve the performance of maintenance policies. The analysis of the maintenance costs savings can be used to justify or not the choice to implement a policy based on condition monitoring information and to invest in condition monitoring devices.

  14. [Biological and social correlates of favorable and unfavorable neurosis course].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarsembaev, K T

    2003-01-01

    Four hundred ninety seven patients with neurosis of Astana (Kazakhstan) community, 116 men and 381 women, have been studied. The patients were traced in 5-year follow up study. Favorable and unfavorable types of the disorder were established, the latter being characterized by transforming into neurotic personality development. The influence of endogenous and environmental factors on neurosis prognosis was examined. To elaborate adequate measures for preventing neurotic personality development, criteria for favorable and unfavorable prognosis of neurotic disorders were suggested.

  15. Analysis of operations and cyber security policies for a system of cooperating Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) devices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Laurence R.; Tejani, Bankim; Margulies, Jonathan; Hills, Jason L.; Richardson, Bryan T.; Baca, Micheal J.; Weiland, Laura

    2005-12-01

    Flexible Alternating Current Transmission Systems (FACTS) devices are installed on electric power transmission lines to stabilize and regulate power flow. Power lines protected by FACTS devices can increase power flow and better respond to contingencies. The University of Missouri Rolla (UMR) is currently working on a multi-year project to examine the potential use of multiple FACTS devices distributed over a large power system region in a cooperative arrangement in which the FACTS devices work together to optimize and stabilize the regional power system. The report describes operational and security challenges that need to be addressed to employ FACTS devices in this way and recommends references, processes, technologies, and policies to address these challenges.

  16. 41 CFR 101-39.404 - Claims in favor of the Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.4-Accidents and Claims § 101-39.404 Claims in favor of... Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicle is at fault and that party can be reasonably identified... pertaining to the accident and its investigation to the servicing GSA IFMS fleet management center. The GSA...

  17. Community Coalitions' Gender-Aware Policy and Systems Changes to Improve the Health of Women and Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Shelly; Randolph, Suzanne M; Oravecz, Linda

    2017-10-17

    Addressing environmental barriers and community conditions through policy and systems change provides the foundation for creating sustainable public health change at the population level. In an effort to influence population-level change that is gender aware, the United States Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health funded the Coalition for a Healthier Community initiative supporting 10 grantees in the implementation of gender-based, public health systems approaches to improve women and girls' health. A national evaluation assessed the extent to which these gender-aware public health systems approaches result in programs and policies that are sustainable and cost effective in addressing health disparities in women and girls. For this paper, a review of policies reported on in grantees' quarterly progress reports was conducted, and policies were categorized based on each policy's status, level, sector affected, and whether it was gender aware. The review revealed 77 policies at varying stages of development or implementation intended to facilitate systems-level change at the coalition, school, organizational, local, or state level. Fifty-one percent of these policies were identified as being gender aware, because they were intended to reduce barriers to or increase facilitators of gender equity. Community coalitions, like the Coalition for a Healthier Community coalitions, can be valuable channels for promoting policy change, as demonstrated by the many policies developed and/or supported by the Coalition for a Healthier Community grantees in their attempt to meet the needs of women and girls. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Promising reciprocity: When proposing a favor for a request increases compliance even if the favor is not accepted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéguen, Nicolas; Meineri, Sébastien; Ruiz, Clément; Pascual, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Research has reported that reciprocity is an important social norm in relationships. In previous studies on reciprocity, participants' behavior was examined after receiving a favor from someone. In a series of field studies, we examined the effect of a statement that proved that a solicitor was someone who respected this principle. Confederates solicited participants for money or a cigarette in exchange for stamps or money, respectively. It was found that the participants complied more readily with the request in the promised favor condition, but most of them refused to take the promised favor. We conclude that individuals were led to help those who respected the putative norm of reciprocity in their social interaction.

  19. 48 CFR 3410.701 - Policy of the Department of Education with respect to use of the metric system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of Education with respect to use of the metric system. 3410.701 Section 3410.701 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING... of Education with respect to use of the metric system. It is the policy of the Department of...

  20. 41 CFR 105-64.102 - What is GSA's policy on disclosure of information in a system of records?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... disclosure of information in a system of records? 105-64.102 Section 105-64.102 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION... Responsibilities § 105-64.102 What is GSA's policy on disclosure of information in a system of records? No...

  1. Mechanisms blocking the dynamics of the European offshore wind energy innovation system – Challenges for policy intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsson, Staffan; Karltorp, Kersti

    2013-01-01

    Decarbonizing electricity production in the EU may necessitate building new “low-carbon” capacity (excluding nuclear investments) to deliver 3500 TWh by 2050. Offshore wind power has the potential to contribute substantially to fill this gap. Realizing this potential is, however, difficult since deployment offshore does not constitute a simple diversification by the onshore wind turbine industry to a new segment. This paper identifies factors obstructing the development of the northern European innovation system centered on offshore wind power, specifies a set of associated policy challenges and discusses various policy responses. - Highlights: • Offshore wind power has a strategic role in decarbonizing EU's supply of electricity. • There are numerous obstacles to deployment of offshore wind turbines. • We specify seven major policy challenges in diverse policy domains. • Managing these requires coordination of interventions across policy domains and national boundaries

  2. Sustainable energy policy for Asia: Mitigating systemic hurdles in a highly dense city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Artie W.; Nathwani, Jatin

    2010-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emission (GHG) has been increasingly a sensitive issue that is across border and impacting global public interests. While the use of renewable energy technology is perceived as a means to enable delivery of emission-free solutions, its penetration into the energy market has not been timely and significant enough as projected in prior studies. This article aims to illustrate some of the critical hurdles as the policy makers start formulating environmentally friendly energy consumption means for the public in Asian economies. In particular, through analyzing the characteristics in the case of Hong Kong, the authors unveil the challenges for this highly dense city to reach a landscape of alternative energy resources for its transition into a sustainable economy. Education and engagement with the public about a sustainable future, alignment of stakeholders' economic interests and absorption capacity of emerging technologies are argued as the three main challenges and initiatives in mitigating the underlying systemic hurdles that remain to be overcome. Observing the current responses to the externalities by the policy makers in Hong Kong, this study articulates the critical challenges to mitigate these specific systemic hurdles embedded in the existing infrastructure of a highly dense city. Possible mitigating measures to enable deployment of integrative sustainable energy solutions in dealing with climate change are discussed. (author)

  3. Computing a constrained control policy for a single-server queueing system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian

    We consider a single-server queueing system designed to serve homogeneous jobs. The jobs arrive to the system after a Poisson process and all processing times are deterministic. There is a set-up cost for starting up production and a holding cost rate is incurred for each job present. Also......, there is a service cost per job, which is a convex function of the service time. The control policy specifies when the server is on or off. It also specifies the state-dependent processing times. In order to avoid a very detailed control policy (which could be hard to implement) we will only allow the server to use...... n different processing times. Hence, we must subdivide the infinite state space into n disjoint sets and for each set decide which processing time to use. We show how to derive a mathematical expression for the long-run average cost per time unit. We also present an algorithm to find the optimal...

  4. Immunization Information Systems: A Decade of Progress in Law and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Daniel W.; Lowery, N. Elaine; Brand, Bill; Gold, Rebecca; Horlick, Gail

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a study of laws, regulations, and policies governing Immunization Information Systems (IIS, also known as “immunization registries”) in states and selected urban areas of the United States. The study included a search of relevant statutes, administrative codes and published attorney general opinions/findings, an online questionnaire completed by immunization program managers and/or their staff, and follow-up telephone interviews. The legal/regulatory framework for IIS has changed considerably since 2000, largely in ways that improve IIS’ ability to perform their public health functions while continuing to maintain strict confidentiality and privacy controls. Nevertheless, the exchange of immunization data and other health information between care providers and public health and between entities in different jurisdictions remains difficult due in part to ongoing regulatory diversity. To continue to be leaders in health information exchange and facilitate immunization of children and adults, IIS will need to address the challenges presented by the interplay of federal and state legislation, regulations, and policies and continue to move toward standardized data collection and sharing necessary for interoperable systems. PMID:24402434

  5. A trivariate optimal replacement policy for a deteriorating system based on cumulative damage and inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Hsin-Nan; Sheu, Shey-Huei; Zhang, Zhe George

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we study a trivariate replacement model for a deteriorating system consisting of two units. Failures of unit 1 can be classified into two types. Type I failure (minor failure) is fixed by a minimal repair and type II failure (catastrophic failure) is removed by a replacement. Both types of failures can only be detected through inspection. Each type I failure of unit 1 will result in a random amount of damage to unit 2 and the damages are cumulative. The probability of type I failure or type II failure is assumed to depend on the number of failures since the last replacement. We formulate a replacement policy based on the number of type I failure, the occurrence of the first type II failure, and the amount of accumulative damages. Hence the system is replaced either preventively or correctively at any of the following four conditions depend on whichever occurs first; preventively (a) at the Nth type I failure; or (b) when the total damage of unit 2 exceeds a pre-specified level Z (but less than the failure level l); and, correctively (c) at the first type II failure; or (d) when the total damage of unit 2 exceeds a failure level l, where Z and l represent the thresholds of total damage level for unit 2 to preventive and corrective replacements, respectively. Although a type I failure can be fixed by a minimal repair, but the operating period is stochastically decreasing and repair time is stochastically increasing as time goes on. The minimal total expected long-run net cost per unit time of the system is derived and a computational algorithm for determining the optimal policy is developed. A real-world application from electric power industry is provided. Several past studied are shown to be special cases of our model. Finally, a numerical example is presented. - Highlights: • A trivariate replacement policy for a deteriorating system with two units is proposed. • A real-world application from the electric power industry is provided. • The

  6. Chemical and Biological Defense: DOD Needs Consistent Policies and Clear Processes to Address the Survivability of Weapon Systems Against Chemical and Biological Threats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    DOD, joint, and military service weapon system acquisition policies inconsistently address and do not establish a clear process for considering and testing system chemical and biological survivability...

  7. Federal policies to promote the widespread utilization of photovoltaic systems. Supplement: review and critique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.L.

    1980-04-15

    This document is intended as a supplement to the two-volume report entitled Federal Policies to Promote the Widespread Utilization of Photovoltaic Systems that was submitted to Congress by the Department of Energy in February and April of 1980. This supplement contains review comments prepared by knowledgeable experts who reviewed early drafts of the Congressional report. Responses to the review comments by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, preparer of the Congressional report, are also included in this supplement. The Congressional report, mandated in the Solar Photovoltaic Energy Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1978 (P.L. 95-590), discusses various issues related to promoting the deployment of photovoltaic systems through the Federal Photovoltaic Program. Various program strategies and funding levels are examined.

  8. NATO Advanced Research Institute on the Application of Systems Science to Energy Policy Planning

    CERN Document Server

    Cherniavsky, E; Laughton, M; Ruff, L

    1981-01-01

    The Advanced Research Institute (ARI) on "The Application of Systems Science to Energy Policy Planning" was held under the auspices of the NATO Special Programme Panel on Systems Science in collaboration with the National Center for Analysis of Energy Sys­ tems, Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA, as a part of the NATO Science Committee's continuous effort to promote the advancement of science through international cooperation. Advanced Research Institutes are sponsored by the NATO Science Committee for the purposes of bringing together senior scientists to seek consensus on an assessment of the present state of knowl­ edge on a specific topic and to make recommendations for future research directions. Meetings are structured to encourage inten­ sive group discussion. Invitees are carefully selected so that the group as a whole will contain the experience and expertise neces­ sary to make the conclusions valid and significant. A final report is published presenting the various viewpoints and conclusions....

  9. Energy-Efficiency Policy Opportunities for Electric Motor-Driven Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This publication is the first global analysis of energy consumption and energy efficiency potential of EMDS (electric motor- driven system). The electric motors and systems they drive are the largest single electricity end use, accounting for more than 40% of global electricity consumption. Huge energy efficiency potential was found untapped in EMDS - around 25% of EMDS electricity use could be saved cost-effectively, reducing total global electricity demand by about 10%. However, the energy efficiency of EMDS has been relatively neglected in comparison with other sustainable energy opportunities. It is crucial to scale up the operations and resources committed to realizing the vast savings potential of optimized EMDS. This paper proposes a comprehensive package of policy recommendations to help governments realize the potential for energy savings in EMDS.

  10. REGION NORTH OF TEACHER EDUCATION POLICY AND EVALUATION OF POLES OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM OF BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso José da Costa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This text aims to present, in general, the north region and policies for teacher training implemented in the last 5 years, locating in this context the importance of the Brazil Open University system and its supporting poles face as methodology research linked to the project "Institutionalization of Distance Education in Brazil." Greater emphasis will be given to data from the states of Pará and Acre, given that two authors of this text act as coordinators of the poles supporting attendance System Open University of Brazil in these states. We design the text, based on testimony of poles coordinators who participated in participatory research, conducted by the Research Group "Teacher education and information and communication technologies", LANTE / UFF. We aim also to identify the structure and functioning of the Poles face Supporting UAB in the North as well as the assessment tool applied in this region.

  11. Improving energy decisions towards better scientific policy advice for a safe and secure future energy system

    CERN Document Server

    Droste-Franke, Bert; Kaiser, M; Schreurs, Miranda; Weber, Christoph; Ziesemer, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Managing a successful transition of the current energy supply system to less carbon emitting options, ensuring a safe and secure supply during the whole process and in the long term, is one of the largest challenges of our time. Various approaches and first implementations show that it is not only technological issue, but also a matter of societal acceptance and acceptability, considering basic ethic values of the society. The main foci of the book are, thus, to develop an understanding about the specific challenges of the scientific policy advice in the area, to explore typical current approaches for the analysis of future energy systems and to develop criteria for the quality assessment and guidelines for the improvement of such studies. The book provides assistance to the interpretation of existing studies and guidelines for setting up and carrying out new analyses as well as for communicating and applying the results. Thereby, it aims to support the involved actors such as the respective scientific expert...

  12. TAX POLICY OF SERBIA IN THE FUNCTION OF DEVELOPING THE ECONOMIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jugoslav Anicic

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Global mobility of capital and labour impose the issue of optimal tax structure of all countries. In some countries, direct taxes on income and profits are still dominant, while in other the main source of tax incomes are indirect taxes, primarily value added tax (VAT. Tax system of Serbia is specific for its big burdens for work, and smaller burden of profits and property in relation to EU countries. For long-term sustainable economic growth, among other things, more efficient tax system is required. Tax policy should contribute to elimination of essential macroeconomic imbalances of Serbian economy – high unemployment rate and high foreign trade deficit, without endangering international competitiveness of a company and favourable economic environment.

  13. Optimal preventive maintenance and repair policies for multi-state systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheu, Shey-Huei; Chang, Chin-Chih; Chen, Yen-Luan; George Zhang, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the optimal preventive maintenance (PM) policies for multi-state systems. The scheduled PMs can be either imperfect or perfect type. The improved effective age is utilized to model the effect of an imperfect PM. The system is considered as in a failure state (unacceptable state) once its performance level falls below a given customer demand level. If the system fails before a scheduled PM, it is repaired and becomes operational again. We consider three types of major, minimal, and imperfect repair actions, respectively. The deterioration of the system is assumed to follow a non-homogeneous continuous time Markov process (NHCTMP) with finite state space. A recursive approach is proposed to efficiently compute the time-dependent distribution of the multi-state system. For each repair type, we find the optimal PM schedule that minimizes the average cost rate. The main implication of our results is that in determining the optimal scheduled PM, choosing the right repair type will significantly improve the efficiency of the system maintenance. Thus PM and repair decisions must be made jointly to achieve the best performance

  14. Optimal Mission Abort Policy for Systems Operating in a Random Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitin, Gregory; Finkelstein, Maxim

    2018-04-01

    Many real-world critical systems, e.g., aircrafts, manned space flight systems, and submarines, utilize mission aborts to enhance their survivability. Specifically, a mission can be aborted when a certain malfunction condition is met and a rescue or recovery procedure is then initiated. For systems exposed to external impacts, the malfunctions are often caused by the consequences of these impacts. Traditional system reliability models typically cannot address a possibility of mission aborts. Therefore, in this article, we first develop the corresponding methodology for modeling and evaluation of the mission success probability and survivability of systems experiencing both internal failures and external shocks. We consider a policy when a mission is aborted and a rescue procedure is activated upon occurrence of the mth shock. We demonstrate the tradeoff between the system survivability and the mission success probability that should be balanced by the proper choice of the decision variable m. A detailed illustrative example of a mission performed by an unmanned aerial vehicle is presented. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. Role of the national energy system modelling in the process of the policy development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merse Stane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategic planning and decision making, nonetheless making energy policies and strategies, is very extensive process and has to follow multiple and often contradictory objectives. During the preparation of the new Slovenian Energy Programme proposal, complete update of the technology and sector oriented bottom up model of Reference Energy and Environmental System of Slovenia (REES-SLO has been done. During the redevelopment of the REES-SLO model trade-off between the simulation and optimisation approach has been done, favouring presentation of relations between controls and their effects rather than the elusive optimality of results which can be misleading for small energy systems. Scenario-based planning was integrated into the MESAP (Modular Energy System Analysis and Planning environment, allowing integration of past, present and planned (calculated data in a comprehensive overall system. Within the paper, the main technical, economic and environmental characteristics of the Slovenian energy system model REES-SLO are described. This paper presents a new approach in modelling relatively small energy systems which goes beyond investment in particular technologies or categories of technology and allows smooth transition to low carbon economy. Presented research work confirms that transition from environment unfriendly fossil fuelled economy to sustainable and climate friendly development requires a new approach, which must be based on excellent knowledge of alternative possibilities of development and especially awareness about new opportunities in exploitation of energy efficiency and renewable energy sources.

  16. Europeanisation and policy change in the Danish vocational education and training system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cort, Pia

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to analyse the interrelationship between the Copenhagen Process, EU vocational education and training policy, and Danish initial vocational education and training policies in order to shed light on the role of EU policies in policy and institutional change. The article points...... to the complexity of policy-making and the crisscrossing of policies across the globe. A major change is the acceptance of the EU as a stakeholder in vocational education and training policy-making and thereby an expansion of the policy space. However, the changes taking place at national level are incremental...... and the EU policy is translated in the national context, where it contributes to the re-accentuation of existing conflicts and fissures....

  17. Health system capacity: maternal health policy implementation in the state of Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Sanneving

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Government of Gujarat has for the past couple of decades continuously initiated several interventions to improve access to care for pregnant and delivering women within the state. Data from the last District Family Heath survey in Gujarat in 2007–2008 show that 56.4% of women had institutional deliveries and 71.5% had at least one antenatal check-up, indicating that challenges remain in increasing use of and access to maternal health care services. Objective: To explore the perceptions of high-level stakeholders on the process of implementing maternal health interventions in Gujarat. Method: Using the policy triangle framework developed by Walt and Gilson, the process of implementation was approached using in-depth interviews and qualitative content analysis. Result: Based on the analysis, three themes were developed: lack of continuity; the complexity of coordination; and lack of confidence and underutilization of the monitoring system. The findings suggest that decisions made and actions advocated and taken are more dependent on individual actors than on sustainable structures. The findings also indicate that the context in which interventions are implemented is challenged in terms of weak coordination and monitoring systems that are not used to evaluate and develop interventions on maternal health. Conclusions: The implementation of interventions on maternal health is dependent on the capacity of the health system to implement evidence-based policies. The capacity of the health system in Gujarat to facilitate implementation of maternal health interventions needs to be improved, both in terms of the role of actors and in terms of structures and processes.

  18. A system dynamic model for production and consumption policy in Iran oil and gas sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiani, Behdad; Ali Pourfakhraei, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    A system dynamic model is presented, which considers the feedback between supply and demand and oil revenue of the existing system in Iran considering different sectors of the economy. Also the export of the oil surplus and the injection of the gas surplus into the oil reservoirs are seen in the model by establishing a balance between supply and demand. In this model the counter-effects and existing system feedbacks between supply and demand and oil revenue can be seen considering different sectors of the economy. As a result, the effects of oil and gas policies in different scenarios for different sectors of Iran's economy together with the counter-effects of energy consumption and oil revenue are examined. Three scenarios, which show the worst, base and ideal cases, are considered to find future trends of major variables such as seasonal gas consumption in power plants, seasonal injected gas in oil reservoirs, economic growth in the industrial sector, oil consumption in the transportation sector, industrial gas consumption and exported gas. For example, it is shown that the exported gas will reach between 500 and 620 million cubic-meter per day in different scenarios and export revenues can reach up to $500 billion by 2025. - Research Highlights: →A system dynamic model analyzing the feedback between supply, demand and oil revenue is built. →The export of the oil surplus and the injection of the gas surplus into oil reservoirs are modeled. →Effects of oil and gas policies in different scenarios are examined for Iran's economy. →Counter-effects of energy consumption and oil revenue are examined. →Exported gas will reach between 500 and 620 million cubic-meter per day in different scenarios. →Export revenues can reach up to $500 billion by 2025.

  19. The energy policy turnaround. Designing the new system; Die Energiewende. Das neue System gestalten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohler, Stephan; Matsoukas, Stella [Deutsche Energie-Agentur GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Diermann, Ralph [Redaktionsbuero fuer Energie und Cleantech, Muenchen (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    The contribution under consideration describes the German energy system in the year 2050 as climatic friendly, secure and economic. The German Energy Agency (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) sketches the development to this target.

  20. Favorability for uranium in tertiary sedimentary rocks, southwestern Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wopat, M.A.; Curry, W.E.; Robins, J.W.; Marjaniemi, D.K.

    1977-10-01

    Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the basins of southwestern Montana were studied to determine their favorability for potential uranium resources. Uranium in the Tertiary sedimentary rocks was probably derived from the Boulder batholith and from silicic volcanic material. The batholith contains numerous uranium occurrences and is the most favorable plutonic source for uranium in the study area. Subjective favorability categories of good, moderate, and poor, based on the number and type of favorable criteria present, were used to classify the rock sequences studied. Rocks judged to have good favorability for uranium deposits are (1) Eocene and Oligocene strata and undifferentiated Tertiary rocks in the western Three Forks basin and (2) Oligocene rocks in the Helena basin. Rocks having moderate favorability consist of (1) Eocene and Oligocene strata in the Jefferson River, Beaverhead River, and lower Ruby River basins, (2) Oligocene rocks in the Townsend and Clarkston basins, (3) Miocene and Pliocene rocks in the Upper Ruby River basin, and (4) all Tertiary sedimentary formations in the eastern Three Forks basin, and in the Grasshopper Creek, Horse Prairie, Medicine Lodge Creek, Big Sheep Creek, Deer Lodge, Big Hole River, and Bull Creek basins. The following have poor favorability: (1) the Beaverhead Conglomerate in the Red Rock and Centennial basins, (2) Eocene and Oligocene rocks in the Upper Ruby River basin, (3) Miocene and Pliocene rocks in the Townsend, Clarkston, Smith River, and Divide Creek basins, (4) Miocene through Pleistocene rocks in the Jefferson River, Beaverhead River, and Lower Ruby River basins, and (5) all Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the Boulder River, Sage Creek, Muddy Creek, Madison River, Flint Creek, Gold Creek, and Bitterroot basins

  1. The impact of health system governance and policy processes on health services in Iraqi Kurdistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik-Shukor, Ali; Khoshnaw, Hiro

    2010-06-08

    Relative to the amount of global attention and media coverage since the first and second Gulf Wars, very little has been published in the health services research literature regarding the state of health services in Iraq, and particularly on the semi-autonomous region of Kurdistan. Building on findings from a field visit, this paper describes the state of health services in Kurdistan, analyzes their underlying governance structures and policy processes, and their overall impact on the quality, accessibility and cost of the health system, while stressing the importance of reinvesting in public health and community-based primary care. Very little validated, research-based data exists relating to the state of population health and health services in Kurdistan. What little evidence exists, points to a region experiencing an epidemiological polarization, with different segments of the population experiencing rapidly-diverging rates of morbidity and mortality related to different etiological patterns of communicable, non-communicable, acute and chronic illness and disease. Simply put, the rural poor suffer from malnutrition and cholera, while the urban middle and upper classes deal with issues of obesity and Type 2 diabetes. The inequity is exacerbated by a poorly governed, fragmented, unregulated, specialized and heavily privatized system, that not only leads to poor quality of care and catastrophic health expenditures, but also threatens the economic and political stability of the region. There is an urgent need to revisit and clearly define the core values and goals of a future health system, and to develop an inclusive governance and policy framework for change, towards a more equitable and effective primary care-based health system, with attention to broader social determinants of health and salutogenesis. This paper not only frames the situation in Kurdistan in terms of a human rights or special political issue of a minority population, but provides important

  2. The impact of health system governance and policy processes on health services in Iraqi Kurdistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoshnaw Hiro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Relative to the amount of global attention and media coverage since the first and second Gulf Wars, very little has been published in the health services research literature regarding the state of health services in Iraq, and particularly on the semi-autonomous region of Kurdistan. Building on findings from a field visit, this paper describes the state of health services in Kurdistan, analyzes their underlying governance structures and policy processes, and their overall impact on the quality, accessibility and cost of the health system, while stressing the importance of reinvesting in public health and community-based primary care. Discussion Very little validated, research-based data exists relating to the state of population health and health services in Kurdistan. What little evidence exists, points to a region experiencing an epidemiological polarization, with different segments of the population experiencing rapidly-diverging rates of morbidity and mortality related to different etiological patterns of communicable, non-communicable, acute and chronic illness and disease. Simply put, the rural poor suffer from malnutrition and cholera, while the urban middle and upper classes deal with issues of obesity and Type 2 diabetes. The inequity is exacerbated by a poorly governed, fragmented, unregulated, specialized and heavily privatized system, that not only leads to poor quality of care and catastrophic health expenditures, but also threatens the economic and political stability of the region. There is an urgent need to revisit and clearly define the core values and goals of a future health system, and to develop an inclusive governance and policy framework for change, towards a more equitable and effective primary care-based health system, with attention to broader social determinants of health and salutogenesis. Summary This paper not only frames the situation in Kurdistan in terms of a human rights or special political

  3. Coherence in product-oriented policies and environmental management systems in the car industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smink, Carla Kornelia; Nielsen, Eskild Holm

    more traditional process-oriented policies and are a challenge for companies. The article presents some of the authors  investigations on how the car industry has dealt with both process-oriented and product-oriented policies. [1] EPR refers to extending producer responsibility for products beyond......Over the last decade, product-oriented policies as Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) and Integrated Product Policy (IPP) are more and more recognised as a target for both corporate environmental strategy and government environmental policy. These product-oriented policies are distinct from...

  4. Financial assessment of government subsidy policy on photovoltaic systems for industrial users: A case study in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Shuo-Yan; Nguyen, Thi Anh Tuyet; Yu, Tiffany Hui-Kuang; Phan, Nguyen Ky Phuc

    2015-01-01

    Due to Taiwan's limited energy resources, the development of solar photovoltaic (PV) in Taiwan has become one of the most important solutions for meeting future energy supply needs and ensuring environmental protection. A huge amount of researches about renewable energy sources has emerged recently in response to these issues. However, the amount of researches considering the effects of various influential parameters on the efficiency and performance of PV systems remains small, and is still limited to some specific parts of PV systems. In particular, researches considering thoughtfully the influence of government subsidies on PV financial assessment are still in development. This paper proposes an approach to analyze the benefit of installing a PV system under the impact of government financial subsidies, focusing especially on feed-in-tariff (FIT) and tax abatement policies for industrial users in Taiwan. In addition, a method for selecting the most appropriate policies is proposed for the government through the analysis of both user demand and the government's PV installation capacity target. - Highlights: • Analyzing the benefit of installing a PV system impacted by the government subsidy. • Analyzing the role of policy in the financial model of PV system. • Estimating the performance of PV system under the real weather condition. • Methods to select the policies which satisfy demands of both government and users. • Methods to select the policies which ensure cost-effectiveness of government's support.

  5. Getting patent policy right: a conclusion to a special issue on the European patent system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    will hamper innovation regardless of whether the system stays as it is or morphs to Community-level. What precisely the policy rearguard should be right now is problematic and the source of continuing debate. To shed light on a perennial question, the final part of this Special Issue reflects...... in the contributions made and continues the perennial quest for getting patent policy right in Europe; and in so doing, proposes specific sets of solutions....

  6. Financial sustainability versus access and quality in a challenged health system: an examination of the capitation policy debate in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atuoye, Kilian Nasung; Vercillo, Siera; Antabe, Roger; Galaa, Sylvester Zackaria; Luginaah, Isaac

    2016-11-01

    Policy makers in low and middle-income countries are frequently confronted with challenges of increasing health access for poor populations in a sustainable manner. After several years of trying out different health financing mechanisms, health insurance has recently emerged as a pro-poor health financing policy. Capitation, a fixed fee periodically paid to health service providers for anticipated services, is one of the payment policies in health insurance. This article examines claims and counter-claims made by coalitions and individual stakeholders in a capitation payment policy debate within Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme. Using content analysis of public and parliamentary proceedings, we situate the debate within policy making and health insurance literature. We found that the ongoing capitation payment debate stems from challenges in implementation of earlier health insurance claims payment systems, which reflect broader systemic challenges facing the health insurance scheme in Ghana. The study illustrates the extent to which various sub-systems in the policy debate advance arguments to legitimize their claims about the contested capitation payment system. In addition, we found that the health of poor communities, women and children are being used as surrogates for political and individual arguments in the policy debate. The article recommends a more holistic and participatory approach through persuasion and negotiation to join interests and core evidence together in the capitation policy making in Ghana and elsewhere with similar contexts. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Systems, methods and apparatus for modeling, specifying and deploying policies in autonomous and autonomic systems using agent-oriented software engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor); Penn, Joaquin (Inventor); Sterritt, Roy (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Systems, methods and apparatus are provided through which in some embodiments, an agent-oriented specification modeled with MaCMAS, is analyzed, flaws in the agent-oriented specification modeled with MaCMAS are corrected, and an implementation is derived from the corrected agent-oriented specification. Described herein are systems, method and apparatus that produce fully (mathematically) tractable development of agent-oriented specification(s) modeled with methodology fragment for analyzing complex multiagent systems (MaCMAS) and policies for autonomic systems from requirements through to code generation. The systems, method and apparatus described herein are illustrated through an example showing how user formulated policies can be translated into a formal mode which can then be converted to code. The requirements-based programming systems, method and apparatus described herein may provide faster, higher quality development and maintenance of autonomic systems based on user formulation of policies.

  8. Integrating Big Data into a Sustainable Mobility Policy 2.0 Planning Support System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Semanjski

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that each of us, on a daily basis, produces a bit more than 1 GB of digital content through our mobile phone and social networks activities, bank card payments, location-based positioning information, online activities, etc. However, the implementation of these large data amounts in city assets planning systems still remains a rather abstract idea for several reasons, including the fact that practical examples are still very strongly services-oriented, and are a largely unexplored and interdisciplinary field; hence, missing the cross-cutting dimension. In this paper, we describe the Policy 2.0 concept and integrate user generated content into Policy 2.0 platform for sustainable mobility planning. By means of a real-life example, we demonstrate the applicability of such a big data integration approach to smart cities planning process. Observed benefits range from improved timeliness of the data and reduced duration of the planning cycle to more informed and agile decision making, on both the citizens and the city planners end. The integration of big data into the planning process, at this stage, does not have uniform impact across all levels of decision making and planning process, therefore it should be performed gradually and with full awareness of existing limitations.

  9. Assisting Sustainable Forest Management and Forest Policy Planning with the Sim4Tree Decision Support System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floris Dalemans

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As European forest policy increasingly focuses on multiple ecosystem services and participatory decision making, forest managers and policy planners have a need for integrated, user-friendly, broad spectrum decision support systems (DSS that address risks and uncertainties, such as climate change, in a robust way and that provide credible advice in a transparent manner, enabling effective stakeholder involvement. The Sim4Tree DSS has been accordingly developed as a user-oriented, modular and multipurpose toolbox. Sim4Tree supports strategic and tactical forestry planning by providing simulations of forest development, ecosystem services potential and economic performance through time, from a regional to a stand scale, under various management and climate regimes. Sim4Tree allows comparing the performance of different scenarios with regard to diverse criteria so as to optimize management choices. This paper explains the concept, characteristics, functionalities, components and use of the current Sim4Tree DSS v2.5, which was parameterized for the region of Flanders, Belgium, but can be flexibly adapted to allow a broader use. When considering the current challenges for forestry DSS, an effort has been made towards the participatory component and towards integration, while the lack of robustness remains Sim4Tree’s weakest point. However, its structural flexibility allows many possibilities for future improvement and extension.

  10. An approach to assessing multicity implementation of healthful food access policy, systems, and environmental changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberfarb, Laura Oliven; Savre, Sonja; Geber, Gayle

    2014-04-24

    Local governments play an increasingly important role in improving residents' access to healthful food and beverages to reduce obesity and chronic disease. Cities can use multiple strategies to improve community health through, for example, land use and zoning policies, city contracting and procurement practices, sponsorship of farmers markets and community gardens, and vending and concession practices in parks and recreation facilities. With 41 cities in the Hennepin County Human Services and Public Health Department jurisdiction, the county undertook to measure the extent to which cities were engaged in making policy, systems, and environmental (PSE) changes to increase residents' access to healthful food. The results revealed that some cities, particularly those with higher resident demand for healthful food, are making nationally recommended PSE changes, such as sponsoring farmers markets and community gardens. Cities have moved more slowly to make changes in areas with perceived negative cost consequences or lesser public demand, such as parks and recreation vending and concessions. This article describes the assessment process, survey tools, findings, and implications for other health departments seeking to undertake a similar assessment.

  11. Policy trends and reforms in the German DRG-based hospital payment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein-Hitpaß, Uwe; Scheller-Kreinsen, David

    2015-03-01

    A central structural point in all DRG-based hospital payment systems is the conversion of relative weights into actual payments. In this context policy makers need to address (amongst other things) (a) how the price level of DRG-payments from one period to the following period is changed and (b) whether and how hospital payments based on DRGs are to be differentiated beyond patient characteristics, e.g. by organizational, regional or state-level factors. Both policy problems can be and in international comparison often are empirically addressed. In Germany relative weights are derived from a highly sophisticated empirical cost calculation, whereas the annual changes of DRG-based payments (base rates) as well as the differentiation of DRG-based hospital payments beyond patient characteristics are not empirically addressed. Rather a complex set of regulations and quasi-market negotiations are applied. There were over the last decade also timid attempts to foster the use of empirical data to address these points. However, these reforms failed to increase the fairness, transparency and rationality of the mechanism to convert relative weights into actual DRG-based hospital payments. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. A Review of Policies, Acts and Initiatives in Rice Innovation System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A review of rice policies, acts and initiatives in Nigeria is presented under ... World Bank, World Trade Organization, and International Monetary Fund (IMF) ... the desirable political will by government and sound agricultural rice policy are ...

  13. Role of targeted policies in mainstreaming renewable energy in a resource constrained electricity system: A case study of Karnataka electricity system in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amrutha, A.A.; Balachandra, P.; Mathirajan, M.

    2017-01-01

    India is aggressively pursuing its renewable energy capacity expansion goals. Targeted policies such as Feed-in Tariff (FIT), Renewable Purchase Obligation (RPO) and Renewable Energy Certificate (REC) are introduced to stimulate renewable energy capacity expansion as well as generation. Currently, Indian power utilities treat RPO targets as a cost-burden, and therefore there is prevalence of non-compliance. Even other policies, such as FIT and RECs, in their present form, have failed to influence increase in renewable electricity supply. This has lead us to raise an important question whether these policies are adequate for building a cost-effective renewable energy-based low carbon electricity system for India. In this paper, we discuss the impact of above targeted policies in increasing the share of renewable electricity generation in the case of Karnataka State Electricity System. Various scenarios are developed and analysed using mixed-integer programming model to study the impacts. The results suggest that optimally managed FIT and REC schemes can provide opportunities for utilities to benefit from reduced costs. Overall, the above policies are inadequate, and introduction of market-based incentives, which expand the scope of trading in renewable energy certificates, are essential to achieve the desired objectives. - Highlights: • Analysing impacts of targeted energy policies in increasing renewable electricity share. • Scenario analyses are used to study impact on costs, targets, shortages and compliance. • Current policies are inadequate to ensure renewable energy utilization beyond targets. • Policies are necessary to incentivise compliance and penalise non-compliance.

  14. Do Voters Affect Policies? Within-Coalition Competition in the Chilean Electoral System

    OpenAIRE

    Argote, Pablo; Navia, Patricio

    2018-01-01

    It has been argued that close elections lead to policy convergence, as legislators elected by a small margin are more likely to adopt moderate policy positions (Downs 1957). However, Lee, Moretti, and Butler (2004) find that electoral competition does not affect legislators’ policy preferences in the United States, questioning the median voter paradigm. To help to discern this paradox, we estimate the effect of close elections on legislators’ subsequent policy positions under different electo...

  15. [Immigration in Spain and the health system: a fiscal policy perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco Moreno, Angela; Hernández Pascual, Javier

    2009-12-01

    The Spanish population has grown by over 6 million people in the last 10 years and immigrants account for 4.5 million of this increase. Although this influx has largely been motivated by economic reasons, stimulated by the sharp growth of the Spanish economy, sociological factors must also be considered to assess the impact of immigration shock on public expenditure and the social welfare system. On the one hand, the demographic growth caused by immigration temporarily balances the pension system, as immigrants have a lower average age and a higher fertility rate. On the other hand, the demographic and economic features of the immigrant community make additional demands on the social welfare system. Universal access to basic public services such as the education and health systems is a crucial asset in the integration policy aimed at the immigrant collective, and compensates for its possible effect as an incentive to immigrate. In the short term, the huge population growth has led to health services' congestion, especially in primary health care, because of the unequal geographic distribution of immigrants. The health expenditure imputable to immigrants is lower than their share in the total population and is highly concentrated in four autonomous regions.

  16. Interference of regional support policies on the economic and environmental performance of a hybrid cogeneration-solar panel energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maes, Dries; Van Passel, Steven

    2012-01-01

    This paper assesses unintentional interference between different public policies promoting energy efficiency and renewable energy. The paper develops a methodology to study the interference by analysing the economic and technical behaviour of a hybrid energy system. The hybrid energy system in this case consists of an existing cogeneration unit extended with a new installation of thermal solar panels. This puts two complementary heating technologies in juxtaposition. The two technologies are supported with distinct regional support instruments in each region. The design and operation of the energy system is optimised from the point of view of the investor according to the different support instruments. The optimal configuration is analysed as well as its effect on reduced CO 2 -emissions during the lifetime of the project. The methodology is applied to a case-study for two neighbouring regions, the Netherlands and Flanders. The policies in the Netherlands show a beneficial synergy. In Flanders, the hybrid energy system is not interesting, indicating unbalanced high support for cogeneration in this case. From the point of view of the authorities, a more balanced regional policy as in the Netherlands provides a larger CO 2 -emission reduction for a smaller cost. - Highlights: ► Study of interference between various public policies by analysing a hybrid energy system. ► A methodology based on maximum value for the investor based on different public policies. ► Case study in the Netherlands show policies with a beneficial synergy. ► Situation in Flanders indicates unbalanced policies and larger cost for CO 2 -emission reduction.

  17. Implementation of Local Wellness Policies in Schools: Role of School Systems, School Health Councils, and Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Erin R.; Rubio, Diana S.; Eidel, G. Stewart; Penniston, Erin S.; Lopes, Megan; Saksvig, Brit I.; Fox, Renee E.; Black, Maureen M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Written local wellness policies (LWPs) are mandated in school systems to enhance opportunities for healthy eating/activity. LWP effectiveness relies on school-level implementation. We examined factors associated with school-level LWP implementation. Hypothesized associations included system support for school-level implementation and…

  18. Current systematic carbon-cycle observations and the need for implementing a policy-relevant carbon observing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. Ciais; A. J. Dolman; A. Bombelli; R. Duren; A. Peregon; P. J. Rayner; C. Miller; N. Gobron; G. Kinderman; G. Marland; N. Gruber; F. Chevallier; R. J. Andres; G. Balsamo; L. Bopp; F.-M. Bréon; G. Broquet; R. Dargaville; T. J. Battin; A. Borges; H. Bovensmann; M. Buchwitz; J. Butler; J. G. Canadell; R. B. Cook; R. DeFries; R. Engelen; K. R. Gurney; C. Heinze; M. Heimann; A. Held; M. Henry; B. Law; S. Luyssaert; J. Miller; T. Moriyama; C. Moulin; R. B. Myneni; C. Nussli; M. Obersteiner; D. Ojima; Y. Pan; J.-D. Paris; S. L. Piao; B. Poulter; S. Plummer; S. Quegan; P. Raymond; M. Reichstein; L. Rivier; C. Sabine; D. Schimel; O. Tarasova; R. Valentini; R. Wang; G. van der Werf; D. Wickland; M. Williams; C. Zehner

    2014-01-01

    A globally integrated carbon observation and analysis system is needed to improve the fundamental understanding of the global carbon cycle, to improve our ability to project future changes, and to verify the effectiveness of policies aiming to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase carbon sequestration. Building an integrated carbon observation system requires...

  19. AskFuse Origins: System Barriers to Providing the Research That Public Health Practice and Policy Partners Say They Need

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushmer, Rosemary; Shucksmith, Janet

    2018-01-01

    In this paper the development of askFuse is used as a case study to illustrate contextual and system barriers to universities providing useful, usable and timely research evidence in response to local practice and policy partners' stated public health research needs. Entrenched systems (research excellence framework, academic career pathways,…

  20. Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes and their uranium favorability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coney, P.J.; Reynolds, S.J.

    1980-11-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a descriptive body of knowledge on Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes including their lithologic and structural characteristics, their distribution within the Cordillera, and their evolutionary history and tectonic setting. The occurrence of uranium in the context of possibility for uranium concentration is also examined. This volume contains appendices of the following: annotated bibliography of Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes; annotated bibliography of the uranium favorability of Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes; uranium occurrences in the Cordilleran metamorphic core complex belt; and geology, uranium favorability, uranium occurrences and tectonic maps of individual Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes; and locations, lithologic descriptions, petrographic information and analytical data for geochemical samples

  1. DE-Sovietizing educational systems, learning from past policy and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Cathy C.

    1994-03-01

    All 21st century societies face the dilemma of reforming educational systems to meet changing social demands. In order to enable new beginnings to be made, this article examines the ending of reform efforts in the former Soviet Union immediately prior to the establishment of the Commonwealth of Independent States. Educational policy had followed a shifting course under changing Soviet leadership, much supposed reform consisting of little more than reworked statements of intent. In the second half of the 1980's, more serious attempts were made to raise enrollment of six-year olds, to upgrade instructional materials and teaching quality, and to redesign vocational education. Inadequate facilities and resources, lack of trained personnel, promotion on non-educational grounds, economic hardship and bureaucratic resistance hindered these reforms. As successor states to the Soviet Union — and others — face structural change, knowledge of why certain reforms were previously resisted will help future planning.

  2. Effect of Policy Analysis on Indonesia’s Maritime Cluster Development Using System Dynamics Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nursyamsi, A.; Moeis, A. O.; Komarudin

    2018-03-01

    As an archipelago with two third of its territory consist of water, Indonesia should address more attention to its maritime industry development. One of the catalyst to fasten the maritime industry growth is by developing a maritime cluster. The purpose of this research is to gain understanding of the effect if Indonesia implement maritime cluster policy to the growth of maritime economic and its role to enhance the maritime cluster performance, hence enhancing Indonesia’s maritime industry as well. The result of the constructed system dynamic model simulation shows that with the effect of maritime cluster, the growth of employment rate and maritime economic is much bigger that the business as usual case exponentially. The result implies that the government should act fast to form a legitimate cluster maritime organizer institution so that there will be a synergize, sustainable, and positive maritime cluster environment that will benefit the performance of Indonesia’s maritime industry.

  3. Policy shifts influence the functional changes of the CNH systems on the Mongolian plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiquan; John, Ranjeet; Shao, Changliang; Fan, Yi; Zhang, Yaoqi; Amarjargal, Amartuvshin; Brown, Daniel G.; Qi, Jiaguo; Han, Juanjuan; Lafortezza, Raffaele; Dong, Gang

    2015-08-01

    By applying the concept of the coupled natural and human system (CNH), we compared spatiotemporal changes in livestock (LSK), land cover, and ecosystem production to understand the relative roles that natural and social driving forces have on CNH dynamics on the Mongolia plateau. We used socioeconomic and physical data at prefecture level for Inner Mongolia and Mongolia from 1981 through 2010 to represent changes in net primary productivity (NPP), enhanced vegetation index (EVI), precipitation, annual average temperature, LSK, livestock density (LSKD), land cover change (LCC), gross domestic production (GDP), and population (POP). The ratios such as LSK:NPP, LSKD: EVI, LSKD:albedo, LSK:POP, and LSK:GDP were examined and compared between Inner Mongolia and Mongolia, and structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied to quantify the complex interactions. Substantial differences in LSK, POP, and economic development were found among the biomes and between Inner Mongolia and Mongolia. When various indicators for policy shifts—such as the World Trade Organization (WTO) for China, the Third Campaign to Reclaim Abandoned Agriculture Lands (ATAR-3), and the Grain for Green Program for China (GFG)—were added into our SEM, the results showed significant change in the strength of the above relationships. After China joined the WTO, the relationships in Inner Mongolia between LSKD:LCC and LSKD:NPP were immensely strengthened, whereas relationships in NPP:LCC were weakened. In Mongolia, the ATAR-3 program first appeared to be an insignificant policy, but the Collapse of the Soviet Union enhanced the correlation between LSKD:LCC, weakened the connection of LCC:NPP, and did not affect LSKD:NPP. We conclude that human influences on the Mongolian CNH system exceeded those of the biophysical changes, but that the significance varies in time and per biome, as well as between Inner Mongolia and Mongolia.

  4. Policy challenges for the pediatric rheumatology workforce: Part II. Health care system delivery and workforce supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrickson, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The United States pediatric population with chronic health conditions is expanding. Currently, this demographic comprises 12-18% of the American child and youth population. Affected children often receive fragmented, uncoordinated care. Overall, the American health care delivery system produces modest outcomes for this population. Poor, uninsured and minority children may be at increased risk for inferior coordination of services. Further, the United States health care delivery system is primarily organized for the diagnosis and treatment of acute conditions. For pediatric patients with chronic health conditions, the typical acute problem-oriented visit actually serves as a barrier to care. The biomedical model of patient education prevails, characterized by unilateral transfer of medical information. However, the evidence basis for improvement in disease outcomes supports the use of the chronic care model, initially proposed by Dr. Edward Wagner. Six inter-related elements distinguish the success of the chronic care model, which include self-management support and care coordination by a prepared, proactive team. United States health care lacks a coherent policy direction for the management of high cost chronic conditions, including rheumatic diseases. A fundamental restructure of United States health care delivery must urgently occur which places the patient at the center of care. For the pediatric rheumatology workforce, reimbursement policies and the actions of health plans and insurers are consistent barriers to chronic disease improvement. United States reimbursement policy and overall fragmentation of health care services pose specific challenges for widespread implementation of the chronic care model. Team-based multidisciplinary care, care coordination and self-management are integral to improve outcomes. Pediatric rheumatology demand in the United States far exceeds available workforce supply. This article reviews the career choice decision-making process

  5. Policy challenges for the pediatric rheumatology workforce: Part II. Health care system delivery and workforce supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrickson Michael

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The United States pediatric population with chronic health conditions is expanding. Currently, this demographic comprises 12-18% of the American child and youth population. Affected children often receive fragmented, uncoordinated care. Overall, the American health care delivery system produces modest outcomes for this population. Poor, uninsured and minority children may be at increased risk for inferior coordination of services. Further, the United States health care delivery system is primarily organized for the diagnosis and treatment of acute conditions. For pediatric patients with chronic health conditions, the typical acute problem-oriented visit actually serves as a barrier to care. The biomedical model of patient education prevails, characterized by unilateral transfer of medical information. However, the evidence basis for improvement in disease outcomes supports the use of the chronic care model, initially proposed by Dr. Edward Wagner. Six inter-related elements distinguish the success of the chronic care model, which include self-management support and care coordination by a prepared, proactive team. United States health care lacks a coherent policy direction for the management of high cost chronic conditions, including rheumatic diseases. A fundamental restructure of United States health care delivery must urgently occur which places the patient at the center of care. For the pediatric rheumatology workforce, reimbursement policies and the actions of health plans and insurers are consistent barriers to chronic disease improvement. United States reimbursement policy and overall fragmentation of health care services pose specific challenges for widespread implementation of the chronic care model. Team-based multidisciplinary care, care coordination and self-management are integral to improve outcomes. Pediatric rheumatology demand in the United States far exceeds available workforce supply. This article reviews the career

  6. Human resources for health and decentralization policy in the Brazilian health system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierantoni Celia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Brazilian health reform process, following the establishment of the Unified Health System (SUS, has had a strong emphasis on decentralization, with a special focus on financing, management and inter-managerial agreements. Brazil is a federal country and the Ministry of Health (MoH, through the Secretary of Labour Management and Health Education, is responsible for establishing national policy guidelines for health labour management, and also for implementing strategies for the decentralization of management of labour and education in the federal states. This paper assesses whether the process of decentralizing human resources for health (HRH management and organization to the level of the state and municipal health departments has involved investments in technical, political and financial resources at the national level. Methods The research methods used comprise a survey of HRH managers of states and major municipalities (including capitals and focus groups with these HRH managers - all by geographic region. The results were obtained by combining survey and focus group data, and also through triangulation with the results of previous research. Results The results of this evaluation showed the evolution policy, previously restricted to the field of 'personnel administration', now expanded to a conceptual model for health labour management and education-- identifying progress, setbacks, critical issues and challenges for the consolidation of the decentralized model for HRH management. The results showed that 76.3% of the health departments have an HRH unit. It was observed that 63.2% have an HRH information system. However, in most health departments, the HRH unit uses only the payroll and administrative records as data sources. Concerning education in health, 67.6% of the HRH managers mentioned existing cooperation with educational and teaching institutions for training and/or specialization of health workers. Among them

  7. Human resources for health and decentralization policy in the Brazilian health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierantoni, Celia Regina; Garcia, Ana Claudia P

    2011-05-17

    The Brazilian health reform process, following the establishment of the Unified Health System (SUS), has had a strong emphasis on decentralization, with a special focus on financing, management and inter-managerial agreements. Brazil is a federal country and the Ministry of Health (MoH), through the Secretary of Labour Management and Health Education, is responsible for establishing national policy guidelines for health labour management, and also for implementing strategies for the decentralization of management of labour and education in the federal states. This paper assesses whether the process of decentralizing human resources for health (HRH) management and organization to the level of the state and municipal health departments has involved investments in technical, political and financial resources at the national level. The research methods used comprise a survey of HRH managers of states and major municipalities (including capitals) and focus groups with these HRH managers - all by geographic region. The results were obtained by combining survey and focus group data, and also through triangulation with the results of previous research. The results of this evaluation showed the evolution policy, previously restricted to the field of 'personnel administration', now expanded to a conceptual model for health labour management and education-- identifying progress, setbacks, critical issues and challenges for the consolidation of the decentralized model for HRH management. The results showed that 76.3% of the health departments have an HRH unit. It was observed that 63.2% have an HRH information system. However, in most health departments, the HRH unit uses only the payroll and administrative records as data sources. Concerning education in health, 67.6% of the HRH managers mentioned existing cooperation with educational and teaching institutions for training and/or specialization of health workers. Among them, specialization courses account for 61.4% and short

  8. Policies for Positioning Empty Containers in an Inland Multi-depot System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dang, Vinh Quang; Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Yun, Won-Young

    2011-01-01

    -container management are as follows: a coordinated (s, S) inventory policy for overseas positioning, (ri, Ri) policy at each depot for inland positioning; and a simple leasing policy with zero lead-time. For inland positioning policy, four different methods are proposed to reposition empty containers between depots....... Customer demands and returning containers in depots and lead-time for positioning from overseas are considered as uncertain factors. The objective is to obtain the optimal policy in order to minimize the expected total cost including inventory holding, overseas positioning, inland positioning and leasing...

  9. Evaluation Policy and Integral Education Program in the High School of Pernambuco State Education System: the limits of the centrality of evaluation in education policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Ninive Pinto Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed at evaluating the results of the relationship between 1. The Educational Responsibility Policy; 2. The Evaluation Policy defined by the Pernambuco State Education System; and 3. The process of implementation of the Integral Education Program (PEI, Brazilian Portuguese abbreviation in High School Reference Institutions (EREMs, Brazilian Portuguese abbreviation and in the State Technical Schools (ETEs, Brazilian Portuguese abbreviation. Based on document and content analyses, a qualitative study was carried out whose data collection instruments were interviews with managers, teachers, students and technicians, along with questionnaires applied to the students. The theoretical background included Freitas (2012, Ravitch (2011, Algebaile (2009, among others. The results revealed that in the PEI implementation process, the evaluation through results is related to command-and-control strategies which broaden and intensify teachers‟ and students‟ school hours, working as a neoliberal and managerial laboratory in education. From this research perspective, the conclusion was that strategies such as increasing the years of study and the school hours disguise problems such as the crisis of structural unemployment and the reduction in investments provided for in social policies as a whole.

  10. Non-take-up of Tax-favored Savings Plans : Are Household Portfolios Optimal?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alessie, R.J.M.; Hochgürtel, S.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    2001-01-01

    Since the early nineties, the Dutch tax system allows for a tax-favored form of risk free savings through employer-sponsored savings plans (ESSPs).Under some conditions and up to a certain amount, the contributions to this plan are tax-deductible, and the returns as well as the withdrawals are

  11. A policy-based multi-objective optimisation framework for residential distributed energy system design★

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouters Carmen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Distributed energy systems (DES are increasingly being introduced as solutions to alleviate conventional energy system challenges related to energy security, climate change and increasing demands. From a technological and economic perspective, distributed energy resources are already becoming viable. The question still remains as to how these technologies and practices can be “best” selected, sized and integrated within consumer areas. To aid decision-makers and enable widespread DES adoption, a strategic superstructure design framework is therefore still required that ensures balancing of multiple stakeholder interests and fits in with liberalised energy system objectives of competition, security of supply and sustainability. Such a design framework is presented in this work. An optimisation-based approach for the design of neighbourhood-based DES is developed that enables meeting their yearly electricity, heating and cooling needs by appropriately selecting, sizing and locating technologies and energy interactions. A pool of poly-generation and storage technologies is hereto considered combined with local energy sharing between participating prosumers through thermal pipeline design and microgrid operation, and, a bi-directional connection with the central distribution grid. A superstructure mixed-integer linear programming approach (MILP is proposed to trade off three minimisation objectives in the design process: total annualised cost, annual CO2 emissions and electrical system unavailability, aligned with the three central energy system objectives. The developed model is applied on a small South Australian neighbourhood. The approach enables identifying “knee-point” neighbourhood energy system designs through Pareto trade-offs between objectives and serves to inform decision-makers about the impact of policy objectives on DES development strategies.

  12. Dynamic analysis of the urban-based low-carbon policy using system dynamics: Focused on housing and green space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Taehoon, E-mail: hong7@yonsei.ac.kr [Associate Professor, Department of Architectural Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul, 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jimin, E-mail: cookie6249@yonsei.ac.kr; Jeong, Kwangbok, E-mail: kbjeong7@yonsei.ac.kr [Research Assistant and Ph.D. Student, Department of Architectural Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul, 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Koo, Choongwan, E-mail: cwkoo@yonsei.ac.kr [Postdoctoral Fellow, Department of Architectural Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul, 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-09

    To systematically manage the energy consumption of existing buildings, the government has to enforce greenhouse gas reduction policies. However, most of the policies are not properly executed because they do not consider various factors from the urban level perspective. Therefore, this study aimed to conduct a dynamic analysis of an urban-based low-carbon policy using system dynamics, with a specific focus on housing and green space. This study was conducted in the following steps: (i) establishing the variables of urban-based greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions; (ii) creating a stock/flow diagram of urban-based GHGs emissions; (iii) conducting an information analysis using the system dynamics; and (iv) proposing the urban-based low-carbon policy. If a combined energy policy that uses the housing sector (30%) and the green space sector (30%) at the same time is implemented, 2020 CO{sub 2} emissions will be 7.23 million tons (i.e., 30.48% below 2020 business-as-usual), achieving the national carbon emissions reduction target (26.9%). The results of this study could contribute to managing and improving the fundamentals of the urban-based low-carbon policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

  13. Dynamic analysis of the urban-based low-carbon policy using system dynamics: Focused on housing and green space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Taehoon; Kim, Jimin; Jeong, Kwangbok; Koo, Choongwan

    2015-01-01

    To systematically manage the energy consumption of existing buildings, the government has to enforce greenhouse gas reduction policies. However, most of the policies are not properly executed because they do not consider various factors from the urban level perspective. Therefore, this study aimed to conduct a dynamic analysis of an urban-based low-carbon policy using system dynamics, with a specific focus on housing and green space. This study was conducted in the following steps: (i) establishing the variables of urban-based greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions; (ii) creating a stock/flow diagram of urban-based GHGs emissions; (iii) conducting an information analysis using the system dynamics; and (iv) proposing the urban-based low-carbon policy. If a combined energy policy that uses the housing sector (30%) and the green space sector (30%) at the same time is implemented, 2020 CO 2 emissions will be 7.23 million tons (i.e., 30.48% below 2020 business-as-usual), achieving the national carbon emissions reduction target (26.9%). The results of this study could contribute to managing and improving the fundamentals of the urban-based low-carbon policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions

  14. To bail out or not to bail out systemically relevant financial institutions: The incentives of policy makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Marc Fuhrer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The recent financial crisis has shown that many financial institutions may be systemically relevant. Their bankruptcy would cause significant costs for the overall economy. However, a clear definition of systemic risks still does not exist. Thus, the decision, whether an institution is, or is not systemically relevant is in the end made by policy makers. This paper takes a closer look at the incentives available to policy makers and their influence on the bailout decision. In the model presented here it is possible to show, that too many financial institutions get bailed out, when assuming that policy makers tend to be more risk-averse than socially optimal. The costs due to this misallocation of resources can be significant.

  15. Discerning and Addressing Environmental Failures in Policy Scenarios Using Planning Support System (PSS Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Deal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The environmental consequences of planning decisions are often undervalued. This can result from a number of potential causes: (a there might be a lack of adequate information to correctly assess environmental consequences; (b stakeholders might discount the spatial and temporal impacts; (c a failure to understand the dynamic interactions between socio-ecological systems including secondary and tertiary response mechanisms; or (d the gravity of the status quo, i.e., blindly following a traditional discourse. In this paper, we argue that a Planning Support System (PSS that enhances an assessment of environmental impacts and is integral to a community or regional planning process can help reveal the true environmental implications of scenario planning decisions, and thus improve communal planning and decision-making. We demonstrate our ideas through our experiences developing and deploying one such PSS—the Land-use Evolution and impact Assessment Model (LEAM Planning Support System. University of Illinois researchers have worked directly with government planning officials and community stakeholders to analyze alternate future development scenarios and improve the planning process through a participatory, iterative process of visioning, model tuning, simulation, and discussion. The resulting information enables an evaluation of alternative policy or investment choices and their potential environmental implications that can change the way communities both generate and use plans.

  16. How to improve care for people with multimorbidity in Europe? Policy Brief 23. Health systems and policy analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijke, M.; Struckmann, V.; Heide, I. van der; Hujala, A.; Barbabella, F.; Ginneken, E. van; Schellevis, F.

    2017-01-01

    European health systems do not meet the needs of patients with multimorbidity because they are “disease oriented” and organized around single medical specialties which fragments care. Fragmented care is associated with contradictory medical advice, over-prescribing, over-hospitalization and poor

  17. How to strengthen patientcentredness in caring for people with multimorbidity in Europe? Policy Brief 22 Health systems and policy analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, I. van der; Snoeijs, S.P.; Boerma, W.G.W.; Schellevis, F.; Rijken, P.M.

    2017-01-01

    Making care focus on patients is a way of overcoming the fragmentation that results from the “disease orientation” of Europe’s health systems, which still tend to organize around single medical specialities. Patient-centredness increases patient satisfaction and counters the problems associated with

  18. Preschoolers Reduce Inequality While Favoring Individuals with More

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Vivian; Spitzer, Brian; Olson, Kristina R.

    2014-01-01

    Inequalities are everywhere, yet little is known about how children respond to people affected by inequalities. This article explores two responses--minimizing inequalities and favoring those who are advantaged by them. In Studies 1a (N = 37) and 1b (N = 38), 4- and 5-year-olds allocated a resource to a disadvantaged recipient, but judged…

  19. 18 CFR 706.202 - Gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to: (1) Obvious family or personal relationships, such as those between the employee and his parents... EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Conduct and Responsibilities of Employees § 706.202 Gifts, entertainment, and favors. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, an employee shall...

  20. The assessment on impact of essential drugs policy on primary health care system in rural areas of Shandong Province policy and regulation division of the Health Department of Shandong Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhuge; Shu, Defeng; Xia, Mei; Gao, Dehai; Lu, Dan; Huang, Ning; Tian, Xiaoqing; An, Limei; Li, Shixue; Li, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    At present, China has achieved an initial establishment and gradual implementation of a framework for national essential drugs policy. With the further implementation of the national essential drugs policy, it is not clear how the policy works, whether it achieves the original intention of essential drugs policy, and what impact essential drugs policy exerts on the primary health care system. In view of it, we conducted a field research on sample areas of Shandong Province to understand the conditions of the implementation of the essential drugs policy in Shandong Province. From three perspectives of medical institutions, patients and medical staff, this thesis analyzes the impact of essential drugs policy on village-level and township-level health service system, summarizes the effectiveness of implementing essential drugs policy, discovers the problems of various aspects and conducts an in-depth analysis of the causes, and puts forward feasible suggestions to provide reference for improving the essential drugs policy. The assessment results show that the implementation of essential drugs policy in Shandong Province has played a positive role in promoting the sound development of the primary health care system, changed the situation of covering hospital expenses with medicine revenue in the past, contributed to the return of medical institutions to public welfare, and reduced the patient's economic burden of disease. But there emerge many problems as follows: impact on the doctor's diagnosis and treatment due to incompleteness of drug types, and distribution not in place, patient loss and operational difficulty of village clinic. Thus, this thesis makes recommendations of drugs catalog formulation, drug procurement, sales and use, and meanwhile points out that the supporting financial compensation policy and performance appraisal policy and other measures in place are a prerequisite for a positive role of essential drugs policy.

  1. National monetary policy by regional design: the evolving role of the Federal Reserve banks in Federal Reserve System policy

    OpenAIRE

    David C. Wheelock

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines the history of Federal Reserve Bank input into Federal Reserve System monetary policymaking. From the Fed's founding in 1914 through the Great Depression, the Reserve Banks held the balance of power. Dissatisfaction with the Fed's performance, however, led to a wholesale reorganization in 1935 that greatly enhanced the authority of the Federal Reserve Board, but retained a role for the Federal Banks through the membership of their presidents on the FOMC, as well as in sett...

  2. Managing A Lake/Aquifer System-Science, Policy, and the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, R. B.

    2009-12-01

    Lake Isabel is a small (312 ha) natural lake located in central North Dakota in the glaciated Missouri Coteau. The average lake depth is about 1.8 m with a maximum depth of about 3.6 to 4.6 m. The lake overlies the Central Dakota aquifer complex which is comprised of three sand and gravel aquifer units that are either directly or indirectly (through leakage) hydraulically connected to the lake. The aquifer is a major water source for center pivot irrigation. During the 2001-2008 drought, lower lake levels reduced lake recreation, including leaving many boat docks unusable. Lake homeowners attribute lake level decline to irrigation pumping and believe that irrigation should be curtailed. There is no water right associated with Lake Isabel because there are no constructed works associated with the lake. Therefore, under North Dakota statute the lake cannot be protected as a prior (senior) appropriator. The lake does have standing under the public interest as defined by North Dakota statute. Evaluation of the public interest involves the integration of both science and policy. Is it in the best interest of the people of the state to prohibit ground water withdrawals for irrigation to protect the lake? This is a policy decision, not a scientific decision. The basis of the policy decision should include an economic analysis of the irrigated crops, fish, wildlife, recreation, and lake property. In addition, priority of use and lake level history should be considered. The issue can likely be resolved without scientific controversy arising from hydrologic system uncertainty. If the decision is to protect the lake at some level, the issue becomes “scientized” and the following questions need to be answered: 1) Does irrigation pumping effect changes in lake levels? 2) Is our level of scientific understanding sufficient to determine what volume of irrigation pumping will cause what amount of lake level change? 3) Given aquifer lag time response to changes in pumping and

  3. A dynamic simulation model for assessing the overall impact of incentive policies on power system reliability, costs and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibanez-Lopez, A.S.; Martinez-Val, J.M.; Moratilla-Soria, B.Y.

    2017-01-01

    The liberalization of power markets has entailed dramatic changes in power system planning worldwide. The inception of new alternative technologies, smart grids and distributed generation and storage is expected to make system planning even more challenging. Government policies still play a major role in the evolution of a country's power generation mix, even in those countries with liberalized markets. This paper presents a System Dynamics model aimed at assessing the overall technical, economic and environmental impact of renewable energy incentives and capacity payment policies. The model has been used to simulate Spain's power industry in order to assess the impact of electric power policies with the goal of getting insights regarding how to achieve an optimum power generation mix. The main conclusions of the present paper are (i) the necessity of specific regulatory actions in Spain in order to keep adequate reliability levels, avoid price spikes and boom and bust investment cycles as well as to deploy specific technologies, (ii) the fact that capacity payments are a better instrument for keeping adequate reserve margins and avoiding power price spikes than renewable energy incentives and (iii) the evidence that both instruments entail additional system costs over the base case scenario. - Highlights: • A System Dynamics model of Spain's power generation mix is proposed. • The overall policy impact on system costs, environment and reliability is assessed. • Current policies are not enough to keep adequate reliability levels. • Capacity payments are an adequate instrument for guaranteeing system reliability. • RES incentives do not solve reliability issues and entail greater system costs.

  4. The Greening of Innovation Systems for Eco-innovation - Towards an Evolutionary Climate Mitigation Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maj Munch; Foxon, Timothy J.

    2009-01-01

    Policies for mitigating climate change have never received as much attention worldwide as now. At the same time another upcoming policy trend is the increasing synthesis between innovation- and environmental policy, a synthesis that is captured by the “eco-innovation” concept. However, the climate...... and innovation policy areas are currently little aligned and have in fact been considered “opposites” until very recently. The paper seeks to identify how evolutionary economic theory, hitherto very little applied to the environmental area, may guide the development of climate policies and eco...... implications of this shift are considerable and have hitherto gained little attention. A deeper understanding of eco-innovation dynamics is strongly needed for informing both climate and innovation policies. The paper argues that the fact that environmental problems have largely been neglected by evolutionary...

  5. Optimal Repair And Replacement Policy For A System With Multiple Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-17

    increases. A future research direction is to develop efficient heuristic methods that can produce near-optimal policy with much less computational...decision variables represent the long-run fraction of time for each state- action pair. The objective function is the linear combination of long-run...exists an optimal policy. To find this policy we solve the linear program. The solution shows that for each state only one state-action pair, represented

  6. Combined Innovation Policy: Linking Scientific and Practical Knowledge in Innovation Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Isaksen, Arne; Nilsson, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    New research indicates that firms combining the science-based STI (Science, Technology, Innovation) and the experience-based DUI (Doing, Using, Interacting) modes of innovation are more efficient when it comes to improving innovation capacity and competitiveness. With regard to innovation policy, the STI mode calls for a supply driven policy, typically aimed to commercialise research results. The DUI mode suggests a demand driven policy approach, such as supporting the development of new prod...

  7. Using Markov Decision Processes with Heterogeneous Queueing Systems to Examine Military MEDEVAC Dispatching Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-23

    POLICIES THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Operational Sciences Graduate School of Engineering and Management Air Force Institute of Technology...dispatching policy and three practitioner-friendly myopic baseline policies. Two computational experiments, a two-level, five-factor screening design and a...over, an open question exists concerning the best exact solution approach for solving Markov decision problems due to recent advances in performance by

  8. THE INDUSTRIAL POLICY AND THE MECHANISM OF ITS REALIZATION: THE SYSTEM APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Tatarkin

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In clause industrial activity as the major factor of economic development is considered. Qualitative change of modern shape of the industry is shown. Evolution of concept of industrial policy in Russia is analysed, the basic differences of modern industrial policy from its traditional interpretation are certain. Mechanisms of realization of the industrial policy, including such modern forms as clastering organization of manufacture and the private-state partnership are established.

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF ACCOUNTING SYSTEM AND FISCAL POLICY ON REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Bogdan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Regional development is a concept that aims at stimulating and diversifying economic activities, stimulating private sector investment and it contributes to reducing unemployment and improving living standards. To achieve these goals accounting and tax policies are necessary to allow private operators to realize taxable income, to create jobs for people and to pay taxes and contributions due to the State budget. The State must reinvest a part of the resources collected to the community in order to improve infrastructure, education and health, thus contributing to regional development. Changes in tax law and accounting adopted in Romania during 2009-2014 are regarded as tax breaks for companies created to ensure economic growth, dynamic and sustainable through efficient use of regional and local potential. In this paper we analyze the influence of the accounting and fiscal system on the regional development given that these measures do not always achieve their objectives established companies having benefit from the application of various tax measures. The paper will present the main changes of the tax and accounting systems and their impact on the regional development in Romania and the consequences resulting in implementing these measures.

  10. BRIC Health Systems and Big Pharma: A Challenge for Health Policy and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodwin, Victor G; Fabre, Guilhem; Ayoub, Rafael F

    2018-01-02

    BRIC nations - Brazil, Russia, India, and China - represent 40% of the world's population, including a growing aging population and middle class with an increasing prevalence of chronic disease. Their healthcare systems increasingly rely on prescription drugs, but they differ from most other healthcare systems because healthcare expenditures in BRIC nations have exhibited the highest revenue growth rates for pharmaceutical multinational corporations (MNCs), Big Pharma. The response of BRIC nations to Big Pharma presents contrasting cases of how governments manage the tensions posed by rising public expectations and limited resources to satisfy them. Understanding these tensions represents an emerging area of research and an important challenge for all those who work in the field of health policy and management (HPAM). © 2018 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  11. Digital Distributed Control System Design: Control Policy for Shared Objects in HTR-PM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Shuqiao; Huang Xiaojin

    2014-01-01

    HTR-PM is an HTR demonstration plant with a structure of two modules feeding one steam turbine. Compared with the structure of one single reactor feeding one turbine, there are more devices shared between these two modules. When they are operated, the shared components are prone to introduce collisions or even logical deadlocks for different technical processes. The future commercial HTR-PM plants are supposed to comprise more modules for a larger turbine, thus the collision problem introduced by the shared components may become severer. Therefore, how to design suitable policies in the distributed control system (DCS) to relieve the collisions during using these shared devices is a new and also a very important problem. In this paper, the classifications of the shared devices are first addressed, and then how to identify the shared objects of an NPP is proposed. Furthermore, a general model for the control logic design is proposed, taking into consideration the collision avoidance, time delay and fairness. The example of how to apply the schemes to relieve the conflicts and deadlocks in the processes of using the shared devices in fuel element cycling system is illustrated. (author)

  12. [New changes, old systems: health policies in Mexico and Colombia in the 21st century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe-Gómez, Monica

    2017-07-27

    Recent years have witnessed discussion on the need for changes in the health systems of Latin America. This initiative, spearheaded once again by the World Bank as Universal Health Coverage, focuses on strategies for protection against financial risks and unified access to essential services and medicines. Although the World Bank approaches have been incorporated in different ways by the region's countries since the 1980s, there have also been important breaks with this trend, for example in Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay, and Ecuador, which have sought at different times to implement policies and programs emphasizing non-market-driven values. Nevertheless, recent political changes with the crisis of the so-called progressive governments have meant that the market-driven view of health has reappeared insistently on the public agendas. Middle-income countries like Mexico and Colombia have implemented changes based on this model, and in both cases different stakeholders have pushed the readjustment of the health systems towards the perspective of the international financial agencies. The current study contends that these changes, promoted as a "renewed" alternative to respond to the problems resulting from the transformations, conducted for slightly more than twenty years, actually maintain the basis of the neoliberal model for health care.

  13. A Policy Analysis of the Coast Guard's Existing Patient Satisfaction System and Recommendations for Improvement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coughlin, Kelly A

    2007-01-01

    .... This paper evaluates CG organizational demands, describes CG practice landscape, presents standards, reviews initial clinic process analysis, and evaluates the cost and criteria of proposed policy alternatives...

  14. Macroeconomic policy interaction: State dependency and implications for financial stability in UK: A systemic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Nasir

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The association between economic and financial stabilities and influence of macroeconomic policies on the financial sector creates scope of active policy role in financial stability. As a contribution to the existing body of knowledge, this study has analysed the implications of macroeconomic policy interaction/coordination for financial stability, proxied by financial assets, i.e. equity and bonds price oscillation. The critical review and analysis of the existing literature on the subject suggests that there is also ample evidence of interdependence between monetary and fiscal policies and this interrelation necessitates coordination between them for the sake of financial stability. There is also a case for analysing the symmetry of financial markets responses to macroeconomic policy interaction. On methodological and empirical grounds, it is vital to test the robustness of policy recommendations to overcome the limitation of a single empirical approach (Jeffrey–Lindley’s paradox. Hence, the Frequentist and Bayesian approaches should be used in commentary manner. The policy interaction and optimal policy combination should also be analysed in the context of institutional design and major financial events to gain insight into the implications of policy interaction in the periods of stable economic and financial environments as well as period of financial and economic distress.

  15. A System Dynamics Analysis of Investment, Technology and Policy that Affect Natural Gas Exploration and Exploitation in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas has an increasing role in Chinese energy transformation. We present a system dynamics model of the natural gas industry in China. A new system dynamics model for natural gas companies based on reserve exploration and well construction as well as investment dynamics is proposed. The contribution of the paper is to analyze the influence of technology, investment and policy factors on the natural gas industry. We found that the dynamics of the main variables, including gas policy, cost of investment, accounting depreciation and exploitation technology, are sensitive to the sustainable development of resources. The simulations and results presented here will be helpful for government to reform policies, and for upstream companies to make decisions.

  16. The Development of Vocational Education Policy in Greece: A Critical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiniotis, Nikitas; Stavroulakis, Dimitris

    1997-01-01

    Vocational education in Greece has been slow to develop due to a labor market favoring low-skilled labor and a culture encouraging university education. Lack of continuity in national policy and low state financing have resulted in a system unable to deal with such crucial issues as unemployment and new technologies. (SK)

  17. Uranium favorability of southwestern Oklahoma and north-central Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanton, G.D.; Brogdon, L.D.; Quick, J.V.; Thomas, N.G.; Martin, T.S.

    1977-10-01

    Results are presented of a project to identify and delineate units and (or) facies that are favorable for uranium in the Upper Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian strata of north-central Texas and southwestern Oklahoma. To aid in this evaluation, an assessment of the probable uranium rocks (Wichita and Arbuckle Mountains) was necessary. Surface samples were collected from igneous and sedimentary rocks. Stream-sediment samples were also collected. However, the main emphasis of the investigation of the sedimentary units was on the identification of sedimentary facies trends in the subsurface and an evaluation of the uranium favorability within units studied. The area investigated centers along the Red River, the boundary between Texas and Oklahoma. The project area encompasses approximately 17,000 sq. mi. It includes all or parts of Cooke, Montague, Clay, Wichita, Wilbarger, Hardeman, Baylor, Knox, and Archer Counties in Texas and Love, Jefferson, Cotton, Tillman, Jackson, Stephens, Carter, Comanche, Harmon, and Greer Counties in Oklahoma

  18. A significant shift in favor of nuclear energy since 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    A new opinion poll shows a general trend in Europe in favor of nuclear energy: 44% of the people interrogated are for nuclear energy while only 37% were for in 2005. About 40% of the people against nuclear energy would change their mind if a safe and definitive solution for the management of radioactive waste was found. The survey also shows that more people are aware of the assets of nuclear energy in terms of energy independence and greenhouse gas emission. The countries where the support is the strongest are the Czech Republic (64%), Lithuania (64%), Sweden (62%) and Finland (61%). In France, the biggest nuclear energy producer in Europe, the rate of favorable opinion for nuclear energy remains constant at 52%. (A.C.)

  19. Nuclear policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, G.R.

    1976-01-01

    Then-President Gerald Ford outlines the potential benefits of nuclear power as opposed to the danger of proliferation. He points out that not all nations have the same interest or views toward nuclear energy; but also he says that if a choice must be made, nonproliferation objectives must take precedence over economic and energy benefits. It is pointed out that the management of nuclear energy can be only partial and temporary by technical measures, and that full management can result only if nations realistically face the task prepared to forego preconceived short-term advantages in favor of long-term gains. Coordination of the policies of all nations toward the common goal of nonproliferation is predicted to lead to success

  20. A multi-level maintenance policy for a multi-component and multifailure mode system with two independent failure modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Wenjin; Fouladirad, Mitra; Bérenguer, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the maintenance modelling of a multi-component system with two independent failure modes with imperfect prediction signal in the context of a system of systems. Each individual system consists of multiple series components and the failure modes of all the components are divided into two classes due to their consequences: hard failure and soft failure, where the former causes system failure while the later results in inferior performance (production reduction) of system. Besides, the system is monitored and can be alerted by imperfect prediction signal before hard failure. Based on an illustration example of offshore wind farm, in this paper three maintenance strategies are considered: periodic routine, reactive and opportunistic maintenance. The periodic routine maintenance is scheduled at fixed period for each individual system in the perspective of system of systems. Between two successive routine maintenances, the reactive maintenance is instructed by the imperfect prediction signal according to two criterion proposed in this study for the system components. Due to the high setup cost and practical restraints of implementing maintenance activities, both routine and reactive maintenance can create the opportunities of maintenance for the other components of an individual system. The life cycle of the system and the cost of the proposed maintenance policies are analytically derived. Restrained by the complexity from both the system failure modelling and maintenance strategies, the performances and application scope of the proposed maintenance model are evaluated by numerical simulations. - Highlights: • We study the life behavior of a complex system with two failure modes. • We consider the imperfect prediction signal of potential failure by monitoring. • We propose an integrated maintenance policy with three levels based on wind turbine. • We derive the mathematical cost formulations for the proposed maintenance policy.

  1. Menor valor: ¿oferta más favorable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Alirio Ramírez Rusinque

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available La más importante transformación establecida por la Ley 1150 de 2007 en la contratación estatal radicó en la determinación del menor valor como la oferta más favorable para las entidades estatales, cuando se trate de la adquisición o suministro de bienes y servicios de características técnicas uniformes y de común utilización. Por ello, reviste de gran importancia realizar un análisis desde el punto de vista jurídico y normativo, que permita establecer si la mutación sufrida al concepto de oferta más favorable trajo consigo los fines perseguidos por la reforma, o en su defecto fue perjudicial la solución, al afectar el deber de selección objetiva, los principios de la contratación estatal de igualdad, eficacia, transparencia, planeación y equilibrio financiero del contrato y el principio constitucional de la libre competencia. Para de esta forma establecer si el modelo del menor valor como criterio de la oferta más favorable resulta eficiente jurídicamente en el campo de la contratación estatal, y si las reglas establecidas en la actualidad permiten el desarrollo armónico del sistema establecido por la Ley 1150 de 2007.

  2. Evolution favors protein mutational robustness in sufficiently large populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venturelli Ophelia S

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important question is whether evolution favors properties such as mutational robustness or evolvability that do not directly benefit any individual, but can influence the course of future evolution. Functionally similar proteins can differ substantially in their robustness to mutations and capacity to evolve new functions, but it has remained unclear whether any of these differences might be due to evolutionary selection for these properties. Results Here we use laboratory experiments to demonstrate that evolution favors protein mutational robustness if the evolving population is sufficiently large. We neutrally evolve cytochrome P450 proteins under identical selection pressures and mutation rates in populations of different sizes, and show that proteins from the larger and thus more polymorphic population tend towards higher mutational robustness. Proteins from the larger population also evolve greater stability, a biophysical property that is known to enhance both mutational robustness and evolvability. The excess mutational robustness and stability is well described by mathematical theory, and can be quantitatively related to the way that the proteins occupy their neutral network. Conclusion Our work is the first experimental demonstration of the general tendency of evolution to favor mutational robustness and protein stability in highly polymorphic populations. We suggest that this phenomenon could contribute to the mutational robustness and evolvability of viruses and bacteria that exist in large populations.

  3. Effect of floating pricing policy: An application of system dynamics on oil market after liberalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jung-Hua, E-mail: hwaa@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Resources Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Huang, Yi-Lung [Exploration and Development Research Institute, Chinese Petroleum Corporation, Taiwan, No. 1, Dayuan, Wenfa Road, Miaoli City, Miaoli County 36042, Taiwan (China); Liu, Chang-Chen [Department of Resources Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)

    2011-07-15

    Upon the implementation of the floating price mechanism, Taiwan's gasoline and diesel prices returned to market mechanism, which terminated the phenomenon of the public paying for the losses of the state-owned oil company-Chinese Petroleum Corporation, Taiwan (CPC). Furthermore, the relatively low production costs of the privately owned Formosa Petrochemical Corporation (FPCC) disclosed the pricing mechanism of CPC, which inspired FPCC to adopt pricing strategy in order to increase the market share. This study aims to establish a system dynamics model to analyze the effects of the floating price mechanism on Taiwan's gasoline and diesel markets. This Model is divided into four sub-systems. The model of this study passed several validation tests, and hence, is able to provide a 'virtual laboratory' for policy-makers to conduct simulation and scenario analysis. The simulation results indicate (a) feedback mechanism of expected revenues and pricing strategy could efficiently simulate the FPCC pricing mechanism, (b) price competition strategy could increase FPCC revenues, although the effect on market share is not remarkable, and (c) FPCC has a higher gas-station growth rate. Scenario analyses found (a) lowering oil security stockpile would not change FPCC's pricing strategy and (b) FPCC prefers to follow CPC pricing when it has more gas stations. - Highlights: > System dynamics model analyzes the effects of oil markets' floating price mechanism. > Feedback mechanism of expected revenues could efficiently simulate pricing mechanism. > Price competition strategy could increase FPCC revenues. > Lowering oil security stockpile, FPCC's pricing strategy would not change. > FPCC prefers to follow CPC pricing when it has more gas stations.

  4. Effect of floating pricing policy: An application of system dynamics on oil market after liberalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jung-Hua; Huang, Yi-Lung; Liu, Chang-Chen

    2011-01-01

    Upon the implementation of the floating price mechanism, Taiwan's gasoline and diesel prices returned to market mechanism, which terminated the phenomenon of the public paying for the losses of the state-owned oil company-Chinese Petroleum Corporation, Taiwan (CPC). Furthermore, the relatively low production costs of the privately owned Formosa Petrochemical Corporation (FPCC) disclosed the pricing mechanism of CPC, which inspired FPCC to adopt pricing strategy in order to increase the market share. This study aims to establish a system dynamics model to analyze the effects of the floating price mechanism on Taiwan's gasoline and diesel markets. This Model is divided into four sub-systems. The model of this study passed several validation tests, and hence, is able to provide a 'virtual laboratory' for policy-makers to conduct simulation and scenario analysis. The simulation results indicate (a) feedback mechanism of expected revenues and pricing strategy could efficiently simulate the FPCC pricing mechanism, (b) price competition strategy could increase FPCC revenues, although the effect on market share is not remarkable, and (c) FPCC has a higher gas-station growth rate. Scenario analyses found (a) lowering oil security stockpile would not change FPCC's pricing strategy and (b) FPCC prefers to follow CPC pricing when it has more gas stations. - Highlights: → System dynamics model analyzes the effects of oil markets' floating price mechanism. → Feedback mechanism of expected revenues could efficiently simulate pricing mechanism. → Price competition strategy could increase FPCC revenues. → Lowering oil security stockpile, FPCC's pricing strategy would not change. → FPCC prefers to follow CPC pricing when it has more gas stations.

  5. Assessing the implementation and influence of policies that support research and innovation systems for health: the cases of Mozambique, Senegal, and Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugwagwa, Julius; Edwards, Daniel; de Haan, Sylvia

    2015-04-18

    Without good policies it will be difficult to provide guidance to research and innovation systems. However, policies need to be followed through and implemented to have the desired effect. We studied the policies and strategies in place to support research and innovation systems for health in Mozambique, Senegal, and Tanzania, and looked at the extent to which these policies and strategies have been implemented. We reviewed documents and reports and conducted in-depth interviews with 16 key informants representing various actors of the national research for health systems. The results illustrate that there are various policies and strategies governing research and innovation for health in the three countries. However, implementation of these policies and strategies is generally rated as being poor. The reasons highlighted for this include lack of policy coherence, lack of enforcement and accountability mechanisms, and a lack of financing for implementing the policies. These contextual factors seem to be of such importance that even the increased stakeholder involvement and political leadership, as mentioned by the interviewees, cannot guarantee policy implementation. We conclude that due to the contextual realities of the study countries, there is need for greater focus on policy implementation than on developing additional policies. Government institutions should play a central role in all stages of the policy process, and should ensure implementation of defined policies. Strong mechanisms, including financing, that strengthen the position and role of government in policy coordination and the oversight of the policy process will help increase efficient and impactful implementation of research and innovation for health policies.

  6. Redesigning School Finance Systems: Lessons from CPRE Research. CPRE Policy Briefs. RB-50

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odden, Allan

    2007-01-01

    This policy brief describes how the Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE) has approached the objectives of educational equity and adequacy over the past decade and a half, and reveals how their current finance research has begun to explicitly link the level and use of resources with strategies that districts and schools can deploy to…

  7. Policy versus Ground Reality: Secondary English Language Assessment System in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sharmistha; Shaheen, Robina; Shrestha, Prithvi; Rahman, Arifa; Khan, Rubina

    2014-01-01

    Any policy reform in education is highly effective when it is planned and implemented "holistically" and yet, it is the most challenging way forward. Many countries in Asia have reformed their English language policies and syllabi in the last two decades due to the increasing value of the language worldwide. Motivated by a…

  8. Replenishment policies for Empty Containers in an Inland Multi-depot System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dang, Quang-Vinh; Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Yun, W. Y.

    2013-01-01

    . The objective is to obtain the optimal policy in order to minimize the expected total cost consisting of: inventory holding, overseas positioning, inland positioning and leasing costs. A simulation-based genetic algorithm is developed to find near-optimal policies. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate...

  9. Implementing hospital quality assurance policies in Iran Balancing licensing, annual evaluation, inspections and quality management systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aghaei Hashjin, Asgar; Delgoshaei, Bahram; Kringos, Dionne S.; Tabibi, Seyed Jamaladin; Manouchehri, Jila; Klazinga, Niek S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of applied hospital quality assurance (QA) policies in Iran. Design/methodology/approach - A mixed method (quantitative data and qualitative document analysis) study was carried out between 1996 and 2010. Findings - The QA policy cycle

  10. A replenishment policy for a perishable inventory system based on estimated aging and retrieval behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekmeulen, R.A.C.M.; Donselaar, van K.H.

    2007-01-01

    So far the literature on inventory control for perishable products has mainly focused on (near-) optimal replenishment policies for a stylized environment, assuming no leadtime, no lot-sizing, stationary demand, a first in first out retrieval policy and/or product life time equal to two periods.

  11. A System Gone Berserk: How Are Zero-Tolerance Policies Really Affecting Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    School administrators continue to use zero-tolerance policies as a one-size-fits-all, quick-fix solution to curbing discipline problems with students. Originally intended to address serious offenses such as possession of firearms, zero-tolerance policies are also now meant to address fighting and disrespect. Despite the seeming popularity of…

  12. Beliefs in Context: Understanding Language Policy Implementation at a Systems Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on institutional theory, this study describes how cognitive, normative, and regulative mechanisms shape bilingual teachers' language policy implementation in both English-only and bilingual contexts. Aligned with prior educational language policy research, findings indicate the important role that teachers' beliefs play in the policy…

  13. Exploration of government policy structure which support and block energy transition process in indonesia using system dynamics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destyanto, A. R.; Silalahi, T. D.; Hidayatno, A.

    2017-11-01

    System dynamic modeling is widely used to predict and simulate the energy system in several countries. One of the applications of system dynamics is to evaluate national energy policy alternatives, and energy efficiency analysis. Using system dynamic modeling, this research aims to evaluate the energy transition policy that has been implemented in Indonesia on the past conversion program of kerosene to LPG for household cook fuel consumption, which considered as successful energy transition program implemented since 2007. This research is important since Indonesia considered not yet succeeded to execute another energy transition program on conversion program of oil fuel to gas fuel for transportation that has started since 1989. The aim of this research is to explore which policy intervention that has significant contribution to support or even block the conversion program. Findings in this simulation show that policy intervention to withdraw the kerosene supply and government push to increase production capacity of the support equipment industries (gas stove, regulator, and LPG Cylinder) is the main influence on the success of the program conversion program.

  14. Public policy, health system, and community actions against illness as platforms for response to NCDs in Tanzania : a narrative review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metta, Emmy; Msambichaka, Beverly; Mwangome, Mary; Nyato, Daniel J; Dieleman, Marjolein; Haisma, Hinke; Klatser, Paul; Geubbels, Eveline

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most low- and middle- income countries are facing a rise of the burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) alongside the persistent burden of infectious diseases. This narrative review aims to provide an inventory of how the existing policy environment, health system, and communities are

  15. Public policy, health system, and community actions against illness as platforms for response to NCDs in Tanzania: a narrative review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metta, Emmy; Msambichaka, Beverly; Mwangome, Mary; Nyato, Daniel J.; Dieleman, Marjolein; Haisma, Hinke; Klatser, Paul; Geubbels, Eveline

    2014-01-01

    Most low- and middle- income countries are facing a rise of the burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) alongside the persistent burden of infectious diseases. This narrative review aims to provide an inventory of how the existing policy environment, health system, and communities are addressing

  16. FSSIM, a bio-economic farm model for simulating the response of EU farming systems to agricultural and environmental policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louhichi, K.; Kanellopoulos, A.; Janssen, S.J.C.; Flichman, G.; Blanco, M.; Hengsdijk, H.; Heckelei, T.; Berentsen, P.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2010-01-01

    The disciplinary nature of most existing farm models as well as the issue specific orientation of most of the studies in agricultural systems research are main reasons for the limited use and re-use of bio-economic modelling for the ex-ante integrated assessment of policy decisions. The objective of

  17. A condition-based maintenance policy for multi-component systems with a high maintenance setup cost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Q.; Peng, H.; Houtum, van G.J.J.A.N.

    2015-01-01

    Condition-based maintenance (CBM) is becoming increasingly important due to the development of advanced sensor and information technology, which facilitates the remote collection of condition data. We propose a new CBM policy for multi-component systems with continuous stochastic deteriorations. To

  18. A condition-based maintenance policy for multi-component systems with a high maintenance setup cost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Q.; Peng, H.; Houtum, van G.J.J.A.N.

    2012-01-01

    Condition-based maintenance (CBM) is becoming increasingly important due to the development of advanced sensor and ICT technology, so that the condition data can be collected remotely. We propose a new CBM policy for multi-component systems with continuous stochastic deteriorations. To reduce the

  19. The effect of the waste separation policy in municipal solid waste management using the system dynamic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Jamshidi Zanjani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: In the present study, Vensim was used to simulate waste management system of Tehran, the capital of Iran, with the system dynamic approach. Materials and Methods: The environmental system dynamic modeling is one of the comprehensive simulation tools capable of simulating and analyzing complex systems. In this approach, the model is developed based on the existing realities and userâ€′comments. User participation to develop the model could increase the reliability of the results. Results: The simulation results revealed good conformity with the statistical data. Waste production prediction in the model with real data was more than 95%. Moreover, the effect of applying an encouraging policy for people to separate their waste was considered. The result indicated that applying a new policy, and the economic benefit through this policy would prevent getting a loan from the government after 20 years. Conclusions: It could be concluded that public participation in waste separation was an effective policy to help in the financial independence of the municipality in terms of urban waste management. Moreover, conformity between the simulation results and real data revealed an appropriate capability of the simulated model to predict Tehran waste generation.

  20. Overweight and obesity in primary-school children: a surveillance system for policy-making in Europe from 2007 onwards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, T.M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Trudy M.A. Wijnhoven

    Overweight and obesity in primary-school children: a surveillance system for policy-making in Europe from 2007 onwards.

    Background

    As a follow-up to the European Ministerial Conference on

  1. Political, policy and social barriers to health system interoperability: emerging opportunities of Web 2.0 and 3.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juzwishin, Donald W M

    2009-01-01

    Achieving effective health informatics interoperability in a fragmented and uncoordinated health system is by definition not possible. Interoperability requires the simultaneous integration of health care processes and information across different types and levels of care (systems thinking). The fundamental argument of this paper is that information system interoperability will remain an unfulfilled hope until health reforms effectively address the governance (accountability), structural and process barriers to interoperability of health care delivery. The ascendency of Web 2.0 and 3.0, although still unproven, signals the opportunity to accelerate patients' access to health information and their health record. Policy suggestions for simultaneously advancing health system delivery and information system interoperability are posited.

  2. Systemic Analysis of Food Supply and Distribution Systems in City-Region Systems—An Examination of FAO’s Policy Guidelines towards Sustainable Agri-Food Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Armendáriz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The world is continuously transforming to supply growing cities and urbanization processes are still driving important changes in our current food systems. Future sustainability constraints are emphasizing that Food Supply and Distribution Systems (FSDS are deeply embedded in city-region systems with specific technical and socio-ecological characteristics. This paper aims to provide a systemic understanding on FSDS focusing the integration of urban and rural structures considering the system biophysical boundaries and societal targets. A qualitative framework model, based on the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO’s FSDS literature, has been developed by using Systems Thinking (ST and System Dynamics (SD approaches. The model analysis suggested that to increase sustainability and resilience of food systems large emphasis has to be maintained on: (i estimation of local territorial carrying capacities; (ii land use planning to enhance connections among rural supplies and city needs; (iii city policies, to regulate emergent market size and local scale of production; (iv technological efficiency at farm, distribution and market levels; (v urban, peri-urban and rural functional linkages that considers social metabolic balances; (vi rural development as a core point for building sustainable food systems and counteracting the urbanization growth. These key areas are relevant to test new paths of cities-regions reconfiguration towards the transition to resilient agri-food systems.

  3. Kenya's health workforce information system: a model of impact on strategic human resources policy, planning and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Keith P; Zuber, Alexandra; Willy, Rankesh M; Kiriinya, Rose N; Waudo, Agnes N; Oluoch, Tom; Kimani, Francis M; Riley, Patricia L

    2013-09-01

    Countries worldwide are challenged by health worker shortages, skill mix imbalances, and maldistribution. Human resources information systems (HRIS) are used to monitor and address these health workforce issues, but global understanding of such systems is minimal and baseline information regarding their scope and capability is practically non-existent. The Kenya Health Workforce Information System (KHWIS) has been identified as a promising example of a functioning HRIS. The objective of this paper is to document the impact of KHWIS data on human resources policy, planning and management. Sources for this study included semi-structured interviews with senior officials at Kenya's Ministry of Medical Services (MOMS), Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation (MOPHS), the Department of Nursing within MOMS, the Nursing Council of Kenya, Kenya Medical Practitioners and Dentists Board, Kenya's Clinical Officers Council, and Kenya Medical Laboratory Technicians and Technologists Board. Additionally, quantitative data were extracted from KHWIS databases to supplement the interviews. Health sector policy documents were retrieved from MOMS and MOPHS websites, and reviewed to assess whether they documented any changes to policy and practice as having been impacted by KHWIS data. Interviews with Kenyan government and regulatory officials cited health workforce data provided by KHWIS influenced policy, regulation, and management. Policy changes include extension of Kenya's age of mandatory civil service retirement from 55 to 60 years. Data retrieved from KHWIS document increased relicensing of professional nurses, midwives, medical practitioners and dentists, and interviewees reported this improved compliance raised professional regulatory body revenues. The review of Government records revealed few references to KHWIS; however, documentation specifically cited the KHWIS as having improved the availability of human resources for health information regarding workforce planning

  4. Medical tourism and policy implications for health systems: a conceptual framework from a comparative study of Thailand, Singapore and Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Medical tourism is a growing phenomenon with policy implications for health systems, particularly of destination countries. Private actors and governments in Southeast Asia are promoting the medical tourist industry, but the potential impact on health systems, particularly in terms of equity in access and availability for local consumers, is unclear. This article presents a conceptual framework that outlines the policy implications of medical tourism's growth for health systems, drawing on the cases of Thailand, Singapore and Malaysia, three regional hubs for medical tourism, via an extensive review of academic and grey literature. Variables for further analysis of the potential impact of medical tourism on health systems are also identified. The framework can provide a basis for empirical, in country studies weighing the benefits and disadvantages of medical tourism for health systems. The policy implications described are of particular relevance for policymakers and industry practitioners in other Southeast Asian countries with similar health systems where governments have expressed interest in facilitating the growth of the medical tourist industry. This article calls for a universal definition of medical tourism and medical tourists to be enunciated, as well as concerted data collection efforts, to be undertaken prior to any meaningful empirical analysis of medical tourism's impact on health systems. PMID:21539751

  5. Medical tourism and policy implications for health systems: a conceptual framework from a comparative study of Thailand, Singapore and Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phua Kai Hong

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Medical tourism is a growing phenomenon with policy implications for health systems, particularly of destination countries. Private actors and governments in Southeast Asia are promoting the medical tourist industry, but the potential impact on health systems, particularly in terms of equity in access and availability for local consumers, is unclear. This article presents a conceptual framework that outlines the policy implications of medical tourism's growth for health systems, drawing on the cases of Thailand, Singapore and Malaysia, three regional hubs for medical tourism, via an extensive review of academic and grey literature. Variables for further analysis of the potential impact of medical tourism on health systems are also identified. The framework can provide a basis for empirical, in country studies weighing the benefits and disadvantages of medical tourism for health systems. The policy implications described are of particular relevance for policymakers and industry practitioners in other Southeast Asian countries with similar health systems where governments have expressed interest in facilitating the growth of the medical tourist industry. This article calls for a universal definition of medical tourism and medical tourists to be enunciated, as well as concerted data collection efforts, to be undertaken prior to any meaningful empirical analysis of medical tourism's impact on health systems.

  6. Medical tourism and policy implications for health systems: a conceptual framework from a comparative study of Thailand, Singapore and Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocock, Nicola S; Phua, Kai Hong

    2011-05-04

    Medical tourism is a growing phenomenon with policy implications for health systems, particularly of destination countries. Private actors and governments in Southeast Asia are promoting the medical tourist industry, but the potential impact on health systems, particularly in terms of equity in access and availability for local consumers, is unclear. This article presents a conceptual framework that outlines the policy implications of medical tourism's growth for health systems, drawing on the cases of Thailand, Singapore and Malaysia, three regional hubs for medical tourism, via an extensive review of academic and grey literature. Variables for further analysis of the potential impact of medical tourism on health systems are also identified. The framework can provide a basis for empirical, in country studies weighing the benefits and disadvantages of medical tourism for health systems. The policy implications described are of particular relevance for policymakers and industry practitioners in other Southeast Asian countries with similar health systems where governments have expressed interest in facilitating the growth of the medical tourist industry. This article calls for a universal definition of medical tourism and medical tourists to be enunciated, as well as concerted data collection efforts, to be undertaken prior to any meaningful empirical analysis of medical tourism's impact on health systems.

  7. Harm reduction and women in the Canadian national prison system: policy or practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Laurene; Gahagan, Jacqueline; DiCenso, Anne Marie; Dias, Giselle

    2004-01-01

    Applying the principles of harm reduction within the context of incarcerated populations raises a number of challenges. Although some access to harm reduction strategies has been promoted in general society, a divide between what is available and what is advocated continues to exist within the prison system. This paper explores the perceptions and lived experiences of a sample of nationally incarcerated women in Canada regarding their perceptions and experiences in accessing HIV and Hepatitis C prevention, care, treatment and support. In-depth interviews were conducted with 156 women in Canadian national prisons. Q.S.R. Nudist was used to assist with data management. A constant comparison method was used to derive categories, patterns, and themes. Emergent themes highlighted a gap between access to harm reduction in policy and in practice. Despite the implementation of some harm reduction techniques, women in Canadian prisons reported variable access to both education and methods of reducing HIV/HCV transmission. Concerns were also raised about pre-and post-test counseling for HIV/HCV testing. Best practices are suggested for implementing harm reduction strategies within prisons for women in Canada.

  8. A policy proposal for the introduction of solar home systems in East Timor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, M.; Fuller, R.J.; Aye, Lu [The University of Melbourne, Victoria (AU). Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, International Technologies Centre (IDTC)

    2007-12-15

    The Government of East Timor aims to increase the rate of household electricity service from 20% to 80% over the next 20 years. With a largely rural population living in sparsely populated, remote locations, solar home systems (SHS) will play an important role in meeting the off-grid component of rural electrification in East Timor. This paper describes current experience and trials in East Timor with solar photovoltaic (PV) technology. It examines the East Timorese context against six 'key features' identified by the World Bank as typically included in solar PV projects: delivery infrastructure; access to finance; rural electrification policy; guarantees for minimum quality; understanding of customer needs; and scaling up capacity building. Of these issues, the authors contend that selection of the delivery infrastructure model is the most critical decision, and that for East Timor, in its present stage of development, a market-driven approach for SHS is unlikely to be successful. A model which subsidises capital costs but seeks full recovery of operating costs is recommended. Irrespective of the delivery infrastructure model, for sustainability, capacity must be developed in a range of other areas, particularly the commercial availability of high-quality components and spare parts; creation of a pool of skilled technicians for installation and maintenance; and development of a robust fee collection and maintenance infrastructure. (author)

  9. A policy proposal for the introduction of solar home systems in East Timor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, M.; Fuller, R.J.; Aye, Lu

    2007-01-01

    The Government of East Timor aims to increase the rate of household electricity service from 20% to 80% over the next 20 years. With a largely rural population living in sparsely populated, remote locations, solar home systems (SHS) will play an important role in meeting the off-grid component of rural electrification in East Timor. This paper describes current experience and trials in East Timor with solar photovoltaic (PV) technology. It examines the East Timorese context against six 'key features' identified by the World Bank as typically included in solar PV projects: delivery infrastructure; access to finance; rural electrification policy; guarantees for minimum quality; understanding of customer needs; and scaling up capacity building. Of these issues, the authors contend that selection of the delivery infrastructure model is the most critical decision, and that for East Timor, in its present stage of development, a market-driven approach for SHS is unlikely to be successful. A model which subsidises capital costs but seeks full recovery of operating costs is recommended. Irrespective of the delivery infrastructure model, for sustainability, capacity must be developed in a range of other areas, particularly the commercial availability of high-quality components and spare parts; creation of a pool of skilled technicians for installation and maintenance; and development of a robust fee collection and maintenance infrastructure

  10. Fifty communities putting prevention to work: accelerating chronic disease prevention through policy, systems and environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnell, Rebecca; O'Neil, Dara; Soler, Robin; Payne, Rebecca; Giles, Wayne H; Collins, Janet; Bauer, Ursula

    2012-10-01

    The burden of preventable chronic diseases is straining our nation's health and economy. Diseases caused by obesity and tobacco use account for the largest portions of this preventable burden. CDC funded 50 communities in 2010 to implement policy, systems, and environmental (PSE) interventions in a 2-year initiative. Funded communities developed PSE plans to reduce obesity, tobacco use, and second-hand smoke exposure for their combined 55 million residents. Community outcome objectives and milestones were categorized by PSE interventions as they related to media, access, promotion, pricing, and social support. Communities estimated population reach based on their jurisdiction's census data and target populations. The average proportion of each community's population that was reached was calculated for each intervention category. Outcome objectives that were achieved within 12 months of program initiation were identified from routine program records. The average proportion of a community's jurisdictional population reached by a specific intervention varied across interventions. Mean population reach for obesity-prevention interventions was estimated at 35%, with 14 (26%) interventions covering over 50% of the jurisdictional populations. For tobacco prevention, mean population reach was estimated at 67%, with 16 (84%) interventions covering more than 50% of the jurisdictional populations. Within 12 months, communities advanced over one-third of their obesity and tobacco-use prevention strategies. Tobacco interventions appeared to have higher potential population reach than obesity interventions within this initiative. Findings on the progress and potential reach of this major initiative may help inform future chronic disease prevention efforts.

  11. The natural lifespan of a safety policy: violations and system migration in anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Saint Maurice, Guillaume; Auroy, Yves; Vincent, Charles; Amalberti, René

    2010-08-01

    Safety rules continue growing rapidly, as if constraining human behaviour was the unique avenue for reaching ultimate safety. Safety rules are essential for a safe system, but their multiplication can have counterproductive effects. To monitor, in an anaesthesia ward, compliance with a process-oriented safety rule, and understand barriers and facilitators which help and hinder physicians from following guidelines. The rule stipulated that the day before surgery anaesthetists had to record in the patient's file the drugs to be used for the anaesthesia (induction, maintenance, airway control). Compliance was assessed before introduction of the rule, immediately after, at 6 months and at 12 months. All medical staff were blinded to the protocol. 717 patient records were included. The results showed an initial compliance with policy, reaching 86% for some items (never 100%). Reduction began within 6 months and returned almost to initial levels within a year. One individual showed poor compliance throughout the study but even initially compliant doctors experienced a reduction. Compliance was higher for complex surgery but lower for unscheduled surgery and when job pressure was greater. Compliance eroded over time. A major trigger of erosion seemed to be lack of continued compliance by a senior member of staff. Rules and procedures constitute fragile safety barriers, and it may be better to forego introducing a new safety rule if it is not considered as a priority by staff and is therefore vulnerable to sacrifice in case of conflict with competitive demands.

  12. A generalização a partir do tratamento com fricativas: ambientes favoráveis versus ambientes pouco favoráveis e neutros The generalization through the treatment with fricatives: favorable environments versus unfavorable and neutral environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Marafiga Wiethan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar e comparar a ocorrência e os tipos de generalização observados a partir do tratamento das fricativas /z/, /ζ/ e /k/ em dois grupos de crianças, um utilizando palavras com contextos fonológicos favoráveis e outro os contextos pouco favoráveis e neutros. Seis crianças com desvio fonológico e idades entre 4:7 e 7:8 participaram do estudo com a autorização dos responsáveis. Realizaram-se avaliações fonoaudiológicas e complementares para o diagnóstico do desvio fonológico. Os sujeitos foram pareados de acordo com a gravidade do desvio, sexo, faixa etária e aspectos do sistema fonológico em relação aos fonemas alterados. Metade das crianças foi tratada com palavras em que os fonemas /z/, /ζ/ e /k/ encontravam-se em ambientes fonológicos favoráveis e a outra metade com ambientes pouco favoráveis e neutros. Foram realizadas oito sessões e, após estas, nova avaliação de fala foi realizada para verificar os tipos de generalização obtidos. Os percentuais de generalizações foram comparados entre os grupos por meio do teste estatístico de Mann-Whitney (pThe aim of this study was to analyze and compare the occurrence and the types of generalization observed through the treatment of the fricatives /z/, /ζ/ and /k/ in two groups of children, one using words with favorable phonological contexts and another with unfavorable and neutral contexts. Six children with phonological disorder between 4:7 and 7:8 year-old participated in the study, with their parents' authorization. There were speech-language and complementary evaluations to diagnose the phonological disorder. The subjects were matched according to the severity of the phonological disorder, sex, age and aspects of the phonological system in relation to the altered phonemes. Half the children were treated with words in which the phonemes /z/, /ζ/ and /k/ were in favorable phonological environments and the other half with unfavorable

  13. Society of Behavioral Medicine's (SBM) position on emerging policy issues regarding electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS): A need for regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojewski, Alana M; Coleman, Nortorious; Toll, Benjamin A

    2016-09-01

    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), commonly known as electronic cigarettes (or e-cigarettes), are widely available in the USA, yet almost entirely unregulated on a national level. Researchers are currently gathering data to understand the individual and public health effects of ENDS, as well as the role that ENDS may play in tobacco treatment. Given these uncertainties, regulatory efforts should be aimed at understanding and minimizing any potential harms of ENDS. The Society of Behavioral Medicine (SBM) supports stronger regulation of ENDS, incorporation of ENDS into clean air policies, and special consideration of safety standards to protect vulnerable populations. SBM also supports research on ENDS to guide policy decisions.

  14. Policy measure for creating an integrated and brand-focused regional innovation system in tourism in a shadow destination:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brambini, Annalisa; Vang, Jan

    2013-01-01

    -located places. Based on regional innovation systems and place branding research the paper develops policy measures adapted to the specific challenges a shadow destination faces. Empirically, the appropriateness of the policy measures is demonstrated through applying it to a paradigmatic shadow destination......Tourism has often been hyped as an engine of regional growth and development but often failed to deliver the expected results. This is especially the case in shadow destinations. The concept of a shadow destination refers to a region whose relative attractioness is significantly lower than co...

  15. An Integrated Framework for Modeling Air Carrier Behavior, Policy, and Impacts in the U.S. Air Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horio, Brant M.; Kumar, Vivek; DeCicco, Anthony H.; Hasan, Shahab; Stouffer, Virginia L.; Smith, Jeremy C.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) in the United States is an ongoing challenge for policymakers due to the complexity of the air transportation system (ATS) with its broad array of stakeholders and dynamic interdependencies between them. The successful implementation of NextGen has a hard dependency on the active participation of U.S. commercial airlines. To assist policymakers in identifying potential policy designs that facilitate the implementation of NextGen, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and LMI developed a research framework called the Air Transportation System Evolutionary Simulation (ATS-EVOS). This framework integrates large empirical data sets with multiple specialized models to simulate the evolution of the airline response to potential future policies and explore consequential impacts on ATS performance and market dynamics. In the ATS-EVOS configuration presented here, we leverage the Transportation Systems Analysis Model (TSAM), the Airline Evolutionary Simulation (AIRLINE-EVOS), the Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES), and the Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT), all of which enable this research to comprehensively represent the complex facets of the ATS and its participants. We validated this baseline configuration of ATS-EVOS against Airline Origin and Destination Survey (DB1B) data and subject matter expert opinion, and we verified the ATS-EVOS framework and agent behavior logic through scenario-based experiments that explored potential implementations of a carbon tax, congestion pricing policy, and the dynamics for equipage of new technology by airlines. These experiments demonstrated ATS-EVOS's capabilities in responding to a wide range of potential NextGen-related policies and utility for decision makers to gain insights for effective policy design.

  16. Examining the use of health systems and policy research in the health policymaking process in Israel: views of researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellen, Moriah E; Lavis, John N; Shemer, Joshua

    2016-09-01

    All too often, health policy and management decisions are made without making use of or consulting with the best available research evidence, which can lead to ineffective and inefficient health systems. One of the main actors that can ensure the use of evidence to inform policymaking is researchers. The objective of this study is to explore Israeli health systems and policy researchers' views and perceptions regarding the role of health systems and policy research (HSPR) in health policymaking and the barriers and facilitators to the use of evidence in the policymaking process. A survey of researchers who have conducted HSPR in Israel was developed. The survey consisted of a demographics section and closed questions, which focused on support both within the researchers' organisations and the broader environment for KTE activities, perceptions on the policymaking process, and the potential influencing factors on the process. The survey was sent to all health systems and policy researchers in Israel from academic institutions, hospital settings, government agencies, the four health insurance funds, and research institutes (n = 107). All responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics. For close-ended questions about level of agreement we combined together the two highest categories (agree or strongly agree) for analysis. Thirty-seven respondents participated in the survey. While many respondents felt that the use of HSPR may help raise awareness on policy issues, the majority of respondents felt that the actual use of HSPR was hindered for many reasons. While facilitators do exist to support the use of research evidence in policymaking, numerous barriers hinder the process such as challenges in government/provider relations, policymakers lacking the expertise for acquiring, assessing, and applying HSPR and priorities in the health system drawing attention away from HSPR. Furthermore, it is perceived by a majority of respondents that the health insurance funds

  17. Importance of policy for energy system transformation: Diffusion of PV technology in Japan and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, Sanjeeda; Sumita, Ushio; Islam, Ashraful; Bedja, Idriss

    2014-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) has the highest cost reduction potential among all renewable energy sources (RES). To overcome institutional barriers, developing the technology, and creating an initial market, policies are needed. Comparative case studies of Japan and German PV sector from 1990 to 2011 were developed. Japan dominated the PV industry during 1994–2004, PV market increased to 290 MW in 2005. After 2005 Japan's PV market decreased. German PV market increased from 44 MW in 2000 to 7.5 GW in 2011. The reason behind Japanese PV market decline was the unaligned energy policy and termination of incentives. This paper discusses about successful policy implementation and the impact of policy for the diffusion of PV technology. The analysis section of this paper shows how much the PV technology has been diffused during the period of 1990–2011 and finally what will make the transformation process successful. - Highlights: • We studied PV diffusion of Japan and German considering public energy policy, environmental policy and cost reduction. • This study determined that policy and incentives are responsible for cost reduction. • Japans concentration on nuclear energy more than renewables, made the PV diffusion slow. • Successful implementation of FIT helped Germany reduce PV electricity price more than grid electricity

  18. A system dynamics feedback control model study of population of "India 2001" and policies for stabilizing growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, M K; Janahanlal, P S

    1978-06-01

    A mathematical population model is presented and diagrammed. The model is a nonlinear, higher order, self-regulating, goal-seeking system. In other words, the model treats the population system like a biological system which has positive and negative feedbacks. The model incorporates the effects of important economic factors that influence human birth and death rates. It calculates the total population size, which is a determinant of resource usage. It also indicates the demographic response, through a changing birth and death rate, to a changing resource supply. The model is illustrated with Indian population data, disaggregated by age into 15 levels each of which is, in turn, divided into 4 income levels. The effect on population growth of various alternative population policies is analyzed with the goal of stabilizing the population growth quickly without causing undue hardship. Different computer runs of the model are conducted, using different levels of family planning practice, different ages at marriage, and different distributions of income throughout the country. The policy which would result in the lowest population for the year 2001 is 1 in which family planning acceptance levels would increase from 15% in 1975 to 60% in 1980 and 100% from 1990 on. However, there is widespread opposition to this policy. It is felt that a much slower rise in family planning acceptance would be a more acceptable policy for stabilizing population in India.

  19. Transportation systems to support the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmot, E.L.; Philpott, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    Late in 1982, the United States Congress enacted legislation for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste. The policy, embodied in Public Law 97-425 and referred to as the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), mandates that the Department of Energy (DOE) be responsible for the transport of commercial spent fuel and defense high-level waste from their points of origin to facilities constructed under provisions of the NWPA. It is the purpose of this paper to describe the preliminary transportation policies and plans developed by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), within the DOE, to respond to the NWPA mandate

  20. Alcohol policy enforcement and changes in student drinking rates in a statewide public college system: a follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Sion K

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heavy alcohol use among U.S. college students is a major contributor to young adult morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to examine whether college alcohol policy enforcement levels predict changes in student drinking and related behaviors in a state system of public colleges and universities, following a system-wide change to a stricter policy. Methods Students and administrators at 11 Massachusetts public colleges/universities completed surveys in 1999 (N of students = 1252, one year after the policy change, and again in 2001 (N = 1074. We calculated policy enforcement scores for each school based on the reports of deans of students, campus security chiefs, and students, and examined the correlations between perceived enforcement levels and the change in student drinking rates over the subsequent two year period, after weighting the 2001 data to adjust for demographic changes in the student body. Results Overall rates of any past-30-days drinking, heavy episodic drinking, and usual heavy drinking among past-30-days drinkers were all lower in 2001 compared to 1999. School-level analyses (N = 11 found deans' baseline reports of stricter enforcement were strongly correlated with subsequent declines in heavy episodic drinking (Pearson's r = -0.73, p = 0.011. Moreover, consistently high enforcement levels across time, as reported by deans, were associated with greater declines in heavy episodic drinking. Such relationships were not found for students' and security chiefs' reports of enforcement. Marijuana use did not rise during this period of decline in heavy drinking. Conclusions Study findings suggest that stronger enforcement of a stricter alcohol policy may be associated with reductions in student heavy drinking rates over time. An aggressive enforcement stance by deans may be an important element of an effective college alcohol policy.