Doyle, Stephanie; Loveridge, Judith; Faamanatu-Eteuati, Niusila
This article focuses on a significant group of postgraduate international students overlooked by institutions and policymakers, namely those with accompanying partners and children. The economic importance of international students to Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America is highlighted. It is argued…
"International standards provide for protection of the family as the fundamental unit of society. However, a consequent right to family reunification for migrants is not sanctioned and continues to be resisted. This article reviews the formulation of the possibility for family reunification as provided for in international and regional standards and by migration policies. It argues that family separation, if inherent in some forms of migration, should not be institutionalized by migration policies and that state sovereignty is limited when dealing with human rights. More specifically it argues that labor migration, as currently developing in Asia, will require appropriate family reunification policies, because it will evolve into some form of settlement." excerpt
Kim, Joyce; Mammo, Danny; Siegel, Marni B; Katsanis, Sara H
In the United States, several states have made policy decisions regarding whether and how to use familial searching of the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) database in criminal investigations. Familial searching pushes DNA typing beyond merely identifying individuals to detecting genetic relatedness, an application previously reserved for missing persons identifications and custody battles. The intentional search of CODIS for partial matches to an item of evidence offers law enforcement agencies a powerful tool for developing investigative leads, apprehending criminals, revitalizing cold cases and exonerating wrongfully convicted individuals. As familial searching involves a range of logistical, social, ethical and legal considerations, states are now grappling with policy options for implementing familial searching to balance crime fighting with its potential impact on society. When developing policies for familial searching, legislators should take into account the impact of familial searching on select populations and the need to minimize personal intrusion on relatives of individuals in the DNA database. This review describes the approaches used to narrow a suspect pool from a partial match search of CODIS and summarizes the economic, ethical, logistical and political challenges of implementing familial searching. We examine particular US state policies and the policy options adopted to address these issues. The aim of this review is to provide objective background information on the controversial approach of familial searching to inform policy decisions in this area. Herein we highlight key policy options and recommendations regarding effective utilization of familial searching that minimize harm to and afford maximum protection of US citizens.
Kim, Joyce; Mammo, Danny; Siegel, Marni B; Katsanis, Sara H
Abstract In the United States, several states have made policy decisions regarding whether and how to use familial searching of the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) database in criminal investigations. Familial searching pushes DNA typing beyond merely identifying individuals to detecting genetic relatedness, an application previously reserved for missing persons identifications and custody battles. The intentional search of CODIS for partial matches to an item of evidence offers law enforce...
An understanding of the close link between federal policy and family homelessness is critical for ensuring that one day no child in the United States is homeless. This article discusses the nature of family homelessness, the national policy framework that exists to help vulnerable families, the homeless assistance system that federal policy has…
Fogle, Lyn Wright
Family language policy refers to explicit and overt decisions parents make about language use and language learning as well as implicit processes that legitimize certain language and literacy practices over others in the home. Studies in family language policy have emphasized the ways in which family-internal processes are shaped by and shape…
Spencer, Rachael A.; Komro, Kelli A.
In this review we examine the effects of family economic security policies (i.e., minimum wage, Earned Income Tax Credit, unemployment insurance, Temporary Assistance to Needy Families) on child and family health outcomes, summarize policy generosity across states in the U.S., and discuss directions and possibilities for future research. This manuscript is an update to a review article that was published in 2014. Millions of Americans are affected by family economic security policies each year, many of whom are the most vulnerable in society. There is increasing evidence that these policies impact health outcomes and behaviors of adults and children. Further, research indicates that, overall, policies which are more restrictive are associated with poorer health behaviors and outcomes; however, the strength of the evidence differs across each of the four policies. There is significant diversity in state-level policies and it is plausible that these policy variations are contributing to health disparities across and within states. Despite increasing evidence of the relationship between economic policies and health, there continues to be limited attention to this issue. State policy variations offer a valuable opportunity for scientists to conduct natural experiments and contribute to evidence linking social policy effects to family and child wellbeing. The mounting evidence will help to guide future research and policy making for evolving toward a more nurturing society for family and child health and wellbeing. PMID:28176020
Spencer, Rachael A; Komro, Kelli A
In this review, we examine the effects of family economic security policies (i.e., minimum wage, earned income tax credit, unemployment insurance, Temporary Assistance to Needy Families) on child and family health outcomes, summarize policy generosity across states in the USA, and discuss directions and possibilities for future research. This manuscript is an update to a review article that was published in 2014. Millions of Americans are affected by family economic security policies each year, many of whom are the most vulnerable in society. There is increasing evidence that these policies impact health outcomes and behaviors of adults and children. Further, research indicates that, overall, policies which are more restrictive are associated with poorer health behaviors and outcomes; however, the strength of the evidence differs across each of the four policies. There is significant diversity in state-level policies, and it is plausible that these policy variations are contributing to health disparities across and within states. Despite increasing evidence of the relationship between economic policies and health, there continues to be limited attention to this issue. State policy variations offer a valuable opportunity for scientists to conduct natural experiments and contribute to evidence linking social policy effects to family and child well-being. The mounting evidence will help to guide future research and policy making for evolving toward a more nurturing society for family and child health and well-being.
The inclusion of constitutional provisions and laws regarding family planning and the creation of the Population Commission in the Philippines are examples of the growing recognition in many developing countries that proper and humane control of population growth is a key factor in economic progress. Similar provisions have recently appeared in Thailand, Mexico, and the Brazilian state of Rio de Janeiro. Awareness of the need for adequate public education to ensure the success of family planning programs has resulted in the formation of commissions for that purpose in Australia, Belgium, Chile, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Guatemala, Italy, Mexico, New Zealand, Portugal, and Sri Lanka. Voluntary sterilization is gradually gaining support. 3 South Asian nations (Pakistan, Singapore, and New Zealand) were among 12 to liberalize laws in 1974 and 1975. However, the prevailing opinion is that a massive public education program will have to be waged before acceptance becomes widespread in the region. Singapore's sterilization law can be used as a guideline for other nations in the area contemplating policy changes.
Introducing a pioneering series of studies of family language policy and management, this paper points out that classic language policy dealt almost entirely with the nation-state, although it did recognise the critical role of the family in determining natural intergenerational transmission of a variety. After arguing for the need to look at each…
Von Frank, April A.
This study examines Soviet family policies since 1944 concerning family allowances, abortion and contraception, divorce and illegitimacy, child care facilities and maternity benefits, and motherhood awards. The problems of Soviet society which brought about these policies are discussed and their use in encouraging fertility and promoting female…
Kelly, John; Rossen, Eric; Cowan, Katherine C.
Collaboration between students' families and the school is an essential component to promoting student mental and behavioral health. Many schools structure their mental health services using a Multi-Tiered System of Supports that offers three different tiers of support from universal supports to personalized help for students with serious…
. Simulation makes those reforms comparable over time and across countries. Results show that the profile of the German scheme is changing from "general family" towards "dual-earner" support. Furthermore, the recent reforms make the German scheme converge towards the Swedish leave scheme. The recent reforms....... Microsimulation helps to overcome these problems. It compares policy options - actual reforms or reform plans - simultaneously and provides a comparable measure: the disposable income of model families. This article uses a type-case approach to investigate recent reforms of the German parental leave benefit...... introduce a new concept of fairness and a focus on gender equality to German family policies....
This paper provides a short history of family allowances and documents the fact that Keynes supported family allowances as early as the 1920s, continuing through the 1930s and early 1940s. Keynes saw this policy as a way to help households raise their children and also as a way to increase consumption without reducing business investment. The paper goes on to argue that a policy of family allowances is consistent with Keynesian economics. Finally, the paper uses the Luxembourg Income Study to...
Sheldon, Steven B.
Researchers and policy makers have questioned the efficacy of family-involvement interventions. They believe that more studies are needed to compare outcomes of students whose families received a partnership intervention with those who did not. The author used data from the state of Ohio to compare student attendance in elementary schools that…
The nature and goals of family policy in Poland are discussed in the larger context of social policy and economic change, which reflects the transition to a market economy. The aim of family policy is to bring about a proper system of relationships between state and family, which allows for the performance of basic functions related to child rearing and satisfaction of basic needs. The roles of both governmental and nongovernmental organizations are considered important, although not actualized, in the implementation of family policy. Family policy involves laws regulating the conditions of welfare benefits in terms of prerequisites, amount of financial grants, services, and allowances such as food, clothing, or fuel. Financial resources may be received directly or indirectly by families. During 1990-94 major changes in family policy came about due to the transition to a market economy and were applied to social security benefits, work benefits, disability pensions, and health insurance. Changes were made in education, health care, and housing. A comprehensive model was never developed, in which negative effects of changes could be improved upon. Changes put greater emphasis on state and territorial governments to provide social welfare benefits, including social security benefits. Social welfare benefits were set at the lowest level of social security benefits. Economic changes have led to greater unemployment, housing difficulties, inflation, lower quality services, and a decline in the standard of living and security. The Central Statistical Office determined that over 56% of families in 1993 were affected by poverty conditions, which reduced expenditures on food and other needs. The proportion of the population recognized as poor increased during 1990-93 from 16.6% to 22.5% among workers, from 9.7% to 17.3% among farm tenants, from 23.9% to 36.6% among the self-employed, and from 30.4% to 40.6% among the aged and disabled. World Bank estimates showed that 15
King, Kendall A.
The study of what has come to be known as family language policy has evolved and expanded significantly over the last hundred years, from its early beginnings in the diary studies of Ronjat and Leopold, to the interdisciplinary and transnational research found in this thematic issue of the "Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural…
Paulo Gabriel Martins de Moura
Full Text Available This essay, a political analysis, criticizes the Family Grant Program, implemented by the Lula government of 2003-2005. It is based on the ongoing analysis methodology originated in U.S. political science. It seeks to establish a parallel of these analyses with criticisms of the Family Grant program presented in the media and made by specialists. They focus on the absence of a conceptual reference for the program (or its practical non-application, supported by accumulated knowledge in the field, that would guide the social policies of the Lula government. Based on secondary sources about official data and on statements from specialists, the analysis identifies an apparent 'schizophrenia' in the 'philosophical' references that orient the government's social policies, suggesting that the solution chosen was a situational response to a demand for government marketing and not oriented to a deliberate public policy pre-conceived as such, which, if it exists, is not evident in the government actions.
Family policy is an issue of concern for many Governments. Family policies are organized around the four main functions of the family: marriage, childrearing, financial support and family care. Eastern Europe is an area with significant socio-economic and political changes in the last decades that determined revisions of social policies. The goal…
Haynes, Alan E.
Outlines a research project for family sociology students that uses student family histories to bridge the gap between course material and personal family experiences. Claims the project teaches students how information is transmitted across generations, as well as strengthening research, interviewing, and analytical skills. (Author/AEM)
Dumon, Wilfried; Aldous, Joan
Presents how and why programs embodying family policy in Western Europe and the United States differ. By indicating current changes in these programs and how political decisions affect them, fruitful areas for family policy research are suggested. Family policy meeting needs of pragmatically defined parent-child units will be most successful.…
Green, Kinsey B.
This booklet presents many ideas for involving students in family life education programs. Designed primarily for use by family life educators, it includes such topics as the use of cognitive and affective objectives in family life education, organizing family studies content by generalizations, and focusing on the student as an active learner. It…
Bailey, Sarah F.; Jenkins, Jade S.; Barber, Larissa K.
Classroom management involves managing students' requests for course policy changes. Instructors can adhere to the course policies or convey flexibility through making an exception for the student. The current study empirically examines students' emotional reactions (hostility, guilt, and surprise) and fairness perceptions to course policy…
Evans-Whipp, Tracy J; Plenty, Stephanie M; Catalano, Richard F; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Toumbourou, John W
Although it is common for secondary schools to implement alcohol policies to reduce alcohol misuse, there has been little evaluation of the efficacy of these policies. The purpose of this study was to test the impact of the degree and type of alcohol policy enforcement in state representative samples of secondary students in Washington State, USA, and Victoria, Australia (n = 1848). Multivariate logistic regressions were used to examine the prospective association between student reports of school alcohol policy in Grade 8 and self-reported alcohol use in Grade 9, controlling for age, gender, state, family socio-economic status and Grade 8 alcohol use. The likelihood of students drinking on school grounds was increased when students perceived lax policy enforcement. Student perceptions of harm minimization alcohol messages, abstinence alcohol messages and counselling for alcohol policy violators predicted reduced likelihood of binge drinking. Students perceiving harm minimization messages and counselling for alcohol policy violators had a reduced likelihood of experiencing alcohol-related harms. Perceptions of harsh penalties were unrelated to drinking behaviour. These results suggest that perceived policy enforcement may lessen drinking at school 1 year later and that harm minimization messages and counselling approaches may also lessen harmful drinking behaviours as harm minimization advocates suggest.
Family policy, a primarily European phenomenon including all governmental actions designed to maintain, support, or influence the structure and life of families, must be distinguished from measures intended for other purposes which merely impact upon the family. Family policy may concern legislative measures governing the formation and dissolution of households and marriages, or it may concern social transfers. The transfers may be monetary ones as in the tax, social security, and public assistance systems, or services such as child care made available to families. This article argues that recent changes in family policy in Western Europe tend to blur the distinction between family policy and a policy of family impact. 3 phases can be distinguished in development of family policy in Western Europe. The first, developed after World War II, involved economic and financial aid to families through tax benefits and family allowances; it was explicitly intended to safe guard the economic base of productive families. Next came nonmaterial assistance intended to increase the welfare of families through such measures as sex education and marriage preparation courses and centers for family therapy or marriage counseling. The final step was provision of services such as child care intended to substitute partially and temporarily for the family. In the 1960s and 1970s economic aid to families was criticized by feminists for perpetuating sexual stereotypes and by others for benefiting middle income and wealthy families more than the disadvantaged. The economic recession which began in the late 1970s, the diffusion of nontraditional household and family types, and the spectre of population decline due to very low birth rates have been important influences on family policy during the 1980s. Employment has become an issue in family policy for the first time, with feminists rejecting policy initiatives that would discourage female employment and other groups arguing that jobs
Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the transformation trend of the institution of family which has not been deeply studied yet, and no proper attention has been paid to modern changes that have such an essential influence on the future of the family and our future in general. That is why the main aim of the research is to find out, on the basis of statistics, what factors influenced the transformation trend of the institution of family, and led to a reassessment of family values, what role is played by the state in forming the family policy, what are the future prospects for the institution of family. The results of our survey showed that the demographic situation in both countries Ukraine and Latvia needs improvement and we made up our own plan how to do it; we found what influenced the transformation trend of the institution of family; what are the values of modern families and changes related to them; compared the family policies of both countries and found out that the traditional family is under threat of disappearance. Our research proves that family is one of the most important values, whose stability and success are a guarantee of social welfare.
McCarthy, Teresa M.; Moreno, Josephine
Focus-group interviews of New York City middle-school students about their perceptions of the effectiveness of the school-uniform policy. Finds that students' perceptions of the effects of school-uniform policy on school culture varied considerably with those intended by the principal. (Contains 40 references.) (PKP)
Pavlakis, Alexandra E.
Students and families experience homelessness and high mobility (HHM) in vastly different ways. Yet, popular media, academic scholars, and practitioners often overlook this diversity. Building on a 2012 special issue of "Educational Researcher," I discuss recent research that highlights the heterogeneity of HHM student and families. In…
Full Text Available Th e family, its conceptualization and functioning, as well as family policy are discussed at the personal, community and state level. Th is makes sense because diff erent cultural, historical, ethical, social and other alternations aff ect the assessment and evaluation of these three signifi cant components. Besides family policy is a very important part of public policy in a state, what makes obvious impact on every human life (even those who are living not in a family. Th e aim of this article is to shed light on theconcept of family, family functioning and family policy as three mutually interacting components in a unifi ed narrative. Th e object of study is the concept of family, family functioning and family policy from the perspective of its content. Th e research methods employed include analysis and design of scientifi c literature and documents. Th e article analyzes the defi nition of family, paying particular attention that diff erent authors present various defi nitions of families. Although these defi nitions focus on different aspects of families (e.g. marriage, community, the continuity of the nation, etc., it is shown that in each country the concept of a family is regulated by laws, by which regulations (and other legal documents are prepared. Th e legal concept of a family in Lithuania is still not entirely clear. Th e concept is not defi ned in the Constitution and marriage is not indicated as an obvious attribute of being a family. Meanwhile,the FamilyPolicyConcept(2008 clearly defi nes a family,indicatingthat marriage is necessarily between a manand a woman. Th e recognition of families only by marriage has raised many discussions among politicians, particular public interest groups and private individuals in Lithuania. Th ese discussions became even stronger when the Constitutional Court stated that the FamilyPolicyConcept(2008 contradicts the Constitution of Lithuania. Having in the mind, that the implementation of family
Chatzidaki, Aspassia; Maligkoudi, Christina
This article reports on an investigation of family language policies among 37 Albanian immigrant families in Northern Greece within the framework of Spolsky's language policy model. Data collection was based on semi-directed interviews with parents which were analysed using both content and discourse analysis. According to our findings, three…
Fogle, Lyn W.; King, Kendall A.
Study of family language policy unites research in child language acquisition and language policy to better understand how parents’ language decisions, practices and beliefs influence child outcomes (King, Fogle & Logan-Terry, 2008). Thus far, this work has focused on how family language policy shapes children’s language competencies, formal school success (e.g., Snow, 1990), and the future status of minority languages (e.g., Fishman, 1991), with less attention to children’s active roles in s...
ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper comprising a literature survey on trends in relationships between fertility patterns, family social roles and labour policy - referring to an earlier ILO investigation (KC Doctor, "Employment and labour policies in relation to fertility patterns", 1972), reviews the impact of social change on parental and sex roles, equal opportunities, traditional division of labour, decision making, family planning, family budget, social protection, social security, etc., and ...
Weaver, J L
In population planning in Latin America the programs are as successful as the government's support of family planning. Colombia is one of the few Latin American countries which has actively exhorted its populace to birth control. If the propensity for large families reflects a belief in the economic or social utility of children, instead of machismo, birthrates will fall with expanded social security and economic welfare programs. If birthrates are the result of machismo, new gender models stressing the positive rewards and social esteem to be gained through responsible parenthood would have to be taught to both adults and children. The position profamily planning in most Latin American countries is generally supported by the ministers, technocrats, corporations, businessmen, middle-class women, doctors, mass media, protestant congregations, and working-class women. Family planning is usually opposed by members of the armed forces, Catholic hierarchy, Catholic lay organizations, oligarchy, university students, leftist intellectuals, Marxist insurgents, Indian communities, and peasants. The portion of the total national populations encompassed by the groups composing the core combination, ideological bias, and stability group ranges from 50-60% in Argentina, Uruguay, and Venezuela to 10-20% in Central America, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Paraguay. Most groups are outside the policy-making process.
Hua, Zhu; Wei, Li
Transnational and multilingual families have become commonplace in the twenty-first century. Yet relatively few attempts have been made from applied and socio-linguistic perspectives to understand what is going on "within" such families; how their transnational and multilingual experiences impact on the family dynamics and their everyday…
This paper examines a family language policy (FLP) in the context of an extended bilingual Gaelic-English family on the Isle of Skye, Scotland. It demonstrates how certain family members (namely, the children's mother and paternal grandmother) negotiate and reify a strongly Gaelic-centred FLP. It then discusses how other extended family members…
Bogenschneider, Karen; Little, Olivia M.; Ooms, Theodora; Benning, Sara; Cadigan, Karen; Corbett, Thomas
Families have long been recognized for the contributions they make to their members and to society. Yet families are seldom substantively incorporated into the normal course of policy and program development, implementation, and evaluation. We propose the family impact lens as one way to shift the rhetoric from appreciating families to…
Zhu, H.; Li, W.
Transnational and multilingual families have become commonplace in the twenty-first century. Yet relatively few attempts have been made from applied and socio-linguistic perspectives to understand what is going on within such families; how their transnational and multilingual experiences impact on the family dynamics and their everyday life; how they cope with the new and ever-changing environment, and how they construct their identities and build social relations. In this article, we start f...
Bech, Emily Cochran; Borevi, Karin; Mouritsen, Per
Family migration policy, once basing citizens and resident foreigners’ possibilities to bring in foreign family members mainly on the right to family life, is increasingly a tool states use to limit immigration and to push newcomers to integrate into civic and economic life. The family migration...... state and a Nordic liberal way of life, in Sweden more minimal requirements have been introduced in the name of spurring immigrants’ labor market integration even as rights-based reasoning has continued to dominate. In all three countries, new restrictions have been introduced in the wake of the refugee...... crisis. These cases show how prioritizations of the right to family life vis-à-vis welfare-state sustainability have produced different rules for family entry, and how family migration policies are used to different extents to push civic integration of both new and already settled immigrants....
Gómez-Bustamante, Edna Margarita; Castillo-Ávila, Irma; Cogollo, Zuleima
Determination of family dysfunction predictors in adolescent students of Cartagena, Colombia. A cross-sectional analytical research was conducted by means of a probabilistic sample per conglomerate of high-school students. Participation of students between 13 and 17 years was requested. Family dysfunction was identified through the family APGAR scale. Predictors were adjusted by binary logistic regression. A total of 1,730 students agreed to participate, mean age was 14.7 years (SD=1.2), and 52.7% were girls. The family APGAR scale showed a Cronbach alpha of 0.78. A group of 896 students (51.8%) reported family dysfunction. Predictors of family dysfunction were: clinically significant depressive symptoms (OR=3.61; IC 95%: 2.31-5.63), low religiosity (OR=1.73; CI 95%: 1.41-2.13), non-nuclear family (OR=1.71, CI 95% 1.71-2.09) (OR=1.73, 95% CI 1.41-2.13), non-nuclear family (OR=1.71, 95%: CI 1.41-2.09), consumption of any illegal substance in their lives (OR=1.67, CI 95%: 1.15-2.13), residents of depressed neighborhoods (OR = 1.49; CI 95%: 1.19-1.87), and poor academic performance (OR=1.43; CI 95%: 1.15-1.76). Clinically significant depressive symptoms, low religiosity and non-nuclear family are the main predictors of family dysfunction among adolescent students in Cartagena, Colombia. The association is possibly bidirectional. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
The South African Family Practice is a peer-reviewed scientific journal, which strives to provide primary care physicians and researchers with a broad range of scholarly work in the disciplines of Family Medicine, Primary Health Care, Rural Medicine, District Health and other related fields. The Journal publishes original ...
Coverage of NJFP includes: Family medicine; Primary health care; District health; Rural health; Health promotion Prevention of disease and disability ;Community oriented primary care ;Education and training of professionals and health workers in primary health care and family medicine; Medical informatics and ...
International audience; This article investigates the language practices and language policies of an Indian migrant family in their daily life in Finland. The purpose of this paper is to consider the potential of an empirical case study on migration to understand the interrelationship between macro and micro analyses of language policies and practices. Though the migrant language instruction is encouraged and executed under the national language policy in Finland, the second generation of the...
Institute for Children and Poverty, New York, NY.
Research on homeless children and families carried out by the Institute for Children and Poverty over the last 6 years is compiled in this document. The contents range from programmatic solutions and policy recommendations to simple "snapshots" of homeless families. Much of the research is based on the experiences of Homes for the…
Since WWII Europeans have enjoyed a cumulative expansion of social citizenship rights. The sequencing of types of entitlement is the same everywhere, and family benefits are the last to be granted indicating a well-developed welfare society. Societies vary with respect to extension of family...... allowances, child and elderly care and tax policies towards families. The Scandinavian region is a for-runner because of a combined effort of generous universal transfers and services, which has led a family (or women) friendly welfare state. The result is a high female labor market participation rate since...... generous policies allow women both to be mothers and workers and has resulted in a relatively high absolute fertility rate of 1.9; up from 1.4 in 1983 when the expansion of social services for families took off. The family welfare package has also resulted in low child poverty. Unfortunately, Scandinavian...
Knudsen, Lisbeth B.
obligations, for gender equality and most recently, a growing concern for securing time for both work and private life. These policy measures have aimed at improving living conditions for families with children and thus only indirectly at increasing the propensity to have children. The paper argues......Compared to other countries, e.g. in Southern Europe the fertility in the Nordic countries is relatively high. This paper discusses the role of Family Policy in the Nordic Countries in this respect. The Nordic countries experienced a decline in fertility in the first three decades of the 20th...... century where after the total fertility rates increased until the late 1960s where a new decline took off. Throughout the studied period, policy measures influencing living conditions for families have been influenced by concern for population development, for reconciliation between family and work...
Full Text Available As the Trump administration contemplates immigration reform, it is important to better understand what works and what does not in the current system. This paper reviews and critically evaluates the principle of family unity, a hallmark of US immigration policy over the past 50 years and the most important mechanism for immigration to the United States. Since 1965, the United States has been admitting a relatively high proportion of family-based migrants and allowing for the immigration of a broader range of family members. However, restrictive annual quotas have resulted in a long line of prospective immigrants waiting outside of the United States or within the United States, but without status. Further policy changes have led to an increasing number of undocumented migrants and mixed-status families in the United States. Several policies and practices contribute to prolonged periods of family separation by restricting travel and effectively locking in a large number of people either inside or outside of the United States. On top of that, increasingly aggressive enforcement practices undermine family unity of a large number of undocumented and mixed-status families. Deportations — and even a fear of deportation — cause severe psychological distress and often leave US-born children of undocumented parents without economic and social support. A recent comprehensive report concluded that immigration has overall positive impact on the US economy, suggesting that a predominantly family-based migration system carries net economic benefits. Immigrants rely on family networks for employment, housing, transportation, informal financial services, schooling, childcare, and old age care. In the US context where there is nearly no federal support for immigrants’ integration and limited welfare policies, family unity is critical for promoting immigrant integration, social and economic well-being, and intergenerational mobility. Given the benefits of
Blimling, Gregory S.
Describes the distinguishing features of a cult and the recruitment practices of cults on college campuses. Considers the psychological, social, and developmental reasons why students are attracted to cults, and describes the conversion process. Reports on campus policy, implications of litigation, and recommends strategies for dealing with cults.…
Chartrand et al., 2008; Lester et al., 2010; Lincoln and Sweeten , 2011; Chandra et al., 2010; Chandra et al., 2011; Gibbs et al., 2008). Despite...for definitions of family resilience. Of these, 29 presented at least one definition with original content (i.e., a new definition or one building on...policies: (1) policies about programs that originally had different purposes, such as youth programs, which are then modified to address resilience or
Chesser, Barbara Jo; Parkhurst, Anne M.
Reports an experimental study of student and teacher reactions to a computerized version of a standard personality inventory used as part of marriage and family relations classes. Results indicated that the computerized version offered more advantages than the manual version. (TA)
Diaz-Strong, Daysi; Gomez, Christina; Luna-Duarte, Maria E.; Meiners, Erica R.
This article examines how the denial of financial aid constrains undocumented students from pursuing higher education and discusses the interlocking relationship between federal immigration and higher education policies. Reporting on research data identifying that undocumented students pay for their education through work, family contributions,…
Roxas, Kevin; Roy, Laura
This article provides an overview of research conducted with Somali Bantu refugee students in two contexts: Michigan and South Texas. We provide recommendations for outreach to refugee families and their families, for instruction in the classroom, for advising and support for these children, and for implementing school and district policy as it…
Full Text Available The intergenerational transmission of the risk of divorce is a well-known long-term effect of divorce that has been found in many Western societies. Less known is what effect different family policies and divorce laws have on the intergenerational transmission of divorce. In this paper, the division of Germany into two separate states from 1949 until 1990, with the consequent development of two very different family policies, is regarded as a natural experiment that enables us to investigate the effect of family policy on the mechanisms underlying the social inheritance of divorce. Data from respondents from the former East and West Germany participating in the German Life History Study are analyzed using multivariate event-history methods. The results indicate that the strength of the intergenerational divorce transmission, when adjusted for differences in divorce level, was lower in the East than in the West. Differences in religion, marriage age and timing of first birth, which are partial indicators of family policy, could explain this effect. Furthermore, we did find a tendency towards a reduction in the dynamics of divorce transmission over time, both in East Germany and in West Germany.
Patrick, Donna; Budach, Gabriele; Muckpaloo, Igah
This study investigates the intersection of family language policy with Indigenous multiliteracies and urban Indigeneity. It documents a grassroots Inuit literacy initiative in Ottawa, Canada and considers literacy practices among Inuit at a local Inuit educational centre, where maintaining connections between urban Inuit and their homeland…
Su, Xuhong; Bozeman, Barry
Focused on academic departments in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields in the United States, we attempt to map department chairs' awareness of family friendly policies and investigate possible determinants of their knowledge levels. Based on a sample of STEM department chairs in American research universities, we find…
Full Text Available Gender Mainstreaming (GM was introduced by the European Union (EU in 1997, as a strategy to achieve gender equality in all policy areas. Yet, European countries greatly diverge in their progress of implementation. We investigate the role GM played in Romanian and German policies aimed at achieving work-family reconciliation, using concepts from feminist policy analysis. Our analysis shows that pre-existing policies and discourse, the economic situation, as well as the relationship with the EU have shaped and impeded the implementation process of GM in both countries. While Germany slowly moves towards more egalitarian policies, GM as label and strategy did not succeed. In Romania, GM has only impacted work and family reconciliation indirectly through EU legislation.
This anthology maps and analyses current trends within the area of family policy and outlines some possible challenges that the Nordic welfare states will soon be facing. Over several decades the Nordic welfare model has been characterised by the notion that children are not only the private...... responsibility of parents, but also a responsibility to be shared with society. Moreover, the Nordic welfare model goes hand-in-hand with the women’s movement by offering opportunities for women, as well as men, to also participate in education and employment. The question remains how more recent trends...... such as New Public Management principles and increased focus on children’s positions and rights affect family policies in the Nordic countries? The authors, who come from all five Nordic countries, discuss the following topics: issues related to family demographics, children’s position in society...
This document contains a 1988 Recommendation of the Council of Europe on family policy in which the Council recognizes the profound changes which have occurred in family structure and the increased tensions within families caused by such factors as poverty and crime. The Council notes, however, that the family remains a popular institution for young people and that some changes, such as the replacement of the marriage-alliance with the marriage-partnership, have been positive. Also the family is the best place for nurturing human relationships and caring for children and the elderly. Both "legitimate" and "de facto" families must be recognized, and the emancipation of women requires a democratization of the family which implies equality and protects the exercise of free choice among its members. After drawing attention to earlier Recommendations, the Council recommends that the governments of member states base their preparation of family policy on specific proposals: 1) legislation should protect equality between the sexes and children's rights, pay attention to the problems encountered by spouses of different nationalities, contain policies on adoption and reproductive technologies, and be directed to eliminating domestic violence; 2) working life should have greater flexibility, including parental leave; 3) separate taxation should be enacted for spouses, a flat-rate child allowance should be introduced instead of tax reductions, and costs of caring for preschool-age children should be tax deductible; 4) social security should recognize the value of housework and child care, a minimum guaranteed income should be explored, individual rights should be established, people should be credited for time spent giving care to dependents, and the European Convention on Social Security should be ratified; 5) housing needs of families should be met and the infrastructures of towns should meet the needs of inhabitants, social infrastructure should help families care for
Lee, I; Chou, Fan-Hao; Chen, Chung-Hey
Due to the phenomenon of Taiwan'saging population has made, long-term care has become an issue of increasingly emphasized importance. According to the statistics, the family takes responsibility for most long-term care duties and more than 70% of primary family caregivers are female. In the past, because of gender-based divisions of labor and gender role expectations made, it was taken for granted that females would be the socially preferred family caregivers. Those men who devoting in themselves to such work were regarded as a rare precious. As such, family care signified entailed different life experiences for males and females. Over the years, amendments to the civil code have recognized family care contributions, and the allowance for caregivers underlines that care responsibilities have shifted away from the family to society. Traditional gender divisions of labor today are significantly more blurred; family structures have become smaller in size; female labor in the workplace has increased; and ten-year long-term care plans and long-term care insurance have been successively implemented. These transformations will make labor outsourcing more and more popular and transform family care from a private problem to a pubic policy issue. In the future, family caregivers require consideration and support on a sustained basis. It is also important to improve and monitor the quality of care services. Nurses, the major professional members of long-term care teams, should be concerned over the issue of family care while providing nursing care. They should include family caregivers in the care plan so that they can make sure that patients receive comprehensive and constant care in order to enhance the overall quality of nursing care.
Levi, Daniel; And Others
Surveyed college students (n=116) to determine how they viewed Japanese human resources policies. Policies examined included lifetime employment, hiring, evaluation and promotion, professional skills, salary, training, and holistic concern. Findings revealed that, despite appeal of some of Japan's policies, students were unwilling to trade the…
Gary G. Huang
Full Text Available School restructuring raises questions about the role of school districts in improving student learning. Centralization by state governments and decentralization to individual schools as proposed in systemic reform leave districts' role unsettled. Empirical research on the district role in the context of ongoing reform is inadequate. This analysis of combined data from the NAEP and the Common Core of Data (CCD was intended to address the issue. We analyzed 1990, 1992, and 1996 NAEP 8th grade mathematics national assessment data in combination with CCD data of corresponding years to examine the extent to which student achievement was related to districts' control over instructional expenditure, adjusting for relevant key factors at both district and student levels. Upon sample modification, we used hierarchical linear modeling (HLM to estimate the relationships of student achievement to two district fiscal policy indictors, current expenditure per pupil (CEPP and districts' discretionary rates for instructional expenditure (DDR. Net of relevant district factors, DDR was found unrelated to districts' average 8th grade math performance. The null effect was consistent in the analysis of the combined NAEP-CCD data for 1990, 1992, and 1996. In contrast, CEPP was found related to higher math performance in a modest yet fairly consistent way. Future research may be productive to separately study individual states and integrate the findings onto the national level.
This article juxtaposes "world culture" and "policy borrowing and lending" literatures to understand policy formation in China. Through reviewing China's student nutrition policy evolution since the International Conference on Nutrition in 1992 to the launch of China's landmark national rural student nutrition program in 2011,…
Quinn, William H.; Hall, Dan B.; Smith, Emilie P.; Rabiner, David
The authors examine predictors of family participation in the G.R.E.A.T. Families Program of the Multisite Violence Prevention Project (MVPP), a four-site collaboration examining student, teacher, and family interventions for middle school students. Teachers recruited two cohorts of sixth grade students, recognized as being aggressive and…
The US decision since the 1960s to link foreign policy with family planning and population control is noteworthy for its intention to change the demographic structure of foreign countries and the magnitude of the initiative. The current population ideologies are part of the legacy of 19th century views on science, morality, and political economy. Strong constraints were placed on US foreign policy since World War II, particularly due to presumptions about the role of developing countries in Cold War ideology. Domestic debates revolved around issues of feminism, birth control, abortion, and family political issues. Since the 1960s, environmental degradation and resource depletion were an added global dimension of US population issues. Between 1935 and 1958 birth control movements evolved from the ideologies of utopian socialists, Malthusians, women's rights activists, civil libertarians, and advocates of sexual freedom. There was a shift from acceptance of birth control to questions about the role of national government in supporting distribution of birth control. Immediately postwar the debates over birth control were outside political circles. The concept of family planning as a middle class family issue shifted the focus from freeing women from the burdens of housework to making women more efficient housewives. Family planning could not be taken as a national policy concern without justification as a major issue, a link to national security, belief in the success of intervention, and a justifiable means of inclusion in public policy. US government involvement began with agricultural education, technological assistance, and economic development that would satisfy the world's growing population. Cold War politics forced population growth as an issue to be considered within the realm of foreign policy and diplomacy. US government sponsored family planning was enthusiastic during 1967-74 but restrained during the 1980s. The 1990s has been an era of redefinition of
O. V. Kuchmaeva
The article is devoted to the multifaceted and complex problems, associated with comprehensive evaluation of the effectiveness of the state family policy. A significant stage in the development of state family policy is the adoption of the concept of state family policy in 2014. Evaluation of measures’ effectiveness in the field of family policy is the subject of many publications. However, most authors pay their attention to the individual events. It appears that the effectiveness of impleme...
This study examined the family language policies (FLP) of Korean American parents and how the language practice, management, and ideology components of their FLP and demographic variables predict maintenance of the home language. Results of a large-scale (N = 480) survey show that different sets of FLP and demographic variables contributed to a…
Xinzhuo, Zhu; Junhua, Shi; Zhihui, Dong
A survey and comparative analysis of the family backgrounds of the entire undergraduate student body of X University and the group of student union cadres shows: the proportion of college students who serve as student union cadres who come from cities and have families with high social status, high family income, and parents with high educational…
Full Text Available The demographics of the homeless population in many countries are currently shifting, and this cannot be explained by the different welfare systems to be found in these countries. Nevertheless, there is some evidence that the homelessness policies of some countries are converging, and we observe a combination of decentralisation, housing first, and a taylor-made, individualised approach. However, what is interesting is the question as to what extent these policies are based on a punitive dimension or on a justice dimension. This aspect is little discussed in the Netherlands where policies to combat homelessness are intended to put an end to public nuisance and to get the homeless off the street. Research into evicted families demonstrates that combining elements of (mild coercion with efforts to solve homelessness leads to problems in at least three domains: the motivation of homeless families to accept help and support, the quality of life in the individualised approach, and the matter of registration. These problems need investigating, also from an international perspective.
Joyce L. Epstein
Full Text Available Since the release of Equality of Educational Opportunity, researchers have emphasized the importance of applying the results of research to policies for school improvement. Policies tell educators to do something, but not how to enact specific laws. This study analyzes data from 347 schools in 21 districts to identify variables that support the enactment of policies for parental engagement. We address research questions on how school and district practices affect the quality of school-based partnership programs. Our results indicate that a policy on parental involvement may be a good first step, but other factors—principals’ support for family and community engagement and active facilitation of research-based structures and processes by district leaders—are important for establishing a basic partnership program. These factors promote programs that engage all students’ families. Schools that take these steps have higher percentages of engaged families and report higher rates of average daily attendance among their students.
The impact of European government policy on the movement of foreign students in Great Britain, France, and West Germany is discussed by a member of the American Council on Education Committee on Foreign Students. Foreign student enrollments have increased dramatically in these three countries in the 1960s and 1970s, and foreign students also make…
This study investigated the effect of family type on Secondary School students\\' performance in physics in Ilorin metropolis. The sample comprised one hundred Senior Secondary II students from four schools in Ilorin metropolis. The instrument for the study titled \\"Effect of Family type on Students\\' Performance in Physics ...
Bradbury, Katharine; Burke, Mary A.; Triest, Robert K.
Foreclosures have well-documented adverse consequences for families living in or owning properties undergoing foreclosure and on surrounding neighborhoods, but they may also have other costs. This policy brief summarizes our research on the impact of mortgage foreclosures on academic performance among Boston public school students. The data show…
Boje, Thomas P.; Ejrnæs, Anders
are women's employment pattern, the level of support for mothers in reconciling work and caring obligations provided by family policies and the cultural norms prevailing in the various European countries. In the paper we first give a short overview of a number of recent studies of the relationship fertility......The aim of this paper will be to explain the differences in birth rates among European countries by analysing how the level of fertility is related to a number of dimensions of importance for the work-life balance in the European households. The dimensions included in our analysis of fertility...
Full Text Available Russia has long been characterized by early and universal marriage. After the Soviet Union collapse, the average age of marriage has been rising, and cohabitations have become common. Many scholars explain the causes of this trend through the perspective of the Second Demographic Transition. The aim of this research was to define the nature of cohabitations in Russia, reveal the factors of entrance to non-marital unions in order to discuss how and why non-marital union is implicated in recent dialogues about family policy. In order to achieve the aim, such methods as Event History Analysis and Sequence Analysis were used.
Hartig, Nadine; Steigerwald, Fran
This article examines the family roles and ethics of first-generation college students and their families through discussion of a case vignette. London's family roles applied to first-generation college students are discussed. Narrative therapy practices and an ethical model that examines the value process of counselors are explored as possible…
Shay, Robert P.
Four aspects of the Guaranteed Student Loan (GSL) Program are compared with credit policies on other loans made by consumer installment lenders. The four aspects are: (1) the planning, screening, monitoring, collecting, and write-off policies on GSLs versus uninsured loans; (2) the importance of the Student Loan Marketing Association in providing…
In positioning student voice within the Irish education policy discourse it is imperative that this emergent and complex concept is explored and theorized in the context of its definition and motivation. Student voice can then be positioned and critiqued as it emerged within Irish education policy primarily following Ireland's ratification of the…
Marshall, Brenda L.; Roberts, Katherine J.; Donnelly, Joseph W.; Rutledge, Imani N.
Environmental strategies for colleges and universities to reduce alcohol consumption among their students include the development and enforcement of campus alcohol policies. This study examines students' knowledge and attitudes toward campus alcohol policies and how they relate to alcohol consumption and alcohol social norms. A sample of 422…
For the first time ever an overview and analysis of CEE family policies is conceptualized in this paper. It demonstrates that fertility trends and family policies are a matter of serious concern throughout the region. The following family policy types have been identified: comprehensive family policy model; pro-natalist policies model; temporary male bread-winner model; and conventional family policies model. The majority of family policies in CEE countries suffer from a variety of shortcomings that impede them from generating enhanced family welfare and from providing conditions for cohort fertility to increase. The likely further decline of cohort fertility, or its stagnation, may entail long-term demographic as well as other societal consequences, such as continuous declines in total population numbers, changes in age structures, as well as implications for health and social security costs.
Castillo, Linda G.; Zahn, Marion P.; Cano, Miguel A.
The authors examined the predictors of familial acculturative stress in 85 Asian American college students. Participants were primarily 1st- and 2nd-generation U.S. citizens. Results showed that perceived acculturative family conflict and family intragroup marginalization were related to higher levels of familial acculturative stress for…
Evans-Whipp, Tracy J.; Plenty, Stephanie M.; Catalano, Richard F.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Toumbourou, John W.
Although it is common for secondary schools to implement alcohol policies to reduce alcohol misuse, there has been little evaluation of the efficacy of these policies. The purpose of this study was to test the impact of the degree and type of alcohol policy enforcement in state representative samples of secondary students in Washington State, USA, and Victoria, Australia (n = 1848). Multivariate logistic regressions were used to examine the prospective association between student reports of s...
This article presents an in-depth, small-scale qualitative study of a Hebrew-Russian bilingual family with 8 children, and compares the parents' perspective on the family language policy with their children's evaluation of it. Spolsky's (2004, 2009) model of language policy enables tracing the development of the parents' language…
Gray, Rossarin Soottipong; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Pattaravanich, Umaporn; Prasartkul, Pramote
This paper explores family and non-family factors contributing to happiness among students aged 15-18 in Thailand. Data come from the Social and Cultural Situation and Mental Health Survey (n = 905). Based on regression analysis, family factors are more important than non- family factors in explaining the variations in adolescents' happiness.…
Millar, Michelle; Coen, Liam; Bradley, Ciara; Rau, Henrike
Recent studies of family life in Ireland have focused on changes in "traditional" family structures, including the increase in one-parent families. This article illustrates the impact dominant conceptions in Irish society that privilege the family based on marriage have on one-parent family policy. The authors focus on two key areas of…
Full Text Available Canadian families have changed, in part due to an economy that provides more work opportunities for women, and a cultural orientation that values equal opportunity and diversity in families. In spite of the change, both quantitative and qualitative evidence suggest a continued preference for mothers to spend considerable time with children, especially in the infant and toddler years. Thus, in an average couple, the presence of young children in the home brings wives to reduce their paid work and husbands to increase their paid work. Our reading of parental preferences suggests an interest in more services for young children in the form of early childhood education and child care, but also an interest in policies that would allow parents to spend more time with children through parental leaves, part-time work with good benefits, and subsidies that supplement market income. Many options available to two-parent families are often less feasible for lone parents, giving a higher priority to child care.
Snyder, Jason; Frank, Lisa A. C.
The authors utilized a quasiexperimental design across five sections of a managerial communication course (N = 150) to test the role of course policies and student perceptions of the instructor in influencing student absenteeism and three indicators of student learning: grades, affective learning, and cognitive learning. The experimental group…
Bonjour, S.; Kraler, A.
"Family migration" and "integration" are intimately related concepts in policy discourses in Europe today. Assumptions about the relation between "family migration" and "integration" play a crucial role in shaping policies. This special issue aims to examine the axis between "family migration,"
Maughan, Erin D; Willgerodt, Mayumi
Patient-centered care is a buzzword heard often as part of health care reform efforts. For school nurses patient-centered care means student- and family-centered care. Student-centered care can improve student compliance and actually decrease school nurse workload. This article explains what student-centered means and provides examples of how school nurses can provide student and families-centered care in their communities. Approaches that center on individual students, as well as community cafes will be included.
Annals of Modern Education ... To achieve this goal, students from Katsina State Science and Technical Education Board (STEB) were purposively selected for the study. ... Parents' education and occupation, family type, dependency ratio, and family feeding significantly correlated with students' academic achievement in ...
Sabiston, Catherine M; Lovato, Chris Y; Ahmed, Rashid; Pullman, Allison W; Hadd, Valerie; Campbell, H Sharon; Nykiforuk, Candace; Brown, K Stephen
The purpose of this study was to explore individual- and school-level policy characteristics on student smoking behavior using an ecological perspective. Participants were 24,213 (51% female) Grade 10-11 students from 81 schools in five Canadian provinces. Data were collected using student self-report surveys, written policies collected from schools, interviews with school administrators, and school property observations to assess multiple dimensions of the school tobacco policy. The multi-level modeling results revealed that the school a student attended was associated with his/her smoking behavior. Individual-level variables that were associated with student smoking included lower school connectedness, a greater number of family and friends who smoked, higher perceptions of student smoking prevalence, lower perceptions of student smoking frequency, and stronger perceptions of the school tobacco context. School-level variables associated with student smoking included weaker policy intention indicating prohibition and assistance to overcome tobacco addiction, weaker policy implementation involving strategies for enforcement, and a higher number of students smoking on school property. These findings suggest that the school environment is important to tobacco control strategies, and that various policy dimensions have unique relationships to student smoking. School tobacco policies should be part of a comprehensive approach to adolescent tobacco use.
Wilson, Richard J.; Rohrbaugh, Michael
Theories of family structure have proposed that in healthy families, the parents' marital alliance is primary (MAP), while in dysfunctional families the primary alliance is not marital (MANP) but crosses generational boundaries. Some family alliances involve triangulation, drawing a third person into a dyadic relationship to mediate tension.…
Matiella, Ana Consuelo
This workbook comprises eight lessons designed to enhance the self-esteem of Latino students, grades 5 through 8, through the exploration of family, family traditions and values, and the affirmation of family strengths. Each lesson begins with an illustration that reflects the content of the lesson and an introductory page. Each introductory page…
Van Hal, Guido; Tavolacci, Marie-Pierre; Stock, Christiane
BACKGROUND: Many studies indicate that a substantial part of the student population drinks excessively, yet most European universities do not have an alcohol policy. In the absence of an alcohol guideline at universities and the easy access to alcohol sold at the student cafeteria, for instance......, students recognized that alcohol was a big problem on their campuses yet they knew very little, if any, about the rules concerning alcohol on their campus. CONCLUSIONS: Students will not support an on campus alcohol restriction and a policy should therefore focus on prevention initiatives....
Julietty Nunes Cardoso
Full Text Available With the welfare statesocial protection functions become public. However, countries differing the characteristic soft their social protection systems, as give the relationship between market, state and family that protection and other political characteristics, economic and cultural. The family is the focus of public policies, especially the Social Assistance Policy. The purpose of this article is to discuss, define and analyze the social work with families under the Protection Service and Customer Integral Family -PAIF, through bibliographical and documentary research.
Miskovic, Maja; Curcic, Svjetlana
This paper investigates the policies and politics of including European Roma students in mainstream educational systems within the context of two European Union (EU) policies: the Decade of Roma Inclusion (2005-2015) and EU National Roma Integration Strategies (2013-2020). Drawing on the scholarship about inclusion and its practical achievements,…
Snyder, Jason; Forbus, Robert; Cistulli, Mark
The authors utilized an experimental design across six sections of a managerial communications course (N = 173) to test the impact of instructor verbal aggressiveness and class attendance policies on student class attendance. The experimental group received a policy based on the principle of social proof (R. B. Cialdini, 2001), which indicated…
Garrison, Vivian; Weiss, Carol I.
This analysis of the acculturative process of one immigrant Dominican family shows that United States immigration policy forces the separation of families. Immigration regulations do not recognize the cooperating kin groups as "family," and thus necessitate extra-legal strategies to reunify these extended families. (MC)
White, Jordan; Anthony, David; WinklerPrins, Vince; Roskos, Steven
Medical students commonly encounter electronic medical records (EMRs) in their ambulatory family medicine clerkships, but how students interact with this technology varies tremendously and presents challenges to students and preceptors. Little research to date has evaluated the impact of EMRs on medical student education in the ambulatory setting; this three-institution study aimed to identify behaviors of ambulatory family medicine preceptors as they relate to EMRs and medical students. In 2015, the authors sent e-mails to ambulatory preceptors who in the preceding year had hosted medical students during family medicine clerkships, inviting them to participate in the survey, which asked questions about each preceptor's methods of using the EMR with medical students. Of 801 ambulatory preceptors, 265 (33%) responded. The vast majority of respondents used an EMR and provided students with access to it in some way, but only 62.2% (147/236) allowed students to write electronic notes. Of those who allowed students electronic access, one-third did so by logging students in under their own (the preceptor's) credentials, either by telling the students their log-in information (22/202; 10.9%) or by logging in the student without revealing their passwords (43/202; 21.3%). Ambulatory medical student training in the use of EMRs not only varies but also requires many preceptors to break rules for students to learn important documentation skills. Without changes to the policies surrounding student access to and use of EMRs, future physicians will enter residency without the training they need to appropriately document patient care.
The question of the retention of ethnic minority university students in universities in the Netherlands, especially at the University of Utrecht, is examined. In particular, the cases of Surinamese, Antillian, and Aruban students, foreign refugee students, particularly medical doctors, and Turkish
The study examined the opinions of Nigerian students in tertiary institutions on their ideal family size. It was conducted among students in four tertiary institutions in Edo State of Nigeria. A sample size of 454 final year students was randomly drawn from the halls of residence in the institutions using the stratified sampling ...
Full Text Available The main goal of the study was to examine the nature of emotional climate in families of Slovene and Spanish students. Participants in our research were 20 years old psychology students fromSlovenia (N = 75 and Spain (N = 79. The most frequent structure of family organization was five-member's nuclear type. We hypothesised that emotional climate in families does not differ between nations. The results showed that the Slovene and Spanish students indeed reported of the same quality of emotional climate in their families. Second, participants of both samples estimated their mother as the psychologically most important family member and as a person with whom they most frequently establish emotional connections. On the other hand, students report lack of emotional transmission with their fathers – Slovene students even reported that this connection with their fathers contains above all negative emotions. The important phenomenon which forms family structure was also presented in families of both samples – "the coalition of women". Third, participants also attributed big amount of emotions to figure 'nobody', which indicates that they wanted to illustrate their family as mostly positive and as a group with socially accepted behavior. Even more, a lot of emotions was clasiffied – especially negative emotions by Slovene students – to figure 'me', which could be an indictor of egocentric position of participants in their perception of themselves.
Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people in China consistently report family pressure as the greatest challenge they face in their daily lives. This problem has been explained primarily by highlighting sociocultural factors. While such explanations are important to understanding family pressure, they do not easily lead to actionable policy interventions to relieve it. This article suggests a new way of looking at family pressure by positing a social policy explanation. In particular, it reveals how both the one-child policy and elder care reforms have strong heteronormative biases that negatively and disproportionately affect LGB people, and it explores social policy interventions that may help address them. Beyond the China case, the article seeks to open up new avenues for research into how sexuality could be better accounted for in analyses of social policies and considered in broader discussions on defamilization and welfare state reform.
Alicia Aleli Chaparro Caso López
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify profiles of high school students, based on variables related to academic performance, socioeconomic status, cultural capital and family organization. A total of 21,724 high school students, from the five municipalities of the state of Baja California, took part. A K-means cluster analysis was performed to identify the profiles. The analyses identified two clearly-defined clusters: Cluster 1 grouped together students with high academic performance and who achieved higher scores for socioeconomic status, cultural capital and family involvement, whereas Cluster 2 brought together students with low academic achievement, and who also obtained lower scores for socioeconomic status and cultural capital, and had less family involvement. It is concluded that the family variables analyzed form student profiles that can be related to academic achievement.
Despite the fact that students are often articulate about qualifications policy matters, their perspectives are rarely listened to. This is because governments shape qualifications policy according to pre-set beliefs and are unwilling to countenance dissonant or outsider views. Using the Diploma qualification and inclusion of vocational…
Agrawal, Shantanu; Everett, Worth W.; Sharma, Sonali
Purpose: This study examined the impact of medical education on students' views of substance abuse treatment, public policy options and training. Method: A longitudinal survey was conducted on a single-class cohort of 101 students in a major American, urban medical school. The survey was administered in the Spring semesters of the first to third…
Coyle, C; Saunderson, W; Freeman, R
To examine the attitudes of dental students and social policy students towards learning disabilities in order to identify whether attitudinal differences exist and to suggest recommendations in the dental undergraduate curriculum commensurate with Government legislation in the United Kingdom. A cross-sectional survey of all undergraduate dental students at Queen's University, Belfast and all undergraduate social policy students at University of Ulster. A convenience sample of all undergraduate dental and social policy students was obtained. The students completed a questionnaire to assess attitude towards learning disability. The data were analysed using Cronbach's alpha, Student's t-test and analysis of variance (one-way fixed effect model). The level of statistical significance was set at 5%. The response rate was 83% for dental students and 97% for social policy students. Dental students had significantly lower mean scores and hence less favourable attitudes to learning disability compared with social policy students. Female dental students had significantly higher mean scores and hence more favourable attitudes to learning disability compared with male students. The findings show that dental undergraduates compared with social policy students had less favourable attitudes towards those with learning disability. Dental students should receive training in learning disability and undergraduate programmes should be conceptualised as a spiral curriculum. It is proposed that social policy theory should be introduced into undergraduate dental curricula, that early exposure to learning disability in a community setting should be incorporated into the first undergraduate years and in later undergraduate clinical years students should treat patients with learning disability in order to promote experiential learning and reflective practice.
Curdt-Christiansen, Xiao Lan
This ethnographic inquiry examines how family languages policies are planned and developed in ten Chinese immigrant families in Quebec, Canada, with regard to their children's language and literacy education in three languages, Chinese, English, and French. The focus is on how multilingualism is perceived and valued, and how these three languages…
Family language policy (FLP), like language policies in general, includes aspects of practice, management and ideology. But FLP is often affected by and affects emotional issues and psychological dimensions that are seldom acknowledged as central in the analysis of such policies. Relying on a psychoanalytic theoretical framework, this article…
Darney, P D
A 1968 study of family size aspirations and attitudes toward contraception and the effects of overpopulation was conducted by interviewing 20 randomly selected third-year medical students and their wives from the University of California and 20 San Francisco State College students and their wives. Couples in the 2 groups were compared to each other, as were persons desiring small families (2 or fewer children) to those wanting large families (4 or more children). Although more medical students expected large families than State college couples (50% compared to less than 20%), a majority of both groups expected more children than they considered ideal for the average American family (a mean of 2.5 children). Overpopulation was considered almost unanimously to be a problem, but much of the blame for crowding in the U.S. was placed on members of lower socioeconomic classes. All couples practiced contraception. Those expecting large families (75% medical students) expressed less concern about future overpopulation problems and financial disadvantages of large families. A change in basic attitude towards responsibility of population growth seems necessary on the part of many affluent Americans, represented by these students.
Ponder, Fred T.; Slate, John R.
In this investigation, the authors surveyed graduate students (n = 129) in counseling and psychology regarding the extent to which addiction was present in their families. A high percentage of respondents, particularly females, reported that their families had alcoholism/drug addiction present. A statistically significant difference was yielded…
Marshall, Brenda L; Roberts, Katherine J; Donnelly, Joseph W; Rutledge, Imani N
Environmental strategies for colleges and universities to reduce alcohol consumption among their students include the development and enforcement of campus alcohol policies. This study examines students' knowledge and attitudes toward campus alcohol policies and how they relate to alcohol consumption and alcohol social norms. A sample of 422 freshman students was surveyed during their first month at a 4-year public college. Findings indicated that the majority of students (89%) were aware of campus policies, yet of those who were aware, less than half (44%) were accepting of these campus rules and regulations. In addition, the majority (79%) of students drank at social events, despite this behavior being in direct violation of campus alcohol policies. However, those who supported campus rules consumed significantly less alcohol at social events than those who opposed or had no opinion of the rules. Also, those who supported the rules perceived that their peers and students in general consumed significantly less alcohol at social events than those who were opposed or had no opinion. This outcome supports the premise established by several theories of behavior change including the theory of planned behavior, which state that behavior is influenced less by knowledge than by attitude and intention.
Bezcioglu-Goktolga, Irem; Yagmur, Kutlay
This study investigated the family language policy of second-generation Turkish immigrant families in the Netherlands by exploring their language ideologies, practices, and management strategies. Using an ethnographic approach, data were collected through a set of observations and interviews with 20 families. Transcriptions of interviews and memos…
Dumanig, Francisco Perlas; David, Maya Khemlani; Shanmuganathan, Thilagavathi
Personal, social, cultural, economic, and political factors influence the language/s used by family members in the home domain. This study examines how family language policies are planned and developed in Filipino-Malaysian families in Malaysia. The language used at home in such mixed or exogamous marriages is also influenced by the ethnicity of…
Fishman, Deborah E.
Notes that divorce is stressful life transition and that colleges offer few services targeted specifically to students from divorced families. Discusses how parental divorce may inhibit psychological separation processes of college students with regard to perceptions of parents, adjustment and academic success, and identity formation. Concludes…
Reports that all six regional college/university accrediting agencies have rewritten, or are currently rewriting, their standards to place more emphasis on what students learn, accept the growth of part-time faculty members, develop ways to evaluate the effectiveness of distance learning, and let colleges tailor accreditation process to their own…
von Hippel, Courtney; Kalokerinos, Elise K; Zacher, Hannes
In their efforts to recruit and retain female employees, organizations often attempt to make their workplaces "family-friendly." Yet there is little research on how women view family-friendly policies, particularly women who experience gender-based stereotype threat, or the concern of being viewed through the lens of gender stereotypes at work. Pilot research with female managers ( N = 169) showed that women who experienced stereotype threat perceived more negative career consequences for utilizing family-friendly policies. We then conducted two studies to further probe this relationship. Study 1 replicated the relationship between stereotype threat and the perceived consequences of utilizing family-friendly policies among women who recently returned to work after the birth of a child ( N = 65). In Study 2 ( N = 473), female employees who reported feelings of stereotype threat perceived more negative consequences of utilizing family-friendly policies, but they also reported greater intentions to use these policies. Our findings suggest that female employees are susceptible to stereotype threat, which in turn is associated with more negative views of family-friendly policies. Thus, the mere provision of such policies may not create the kind of family-friendly workplaces that organizations are attempting to provide.
Haghdoost, Aliakbar; Abazari, Faroukh; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Dortaj Rabori, Eshagh
Family plays an important role in helping adolescent acquiring skills or strengthening their characters. We aimed to evaluate the influences of family factors, risky and protective, on adolescent health-risk behavior (HRB). In this cross-sectional study, students of high schools in Kerman, Iran at all levels participated, during November 2011 till December 2011. The research sample included 1024 students (588 females and 436 males) aged 15 to 19 years. A CTC (Communities That Care Youth Survey) questionnaire was designed in order to collect the profile of the students' risky behaviors. Stratified cluster sampling method was used to collect the data. Using logistic regression, 7 variables enrolled; 4 of them were risk factors and 3 were protective factors. The risk factors were age, (linear effect, ORa = 1.20, P = 0.001), boys versus girls (ORa = 2.33, P = 0.001), family history of antisocial behavior (ORa = 2.29, P = 0.001), and parental attitudes favorable toward antisocial behavior (ORa = 1.72, P = 0.03). And, protective factors were family religiosity (ORa = 0.65, P = 0.001), father education (linear effect, ORa = 0.48, P = 0.001), and family attachment (ORa = 0.78, P = 0.001). Our findings showed that family has a very significant role in protecting students against risky behaviors. The education level of the father, family religiosity, and attachment were the most important factors.
Basol, Roberta; Ohman, Kathleen; Simones, Joyce; Skillings, Kirsten
National guidelines and professional organizations have recommended allowing family presence during resuscitation and bedside invasive procedures. Studies found that only 5% of critical care units have written policies. Periodic requests by family members prompted the creation of a task force, including nurses, physicians, and respiratory therapists, to develop this controversial policy. Before development, a research study of healthcare personnel attitudes, concerns, and beliefs toward family presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation and bedside invasive procedures was done. This descriptive and correlational study showed support for family presence by critical care and emergency department nurses. Findings revealed both support and non-support for families to be present during resuscitative efforts. Providing family presence as an option offers an opportunity for reluctant healthcare team members to refuse their presence and an opportunity for those who support family presence to welcome the family.
The expansion of employment-centered family policies of the Grand Coalition in Germany came with some surprise, as Christian Democrats have traditionally been strongly committed to the male breadwinner model and corresponding family policies. This article investigates why Christian Democrats (though with some inconsistencies) promoted “social-democratic” family policies guided by the adult worker rather than by the male breadwinner model. Illuminating the politics of recent family policy reforms, the electoral rationale for this modernization of family policy, the role of political entrepreneurship, and intraparty political conflicts over the new policy paradigm are discussed.
This article examines the impact of social policies on the living conditions of poor families—particularly women—in Latin America from the late 1980s to the present. It identifies three distinct trends of familialism in the region’s social protection systems. The first social policy trend is characterized by poverty alleviation policies addressing the family in an “elliptical” way, taking for granted the idea of a nuclear family. The distinguishing trait of the second trend is the appearance ...
Full Text Available This article examines the impact of social policies on the living conditions of poor families—particularly women—in Latin America from the late 1980s to the present. It identifies three distinct trends of familialism in the region’s social protection systems. The first social policy trend is characterized by poverty alleviation policies addressing the family in an “elliptical” way, taking for granted the idea of a nuclear family. The distinguishing trait of the second trend is the appearance of social programs aimed at families and stressing the role of women as chief caregivers and administrators. And finally, the third policy trend is defined by an expansion of more universal social programs targeting children and the elderly. Despite the recent emergence of programs with gender specific goals, social policies continue to put a great burden on female workers. For example, many subsidies to poor families deliver money directly to women, improving their intra-family bargaining power, but this translates also into an increase of responsibilities and the ensuing overload of work. Consequently, social policies in Latin America need to aim at encouraging a more egalitarian distribution of housework and care work within the family, especially given how well-established androcentrism is in the region.
McDowell, Teresa; Fang, Shi-Ruei; Kosutic, Iva; Griggs, Julie
In this article, we report the results of a survey that accessed the perceptions of family studies and family therapy international master's and doctoral students across the United States. Our goals included giving collective voice to the experience of international students and gathering their suggestions for improving programs. Themes that emerged from responses to open- and closed-ended questions included feeling (mis)understood and (de)valued; forming personal connections and experiencing marginalization; the importance of including international perspectives in curricula; considering the relevance/transferability of knowledge; and attending to barriers to learning. Based on the results, we share suggestions for improving family studies and family therapy graduate programs relative to program planning, curricula revision, teaching strategies, and faculty development. © 2012 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.
Aspland, Tania; Datta, Poulomee; Talukdar, Joy
The curriculum policies for students with special needs across Australia have been reviewed. The Curriculum Framework in the Australian Capital Territory is used to inform their school based curriculum. The Northern Territory Curriculum Framework describes what learners are expected to achieve and what learners have achieved. The New South Wales…
Virginia Department of Education, 2015
The Virginia Board of Education's "Student Conduct Policy Guidelines" were first developed in 1994 in response to action by the 1993 General Assembly requiring the Virginia Board of Education to establish such guidelines. In 2004, the "Guidelines" underwent a major revision in response to requirements of § 22.1-279.6. of the…
Dente, Bruno; Piraino, Nadia
For both efficiency and equity reasons, student loans schemes have been introduced by several countries. Empirical work has been carried out in order to measure the effectiveness of these policies, but, with few exceptions, their results are not comparable because of their concentration on specific aspects. The present work suggests a…
Aaron, Michael D.
The relationship between attendance policies and student grades in college courses was investigated. Specifically, a calculated grade point average was determined for all academic classes taught at Shelton State Community College between 2000 and 2008. These grade point averages were compared descriptively and statistically in an effort to…
Raines, James C.
Explores two principles of educational policy--appropriate education and least-restrictive environment--within the context of the current debate about integrating students with disabilities into public education. Reviews the origins of exclusion, and traces the foundations of inclusion back to the civil rights movement. Explains three approaches…
Lee, Soomi; Duvander, Ann-Zofie; Zarit, Steven H
South Korea has extremely low rates of fertility and labor force participation by women during their childbearing years, whereas Sweden has high rates for both. Variations in family policy models may explain differences in fertility and women's employment between the two countries. Drawing upon literature that examines the effects of family policies on fertility and women's employment, this paper compares childcare support for very young children and parental leave policies in South Korea and Sweden. Thereafter, we discuss the importance of providing stronger support for dual-earner rather than single-earner families to reconcile the two objectives of increasing fertility and women's workforce participation. Specifically, it is critical to: (a) enhance the quantity and quality of childcare services for very young children, (b) achieve gender equality in parental leave policies, and (c) reduce gaps in the accessibility and utilization of family benefits by working parents from different social classes.
e Silva, Maria Ozanira da Silva
Introduced in 2003, Brazil's Family Allowance Program was intended to unite several Income Transfer Programs run at the Municipal, State and Federal levels since 1995. Designed as an expression of the development of direct monetary transfers to families or individuals, its key assumption is that linking income transfers to poor families with structural policies and programs (mainly in the fields of education, healthcare and jobs) could break through the vicious cycle of poverty in the present and halt its future replication. Linking cash transfers to structuring policies and programs for poor families might well underpin a policy combating poverty and social inequality. This paper presents a retrospective of these Income Transfer Programs, examining their significance and scope in terms of Brazil's Social Security Policies, assessing their potentials and constraints as tools for fostering social inclusion.
Lazarus, Sheryl; Thurlow, Martha
Sound test security policies and procedures are needed to ensure test security and confidentiality, and to help prevent cheating. In this era when cheating on tests draws regular media attention, there is a need for thoughtful consideration of the ways in which possible test security measures may affect accessibility for some students with…
Guilliams, Mary Elizabeth
This paper is a project report of a policy analysis of state attendance information available to public schools. Current state attendance information rarely expands beyond compulsory attendance law. It is vague, non-existent or difficult to find. Research provides strong links between student attendance and achievement. Informed school leaders…
Skinner, Natalie; Chapman, Janine
This paper presents Australian and international research on work-life interaction. We review the work-life policies and practices that are likely to have the greatest impact on work-life outcomes, specifically reducing the negative impact of work on other life domains (work-life interference), and enhancing the positive effect (work-life facilitation). The review addresses four policy areas common in work-life studies of the general workforce: employee-centered flexible work practices; worki...
Romero, Daniel H; Riggs, Shelley A; Ruggero, Camilo
With rising numbers of student veterans on today's college campuses, multicultural competence in college counseling centers increasingly includes an understanding of military culture and its relation to the psychological health and functioning of student veterans. Research on interpersonal and intrapersonal factors associated with college student veterans' mental health is scarce. The current study examines the contributions of coping style and family social support on symptoms of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress in a student veteran sample. We also tested the moderating role of family social support in the relationship between coping style and psychological symptoms. Data from 136 student veterans were analyzed by using path analysis. Results revealed that avoidant coping and family social support significantly predicted depressive and anxiety symptoms. Avoidant coping also significantly predicted posttraumatic stress symptoms. In addition, findings indicated that family social support moderated the relationship between problem-focused coping and depression, as well as between avoidant coping and symptoms of anxiety and depression but not posttraumatic stress. Implications of results for college and university counselors are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Kulkarni, Saili S; Parmar, Jessica
Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices are important for nonverbal students with disabilities to communicate with the verbal world. AAC devices provide access to academic and social opportunities for students with disabilities. With the changing demographics of schools and an emphasis on meaningful, culturally relevant instruction for all students, it is important to consider how AAC devices are utilized and perceived by individuals from culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) backgrounds and their families. This paper reviewed empirical studies that addressed the perspectives and use of AAC devices by CLD students with disabilities and their families. A total of N = 11 studies were selected spanning almost two decades of research related to AAC use in culturally and linguistically diverse populations internationally. Discussions and implications highlight the need for a deeper understanding of culture and race as they inform instruction for AAC users with disabilities and additional current studies related to this critical topic within the field.
Bonjour, S.; Schrover, M.
Is ‘public opinion’ systematically opposed to immigration? And has this pushed policymakers to implement restrictive migration policies? To answer these questions, we investigate the impact of public opinion, as expressed in media debates, on the making of family migration policies in the
Social workers are the professionals most engaged with families living in low-income and subsidized housing and most familiar with the problems associated with inadequate housing. Yet the discussion of public housing policy has been left largely to economists and housing activists and the clear implications for family social work practice have not…
This mixed-methods study examined the long-term associations between two kinds of politics courses--required political science courses and required family policy courses--and the political participation, knowledge, skill, efficacy, and politically engaged identity of child and family studies alumni. Two special cases were examined: those who…
Bezcioglu, Irem; Yagmur, Kutlay
This study investigated the family language policy of second-generation Turkish immigrant families in the Netherlands by exploring their language ideologies, practices, and management strategies. Using an ethnographic approach, data were collected through a set of observations and interviews with 20
King, Kendall; Fogle, Lyn
This paper investigates how parents explain, frame and defend their particular family language policies. We focus here on 24 families who are attempting to achieve additive Spanish-English bilingualism for their children, an aim which in many cases requires parents to use and to teach a language that is not their first language, nor the primary…
The present study analyses the Family Language Policy (FLP) in regards language literacy development of children in Ethiopian immigrant families. Bridging the gap between linguistic literacy at home and at school hinders a smooth societal integration and a normative literacy development. This study describes the home literacy patterns shaped by…
Putnam, Michelle; Pickard, Joseph G.; Rodriguez, Carroll; Shear, Erin
Persons with dementia are often excluded from consumer-directed home- and community-based service programs because they cannot direct their own care. Surrogates are permitted in some states, thereby allowing program participation. This study explored family caregiver perspectives on policies that support family needs related to providing care to…
Although wide family support policies are available to Cypriot families, Cyprus is among the countries with the least developed ECEC systems and the processes taken to address ECEC deficits is slow. Although female employment rates are slightly below the EU averages, there is a gap in the availability of childcare, an underinvestment in public…
Moore, Leslie C.
This article examines variation in family religious language policy in a Muslim community in West Africa. Taking an ethnographically grounded case study approach, I situate families' choices with regards to their children's religious (language) education within the larger linguistic, social, and cultural context, focusing on new influences on…
Full Text Available In my paper I aim to provide an analysis of the relation between women’s autonomy and the family in Romanian recent policy-making. I will focus primarily on policies developed by the Romanian state after Romania’s integration in the European Union with regards to the family and family-related policy domains. My analysis will focus on several variables: 1. the theoretical instruments available for analyzing women’s autonomy in relation to state policies 2. the understanding of the family in Romanian policy-making 3. the interplay between women’s autonomy and the family and how policy-making influences the relation between the two. The analysis will take into consideration the specific Romanian socio-political context in terms of economic conditions, ideological influences and gender relations. Political theory is no stranger to the issue of individual autonomy. In my paper I will focus on recent feminist political theories on gendered accounts of autonomy. These accounts modify the understanding of autonomy and focus on conditions and aspects of autonomy relevant to women’s lives and experiences. The current financial crisis and recent developments in Romanian policy-making will be analyzed in terms of how they affect women’s autonomy. Since much of Romanian policy-making still avoids including gender and gender relations into its explicit justifications, provisions and evaluation, referring to the family as a basic social unit, the gendered consequences for women’s autonomy of such an approach need to be understood and acknowledged. In my analysis I will use both Romanian and European recent policy papers, as well as recent data obtained through social research.
Full Text Available Objective: To identify influences on learning for Saudi male students studying Emergency Medical Services at a college in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Previous research on influences on student learning in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia focused on the historical development of education in Saudi Arabia, English language development, and intrinsic motivations of students and excluded a focus on students studying Emergency Medical Services. Methods: Exploratory sequential mixed-methods study was deployed. Results: Family support was an exceptionally strong predictor of student confidence in both skills and post-graduate EMS employment. Concepts involving application, memorization, motivation, and English language did not present as statically significant. The discovery of the strong influences that a family can have on Saudi EMS student’s confidence is noteworthy, as this was not previously discovered in the literature. Conclusion: This discovery holds practical implications for EMS education and training programs as emphasizes the importance of developing practical ways to include a student’s family as a source of support in ensuring student success and confidence.
Full Text Available AbstractCanadian families have changed, in part due to an economy that provides more work opportunities for women, and a cultural orientation that values equal opportunity and diversity infamilies. In spite of the change, both quantitative and qualitative evidence suggest a continued preference for mothers to spend considerable time with children, especially in the infant andtoddler years. Thus, in an average couple, the presence of young children in the home brings wives to reduce their paid work and husbands to increase their paid work. Our reading of parentalpreferences suggests an interest in more services for young children in the form of early childhood education and child care, but also an interest in policies that would allow parents to spend more time with children through parental leaves, part-time work with good benefits, and subsidies that supplement market income. Many options available to two-parent families are often less feasible for lone parents, giving a higher priority to child care.RésuméLa famille canadiennes a changé, dû en partie à une économie qui offre plus de possibilités d’emploi pour les femmes, et à une tendance culturelle qui valorise l’égalité des chances et la diversité dans les familles. En dépit de ces changements, les preuves quantitatives et qualitatives suggèrent une préférence continue pour les mères de passer plus de temps avec les enfants, particulièrement quand il s’agit de nouveau-nés ou d’enfants en bas âge. Donc, pour un couple moyen, la présence de jeunes enfants au foyer pousse les femmes à réduire leurs emplois rémunérés et les maris à augmenter les leurs. Notre étude des préférences parentales suggère un intérêt pour un accroissement des services pour jeunes enfants sous la forme d’éducation préscolaire et de garde d’enfants, et aussi un intérêt pour des politiques qui permettraient aux parents de passer plus de temps avec leurs enfants tels que cong
The revised Organ Transplant Law in Japan that took effect in July 2010 allows organ procurement from brain-dead individuals, including children, only with family consent. The amended law also allows individuals to prioritize family members to receive their donated organs after death. This policy differs from the prioritization policy in Israel, which provides incentives to individuals who agree to help each other in society and rectifies the problem of free riders, individuals who are willing to accept an organ but refuse to donate. Despite these differences, however, the Japanese and Israeli policies have revealed new ethical dilemmas, including the fear of compromising fairness in organ allocation.
Family language policy (FLP) focusses on how languages are dealt with within the home; typically how languages are used and how they are maintained or promoted by family members. The present study investigates families living in the UK, where one parent is a native English speaker, and the other a native speaker of another language, the minority language. By use of a mixed-methods design, utilising questionnaires, interviews and logs, this paper answers the questions: what are the reported la...
Zhihua Wei; Shinong Wu; Changqing Li; Wei Chen
Using a sample of 1486 Chinese A-share listed companies for the period 2004–2008, this study empirically tests the impact of family control, institutional environment and their interaction on the cash dividend policy of listed companies. Our results indicate that (1) family firms have a lower cash dividend payout ratio and propensity to pay dividends than non-family firms; (2) a favorable regional institutional environment has a significant positive impact on the cash dividend payout ratio an...
Catelijne Akkermans; Willibrord de Graaf; dr Lia van Doorn; dr Raymond Kloppenburg
The demographics of the homeless population in many countries are currently shifting, and this cannot be explained by the different welfare systems to be found in these countries. Nevertheless, there is some evidence that the homelessness policies of some countries are converging, and we observe a
Full Text Available This paper presents Australian and international research on work-life interaction. We review the work-life policies and practices that are likely to have the greatest impact on work-life outcomes, specifically reducing the negative impact of work on other life domains (work-life interference, and enhancing the positive effect (work-life facilitation. The review addresses four policy areas common in work-life studies of the general workforce: employee-centered flexible work practices; working hours (e.g. access to part-time work; paid and unpaid leave (e.g. parental leave; and access to childcare. It then considers the work-life literature related to two specific industries – the Australian public sector, and health and social services – to identify work-life issues and practices specific to each industry. We then conclude with a general discussion of challenges associated with the policy-practice gap, focusing particularly on work intensification and the role of organisational culture as the catalyst for policy uptake and effectiveness.
At the beginning of 2008, a number of the world's major economies began to experience the effects of the biggest economic financial crisis in history. By the end of that year, the financial crisis was a global recession, and governments responded with changes to a suite of social and economic policies. Two broad stages of government response are…
Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Smith, Nina; Verner, Mette
The Nordic countries at the same time exhibit a remarkably high participation rate of mothers and a more moderate decline in fertility rates compared to other Western countries. This has been attributed to the fact that the welfare state model and, especially, the family friendly policies chosen...... in the Nordic countries are unique. In this paper we evaluate the impact of Nordic countries' family friendly policies on employment, wages and children's well-being. We demonstrate that, although the `Nordic model' has been successful in boosting female employment, it is a costly solution. Furthermore, family......-friendly policies mainly directed towards giving mothers the right to be on long paid maternal leave have adverse effects on women's wages with consequences for gender equality. Indeed, extensive family-friendly schemes may even have created a `system-based glass ceiling' hindering women's career progression...
Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Simonsen, Marianne; Verner, Mette
Segregation of the labour market into a family-friendly and a non-family-friendly sector implies that women self-select into sectors depending on institutional constraints, preferences for family-friendly working conditions and expected wage differences. We take this sector dimension into account...
Full Text Available The research aims to know whether or not an influence of family education and social environment on the characteristics of students during the accounting lesson at class XI IPS SMA Negeri I Pati; to know whether or not an influence of social environment on the characteristics of students during the accounting lesson at class XI IPS SMA Negeri I Pati; and to know whether or not an influence between family education and social environment on the characteristics of students during the accounting lesson at class XI IPS SMA Negeri I Pati. The population in this research is 71 students of class XI SMA Negeri I Pati. Method of data analysis in this research consists of percentage descriptive analysis, descriptive statistic, prerequisite test covering normality test and linearity test, multiple linear regression analysis, classical assumption test covering multicollinearity test and heteroscedasticity test, hypothesis test covering simultaneous test (F, coefficient of simultaneous determination (R2, partial test (t, and partial determinant coefficient (r2. Results shows that family education and social environment both simultaneously and individually have positive impacts on the student characteristics.
Full Text Available The demographic changes in Central Europe which started in the 80s of the 20th century began to resemble the changes which were noticed earlier in the countries of Western Europe. Fertility gradually decreased, sometimes even below the simple reproduction rate, the number of marriages dropped and the age when they were made was changing. The model of the family underwent transformations which caused changes in family structures. What followed was a fast change from the so called traditional reproduction to modern reproduction. Demographers are looking for the causes of the above mentioned changes in the influence of economic factors and changes the world view. They also emphasised the need for a family-friendly policy. An important influence on the type of policy of a given country is tradition, the implemented socio-economic policy (e.g., conservative, liberal, the economic situation and public opinion. In a narrower sense it is defined as benefits and services for people with children and single parents. Such an approach means the readiness and constant support in the form of financial transfers made to the families, tax relief for families with children, maternity leaves, the creation and maintenance of institutions which offer child care and family law. In a broad sense, familyfriendly policy covers all areas of social policy which can potentially have an influence on the good of the family (subsidies towards children’s travel costs, education, safety, housing, etc.. The aim of this paper is to describe the changes in the field of demography which took place after 1989 and their effects on families, as well as the policies implemented in the Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia and Hungary in order to increase reproduction and the number of marriages.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate experimentation with smoking among primary school students in China. Data were acquired from a recent survey of 4,073 students in grades 4 to 6 (ages 9-12 in 11 primary schools of Ningbo City. The questions were adapted from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS. Results suggest that although the Chinese Ministry of Education (MOE encourages smoke-free schools, experimentation with cigarettes remains a serious problem among primary school students in China. Peers, family members, and the school environment play important roles in influencing smoking experimentation among students. Having a friend who smoked, seeing a family member smoke, and observing a teacher smoking on campus predicted a higher risk of experimentation with smoking; the exposure to anti-tobacco materials at school predicted a lower risk of experimentation with smoking. The evidence suggests that public health practitioners and policymakers should seek to ensure the implementation of smoke-free policies and that intervention should target young people, families, and communities to curb the commencement of smoking among children and adolescents in China.
Watts, Allison W; Lovato, Chris Y; Card, Antony; Manske, Steve R
The objective of this study was to explore students' perceptions of school policy characteristics that influence the location of smoking while at school. Data were collected from a nationally representative sample of Canadian youth in grades 7-12 as part of the 2006-2007 Youth Smoking Survey. We used multilevel logistic regression to examine how students' perceptions of school policies predicted smoking behavior on and off school grounds in 11,881 students who had ever smoked. Separate analyses were conducted for grades 7-9 and 10-12. In both grades 7-9 and 10-12, perceiving clear rules about smoking decreased the likelihood that a student would smoke on school grounds, while perceiving that a high percentage of peers smoke, that there are school rules about smoking, that students obey the rules, and that students can be fined for smoking increased the likelihood that a student would smoke off school grounds. Clearly perceived rules about smoking encourage students not to smoke on school grounds; however, perceptions of rules, along with strong enforcement, may displace behavior off of school grounds. Non-smoking policies should be part of a comprehensive approach, that supports cessation.
How do migration receiving states justify that newcomers to their territory have to learn the local language? In addressing four kinds of justifications, this thesis introduces the novel perspective of family life and migrant languages in the debate on multiculturalism and concludes that only minimal “thin” rather than extensive “thick” demands of integration are warranted. First, immigrants' children have a standing interest in their mother tongue in virtue of their interest i...
Abdullah, Doria; Abd Aziz, Mohd Ismail; Mohd Ibrahim, Abdul Latiff
The movement of students across borders has had profound impact on higher education policy development. This article seeks to unpack international student mobility through a discourse approach, using five policy documents on international student mobility from well-established recruiters of international students. Eight headline findings are…
Jutkowitz, Eric; Kane, Robert L; Gaugler, Joseph E; MacLehose, Richard F; Dowd, Bryan; Kuntz, Karen M
To estimate the cost of dementia and the extra cost of caring for someone with dementia over the cost of caring for someone without dementia. We developed an evidence-based mathematical model to simulate disease progression for newly diagnosed individuals with dementia. Data-driven trajectories of cognition, function, and behavioral and psychological symptoms were used to model disease progression and predict costs. Using modeling, we evaluated lifetime and annual costs of individuals with dementia, compared costs of those with and without clinical features of dementia, and evaluated the effect of reducing functional decline or behavioral and psychological symptoms by 10% for 12 months (implemented when Mini-Mental State Examination score ≤21). Mathematical model. Representative simulated U.S. incident dementia cases. Value of informal care, out-of-pocket expenditures, Medicaid expenditures, and Medicare expenditures. From time of diagnosis (mean age 83), discounted total lifetime cost of care for a person with dementia was $321,780 (2015 dollars). Families incurred 70% of the total cost burden ($225,140), Medicaid accounted for 14% ($44,090), and Medicare accounted for 16% ($52,540). Costs for a person with dementia over a lifetime were $184,500 greater (86% incurred by families) than for someone without dementia. Total annual cost peaked at $89,000, and net cost peaked at $72,400. Reducing functional decline or behavioral and psychological symptoms by 10% resulted in $3,880 and $680 lower lifetime costs than natural disease progression. Dementia substantially increases lifetime costs of care. Long-lasting, effective interventions are needed to support families because they incur the most dementia cost. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.
Family and Medical Leave Inclusion Act (S. 846, S. 857, and H.R. 1751) would allow an employee to take FMLA leave to care for an adult child, sibling...Industries with below-average percentages of employees who may have been eligible for leave were Wholesale and Retail Trade (53.1%), Professional and...10,804 4,298 100.0% 71.5% 28.5% 10.6% 13.5% 6.9% Wholesale and retail trade 20,413 10,835 9,577 100.0% 53.1% 46.9% 14.3% 13.5% 15.4% Transportation and
Vanesa Hervías Parejo
Full Text Available Through family reunification, immigrant women gain easier access to areas of social protection dispensed by welfare states such as employment entitlements, legal stay, benefits, career breaks, scholarships and grants. This empirical study, however, detects gender inequalities that are especially damaging to immigrant women in the exercise of the right to regroup due to the jobs they hold, the responsibilities in the private sphere, the invisibility in public spaces and personal, social and administrative obstacles imposed from the origin and host countries.
Thompson, V D
Negative stereotypes are attached to childless or 1-child couples and to only children. People choosing to have fewer than the socially predicted 2-child norm are responding to rational, individual norms instead of exterior normative pressures. Research has shown that only or widely spaced children benefit from adult contact during development. There is an inverse relationship between intelligence and family size. Only and 1st-born personality characteristics tend to contradict the negative stereotypes. Different reasons why couples choose to have children do not differentially determine the health of the children or the marriage.
Bech, Emily Cochran; Borevi, Karin; Mouritsen, Per
Family migration policy, once basing citizens and resident foreigners' possibilities to bring in foreign family members mainly on the right to family life, is increasingly a tool states use to limit immigration and to push newcomers to integrate into civic and economic life. The family migration policies of Denmark, Norway and Sweden range widely - from more minimal support and age requirements to high expectations of language skills, work records and even income levels. While in Denmark and increasingly in Norway growing sets of requirements have been justified on the need to protect the welfare state and a Nordic liberal way of life, in Sweden more minimal requirements have been introduced in the name of spurring immigrants' labor market integration even as rights-based reasoning has continued to dominate. In all three countries, new restrictions have been introduced in the wake of the refugee crisis. These cases show how prioritizations of the right to family life vis-à-vis welfare-state sustainability have produced different rules for family entry, and how family migration policies are used to different extents to push civic integration of both new and already settled immigrants.
O. V. Kuchmaeva
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the multifaceted and complex problems, associated with comprehensive evaluation of the effectiveness of the state family policy. A significant stage in the development of state family policy is the adoption of the concept of state family policy in 2014. Evaluation of measures’ effectiveness in the field of family policy is the subject of many publications. However, most authors pay their attention to the individual events. It appears that the effectiveness of implementation of strategic documents is defined by the detailed development of the documents, objective approach to formation of system of target indicators.The aim of the article is the analysis of the structure of the Concept of family policy, adopted in 2014, and implementation plan of its first stage. It allows identifying whether the ineffectiveness of family policy is determined by the logic strategic documents in the field of family policy. The possibilities for monitoring the effectiveness of the action plan and the first results of the implementation of the Concept, consistency of the logic in these documents are considered.Materials and methods. The conclusions of the article are based on the analysis of quantitative and qualitative indicators of family policy. The data of statistical monitoring of family policies based on official statistical reporting and representative sample surveys of ROSSTAT, and the experience of monitoring the National strategy of actions in interests of children served as the information base of the study.Results. Currently, the performance evaluation is conducted formally; complexity evaluation for the implementation of the Concept of family policy is largely related to the logic of formation of the Concept and its expected results, the disadvantages of the formation of plans for its implementation, the lack of necessary information and special monitoring in the framework of the implementation of the Concept. In the framework
Ding, Qu Jian; Hesketh, Therese
To examine the impact of the one child family policy in China on fertility, preferred family size, and sex ratio. Secondary analysis of data from the Chinese cross sectional national family planning and reproductive health survey, 2001. Interviews of representative sample of women aged 15-49. Data were obtained from 39,585 women, with a total of 73,202 pregnancies and 56,830 live births. The average fertility rate in women over 35 (n = 17,078) was 1.94 (2.1 in rural areas and 1.4 in urban areas) and for women under 35 (n = 11,543) 1.73 (1.25 and 1.79). Smaller families were associated with younger age, higher level of education, and living in an urban area. The male to female ratio was 1.15 and rose from 1.11 in 1980-9 to 1.23 for 1996-2001. Most women wanted small families: 35% preferred one child and 57% preferred two. Since the one child family policy began, the total birth rate and preferred family size have decreased, and a gross imbalance in the sex ratio has emerged.
Goltermann, Per; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup
this concept for 100+ students with experimental activities and found a major improvement in their learning, grades, interaction and behaviour in the laboratories, just as they now provides a strong support for the supervisors’ research. The use of resources for the supervision and the support......The students’ activities during their final thesis work have been organised in project families, i.e. a group of individual student project organized in a shared learning environment. The aim is more efficient supervision and support, simultaneously to improved learning. DTU Byg have now tested...
In the knowledge based economy, brain gain has vital importance for many countries. However, the non-English speaking countries, such as Korea and Japan, face a similar disadvantage in attracting talented foreigners. International student policy plays an important role in attracting and fostering future talents in such countries. In this paper, the characteristics of international student policy and brain gain/circulation policy of Korea will be analyzed in light of its emigration history and...
Lukas Setia Atmaja
Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between family control and dividend policy in Indonesia. There are three possible explanations for the relationship. The expropriation hypothesis predicts that family control has a negative impact on dividend payouts. Meanwhile the reputation hypothesis and the family income hypothesis predict that family control has a positive impact on dividend payouts. Using a panel data of Indonesian publicly listed firms in the period of 2003-2009, the results shows that family control has a significant negative impact on dividend payouts, dividend yields and likelyhood to pay dividends. The results control for other variables that may potentially affect dividend payments such as growth opportunity, debt, profitability, firm size and firm age. From agency theory perspective, the finding is consistent with the argument that family controlling shareholders prefer lower dividends, in order to preserve cash flows that they can potentially expropriate (the expropriation hypothesis.
Full Text Available Attempting to analyze the ways that public actions geared toward the rural enviroment have made reference to the notion of agricultural multifunctionality and the territorial perspective on development, in this article we analyze the variety of public policies that are part of the Multiple Year Plan 2004-2007. Within a context that is marked simultaneously by the globalization of the economy and strengthening of democratic processes, we give emphasis to public managers’ concern for inducing a process of social and territorial re-balancing through the implantation of two different logics: sectoral policies that favor family farming and policies seeking to dynamize land-based economic activities. We note that these policies make implicit reference to the multi-functional character of family farming and explicit reference to the territorial perspective. In conclusion, we point to the essentially fragmented and differentiated nature of policies of rural development and the need to integrate them through clearer references to both notions. Keywords: Sustainable territorial development, public policies, family farming, multiple year plans.
von Hippel, Courtney; Kalokerinos, Elise K.; Zacher, Hannes
In their efforts to recruit and retain female employees, organizations often attempt to make their workplaces ?family-friendly.? Yet there is little research on how women view family-friendly policies, particularly women who experience gender-based stereotype threat, or the concern of being viewed through the lens of gender stereotypes at work. Pilot research with female managers (N = 169) showed that women who experienced stereotype threat perceived more negative career consequences for util...
Gower, Amy L.; Cousin, Molly; Borowsky, Iris W.
Background: Although nearly all states in the United States require school districts to adopt anti-bullying policies, little research examines the effect of these policies on student bullying and health. Using a statewide sample, we investigated associations between the quality of school district anti-bullying policies and student bullying…
Barile, John P; Donohue, Dana K; Anthony, Elizabeth R; Baker, Andrew M; Weaver, Scott R; Henrich, Christopher C
In recent discussions regarding concerns about the academic achievement of US students, educational policy makers have suggested the implementation of certain teacher policies. To address the limited empirical research on the putative educational impact of such policies, this study used multilevel structural equation models to investigate the longitudinal associations between teacher evaluation and reward policies, and student mathematics achievement and dropout with a national sample of students (n = 7,779) attending one of 431 public high schools. The student sample included an equal number of boys and girls averaging 16 years of age, and included a White (53%) majority. This study examined whether associations between teacher policies and student achievement were mediated by the teacher-student relationship climate. Results of this study were threefold. First, teacher evaluation policies that allowed students to evaluate their teachers were associated with more positive student reports of the classroom teaching climate. Second, schools with teacher reward policies that included assigning higher performing teachers with higher performing students had a negative association with student perceptions of the teaching climate. Lastly, schools with better student perceptions of the teaching climate were associated with lower student dropout rates by students' senior year. These findings are discussed in light of their educational policy implications.
Aiken, Abigail R A; Scott, James G
Following decades of mainstream bipartisan support, contraception has reemerged as a controversial political issue in the United States. At the same time, opposition to abortion has intensified. State legislatures across the country have enacted highly visible policies limiting access to family planning. Perhaps the most striking example occurred in 2011 in Texas, when legislators instituted unprecedented requirements on abortion providers and cut public funding for contraception by two thirds. Yet, despite popular interpretations of this phenomenon as a simple byproduct of increasing partisan divisions, little is understood about the factors underlying such policy shifts. We fit Bayesian ideal-point models to analyze correlation patterns in record-vote data in the Texas House of Representatives in the 2003 and 2011 Legislatures. Both sessions had large Republican majorities and saw the passage of restrictive abortion bills, but they differed markedly with respect to public funding for contraception. We demonstrate that variation in voting on family-planning issues cannot be fully attributed to partisanship in either session. However, the politics of abortion and contraception have converged over time, and - at least for Democrats - the correlation between constituency characteristics and voting behavior on family-planning legislation is markedly higher in 2011 than in 2003. These shifts have been partly driven by legislators from high-poverty, majority Latino districts near the US-Mexico border. Recent dramatic shifts in family-planning policy go beyond simple partisan divisions. As the politics of abortion and contraception have converged, policies that are increasingly hostile to reproductive health and that disproportionately affect low-income minority women have emerged. Recent shifts in family-planning policy restrict women's access to contraception and abortion, yet little research has examined why such shifts are occurring. This paper analyzes factors
Ren, Li; Hu, Guangwei
This article reports a case study of two Chinese-English bilingual families in Singapore and illustrates the importance of incorporating two hitherto disconnected fields of research--family language policy and family literacy practices--to an understanding of early language and literacy acquisition in the familial milieu. Specifically, this work…
Hough, Heather; Witte, Joe
With the passage of the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) of 2015, California state policymakers are tasked with determining the subgroup threshold for school-level reporting. To inform this decision, this policy brief explores the implications of utilizing various subgroup sizes using data from the CORE Districts. The authors find that the 20+…
Luck, Jo; Rossi, Dolene
Central Queensland University (CQU) is progressing toward a policy whereby all course materials will only be available online from 2013. The assumption by decision-makers within CQU is that current and potential students are comfortable enough with the use of technology that they will accept all their course materials being delivered online. This…
Malekpour, Mokhtar; Aghababaei, Sara; Hadi, Samira
The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the effectiveness of family, child, and family-child based intervention on the rate of ADHD symptoms in third grade students. The population for this study was all of students with ADHD diagnoses in the city of Isfahan, Iran. The multistage random sampling method was used to select the 60…
Goldberger, Zachary D; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K; Nichol, Graham; Chan, Paul S; Curtis, J Randall; Cooke, Colin R
A growing number of hospitals have begun to implement policies allowing for family presence during resuscitation (FPDR). However, the overall safety of these policies and their effect on resuscitation care is unknown. We conducted an observational cohort study of 252 hospitals in the United States with 41,568 adults with cardiac arrest. Multivariable hierarchical regression models were used to evaluate patterns of care at hospitals with and without an FPDR policy. Primary outcomes included return of spontaneous circulation and survival to discharge. Secondary outcomes included resuscitation quality, interventions, and facility-reported potential resuscitation systems errors. There were no significant differences in facility characteristics between hospitals with and without an FPDR policy, nor were there significant differences in return of spontaneous circulation (adjusted risk ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 0.95-1.06) or survival to discharge (adjusted risk ratio, 1.05; 95% confidence interval, 0.95-1.15). There was a small, borderline significant decrease in the mean time to defibrillation at hospitals with an FPDR policy compared with hospitals without the policy (mean difference, 0.32 minutes; 95% confidence interval, -0.01 to 0.64). Resuscitation quality, interventions, and facility-reported potential resuscitation systems errors did not meaningfully differ between hospitals with and without an FPDR policy. Hospitals with an FPDR policy generally have no statistically significant differences in outcomes and processes of care as hospitals without this policy, suggesting such policies may not negatively affect resuscitation care. Further study is warranted about the direct effect of FPDR attempts on adult patients with an in-hospital cardiac arrest and their families. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
Full Text Available The processes of globalization, liberalization and transition will inevitably lead to changes in the value systems of certain societies, shaping the elements of their structure. Thus, the above mentioned processes directly affect the family as the primary social group and a basic unit of society. This results in a number of positive and negative changes and consequences in the family. Apart from positive changes that are primarily related to the democratization of husband-wife and parents-children relations, there are often many negative changes and effects (depletion, domestic violence, weakening of the emotional bond and alienation, etc.. Despite all these numerous changes within and around the family, it has always been and remains the primary social group which plays a significant role in forming the personality, leaving a deep mark on individual lives. In the whirlwind of globalization and transition, the Serbian family is faced with many difficulties and problems while carrying out its functions. The youth in Serbia increasingly postpone getting married and starting a family, the frequency of divorce is higher and the birth rate of children is lower, etc. This paper analyzes the data obtained in the research project “Value orientations among students in Serbia”, carried out in Belgrade, as part of the extensive research project organized in the capitals of China, Russia and the Czech Republic.
Palese, A; Achil, I; Bulfone, G; Bulfone, T; Caporale, L; Comisso, I; Comand, F; Fabris, S; Urli, N; Zanini, A; Zuliani, S; Bortoluzzi, G
Potential nursing students and their families are faced with difficult decisions regarding the amount of time and money required to complete the nursing programme and the availability of funds to cover the costs and this seems to have received little no attention to date. With the aim of describing the costs incurred by Italian nursing students and/or their families per academic year and compare cost trends incurred from 2004-05 to 2010-11, a multi-centre qualitative/quantitative study design was adopted. Italian Nursing students attending the first, second and third academic years in 2004-05 and those attending the first, second and third academic years in 2010-11 were eligible. Five hundred and six students were involved: 215 (out of 300 eligible, 71.6%) attended the bachelor's degree in nursing in 2004-05 and 291 (out of 383 eligible, 75.9%) in 2010-11. On an annual basis, the average annual expenditures increased by 12% for nursing education from 2004-05 to 2010-11. Given that qualification as a nurse requires at least three years, and considering inflation, for a student who matriculated in 2005 an average of 2485.7€ per year (7457.0€ in total) was required. Data suggest that students have modified their spending behaviour (limiting lunches at public bars, buying books and photocopies) in order to handle the rise of non-discretionary costs, such as tuition fees and the costs of attending lectures and hospital/district trainings. Policies supporting nursing education in general and for those students who are motivated but unable to undertake the course for economic reasons are urgently needed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hui, Liu; Min, Yang
Based on the survey of "undergraduate family and educational background and freshman learning experience," a statistical analysis of Guangzhou University first-year undergraduate students' family backgrounds and participation in student organizational activities found a significant correlation between family background and the degree of…
Belo Leite, Dal J.G.; Bijman, J.; Giller, K.E.; Slingerland, M.A.
Driven by the increasing environmental concern related to the use of fossil fuels and the growing worldwide demand for biofuels, the Brazilian government launched a national biodiesel policy promoting feedstock supply from family farms. Especially in semi-arid regions farmers have been encouraged to
Roč. 6, 7-8 (2008), s. 8-11 ISSN 1214-1720 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB700280802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : new social risks * family policy * child benefit package Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography www.socioweb.cz
Altman, Carmit; Burstein Feldman, Zhanna; Yitzhaki, Dafna; Armon Lotem, Sharon; Walters, Joel
The relationship between family language policy (FLP) and language choice, language use, proficiency in Russian and Hebrew, codeswitching (CS) and linguistic performance was studied in Russian-speaking immigrant parents and their Russian-Hebrew bilingual preschool children. By means of Glaser's Grounded Theory, the content of sociolinguistic…
Sawhill, Isabel; Thomas, Adam; Monea, Emily
Isabel Sawhill, Adam Thomas, and Emily Monea believe that given the well-documented costs of nonmarital births to the children and parents in fragile families, as well as to society as a whole, policy makers' primary goal should be to reduce births to unmarried parents. The authors say that the nation's swiftly rising nonmarital birth rate has…
Schwartz, Mila; Moin, Victor
Parents' assessment of children's development in the first and the second language is an essential part of their family language policy (FLP) and an important component of parent-child communication. This paper presents a pilot study focused on Russian-speaking immigrant parents' assessment of their children's language knowledge in Russian as a…
Describes undergraduate family values surveys conducted at the beginning and end of a family sociology course at a large public university. States surveys were used to assess change in family values and the implications of the change. Focuses on issues such as diversity, student employment, liberal education, and socialization processes. (KDR)
Glass, Jennifer; Simon, Robin W; Andersson, Matthew A
The recent proliferation of studies examining cross-national variation in the association between parenthood and happiness reveal accumulating evidence of lower levels of happiness among parents than nonparents in most advanced industrialized societies. Conceptualizing parenting as a stressor buffered by institutional support, we hypothesize that parental status differences in happiness are smaller in countries providing more resources and support to families. Our analyses of the European Social Surveys (ESS) and International Social Survey Programme (ISSP) reveal considerable variation in the parenthood gap in happiness across countries, with the U.S. showing the largest disadvantage of parenthood. We also find that more generous family policies, particularly paid time off and childcare subsidies, are associated with smaller disparities in happiness between parents and non-parents. Moreover, the policies that augment parental happiness do not reduce the happiness of nonparents. Our results shed light on macro-level causes of emotional processes, with important implications for public policy.
Miller, Alexander; Hess, Julia Meredith; Bybee, Deborah; Goodkind, Jessica R
Consistent evidence documents the negative impacts of family separation on refugee mental health and concerns for the welfare of distant family members and desire to reunite with family members as priorities for refugees postmigration. Less is known about refugees' emic perspectives on their experiences of family separation. Using mixed methods data from a community-based mental health intervention study, we found that family separation was a major source of distress for refugees and that it was experienced in a range of ways: as fear for family still in harm's way, as a feeling of helplessness, as cultural disruption, as the greatest source of distress since resettlement, and contributing to mixed emotions around resettlement. In addition to these qualitative findings, we used quantitative data to test the relative contribution of family separation to refugees' depression/anxiety symptoms, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and psychological quality of life. Separation from a family member was significantly related to all 3 measures of mental health, and it explained significant additional variance in all 3 measures even after accounting for participants' overall level of trauma exposure. Relative to 26 other types of trauma exposure, family separation was 1 of only 2 traumatic experiences that explained additional variance in all 3 measures of mental health. Given the current global refugee crisis and the need for policies to address this large and growing issue, this research highlights the importance of considering the ways in which family separation impacts refugee mental health and policies and practices that could help ameliorate this ongoing stressor. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Feenstra, Jennifer S.; Banyard, Victoria L.; Rines, Emily N.; Hopkins, Kimberly R.
First semester college students (N=139) were surveyed to assess the role of family structure, family conflict, family coping, and individual coping on adjustment to college. Family conflict and family coping were related to adaptation to college. Individual coping also significantly correlated with adaptation to college. Results support a…
Garbacz, S. Andrew; McIntyre, Laura Lee; Santiago, Rachel T.
Family educational involvement and parent--teacher relationships are important for supporting student outcomes and have unique implications for families of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, little research has examined child and family characteristics among families of children with ASD as predictors of family involvement and…
Cao, Shixiong; Tian, Tao; Qi, Fan; Ma, Li; Wang, Guosheng
Reducing China's population has formerly been considered a good thing because of the perceived environmental and social risks of overpopulation, but it has recently become apparent that the resulting population decline may create problems that will become increasingly serious in the future. The results of a survey of 4600 women in nineteen Chinese provinces in 2005 indicated that young age, high income, high education level, urban location and good employment all decreased a woman's willingness to bear children. The risks created by declining fertility in these groups have been intensified by China's 'one child' family planning policy. However, as a result of current trends and China's policies, the country's population will continue to age, leading to social problems and difficulties for sustainable development both in China and around the world. Therefore, China's policy-makers must begin planning to adjust their policy by encouraging women to give birth to more than one child.
Krztoń-Królewiecka, Anna; Jarczewska, Dorota Łucja; Windak, Adam
Family medicine has been recognized as the key element of a good health care system. Despite the significance of the family physician's role the number of medical students choosing to train in family medicine has been declining in recent years. The aim of this study was to describe opinions about family medicine and family medicine teaching among medical students. A cross sectional study with an anonymous questionnaire was carried out. The study population was all sixth-year students in Faculty Medicine of Jagiellonian University Medical College, who completed family medicine course in winter semester of academic year 2012/2013. 111 students filled in the questionnaire. The response rate was 84.1%. Less than one third of respondents (30.6%) considered family medicine as a future career choice. Almost all students recognized responsibility of the family doctor for the health of community. 52% of respondents agreed that the family doctor is competent to provide most of the health care an individual may require. Experience from family medicine course was according to the students the most important factor influencing their opinions. Medical students appreciate the social role of family doctors. Family medicine teachers should not only pass on knowledge, but they also should encourage medical students to family medicine as a future career choice.
This research aims to examine how migrant families living in England establish their family language policy and practice. It is set within a context of increased levels of transnational migration and globalisation (OECD, 2015). The number of migrant families in which parents have different language backgrounds is increasing on a European level (Lanzieri, 2012) and in London one in three families is thought to be multilingual (OECD, 2010). This has implications for research into the role of la...
Phillips, Julie; Charnley, Iain
The effect of third-year family medicine clerkships on shaping contemporary US students' knowledge and attitudes toward family medicine is not well understood. The objectives of this study were to assess third-year medical students' attitudes toward family medicine before and after a family medicine clerkship, to assess students' interest in a family medicine career before and after the clerkship, and to compare these findings to the same students' attitudes toward family medicine in the fourth year. An anonymous questionnaire assessing attitudes toward family medicine was offered to 150 medical students in the class of 2011 at a geographically dispersed, community-based US medical school. Students were offered the questionnaire during their third year, on the first and last days of the required 8-week family medicine clerkship, and midway through the fourth year. At least 92 students completed participation at each time point (response rate 61%). Twenty-seven percent of students initially unlikely to choose family medicine as a career became interested after the clerkship. Ninety percent of those interested in family medicine maintained their interest. Attitudes toward lifestyle and compensation, family medicine's role in research, and family physician expertise significantly improved after the clerkship. However, gains in some of these areas regressed in the fourth year. The clerkship improves students' attitudes toward, and interest in, family medicine. However, students' favorable attitudes deteriorate when they are no longer exposed to family medicine instruction. Educational practices focused on fourth-year students may be needed to support and maintain student interest in family medicine.
Full Text Available Students who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT are at risk for harassment due to their sexual orientation or gender identification with over 85% of LGBT students in the United States (US reporting such harassment. These statistics demonstrate one aspect of the significance of this issue, but the cost of human life in some instances has revealed another layer of importance related to a need for safety policies for LGBT students. Even though a need exists for such policies, the practice of heteronormativity found in US policymaking regarding bullying does not protect victims or curb the violence. This essay highlights several recent developments in anti-bullying policy in US schools that shows the existence of heteronormativity, which is not helping to pro-tect LGBT students. By understanding the discrimination encouraged by current policy, future policy can be better shaped to protect LGBT students.
LEE, Soomi; DUVANDER, Ann-Zofie; ZARIT, Steven H.
South Korea has extremely low rates of fertility and labor force participation by women during their childbearing years, whereas Sweden has high rates for both. Variations in family policy models may explain differences in fertility and women’s employment between the two countries. Drawing upon literature that examines the effects of family policies on fertility and women’s employment, this paper compares childcare support for very young children and parental leave policies in South Korea and...
Full Text Available In article the problem of formation of a regional family, youth policy is considered, necessity of regulation of processes of reproduction of the population, especially, in the conditions of the proceeding demographic crisis assuming presence of is standard-legal base, corresponding to the decision of problems of demographic development of region is proved. Results of the spent sociological interrogations on problems of family-marriage, reproductive behaviour of youth, and also the relation of the population of younger age groups to the state measures, the young families directed on support, birth rate increase are analyzed. The series of measures for increase family-marriage, reproductive, socio-labor activity of the population and, first of all, youth is offered.
Demonstrating a burgeoning interest in the field of family language policy (FLP) around the world, Successful Family Language Policy comprises several contributions from researchers working on multiple different contexts, united in their aim to address the key question of what makes some families successful in achieving bi- or multilingual outcomes for their children and others not. Many factors that might contribute towards or jeopardise success are put forward throughout the course of...
Gustavo Adolfo Enríquez Gutiérrez
Full Text Available In this paper we analyze educational policies on gifted students (1980-2006, known in Mexico as «estudiantes sobresalientes». The authors point out the way the term «estudiantes sobresalientes» was implemented over the field of Special Education as well as how a political agenda was designed in order to assist gifted childhood and youth. This article also focuses on the design a proposal of an educational intervention. And at the very end how this proposal was developed, the results and the way it was formed as a training program for Mexican Teachers from Public Education. We recognize the fact that the term «estudiante sobresaliente» is ambiguous due to the diversity of student population as well as, in many cases; the gifted status is no visible. We consider the process of selection, assessment and follow up of this project was based on formal concepts and at the same time did not take in consideration the capabilities and skills of the cultural context of each student (community, family and individual. These elements let us understand the educational political agenda (1980-2006 on special education for gifted students as well as the construction of a wide concept of «sobresaliencia» that was design in order to classify and rate them thru that political agenda.
Johnston-Guerrero, Marc P.; Pecero, Veronica
Family plays an integral role in racial and cultural socialization, yet how mixed heritage students understand the concepts of race and culture in relation to family is unclear. This qualitative study explored the interplay of race, culture, and family in the identity constructions of 25 mixed heritage students. Findings suggest the centrality of…
Edwards, Caitlin C.; Da Fonte, Alexandra
Family-teacher collaboration is an important factor in the success of students with disabilities. Through partnering with families as help-givers, teachers have the unique chance to support students with disabilities and their families by collaborating and providing an open communication environment that will better support and enhance the…
Evans, Michael P.
From 2000 to 2001, Andy Hargreaves produced a series of publications introducing the concept of distinctive emotional geographies of teaching. The concept addressed how teacher emotions are situated within the context of their work and influence interactions with students, colleagues, administrators, and families. Hargreaves contended that…
We analyze the way children and youngsters perceive the role of family in the use and acquisition of the heritage language (HL), through two complementary means: drawings produced by children and students participating in a discussion forum. Our study reveals: (1) the convergence of perceptions that children and adolescents have about family…
Chan, David W.
This study assessed the self-perceptions of 212 gifted students regarding their creativity, family hardiness, and emotional intelligence. There were in general no gender and age group differences on these self-perceptions, with the exception that younger students perceived their families as more hardy than did older students. The results of…
National Association for Foreign Student Affairs, Washington, DC.
Advice for American families who host a foreign student is offered, with attention to culture shock, the first visit, stages of the student's adjustment, and mealtimes. It is suggested that both the host and foreign student can learn from the other. At first, the host family should speak slowly and clearly and be careful to avoid talking loud,…
McConnell, Bethany M.; Kubina, Richard M., Jr.
School attendance is a rising issue in public schools. Students regularly absent from school can end up involved in destructive behaviors and dropout of school. Family characteristics are strong determining factors in students' school attendance. This presents the question, "Can family involvement improve public school students'…
Bolte, Gabriele; Fromme, Hermann
Few studies have analysed the impact of different socioeconomic indicators on the prevalence of children's environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure at several indoor environments and on family's home smoking policy. Data on 12 422 pre-school children (48% female) from two cross-sectional surveys conducted during 2004-06 in Germany were analysed. Exposure assessment was based on parental report. Independent effects of socioeconomic indicators were determined by mutually adjustment in logistic regression analyses. Low parental education, unemployment, low household equivalent income, non-German nationality, single-parent family and family size were independently associated with children's ETS exposure at home and in cars. The strongest associations were observed for low parental education [at home: adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.94; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.46-4.49; in cars: 5.00; 3.84-6.50]. Indicators of material living conditions (relative poverty: 0.48; 0.39-0.57, parental unemployment: 0.55; 0.46-0.65), as well as single-parent family, non-German nationality and family size, but not parental education, were independently associated with ETS exposure at hospitality venues. Smoking households with low parental education, unemployment, poverty, single-parent family and non-German nationality were less likely to have the rule of exclusively smoking on the balcony or terrace. Low parental education and unemployment were negatively associated with no smoking in presence of the child in households with smoking inside the flat. Several dimensions of socioeconomic position have to be considered in explanations of social inequalities in children's ETS exposure and family's home smoking policy as well as in development of targeted interventions.
This paper focuses on the interaction between gender discrimination and household decisions. It develops a model with endogenous fertility, endogenous labor supply and endogenous size of government spending. Family policies which concern childcare services are assumed to reduce the time that parents spend on their children. The model shows that gender discrimination may explain differences in household decisions between countries. The solution shows a U-shaped relationship between fertility a...
Wise, Richard A.; King, Alan R.
Family environment appears to be an important determinant of friendship quality. Despite this apparent link, few studies have explored how family environment relates to friendship, especially among college students. The present study examined the relationship between family environment and best friendships, by administering the Family Environment…
McDermott, Kathryn A.; Frankenberg, Erica; Diem, Sarah
Many school districts have recently revised, or tried to revise, their policies for assigning students to schools, because the legal and political status of racial and other kinds of diversity is uncertain, and the districts are facing fiscal austerity. This article presents case studies of politics and student assignment policy in three large…
Baillie, Lynne; Callaghan, Doris; Smith, Michelle L.
Background: Young adults remain the earliest legal target for the tobacco industry. Against this, the existence of smoking policies would appear to offer some protection to students on campus. However, little research has been conducted into the outcomes of such policies from a student perspective. Methods: The authors conducted 8 focus groups at…
Griswold, Carolyn P.
A study explored constraints experienced by policy researchers working for the National Commission on Student Assistance, founded in 1980 to investigate federal student-aid policy. It analyzed how political changes limited the scope of research questions, influenced reporting of results, and reduced effects of research on policymaking. Findings…
Pinto, Mary Beth; Parente, Diane H.; Palmer, Todd S.
Reports on a study that investigated the effect of a university's solicitation policy on students' acquisition and usage of credit cards. Attempts by universities to limit access to and use of credit cards appear to be ineffective. Suggests alternative policies be constructed around teaching students sound money management skills. (Author/JDM)
This qualitative investigation explores the responses of 22 U.S. urban public high school students when confronted with their newly imposed school uniform policy. Specifically, the study assessed students' appraisals of the policy along with compliance and academic performance. Guided by ecological human development perspectives and grounded in…
McGuire, Maureen; Goldstein, Carol; Claywell, Lora; Patton, Ryan
This is a content analysis of the reflections of 187 nursing students after experiential learning opportunities in both master's and doctoral level health policy courses. Results show that experiential activities in a health policy class for nursing students increased their knowledge of the legislative process and motivated them to identify newfound intent to become more involved in the political process.
Saelzer, Christine; Lenski, Anna Eva
Truant student behavior can be due to various reasons. Some of these reasons are located in schools. So far, little is known about how student perception of school rules is related to truancy. This study aims to identify types of school attendance policies and how these policies are associated with individual truancy. Self-reports from the German…
Finn, Amber N.; Ledbetter, Andrew M.
In this study, we extend previous work on teacher technology policies by refining the teacher technology policies instrument to account for the technology purpose (social, academic) and type (cell phone, laptop/tablet), and examine a model of teacher technology policies and perceived learning. We found that students are more sensitive to policies…
Gottfried, Michael A., Ed.; Conchas, Gilberto Q., Ed.
Like medical practitioners, educators share the moral obligation to "first, do no harm." But as this provocative volume shows, education policies do not always live up to this ideal, especially policies intended to help our most vulnerable students. "When School Policies Backfire" draws our attention to education policies…
Pontin, D.; Kenny, G.; Bray, I.; Albarran, J.
Aims:\\ud To describe the impact of family member presence on student nurse performance in a witnessed resuscitation scenario.\\ud To explore student nurses’ attitudes to simulated family witnessed resuscitation and their views about its place in clinical practice.\\ud Background: Family witnessed resuscitation remains controversial worldwide. Hospital implementation remains inconsistent despite professional organisation support. Systematic reviews of international literature indicate family mem...
Zabin, L S
is permissible to support family planning but not mandatory as it has been in the past. Several legislative measures regarding abortion before Congress last year were not enacted, measures which might have been a serious threat to the provision of legal abortion. It is legislatively that abortion service is in most danger, with Administration forces committed to making it illegal under almost all conditions. Not all policies of this Administration are subject to control by the Congress. The parental notification regulations promulgated by the Department of Health and Human Services are an example of policy responsive to the concept that government can decide what is good for the American Family.
Lineburg, Mark Young
An Analysis of Random Student Drug Testing Policies and Patterns of Practice In Virginia Public Schools Mark Y. Lineburg Abstract There were two purposes to this study. First, the study was designed to determine which Virginia public school districts have articulated policies that govern random drug testing of students and if school districtsâ policies aligned with U.S. Supreme Court standards and Virginia statutes. The second purpose was to ascertain the patterns of pract...
Snyder, Susan M.; Li, Wen; O’Brien, Jennifer E.; Howard, Matthew O.
This is the first study to investigate how college students in the U.S. with problematic Internet use perceive the role the Internet plays within their families of origin. The sample included 27 U.S. university students who self-identified as excessive Internet users. Participants reported spending more than 25 hours a week on the Internet on non-school or non-work-related activities and reported Internet-associated health and/or psychosocial problems. This study provides descriptive statistics from participants' completion of two problematic Internet use measures (i.e., Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire and the Compulsive Internet Use Scale) and reports findings from four focus groups. Three themes emerged from the focus groups: (1) family connectedness, (2) family conflict/family disconnection, and (3) family Internet overuse. The findings of this study are a first step toward the design of effective interventions for problematic Internet use among U.S. college students and serve to inform clinical practice and health policy in this area. PMID:26658077
Snyder, Susan M; Li, Wen; O'Brien, Jennifer E; Howard, Matthew O
This is the first study to investigate how college students in the U.S. with problematic Internet use perceive the role the Internet plays within their families of origin. The sample included 27 U.S. university students who self-identified as excessive Internet users. Participants reported spending more than 25 hours a week on the Internet on non-school or non-work-related activities and reported Internet-associated health and/or psychosocial problems. This study provides descriptive statistics from participants' completion of two problematic Internet use measures (i.e., Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire and the Compulsive Internet Use Scale) and reports findings from four focus groups. Three themes emerged from the focus groups: (1) family connectedness, (2) family conflict/family disconnection, and (3) family Internet overuse. The findings of this study are a first step toward the design of effective interventions for problematic Internet use among U.S. college students and serve to inform clinical practice and health policy in this area.
Chan, Zenobia C Y
When caring for a family as a unit, it is as crucial to communicate with the family members of a patient as it is with the patient. However, there is a lack of research on the views of nursing students on communicating with the family members of patients, and little has been mentioned in the nursing curriculum on this topic. The aim of this study was to explore nursing students' experiences of communicating with the family members of patients. A qualitative descriptive study. A total of 42 nursing students (21 undergraduate year-two students and 21 were master's year-one students) from one school of nursing in Hong Kong participated in in-depth individual interviews. Content analysis was adopted. The trustworthiness of this study was ensured by enhancing its credibility, confirmability, and dependability. Two main themes were discerned. The first, "inspirations gained from nursing student-family communication", included the following sub-themes: (a) responding to enquiries clearly, (b) avoiding sensitive topics, (c) listening to the patient's family, and (d) sharing one's own experiences. The second, "emotions aroused from nursing student-family communication", had the following sub-themes: (a) happiness, (b) anger, (c) sadness, and (d) anxiety. More studies on the perspectives of nursing students on communicating with family members should be conducted, to strengthen the contents and learning outcomes of nursing student-family communication in the existing nursing curriculum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Šter, Marija Petek; Švab, Igor; Klemenc-Ketiš, Zalika; Kersnik, Janko
The development of the EURACT (European Academy of Teachers in General Practice) Educational Agenda helped many family medicine departments in development of clerkship and the aims and objectives of family medicine teaching. Our aims were to develop and validate a tool for assessment of students' attitudes towards family medicine and to evaluate the impact of the clerkship on students' attitudes regarding the competences of family doctor. In the pilot study, experienced family doctors were asked to describe their attitudes towards family medicine by using the Educational Agenda as a template for brainstorming. The statements were paraphrased and developed into a 164-items questionnaire, which was administered to 176 final-year students in academic year 2007/08. The third phase consisted of development of a final tool using statistical analysis, which resulted in the 60-items questionnaire in six domains which was used for the evaluation of students' attitudes. At the beginning of the clerkship, person-centred care and holistic approach scored lower than the other competences. Students' attitudes regarding the competences at the end of 7 weeks clerkship in family medicine were more positive, with exception of the competence regarding primary care management. The students who named family medicine as his or her future career choice, found holistic approach as more important than the students who did not name it as their future career. With the decision tree, which included students' attitudes to the competences of family medicine, we can successfully predict the future career choice in family medicine in 93.5% of the students. This study reports on the first attempt to develop a valid and reliable tool for measuring attitudes towards family medicine based on EURACT Educational Agenda. The questionnaire could be used for evaluating changes of students' attitudes in undergraduate curricula and for prediction of students' preferences regarding their future professional
Petersen, Trond; Penner, Andrew M; Høgsnes, Geir
Given the key role that processes occurring in the family play in creating gender inequality, the family is a central focus of policies aimed at creating greater gender equality. We examine how family status affects the gender wage gap using longitudinal matched employer-employee data from Norway, 1979-96, a period with extensive expansion of family policies. The motherhood penalty dropped dramatically from 1979 to 1996. Among men the premia for marriage and fatherhood remained constant. In 1979, the gender wage gap was primarily due to the motherhood penalty, but by 1996 husband premia were more important than motherhood penalties.
Rebekah J. Maupin
Quantitative data from a study of gender differentiation among accounting students are analyzed to discover if male and female accounting students have different attitudes, orientations, and expectations for career and family. Although some changes toward a more gender-equal population are found, the study results also indicate several potential conflicts which accounting students will have to face as they attempt to combine work and family roles. Both male and female accounting students have...
Rael Achieng Ogwari
Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the influence of reciprocal interactions in the family on academic performance among secondary school students in Siaya District. Stratified and purposive sampling techniques were used to select the study participants. The sample comprised of a total of 243 students (154 boys and 89 girls drawn from 27 public coeducational schools in the district. Data was collected using student questionnaires. The researchers’ judgment of the representativeness of the items in the questionnaire to the study topic was used to determine content validity of the instrument while Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was used to ascertain validity and reliability of the instrument. Linear regression analysis and one way Analysis of Variance were used to analyze data. The results revealed significant relationship between reciprocal interactions in the family and academic performance of students. There was positive correlation between parental expectation, autonomy granting, cross-sex behaviour and students’ academic performance. Siblings’ sex dyads and birth order were also found to correlate with students’ academic performance. The findings may be used by policy makers to sensitize parents and students on the significance of specific interactions in the family on academic performance.
McGuffin, L E; Wallace, J M W; McCrorie, T A; Price, R K; Pourshahidi, L K; Livingstone, M B E
Childhood obesity is a growing problem worldwide. In recent years, out-of-home (OH) eating has been highlighted as one of the many factors contributing to the obesogenic environment. This review seeks to identify a range of existing guidelines for the provision of healthy food options for families who eat OH frequently. Nationally available nutrition policies were identified using targeted and untargeted searches of the internet to identify established strategies for providing food for children in the family eating out sector in America (US), Australia, Canada and the WHO's European Region (EUR). These were categorised on the basis of eleven pre-defined criteria including: family eating out sector included as stakeholder; inclusion of children's food OH; cost strategies for healthier food choices; provision of nutrition information for customers; nutrition training of catering staff; and monitoring and evaluation structures. Fifty-five policies were reviewed, of which 71% addressed children's food served OH, but principally only for food available in schools. Two voluntary programmes, from Colorado and Slovenia, were identified as possible best practice models as they met a majority of the evaluation criteria. The most frequently used strategy by policies to promote healthier eating OH was the provision of nutrition information on menus, while monitoring and evaluation plans were poorly incorporated into any OH strategies, thus raising issues about their effectiveness. This review has identified a range of initiatives that could be employed to make healthier eating OH more accessible for families. However, to establish best practice guidelines for healthier OH food choices further investigations are required.
Cornett, Joshua Stephen
Students' behavior on buses continues to be an issue that requires administrators to spend significant time investigating and applying consequences for the behavior (Neatrour, 1994; Pattington, 1945; Putnam, Handler, Ramirez-Plat, and Luiselli, 2003). The purpose of this study was to identify policies and practices that may improve student bus behavior. Two research questions were addressed: (a) What policies could school districts implement to facilitate the improvement of student bus beh...
Barr, Ashley Brooke
In response to recent calls to integrate understandings of socioeconomic disparities in health with understandings of socioeconomic disparities in academic achievement, this study tested a mediational model whereby family socioeconomic status predicted gains in academic achievement across high school through its impact on both student and parent health. Data on over 8000 high school students in the U.S. were obtained from wave 1 (2009-2010) and wave 2 (2012) of the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09), and structural equation modeling with latent difference scores was used to determine the role of family health problems in mediating the well-established link between family SES and gains in academic achievement. Using both static and dynamic indicators of family SES, support was found for this mediational model. Higher family SES in 9th grade reduced the probability of students and their parents experiencing a serious health problem in high school, thereby promoting growth in academic achievement. In addition, parent and student health problems mediated the effect of changes in family SES across high school on math achievement gains. Results emphasize the importance of considering the dynamic nature of SES and that both student and parent health should be considered in understanding SES-related disparities in academic achievement. This relational process provides new mechanisms for understanding the intergenerational transmission of socioeconomic status and the status attainment process more broadly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kantrowitz-Gordon, Ira; Bennett, Deborah; Wise Stauffer, Debra; Champ-Gibson, Erla; Fitzgerald, Cynthia; Corbett, Cynthia
Facilitated family presence at resuscitation is endorsed by multiple nursing and specialty practice organizations. Implementation of this practice is not universal so there is a need to increase familiarity and competence with facilitated family presence at resuscitation during this significant life event. One strategy to promote this practice is to use a nursing student toolkit for pre-licensure and graduate nursing students. The toolkit includes short video simulations of facilitated family presence at resuscitation, a PowerPoint presentation of evidence-based practice, and questions to facilitate guided discussion. This study tested the effectiveness of this toolkit in increasing nursing students' knowledge, perceptions, and confidence in facilitated family presence at resuscitation. Nursing students from five universities in the United States completed the Family Presence Risk-Benefit Scale, Family Presence Self-Confidence Scale, and a knowledge test before and after the intervention. Implementing the facilitated family presence at resuscitation toolkit significantly increased nursing students' knowledge, perceptions, and confidence related to facilitated family presence at resuscitation (pfamily presence at resuscitation toolkit used in this study had a positive impact on students' knowledge, perception of benefits and risks, and self-confidence in facilitated family presence at resuscitation. The toolkit provides students a structured opportunity to consider the presence of family members at resuscitation prior to encountering this situation in clinical practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zhai, Hui; Chen, Lu; Yang, Yanjie; Sun, Hailian; Pan, Hui; He, Jincai; Zhu, Xiongzhao; Sui, Hong; Wang, Wenbo; Qiu, Xiaohui; Qiao, Zhengxue; Yang, Xiuxian; Yang, Jiarun; Yu, Yunmiao; Ban, Bo; He, Changzhi
Depression is a major health concern for college students due to its substantial morbidity and mortality. Although low parental education has been identified as a factor in depression in college students, the mechanisms through which parental educational achievement affects students' depression are not well understood. We tested whether adverse family and college environments mediate the relationship between parental educational level and depression among Chinese college students. A total of 5180 respondents were selected using a cross-sectional survey. We examined the association of parental education, adverse family and college environments with depression in college students using the Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Checklist, Beck Depression Inventory and socio-demographic questionnaires. Lower parental educational level is significantly correlated with depression in college students in our sample. Additionally, low family economic status, paternal or maternal unemployment, long periods spent apart from family, family conflicts, having been scolded and beaten by parents, poor or dissatisfying test performance, conflict with friends, heavy course load and failure in selection processes are also associated with parental education. Low family economic status, paternal or maternal unemployment, long periods spent apart from family, family conflicts, poor or dissatisfying test performance, conflict with friends and heavy course load mediated the relationship between parental education and depression in college students. Adverse family and college environments could explain the influence of parental educational level on depression in college students.
Full Text Available Depression is a major health concern for college students due to its substantial morbidity and mortality. Although low parental education has been identified as a factor in depression in college students, the mechanisms through which parental educational achievement affects students' depression are not well understood. We tested whether adverse family and college environments mediate the relationship between parental educational level and depression among Chinese college students.A total of 5180 respondents were selected using a cross-sectional survey. We examined the association of parental education, adverse family and college environments with depression in college students using the Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Checklist, Beck Depression Inventory and socio-demographic questionnaires.Lower parental educational level is significantly correlated with depression in college students in our sample. Additionally, low family economic status, paternal or maternal unemployment, long periods spent apart from family, family conflicts, having been scolded and beaten by parents, poor or dissatisfying test performance, conflict with friends, heavy course load and failure in selection processes are also associated with parental education. Low family economic status, paternal or maternal unemployment, long periods spent apart from family, family conflicts, poor or dissatisfying test performance, conflict with friends and heavy course load mediated the relationship between parental education and depression in college students.Adverse family and college environments could explain the influence of parental educational level on depression in college students.
Full Text Available In Norway an ideology of gender equality and the universal welfare state has created generous leave arrangements for parents, both mothers and fathers, to make the combination of work and family possible.To recruit competent women and men, knowledge work organisations have to accommodate to working hours that are compatible with the responsibility for a family. In the knowledge economy in Norway we therefore find women and men with higher education trying to act out the ideals of gen- der equality at work and at home. In this paper we explore how family-friendly policies in knowledge work organisations result in family-friendly practices.We do this by analysing two R&D departments belonging to large Norwegian companies in the international market. Both had policies of gender equality and family friendly working time arrangements and career opportunities for women with reduced hours.We show how different employment relations and forms of organisation influenced the work and time practices of the research scientists. Using the concept of social contracts in em- ployment and a relational concept of time, we found that it was more difficult to realise the reduced hours in the organisation that took responsibility for the career and welfare of their employees in a long-term perspective because of the mutual trust and obligations in this relationship.The women in the organisation with more transactional relations where their employment was dependent upon the market and their short-term economic performance, were able to use their accounting system to reduce their hours.The young fathers in the same organisation who were not yet established as experts, could not use the accounting system to limit their hours like the senior women.They needed to work long hours on scientific publications to qualify as researchers to secure their employment. In Norway an ideology of gender equality and the universal welfare state has created generous leave arrangements
Collins, Andrea; Broeseker, Amy; Cunningham, Jill; Cortes, Cyndi; Beall, Jennifer; Bigham, Amy; Chang, Jongwha
Interprofessional education (IPE) continues to gain traction worldwide. Challenges integrating IPE into health profession programmes include finding convenient times, meeting spaces, and level-appropriate assignments for each profession. This article describes the implementation of a 21-month prospective cohort study pilot programme for the Master of Science in nursing family nurse practitioner (FNP) and doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students at a private university in the United States. This IPE experience utilised a blended approach for the learning activities; these students had initial and final sessions where they met face-to-face, with asynchronous online activities between these two sessions. The online assignments, discussions, and quizzes during the pilot programme involved topics such as antimicrobial stewardship, hormone replacement therapy, human papilloma virus vaccination, prenatal counselling, emergency contraception, and effects of the Affordable Care Act on practice. The results suggested that the FNP students held more favourable attitudes about online IPE and that the PharmD students reported having a clearer understanding of their own roles and those of the other participating healthcare students. However, the students also reported wanting more face-to-face interaction during their online IPE experience. Implications from this study suggest that effective online IPE can be supported by ensuring educational parity between students regarding the various topics discussed and a consistent approach of the required involvement for all student groups is needed. In addition, given the students desire for more face-to-face interaction, it may be beneficial to offer online IPE activities for a shorter time period. It is anticipated that this study may inform other programmes that are exploring innovative approaches to provide IPE to promote effective collaboration in patient care.
LEE, Soomi; DUVANDER, Ann-Zofie; ZARIT, Steven H.
South Korea has extremely low rates of fertility and labor force participation by women during their childbearing years, whereas Sweden has high rates for both. Variations in family policy models may explain differences in fertility and women’s employment between the two countries. Drawing upon literature that examines the effects of family policies on fertility and women’s employment, this paper compares childcare support for very young children and parental leave policies in South Korea and Sweden. Thereafter, we discuss the importance of providing stronger support for dual-earner rather than single-earner families to reconcile the two objectives of increasing fertility and women’s workforce participation. Specifically, it is critical to: (a) enhance the quantity and quality of childcare services for very young children, (b) achieve gender equality in parental leave policies, and (c) reduce gaps in the accessibility and utilization of family benefits by working parents from different social classes. PMID:28163567
Ruth-Sahd, Lisa A; Schneider, Melissa A
To understand perceptions of faculty and students about attendance policies in baccalaureate nursing programs. Classroom attendance is an issue of debate across academic disciplines. A mixed-methods study was conducted using qualitative data from a stratified random sample of 65 accredited baccalaureate nursing programs; 591 students and 91 faculty from 19 schools responded. Sixty-two percent of faculty thought students who missed class exhibited unprofessional behavior; 69 percent believed students who missed class were less successful in the clinical setting. Students (57 percent) and faculty (66 percent) believed there should be an attendance policy. Twenty-nine students reported needing a break in workload (16.8 percent) or did not find class time valuable (11.8 percent). Variability exists in student and faculty beliefs regarding attendance policies. Understanding these viewpoints and utilizing creative teaching approaches will facilitate learning and create an environment of teamwork and mutual respect.
Corr, Lara; Davis, Elise; Cook, Kay; Waters, Elizabeth; LaMontagne, Anthony D
High quality child care is a population health investment that relies on the capacity of providers. The mental health and wellbeing of child care educators is fundamental to care quality and turnover, yet sector views on the relationship between working conditions and mental health and wellbeing are scarce. This paper examines child care educators' and sector key informants' perspectives on how working in family day care influences educator's mental health and wellbeing. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with Australian family day care educators (n = 16) and key informants (n = 18) comprised of representatives from family day care schemes, government and other relevant organisations regarding the relationship between working conditions and educator mental health. Thematic analysis referenced the assumptions and concepts of critical inquiry and used social exchange theory. Educators and key informants reported that educators' mental health was affected by the quality of their relationships with government, family day care schemes, and the parents and children using their services. These social relationships created and contributed to working conditions that were believed to promote or diminish educators' mental health. High quality relationships featured fair exchanges of educator work for key resources of social support and respect; adequate income; professional services; and information. Crucially, how exchanges influenced educator wellbeing was largely contingent on government policies that reflect the values and inequities present in society. Making policies and relationships between educators, government and family day care schemes fairer would contribute strongly to the protection and promotion of educator mental health and wellbeing, and in turn contribute to workforce stability and care quality.
At the start of the twenty-first century, two arms of U.S. immigration policy shape the lives of families and children. The first, enforcement practices, lead to the involuntary separation of parents and children-or the fears of this outcome-when the United States government detains and forcibly removes the parents of U.S. citizen children. The second, the policies which restrict migration to the United States, cause children to experience both long and short term separations when their parents migrate without them. In this paper I use interviews collected between the years of 2003-2006 and 2009-2012 with children and their parents or guardians in both the United States and in Mexico to assess the meanings these two types of separations have for families and the potential impacts for children's well-being. I find that enforcement practices create economic and emotional hardship due to feelings of uncertainty, while restrictive immigration policies lead to resentment among children even post-reunification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Family-school partnerships have a positive impact on both students and schools, yet they remain challenging to establish and maintain, particularly in the presence of parent-teacher conflict. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the experiences of parents, teachers, and students when parents and teachers disagreed about a student's…
Matthew Chuen Ngai Tang
Full Text Available Despite the Hong Kong courts’ seemingly robust protection of fundamental rights and civil liberties, enforcing family rights remains extremely difficult. While the right to family life is safeguarded by both domestic and international human right instruments, applicants in judicial review cases are usually not able to rely on it to challenge the decisions made by the immigration authority. This paper examines the challenges in enforcing the right to family life in Hong Kong’s Dependant Policy with a particular focus on the Hong Kong Court of Appeal’s recent decision in BI v Director of Immigration. The immigration reservation, entered into by the United Kingdom when ratifying the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, has become a justification for a restrictive immigration regime even after the transfer of sovereignty. The Hong Kong courts also repeatedly accord wide discretion to immigration authority. The courts’ reluctance to scrutinize socio-economic policies reveals one of the key weaknesses in enforcing fundamental rights in Hong Kong by the way of judicial review.
Mann, Collette; Canny, Ben; Lindley, Jennifer; Rajan, Ramesh
Generally, in most countries around the world, local medical students outperform, in an academic sense, international students. In an endeavour to understand if this effect is caused by language proficiency skills, we investigated academic differences between local and international MBBS students categorised by native language families. Data were available and obtained for medical students in their first and second years of study in 2002, 2003, 2005 and 2006. Information on social demographics, personal history and language(s) spoken at home was collected, as well as academic assessment results for each student. Statistical analysis was carried out with a dataset pertaining to a total of 872 students. Local students performed better than international students in first- (p language family and origin in the first year (p international students only, there was a main effect for language in the second year (p students from Sino-Tibetan language family backgrounds obtaining higher mean scores than students from English or Indo-European language family backgrounds. Our results confirmed that, overall, local students perform better academically than international students. However, given that language family differences exist, this may reflect acculturation rather than simply English language skills.
Smith, Ryan Lee
The purpose of this study was to use human capital theory to develop a policy approach towards college student migration in Illinois. A rate of return analysis revealed the social rate of return for college student migrants who return to Illinois and the private rate of return was 15.95%. It was estimated that due to college student migration in…
Williams, Jennifer; Feild, Carinda; James, Kristina
To examine how students entering a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program used Facebook privacy settings before and after the college's social media policy was presented to them. The Facebook profiles of all entering first-year pharmacy students across 4 campuses of a college of pharmacy were evaluated. Ten dichotomous variables of interest were viewed and recorded for each student's Facebook account at 3 time points: before the start of the semester, after presentation of the college's social media policy, and at the end of the semester. Data on whether a profile could be found and what portions of the profile were viewable also were collected. After introduction of the policy, a significant number of students increased their security settings (made information not visible to the public) related to Facebook walls, information pages, and links. Making pharmacy students aware of a college's social media policy had a positive impact on their behaviors regarding online security and privacy.
Full Text Available The goal of the research presented in this paper was to study the relations between students' estimation of the real and desired state of family functionality and attendance of religious instruction in school. The results obtained on the sample of 421 secondary school students of the third grade, who opted for attending religious instruction at the beginning of this level of schooling (263 students or for attending the alternative elective subject - civic education (158 students. For assessing relevant dimensions of the real and desired state of family system functionality, the standardized instruments were used - FACES III (cohesion and flexibility of the family and F-COPES (strategies of family's overcoming of problems. For collecting data on sociodemographic characteristics of respondents and their families, as well as the assessment of effects of attending religious instruction on the family, we used the Student Questionnaire, constructed for the purposes of this research. Based on the analysis of the obtained results, we reached the conclusion that in certain aspects there are differences in students' assessment of the real and desired state of family functionality, depending on the elective subject they attend, as well as that it can be stated with great probability that some of the measured family characteristics are significantly correlated with the effects of religious instruction on students and their family as a whole.
Lally, J. Ronald; Lurie-Hurvitz, Erica; Cohen, Julie
The ZERO TO THREE Policy Center has three areas of focus: good health, strong families, and positive early learning experiences. Effective policies must promote healthy functioning in all domains, including cognitive, physical, and social and emotional development. Comprehensive services are essential to meeting the needs of very young children…
Full Text Available The present paper analyzes social interventions adressed to family farmers living in the buffer periurban zone of La Matanza party –Greater Buenos Aires-, focusing on coordination at levels among different institutions that implement public policies oriented to promote and support such agricultural productions. Qualitative methodology was used for ethnographic field work and secondary information survey. Author/s aim/s to demonstrate that the articulations and agreements between institutions and actors are still incipient and do not realize about their real potentialities. The author/s describe/s interfaces between different actors: producers, extension agents and implementers, as well as interventions to incorporate appropriate technologies. The conclusions presented above show that this kind of interventions are being carried out on an conflict scenario and dispute over the implementation of development policies and programs.
Demirli, Aylin; Demir, Ayhan
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the predictive value of gender, attachment dimensions and family environment in explaining loneliness among students. The study included 473 students (281 females, 192 males) from Ankara University. The UCLA Loneliness Scale, Family Environment Assessment Scale and Experiences in Close…
Guimaraes, Juliana; Sampaio, Breno
This paper examines the determinants of students' performance on the entrance test at Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Brazil. Particular attention is paid to the importance of family background variables, such as parents' education and family income, on students' performance and how they relate to the probability of attending public schools…
URL des Documents de travail : http://ces.univ-paris1.fr/cesdp/CESFramDP2008.htmClassification JEL : D13, H31, J13, J71.; Documents de travail du Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne 2008.98 - ISSN : 1955-611X; This paper focuses on the interaction between gender discrimination and household decisions. It develops a general equilibrium model with endogenous fertility, endogenous labor supply and endogenous size of government spending. Family policies are assumed to decrease the time that parents ...
Häfner, Isabelle; Flunger, Barbara; Dicke, Anna-Lena; Gaspard, Hanna; Brisson, Brigitte M; Nagengast, Benjamin; Trautwein, Ulrich
Using data from 1,571 ninth-grade students (M age = 14.62) from 82 academic track schools in Germany and their predominantly Caucasian middle-class parents, configurations of different family characteristics reported by parents were investigated. Latent profile analyses considering academic involvement, family interest, parents' self-concept, child's need for support, and parents' time and energy identified average, indifferent, motivated and engaged, motivated and disengaged, and involved families. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations with students' motivational (self-concept, effort, and interest) and achievement outcomes (achievement test and grades) in math were analyzed. Students from families classified as motivated and disengaged showed higher initial levels motivation and achievement. Over 5 months, these students also showed an increase in self-concept and higher achievement than students from other family types. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Leana, Carrie; MacDermid, Shelley; Pitt-Catsouphes, Marcie; Raskin, Patricia; Secret, Mary; Sweet, Stephen
The contents of this module have been prepared to address some of challenges associated with teaching about work-family issues from a human resource management and employment perspective. The goals of this module are: (1) To develop an understanding that work-family policies are part of a human resource management system and the employment…
Peterson, Paul E.
Based upon reflections from the Moynihan report of 1965, this author notes that the root causes of the growth in single-parent families have yet to be well identified, making it difficult to figure out where to go next. However, from 1965 onward, social policies have influenced the rate of growth in single-parent families. What is needed is a…
Decio Estevão do Nascimento
Full Text Available In the state of Paraná, in 1999 the Family Agribusiness program "Factory Farmer" (PFA was created with the objective of adding value to products from family farming through the vertical integration of production by small agro-industrialization. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the Family Agribusiness program "Factory Farmer". The research was conducted descriptively as to approach their goals with the use of bibliographic research techniques, document research and survey, using structured interviews. The policy presented different results between the proposed objectives, being extremely successful in technological innovation objectives, market focus and support for family farming. He highlighted the importance of family farming in Paraná state and the significant contribution of public policies to strengthen family farming.
Wu, Ho-tang; Chou, Mei-ju; Chen, Wei-hung; Tu, Chin-Tang
This research aims to analyze the correlation between family support, love attitude, and well-being of junior high school students. After analyzing related literature, it is found that demographic variables like gender, grade, family structure, socioeconomic position have difference in perception of well-being. In addition, family support and love…
Zhai, Hui; Bai, Bing; Chen, Lu; Han, Dong; Wang, Lin; Qiao, Zhengxue; Qiu, Xiaohui; Yang, Xiuxian; Yang, Yanjie
Background: This study investigated the association between suicidal ideation and family environment. The sample included 5183 Chinese university students. A number of studies on suicidal ideation have focused on individuals rather than families. This paper reviews the general principles of suicidal ideation and the consequences resulting from the family environment. Methods: This study used six different colleges as the dataset, which included 2645 males and 2538 females. Students were quest...
Brown, Joel; And Others
A mailed survey was conducted of students' opinions on issues relevant to the university's policy toward the consumption of alcoholic beverages on campus. Responses were received from 402 members of a random sample of 496 students from the Twin Cities Campus of the University of Minnesota. Key findings include: A majority of respondents believed…
Raselekoane, Nanga R; Morwe, Keamogetse G; Tshitangano, Takalani
Many young men continue to disregard the importance of contraception and family planning in South Africa. The fact that even university students also do not take contraception and family planning seriously poses a serious threat to their own health and well-being. This paper aims at investigating the attitudes of male students towards contraception and the promotion of female students' sexual health rights and well-being at the University of Venda. Quantitative research method is used to determine how attitudes of 60 male students towards contraception can jeopardise the health and well-being of both male and female students. This study reveals that the majority of 60 male students at the University of Venda have a negative attitude towards contraceptives. As a result, male students at the University of Venda are not keen on using contraceptives. Male students' negative attitude and lack of interest in contraceptives and family planning also limit progress in achieving the Millennium Development Goals on primary health care, especially with regard to sexual and reproductive health and well-being of female students at the University of Venda. The fact that more than half of the male students interviewed did not take contraception and family planning seriously poses a serious threat to health and well-being of students, including violation of female students' sexual and reproductive health rights in South Africa. This calls for radical health promotion and sexual and reproductive rights programmes which should specifically target male students at the University of Venda.
Rodríguez, Charo; López-Roig, Sofía; Pawlikowska, Teresa; Schweyer, François-Xavier; Bélanger, Emmanuelle; Pastor-Mira, Maria Angeles; Hugé, Sandrine; Spencer, Sarah; Lévasseur, Gwenola; Whitehead, Ian; Tellier, Pierre-Paul
To understand the influence of academic discourses about family medicine on medical students' professional identity construction during undergraduate training. The authors used a multiple case study research design involving international medical schools, one each from Canada, France, Spain, and the United Kingdom (UK). The authors completed the fieldwork between 2007 and 2009 by conducting 18 focus groups (with 132 students) and 67 semistructured interviews with educators and by gathering pertinent institutional documents. They carried out discursive thematic analyses of the verbatim transcripts and then performed within- and cross-case analyses. The most striking finding was the diverging responses between those at the UK school and those at the other schools. In the UK case, family medicine was recognized as a prestigious academic discipline; students and faculty praised the knowledge and skills of family physicians, and students more often indicated their intent to pursue family medicine. In the other cases, family medicine was not well regarded by students or faculty. This was expressed overtly or through a paradoxical academic discourse that stressed the importance of family medicine to the health care system while decrying its lack of innovative technology and the large workload-to-income ratio. Students at these schools were less likely to consider family medicine. These results stress the influence of academic discourses on medical students' ability to identify with the practice of family medicine. Educators must consider processes of professional identity formation during undergraduate medical training as they develop and reform medical education.
Bulgan, Gökçe; Çiftçi, Ayşe
The purpose of this paper is to critically review the literature on the interplay of work-family life and psychosocial adjustment of married international graduate students to the United States, provide evidence for a complicated and integrated support mechanism for married international graduate students, and make specific recommendations. Empirical studies on student and expatriate work-family life and psychosocial adjustment are reviewed. Studies indicated a significant negative relationsh...
Petersen, Margrethe; Shaw, Philip; Caudery, Tim
To assess whether the Erasmus student exchange program contributes to EU’s language policy aim of furthering multilingualism/plurilingualism, this presentation draws on interviews with, and tests taken by, some 50 incoming exchange students in Scandinavia and employs Bourdieu’s concept of capital...... in explaining individual variation in students’ language goals and gains.......To assess whether the Erasmus student exchange program contributes to EU’s language policy aim of furthering multilingualism/plurilingualism, this presentation draws on interviews with, and tests taken by, some 50 incoming exchange students in Scandinavia and employs Bourdieu’s concept of capital...
صدیقه خانی مجد
Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was to study comparatively the relationship between gender beliefs and the family function of Kurdish and Fars students. Correlational research method was employed in order to examine the relationship between variables. 200 students from each ethnicity (100 male 100 female and in total 400 students were selected from university of Kermanshah and Shahid beheshti University based on convenience sampling. Respondents completed Bem Sex Roles Inventory (Bem, 1974 and Family Assessment Device (Epstein, Bishop, Baldwin, 1983. Mean of scores for family function subscales and gender roles were computed and compared for independent samples. Also Pearson Correlation Coefficient between family function components and gender beliefs were measured. Findings revealed that there was not any signifycant relationship between gender roles’ beliefs and family function in Fars students. In Kourd students, significant relationship between androgynous belief and problem solving factor was found. Also we obtained significant relationship between the absolutely feminine belief and problem solving, affective involvement, affective responsiveness, behavior control, and family general function. Comparison of the family function of Kurdish with Fars indicated significant differences between groups in affective involvement factor. Based on the obtained findings, it can be concluded that national and cultural elements are effective elements that can impact the relationship between gender believes and family function. It also can be imagined that Kourds and Fars families are different in affective involvement criterion between their members and showing their interests and sentiments to the other members of the family.
Full Text Available Families with children are traditionally the target group of the social system in developed countries. This paper deals with one component of family policy in the Czech Republic, which is household entitlement. The main focus is on the child tax bonus (hereafter CTB. The paper is divided into descriptive and methodological-analytical parts. The descriptive section provides basic information about the beneficiaries of CTB. In the latter section we formulate research questions about the impacts and effects of CTB. We discover that the influence of tax instruments has grown in recent years. The amount of the tax bonus for children exceeded CZK 3 billion in 2009, with almost 22% of all households with children eligible. Although CTB is income-tested, its redistributive impact is rather small – approximately 80% of recipients cannot be considered as poor. Outcomes from our microsimulation model reveal that 82 to 86% households with CTB were at the same time modelled as eligible and therefore we can use microsimulation techniques for future analyses of policy change.
Full Text Available The 8.8 magnitude earthquake (27F affected the south central zone of Chile on 27 of February 2010. The Maule Region was one of the most affected and its capital, Talca, suffered the destruction of an important part of its center, which constitutes 20% of its built urban area. Many non-proprietary families lived there with vulnerability conditions. Based on the review of secondary data, official documents and press information, this paper explores how government, private and civil society sectors acted in the face of the problem of non-owner families in the center of Talca. From the analysis, it is argued the lack of ownership, socioeconomic status and the prevalence of female household heads and older adults, were risk factors that made them vulnerable to losing their location. This risk condition was not addressed by public policies, with a lack of territorial perspective and consideration of the right to location. It is concluded that apart from a weak master planning system, the biggest obstacle was the absence of a public policy that would not allow to deal with the effects of the earthquake properly and to include both the needs and expectations of civil society.
Potter, S J; Edwards, K M; Banyard, V L; Stapleton, J G; Demers, J M; Moynihan, M M
To examine the efficacy of different methods (ie, in-class policy reading; in-class policy reading and discussion; no reading or discussion) to deliver campus sexual misconduct policy information to students on 7 campuses. A total of 1,195 participants at 7 colleges and universities participated in the study from August to October 2014. Participants were randomly assigned at the class level and completed pretest and posttest surveys assessing knowledge of campus policy and resources and confidence to seek help for sexual assault. Students exposed to a larger dosage of material (in-class policy reading plus discussion) showed greater positive changes in attitudes and knowledge than students who did not receive information or were only read the policy. However, on some indices, students who were only read the policy showed positive outcomes compared with students receiving no intervention. Colleges and universities must use engaging methods to disseminate campus sexual misconduct policies to students.
Itzhaki, Michal; Hildesheimer, Galya; Barnoy, Sivia; Katz, Michael
Family members often rely on health care professionals to guide and support them through the decision-making process. Although family involvement in medical decisions should be included in the preservice curriculum for the health care professions, perceptions of students in caring professions on family involvement in medical decision-making have not yet been examined. To examine the perceptions of nursing and psychology students on family involvement in medical decision-making for seriously ill patients. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used. First year undergraduate nursing and psychology students studying for their Bachelor of Arts degree were recruited. Perceptions were assessed with a questionnaire constructed based on the Multi-Attribute Utility Theory (MAUT), which examines decision-maker preferences. The questionnaire consisted of two parts referring to the respondent once as the patient and then as the family caregiver. Questionnaires were completed by 116 nursing students and 156 psychology students. Most were of the opinion that family involvement in decision-making is appropriate, especially when the patient is incapable of making decisions. Nursing students were more inclined than psychology students to think that financial, emotional, and value-based considerations should be part of the family's involvement in decision-making. Both groups of students perceived the emotional consideration as most acceptable, whereas the financial consideration was considered the least acceptable. Nursing and psychology students perceive family involvement in medical decision-making as appropriate. In order to train students to support families in the process of decision-making, further research should examine Shared Decision-Making (SDM) programs, which involve patient and clinician collaboration in health care decisions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zhao Da Wei
Full Text Available This article explores the current situation of university students taking part time jobs as tutors in families. This is very popular in China, especially in cities and towns. After systematic investigations, the author suggests that the office of student affairs in Chinese universities should play a substantial role by providing opportunities for these students to become better tutors.
Saunders, Katherine; Lower-Basch, Elizabeth
Half of all non-loan federal student aid is now offered as tax benefits for educational costs in the form of credits, deductions, and college savings accounts. These benefits help students and families offset the costs of their postsecondary education with tax savings. Yet, as explained in the 2013 report, "Reforming Student Aid: How to…
Klink, Jenna L; Byars-Winston, Angela; Bakken, Lori L
This study investigated the relationship between perceived family support and coping efficacy in premedical (i.e. prior to entering medical school) students, an understudied subset of undergraduate students who are particularly at risk for academia- related stress. The relationships between students' perceived academic coping abilities and their academic behaviours and experiences of stress have been considered within the vocational literature. However, an understanding of factors that inform coping efficacy beliefs is lacking. A total of 238 premedical students provided demographic information regarding themselves and their parents. Students also completed a paper questionnaire containing a coping efficacy scale and items assessing their level of family support. Correlational analyses revealed significant positive relationships between family support and students' perceived abilities to cope with anticipated academic barriers as hypothesised. Bivariate comparisons of mean coping efficacy scores revealed that racial or ethnic minority students reported significantly higher coping efficacy beliefs than did White students. Students with doctor mothers also reported significantly higher coping efficacy than students with mothers employed in other health-related fields. No significant differences in coping efficacy were found when those with doctor fathers versus those with fathers in other health-related fields were compared. Findings from the present study indicate that perceived family support plays a key role in establishing premedical students' confidence in their ability to cope with the challenges of academic life. These findings have important implications for further studies on coping and stress in premedical students.
Caspe, Margaret; Lopez, M. Elena; Chu, Ashley; Weiss, Heather B.
To be effective, teachers must be prepared to collaborate with families to support student success. Many studies confirm that strong parent-teacher relationships relate to positive student outcomes, such as healthy social development, high student achievement, and high rates of college enrollment. Thus, by giving teachers the support they need to…
Lopez, Frederick G.
Explored whether college students' reported participation in one of four theoretically distinct family alignments (noncoalition, mother-coalition, father-coalition, triangulation) was differentially related to their scores on multidimensional measure of college adjustment. Results from 815 college students suggest that students' academic and…
Lörz, Markus; Netz, Nicolai; Quast, Heiko
Alongside the educational expansion and internationalisation of economies, it has become more important for students' labour market success to spend part of their studies abroad. However, only a fraction of German students studies abroad. In particular, students from underprivileged families refrain from doing so. While the social selectivity of…
Bennett, Brooke L; Deiner, Melodi; Pokhrel, Pallav
Currently, most college campuses across the U.S. in some way address on-campus cigarette smoking, mainly through policies that restrict smoking on campus premises. However, it is not well understood whether college-level anti-smoking policies help reduce cigarette smoking among students. In addition, little is known about policies that may have an impact on student smoking behavior. This study attempted to address these issues through a literature review. A systematic literature review was performed. To identify relevant studies, the following online databases were searched using specific keywords: Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Google Scholar. Studies that met the exclusion and inclusion criteria were selected for review. Studies were not excluded based on the type of anti-smoking policy studied. Total 11 studies were included in the review. The majority of the studies (54.5%) were cross-sectional in design, 18% were longitudinal, and the rest involved counting cigarette butts or smokers. Most studies represented more women than men and more Whites than individuals of other ethnic/racial groups. The majority (54.5%) of the studies evaluated 100% smoke-free or tobacco-free campus policies. Other types of policies studied included the use of partial smoking restriction and integration of preventive education and/or smoking cessation programs into college-level policies. As far as the role of campus smoking policies on reducing student smoking behavior is concerned, the results of the cross-sectional studies were mixed. However, the results of the two longitudinal studies reviewed were promising in that policies were found to significantly reduce smoking behavior and pro-smoking attitudes over time. More longitudinal studies are needed to better understand the role of college anti-smoking policies on student smoking behavior. Current data indicate that stricter, more comprehensive policies, and policies that incorporate prevention and cessation programming
Hoffman, Pamela K.; Davey, Cynthia S.; Larson, Nicole; Grannon, Katherine Y.; Hanson, Carlie; Nanney, Marilyn S.
Weight-related outcomes were examined among high school students in Minnesota public school districts according to the quality of district wellness policies. Wellness policy strength and comprehensiveness were scored using the Wellness School Assessment Tool (WellSAT) for 325 Minnesota public school districts in 2013. The associations between…
Roberts, James A.
This study investigated the incidence, antecedents, consequences, and policy implications of compulsive buying among college students (n=300). Details contributing factors and discusses the relationship between credit card use and compulsive buying. Discusses the implications for consumer policy and suggestions for further research. (JOW)
Obare, Francis; Birungi, Harriet
This paper explores the sexual and reproductive health (SRH) policy context and the realities facing in-school young people in Kenya. It is based on a review of the health and education sector policy documents as well as data from self-administered questionnaires with 3624 male and female students from eight secondary schools in Nairobi. Findings…
Office of Safe and Healthy Students, US Department of Education, 2016
It has come to the Department of Education's (ED's) attention that many transgender students (i.e., students whose gender identity is different from the sex they were assigned at birth) report feeling unsafe and experiencing verbal and physical harassment or assault in school, and that these students may perform worse academically when they are…
Kimberly G. Smith, MD, MS
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the current study is to explore third- year medical students’ interest in learning about family planning, exposure to family planning (contraception and abortion and perceived barriers and benefits to family planning education in their obstetrics and gynecology rotation.Method: We conducted four focus groups with 27 third-year medical students near the end of their rotation in obstetrics and gynecology.Results: Students desired education in family planning but perceived limited exposure during their rotation. Most students were aware of abortion but lacked factual information and abortion procedural skills. They felt systemic and faculty-related barriers contributed to limited exposure. Students discussed issues such as lack of time for coverage of contraception and abortion in the curricula and rotation itself. Perceived benefits of clinical instruction in family planning included increased knowledge of contraceptive management and abortion the ability to care for and relate to patients, opportunity for values clarification, and positive changes in attitudes towards family planning.Conclusions: Medical students who desire full education in family planning during their obstetrics and gynecology rotation may face barriers to obtaining that education. Given that many medical students will eventually care for reproductive-age women, greater promotion of opportunities for exposure to family planning within obstetrics and gynecology rotations is warranted.
Green, L A; Fryer, G E
In this article we describe the creation and role of the Center for Policy Studies in Family Practice and Primary Care established by the American Academy of Family Physicians in Washington, DC, this year. We recount the events leading to the decision to implement the Center, list its guiding assumptions, and explain its initial structure and function. We also identify the 3 themes that will guide the early work of the Center: sustaining the functional domain of family practice and primary care; investing in key infrastructures; and securing universal health coverage.
Waldegrave, Charles; King, Peter; Maniapoto, Maria; Tamasese, Taimalieutu Kiwi; Parsons, Tafaoimalo Loudeen; Sullivan, Ginny
This study reports findings and policy recommendations from a research project that applied a relational resilience framework to a study of 60 sole parent families in New Zealand, with approximately equal numbers of Māori, Pacific, and European (White) participants. The sole parent families involved were already known to be resilient and the study focused on identifying the relationships and strategies underlying the achievement and maintenance of their resilience. The study was carried out to provide an evidence base for the development and implementation of policies and interventions to both support sole parent families who have achieved resilience and assist those who struggle to do so. The three populations shared many similarities in their pathways to becoming sole parents and the challenges they faced as sole parents. The coping strategies underlying their demonstrated resilience were also broadly similar, but the ways in which they were carried out did vary in a manner that particularly reflected cultural practices in terms of their reliance upon extended family-based support or support from outside the family. The commonalities support the appropriateness of the common conceptual framework used, whereas the differences underline the importance of developing nuanced policy responses that take into account cultural differences between the various populations to which policy initiatives are directed. © 2016 Family Process Institute.
This paper examines family influences on Uighur (a Muslim ethnic minority in northwestern China) students' experiences in Xinjiang classes in an inland China boarding school. Supported by the concept of family social capital, the paper argues that, although family structure becomes deficient for Uighur students away from home, their families can…
In 1997, Chicago implemented a policy that required algebra for all ninth-grade students, eliminating all remedial coursework. This policy increased opportunities to take algebra for low-skill students who had previously enrolled in remedial math. However, little is known about how schools respond to the policy in terms of organizing math…
Riekkola, Susanne; Nilsson, Eva
Forming a basis to: Conditions for Family Reunification under Strain - A comparative study in nine EU member states, Yves Pascouau in collaboration with Henri Labayle, King Baudouin Foundation, European Policy Centre, Odysseus Network, November 2011, Available at http://www.epc.eu/documents/uploads/pub_1369_conditionsforfamily.pdf
Alcohol prohibition and legal or administrative sanctions have been implemented in attempts to curb alcohol drinking and drinking-while-driving in the general population as well as among college students. This dissertation study examines the impact of college alcohol prohibition and policy enforcement on students' alcohol drinking and…
Cooper, Daniel; Wang, J. Christina
This policy brief advances the growing literature on how student loan debt affects individuals' other economic decisions. Specifically, it examines the impact of student loan liabilities on individuals' homeownership status and wealth accumulation. The analysis employs a rich set of financial and demographic control variables that are not…
Perry, Laura; McConney, Andrew
It is established that the socio-economic status (SES) of individual students is strongly associated with academic achievement but less is known about this relationship when both student and school socio-economic status are considered. To examine these associations at a finer grain, with the intent of informing educational funding policy, we…
Waddell, Glen R.; Singell, Larry D., Jr.
We examine whether there is discernable variation in the matriculation patterns of low-income students at public flagship institutions around changes in institutional financial-aid policies that target resident, low-income students with need-based aid. Overall, our results suggests that need is not being met on the extensive margin and that…
De Costa, Peter I.
This article reports on year-long critical ethnographic study conducted in a Singapore school and examines how the standard English language educational policy is interpreted by a Secondary 3 (Grade 9) female student from China. She is a member of an exclusive group of academically able students who has been carefully recruited by the local…
Arreeman, Inger Erixon
In Sweden, and in most other Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, post-16 education is a general requirement to succeed in adult life. By the late 2000s, after about two decades of policies for student choice and publicly funded free schools, students' results in the Programme for International Student…
Leibrandt, Sarah Ohle
This dissertation investigates how low-resource high schools support (or not) high achieving, low-income students depending on how they enact college readiness agendas. My study was motivated by the lack of empirical research in two areas--how college readiness policies are being actualized for high achieving, low-income students and how these…
Sawyer, Holly N.
Illicit drug usage at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) is a topic of limited research. The research questions that guided this study were (a) What is the relationship between college policy on illicit drugs and students' frequency of drug usage after controlling for college location (urban or rural) and students' age,…
Nguyen, Lan Chi; Hamid, M. Obaidul; Renshaw, Peter
Although the teaching of English as a foreign language in primary schools has emerged as one of the major language-in-education policy decisions, students' perspectives on primary English have received very little research attention. Drawing on data from a larger study, this paper depicts primary school students' lived experiences in the English…
S Jalili Nikoo
Full Text Available Background & aim: family and individual factors are involved in addiction potential. The aim of this research was to investigate the role of family resiliency (family communication and problem solving, utilizing social and economic resources, maintaining a positive outlook, family connectedness, family spirituality, ability to make meaning of adversity and mindfulness in addiction potential of students. Method: the research method used in the present study was correlation. A number of 399 students from Yasuj University in 2012-13 academic years were selected through a multi- stage cluster sampling method and responded to the Iranian scale of addiction potential, family resiliency questionnaire, and short form of Freiburg mindfulness inventory. Collected data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient and Simultaneous regression. Results: A negative and significant correlation was seen between family resiliency and its dimensions with addiction potential (P>0.01. Between mindfulness and addiction preparation, a significant and negative correlation was observed (P>0.01. The results of simultaneous regression analysis showed that family residency and mindfulness could significantly predict 13% of variance of addiction potential. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated the importance of family resilience and mindfulness as personal and family variables in preparing addiction. Therefore, the family resilience and mindfulness skills training could decrease the addiction potential among students.
McClimens, Alex; Finlayson, Janet; Darbyshire, Chris
We aimed to learn about the value of family placements from the perspective of parent-carers who provide them to nurse students via a Scottish university Family Placement Scheme. Qualitative interviews were conducted with seven parent-carers who provided a family placement over two academic years. Descriptive data was analysed, organized into themes and subject to content analysis: parents' descriptions of caring; their perceived value of family placements; and their views and experiences of participation in intellectual disability nurse education. Family placements are beneficial to nurse students and families with children with an intellectual disability. Description of wider aspects of caring was provided, offering insight into learning experiences of students on placement. This model of learning provides opportunities for students to appreciate the reality of caring for a relative with an intellectual disability at home. Students develop their practice skills for working in partnership with family carers.
Full Text Available Abstract Objectives This study examined associations between high school students' lunch patterns and vending machine purchases and the school food environment and policies. Methods A randomly selected sample of 1088 high school students from 20 schools completed surveys about their lunch practices and vending machine purchases. School food policies were assessed by principal and food director surveys. The number of vending machines and their hours of operation were assessed by trained research staff. Results Students at schools with open campus policies during lunchtime were significantly more likely to eat lunch at a fast food restaurant than students at schools with closed campus policies (0.7 days/week vs. 0.2 days/week, p Conclusion School food policies that decrease access to foods high in fats and sugars are associated with less frequent purchase of these items in school among high school students. Schools should examine their food-related policies and decrease access to foods that are low in nutrients and high in fats and sugars.
Penn, Cathy E
Errors in health care settings are common and potentially dangerous to patients. Errors will arise as novice nursing students practice skills in complex health care settings. This article describes one baccalaureate nursing program's approach toward student errors that integrates core competencies described in the Institute of Medicine's Health Professions Education report, the Quality and Safety in Education for Nurses project, and the position statement on Just Culture by the American Nurses Association. A consistent approach to defining and categorizing data about nursing student errors provides faculty with a framework for coaching students to safer nursing practice. Aggregate data may be used to identify gaps in the nursing program's curriculum.
Full Text Available Background: This study investigated the association between suicidal ideation and family environment. The sample included 5183 Chinese university students. A number of studies on suicidal ideation have focused on individuals rather than families. This paper reviews the general principles of suicidal ideation and the consequences resulting from the family environment. Methods: This study used six different colleges as the dataset, which included 2645 males and 2538 females. Students were questioned with respect to social demographics and suicidal ideation factors. The data were analyzed with factor and logistic analyses to determine the association between suicidal ideation and poor family environment. Results: The prevalence of suicidal ideation was 9.2% (476/5183. Most participants with suicidal ideation had significant similarities: they had poor family structures and relationships, their parents had unstable work, and their parents used improper parenting styles. Female students were more likely to have suicidal thoughts than male students. Conclusions: This study shows that suicidal ideation is a public health issue among Chinese university students and demonstrates the importance of considering the family environment when examining university students’ suicidal ideation. Understanding family-related suicidal ideation risk factors can help to predict and prevent suicides among university students.
Zhai, Hui; Bai, Bing; Chen, Lu; Han, Dong; Wang, Lin; Qiao, Zhengxue; Qiu, Xiaohui; Yang, Xiuxian; Yang, Yanjie
Background: This study investigated the association between suicidal ideation and family environment. The sample included 5183 Chinese university students. A number of studies on suicidal ideation have focused on individuals rather than families. This paper reviews the general principles of suicidal ideation and the consequences resulting from the family environment. Methods: This study used six different colleges as the dataset, which included 2645 males and 2538 females. Students were questioned with respect to social demographics and suicidal ideation factors. The data were analyzed with factor and logistic analyses to determine the association between suicidal ideation and poor family environment. Results: The prevalence of suicidal ideation was 9.2% (476/5183). Most participants with suicidal ideation had significant similarities: they had poor family structures and relationships, their parents had unstable work, and their parents used improper parenting styles. Female students were more likely to have suicidal thoughts than male students. Conclusions: This study shows that suicidal ideation is a public health issue among Chinese university students and demonstrates the importance of considering the family environment when examining university students’ suicidal ideation. Understanding family-related suicidal ideation risk factors can help to predict and prevent suicides among university students. PMID:25633031
Mody, Sheila K; Kiley, Jessica; Gawron, Lori; Garcia, Patricia; Hammond, Cassing
Medical schools are increasingly using team-based learning (TBL). We compared medical student satisfaction and understanding of key concepts in family planning following TBL and traditional lectures. During the OB/GYN clinical rotation orientation, third year medical students completed a pretest in family planning. Students in the odd-numbered clerkships participated in TBL, and students in the even-numbered clerkships participated in lectures. Both groups of students completed a posttest and satisfaction survey. A total of 130 students participated in this study. Sixty-nine students were in the TBL group, and 61 students were in the lecture group. The TBL group reported higher scores when asked if the learning style was a valuable experience (p=.045), helped them learn the course material (p=.01) and improved problem-solving skills (p=.04). Both groups gained significant amount of knowledge (plearning strategy for family planning, TBL resulted in high student satisfaction. This is the first study to evaluate this innovative teaching style for medical student education in family planning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Larsen, Eva Ladekjær; Andsager Smorawski, Gitte; Lund Krabak, Katrine
Background High alcohol consumption among university students is a well-researched health concern in many countries. At universities in Denmark, policies of alcohol consumption are a new phenomenon if existing at all. However, little is known of how students perceive campus alcohol policies...... topics such as experiences and attitudes towards alcohol consumption among students, regulations, and norms of alcohol use on campus. The analysis followed a pre-determined codebook. Results Alcohol consumption is an integrated practice on campus. Most of the participants found it unnecessary to make...
Full Text Available The turmoil created by the financial crisis and economic recession in Europe has served as an impetus for austerity measures in many countries. In this article, we ask whether these crises have also triggered reforms in family policy, and we focus on three European welfare states – Finland, Germany and the United Kingdom – countries that are often considered members of different family policy regimes. The article addresses two main research questions. The first one relates to the number, direction and magnitude of family policy reforms in these three countries since the beginning of the financial crisis in 2008/2009, while in the second we discuss whether the reforms observed during this period can be seen as being related to the financial crisis and its later repercussions on the Euro-zone area, or if there are other explanations.
This article delineates a strong continuity, particularly in terms of personnel, between interwar domestic population policies and Sweden's postwar participation in international and transnational population-control programs. It argues that Swedish engagement in population control and family planning in the emerging Third World, and particularly in South Asia, was motivated by the conviction that poverty and underdevelopment must be attacked on several fronts simultaneously, with population control being one of the most important. In its first bilateral aid programs Sweden would prioritize the promotion of birth control primarily because it was still too controversial to be promoted multilaterally, not least for religious reasons; and because Swedish experts were regarded as especially liberal, rational, and secularized. Sterilization expertise played no decisive part in this continuity. When first establishing themselves in South Asia, Swedish experts would recommend the rhythm method and other contraceptive methods that depended on self-control.
Bista, Krishna, Ed.; Foster, Charlotte, Ed.
Study abroad programs have proven beneficial for both the international student as well as the domestic community and school population interacting with the student. In an effort to promote cultural awareness, intercultural communications as well as opportunities for future study abroad program success, universities must take care to provide…
Focus and Scope. The Journal of Student Affairs in Africa (JSAA) is an independent, peer-reviewed, multi-disciplinary, open-access academic journal that publishes scholarly research and reflective discussions about the theory and practice of student affairs in Africa. JSAA aims to contribute to the professionalization of ...
Institute for College Access & Success, 2014
Since 2005, "The Institute for College Access & Success" (TICAS) and its Project on Student Debt have worked to reduce the risks and burdens of student debt. TICAS helped create and improve income-based repayment plans to keep federal loan payments manageable; strengthen Pell Grants, which reduce the need to borrow; and simplify the…
Olsen, Linda S.
This brief examines absences in September and students' attendance over the rest of the year. Attendance should be addressed before it becomes problematic. Chronic absenteeism, missing more than 20 days of a school year, is an early indicator of disengagement. High absence rates have negative consequences not only for individual students, but also…
Popov, A A
While official figures show a steady decline in the number of induced abortions performed annually in Russia, changes in regulations on the provision of abortion services and in the data collection system are likely responsible for the declining figures. For example, abortions performed in commercial health centers and in many state-supported medical units are not reported. Also there are no reliable figures on contraceptive usage in Russia or on other facets of family planning, and indeed Russian health care statistics in general are lacking. Thus, the 30% reduction in abortions reported from 1989 to 1993 was not accompanied by a similar increase in the use of modern contraceptives. Also, 26% of maternal mortality still results from induced abortions. However, during 1993-94, a significant amount of social attention was paid to the issue of family planning in Russia, and induced abortion was identified as a social priority and a health care problem. Also, many public groups are beginning to become involved in the formulation of a population policy in Russia. This has resulted in development of a grassroots approach instead of a hierarchical approach to FP. The most important new players in FP and population policy development are the Russian Orthodox Church with its anti-abortion lobby, commercial health care providers, new nongovernmental organizations, Western pharmaceutical companies, and international foundations and agencies. Several legislative initiatives have led to an increase in the number of officially registered sterilizations and to a proposal to remove abortion from the list of medical services covered by the state insurance program. The platform of some political parties would prohibit abortion. While the provision of FP and the problems associated with abortion have received priority attention, the concept of a human rights approach to FP is not developed in Russia. Russia completed its first demographic transition using the archaic technology of
Rákosník, J.; Šustrová, Radka
Roč. 43, č. 2 (2018), s. 177-193 ISSN 0363-1990 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-35273S Institutional support: RVO:67985921 Keywords : Czechoslovakia, 1930s-1950s * family policy * social policy Subject RIV: AB - History OBOR OECD: History (history of science and technology to be 6.3, history of specific sciences to be under the respective headings) Impact factor: 0.239, year: 2016
Knight, Susan M.; Schmidt-Rinehart, Barbara C.
This study investigates the role of task-based learning in the study abroad experience in order to enhance interaction with the host family. Tasks were incorporated into a Family Interaction Journal and implemented under four evolving, though different, conditions over a 5-year period. The conditions were: (1) home campus administered/student…
Postiglione, Gerard A.; Ailei, Xie; Jung, Jisun; Yanbi, Hong
New preferential policies in China promise to increase the number of rural students entering top-tier universities, where there is a wider path to a higher social status. While a substantial body of literature has investigated rural students' trajectories to university, there is a dearth of systematic empirical studies on the academic success of…
Pereira, Nielsen; Knotts, J. Dusteen; Roberts, Julia Link
Educational legislation and policy can lead to effective educational practices, especially for student populations that have had equal access to education addressing their needs, such as students with disabilities and gifted students. This study was an examination of state legislation and policy related to twice-exceptional learners in the United…
Mughal, Abdul Waheed
In 2009, the United Kingdom government introduced the Tier 4 (general) student visa policy for foreign students, out of European Economic Area and Switzerland, aged 16 or over. According to this policy, any institution recruiting international students must be a highly trusted sponsor--a status determined by the UK Border Agency. Further, right to…
LaBrie, Joseph W.; Migliuri, Savannah; Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew
Studies examining family history of alcohol abuse among college students are not only conflicting, but have suffered various limitations. The current report investigates family history of alcohol abuse (FH+) and its relationship with alcohol expectancies, consumption, and consequences. In the current study, 3753 student participants (35% FH+), completed online assessments. Compared to FH−same-sex peers, FH+ males and FH+ females endorsed greater overall positive expectancies, consumed more dr...
Strage, A A
While researchers have begun to specify how features of students' immediate learning environments affect the development and use of self-regulation skills, relatively little attention has been paid to the role of the family context in fostering or impeding the development of these skills. This paper proposes a conceptual framework based on attachment theory (Ainsworth et al., 1978; Bowlby, 1982) and Baumrind's parenting styles typology (Baumrind, 1967, 1991) for examining the relationship between family context variables and the development of self-regulation skills. It also presents initial findings from a study of the parental practices and values associated with academic self-regulation in college students. A sample of 465 students completed the 104-item Student Attitudes and Perceptions Survey, which consists of 4 personal profile scales, 7 family background scales, 2 course characteristics scales, and 2 study habits scales. Perceptions of parents as authoritative and of family as emotionally close were found to be predictive of (1) general confidence and positive sense of self, (2) positive goal-orientation at school, (3) general concern about preparation for the future, and (4) positive adjustment to college. These family profiles were also predictive of (1) students' rating their introductory psychology course as interesting and supportive, (2) favorable ratings of their time and effort management and note-taking skills, and (3) strong agreement with a series of items reflecting components of self-regulated learning. Perceptions of parents as authoritarian and of family as nagging or enmeshed were also predictive of concern about preparation for the future. These family profiles were generally predictive of students' rating their introductory psychology course as difficult, and of time and effort management difficulties. The patterns linking family background profiles with course perceptions, study habits, and individual indices of self-regulated learning
Muia, E; Ellertson, C; Lukhando, M; Flul, B; Clark, S; Olenja, J
To gauge knowledge, attitudes, and practices about emergency contraception in Nairobi, Kenya, we conducted a five-part study. We searched government and professional association policy documents, and clinic guidelines and service records for references to emergency contraception. We conducted in-depth interviews with five key policymakers, and with 93 family planning providers randomly selected to represent both the public and private sectors. We also surveyed 282 family planning clients attending 10 clinics, again representing both sectors. Finally, we conducted four focus groups with university students. Although one specially packaged emergency contraceptive (Postinor levonorgestrel tablets) is registered in Kenya, the method is scarcely known or used. No extant policy or service guidelines address the method specifically, although revisions to several documents were planned. Yet policymakers felt that expanding access to emergency contraception would require few overt policy changes, as much of the guidance for oral contraception is already broad enough to cover this alternative use of those same commodities. Participants in all parts of the study generally supported expanded access to emergency contraception in Kenya. They did, however, want additional, detailed information, particularly about health effects. They also differed over exactly who should have access to emergency contraception and how it should be provided.
Brunse, Mai Hostrup
The article explores the rise of women's political influence, looking specifically at women's agency outside the parliamentary sphere. The article analyses how a network of influential women combined critical resources such as knowledge of families' concerns and inside information from commission...... and boards with agenda-setting strategies promoting family policy reforms, even though women constituted a minority in parliament and had no permanent women's state institution....
Jandir Ferrera de Lima; Clarissa Pereira Junqueira
This article analyzes the relationship between some family agriculture public policies and their effects on the development of this type of agriculture in Brazil. It analyzes the National Program for Strengthening Family Agriculture – Pronaf, which has contributed strongly for the development of the sector , mainly in the Southern region of the country; the implementation of the Rural Social Welfare Program as a palliative to social exclusion; and the Food Acquisition Program –PAA which guara...
Andrade, Cláudia; van Rhijn, Tricia; Coimbra, Susana
In recent years, higher education institutions have made efforts to attract people who are either in the labor market or unemployed to the educational system. Accordingly, the participation of nontraditional students in postsecondary education has been increasing over the years in Portugal, including working students and working student parents.…
Devos, Thierry; Blanco, Karla; Muñoz, Cynthia; Dunn, Roger; Ulloa, Emilio C
The authors examined the associations that underlie the orientations of bilingual Latino college students toward family and school. Participants completed, in English or Spanish, 3 implicit association tests assessing their attitude toward family vs. school, identifications with these concepts, and self-esteem. Results revealed a more positive attitude toward, and stronger identification with, family than school. Identification with family was stronger among participants who completed the study in English, suggesting self-definition in terms of distinctions from the context. Last, the more participants valued family over school and identified with family rather than school, the higher was their self-esteem. These findings shed light on the subtle, yet crucial, mechanisms by which cultural knowledge is incorporated in the self-concept of bilingual Latino college students.
Full Text Available Research conducted to define general knowledge of university students’ attitudes and behaviors about family planning. The sample consisted of 755 Sakarya University students. Data were collected from an open-ended questionnaire form and faceto-face interviews. The data analysis process was conducted using specific software. Most participants (59.7% were over 22 years old and female, and 1.2 % of the females were married. Women in the study had a positive outlook regarding the positive effects of family planning on sexual health and stated that family planning is important to both society and our economy. The awareness and knowledge regarding family planning was found to be strongest among older participants. The family planning concept was understood correctly by about half of the students. Finally, young people did not have sufficient knowledge about family planning, its methods or where to obtain information on the topic.
Hughes, Alison; Condon, Louise
Aim To explore the experiences of student and novice health visitors in implementing health visiting policy reform pre- and post-qualification. In England, public health nursing has been subject to major policy reform. The Health Visitor Implementation Plan (2011) set out a plan to recruit increasing numbers of nurses and midwives to the profession to deliver an expanded and refocussed health visiting service. Exploring this policy change from the viewpoint of those new to health visiting offers a unique perspective into how a specific policy vision is translated into nursing practice. A descriptive qualitative study in which participants were enrolled on a one-year post-graduate health visiting course at a University in South West of England. Qualitative data were collected pre- and post-qualification. A total of 16 interviews and a focus group were conducted with nine participants between September 2012 and March 2013. Findings Descriptive data were interpreted using Lipsky's theoretical framework of street-level bureaucracy. Three themes emerged which relate to this 'bottom-up' perspective on policy implementation; readiness to operationalise policy, challenges in delivering the service vision; and using discretion in delivering the vision. Community public health nurses operate as street-level bureaucrats in negotiating the demands of policy and practice, and by this means, attempt to reconcile professional values with institutional constraints. Barriers to policy implementation at a local level mediate the effects of policy reform, ultimately impacting upon outcomes for children and families.
Rollyson, Carl Sokolnicki; Paddock, Lisa Olson
This book offers a guide to the study of genealogy, or family history, through the use of historical documents, artifacts, and private records. Intended mainly for students who wish to trace their family roots, the book also can be used by anyone interested in the lives of Polish Americans throughout the years. Chapters describe how to find…
McDowell, Teresa; Brown, Andrae' L.; Cullen, Nicole; Duyn, April
In this article, we report the results of a national survey of students in COAMFTE-accredited family therapy programs who self-identify as coming from lower- or working-class backgrounds. Results of the study reveal opportunity and tension relative to family, friends, and community because of social mobility associated with graduate education.…
Mac Iver, Martha Abele; Epstein, Joyce L.; Sheldon, Steven B.; Fonseca, Ean
This exploratory study addresses the challenge of declining family engagement at the critical transition to high school. We use data from a survey of schools to examine whether and how middle grades and high schools engage families when their students transition to high school. Findings indicate that there is a significant negative relationship…
Rosso, Ryan R.
First generation college-bound Latino students and their families are placed at a disadvantage in the college admissions process for a variety of reasons. Their cultural perspectives in relation to education and family combined with the increasingly widening gap between the working class and professional middle class has left many Latino families…
Cavallini, Adriane Q.; Erekson, David M.; Steinberg, Rachel M.; Clayson, Rachelle A.; Albright, Dallin D.
Family history events have been shown to be reliable predictors of eating and body image concerns; however, little is known regarding how family history events compare in a clinical sample, or if these events differ by gender. The current study addresses this paucity, focusing on 3,129 university students seeking clinical services. Having a family…
Thompson, Keisha V.; Lightfoot, Nicole L.; Castillo, Linda G.; Hurst, Morgan L.
This study examined family-oriented stressors on acculturative stress in 83 African American college students attending a predominately White university. Results showed that family pressure for participants not to acculturate, pressure to maintain ethnic group language, perception of Acting White, and acculturation level were related to higher…
Family member-educator collaboration is envisioned as the "cornerstone" of the educational decision-making process for students with disabilities (e.g., Harry, 2008; Olivos, Friend & Cook, 2007, Gallagher & Aguilar, 2010). In the case of immigrant and refugee families, however, the ideal of coequal collaboration is often elusive…
Carpenter, Dan; Gann, Courtney
Using a qualitative case study approach, this study looked at the educational activities that constitute a typical day in a homeschool family and the role that the parent has within those activities. Three homeschooling families with high school students in a single community in a southern state in the United States participated in the case study.…
Tse, Luke M.; Wantz, Richard A.; Firmin, Michael
Unlike perceptions toward professional counseling, public opinions do not typically associate marriage and family counseling or therapy with treatments of mental disorders. The current survey of college students in this sample confirmed that most would not recommend, specifically, marriage and family therapists (MFTs) for mental health…
Cullen, Karen Weber; Watson, Kathy; Zakeri, Issa
We assessed the effect of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy on middle school student lunchtime food consumption. Three years of lunch food records were collected from middle school students in southeast Texas: baseline (2001-2002), after local district changes (2002-2003), and 1 year after implementation of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy (2005-2006). Students recorded amount and source of foods and beverages they consumed. Analysis of variance and covariance and nonparametric tests were used to compare intake after the policy change with intake during the 2 previous years. After implementation of the nutrition policy, student lunch consumption of vegetables, milk, and several nutrients increased (protein, fiber, vitamins A and C, calcium, and sodium), and consumption of less desirable items (sweetened beverages, snack chips) decreased, as did percentage of energy from fat. Most of the desired nutrients and foods (vegetables and milk) were obtained from the National School Lunch Program meal. Fewer sweetened beverages, candy, chips, and dessert foods were purchased and consumed, but more of these items were brought from home and purchased from the snack bar. Overall, state school nutrition policies can improve the healthfulness of foods consumed by students at lunch.
Using country panel data of student achievement from PISA, 2003-2012 combined with national-level teacher salary data from the OECD; this study investigates if relatively short term -5-years - changes in the level and structure of statutory teacher salaries affect student performance in the European countries. Our results show that there are marked differences between subjects and by the experience of teachers. Higher statutory teacher salaries and larger growth of teacher salaries at the fir...
Jozkowski, Kristen N.
Over the last few years, there have been some egregious examples of rape culture on college campuses that call into question the effectiveness of current sexual-assault policies. This article contains brief recaps of four recent events that took place at prominent American universities, drawn from a laundry list of contemporary examples. They…
Pritzker, Suzanne; Burwell, Christianna
Political involvement is an integral component of the social work profession, yet there is no explicit reference to social work participation in election-related activities in either the National Association of Social Workers Code of Ethics or the Council on Social Work Education Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards. Social work…
Poorsheikhali, Fatemah; Alavi, Hamid Reza
The main goal of this research is to study the relationship between parents' religious behavior, emotional relations inside family, and self-actualization of male and female high school students of district 2 in Kerman city. Research method is descriptive and of correlative type. Questionnaires of parent's religious behavior, emotional relations inside family, and students' self-actualization were used in the research. After collecting questionnaires, data were analyzed by SPSS, MINITAB, and EXCEL software. The sample volume in the research has been 309 students and their parents, and the sampling method was in the form of classification and then in the form of cluster in two stages. 1.29 % of students had a low self-actualization, 17.15 % had average, and 81.55 % of them had high self-actualization. Also the results showed that 9.4 % of emotional relations in families were undesirable, 55.3 % were relatively desirable, and 35.3 % were desirable. Moreover, 2.27 % of parents' religious behavior was inappropriate, 29.13 % was relatively appropriate, and 68.61 % was appropriate. The main results of the research are as follows: (1) There is a significant positive correlation between parents' religious behavior and emotional relations inside students' family. (2) There is not any significant correlational between parents' religious behavior and students' self-actualization. (3) There is a significant positive correlation between emotional relations inside family and students' self-actualization.
De Backer, Charlotte J S
The aim of this study is to investigate if reported childhood food habits predict the food habits of students at present. Questions addressed are: does the memory of childhood family meals promote commensality among students? Does the memory of (grand)parents' cooking influence students' cooking? And, is there still a gender difference in passing on everyday cooking skills? Using a cross-sectional survey, 104 students were asked about their current eating and cooking habits, and their eating habits and the cooking behavior of their (grand)parents during their childhood. Results show that frequencies in reported childhood family meals predict frequencies of students' commensality at present. The effects appear for breakfast and dinner, and stay within the same meal: recalled childhood family breakfasts predict current breakfast commensality, recalled childhood family dinners predict current dinner commensality. In terms of recalled cookery of (grand)parents and the use of family recipes a matrilineal dominance can be observed. Mothers are most influential, and maternal grandmothers outscore paternal grandmothers. Yet, fathers' childhood cooking did not pass unnoticed either. They seem to influence male students' cookery. Overall, in a life-stage of transgression students appear to maintain recalled childhood food rituals. Suggestions are discussed to further validate these results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kim, Y H; Shin, H S
This research is based on the communication system theory which considers the family as a communication system or a communication network and which understand interpersonal relations among family members through a communication. This research is intended to define the difference of Parent-Adolescent Child communication between the model student family and the delinquent adolescent family, and also found the factors affecting parent-adolescent child communication. This aims to clarify wether a delinquent behavior is associated with family members' relations caused by dysfunctional communication between parents and their child, moreover explorate their problem to find the method of nursing intervention for prevention and treatment for delinquency. Subjects are 190 families (570 persons: father, mother, adolescent child) of model high school students and 87 families (261 persons) of delinquent adolescents. The employed tool is Olson et al's Parent-Adolescent Communication Scale (PAC, 20 items). The followings are the results derived through hypotheses verification. First, Comparison of two groups showed a significant difference in Parent-Adolescent Communication (t = 2.77, p less than 0.1). In the communication of delinquent group showed lower response than the model group. And also communication of the model group was more opened and positive (t = 2.41, p less than .05), and showed fewer problems (t = 2.06, p less than .05), the delinquent group had more problems. 2ndary, the delinquent group showed significantly more disagreement in response to variable of PAC than the model group. As analyzing of factors affects the Parents-Adolescent Communication, the best method to protect juvenile from delinquency are consistent open-hearted, congruent communication with mutual concern and warm mind between parents and child. And even though the all family don't hardly send together their time for their job, parents have to arrange many times to hold communication with children
Kosten, Lora Bechard
The literature suggests that parental involvement in schools results in positive changes in students and that schools need to provide opportunities for parents to share in the learning process. Workshops are an effective method of engaging parents in the education of their children. This dissertation studies the effects of voluntary Family Science and Technology Workshops on elementary children's science interest and achievement, as well as on parents' collaboration in their child's education. The study involved 35 second and third-grade students and their parents who volunteered to participate. The parental volunteers were randomly assigned to either the control group (children attending the workshops without a parent) or the treatment group (children attending the workshops with a parent). The study was conducted in the Fall of 1995 over a four-week period. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to determine the effects of the workshops on children's science achievement and science curiosity, as well as on parents' involvement with their child's education. The study revealed that there was no significant statistical difference at the.05 level between the treatment/control groups in children's science achievement or science curiosity, or in parent's involvement with their children's education. However, the study did focus parental attention on effective education and points the way to more extensive research in this critical learning area. This dual study, that is, the effects of teaching basic technology to young students with the support of their parents, reflects the focus of the Salve Regina University Ph.D. program in which technology is examined in its effects on humans. In essence, this program investigates what it means to be human in an age of advanced technology.
Sabiston, Catherine M.; Lovato, Chris Y.; Ahmed, Rashid; Pullman, Allison W.; Hadd, Valerie; Campbell, H. Sharon; Nykiforuk, Candace; Brown, K. Stephen
The purpose of this study was to explore individual- and school-level policy characteristics on student smoking behavior using an ecological perspective. Participants were 24,213 (51% female) Grade 10?11 students from 81 schools in five Canadian provinces. Data were collected using student self-report surveys, written policies collected from schools, interviews with school administrators, and school property observations to assess multiple dimensions of the school tobacco policy. The multi-le...
Vela, Javier C.; Lu, Ming-Tsan P.; Lenz, A. Stephen; Hinojosa, Karina
Positive psychology is a useful framework to understand Latina/o students' experiences. In the current study, we examined how presence of meaning in life, search for meaning in life, hope, and family importance influenced 128 Latina/o college students' psychological grit. We used the Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ), Subjective Happiness Scale,…
Fischer, Kathy E.; Kittleson, Mark; Ogletree, Roberta; Welshimer, Kathleen; Woehlke, Paula; Benshoff, John
Investigated relationships between collegiate adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) and adult children from dysfunctional families (ACDFs) to determine whether they were at greater risk of stress than non-ACOA and non-ACDF students. Evaluations of students indicated that substantial numbers were ACOAs, ACDFs, or both, and the groups overlapped.…
This first written assignment of the semester for the author's undergraduate introductory art history class--an essay where students describe and reflect upon the significance of a family heirloom--is instrumental in meeting class objectives. The author's objectives in this class are for students: (1) to broaden their conception of what art is…
Goforth, Kate; Noltemeyer, Amity; Patton, Jon; Bush, Kevin R.; Bergen, Doris
Educators are increasingly recognising the importance of improving students' mathematics achievement. Much of the current research focuses on the impact of instructional variables on mathematics achievement. The goal of this study was to examine the influence of less researched variables--family and student factors. Participants were 747…
This PhD project aims to demonstrate the importance of giving space to local student voices as forms of subjugated knowledges to inform the curriculum on Family and Child Care. It does so by reflecting upon the process and product of critical autobiographical assignments which social work students
Bonar, Joy W.; Koester, Lynne Sanford
Women have historically been under-represented in the medical profession in part because the norms of feminine behavior have deviated from behavior expected of physicians. To determine the career and family expectations of current medical students, 320 medical students were surveyed. Results confirmed the hypothesis that even sex-role-modern women…
Wright, Kim McGee
According to Simplico (2005), critics who were led by parents have argued, "Children are spending too much time doing homework, which has no impact on their learning" (p. 138). This research study is significant for students, parents, teachers, educators, and administrators who wish to compare beliefs of families, students, and teachers regarding…
Uslu, Fatma; Gizir, Sidika
This study examines the extent to which teacher-student relationships, peer relationships, and family involvement can be used to predict a sense of school belonging among adolescents, according to gender. The sample of the study consists of 815 students enrolled in nine state primary schools in the central districts of Mersin, Turkey. The data was…
Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M.; de Zoysa, Piyanjli
Objectives: The study had two objectives: to examine the rates of exposure to family violence among students in a non-Western society, with Sri Lanka as a case study and to examine the psychological effects of their exposure. Method: Four hundred seventy six medical students in Sri Lanka were surveyed. A self-administered questionnaire was…
In this study, the effects of family leadership orientation on social entrepreneurship, generativity and academic education success were examined with the views of college students. The study was conducted at a state university in Central Anatolia in Turkey. 402 college students who attending at three different colleges voluntarily participated in…
Gefen, Dalia R.; Fish, Marian C.
This study explored factors related to college adjustment in nonresidential first-year students. It was hypothesized that stress, family functioning, and coping strategies would predict academic, personal-emotional, and social adjustment in addition to institutional attachment. The sample comprised 167 first-year college students (ages 18-23)…
Smith, James B.; Ray, Rose E.; Wetchler, Joseph L.; Mihail, Thomas
Compares students with disabilities and students with no disabilities on the family systems measures of fusion and triangulation. Examines the relationships among fusion, triangulation, and college adjustment. Relationships between fusion and college adjustment and between triangulation and college adjustment were found. (Author/MKA)
Veenstra, René; Kuyper, Hans
The school careers in secondary education are influenced by individual and environmental characteristics. Using longitudinal data on 7,000 students from 450 classes in 150 schools in The Netherlands, we present results on the importance of student and family characteristics for achievement (text
Danis, Peter G; Kurz, Sally A; Covert, Laura M
Traditional medical school curricula have not addressed fertility awareness-based methods (FABMs) of family planning. The objective of this study was to assess (1) 3-year medical students' knowledge of FABMs of family planning, (2) their confidence in utilizing that knowledge in patient care, and (3) to implement focused education on FABMs to improve knowledge and confidence. Third-year medical students at one institution in the United States were given a 10-question assessment at the beginning of their OB-GYN rotation. Two lectures about FABMs and their clinical applications were given during the rotation. Students were given the same questions at the end of the rotation. Each questionnaire consisted of eight questions to assess a student's knowledge of FABMs and two questions to assess the student's confidence in sharing and utilizing that information in a clinical setting. McNemar's test was used to analyze the data. Two hundred seventy-seven students completed a pretest questionnaire and 196 students completed the posttest questionnaire. Medical knowledge improved from an initial test score of 38.99% to final test score of 53.57% ( p family planning. This study shows that brief, focused education can increase medical students' knowledge of and confidence with FABMs of family planning.
Haines, Shana J.; Francis, Grace L.; Shepherd, Katharine G.; Ziegler, Meg; Mabika, Goma
The McGill Action Planning System (also referred to as Making Action Plans or MAPS) is a supportive, strengths-based process that enables teams to understand each other and work together to support students in achieving their dreams. This process can work very well with all transitioning students with disabilities and their families, including…
Arum Biruli Walidaini
Full Text Available Purpose of this research is to • determine entrepreneur attitude of SMK students that have entrepreneurship, • determine role of eductaion in family also the role of eduction in school. Approch of that type used is qualitative. Research object was SMK students had been doing entrepreneur while Wadi. Informant in this research were students, the student's parent, teacher of entrepreneur and headmaster. Data collecting using deep interview technique, observation and documentation also attitude test. The research result shows that entreprenuership attitude of students include high category, education of family has important role to build entrepreneurship attitude in terms of involving children in their business, the role of school limited in supporting development of student's knowledge.
Edson Pantaleao Alves
Full Text Available This paper aims to evince the implications of the social knowledge reframing process related to disabled people educability in the family, school and special education public administrators. It articulates results of two researches that focused on Special Education policies of Espirito Santo. The former research approached the relations between specialized institutions and regular school and based itself on the ethnographical research perspective. The later focused on continued training of Special Education public administrators and assumed the collaborative critical action research assumptions. Both used data collection instruments such as: questionnaire, semi-structured interview, document studies and group dynamics. The data analysis embraced Norbert Elias’ Figurational Sociology assumptions, fundamentally, the notion of knowledge and its implications on the distribution of power chances process in the human inter-relationships. The data indicate that social inclusion knowledge, when accessed in different ways by the research participants, assumes sense and meaning that empower questioning concerning situations that limit the educational process of student with disabilities. It was concluded that in modern societies the inter-relationships between parents and educational professionals based on social knowledge reframing about disabled people educability are engendering other emotional necessities on these people, on their relatives and on teaching professionals, changing the power balance between their inter-relations.
Van den Broucke, Sarah; Vanduynslager, Lieselot; De Cuyper, Peter
After more than a decade of implementing the Family Reunification Directive 2003/86/EC and in times when regional migration policies in the EU are being questioned, this fact sheet aims to provide insight in the commonality of the ‘common’ European framework for family reunification for Third Country Nationals. By studying the variety in national application of the Directive’s optional provisions, it looks into the extent to which national Member States form part of and co-shape regional EU m...
Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Lautsch, Brenda A.; Eaton, Susan C.
We examine professionals' use of telecommuting, perceptions of psychological job control, and boundary management strategies. We contend that work-family research should distinguish between descriptions of flexibility use (formal telecommuting policy user, amount of telecommuting practiced) and how the individual psychologically experiences…
Alers, Margret; Pepping, Tess; Bor, Hans; Verdonk, Petra; Hamberg, Katarina; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine
Physician gender is associated with differences in the male-to-female ratio between specialities and with preferred working hours. We explored how graduating students' sex or full-time or part-time preference influences their speciality choice, taking work-life issues into account. Graduating medical students at Radboud University Medical Centre, the Netherlands participated in a survey (2008-2012) on career considerations. Logistic regression tested the influence of sex or working hour preference on speciality choice and whether work-life issues mediate. Of the responding students (N = 1,050, response rate 83, 73.3 % women), men preferred full-time work, whereas women equally opted for part time. More men chose surgery, more women family medicine. A full-time preference was associated with a preference for surgery, internal medicine and neurology, a part-time preference with psychiatry and family medicine. Both male and female students anticipated that foremost the career of women will be negatively influenced by family life. A full-time preference was associated with an expectation of equality in career opportunities or with a less ambitious partner whose career would affect family life. This increased the likelihood of a choice for surgery and reduced the preference for family medicine among female students. Gender specifically plays an important role in female graduates' speciality choice making, through considerations on career prospects and family responsibilities.
Schnettler, Berta; Miranda-Zapata, Edgardo; Grunert, Klaus G.; Lobos, Germán; Denegri, Marianela; Hueche, Clementina; Poblete, Héctor
Life satisfaction and satisfaction with food-related life (SWFoL) are associated with healthy eating habits, family interaction around eating and family support. The present study evaluates the relationship between SWFoL and satisfaction with family life (SWFaL), and their relationship with life satisfaction in university students. We identify the relationship of two different types of family support and student SWFaL and explore a moderator effect of gender. A questionnaire was applied to a non-probabilistic sample of 370 students of both genders (mean age 21 years) in Chile, including Satisfaction with Life Scale, SWFoL scale, SWFaL scale, and the Family Resources Scale. Using structural equation modeling, we found that students’ life satisfaction was related to SWFaL and food-related life. A high positive relationship was identified between intangible family support and students’ SWFaL, which would have a mediating role between intangible support and life satisfaction. Using multi-group analysis, a moderator effect of gender was not found. These findings suggest that improving SWFoL, SWFaL and intangible family support is important for both female and male students. PMID:28932203
Full Text Available Life satisfaction and satisfaction with food-related life (SWFoL are associated with healthy eating habits, family interaction around eating and family support. The present study evaluates the relationship between SWFoL and satisfaction with family life (SWFaL, and their relationship with life satisfaction in university students. We identify the relationship of two different types of family support and student SWFaL and explore a moderator effect of gender. A questionnaire was applied to a non-probabilistic sample of 370 students of both genders (mean age 21 years in Chile, including Satisfaction with Life Scale, SWFoL scale, SWFaL scale, and the Family Resources Scale. Using structural equation modeling, we found that students’ life satisfaction was related to SWFaL and food-related life. A high positive relationship was identified between intangible family support and students’ SWFaL, which would have a mediating role between intangible support and life satisfaction. Using multi-group analysis, a moderator effect of gender was not found. These findings suggest that improving SWFoL, SWFaL and intangible family support is important for both female and male students.
Full Text Available Background and Objectives. The number of US allopathic medical school graduates choosing a residency in family medicine has fallen from 13.4% in 1999 to 10.5% in 2002. Concern about declining numbers has led to the development of programs to provide medical students exposure to family medicine outside the clerkship. This paper reports on the development and longitudinal achievements of a clinical summer externship program 1993 to 1999. Methods. The program description, practice settings, students experiences, and department commitment are described. The purpose of this prospective study is to determine the percentage of family medicine summer externship participants (n=115 who match into family medicine. Results. During the six years studied, 49 (43.4% of the participants matched into family medicine. Program participants viewed the program favorably, mean = 5.82 out of 6. Conclusions. The Ohio State University Department of Family Medicine Medical Student Summer Externship Program demonstrates an effective educational experience that can increase and/or attain the proportion of students going into family medicine at the time of graduation
Kaiser, Matthew M.; Seitz, Keshia M.; Walters, Elizabeth A.
Ritha Smith, assistant superintendent, and Seth Hanson, principal, are faced with a difficult decision. Taylor Harper is a transgender student who identifies as male and is openly attracted to females. Taylor's parents, Lane and Morgan Harper, are lesbians; they are fully supportive of their child's identification and are well versed in their…
State Council of Higher Education for Virginia, 2016
Access and affordability are the main themes of Goal 1 of The Virginia Plan for Higher Education. Progress toward these goals can be measured by a variety of means, but access and affordability serve as foundational guiding principles as the Commonwealth of Virginia crafts its annual and biennial higher-education budgets. Student-loan debt is but…
Research shows that chronic absenteeism can affect academic performance in later grades and is a key early warning sign that a student is more likely to drop out of high school. Several states enacted legislation to address this issue, and many states are currently discussing the utility of chronic absenteeism as an indicator of school quality or…
Olga A. Karabanova
Full Text Available Parenthood is a process of promoting the child’s progressive development and achieving personal autonomy. Social, family and psychological factors of formation of parental attitudes of the person at the stage of entering adulthood are considered. The mechanisms of the parental family influence on parental attitudes are analyzed. Parenting and children raising are recognized by modern young students as a significant family value with priority of professional and social activity. The revealed gender differences prove a higher assessment of the importance of parenthood and the upbringing of children among males rather than females, who have strongly prioritize their professional careers as compared to parenthood. Young women’s expectations of difficulties in the future of family life are related to child birth and upbringing. The experience of emotional relations in one’s own parent family is proved to determine the importance of parenting for young adults. Positive expectations of student youth regarding future family life and a certain underestimation of the difficulties of the transitional periods of the family life cycle are revealed. The greatest difficulties are predicted by students in connection with the period of child expectation and the first year of child life. The beginning of parental function realization, child raising, economic and household functioning of the family and mutual adaptation of the spouses are listed as the most difficulties in family life cycle. Family factors that determine expectations about difficulties and subjective satisfaction with family life include gender, experience of romantic partnership, full or incomplete family in origin, chronological age.
Scammell, Janet; Tait, Desiree; White, Sara; Tait, Michael
This study uses a lifeworld perspective to explore beginning students' values about nursing. Internationally, increasing care demand, a focus on targets and evidence of dehumanized care cultures have resulted in scrutiny of practitioner values. In England, selection policy dictates that prospective nursing students demonstrate person-centred values and care work experience. However, there is limited recent evidence exploring values at programme commencement or the effect of care experience on values. Mixed method study. A total of 161 undergraduate nursing students were recruited in 2013 from one English university. Thematic content analysis and frequency distribution to reveal descriptive statistics were used. Statistical analysis indicated that most of the values identified in student responses were not significantly affected by paid care experience. Five themes were identified: How I want care to be; Making a difference; The value of learning; Perceived characteristics of a nurse; and Respecting our humanity. Students readily drew on their experience of living to identify person-centred values about nursing.
Schnettler, Berta; Höger, Yesly; Orellana, Ligia
Aim: To characterize typologies of university students according to the perception of their families’ eating habits. Material and method: A questionnaire was applied to a non-probabilistic sample of 372 students of both genders at the Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco, Chile. The instrument...
Marana Sotero de Sousa
Full Text Available This present article aims to analyze the family farming as a development mechanism to promoting public policies for the rural sector. Thus, also aims to equally demonstrate that the development of such policies took place mostly from the actions and programs for family farming, and from the rise of this agricultural activity as a professional category that the State, united with the civil society organizations, they began to worry and develop public policies in order to boost the rural sector as a whole, which received attention and incentives from the 1990's, along with the consolidation of managerial reform of the State, ceasing to be theoretical and becoming part of the political agenda of the country. Still, those public policies aimed at family farming are designed to tackle the main ills in rural areas, which are, rural poverty, lack of sustainability and the food insecurity, in order to help to achieve the development of this area. In this context, we emphasize it would not be possible to develop public policies for the rural sector without counting with the participation of State and the actors social involved - farmers, associations and trade unions, for example. Therefore it's necessary to make the union between State, democracy and family agriculture for the development of such policies, since this tripod is the basis for the development of programs aimed to foment rural areas. Finally, it is important to note that this study was drawn from the most diverse literature sources, from analyzes carried out in books and scientific articles on the subject.
Cullen, Karen Weber; Watson, Kathy; Zakeri, Issa; Ralston, Katherine
This study assessed the impact of changes in school food policy on student lunch consumption in middle schools. Two years of lunch food records were collected from students at three middle schools in the Houston, Texas area. During the first year, no changes occurred in the school food environment. After that school year was completed, chips and dessert foods were removed from the snack bars of all schools by the Food Service Director. Students recorded the amount and source of food and beverage items consumed. Point-of-service purchase machines provided a day-by-day electronic data file with food and beverage purchases from the snack bars during the 2-year period. Independent t-tests and time series analyses were used to document the impact of the policy change on consumption and sales data between the two years. In general, student consumption of sweetened beverages declined and milk, calcium, vitamin A, saturated fat and sodium increased after the policy change. Snack chips consumption from the snack bar declined in year 2; however, consumption of snack chips and candy from vending increased and the number of vending machines in study schools doubled during the study period. Ice cream sales increased significantly in year 2. Policy changes on foods sold in schools can result in changes in student consumption from the targeted environments. However, if all environments do not make similar changes, compensation may occur.
Record, Rachael A
The purpose of this study was to examine the theory of planned behavior (TPB) as a framework for understanding tobacco-free policy compliance behaviors. Undergraduate student smokers (n = 479) on a college campus with a tobacco-free policy were randomly selected to report their tobacco-free compliance behaviors and respond to TPB items. A path analysis found all constructs of the TPB model to be significantly related to tobacco-free policy compliance behaviors. The results obtained from this study fill gaps in the mostly atheoretical literature regarding our understanding of tobacco-free policy compliance behaviors as well as extend our knowledge of the TPB. Implications for this study provide recommendations for universities, health organizations, and government agencies currently attempting to enforce compliance with a tobacco-free policy.
Full Text Available European countries in which mothers are encouraged to remain in the labour market have higher fertility levels. It is difficult, however, to link specific policies to fertility increases. We hypothesize that policy changes do not affect fertility decisions in the short term as long as external childcare is not seen as an acceptable option, although policy does have an impact upon childcare attitudes in the long term. Using a comparative qualitative approach, we find that attitudes towards childcare are strikingly different in France than in Western Germany, reflecting long-standing policy orientations. Attitudes act as an intermediate variable between access to childcare and its use in both countries, and are strongly homogenous within countries.
This century has seen continued exponential growth in the use of digital technologies. In Australia, the proportion of students having access to a computer at home rose from about 91 per cent in 2000 to over 99 per cent in 2013, and access to the internet grew from 67 per cent in 2000 to 98 per cent in 2013. According to the 2013 report on the…
Belo Leite, Dal J.G.
In Brazil, a biodiesel policy was implemented as a way of reducing poverty among family farms. The objective of this thesis is to perform an integrated assessment of biodiesel crops, farm types, biodiesel policies and producer organisations that reveals opportunities and limitations of family
Erdman, Phyllis; Kane, Connie M.
Examines African American, Anglo-American, and Hispanic American college students' perceptions of their family of origin. African American students rated their families higher than the other two groups on autonomy and intimacy. There were no significant differences between males and females or between Anglo-American students and Hispanic American…
Pollard, Connie J.; Thorne, Tom
A Wyoming alternative high school successfully graduates at-risk students because of its student-centered environment. Flexibility in the timelines to earn credits, a cross-disciplinary curriculum, community partnerships, and meaningful career enterprises offer the "person-environment fit" needed by students at risk. Student counseling…
Schnettler, Berta; Höger, Yesli; Orellana, Ligia; Miranda, Horacio; Lobos, Germán; Sepúlveda, José; Sanchez, Mercedes; Miranda-Zapata, Edgardo; Denegri, Marianela; Grunert, Klaus G; Salinas-Oñate, Natalia
The aim of this study was to categorize university students based on their association between food neophobia and levels of subjective well-being, in general and in the food domain, and their perception of their family's eating habits. A survey was conducted among 372 university students from southern Chile. The questionnaire included the Food Neophobia Scale (FNS), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Satisfaction with Food-related Life (SWFL), Health-related Quality of Life Index (HRQOL-4), and Family Eating Habits Questionnaire (FEHQ). Three student types were distinguished by cluster analysis: Group 1 (26.9%) had the highest scores on the FNS, SWLS and SWFL. Group 2 (40.8%) had a high score on the FNS but the lowest scores on the SWLS and SWFL. Group 3 (32.3%) had the lowest FNS score and high scores on the SWLS and SWFL. Group 2 stood out in having a low score on the FEHQ's component for cohesiveness of family eating. These results suggest that both neophobic and non-neophobic students have positive levels of satisfaction with life and food-related life, and that satisfaction among neophobic students is related to family eating patterns, especially cohesiveness in family eating.
Full Text Available Abstract: The aim of this study was to categorize university students based on their association between food neophobia and levels of subjective well-being, in general and in the food domain, and their perception of their family's eating habits. A survey was conducted among 372 university students from southern Chile. The questionnaire included the Food Neophobia Scale (FNS, Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS, Satisfaction with Food-related Life (SWFL, Health-related Quality of Life Index (HRQOL-4, and Family Eating Habits Questionnaire (FEHQ. Three student types were distinguished by cluster analysis: Group 1 (26.9% had the highest scores on the FNS, SWLS and SWFL. Group 2 (40.8% had a high score on the FNS but the lowest scores on the SWLS and SWFL. Group 3 (32.3% had the lowest FNS score and high scores on the SWLS and SWFL. Group 2 stood out in having a low score on the FEHQ's component for cohesiveness of family eating. These results suggest that both neophobic and non-neophobic students have positive levels of satisfaction with life and food-related life, and that satisfaction among neophobic students is related to family eating patterns, especially cohesiveness in family eating.
Hamann, Edmund T.; Morgenson, Cara
A university professor and high school ESL teacher, both based in Lincoln Nebraska, each write two short essays that detail implications of the Trump administration immigration policies for students, teachers, schools, and communities. The first two dispatches come from the transition period (after Trump won but while Obama still presided) while…
... borrower's Adjusted Gross Income (AGI) exceeds 150 percent of the poverty guideline amount applicable to... year of teaching due to a condition covered under the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) to still... regulations governing AWG to incorporate existing policy guidance related to third-party servicers or...
The purpose of this study is to understand how a policy that provided college-prep coursework for low-skill students may affect instructional organization within schools, and how such effects on instructional organization may have unintended consequences on academic outcomes of high-skill students who were not targeted by the policy. The author…
Using social media in education requires putting some building blocks for success in place. A strong foundation for successful use of social networking in education starts by securing parent/guardian and student agreements. Social networking provides a powerful platform for learning and connecting. Facebook is not just for sharing status updates…
Gardner, Sheena; Nesi, Hilary
As demand for English-medium higher education continues to grow internationally and participation in higher education increases, the need for a better understanding of academic writing is pressing. Prior university wide taxonomies of student writing have relied on intuition, the opinions of faculty, or data from course documentation and task…
Today, as international students become more mobile, and as further diversification of mobility takes place, transnational strategic development is demanded of Japan's higher education policies in lieu of traditional concepts such as "international intellectual contribution" and "mutual international understanding." Global 30, the Project for Establishing a University Network for Internationalization, the Project for Promotion of Global Human Resources Development, and the Top Global Universi...
Wellen, Richard; Axelrod, Paul; Desai-Trilokekar, Roopa; Shanahan, Theresa
This paper examines the pattern of decision-making, lobbying, and influence that led to the landmark series of federal student assistance policies introduced by Jean Chretien's Liberal government in the late 1990s. The package of new initiatives--dubbed the Canada Opportunities Strategy--not only partially reversed an earlier period of fiscal…
Hoss, Nickta; Eberle, Francis
This Policy Update highlights the mismatch between the skills taught in many teacher preparation programs and those needed to help students achieve rigorous learning standards. State boards of education have a role to play here. They have authority over preparation program standards and approval processes, curriculum, teacher certification and…
Centering around case studies of American military intervention (1898 to 1933) in the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and Nicaragua, this unit invites the student to compare the results of such intervention with the foreign policy goals and ideals the interventions were intended to implement. It confronts him with the dilemma of power in international…
National Institutes of Health (DHEW), Bethesda, MD. Bureau of Health Manpower Education.
This manual covers basic policies and procedures governing four student loan and scholarship programs administered within the Bureau of Health Manpower, National Institutes of Health. An introductory chapter provides definitions, procedures, and reporting common to all programs, and this is followed by chapters describing: (1) The Health…
Gathuru, Irene M; Tarter, Ralph E; Klein-Fedyshin, Michele
About 30% of college students have smoked hookah tobacco. Although most students perceive this product to be innocuous and non-addictive, hookah tobacco increases the risk for disease and nicotine dependence. Currently, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not regulate the manufacture, distribution, or sale of hookah tobacco. Empirical literature pertaining to hookah tobacco smoking is reviewed with a focus on the implications for regulatory policy. PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases were searched to locate articles published in English. The literature search combined several key words including "hookahs", "college", "advertising", "health effects", and "health policy". Smoking hookah tobacco may play a role in the initiation of smoking among tobacco-naïve college students and may portend persistent smoking among those who have smoked cigarettes. College students are typically nondaily, social smokers. They do not perceive that their heightened risk for tobacco diseases and nicotine dependence relates to their smoking behavior. However, few public health messages target college-age adults to counter media messages that endorse hookah tobacco smoking. Given that the FDA is not authorized to ban specific tobacco products, policy actions should focus on the development of effective risk communication strategies that target college-age adults and on limiting the accessibility of hookah tobacco products to these adults. Accordingly, a research agenda that would inform these policy actions is proposed.
Lawson, Janelle E.; Cmar, Jennifer L.
For over 25 years, students with disabilities in California received educationally related mental health services through interagency collaboration between school districts and county mental health agencies. After a major change in state policy that eliminated state-mandated interagency collaboration, school districts in California are now solely…
Ander, Roseanna; Guryan, Jonathan; Ludwig, Jens
Improving the educational outcomes of economically disadvantaged children is a policy priority in the United States, and yet relatively little progress has been made in recent decades. Education reforms that aim to help economically disadvantaged students often focus on improving the quality with which grade-level material is taught, or the…
In the 1999-2000 school year, only about 12 percent of U.S. public schools required their students to wear uniforms. Since then, the number of schools requiring uniforms has risen. Uniform policies are now in place at about a fifth of all public schools in the United States--but do school uniforms really level the playing field? New research has…
Parsi, Ace; Casey, Meghan
The nation's six million students with disabilities have graduation rates nearly 25 percent lower than their general education peers and significantly lower postsecondary enrollment and completion rates. For the last decade and a half, state policy leaders have decried No Child Left Behind's lack of flexibility and one-size-fits-all design for…
Hornberger, Nancy H.
Presents a framework of biliteracy development focusing on the following three continua: (1) the macro-micro continuum of policy; (2) the monolingual-bilingual continuum; and (3) the oral-literate continuum. These are discussed in the contexts of Cambodian and Puerto Rican students in two public elementary schools in Philadelphia. (SLD)
Gullifer, J. M.; Tyson, G. A.
Research has established that the term "plagiarism" is open to different interpretations, resulting in confusion among students and staff alike. University policy on academic integrity/misconduct defines the behaviours that all stakeholders must abide by, and the parameters for reporting, investigating and penalising infringements. These…
Aber, Lawrence; Morris, Pamela; Raver, Cybele
Now, more than ever, it is crucial to address the topic of children and poverty in the U.S., given current scientific knowledge about poverty's influence on children and effective strategies to mitigate its negative impact. In this report, we summarize the best available information on definitions and trends in child poverty, policy responses to…
Torres, Stephanie A; Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Walts, Katherine Kaufka; Richards, Maryse H
Currently, 15 million Mexican and Central American individuals live in the United States, with this number projected to rise in the next few decades (Lesser & Batalova, 2017; Zong & Batalova, 2017). Research has begun to investigate the impact of the nation's immigration practices and policies on immigrant Latino/a families and youth. Current immigration policies can create vulnerabilities, including fear and mistrust, discrimination, limited access to services, parent-child separation, and poverty. These experiences increase risk for poor mental health outcomes and may exacerbate prior exposure to traumas in the home country (e.g., violence) and during migration (e.g., extortion). This paper reviews current immigration policies for arriving Mexican and Central American immigrants and links to mental health among documented and undocumented immigrant families and youth. A discussion of positive policies and resources that may mitigate the damaging impact of immigration-related stress is included. Finally, social justice implications for clinicians and researchers are discussed, with culturally sensitive interventions, advocacy, and dissemination of research and policy as primary recommendations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Martha Frías Armenta
Full Text Available A model of family influences on the development of antisocial behavior and scholar problems in adolescents is presented. Two-hundred four students of junior and high school were assessed. Data were analyzed through a structural equation model. Results showed that child abuse, a no cooperative family and mothers' alcohol consumption had a direct effect on antisocial behavior,which in turn promoted delinquen behavior and negatively affected school grades of students. Delinquency and mothers' alcohol consumption had an influence on students' school problems,which could be partially overturned by their social abilities. Results suggest the necessity of counselling for families in arder to prevent school problems and bad grades in adolescents.
Huang, William Y; Rogers, John C; Nelson, Elizabeth A; Wright, Crystal C; Teal, Cayla R
Reflection after patient encounters is an important aspect of clinical learning. After our medical school instituted a reflection paper assignment for all clerkships, we wanted to learn about the types of encounters that students found meaningful on a family medicine clerkship and how they impacted students' learning. Family and Community Medicine Clerkship students completed a reflection paper after the clerkship, based on guidelines that were used for all clerkship reflection papers at our medical school. Two reviewers independently organized student responses into themes and then jointly prioritized common themes and negotiated any initial differences into other themes. A total of 272 reflection papers describing an actual learning moment in patient care were submitted during the study period of January 2011--December 2012. In describing actions performed, students most frequently wrote about aspects of patient-centered care such as listening to the patient, carefully assessing the patient's condition, or giving a detailed explanation to the patient. In describing effects of those actions, students wrote about what they learned about the patient-physician interaction, the trust that patients demonstrated in them, the approval they gained from their preceptors, and the benefits they saw from their actions. An important contribution of a family medicine clerkship is the opportunity for students to further their skills in patient-centered care and realize the outcomes of providing that type of care.
Feng, Na; Luo, Jiayou; Li, Huixia; Zhu, Na; Feng, Qi; Li, Xiongwei; Zhou, Haixiang
To explore the behaviors related to infectious disease and family factors in primary and middle school students, and to provide evidence for improving behaviors related to infectious disease. A total of 8465 students were randomly surveyed by a standard questionnaire of behaviors related to infectious disease. Chi-square test was used to analyze the influential factors for behaviors related to infectious disease, and non conditional logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the multiple factors. The total formation rate of behaviors related to infectious disease was 66.4%. The rates for primary and middle school students were 69.4% and 62.8% respectively, with significant difference (Pschool students was higher than that in middle school students. There were also significant differences in the following behaviors, such as washing hands after using the toilet, blocking with a handkerchief, wiping while coughing and sneezing (all Pmiddle school students was higher than that in primary school students. Non conditional logistic regression analysis showed that the behaviors related to infectious disease in primary and middle school students were associated with parents' education degree, mother's occupation and living status with parents. Behaviors related to infectious disease in primary and middle school students need to be improved, and the formation of these behaviors may be related to many family factors.
Full Text Available Heightened concerns and dialogue about access to justice have infused the law school setting in Saskatchewan and, to varying degrees, across the country. If there ever were a time to approach social justice reform differently – to upset traditional parameters around decision making and step around older hierarchies for input and design – it would be now. This article describes the Dean’s Forum on Dispute Resolution and Access to Justice (colloquially known as the Dean’s Forum as a platform for genuine student engagement in the development of public policy in this important area. We offer our combined reflections, gathered inside our “teaching team,” about the unique pedagogical features of our experiment and its challenges. As we continue to grow with the project, we offer this Saskatchewan story as one example of institutional collaboration in a quickly evolving educational and social policy landscape. L’accès à la justice est une préoccupation croissante et un thème de plus en plus récurrent dans les facultés de droit de la Saskatchewan et, à différents degrés, de l’ensemble du pays. Le temps est venu, semble-t-il, d’aborder la réforme de la justice sociale différemment, de bouleverser les paramètres traditionnels gravitant autour de la prise de décisions et de contourner les hiérarchies plus anciennes en ce qui concerne les données et les concepts. Cet article porte sur le forum du doyen concernant le règlement des conflits et l’accès à la justice (familièrement appelé le Dean’s Forum (forum du doyen comme plateforme pour la participation des étudiants à l’élaboration des politiques publiques dans cet important domaine. Nous présentons l’ensemble des réflexions de notre équipe d’enseignants au sujet des éléments pédagogiques uniques de notre expérience et des difficultés connexes. Nous continuons à grandir avec notre projet, mais nous souhaitions décrire dès maintenant cette
Yao, Benxian; Zhang, Ling; Zhen, Rui; Zhou, Xiao
This study examined the relationship between family context of middle school students on their educational and occupational ideals. Middle school students (N = 2000) responded to questions assessing family location, family structure, parental educational level and family economic status, as well as to the Middle School Students' Ideals Questionnaire. Multivariate analysis of variance indicated that life, educational and occupational ideals of female students and students in lower grades were higher than that of male students and students in higher grades. Regression analysis indicated that paternal education level have a positive association with educational and occupational ideals, but not life ideals, and family economic status have a positive relation to life ideals, but not educational and occupational ideals. Moreover, the interaction between family economic status and family location has a negative association with students' life, educational and occupational ideals. These results suggest that different factors predicted different ideals of adolescents, and that family economic status had a negative moderating effect on the relationship between family location and ideals of students. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.
Mukaba, Thibaut; Binanga, Arsene; Fohl, Sarah; Bertrand, Jane T
Building on expressed support from the Prime Minister to the Ministries of Health and Planning, the country's new family planning commitment grew out of: (1) recognition of the impact of family planning on maternal mortality and economic development; (2) knowledge sharing of best practices from other African countries; (3) participatory development of a national strategic plan; (4) strong collaboration between stakeholders; (5) effective advocacy by champions including country and international experts; and (6) increased donor support. The question becomes: Will the favorable policy environment translate into effective local programming?
Jonkman, Jeffrey; Blinn-Pike, Lynn; Worthy, Sheri Lokken
Background and aims The relationship between college student gambling, parenting styles, and family environments is a neglected area of gambling research. Do parenting styles indirectly influence problem gambling behaviors via family environments? Do poor family environments, characterized by high levels of conflict and low levels of cohesion, increase the likelihood of problem gambling among youth? This study explored the interrelationships among college students' current gambling behaviors and a) having an emotionally close and supportive family environment, b) having nagging and critical parents, c) having an authoritative mother, and d) frequency of alcohol consumption. Methods and results Survey data were collected from 450 undergraduate students enrolled in introductory psychology classes at two state universities in a southern state. Feeling that one has nagging and critical parents was associated with gambling in more venues, while the opposite was true for having emotionally close and supportive families. However, perceptions of having authoritative mothers were not related to gambling. The results also showed that more frequent alcohol consumption was associated with higher odds of gambling in casinos, playing cards for money, betting on sports, gambling on the Internet, higher gambling losses, and a larger number of gambling venues. Conclusions As with any exploratory research, there are several unique lines of inquiry that can, and should, follow from these findings, including more research on how college students' attitudes toward gambling activities may have begun prior to college and been influenced by their feelings about their homes and parents.
Mrduljaš-Đjujic, Nataša; Pavličević, Ivančica; Marušic, Ana; Marušic, Matko
Family medicine fosters holistic approach to patient-centered practice. Current medical curriculum in Croatia does not have well-structured courses or tools to prepare medicals students for successful communication with the patient and for building lasting and beneficial doctor- patient relationship. We explored the value of students practice in writing letters to patients about their illness as a way of building personal and compassionate relationship with patients. Sixth year students at the School of Medicine in Split wrote letters to the patients from consultations under the supervision of the supervisor in a family medicine practice. Structured teaching of communication with the patient brings family medicine back to what has actually always been its main part- communication and doctor-patient relationship. Our future aim is to develop students letters to patients as a new tool in the family medicine course examination. Moreover, we will investigate how they can be used in everyday practice of family medicine. Copyright 2012 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Junia Zacour del Giúdice
Full Text Available The criterion of social vulnerability is embedded in different programs for the analysis of poverty and social exclusion. For the present study, we sought to examine conceptually and empirically, the criterion of social vulnerability adopted in student assistance from the Federal University of Viçosa / MG for selection of students benefited by means of literature and questionnaire. Related to social vulnerability and social exclusion risks and addressed the students' perception of the subject. We conclude that the empirical approach refers to the conceptual, social vulnerability being concentrated on economic and social indicators, represented by income, ownership of assets, work, health and family structure.
Ritchie, Lorrene D; Rosen, Nila J; Fenton, Keenan; Au, Lauren E; Goldstein, Lauren H; Shimada, Tia
Breakfast skipping has been associated with obesity. Schools have adopted breakfast policies to increase breakfast participation. Recently, there have been concerns that students in schools where breakfast is served in the classroom may be eating two breakfasts--one at home and one at school--thereby increasing their risk of excessive energy intake and weight gain. The study objective was to compare the prevalence of not eating breakfast, eating breakfast at home or school only, and eating double breakfasts (home and school) by students in schools with distinct breakfast policies and evaluate the relationship of breakfast policy to energy intake and diet quality. Baseline data were collected in 2011-2012 as part of a cluster randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based intervention to promote fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity in low-resource elementary schools in California. Participants were 3,944 fourth and fifth graders from 43 schools, 20 served breakfast in the cafeteria before school, 17 served breakfast in the classroom at the start of school, and 6 served "second chance" breakfast (in the cafeteria before school and again at first recess). As part of a secondary data analysis, differences in school and individual characteristics by school breakfast policy were assessed by χ(2) test of independence or analysis of variance. Associations between school breakfast policy and breakfast eating patterns were assessed. Outcomes included calorie intake at breakfast, total daily calorie intake, and diet quality as measured by the Healthy Eating Index 2010. Control variables included student race/ethnicity, grade, and language spoken at home, and clustering of students by school. Breakfast in the classroom was associated with fewer students not eating breakfast (Pschool (P<0.001). Students in the breakfast in the classroom group did not have higher mean energy intakes from breakfast or higher daily energy intakes that were
Dupraz, Pierre; Latruffe, Laure; Mann, Stefan
The objective of this article is to analyse the trends in on-farm labour use, including own family labour, hired labour and contract work, and to assess the factors driving their evolution in France and in Switzerland during 1990-2007. A particular attention is given to agricultural policies, namely the level and type of support. Results indicate that crop area payments discourage the different labour demands in both countries. No other subsidies have a significant influence on labour use in ...
Dupraz, Pierre; Latruffe, Laure; Mann, Stefan
The objective of this article is to analyse the trends in on-farm labour use, including own family labour, hired labour and contract work, and to assess the factors driving their evolution in France and in Switzerland during 1990-2007. A particular attention is given to agricultural policies, namely the level and type of support. Results indicate that crop area payments discourage the different labour demands in both countries, while environment and investment payments favour contract and hir...
Sanchez, Heriberto Fiúza; Drumond, Marisa Maia; Vilaça, Enio Lacerda
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the perceptions and opinions of dental students from two different Dentistry Schools in Brazil, both known here as Dentistry Schools 1 and 2 about the Family Health Program--FHP. The study analyzed if the Dentistry Schools had any influence on the students, graduating professionals with humanitarian and social sensibility, which are considered very important prerequisites for those who wish to work on this governmental health program, as well as searching for professional expectation of the students. Individual questionnaires were applied by only one researcher among the students who took part in the study. Answers were analysed by the Epi-Info program and results showed that difficulties related to the job market may be influencing students to join the FHP. Results also reveal that students consider technician an important prerequisite for dentists who wish to work on this governmental program. Significant statistical differences between the students were found: those who were graduating in Dentistry School 1 seemed more adequate to FHP and the reason for this difference may be the Supervised Training Program, a unit available on this Dentistry School that enables the students face the reality of FHP, as well the social and economical reality of the families assisted by this program.
Full Text Available Background: With increasing levels of student loan debt, the path to economic stability may be less smooth than it was for earlier generations of college graduates. This paper explores this emerging trend by assessing whether or not student loan debt influences family formation. Objective: The objective of this study is to examine whether student loan debt delays marriage in young adulthood, whether or not the relationship between student loan debt and marriage differs for women and for men, and if this relationship attenuates during the years immediately after college graduation. Methods: We estimate a series of discrete-time hazard regression models predicting the odds of first marriage as a function of time-varying student loan debt balance, using a nationally representative sample of bachelor's degree recipients from the 1993 Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (N = 9,410. Results: We find that the dynamics of loan repayment are related to marriage timing for women, but not for men. Specifically, an increase of $1,000 in student loan debt is associated with a reduction in the odds of first marriage by two percent a month among female bachelor degree recipients during the first four years after college graduation. This relationship attenuates over time. Conclusions: Our study lends support to the proposition that the financial weight of monthly loan repayments impedes family formation in the years immediately following college graduation -- however, only for women. This finding questions traditional models of gender specialization in family formation that emphasize the economic resources of men.
Strunin, Lee; Díaz-Martínez, L. Rosa; Díaz-Martínez, Alejandro; Heeren, Timothy; Winter, Michael; Kuranz, Seth; Hernández-Ávila, Carlos A.; Fernández-Varela, Héctor; Solís-Torres, Cuauhtémoc
Introduction Parental monitoring and family relations are recognized as protective factors for youth alcohol use. The purpose of this study was to investigate perceived parental monitoring and family relations among subgroups of Mexican youths with different patterns of drinking behaviors and consequences. Methods A Latent Profile Analysis (LPA) identified profiles of drinking behavior in a cross-sectional survey of entering first year university students. Multinomial regression examined associations between parental monitoring, family relations and drinking profiles among 22,224 students. Results Both lower perceived parental monitoring and weaker perceived family relations were associated with heavier drinking profiles among males and females, but more strongly associated with female than male heavier drinking profiles. Being older, having parents with lower education, and not living with parents were also associated with lower parental monitoring and weaker family relations. There was a general trend of lower parental monitoring and weaker family relations as the profiles increased from Non/Infrequent-No Consequences to Excessive-Many Consequences drinkers. Lower perceived parental monitoring and weaker perceived family relations were more strongly associated with drinking profiles among females than among males. Both the parental monitoring and family relations scales had similar associations with drinking profiles. Conclusions Findings suggest drinking norms and values may contribute to any protective influences of parental monitoring and family relations on Mexican youths’ drinking. Research about changes in drinking norms, contextual factors, and youth-parent trust would inform the utility of parental monitoring or family relations as protective strategies against alcohol misuse among Mexican and Mexican American youths and also youths from other backgrounds. PMID:26256470
Strunin, Lee; Rosa Díaz-Martínez, L; Díaz-Martínez, Alejandro; Heeren, Timothy; Winter, Michael; Kuranz, Seth; Hernández-Ávila, Carlos A; Fernández-Varela, Héctor; Solís-Torres, Cuauhtémoc
Parental monitoring and family relations are recognized as protective factors for youth alcohol use. The purpose of this study was to investigate perceived parental monitoring and family relations among subgroups of Mexican youths with different patterns of drinking behaviors and consequences. A latent profile analysis (LPA) identified profiles of drinking behavior in a cross-sectional survey of entering first year university students. Multinomial regression examined associations between parental monitoring, family relations and drinking profiles among 22,224 students. Both lower perceived parental monitoring and weaker perceived family relations were associated with heavier drinking profiles among males and females, but more strongly associated with female than male heavier drinking profiles. Being older, having parents with lower education, and not living with parents were also associated with lower parental monitoring and weaker family relations. There was a general trend of lower parental monitoring and weaker family relations as the profiles increased from Non/Infrequent-No Consequences to Excessive-Many Consequences Drinkers. Lower perceived parental monitoring and weaker perceived family relations were more strongly associated with drinking profiles among females than among males. Both the parental monitoring and family relations scales had similar associations with drinking profiles. Findings suggest that drinking norms and values may contribute to any protective influences of parental monitoring and family relations on Mexican youths' drinking. Research about changes in drinking norms, contextual factors, and youth-parent trust would inform the utility of parental monitoring or family relations as protective strategies against alcohol misuse among Mexican and Mexican American youths and also youths from other backgrounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ingólfsdóttir, Jóna G; Egilson, Snæfrídur Thóra; Traustadóttir, Rannveig
This paper outlines the reported discrepancies between the aims of the welfare services in Iceland and the experiences of parents raising young children with intellectual disabilities. Prevailing views on disability and service delivery were also considered. A multi case study design was employed to reflect the situation in different parts of the country. Families of eight children with intellectual disabilities and professionals in three different municipalities formed the cases. The findings reveal a high convergence between the three cases with variations based on individual experiences rather than geographical location. Overall, parents praised the preschools but experienced support services often as fragmented and uncompromising. Particular components of the services were consistently regarded as hard to reach and not in accordance with the needs of the family. Cultural-historical activity theory is introduced as a beneficial framework for further study and system improvement.
Full Text Available Background and Objective: University students are among vulnerable groups to tendency towards substance use. Accordingly, this study aimed to investigate the role of personal, familial, and social risk and protective factors in the prediction of tendency to this behavior among students.Materials and Methods: This descriptive correlational study was carried out on 431 students of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences who were selected by convenience sampling. Data were collected by Risk and Protective Factors Inventory (RPFI and Youth Risk Taking Scale (YRTS and then, were analyzed by Pearson correlation method and stepwise multivariate regression.Results: Data analysis using Pearson Correlation Coefficient showed significant relationships between personal (e.g. attitude towards substance use and tendency to drug use; r=0.6, P<0.01, familial (e.g. parent attitude towards substance and tendency towards smoking cigarettes; r=0.2, P<0.05, and social (e.g. perceived accessibility and tendency towards alcohol; r=0.4, P<0.01 factors with tendency to substance use. Moreover, the results of stepwise multivariate regression analysis indicated that personal factors (i.e. attitude towards substance use, sensation seeking, and impulsivity, social factors (i.e. friends’ substance use and perceived accessibility, and familial factors (i.e. family monitoring and parents’ attitude towards substance use were the best predictors of tendency towards substance use in students, respectively.Conclusion: In conclusion, current results indicated that a series of individual, familial, and social factors affect tendency towards substance use among students. Accordingly, identifying vulnerable students using suitable screening tests and providing them with primary prevention programs is of the utmost importance.
Buettner, Cynthia K.; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Andrews, David W.; Khurana, Atika
Objective The purpose of this study was to extend the limited research on college student support for alcohol control policies by using a latent class analysis to examine the shared characteristics of drinking students who support or oppose such policies. Methods We used data from a sample of 2393 students drawn from a larger study on high risk drinking at a mid-western university. Data was collected between October 2005 and May 2007. We conducted a latent class analysis to identify sub-groups of drinking students based on relevant variables. Results The results of the latent class analysis yielded a model which could correctly classify 90% of the students taking the survey into one of four “classes” based upon their response to four items on the questionnaire. Conclusions Interventions would benefit from approaches that target both student perceptions and specific policies that are most conducive to student support and engagement. PMID:20153587
Zierz, Antonia Maria; Mehl, Theresa; Kraya, Torsten; Wienke, Andreas; Zierz, Stephan
Headache attributed to ingestion of a cold stimulus (ICHD-3 beta 4.5.1) is also known as ice cream headache (ICH). This cross-sectional epidemiological study included 283 students (10-14-year-olds) attending a grammar school in Germany, their parents (n = 401), and 41 teachers. A self-administered questionnaire was used to analyze the prevalence and characteristics of ICH based on the ICHD classification. Additionally, the association between ICH and other headaches was investigated in students and parents. Prevalence of ICH in students was 62 % without gender difference. In adults, only 36 % of females and 22 % of males reported ICH. There was an increased risk for ICH in students when mother (OR 10.7) or father (OR 8.4) had ICH. Other headaches in parents had no influence on the prevalence of ICH in students. However, in the groups of students and parents itself there was a highly significant association between ICH and other headaches (students: OR 2.4, mothers: OR 2.9, fathers: OR 6.8). There was a decreased risk for ICH when parents and students had no headache at all (OR < 0.4). ICH in students clearly shows a familial disposition by both father and mother. There was also an association between ICH and other headaches within the student and adult groups. The absence of headache history seems to be a protective factor for ICH.
Vela, Javier C.; Sparrow, Gregory Scott; Ikonomopoulos, James; Gonzalez, Stacey L.; Rodriguez, Basilio
We examined how character strengths and family importance influenced Mexican American college students' life satisfaction. Using multiple regression analysis, findings indicated that optimism, grit, and gratitude were significant predictors of life satisfaction. We provide a discussion regarding the importance of these findings as well as…
Cavazos Vela, Javier; Lerma, Eunice; Lenz, A. Stephen; Hinojosa, Karina; Hernandez-Duque, Omar; Gonzalez, Stacey L.
We investigated the contributions of positive psychology and familial factors as predictors of hope and academic performance among 166 Latina/o college students enrolled at a Hispanic Serving Institution of Higher Education. The results indicated that presence of meaning in life, search for meaning in life, daily spiritual experiences, and…
Labrie, Joseph W; Migliuri, Savannah; Kenney, Shannon R; Lac, Andrew
Studies examining family history of alcohol abuse among college students are not only conflicting, but have suffered various limitations. The current report investigates family history of alcohol abuse (FH+) and its relationship with alcohol expectancies, consumption, and consequences. In the current study, 3753 student participants (35% FH+), completed online assessments. Compared to FH- same-sex peers, FH+ males and FH+ females endorsed greater overall positive expectancies, consumed more drinks per week, and experienced more alcohol-related negative consequences. Further, FH+ females evaluated the negative effects of alcohol to be substantially worse than FH- females. An ANCOVA, controlling for age, GPA, race, and alcohol expectancies, resulted in family history main effects on both drinking and consequences. An interaction also emerged between gender and family history, such that FH+ males were especially vulnerable to high levels of alcohol consumption. Results reveal the scope of FH+ individuals in the college environment and the increased risk for these students, particularly male FH+ students, suggesting a need for researchers and college health personnel to focus attention and resources on this issue. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Walsh, Sandra M.; Hogan, Nancy S.
Following a chaplain's lecture on the end of life, nursing students wrote reaction papers on appropriate ways to support dying patients and their families. Six processes emerged, including the core concept of the nurse's presence at the bedside. (Contains 23 references.) (SK)
Wang, Kenneth T.; Puri, Rohini; Slaney, Robert B.; Methikalam, Bindu; Chadha, Narender
Psychometric properties of the Almost Perfect Scale and the Family Almost Perfect Scale were evaluated using Indian college students studying in India (N = 132). Three classes of perfectionists--adaptive, maladaptive, and nonperfectionists--that mirrored past studies were compared on self-esteem and depression. (Contains 3 tables and 3 figures.)
Iruloh, Betty-Ruth Ngozi; Wilson, Chukwu Juliet U.
The study investigated the relative relationship between family distress and eating disorders among undergraduate students of University of Port Harcourt. The study was guided by three research questions and three null hypotheses to test the tenability of the independent variables on the dependent variable at 0.05 level of significance. The study…
Dunst, Carl J.; Hamby, Deborah W.
The relationships between cumulative family risk factors and American students' academic performance were examined in all 50 States and the District of Columbia. Data from the 2007 "American Community Survey" were used to ascertain the percent of birth to 18 year old children in the United States who experienced three or more risk…
Yeh, Christine J.; Borrero, Noah E.; Tito, Patsy
This study investigated family intergenerational conflict and collective self-esteem as predictors of depression in a sample of 128 Samoan middle and high school students. Simultaneous regression analyses revealed that each independent variable significantly contributed to an overall model that accounted for 13% of the variance in depression.…
Miller, Peter M.; Bourgeois, Alexis K.
This article addresses school and community-level issues associated with the expanding crisis of student homelessness in the United States. We note that while an increased geographic dispersion of homeless and highly mobile (HHM) families is largely attributed to the widespread effects of the economic recession, it is also furthered by shifting…
Elhoweris, Hala; Whittaker, Catharine; Salend, Spencer J.
It is critical for educators to understand the influence of religion or spirituality on students and their families. This article reviews the literature addressing religious, spiritual, and cultural beliefs with an emphasis on quality-of-life issues and provides suggestions educators can use to enhance the services that they provide.
Rooks, Ronica N.; Ford, Cassandra
This personal reflection describes our experiences with incorporating the scholarship of teaching and learning and problem-based techniques to facilitate undergraduate student learning and their professional development in the health sciences. We created a family health history assignment to discuss key concepts in our courses, such as health…
Tanaka, Masaaki; Watanabea, Yasuyoshi
Objective: Intrinsic academic motivation is one of the most important psychological concepts in education, and it is related to academic outcomes in medical students. This study examined the relationships between academic and family conditions and intrinsic academic motivation. Design: Cross-sectional design. Setting: The study group consisted of…
Floyd, Melissa; Gruber, Kenneth J.
This study explored the attitudes of 147 undergraduate social work majors to working with difficult families. Students indicated which problems (from a list of 42, including hot topics such as homosexuality, transgender issues, abortion, and substance abuse) they believed they would find most difficult to work with and provided information…
Perez, Patricia A.; Rodriguez, James L.
This article focused on the educational experiences of Latina/o undocumented college students attending a public Hispanic-Serving Institution. Familial and institutional factors that promote educational opportunities are explored. A total of 15 semi-structured interviews serve as the data source for this exploratory, qualitative study. Interview…
Moreno, Gerardo; Wong-Lo, Mickie
Preparing educators to work with students from culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) background is increasingly valued as the demographics of today?s classrooms continue to evolve. Embracing cultural differences and recognizing the distinctive factors associated within the composition of CLD families are critical elements as educators become…
Sheets, Raymond L., Jr.; Mohr, Jonathan J.
In this study, the authors investigated the degree to which perceived social support was associated with depression, life satisfaction, and internalized binegativity in a sample of 210 bisexual young adult college students. Two types of social support (general and sexuality specific) and 2 sources of social support (family and friends) were…
LaBrie, Joseph W.; Migliuri, Savannah; Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew
Studies examining family history of alcohol abuse among college students are not only conflicting, but have suffered various limitations. The current report investigates family history of alcohol abuse (FH+) and its relationship with alcohol expectancies, consumption, and consequences. In the current study, 3753 student participants (35% FH+), completed online assessments. Compared to FH−same-sex peers, FH+ males and FH+ females endorsed greater overall positive expectancies, consumed more drinks per week, and experienced more alcohol-related negative consequences. Further, FH+ females evaluated the negative effects of alcohol to be substantially worse than FH− females. An ANCOVA, controlling for age, GPA, race, and alcohol expectancies, resulted in family history main effects on both drinking and consequences. An interaction also emerged between gender and family history, such that FH+ males were especially vulnerable to high levels of alcohol consumption. Results reveal the scope of FH+ individuals in the college environment and the increased risk for these students, particularly male FH+ students, suggesting a need for researchers and college health personnel to focus attention and resources on this issue. PMID:20359831
Sneyers, Eline; De Witte, Kristof
This paper examines the effect of the introduction of an academic dismissal (AD) policy (i.e. an intervention, which can lead to compulsory student withdrawal) on student dropout, student graduation rates and satisfaction with the study program. Using a difference-in-differences type of estimator, we compare programs that introduced an AD policy…
Breitenbach, Edward C.
School safety is a very important issue for school staff, parents, and students. When school safety is lacking, students suffer in emotional, academic, and social areas. One recent intervention middle schools are examining is the student uniform policy. In some cases, school uniforms have been shown to have a profound effect on school safety,…
Yamaguchi, Ryoko; Johnston, Lloyd D; O'Malley, Patrick M
This report provides information about drug testing by American secondary schools, based on results from national surveys. The study provides descriptive information on drug-testing practices by schools from 1998 to 2001, and examines the association between drug testing by schools and reported drug use by students. School-level data on drug testing were obtained through the Youth, Education, and Society study, and student-level survey data were obtained from the same schools participating in the Monitoring the Future study. A relatively small percentage of schools (about 18%) reported testing students for drug use, with more high schools than middle schools reporting drug testing. Drug testing was not associated with students' reported illicit drug use, or with rate of use among experienced marijuana users. Drug testing of athletes was not associated with illicit drug use among male high school athletes. Policy implications are discussed.
Whittington, L A
income as a constant, income reduces the impact of the dependency exemption on fertility. Neither state or federal exemptions are a determinant of fertility but serve as a policy tool for motivating average family size.
Robert A Dugger
Full Text Available Relatively little is known about American medical student's attitudes toward caring for the uninsured, limiting physician reimbursement and the role of cost-effectiveness data in medical decision-making. We assessed American medical student's attitudes regarding these topics as well as demographic predictors of those attitudes, and compared them to practicing physicians.A survey instrument was explicitly designed to compare medical student attitudes with those previously reported by physicians. Between December 1st 2010 and March 27th 2011 survey responses were collected from more than 2% of the total estimated 2010-2011 US medical student population enrolled at 111 of 159 accredited US medical schools within the 50 United States (n = 2414 of possible 98197. Medical students were more likely to object to reimbursement cuts, and more likely to object to the use of cost effectiveness data in medical decision making than current physicians according to the literature. Specialty preference, political persuasion, and medical student debt were significant predictors of health policy attitudes. Medical students with anticipated debt in excess of $200,000 were significantly less willing to favor limiting reimbursement to improve patient access (OR: 0.73 [95% confidence interval (CI: 0.59-0.89], and significantly more likely to object to using cost effectiveness data to limit treatments (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.05-1.60 when compared to respondents with anticipated debt less than $200,000.When compared to physicians in the literature, future physicians may be less willing to favor cuts to physician reimbursements and may be more likely to object to the use of cost effectiveness data. Political orientation, specialty preference and anticipated debt may be important predictors of health policy attitudes among medical students. Early career medical providers with primary care ambitions and those who anticipate less debt may be more likely to support healthcare
Burke, Meghan M.; Goldman, Samantha E.
Compared to families of students with other types of disabilities, families of students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are significantly more likely to enact their procedural safeguards such as mediation and due process. However, we do not know which school, child, and parent characteristics are associated with the enactment of safeguards.…
Rodriguez, Raymond J.; Cavendish, Wendy
The role of gender and ethnicity as moderators of the relationship between perceived family environments and levels of self-determination was examined in a sample of students with disabilities. A sample of 157 Latino and Anglo students with disabilities completed the "Family Environment Scale" and the "Arc Self-Determination…
Cullen, Karen Weber; Watson, Kathleen B; Fithian, Ashley R
This study compares the impact of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy on lunch consumption of low- and middle-income students in sixth through eighth grades. Students in 1 middle socioeconomic status (SES) and 1 low SES school completed lunch food records before (2001/2002) and after (2005/2006) implementation of the Texas policy. Students recorded amount and source of foods/beverages consumed. Two-way analyses of variance with year and school SES as factors were performed to compare consumption by school SES before and after implementation of the Texas policy. Regardless of year, the low SES group consumed less fat, sweetened beverages, and candy and more vitamin C and calcium than the middle SES group. There were more significant improvements in dietary patterns for the middle SES school students post-policy, particularly from the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) meal. The middle SES school students reported significantly higher percentages of less healthy items from home post-policy. Overall, low SES school students consumed more healthy lunches at school compared with middle SES school students, and the Texas policy improved middle SES school student dietary intakes. Whether the dietary behaviors in school influence dietary intake for the entire day is unknown.
Brindis, Claire D.; Geierstanger, Sara P.; Faxio, Adrienne
As part of their 10-year $60 million Teenage Pregnancy Prevention Initiative, The California Wellness Foundation funded 18 state and local organizations to conduct policy advocacy to strengthen teen pregnancy prevention policies. This article describes how some of these grantees accomplished noteworthy goals, including the passage of the…
Marquez, Daniela; Pell, Dylan; Forster-Cox, Sue; Garcia, Evelyn; Ornelas, Sophia; Bandstra, Brenna; Mata, Holly
Emerging professionals and new Certified Health Education Specialists often lack academic training in and actual experience in National Commission for Health Education Credentialing Area of Responsibility VII: Communicate, Promote, and Advocate for Health, Health Education/Promotion, and the Profession. For undergraduate and graduate students who have an opportunity to complete an internship or practicum experience, gaining experience in Competencies 7.2: Engage in advocacy for health and health education/promotion and 7.3: Influence policy and/or systems change to promote health and health education can have a profound impact on their career development and their ability to advocate for policies that promote health and health equity. Compelling evidence suggests that interventions that address social determinants of health such as poverty and education and those that change the context through improved policy or healthier environments have the greatest impact on public health, making it vital for emerging public health professionals to gain experience in policy advocacy and systems change. In this commentary, students and faculty from two large universities in the U.S.-Mexico border region reflect on the value of policy advocacy in academic internship/fieldwork experiences. Based on their experiences, they highly recommend that students seek out internship opportunities where they can participate in policy advocacy, and they encourage university faculty and practicum preceptors to provide more opportunities for policy advocacy in both classroom and fieldwork settings.
Qin, Min; Falkingham, Jane; Padmadas, Sabu S
Although China's family planning programme is often referred to in the singular, most notably the One-Child policy, in reality there have been a number of different policies in place simultaneously, targeted at different sub-populations characterized by region and socioeconomic conditions. This study attempted to systematically assess the differential impact of China's family planning programmes over the past 40 years. The contribution of Parity Progression Ratios to fertility change among different sub-populations exposed to various family planning policies over time was assessed. Cross-sectional birth history data from six consecutive rounds of nationally representative population and family planning surveys from the early 1970s until the mid-2000s were used, covering all geographical regions of China. Four sub-populations exposed to differential family planning regimes were identified. The analyses provide compelling evidence of the influential role of family planning policies in reducing higher Parity Progression Ratios across different sub-populations, particularly in urban China where fertility dropped to replacement level even before the implementation of the One-Child policy. The prevailing socioeconomic conditions in turn have been instrumental in adapting and accelerating family planning policy responses to reducing fertility levels across China.
Wei, Meifen; Yeh, Christine Jean; Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien; Carrera, Stephanie; Su, Jenny C
This study was conducted to examine under what situation (i.e., when individuals used more or less family support) and for whom (i.e., those with high or low self-esteem) perceived racial discrimination would or would not have a significant positive association with psychological distress. A total of 95 Asian American male college students completed an online survey. A hierarchical regression analysis indicated a significant 3-way interaction of family support, self-esteem, and perceived racial discrimination in predicting psychological distress after controlling for perceived general stress. A simple effect analysis was used to explore the nature of the interaction. When Asian American male college students used more family support to cope with racial discrimination, the association between perceived racial discrimination and psychological distress was not significant for those with high or low self-esteem. The result from the simple interaction indicated that, when more family support was used, the 2 slopes for high and low self-esteem were not significantly different from each other. Conversely, when they used less family support, the association between perceived racial discrimination and psychological distress was not significant for those with high self-esteem, but was significantly positive for those with low self-esteem. The result from the simple interaction indicated that, when less family support was used, the slopes for high and low self-esteem were significantly different. The result suggested that low use of family support may put these male students with low self-esteem at risk for psychological distress. Limitations, future research directions, and clinical implications were discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Lafleur, Mariah; Strongin, Seth; Cole, Brian L; Bullock, Sally Lawrence; Banthia, Rajni; Craypo, Lisa; Sivasubramanian, Ramya; Samuels, Sarah; García, Robert
California law has standards for physical education (PE) instruction in K-12 public schools; audits found that the Los Angeles Unified School District did not enforce the standards. In 2009, the district adopted a PE policy to comply with these standards. This study aimed to evaluate the outcomes of the PE policy in district schools. PE class observations were conducted using the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time in the 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 school years in an income-stratified random sample of 34 elementary, middle, and high schools to assess changes in PE class size, class duration, and time students spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity. PE class duration increased in high-income elementary schools. Mean class size decreased in low-income middle schools. There was limited implementation of the PE policy 2 years after passage. Opportunities exist to continue monitoring and improving PE quantity and quality.
Rodriguez, Alberto J.
This case study draws attention to Pedro's story, a Grade 6 Latino teacher who, along with other grade 4-6 teachers, participated in a three-year professional development research project. By using data analyzed from multiple ethnographic interviews with teachers and students, and by drawing from the quantitative analyzes of concept map unit tests, we illustrate how Pedro's significant professional growth and his students' learning were truncated by top-down school district policies. These policies were implemented because of the punitive nature of the No Child Left Behind Act. Simply put, this case study exposes the impact of opp(reg)ressive policies on learning, that is, policies simultaneously oppressive and regressive. The critical perspective of the project, and its emphasis on assisting teachers to make their pedagogy and curriculum more culturally and socially relevant, was informed by sociotransformative constructivism (sTc). This is a theoretical framework that affords equal importance to cross-cultural education (learning about and acting on socially/culturally relevant issues) and social constructivism (learning to critically produce and consume knowledge). We hope that this case study will provide additional insights into the slow progress we continue to make in science teacher professional development and in closing the achievement gap.
Gage, Anastasia J
This study examined the associations of exposure to spousal violence in the family and personal and peer attitudes with dating violence (DV) perpetration among high school students in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Participants were 342 high school students in Grades 10 to 12 who stated that they had ever been on a date. Multiple linear regression methods were used to examine correlates of the scale of DV perpetration. Findings showed that personal acceptance of DV mediated the association between exposure to wife-perpetrated and husband-perpetrated spousal violence in the family and DV perpetration for girls. Boys who were exposed to husband-perpetrated spousal violence in the family had significantly higher levels of psychological DV perpetration than those who were not. Contrary to expectations, exposure to wife-perpetrated spousal violence in the family was negatively associated with psychological and physical/sexual DV perpetration by boys, after controlling for other factors. Overall, perceived peer tolerance of DV was more strongly associated with DV perpetration than personal tolerance of DV, and was the only significant correlate of psychological DV perpetration for girls. Perceived peer attitudes also moderated the association between boys' exposure to spousal violence in the family and DV perpetration. Implications for future research and policy are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available In this article, we examine student performance on mandated tests in grades 3, 4, and 5 in one state. We focus on this interval, which we term "the fourth grade window," based on our hypothesis that students in grade four are particularly vulnerable to decrements in achievement. The national focus on the third grade as the critical benchmark in student performance has distracted researchers and policy makers from recognition that the fourth grade transition is essential to our understanding of how to promote complex thinking and reasoning that are built upon a foundation of basic skills that may be necessary, but are not sufficient, for the more nuanced learning expected in subsequent grades. We hypothesized that the basic skills that define a successful third grade performance do not predict successful performance in subsequent years. We examined student performance over time using two measures of student success: the Arizona Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS, a standards based test; and the Stanford 9 (SAT9, a norm-referenced test. Three groups of schools were included in these analyses. Schools were individually matched to the original sample of interest, which were schools serving students of poverty that received state funding to implement Comprehensive School Reform (CSR models that emphasize continuity across grade levels. The first comparison sample includes schools that also serve students of poverty but did not receive CSR funding, "nonCSR" schools. The second comparison sample includes schools individually matched on all variables except economic status. These schools, which we term "ow poverty" schools, are the wealthiest public schools in the state, with less than 10% of attending students receiving free or reduced lunch. Student test scores in math, reading, and writing (AIMS or language (SAT9 were analyzed for the years 2000-2003. These intervals allowed the analysis of two cohorts of the fourth grade window. Our results
Elder, Nancy C; Tobias, Barbara; Lucero-Criswell, Amber; Goldenhar, Linda
Compared to verbal communication, teaching the skill of observation is often shortchanged in medical education. Through a family medicine-art museum collaboration, we developed an elective course for second-year medical students titled the "Art of Observation" (AOO). To evaluate the course's effect on clinical skills, we performed a qualitative evaluation of former students during their clinical rotations. In the spring of 2005, all students who had completed the AOO course in 2003 or 2004 were invited to take part in an online evaluation consisting of eight journaling survey questions. Students were instructed to answer the survey questions with specific examples. Question areas included the most memorable experience, the course's influence on the doctor-patient relationship, usefulness during clinical years of medical school, and skills unique to AOO. The anonymous data were analyzed qualitatively, coding the responses to categories derived from the data, leading to the formation of themes. Of the 19 students eligible, 17 participated. We found three important themes: (1) the AOO positively influenced clinical skills, (2) both art museum exercises and a clinical preceptorship were necessary to achieve those skills, and (3) the AOO led to a sense of personal development as a physician. In addition, students told us that the training in observation and description skills they learned were unique to the AOO. This collaboration between a department of family medicine and an art museum produced a course that facilitated observational skills used in successful doctor-patient relationships.
Examines structural, social-psychological, and ecologial factors affecting the direction and type of changes occurring in the Chinese family. Multiple demographic and socioeconomic influences and the family's adaptive responses are creating conditions in China for the traditional household arrangement to survive, while generating new variants of…
Full Text Available Latino immigrants have historically faced many challenges living in the United States (U.S.. The economic crisis combined with new anti-immigration policies and harsh enforcement strategies may exacerbate the stress and anxiety Latino immigrant families already endure as a result of discrimination and financial hardships. The purpose of this study was to understand the current challenges Latino immigrant families encounter within an anti-immigrant social-political environment. Fifty-two first generation immigrants participated in focus group sessions, which lasted between 90 and 120 minutes. The findings reveal that the economic crisis, anti-immigration policies, and enforcement strategies have deleterious effects on Latino immigrant families’ well-being. Participants stated that their limited English proficiency status and racial profiling were the basis for discriminatory practices they endured. Discrimination is experienced through instances of micro-aggression, as well as horizontal discrimination and institutional discrimination. Implications for social policy, social work practice, and research are discussed.
G A Shurukhina
Full Text Available The results of the study of the responsibility in high school students of early adolescent age from one-child families and families with many children are submitted in the article. The study was performed in line with the systemic-functional approach developed by A.I. Krupnov. In the context of the approach, the responsibility is considered as the most important volitional moral property that includes a number of conceptual-semantic and instrumental-stylistic components. The results of the study reveal statistically significant differences in 11 characteristics (socially significant purposes, sociocentricity, egocentricity, consciousness, awareness, initiative, willpower, internality, operational difficulties. The responsibilityin students from one-child families is characterized by a higher level of both public and personal oriented motivation, deep understanding of its content, high performance in object-active and subject- communicative spheres. Only children are more passive in demonstration of the responsibility, but show more intensive emotional reaction in its successful implementation. Such children are more careful when they give promises or take obligations, as they tend to experience external difficulties in manifestation of this personality trait. The responsibility in students from large families is, to a greater extent, community oriented. Their knowledge about this personality trait is larger in scale. These children are more active in implementing responsibility and take its successful implementation easier, they also cope better with external difficulties in manifestation of the responsibility.
Jingyu Shi; Lu Wang; Yuhong Yao; Na Su; Xudong Zhao; Xudong Zhao; Xudong Zhao; Chenyu Zhan
This study examines the association between family function and self-esteem of Chinese university students with grandparenting experience, and explores the moderating effects of social support in this link. Two thousand five hundred thirty university students (1372 males and 1158 females) from a Chinese university completed the Perceived Social Support Scale, the Rosenberg’s Self-esteem Scale, and the Family Assessment Device (FAD). Six hundred and forty-five (25.69%) students reported grandp...
Full Text Available Background: Dysmenorrhea is a common female reproductive problem in women of active reproductive age which is characterized by menstrual pain or cramps in a women’s lower abdomen or back. Dysmenorrhea can be classified into primary and secondary. One of the associated risk factor of primary dysmenorrhoeais the family history, however the study on the family history of primary dysmenorrhea with recurrent menstrual pain is limited. This study was conducted to identify the correlation between family history and primary dysmenorrhea in high school girls. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted at several senior high schools in Jatinangor from April−June 2013. One hundred and sixty two students were included in this study. The sample size was calculated based on the unpaired−dichotomous variable for the two−sided formula. A self administered questionnaire was distributed to the senior high school girl students who were in their menarche age, menstrual cycle characteristics, presence or absence of dysmenorrhea, severity of pain and presence dysmenorrhea in mothers and in sisters were inquired. Data were analyzed using chi square test. Results: Overall, there were association between positive family history and primary dysmenorrhea among the students with (p<0.001. The prevalence of dysmenorrhea in the students was 92.6% with 95% confidence interval which was 87.5−95.7%. The prevalence rate was 67.9% in mothers with 95% confidence interval which is 60.4−74.6% and 80.2% prevalence of primary dysmenorrhoea in sisters with 95% confidence interval which is 73.4−85.6%. Conclusions: There is a significant association between positive family history and primary dysmenorrhea
Korpi, Walter; Ferrarini, Tommy; Englund, Stefan
Women's rising labor force participation since the 1960's was long seen as heralding decreasing gender inequalities. According to influential social science writings this view has now to be revised; 'women friendly' policies bringing women into the workforce are held to create major inequality tradeoffs between quantity and quality in women's jobs. Unintendedly, such policies increase employer statistical discrimination and create glass ceilings impeding women's access to influential position...
Fevrier, Bradley; Vidourek, Rebecca A; Privitera, Pauline
The rate of Hookah use among college students during the last decade is about 30%. Although college students perceive hookah use as a safer alternative to conventional cigarettes, hookah use increases the risk of disease and nicotine dependence, and therefore remains an area of concern. Presently, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has little regulation for the manufacture, distribution, or sale of hookah. This review attempts to assess empirical literature relating to hookah use while focusing on the consequences for regulatory policy. PubMed (including MEDLINE 2010-2017), PsycINFO, EBSCO, Scopus (Elsevier) databases were examined to pinpoint articles published in English. The following terms were used in the searches: Hookah or Waterpipe or nargile or "arghile" or "shisha" or "hubble bubble" or "alternative tobacco product" or "flavored tobacco". Hookah use may initiate smoking among tobacconaïve college students. College students who use hookah are generally not aware of the increased risks for tobacco related diseases as it relates to their behavior. In addition, few public health messages target college-age adults with anti-hookah messages. A lack of information regarding the dangers and potential harms of hookah use may be misinterpreted as a sign of "safety" which inadvertently may imply a suggestion of no need for safety measures. Hence, a research agenda that would inform about health policy actions has been proposed.
Full Text Available Background: smoking is a very important public health problem, urgently requiring immediate and effective measures due to its harmful effect on health. The purpose of this study was to collect baseline information about the magnitude of smoking problem, knowledge, attitude, and practice among family members of primary school students in the northwest region of Iran.Methods: of 55 680 primary school students (the 3th, 4th and 5th grades, 7.1% (n=3 954 were selected using randomized multi-stage cluster sampling. Data collection was conducted in April, May, and June 2011, by means of a self-administered two-page questionnaire.Results: a total of 3 954 students (57.6% boys and 42.3% girls with the mean age of 10.46±1.09 years were evaluated. According to our data, the prevalence of cigarette smoking among fathers was more than other family members (27.1% versus 17.8% whereas the prevalence of water pipe smoking among fathers and other family members was almost similar (9.2% and 9.7% respectively. None of the smoking type was prevalent among mothers (cigarette: 1% and water pipe: 1.1%. Considerable numbers of all students under study had been exposed to secondhand smoke at home (cigarette: 19.8% and water pipe: 7.7%.Conclusions: considering our findings, two procedures recommended to prevail the problem are to provide greater education about hazards of tobacco consumption among students and their family; and to legislate new laws by officials to ban tobacco use at home.
Full Text Available On the basis of information gathered from 35,000 women and men across 14 European countries, we ? rst look at attitudes towards fertility, children, and population dynamics. Then we analyse the expectations about the number of children people wish to have and expectations towards public policies to support them as parents. Finally, we assess the possible demographic effects of policy measures that people wish and expect to bene? t from. Most people are in favour of many traditional family policy measures. The possible effects of such policies on fertility are estimated to be modest albeit not negligible. The general conclusion is that the overall effect of the 13 traditional policy measures on increasing the number of children may be estimated at between 6 percent and 13 percent. The general scienti? c insight leads us to a conclusion that a substantial and longlasting effect of policy measures to enable people to have the number of children they wish can only be expected from a comprehensive change in the labour market conditions and related enhancement of opportunities for individuals to manage their life course in innovative ways. An important asset over which people have relatively little control, up until the age at retirement, is time. Prolonged education, more-or-less long unemployment episodes, establishment in employment, postponement of parenthood, ? rst birth in late 20s and/or experience of sub-fecundity in mid-30, excessive pressure on time in mid-life, and long years of inactivity in retirement, are features of dysfunctional economy of time in modern society. The future fertility levels may be expected to be determined by the economy of time as lifes capital and not just by selected palliate measures.
Amore, Mario Daniele; Minichilli, Alessandro; Corbetta, Guido
Despite recent evidence on the importance of chief executive officer (CEO) successions in family firms, we still know little about the differences in corporate strategies entailed by family and professional managers around transition. We investigate the consequences of managerial successions...... financing: the increase in debt is particularly pronounced for young firms, firms with a high level of investment, and firms in which the controlling family maintains a dominant representation on the board of directors. Examining the importance of financial flexibility, we find that the increase in debt...
G A Shurukhina
The results of the study of the responsibility in high school students of early adolescent age from one-child families and families with many children are submitted in the article. The study was performed in line with the systemic-functional approach developed by A.I. Krupnov. In the context of the approach, the responsibility is considered as the most important volitional moral property that includes a number of conceptual-semantic and instrumental-stylistic components. The results of the st...
Full Text Available Background: Abortion services will be sought by an estimated one in three US women before they reach age 45. Despite the importance of family planning (FP care, many medical schools do not currently offer formal education in this area, and students are unable to meet associated competency standards prior to graduation. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore students’ motivations in pursuing FP electives throughout the United States, their experiences during these courses, and any impact of these rotations on their plans for future practice. Method: We conducted a qualitative study consisting of semi-structured interviews with medical students upon completing fourth-year FP electives at US medical schools. Thirty-seven LCME-accredited US medical schools offered fourth-year FP electives. Course directors at 21 of these institutions recruited study participants between June 2012 and June 2013. Interviews were transcribed, coded, and analyzed with ATLAS/ti software to identify salient themes. Results: We interviewed 29 students representing 14 institutions from all regions of the United States (East Coast, Midwest, South, and West Coast. Five central themes emerged. Medical students are using FP electives to fill gaps in the standard curriculum. Elective participation did not change students’ pre-elective stance on abortion. Many students intend to provide abortion in the future but identified possible limiting factors. Proficiency in contraception and options counseling were top competencies desired and gained. Students reported excellent satisfaction with FP electives and would recommend it to their peers, regardless of their personal beliefs. Conclusions: Interview data revealed that students are using FP electives to fill gaps within preclinical and clinical medical school curriculum. Future physicians will be unable to provide comprehensive care for their female patients if they are not provided with this education. Research
Although provision of holidays for families in need has been mainstreamed within the social care policies of many countries in the rest of Europe, "social tourism" has yet to be adopted in the United Kingdom. This article reports on a scoping study of research and policy in this area. While there is limited robust research on the impact…
... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Annual Notice of Interest Rates of Federal Student Loans Made Under the Federal Family Education Loan Program AGENCY: Federal Student Aid, Department of Education. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: On January 25, 2013, the Chief Operating Officer for Federal Student Aid in the U.S...
... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Annual Notice of Interest Rates of Federal Student Loans Made Under the Federal Family Education Loan Program AGENCY: Federal Student Aid, Department of Education. ACTION: Notice... Subsidized and Unsubsidized Stafford and PLUS Loans First First Loan type Student grade level disbursed on...
... Notice of Interest Rates of Federal Student Loans Made Under the Federal Family Education Loan Program Prior to July 1, 2010 AGENCY: Federal Student Aid, Department of Education. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In... Unsubsidized Stafford and PLUS Loans First First Loan type Student grade level disbursed on disbursed Rate or...
Asi, Khaled Yousef
The present study aimed to identify the level of shyness among talented students in the city of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and detect differences according to the variable of socio-economic level of the family. The sample consisted of (101) students, who randomly chosen from centers of talented students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Shyness scale utilized…
Students from low-income families consistently trail behind their peers in retention and degree attainment. Research on college student experiences suggests that low-income students experience "cultural mismatch" at college--they feel that their backgrounds are at odds with the middle-class values dominant on campus (Armstrong &…
Yang, Yanjie; Chen, Lu; Qiu, Xiaohui; Qiao, Zhengxue; Zhou, Jiawei; Pan, Hui; Ban, Bo; Zhu, Xiongzhao; He, Jincai; Ding, Yongqing; Bai, Bing
Objective To explore the relationship between family environment and depressive symptoms and to evaluate the influence of hard and soft family environmental factors on depression levels in a large sample of university students in China. Methods A multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was used to select 6,000 participants. The response rate was 88.8%, with 5,329 students completing the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Family Environment Scale Chinese Version (FES-CV), which was adapted for the Chinese population. Differences between the groups were tested for significance by the Student’s t-test; ANOVA was used to test continuous variables. The relationship between soft family environmental factors and BDI were tested by Pearson correlation analysis. Hierarchical linear regression analysis was conducted to model the effects of hard environmental factors and soft environmental factors on depression in university students. Results A total of 11.8% of students scored above the threshold of moderate depression(BDI≧14). Hard family environmental factors such as parent relationship, family economic status, level of parental literacy and non-intact family structure were associated with depressive symptoms. The soft family environmental factors—conflict and control—were positively associated with depression, while cohesion was negatively related to depressive symptom after controlling for other important associates of depression. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that the soft family environment correlates more strongly with depression than the hard family environment. Conclusions Soft family environmental factors—especially cohesion, conflict and control—appeared to play an important role in the occurrence of depressive symptoms. These findings underline the significance of the family environment as a source of risk factors for depression among university students in China and suggest that family-based interventions and improvement are very
Margarita (Gres Wilkins
Full Text Available HOUSING AFFORDABILITY FOR FAMILIES WITH LOW INCOMES ACROSS CANADA Percentage of income devoted to paying lowest-priced rent in a city, by low-income family type, select years, 1990-2015 Much public attention has been directed towards the issue of a Canada-wide housing crisis. The focus has typically been on the cost of housing for an average income Canadian family. Less attention has been paid to families with incomes much lower than those of the average Canadian household, for which the housing crisis is far more severe. Households and individuals with particularly low incomes are at the highest risk of experiencing the worst effects of a lack of housing affordability, including homelessness.
Dixon-Roman, Ezekiel J.; Everson, Howard T.; McArdle, John J.
Background: Educational policy makers and test critics often assert that standardized test scores are strongly influenced by factors beyond individual differences in academic achievement such as family income and wealth. Unfortunately, few empirical studies consider the simultaneous and related influences of family income, parental education, and…
Jenkins, Jennifer; Wingate, Ursula
This article presents a small qualitative study which aimed to gain an understanding of how lecturers and international students perceive the English language policies and practices at their institutions. The findings show that most participants perceive current policies and practices as unfair. However, there were discrepancies in lecturers' and…
Spradlin, Terry; Cierniak, Katherine; Shi, Dingjing; Chen, Minge
This Education Policy Brief summarizes the research and data analysis completed by the Center for Evaluation and Education Policy (CEEP) on Indiana's student attendance and absenteeism data. The study was initiated by The Indiana Partnerships Center and conducted by CEEP with funding from USA Funds and State Farm. Additional partners in the study…
D.S. Eyre (Dylan Samuel)
textabstractThis research explores frame conflict in the context of education policy. It centers on the public discourse surrounding the retraction of a student assignment policy aimed at socio-economic diversity in the Wake County Public School System in North Carolina, USA. It argues that the
A draft policy developed by the Minneapolis (Minnesota) public schools concerning the use of aversive or deprivation procedures with students who are handicapped is presented. The policy model covers such elements as response to prior interventions; written treatment plan; informed consent; supervision; maintenance and retention of records;…
DeMitchell, Todd A.; Carroll, Thomas
The Vernonia (Oregon) School District passed a mandatory random drug testing policy for student athletes that was later upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court. A survey of randomly selected superintendents in five geographic regions disclosed that a majority of respondents who knew about the case were leaning toward not adopting a similar policy. (28…
Press, S. James; Tanur, Judith M.
Relevance of the intersection of sociology, statistics, and public policy to the study of quality control in three family assistance programs--food stamps, Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), and Medicaid--is reviewed using a study by the National Academy of Sciences of methods for improving quality control systems. (SLD)
Harris, Sion K; Sherritt, Lon; Van Hook, Shari; Wechsler, Henry; Knight, John R
Heavy alcohol use among U.S. college students is a major contributor to young adult morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to examine whether college alcohol policy enforcement levels predict changes in student drinking and related behaviors in a state system of public colleges and universities, following a system-wide change to a stricter policy. Students and administrators at 11 Massachusetts public colleges/universities completed surveys in 1999 (N of students = 1252), one year after the policy change, and again in 2001 (N = 1074). We calculated policy enforcement scores for each school based on the reports of deans of students, campus security chiefs, and students, and examined the correlations between perceived enforcement levels and the change in student drinking rates over the subsequent two year period, after weighting the 2001 data to adjust for demographic changes in the student body. Overall rates of any past-30-days drinking, heavy episodic drinking, and usual heavy drinking among past-30-days drinkers were all lower in 2001 compared to 1999. School-level analyses (N = 11) found deans' baseline reports of stricter enforcement were strongly correlated with subsequent declines in heavy episodic drinking (Pearson's r = -0.73, p = 0.011). Moreover, consistently high enforcement levels across time, as reported by deans, were associated with greater declines in heavy episodic drinking. Such relationships were not found for students' and security chiefs' reports of enforcement. Marijuana use did not rise during this period of decline in heavy drinking. Study findings suggest that stronger enforcement of a stricter alcohol policy may be associated with reductions in student heavy drinking rates over time. An aggressive enforcement stance by deans may be an important element of an effective college alcohol policy.
Background Heavy alcohol use among U.S. college students is a major contributor to young adult morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to examine whether college alcohol policy enforcement levels predict changes in student drinking and related behaviors in a state system of public colleges and universities, following a system-wide change to a stricter policy. Methods Students and administrators at 11 Massachusetts public colleges/universities completed surveys in 1999 (N of students = 1252), one year after the policy change, and again in 2001 (N = 1074). We calculated policy enforcement scores for each school based on the reports of deans of students, campus security chiefs, and students, and examined the correlations between perceived enforcement levels and the change in student drinking rates over the subsequent two year period, after weighting the 2001 data to adjust for demographic changes in the student body. Results Overall rates of any past-30-days drinking, heavy episodic drinking, and usual heavy drinking among past-30-days drinkers were all lower in 2001 compared to 1999. School-level analyses (N = 11) found deans' baseline reports of stricter enforcement were strongly correlated with subsequent declines in heavy episodic drinking (Pearson's r = -0.73, p = 0.011). Moreover, consistently high enforcement levels across time, as reported by deans, were associated with greater declines in heavy episodic drinking. Such relationships were not found for students' and security chiefs' reports of enforcement. Marijuana use did not rise during this period of decline in heavy drinking. Conclusions Study findings suggest that stronger enforcement of a stricter alcohol policy may be associated with reductions in student heavy drinking rates over time. An aggressive enforcement stance by deans may be an important element of an effective college alcohol policy. PMID:20684777
Harris Sion K
Full Text Available Abstract Background Heavy alcohol use among U.S. college students is a major contributor to young adult morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to examine whether college alcohol policy enforcement levels predict changes in student drinking and related behaviors in a state system of public colleges and universities, following a system-wide change to a stricter policy. Methods Students and administrators at 11 Massachusetts public colleges/universities completed surveys in 1999 (N of students = 1252, one year after the policy change, and again in 2001 (N = 1074. We calculated policy enforcement scores for each school based on the reports of deans of students, campus security chiefs, and students, and examined the correlations between perceived enforcement levels and the change in student drinking rates over the subsequent two year period, after weighting the 2001 data to adjust for demographic changes in the student body. Results Overall rates of any past-30-days drinking, heavy episodic drinking, and usual heavy drinking among past-30-days drinkers were all lower in 2001 compared to 1999. School-level analyses (N = 11 found deans' baseline reports of stricter enforcement were strongly correlated with subsequent declines in heavy episodic drinking (Pearson's r = -0.73, p = 0.011. Moreover, consistently high enforcement levels across time, as reported by deans, were associated with greater declines in heavy episodic drinking. Such relationships were not found for students' and security chiefs' reports of enforcement. Marijuana use did not rise during this period of decline in heavy drinking. Conclusions Study findings suggest that stronger enforcement of a stricter alcohol policy may be associated with reductions in student heavy drinking rates over time. An aggressive enforcement stance by deans may be an important element of an effective college alcohol policy.
Ronaldo Cardoso Alves
Full Text Available Based on the relationship between the concept of Historical Consciousness, as Jörn Rüsen and Reinhart Koselleck proposed, and the concept of Historical Explanation, proposed by Isabel Barca, the article presents an analytical course that allows you to check levels of explanation in historical narratives produced by students Brazilian and Portuguese from the interpretation of sources related to a historical fact: the transfer of the Portuguese royal family to Brazil (1808.
R. P. J. C. Ramanayake
Full Text Available Background: Family Medicine occupies a prominent place in the undergraduate curriculum of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka. The one month clinical attachment during the fourth year utilizes a variety of teaching methods. This study evaluates teaching learning methods and learning environment of this attachment. Methodology: A descriptive cross sectional study was carried out among consenting students over a period of six months on completion of the clinical attachment using a pretested self administered questionnaire. Results: Completed questionnaires were returned by 114(99% students. 90.2% were satisfied with the teaching methods in general while direct observation and feed back from teachers was the most popular(95.1% followed by learning from patients(91.2%, debate(87.6%, seminar(87.5% and small group discussions(71.9%. They were highly satisfied with the opportunity they had to develop communication skills (95.5% and presentation skills (92.9%. Lesser learning opportunity was experienced for history taking (89.9%, problem solving (78.8% and clinical examination (59.8% skills. Student satisfaction regarding space within consultation rooms was 80% while space for history taking and examination (62% and availability of clinical equipment (53% were less. 90% thought the programme was well organized and adequate understanding on family medicine concepts and practice organization gained by 94% and 95% of the students respectively. Conclusions: Overall student satisfaction was high. Students prefer learning methods which actively involve them. It is important to provide adequate infra structure facilities for student activities to make it a positive learning experience for them.
Ramanayake, R P J C; De Silva, A H W; Perera, D P; Sumanasekara, R D N; Gunasekara, R; Chandrasiri, P
Family Medicine occupies a prominent place in the undergraduate curriculum of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka. The one month clinical attachment during the fourth year utilizes a variety of teaching methods. This study evaluates teaching learning methods and learning environment of this attachment. A descriptive cross sectional study was carried out among consenting students over a period of six months on completion of the clinical attachment using a pretested self administered questionnaire. Completed questionnaires were returned by 114(99%) students. 90.2% were satisfied with the teaching methods in general while direct observation and feed back from teachers was the most popular(95.1%) followed by learning from patients(91.2%), debate(87.6%), seminar(87.5%) and small group discussions(71.9%). They were highly satisfied with the opportunity they had to develop communication skills (95.5%) and presentation skills (92.9%). Lesser learning opportunity was experienced for history taking (89.9%), problem solving (78.8%) and clinical examination (59.8%) skills. Student satisfaction regarding space within consultation rooms was 80% while space for history taking and examination (62%) and availability of clinical equipment (53%) were less. 90% thought the programme was well organized and adequate understanding on family medicine concepts and practice organization gained by 94% and 95% of the students respectively. Overall student satisfaction was high. Students prefer learning methods which actively involve them. It is important to provide adequate infra structure facilities for student activities to make it a positive learning experience for them.
Sewani-Rusike, Constance R; Mammen, Marykutty
There is a hierarchical organisation of knowledge in the use of medicinal plants in communities. Medicinal use knowledge starts in the home and is passed on to family members. Next in the hierarchy are neighbours, village elders and finally, traditional healers being the most knowledgeable. For primary health care this hierarchy is actively followed in seeking remedies for ailments. This study was a survey of medicinal plant knowledge from family members of 1(st) year medical students registered at Walter Sisulu University. A total of 206 first year medical students participated in this study in 2010 and 2011. Results revealed 47 species used as home remedies, 32% of which are food plants. Leaves and roots were reported as most commonly used. The top five ailments managed at home were gastrointestinal problems (25 plants), wounds (19 plants), respiratory tract problems (19 plants), infections, including sexually transmitted diseases (19 plants) and pain including headaches (19 plants). Chronic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, cancer and reproductive ailments also formed a large group of diseases self-managed at home (29 plants). Family members hold knowledge of medicinal plant use. From this study, first year medical students were made aware of the relationship between common ailments and associated home remedies. This study forms a basis for further study of medicinal plants to validate their use as medicinal remedies.
Full Text Available Objective: The goal of the present study was to assess the prevalence of cigarette smoking and its relationship to other risk taking behaviors, perceived familial support and religiosity among college students in Tabriz, Iran . Method:In this study, 1837 randomly selected students participated and completed a self-administered questionnaire inquiring demographic characteristics, risk taking behaviors, Aneshensel and Sucoff’s 13-items one-dimensional perceived Parental support scale and 28 - items Kendler’s general religiosity scale. Results: In general, 15.8 % of the students were cigarette smokers. The results indicated that being male (OR = 3.21, living alone or with friends (OR = 2.00, having a part-time job (OR = 1.98, alcohol consumption during the past 30 days (OR = 3.67, hookah use (OR = 5.23, substance abuse (OR = 1.69, familial support (OR = 0.97 and religiosity (OR = 0.98 have statistically significant relationships with cigarette smoking . Conclusion:Our study represents the co-occurrence of risky behaviors. Cultural context in the traditional communities seems to show the crucial role of familial support and religiosity traits with the female gender as predictive factors to not smoke cigarette and perform other risky behaviors.
Edival Sebastião Teixeira
Full Text Available This article is one of the results of a wider research with aimed understanding the relationship between the field education, from the perspective of the alternation pedagogy and sustainable development of family farming. Given the relevance of environmental issues in agriculture, one of the research focus was the investigation of the environment social representations of the teachers and students of rural family houses in the Southwest region of Paraná. The data were collected through the use of a free recall instrument, based on the central core theory of the social representations. For quantitative analysis we used the usual procedures of the theory in question, while the qualitative data were analyzed using the content analysis technique. In this research were identified significant similarities in the representations of the two groups, suggesting the appropriation of speeches and practices conveyed in rural family houses by the students. Highlights the centrality of elements related to the water, the preservation and the degradation, suggesting that teachers and students are aware of the importance of preserving the natural resources for agriculture. On the other hand, the human element seems distant from its environment representations, or at least is not regarded with the same importance given to natural elements.
Garcia, Leila Posenato; Sant'Anna, Ana Cláudia; Freitas, Lúcia Rolim Santana de; Magalhães, Luís Carlos Garcia de
This study aimed to describe trends in family spending on cigarettes and its share of family budget, comparing 2002 and 2009, using the Brazilian Household Budget Surveys from 2002/2003 and 2008/2009. The Expanded Consumer Price Index (IPCA) was used. The proportion of families that purchased cigarettes decreased from 23.5% to 18.2%, however their spending increased from BRL 55.36 to BRL 59.45. Spending on cigarettes was proportional to family income and head-of-family's schooling. Higher-income families still accounted for most of the expenditure, although the share of family income spent on cigarettes declined. The share of income for purchasing cigarettes was 5.2% in the lowest income quintile and 1.2% in the highest. Tobacco control policy has succeeded in reducing smoking prevalence in Brazil. However, economic measures are still important in the country, since the family's share of income and spending on cigarettes have decreased.
Coker, Tumaini R; Elliott, Marc N; Kanouse, David E; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Gilliland, M Janice; Tortolero, Susan R; Cuccaro, Paula; Schuster, Mark A
We describe the lifetime prevalence and associated health-related concerns of family homelessness among fifth-grade students. We used a population-based, cross-sectional survey of 5147 fifth-grade students in 3 US cities to analyze parent-reported measures of family homelessness, child health status, health care access and use, and emotional, developmental, and behavioral health and child-reported measures of health-related quality of life and exposure to violence. Seven percent of parents reported that they and their child had experienced homelessness (i.e., staying in shelters, cars, or on the street). Black children and children in the poorest families had the highest prevalence of homelessness (11%). In adjusted analyses, most general health measures were similar for children who had and had not been homeless. Children who had ever experienced homelessness were more likely to have an emotional, behavioral, or developmental problem (odds ratio [OR] = 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1, 2.6; P = .01), to have received mental health care (OR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.6, 3.2; P homeless. Family homelessness affects a substantial minority of fifth-grade children and may have an impact on their emotional, developmental, and behavioral health.
Widener, Anmarie J.
Parental leave policies give parents a temporary leave from employment in order to care for a child. Secondary aims are to increase women’s attachment to the labour force as well as supporting gender equal roles in paid and unpaid work. This study researched parent satisfaction of parental leave
Belo Leite, Dal J.G.; Nunes Vieira da Silva, J.V.; Ittersum, van M.K.
With many of the poor people in Brazil living in rural areas, local governments have intensified their efforts to design and implement effective policies that boost rural development. In 2004, a national program for production and use of biodiesel was launched aiming at increasing income among less
Full Text Available Background: There are unique challenges to recruiting students into the specialty of family medicine within academic medical centers. Methods: At Virginia Commonwealth University, we developed an advising framework to help students address institutional and personal obstacles to choosing family medicine as a career. Results: The role of a faculty advisor is not to direct the student to a career choice but rather to foster a mentor relationship and help the student come to his or her own realizations regarding career choice. The faculty advisor/medical student interview is conceptualized as five discussion topics: self-knowledge, perception, organizational voice, cognitive dissonance, and anticipatory counseling. Conclusion: This framework is intended to assist faculty in their efforts to encourage students to consider a career in family medicine.
Over three decades and a half, the family planning program in India has caused depredations on its state of health services, particularly in the rural health services. The preoccupation with the implementation of birth control has corroded the vitals of the health service system, leaving the entire organization and management in shambles. It is noted that the family program has inflicted three major blows to the country. It repeatedly failed to yield the expected results; a huge quantity of resources was wasted in its implementation; and it dealt a devastating blow on the health service system of the country. Ultimate accountability for these failures and the consequent neglect of health services are put on the hands of those in the political arena. These include the minister in-charge, the cabinet, the National Council for Health and Family Planning, the National Development Council, the Planning Commission and finally, the Parliament.
Land Use decisions in the local community are well represented in geoscience topics and issues, and provide an excellent opportunity to showcase a wide range of geoscience careers to high school students. In PLUS (Planning Land Use with Students) we work with youth corps, volunteer agencies and the County Departments of Planning, Transportation, Public Health, Water Resources to run a program for high school seniors to engage the students in the complex layers of decision making connected with land use as we showcase geoscience careers (http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/edu/plus/index.html). How development occurs, what resources are in use and who makes these decisions is both interesting and relevant for students. We develop case studies around current, active, local land use issues large enough in scale to have a formal environmental review at the County and/or the State level. Sections of each case study are dedicated to addressing the range of environmental issues that are central to each land use decision. Water, its availability, planned use and treatment on the site, brings in both a review of local hydrology and a discussion of storm water management. Air quality and the impact of the proposed project's density, transportation plans, and commercial and industrial uses brings in air quality issues like air quality ratings, existing pollution, and local air monitoring. A review of the site plans brings in grading plans for the project area, which highlights issues of drainage, soil stability, and exposure to toxins or pollutants depending on the historic use of the site. Brownfield redevelopments are especially challenging with various monitoring, clean up and usage restrictions that are extremely interesting to the students. Students' work with mentors from the community who represent various roles in the planning process including a range of geosciences, community business members and other players in the planning process. This interplay of individuals provides
Němečková, Tereza; Krylová, Petra; Horký -Hlucháň, Ondřej; Hejkrlík, Jiří; Jílkova, Klementína
In Czech Republic there is a long tradition of providing tertiary scholarships to students from developing countries. The government scholarship programme started in the 1950s already as a part of the Czechoslovak technical assistance to countries in the South. Even though the programme left tens of thousands of graduates all over the world, the recent programme evaluation has revealed that it is characterised by a relatively poor performance. This article brings forward the main outcomes of the programme evaluation, highlights the policy recommendations and summarises policy reflections that occurred following the evaluation. The programme evaluation was done under unfavourable circumstances and could be accordingly defined as 'shoestring evaluation'. The restrictions and their influence on evaluation outcomes are discussed in article, too. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pavlakis, Alexandra E.; Duffield, Barbara
While most of the press around the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) has focused on how it signals an end to No Child Left Behind, the implications of ESSA for students experiencing homelessness have been largely overlooked. Garnering organizational insights from Kingdon's (Agendas, alternatives, and public policies, Pearson, Glenviiew, 2011)…
This study compared the impact of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy on lunch consumption of low- and middle-income students in sixth through eighth grades. Students in one middle socioeconomic status (SES), and one low SES school completed lunch food records before (2001/2002), and after (200...