WorldWideScience

Sample records for policy review republic

  1. Slovak Republic - energy policy review 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Slovakia has implemented impressive energy reforms over the recent past, a unique performance in Central and Eastern Europe. The 2000 energy policy prioritised market reforms and sectoral policies, notably on energy security and environment, in order to comply with EU requirements, which were largely met at the time of the country's EU accession in 2004. Also, Slovakia established new regulations, notably cost reflective pricing enforced by an independent energy regulator, thereby attracting significant foreign direct investment. Notably, this rapid transition has occurred without disruption in this key energy transit country. New challenges ahead include strengthening energy security by diversification, opening energy markets and integrating them into the EU, strongly increasing energy efficiency to offset the high economic burden of energy prices and to help better controlling pollution and CO{sub 2} emissions in line with EU and international obligations. This review analyses the Slovak energy sector and policies, and provides recommendations for the government. It is a comprehensive assessment of what constitutes a remarkable case study of effective energy reforms in an economy in transition, which has applied for IEA membership. 39 refs., 32 tabs., 4 apps.

  2. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Slovak Republic 2005 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Slovakia has implemented impressive energy reforms over the recent past, a unique performance in Central and Eastern Europe. The 2000 energy policy prioritised market reforms and sectoral policies, notably on energy security and environment, in order to comply with EU requirements, which were largely met at the time of the country’s EU accession in 2004. Also, Slovakia established new regulations, notably cost reflective pricing enforced by an independent energy regulator, thereby attracting significant foreign direct investment. Notably, this rapid transition has occurred without disruption in this key energy transit country. New challenges ahead include strengthening energy security by diversification, opening energy markets and integrating them into the EU, strongly increasing energy efficiency to offset the high economic burden of energy prices and to help better controlling pollution and CO2 emissions in line with EU and international obligations. This review analyses the Slovak energy sector and policies, and provides recommendations for the government. It is a comprehensive assessment of what constitutes a remarkable case study of effective energy reforms in an economy in transition, which has applied for IEA membership.

  3. Energy policies of IEA countries: the Republic of Korea 2006 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Through analysis of its existing policies and comparisons with good examples in other IEA countries, this book provides critiques and recommendations for policy improvements. Covering not only traditional energy sectors, but also energy efficiency, renewables and the environment, the IEA report serves as a guide to understanding - and addressing - the energy challenges that face the modern Republic of Korea. The great strides that the Republic of Korea has made over the last three decades are not confined to its economy. Its energy industry has similarly leapt forward in terms of infrastructure and security. Though it has no links to nearby countries that would allow it to rely on electricity imports or piped natural gas, the country has rapidly electrified, built a diverse portfolio of electricity supply, developed a robust nuclear energy industry and become one of the pioneers in the liquefied natural gas trade. As the most recent member of the International Energy Agency (IEA), this progress is remarkable and its enhancement of its policy goals - adding economic efficiency and environmental sustainability to energy security - is commendable. Building on the liberalisation of its economy, the Republic of Korea set out an ambitious plan for reform of its state-controlled natural gas and electricity industries. However, the plans have been stalled and there is currently little vision for effective reform going forward. As the economy makes the transition to one with less phenomenal, more sustainable and less predictable growth, the IEA encourages the Republic of Korea to press forward with liberalisation in order to underpin a more flexible and efficient energy sector. 22 figs., 33 tabs., 3 apps.

  4. OECD Reviews of School Resources: Slovak Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Paulo; Halász, Gábor; Levacic, Rosalind; Shewbridge, Claire

    2016-01-01

    This report for the Slovak Republic forms part of the OECD Review of Policies to Improve the Effectiveness of Resource Use in Schools. The purpose of the Review is to explore how school resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school education. School resources are understood in…

  5. Country programme review Republic of Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherif, H.C.; Hasling, W.; Hera, C.H.; Maudarbocus, A.Y.; Mtimet, S.

    1993-10-01

    A multi-disciplinary country programme review and programming mission was undertaken to the Republic of Cameroon, from 21 to 25 June 1993. This report reflects the findings and recommendations of the mission and falls into four sections. The first section describes the country profile and includes information about its economy and its development plans and policies. The second reviews the Agency's past and present technical co-operation programmes in Cameroon. The third section deals with a sectoral programme and institutional review, and the fourth section presents possible future technical co-operation activities

  6. Energy policy of the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerny, M. [Ministry of Industry and Trade, Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    On February 16, 1992, the Government of the Czech Republic sanctioned, by its Decree No. 112/82, its first Energy Policy. Since that time, a number of conditions have changed: first of all, there was the partition of the former Federal Czechoslovak Republic, then the privatization of most of energy producing corporations, the deregulation of a significant proportion of power and energy commodities, the decision to bring to an end the construction of the Temelin nuclear power station, the creation of conditions for the construction of the Ingoldstadt oil pipeline, etc. These steps, on which the final decisions have been made, have brought about the necessity of updating the existing general Energy Policy. The updated Energy Policy is based on the Programme Statement by the Government of the Czech Republic of July 1992, as well as on other materials associated with energy and power generation, either approved or negotiated by the Government, in particular the State Environmental Policy the Rules of the State Raw Materials Policy, the European Association Agreement, the European Energy Charter, the results of the Uruguayan Round of GATT, the Convention on Climate Changes, the Ecological Action Programme for central and East-European countries, and other international documents that have either been, or are likely to be sanctioned by the Czech Government (especially the European Energy Charter Treaty, and the protocol on Trans-boundary Air Pollution and on Further Reduction of Sulphur Oxide Emissions).

  7. Environmental policy (Republic of Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    With a defined set of policy goals, policy makers face an important decision on how and at what cost to the economy environmental compliance can be achieved. The costs of environmental compliance for Macedonia are still to be determined. However, environmental cost estimates, even those done with the highest degree of precision will not provide the actual burden that the society will face. The level of actual costs and their distribution in the economy will depend on the type of instruments that will be used by policy makers. In general, there are two policy options to be considered, namely command and control which relies on administrative instruments and market based which uses economic instrument. The command and control based environmental policy requires that ambient standards, emission standards and new source performance standards are in place, together with a permitting system and compliance monitoring to ensure enforcement. A market based environmental policy aims at achieving higher levels of environmental quality by correcting the imperfections of the market. This is done by what is called internalizing negative environmental externalities. In simple words, polluters are forced to pay a pollution charge or a tax and include the costs of pollution in the costs of production and finally in the prices of goods. (author)

  8. "Mobilising for the Values of the Republic"- France's Education Policy Response to the "Fragmented Society": A Commented Press Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Matthias; Morys, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This article focuses on recent developments in the domain of civic education in the French education system, the new programme on "Enseignement moral et civique" (EMC), and the debate about the relevance of the basic values of the Republic which came up after the terror attacks in January 2015. Method: The study is based on a…

  9. Local energy policies in Poland and the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Both the Czech Republic and Poland as former Communist countries, are transforming their economies from central planning to a free market. This applies equally to energy planning and because they are starting from the same point, they have come up with very comparable solutions despite strong cultural differences, so that the parallels are striking. This study analyzes the energy management in local authorities in Poland and the Czech Republic with the objective of better: identifying the current situation, identifying the opportunities for action both now and in an extended European Union, identifying the constraints that may hinder full integration of East European municipalities in European Union programmes, improve the integration of municipalities in the countries concerned in pan-European networks of municipalities interested in energy issues. The study reviews the powers and responsibilities of local authorities in the energy field and the institutional framework within which local authorities work. There are now 16 directly elected regional authorities in Poland and the local authorities have been restructured into two levels, the Powiad and the Gmina. Similarly, in the Czech Republic 14 elected regional authorities have been established. This document brings together 2 reports: the final report and the study report about the energy policies in Poland and in the Czech republic: structure of local government, general and institutional aspects, national political organisation, national administrative organisation, municipal role in production and distribution, regulation and planning, energy issues, energy management policies, specific aspects at local level etc... The conclusions from two review seminars (Jablonec nad Nison (Czech republic), 25-26 January 2001, and Bielsko Biala (Poland), 22-23 February 2001) and some fact files on 4 large Czech towns and 4 large Polish towns complete the study. (J.S.)

  10. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Czech Republic 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in the Czech Republic for responding to an oil supply crisis. In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this full publication, the IEA will provide updates to the country chapters as these become available following the specific country's review. The aim of series of publications is to provide an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. The 2007 publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies.

  11. Energy policy of the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecina, M.

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with the state and perspectives of energy production in the Czech Republic up to 2030 year. Share of energy consumption as well as perspectives of nuclear energy are discussed

  12. Problems of Realization Women’s Right to Policy in the Republic of Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanalinova A. U.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problems of realization women’s right to policy in the Republic of Kazakhstan. The author reviews the different methods of political quota, which are used in some countries of the world. Besides that the author reveals the reasons of the women’s low political activity in Kazakhstan

  13. Country policy profile - Czech Republic. February 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-02-01

    In the Czech Republic, RES electricity is supported through FITs and FIPs called green bonus. Plant operators can choose between these two options. RES heat is generally supported through subsidies; however, the subsidy cohesion program for the programming period 2014-2020 has not been adopted jet. A very important incentive is an Exemption from Real Estate Tax. Currently, the Czech Republic has only introduced a building obligation for the use of renewable heating and the exemplary role of public authorities. The main incentive for renewable energy use in transport is a quota system. bio-fuels are exempt from consumption tax

  14. Country policy profile - Czech Republic. December 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    In the Czech Republic, RES electricity is supported through FITs and FIPs called green bonus. Plant operators can choose between these two options. RES heat is generally supported through subsidies; however, the subsidy cohesion program for the programming period 2014-2020 has not been adopted jet. A very important incentive is an Exemption from Real Estate Tax. Currently, the Czech Republic has only introduced a building obligation for the use of renewable heating and the exemplary role of public authorities. The main incentive for renewable energy use in transport is a quota system. bio-fuels are exempt from consumption tax

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF REGIONS AND MUNICIPALITIES OF THE SLOVAK REPUBLIC BY APPLICATION OF EUROPEAN COHESION POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Rentkova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Slovak republic, entering the European Union on the 1st May 2004, got the impulse on the improvement and growth also via the application of the Cohesion policy. For the programming period 2007-2013, the amount of 11.3 milliards Euros for the application of the Cohesion policy have been provided to the Slovak republic. In the present time, the programming period is finished and the Slovak republic meets the critical reviews in the area of the effective use and maintenance of projects and application of the Cohesion policy on its territory. Many specialists, economists and analysts try to reveal the errors, identify the subjects that enter into the project cycle wrongly or to identify the bodies that have the most important influence on the low level of the financial instruments use and they also try to deal with the criticism of the European Commission as to the project realization. From this point of view, the theme of the research is very actual and imperative because the research tries to enlighten and to analyze the application of the cohesion policy within the territory of the Slovak republic and so, to state recommendations for more effective application for the following programming period. The article is created by analyzing the application of the European cohesion policy in the programming period 2007 - 2013 in the Slovak Republic. The main objective of the article is to analyze and define the cohesion policy of the European Union and one of the partial objectives is to execute the analysis on the implementation state of the Cohesion policy on the level of the chosen regions in the Slovak republic and then, to propose and to create recommendations and techniques for its effective functioning.

  16. Energy policy of Republic of Korea; Die Energiepolitik Suedkoreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim Bong-ki [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Sektion Koreanistik

    2006-07-01

    No other country in the world has so few resources of fossil sources of energy and depends on imports of power as the Republic of Korea. As a consequence of economical and political processes of globalization, new challenges are developed: elevated regional and global conflicts relating to resources as well as new possibilities of cooperation by means of amore intensely international division of labour. Under this aspect, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on the energy policy of the Republic of Korea. Especially, the author reports on the following aspects: (a) Characteristics of the power structure of the Republic of Korea; (b) National energy policy and measures for energy security; (c) Practical measures of energy security; (d) Regional co-operation for energy security from the view of the Republic of Korea. The Republic of Korea has a very weak energy structure and strongly depends on foreign countries. Among the successful measures of energy security, there exist measures for energy saving in industrial areas, diversification of sources of energy and exporting countries, increase of competitiveness of the energy economy due to restructuring and privatization of national companies as well as liberalisation of the energy market. Investments in the research of energy saving technologies and renewable energy such as solar energy, hydraulic power and fuel cells are trend-setting. The development of new sources of energy and the increase of the self-fund relating to petroleum, coal and natural gas are encouraging. The Republic of Korea is not attached at the international power net. Therefore, the Republic of Korea highly is susceptible according to energy crisis. The elevated dependence from other countries will exist furthermore. The Republic of Korea should expend its activities relating to foreign affairs and the large oil producers.

  17. Environmental performance reviews. Republic of Moldova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This environmental performance review document for Moldova presents assessments of existing environmental policies; management of air, water and land pollutions originating from various sources including energy production and utilization. It also contains policy recommendations foe implementation by Moldovan Government

  18. Economic and Policy Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The NESG Economic and Policy Review (EPR) is a quarterly publication of the Nigerian Economic Summit Group (NESG), established to serve as an avenue for constructive analysis of economic policies and their impacts on different aspects of the business and economic environment. The EPR aims to provide unbiased, ...

  19. Drug Policy in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoupá, Jana

    2017-09-01

    The legal background of the current pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement (P&R) setting in the Czech Republic is based on Act 48/1997. Since 2008, the P&R process has been coordinated by the State Institute for Drug Control, which is the main stakeholder in the decision-making process; marketing authorization holders and insurance funds (IFs) also participate. To present a general overview of the current Czech health care system and its P&R principles. The study used publicly available sources concerning health care, mainly acts related to public health care and public health care insurance, public notices related to P&R setting, and statistical data. Regulation covers P&R. The official price represents the highest exfactory price, which cannot be exceeded. It is calculated as the mean of the three lowest prices in the European Union reference basket. Reimbursement is based on the lowest price per daily dose across the whole European Union. For reimbursement, products can be clustered into jumbo groups (mutually interchangeable), stated by law. In each group, reimbursement is set at the lowest price of any substance within the group. For highly innovative drugs a temporary reimbursement can be granted for a period of 3 years. During the administrative proceeding, efficacy, safety, cost-effectiveness, and budget impact are assessed. The cost-effectiveness principles are aligned with the guidelines of the National Institute for Health and Clinical Care Excellence, preferring cost-utility analyses. The willingness-to-pay threshold has been implicitly set at 3 times the gross domestic product per capita. Products exceeding this threshold are subject to further risk-sharing negotiations. Budget impact is becoming increasingly important mainly for IFs. The IFs have recently introduced their own methodology, which allows only products with a budget impact in the range of CZK16 to CZK48 million (CZK = Czech koruna; ∼€600,000 to €1.8 million) to enter the system

  20. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. For electricity from renewable sources of energy main support instruments are feed-in tariffs (FIPs) and feed-in premiums (FiPs). Operators of renewable energy installation have to make a choice for either the applicable FiT or the corresponding FiP. Except for hydro installations with a capacity of 10 MW, the FiT/FiP scheme has been closed for new installations generating electricity from renewables. Hydro power installations with a size ≤ 10 MW are also eligible for subsidies. Installations for production of renewable heat can apply for subsidies granted by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) and are exempt from real estate tax. A renewable heating obligation for buildings is in place and a regulation on the use of renewable heating by public authorities. The main support scheme for renewable transport fuels is a renewable transport quota scheme. This scheme obliges companies importing or producing gasoline or automotive diesel to ensure that bio-fuels make up a defined percentage of their overall annual sales volume of automotive fuels. Besides, bio-fuels are exempt from a consumption tax

  1. The Development of Mental Health Policies in the Czech Republic and Slovak Republic since 1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobiášová Karolína

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to describe the key events in the development of mental health care policies after 1990 in the two countries and identify the main reasons for stagnation or incremental changes to the institutional setting in the field of mental health care. The process of mental health care reform is explained using the framework of historical institutionalism. The explanation shows that the lack of political interest in combination with the tradition of institutional care resulted in poor availability of psychiatric care, outdated network of inpatient facilities and critical lack of community care facilities in both countries. Even though Slovak Republic adopted national programme at the governmental level, it still struggles with its implementation. The ongoing reform attempt in the Czech Republic may bring some change, thanks to a new approach towards strategic governance of the mental health care system and the mechanism of layering that the promoters of the reform use.

  2. Regional Peculiarities of Gender Policy in the Republic of Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flura I. Khramtsova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The essence of the state gender policy at the present stage in the Republic of Belarus is substantiated. The regional peculiarities of the implementation of the state program document «The National Plan of Action for Ensuring Gender Equality for 2017-2020» are disclosed. The experience of designing a regional plan for the implementation of the state gender policy of the Minsk City Executive Committee for 2017-2020 is shown on the example of the Academy of Management under the President of the Republic of Belarus. In the broad sense, gender policy is understood as one of the strategic directions of social policy. At the same time, gender policy is aimed at overcoming discrimination based on gender, gender asymmetry in the sphere of power relations, gender imbalance in the labor market, employment. Gender policy in the context of international legislative acts takes into account the national identity, the features of the political system, and the socio-economic development of a concrete state. With all existing differences, gender policy in its narrow meaning is a purposeful, dynamic, adaptive process of public administration, regulation, coordination, control in the sphere of gender relations on three bases: political doctrine; state ideology; program priorities and values of gender equality. The interdisciplinarity of gender policy integrates it with other areas of social policy. Thus, gender policy is implicit in goals, the content of state family policy, demographic, educational, youth, protection of maternity and childhood . Formation and implementation of gender policy is based on analysis, interpretation of statistical data (social policy directions, which are disaggregated by sex, in the dynamics of indicators. Based on the UN used methodology, taking into account the national specifics of the Belarusian society, has been created relevant gender statistics and it is developing as an information resource for decision-making. Gender

  3. Republic of Macedonia. Regular Review 2006. Part 1. Trends in energy and energy efficiency policies, instruments and actors. Part 2. Indicators on Energy, Energy Efficiency, Economy and Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Republic of Macedonia has been an independent country since 1991. It is also a country with its economy in transition. Against this background, efforts dedicated towards implementing the provisions of the Energy Charter Treaty (ECT) and of the Protocol on Energy Efficiency and Related Environmental Aspects (PEEREA) have to be noted. The country ratified the ECT and PEEREA in September 1998. The country is not rich in natural resources, with the exception of lignite and hydro. Fuel diversification and reducing dependence on imported resources are strong reasons for promoting energy savings. Increasing the penetration of natural gas and improving the interconnection with neighbouring countries are high priorities. The average total primary consumption of energy in the Republic of Macedonia is around 2.6 Mtoe annually. Within the primary energy supply, the share of crude oil is 30%, of coal 51%, of natural gas 3%, and the remaining around 15% are hydro energy, fire-wood and geothermal energy. The total consumption of energy is provided by around 60% of domestic production and 40% from import. The basic energy infrastructure in the Republic of Macedonia includes the following: electricity power system with 1524 MW installed capacity, lignite coal mines, gas pipeline system with annual capacity of 800 million m 3 , an oil refinery, an oil pipeline, five district heating systems with total capacity of 600 MW and small geothermal systems. The Ministry of Economy is the responsible government body for the energy issues. The regulation of the energy market is performed by the independent regulatory body, the Energy Regulatory Commission of the Republic of Macedonia. In 1999 the Government adopted a Programme on Efficient Energy Use in the Republic of Macedonia until 2020. The preparation of this programme was also a legal obligation stemming from the Energy Law adopted in 1997. This Programme includes measures for increasing the energy efficiency, among which

  4. Energy policy review of Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-11-21

    The Republic of Indonesia is the world's fourth most populous nation and a developing economy in transition. It is now consolidating its democratic government and implementing governance and financial reforms. After the Asian financial crisis of 1997-99, Indonesia's economy has returned to a strong and stable 5-6% annual growth. Over recent decades, its resource wealth, openness to trade and investment, and a strategically favourable location in East Asia have made Indonesia a key global exporter of oil, gas, and coal. However, Indonesia now faces the serious challenge of fast-rising domestic energy demand with declining oil and gas production. The country's energy policy makers are looking closely at domestic energy requirements and best policies to meet these needs. This includes moving prices towards international parity, improving the energy sector investment climate, and developing electricity generation capacity. While some very difficult decisions have been made over recent years, many challenges remain. This study assesses the country's major energy issues. The study was conducted by a team of IEA member country specialists - an approach which has also been used for national and sectoral reviews of other non-IEA countries, including Angola, China, India, Russia, and Ukraine, as well as the Western Balkan region. The Review offers an analysis of Indonesia's energy sector, with findings and recommendations that draw on experience in IEA member countries. Six areas are suggested for priority attention, including progressive reduction in fuel and electricity subsidies, better implementation of policy, improving clarity of the investment framework, helping the energy regulators do their job more effectively, and harnessing a sustainable development agenda particularly renewable energy and energy efficiency.

  5. Republic of Moldova health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcanu, Ghenadie; Domente, Silviu; Buga, Mircea; Richardson, Erica

    2012-01-01

    The Health Systems in Transition (HiT) profiles are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of a health system and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. HiTs examine different approaches to the organization, financing and delivery of health services and the role of the main actors in health systems; describe the institutional framework, process, content and implementation of health and health care policies; and highlight challenges and areas that require more in-depth analysis. The reform of health financing in the Republic of Moldova began in earnest in 2004 with the introduction of a mandatory health insurance (MHI) system. Since then, MHI has become a sustainable financing mechanism that has improved the technical and allocative efficiency of the system as well as overall transparency. This has helped to further consolidate the prioritization of primary care in the system, which has been bas ed on a family medicine model since the 1990s. Hospital stock in the country has been reduced since independence as the country inherited a Semashko health system with excessive infrastructure, but there is still room for efficiency gains, particularly through the consolidation of specialist services in the capital city. The rationalization of duplicated specialized services, therefore, remains a key challenge facing the Moldovan health system. Other challenges include health workforce shortages (particularly in rural areas) and improving equity in financing and access to care by reducing out of pocket (OOP) payments. OOP spending on health is dominated by the cost of pharmaceuticals and this is currently a core focus of reform efforts. World Health Organization 2012, on behalf of the European Observatory on health systems and Policies.

  6. Review of energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-11-01

    Following the accident at the Chernobyl reactor in April 1986, the 1986 Annual Delegate Conference of the Institution of Professional Civil Servants set up a Working Party to review the Institution's energy policy, including safety and environmental factors. The review is presented in two volumes as the basis for discussion by the members. Volume I is the main report. Section A, the introduction, includes a summary of the detailed conclusions and recommendations of the Working Party. Section B (chapters 4-12) concerns all aspects of nuclear power including fuel reprocessing and waste management. Section C (chapters 13-16) considers the alternatives to nuclear power and Section D (chapters 17-24) looks at the economic and social aspects of energy policy. The appendices, which contain the detailed technical and source information used by the Working Party in reaching its conclusions, are printed separately in Volume II. (UK)

  7. R&D POLICY IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA AND SMART SPECIALISATION APPROACH: CONVERGENCE OR PARALLELISM?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe CUCIUREANU

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Smart Specialisation is a strategic approach to economic development through targeted support to research and innovation. It is a key element in the ‘Innovation Union’ flagship initiative of the Europe 2020 agenda for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. The paper is focused on analysis (especially through desk-review and observations of the existing R&D framework in our country, to see to what extent science policy can lead to smart specialization in the Republic of Moldova. As a result, we have formulated five major challenges for convergence of the national R&D system to smart specialization.

  8. Energy policy of the Kyrgyz Republic: results and problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidana M. Makilova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the situation in the fuel and energy sector that developed in the Kyrgyz Republic after the collapse of the USSR. The independence was accompanied by the disintegration of a unified system, in accordance with which the supply of electricity and hydrocarbon resources was rigidly linked with the use of water and energy potential. The termination of the mechanism, which took into account the energy interests of all countries of Central Asia, had a negative impact on the situation in Kyrgyzstan. As a result, the problem of supplying the republic with energy resources was acute before Kyrgyzstan. First of all, it concerned the provision of fuel resources to the population.Particular attention is paid to researching the factors that influence the formation and implementation of the modern energy policy of the Kyrgyz Republic. Emphasis is placed on the development of water and energy potential. A solution to ensure energy security is closely related to the solution of this problem.Minor reserves of oil, coal and gas, which are concentrated in hard-to-reach mountainous areas with complex climatic and geological conditions of occurrence and lack of the necessary means to develop these deposits, increase the interest of Kyrgyzstan in the use of water and energy potential. With the use of the potential of cross-border rivers in Kyrgyzstan bind hopes for the economic development of the country, the solution of socio-economic issues.To this end, Kyrgyzstan has all the conditions, since the country has facilities that were built during the USSR. However, the deterioration of the infrastructure and the shortage of Hydroelectric power station capacity prevented the stable provision of electricity to the entire population and negatively affects the development of industry. However, Kyrgyzstan's difficult interstate relations with the neighboring countries of the region have a negative impact on this issue. As a result, the crisis in the

  9. The Development of the system of evaluation of public policies and programs in the Republic of Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigmetov Kaisar Kairkenovich

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the features of the assessment in the Republic of Kazakhstan and abroad. Recommendations on further development of evaluation of public policies and programs in the Republic of Kazakhstan.

  10. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Slovak Republic 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. This publication provides an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. This publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this publication, the IEA will make available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  11. Comparison of Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol Policies in the Czech Republic and Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnilicová, Helena; Nome, Siri; Dobiášová, Karolína; Zvolský, Miroslav; Henriksen, Roger; Tulupova, Elena; Kmecová, Zuzana

    2017-06-01

    The Czech Republic is characterized by high alcohol consumption and is well known as the world's biggest consumer of beer. In contrast, the alcohol consumption in Norway is relatively low. In this article, we describe and discuss alcohol policy development in the Czech Republic since the mid-1980s to the present and its impact on the alcohol consumption and compare our findings, including the dynamics of the total alcohol consumption and the development of drinking patterns among young people, with the situation in Norway. The study uses the methodology of "process tracing". Selected national statistics, research outcomes and related policy documents were analyzed to identify possible relations between the alcohol consumption and the alcohol policy in two different environments and institutional/policy settings. There was a clear difference in alcohol consumption trends in both countries in the last three decades. Norway was characterized by low alcohol consumption with tendency to decline in the last years. In contrast, the Czech Republic showed an upward trend. In addition, alcohol consumption among Czech youth has been continuously increasing since 1995, whereas the opposite trend has occurred in Norway since the late 1990s. The results revealed that the alcohol-control policies of the Czech Republic and Norway were significantly different during the study period. Norway had a very restrictive alcohol policy, in contrast to the liberal alcohol policy adopted in the Czech Republic, in particular after political transition in 1990. Liberalization of social life together with considerable decline of alcohol price due to complete privatization of alcohol production and sale contributed to an increase of the alcohol consumption in the Czech Republic. Persistently high alcohol consumption among general population and its growth among young people in the Czech Republic pose social, economic and health threats. Norway could provide the inspiration to Czech politicians

  12. Solar energy policy review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-08-17

    A number of memoranda and reports are collected which deal with evaluations of solar energy policy options, including direct and indirect labor impacts and costs of different options and consumer protection. (LEW)

  13. Student's Work: Social Capital in the Czech Republic and Public Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Vodrážka

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Social capital in Eastern Europe has received a fair amount of scholarly attention in recent years, including in the Czech Republic. This paper examines the stock of macro-level social capital in the Czech Republic in comparative European perspective. The notions of “missing” social capital and corruption as negative social capital are explored. The corruption situation in the Czech Republic and the progress in curbing it that was made in the last decade are evaluated. Regressions run with data from the World Value Survey and the Corruption Perception Index show that economic growth does not translate into correspondingly lower levels of corruption in the Czech case. State bureaucracy is identified as a possible reason for the failure to curb corruption successfully. Public policy recommendations and their usefulness for the Czech Republic are debated and a civil service reform is proposed as the most appropriate policy for addressing the situation.

  14. Nuclear export policy and regulation for non-proliferation: Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulanger, Werner.

    1978-01-01

    The nuclear export policy of the Federal Republic of Germany complies with the principle of non-proliferation of nuclear weapons. Already in 1967 the Federal Government stated in a Peace Note that no export was authorised to countries (outside Euratom) which did not comply with the IAEA Safeguards. In the bilateral agreement the Federal Republic signed with Brasil in 1975, emphasis was put on international safeguards and the control exercised on exported materials to avoid any diversion for military purposes. (NEA) [fr

  15. What Do Diploma Theses Unveil about Academic Public Policy in the Czech Republic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouralová Magdalena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although textbooks, conference papers, scientific journals and monographs deal with the research aspects of public policy, only little attention is paid to the way it is taught at universities. In this article we aim to explore academic public policy in the Czech Republic - specifically in terms of teaching outputs - using a unique method: an analysis of diploma theses. In the sample there were diploma theses defended within all the full-time Master’s study programmes having “public policy” in their names in the Czech Republic between 1995 and 2013. We conclude that there are two traditions of academic public policy in the Czech Republic, which enriches previous findings in the area and makes them more accurate. The research design and thoroughly described methodology invite other researchers to conduct international comparison of the features of academic public policy. The findings may also illustrate the trajectory made by the newly established discipline of public policy in the past twenty years in the Czech Republic, which may be of great interest to the newly formed international public policy community.

  16. The Policy of Inactivity: Doing Gender-Blind Science Policy in the Czech Republic 2005–2010

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tenglerová, Hana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2014), s. 78-107 ISSN 1802-4866 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LE12003 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : gender equality * science policy * Czech Republic Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography http://www.cejpp.eu/index.php/ojs/article/view/133

  17. DIRECTIONS OF DEVELOPMENT OF REGIONAL ECOLOGICAL POLICY WITH EXAMPLE OF TATAR STAN REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.K. Gazeyev

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of regulating the complex exploitation of regional natural resources. In the context of this analysis the author examines the actual regional ecological policy and perspectives of its development, Tatar Stan Republic being taken as an example. A great attention was paid to Russian and international principles and standards in this scope.

  18. Social Policy in the Czech Republic: the Past and Future of Reforms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Večerník, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 3 (2008), s. 496-517 ISSN 0888-3254 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA403/08/1369 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : social policy * social reforms * Czech Republic Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.500, year: 2008

  19. Country programme review. United Republic of Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuaron, A.; Hance, R.; Yurtsever, Y.; Maudarbocus, V.

    1992-01-01

    This document provides a review of past and present IAEA Technical Co-operation Activities in Tanzania and gives descriptions of the current status of nuclear applications in food and agriculture, human health, water resources and industrial applications/nuclear instrumentation

  20. Nuclear energy policy in the German Democratic Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahlert, J.

    1988-01-01

    The book investigates the question whether the peaceful use of nuclear energy is a technology accepted and mastered by society in the G.D.R., i.e. in a system of real socialism. The author first reviews the history of nuclear technology and its changing role from a source of hope and trust in progress to a fill-in. Then the question is discussed whether the combination of nuclear technology and socialism has proven the world to be a successful symbiosis. It is shown that discussions about the advantages or disadvantages of nuclear technology, actually a means of forming public opinion, are kept behind closed doors and are by no means intended to include participation of the public. The author concludes that nuclear technology is not controlled by society. Its development was determined by feasibility speculations, economic pretentions, and vague prognostics rather than by sound projecting and planning on the basis of technical, economic and energy policy principles. Real socialism, too, puts an unmeasurable risk on society by supporting nuclear technology. Public opinion making by no means allows controversial discussions about assessment of nuclear technology, its value, or the acceptable risk associated with it. (orig./HSCH) [de

  1. Environment and environmental policy in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meroth, P.; Moltke, K. von.

    1987-01-01

    The subject 'environment' is a central problem of all human societies, which has increased to such an extent with progressive industrialisation that today it has a similar significance to the sectors 'safety' and 'economy'. In this respect it is an international topic - and this as far as environmental resources such as air and water and, correspondingly also environmental pollution, know no national boundaries. International interdependence becomes here the fateful question of all humanity. The work attempts to inform about the environmental situation, which is difficult to fathom, and the discussion in the Federal Republic of Germany in such a way that the mutual problems also become debatable internationally. (orig./HSCH) [de

  2. Introduction to the outlines of radwaste administration policy of the Republic of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, C.C.; Tsai, C.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the Radwaste Administration Policy (ORAP) which first drafted by the Radwaste Administration (RWA), a subordinate organization of the Atomic Energy Council (AEC) of the Republic of China, and was approved by the Executive Yuan (Cabinet) on September 16, 1988. ORAP has laid down the guidelines for both radwaste administration by RWA and radwaste management by Taiwan Power Company (TPC or Taipower) and other radwaste producers. ORAP will govern radwaste-related activities in the Republic of China in the foreseeable future. The text of ORAP is shown in the Appendix of this paper

  3. Current alcohol policy in the Republic of Belarus

    OpenAIRE

    Razvodovsky, Y. E.

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of the state alcohol policy is presented. The dynamics of total alcohol consumption, unregistered alcohol consumption and alcohol sales in Belarus were evaluated for the period 1980-2009. It was shown that the implementation of measures within the framework of the state alcohol policy resulted in a significant reduction in unregistered alcohol consumption and a slight reduction in total alcohol consumption.

  4. INFLATION TARGETING – AN OPTIMAL MONETARY POLICY REGIME FOR THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA AT PRESENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg STRATULAT

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The National Bank of the Republic of Moldova, as well as other central banks from other neighbouring countries, with the view to promoting the monetary policy, replaced the objective „ achieving and maintaining the national currency stability” with the target “ensuring and maintaining price stability”. This adjustment conditioned the selection of an optimal monetary policy regime to achieve the respective aim. Further to analysis and research there has been adopted the inflation targeting regime in order to determine the exact amount to a variation interval on a 24 month range. Relying on the experience in implementing the inflation targeting regime by the National Bank of Moldova it was determined that this monetary policy regime is the most adequate for the present socio-economic development of the Republic of Moldova.

  5. The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia: Health System Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milevska Kostova, Neda; Chichevalieva, Snezhana; Ponce, Ninez A; van Ginneken, Ewout; Winkelmann, Juliane

    2017-05-01

    This analysis of the health system of the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. The country has made important progress during its transition from a socialist system to a market-based system, particularly in reforming the organization, financing and delivery of health care and establishing a mix of private and public providers. Though total health care expenditure has risen in absolute terms in recent decades, it has consistently fallen as share of GDP, and high levels of private health expenditure remain. Despite this, the health of the population has improved over the last decades, with life expectancy and mortality rates for both adults and children reaching similar levels to those in ex-communist EU countries, though death rates caused by unhealthy behaviour remain high. Inheriting a large health infrastructure, good public health services and well-distributed health service coverage after independence in 1991, the country re-built a social health insurance system with a broad benefit package. Primary care providers were privatized and new private hospitals were allowed to enter the market. In recent years, the country reformed the organization of care delivery to better incorporate both public and private providers in an integrated system. Significant efficiency gains were reached with a pioneering health information system that has reduced waiting times and led to a better coordination of care. This multi-modular e-health system has the potential to further reduce existing inefficiencies and to generate evidence for assessment and research. Despite this progress, satisfaction with health care delivery is very mixed with low satisfaction levels with public providers. The public hospital sector in particular is characterized by inefficient organization, financing and provision of health care; and many professionals

  6. Economic and Policy Review: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and economic environment in which they operate and work. EPR enlists experts in public policy, business, economic theory and practice to express their thoughts and views in the most influential way possible on economic policy and direction of government and the Nigerian economy in the short, medium and long terms.

  7. The New Policy on Higher Education of the Government of the Dominican Republic: Some Descriptive and Evaluative Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escala, Miguel Jose

    The purpose of this report is to analyze a new higher education policy adoped by the Dominican Republic in Decree 1255 of 1983, "Regulations for Private Higher Education." Geographical, historical, and political characteristics of the Dominican Republic are described, and theoretical and methodological considerations in the study of…

  8. The issues of investment policy in the economy of the Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadejda NAZAR

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The investment policy of the state is to develop a set of measures to attract investment into the economy. In this article, the basic directions of the investment policy in the Republic of Moldova to ensure the achievement of the strategic objectives of Moldova are reflected. Analyzing the situation in the republic investment sector, we can formulate the negative factors to attract investment in the development of entrepreneurship in Moldova: the unstable political situation, corruption and bureaucracy, lack of qualified human resources, poor infrastructure, etc. For developing the investment climate, it is necessary to improve the management of central and local administration, to help investors at every stage of the investment process. The following priority sectors of the national economy for attraction of investment of can be highlighted: services for entrepreneurs, development of information technology products, the development of the electronics industry, development of light industry, producing parts for self-services, the agro-industrial sector, tourism, transport logistics.

  9. Economic policy and the environment (Republic of Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In general, the areas of significant environmental concerns in Macedonia are located near large urban areas, with industrial sources being the major polluters.Reduced industrial production in the last five years decreased the level of pollutants being discharged in air, water and soil compared in the 1980s. However, if industries resume previous levels of production, without proper environmental checks the pollution load to various media will increase. Today, in Macedonia there is willingness to treat environmental issues as an integral part of the overall strategy for economic and social development during the transition to a market economy. Further, Macedonia plans to harmonize its policies, including the ones on environment, with those of EU so as to promote closer integration with other European countries. The effects of economic restructuring may not be favorable for the environment if environmental policies are not developed soon. In the process of developing a policy to finance environmental protection, two principles need to be adopted and followed at all levels of government, namely 'polluter pays' and 'user pays' principles. This will strengthen the role of local communities in financing environmental protection. (author)

  10. Policy of Kyrgyz Republic in the field of weapons of mass destruction nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duisheeva, Zh.Z.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Kyrgyz Republic is principle and sequential member of accepting effective international measures, directed to active prevention to weapons of mass destruction (WMD) proliferation, its components and means of delivery. Commitment to prevention policy and WMD nonproliferation is one of basic principles of foreign and domestic policy of Kyrgyz Republic. The real measure against WMD proliferation and relating to its production technologies of military, special and dual use is international export control based on national systems of export control including smoothly running national system of account for, control and physical protection of arm materials. Currently juridical basis of export control system in Kyrgyz Republic is actively developing. In 2003 the Law of Kyrgyz Republic On export control, based on principles and norms of international law in the field of export control was adopted. The Law On export control determines basic principles of state policy, legal activity basis of state management and participants of foreign-economic activity in the field of export control, as well as defines their rights, obligations and responsibilities in this field. Also in the law, the requirements of international treaties realization in the field of WMD nonproliferation and means of their delivery, signed by Kyrgyzstan, is defined as one of national systems goals of export control. In article 13, Law On export control it is defined that international cooperation in the field of export control by means of efforts coordination and cooperation with foreign states on prevention of WMD nonproliferation, means of their delivery and technologies on their creation; participation in international regimes of export control and international forums, as well as carrying out negotiations, consultations with foreign states, bilateral information exchange and realization of joint programs and other events in the field of export control on bilateral and multilateral basis. By

  11. Perspectives of intellectual disability in the People's Republic of China: epidemiology, policy, services for children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Henry W M; Cui, Yong; Li, Jing

    2011-09-01

    This review aims to provide an overview of the current status and recent developments in epidemiology, public policy and services for children and adults with intellectual disability in China. The most recent national survey on disability conducted in 2006 estimated that the prevalence of intellectual disability was 0.75% in China. People with intellectual disability accounted for 11.9% of all the people with disabilities and they have an uneven geographical distribution. The prevalence in urban areas was 0.4%, whereas that in rural areas was 1.02%. The Constitution of the People's Republic of China stated that people with disabilities have the right to receive assistance from the state and society. Based on this, laws have been formulated and revised to protect people with disabilities in areas of education, employment and rehabilitation. The variety, capacity and quality of services for people with intellectual disability are steadily increasing or improving, but there are still gaps and deficiencies such as mental health care and professional services. Supported by the Central Government of the People's Republic of China, there has been remarkable progress in the formulation of policies and provision of services for people with intellectual disability in recent years. However, there continue to be a lot of unmet needs among this population, particularly those living in rural areas. Therefore, further commitment, coordination and resource allocation are required to improve the lives of people with intellectual disability in China.

  12. Review of Administrative Justice in the Republic of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Pepaj

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to provide a real view of adjudication of administrative cases in Kosovo. The issue of adjudication of administrative cases in the Republic of Kosovo remains a challenge following justice reforms which began in 2013 and are still on-going. Kosovo as a new country faces difficulties in professionalization of public administration and this is closely related to large number of case that are subject of judicial review which is not a case with other countries which have longer experience in public administration. In this context, more attention has been paid to review of administrative acts and issues with special focus on judicial review, following with legal remedies, administration silence as cause of judicial review. The paper also contains information about administrative justice in Kosovo before and 2013, and its current state. New court structure brought with New Law on Courts which entered into force in 2013 affected administrative justice substantially. In the previous system, Kosovo Supreme Court was the only instance handling administrative disputes. In this regard, the issue of effective legal remedies was not in place as required by international standards. However, new court structure brought significant changes regarding legal remedies in administrative justice by setting up three court instances; Administrative departments within Prishtina Basic Court and Appellate Court as well as Supreme Court extraordinary legal remedies review.

  13. Environmental policy of the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malunat, B.M.

    1994-01-01

    The history of the policy for environmental protection in Germany is characterized by a particularly fast rate of evolution over the roughly 25 years of its existence to a state of maturity for which all other fundamental political goals and principles of our society - such as democracy, supremacy of law, social welfare - have taken much more time to develop. Compared to this rapid development in theory, the situation of the environment has changed but little, and considering our current knowledge, revealing the interdependency of global ecological processes, there is danger of development to the worse. The United Nations have been signalising the beginning of a new approach towards the environment based on the principle of global responsibility. But the narrow lane of ''sustainable development'' will lead to success only if the great majority of people are prepared to take on personal responsibility. (orig.) [de

  14. Experience of Republic of Macedonia in Providing WMD Non-Proliferation Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mecinovic, S.

    2007-01-01

    The Republic of Macedonia as a country in transition and as a country which does not posses WMD, has accepted to developed and implemented non-proliferation policy of WMD. First of all, we accepted the definition of WMD as used in international agreements, conventions and protocol and WMD includes nuclear, biological and toxin weapons, agent and precursors. WMD in wide sense includes all toxic chemical substances if they are used as means of attack or if they are the target of attack, all microorganisms and their product, all industrial facilities that use toxic chemicals in their process of production, transport and stockpile if they are a target of military or terrorist attack. For WMD non-proliferation projects to be valid, they must be on the level and carry the weight of international policy and doctrine and involve a most comprehensive sphere of the scientific and professional communities. This is only way to implement the projects in country such is Republic of Macedonia where the public opinion is that WMD are not real security problem because we neither possess nor seek to posses these kinds of weapons. Our WMD non-proliferation policy is tied to control of weapons, agents, precursors, technology and their transfer, market and possibility of use. Because of that we try to control know terrorist organization, groups and individuals. Terrorism caused special concern and attention, particularly when we talk about terrorism with NBC weapons and radiological, chemical and biological warfare agents. Scientific and technological progress led to fact that the instruments for performing terrorism (including WMD) can be produced or procured much easier than before. Rising industry which uses toxic chemicals and microorganisms in the production process created a lot of potential targets for terrorism actions in which they can use be as a target and an executive instrument. The new goal of contemporary treats is safety of life environment, which today includes

  15. Ukraine: energy policy review 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-10-13

    Ukraine has one of the most energy-intensive economies in the industrialized world. While energy consumption has dropped since the country's independence, reliance on imports, particularly on gas from Russia, has not declined. This dependence increases risks for security of supply. As tension between Ukraine and its main energy supplier has grown in recent years, the country's energy policy is driven by a strong desire to improve domestic energy security and reduce natural gas imports. Energy transit through the Ukraine is significant. Due to its geographic position, the country plays a major role in securing Europe's energy needs: 84% of Russian gas supplies to Europe transit through Ukraine via pipeline. This report addresses how Ukraine can meet its energy challenges. Three priority areas for action identified are: energy efficiency, cost-reflective pricing, and transparency. Efficiency represents not only Ukraine's single best opportunity to improve energy security but is also vital for the country's growth and development. The review covers all aspects of the energy sector, such as energy demand, the policy framework, and sub-sectors including energy efficiency, oil, gas, coal, electricity, district heating and renewable energy.

  16. Science, Policy, and Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, D.

    2006-12-01

    These are intense times at the convergence between science and public policy. Because issues like climate change, stem cell research and environmental protection are being contested in choppy political water, political interests are being deployed to challenge science and researchers, and also to generate pseudo- scientific claims made in the interest of particular policy ends. In a number of cases reported in Science, administration officials have silenced their own employees, or withheld data selectively from draft reports. Added to that challenge to integrity, there is a new statutory environment that adds some complexity of its own. Beginning with the Data Quality Act, more familiarly the "Shelby Amendment," research results with significant economic impacts through regulation are now available through the Freedom of Information Act. Its successor, the Data Quality Act -- which opens a route of challenge to information released by government or gathered by others and used in advice or regulation has exposed scientists not only to having their primary data reanalyzed for the purposes of others, but to charges of research misconduct. These influences have made journal peer review more challenging in several ways, and I will outline some case examples.

  17. Efficiency of the state youth policy in the Republic of Khakassia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T B Shigolakova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the efficiency of the state youth policy in the Republic of Khakassia in 2010-2013 focusing on the changes in the number of specialists in the field of youth policies, and representatives of public associations that completed the advanced training and retraining programs; on the percentage of young people aged 14 to 30 involved in volunteer activities and projects for promoting ideas of patriotism, civil responsibility and tolerance, as well as in business activities and student groups; on the number of projects and programs submitted for the grant competition of the Government of the Republic of Khakassia in the field of youth policies; and on the measures to support talented young people, etc. The author identifies key indicators to assess the situation in the different spheres of the youth policy in terms of its focus and priorities. For instance, to evaluate the efficiency of measures to combat drug abuse and illegal drug trafficking we are to compare the annual numbers of young people involved in activities to prevent drug abuse, and to consider the dynamics of decrease of drug trafficking; to evaluate the efficiency of crime prevention, and maintaining security and public order we are to consider the rates of crimes committed by minors and young people; to assess the development of innovative, scientific and applied activities we are to check the dynamics of the number of young researchers involved in such activities, as well as the number of scientific schools in Khakassia, etc.

  18. The language policy and cultural building in the Tuvan People's Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanna V. Otroshenko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to the role of the Mongolian language in Tuvan official sphere, education and mass-media during the initial years of Tuvan People’s Republic. Author investigates into the disputes of language choice for the Tuvan educational institutions and the issue of the Tuvan written language creation (1920’s. It proves that the lingual and educational spheres’ modernization had been influenced by the trends in the USSR language policy as well as the decision of Soviet diplomacy and Comintern to lead Tuva gradually out of the Mongolian influence. Article reveals the unknown and little-known facts of cultural and educational development of the Tuvan People’s Republic.

  19. The Language Policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the Field of Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botakoz A. Zhekibaeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the study of normative and conceptual documents that define the strategic objectives and the language policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the field of education are presented in the article. The main trends in the development of foreign language and multilingual education, the necessity of which is determined by the fact that Kazakhstan's education system must provide a complete, high quality, competitive education, focused on results, through the formation and development of core competencies: trilingualism, Eurasian multiculturalism, communication are reflected in the contents of the research. Analysis of the key areas of language policy, its core ideas show that language policy in education is based on the recognition of the importance of all languages development and creation of the necessary conditions for the development of multilingualism, following its general line ensures equal and free development of the languages and cultures of all ethnic groups living within our state

  20. Possible Approach to the Energy Policy Principles for the Sustainable Development in the Republic of Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekanic, I.

    1998-01-01

    The main problem of the contemporary energy policy is the equilibrium between the development or energy consumption growth and the environmental protection. Moreover, the conservation of natural resources, not only their exploitation, should be the primary goal of the natural resource management strategy. The article present the basic principles of the newly created natural resources management strategy, which includes energy policy changes towards energy conservation and rational energy use, environmental protection and optimisation of energy use related to the environment. The general system of environmental protection in energy industries is also included into energy policy, as well as the changes of the structure of energy use in favour of increased energy efficiency, and natural gas utilisation in the Republic of Croatia. (author)

  1. Health policy evolution in Lao People's Democratic Republic: context, processes and agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, Kristina; Phoummalaysith, Bounfeng; Wahlström, Rolf; Tomson, Göran

    2015-05-01

    During the last 20 years Lao People's Democratic Republic has successfully developed and adopted some 30 health policies, strategies, decrees and laws in the field of health. Still, the implementation process remains arduous. This article aims at discussing challenges of health policy development and effective implementation by contextualizing the policy evolution over time and by focusing particularly on the National Drug Policy and the Health Care Law. Special attention is given to the role of research in policymaking. The analysis was guided by the conceptual framework of policy context, process, content and actors, combined with an institutional perspective, and showed that effective implementation of a health policy is highly dependent on both structures and agency of those involved in the policy process. The National Drug Policy was formulated and adopted in a short period of time in a resource-scarce setting, but with dedicated policy entrepreneurs and support of concerned international collaborators. Timely introduction of operational health systems research played a crucial role to support the implementation, as well as the subsequent revision of the policy. The development of the Health Care Law took several years and once adopted, the implementation was delayed by institutional legacies and issues concerning the choice of institutional design and financing, despite strong support of the law among the policymakers. Among many factors, timing of the implementation appeared to be of crucial importance, in combination with strong leadership. These two examples show that more research, that problematizes the complex policy environment in combination with improved communication between researchers and policymakers, is necessary to inform about measures for effective implementation. A way forward can be to strengthen the domestic research capacity and the international research collaboration regionally as well as globally. Published by Oxford University Press

  2. Energy efficiency and renewable energy policy in the Czech Republic within the framework of accession to the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wees, M.T. van; Uyterlinde, M.A.; Maly, M.

    2002-01-01

    The main barrier for end-use energy efficiency and renewable energy in the Czech Republic is the lack of a stable political and regulatory framework. Market incentives can only properly work if the market conditions and restrictions are clear and stable. However, no comprehensive policies and regulation have been implemented in the Czech Republic. Although the acquis communautaire of the European Union includes regulation on energy efficiency and renewable energy, this topic remains low on the negotiation agenda for accession. This paper reports on the current situation in the Czech Republic, including the potentials for end-use energy efficiency and renewable energy, on the existing policy and regulatory framework, and on the remaining gaps with the requirements of accession to the European Union. Also, the impact of the recent increase of nuclear capacity on energy efficiency and renewable energy in the Czech Republic is discussed

  3. 14 CFR 415.23 - Policy review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... foreign policy interests, or international obligations of the United States. (b) Interagency consultation... determine whether a license application presents any issues affecting U.S. foreign policy interests or... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy review. 415.23 Section 415.23...

  4. Energy policy of the International Energy Agency (IEA) countries. General review of the year 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This book is a general review on energy policy leaded by Members countries of International Energy Agency (IEA) during the year 1990. This book describes also the trends and the recent events which have affected energy demand, energy conservation, energy efficiency, energy supply and energy source development. This annual review gives the IEA energy forecasting for the next years, till year 2001. A detailed study of energy policy in Federal Republic of Germany, Austria, Denmark, Greece, Ireland and Japan is given. The policy of fifteen another Members countries, which have been analyzed the previous years, is recapitulated and briefly brought up to date

  5. Energy policies of IEA countries. 1993 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Energy policies in Member countries's and the international energy situation are highlighted in this 1993 edition. It reviews recent trends and developments in energy demand, conservation and efficiency, supply of primary fuels, environment, technology and R and D. This year's Review also gives an overview of significant developments in key policy areas since the IEA's creation, on the occasion of its 20th anniversary. Member countries' energy policies are reviewed in depth on a four-year cycle. In-depth reviews of the energy policies of Austria, Denmark, Germany, Greece, the United Kingdom and the United States were conducted in 1993. Energy policy developments and supply and demand trends for the other 17 countries are updated from the previous in-depth reviews and summarized in this volume. (authors). figs., tabs

  6. European wine policy and perceptions of Moravian winemakers: a pilot study in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Koráb

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available European wine policy is a significant factor influencing winemakers in the European Union. This paper examines perception of this policy by winemakers and other persons working in Czech wine sector on the sample of respondents. Methodological triangulation consisting of non-structured interview and semantic differential was chosen. Field research was carried out, therefore the study uses primary data. Application of the methodology along with the method of evaluation of data creates an original approach which may be applied on several other research questions. General perception of European Wine Policy is complemented with its impact on competitiveness, practical running of vineyards and winery and on future development of winery. Data is statistically evaluated within categories of respondents. Special emphasis is placed on direct payments as a controversial factor of the policy. The policy is perceived as bureaucratic (“all respondents” x = 4.56, and among micro winemakers discriminating (x = 4.5, selfish (x = 4.5 and malfunctioning (x = 3.5. “Professional” winemakers perceive the impact on competitiveness in the Czech market as rather positive (x = 2.67. This study represents pilot research on perception of European Wine Policy by owners of wineries, viticulturists, micro winemakers, a sommelier and a representative of marketing-supporting institution, conducted in the Czech Republic. The author also outlines further direction of research, as the topic is not paid enough scientific attention.

  7. The foreign policy of the Gabonese Republic: new priorities and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ch Ndakissa Onkassa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the features of formation and realization of foreign policy and the basic characteristics of the international image of modern Gabon are considered. It is shown, that the foreign policy is the important direction in the state activity of Gabon and is intended to offer the General public all over the world complete and reliable information on the situation in the country on key international issues, activities and initiatives of Gabon in the field of political space and the processes and projects of socio-economic development, its cultural and scientific achievements. Foreign policy activity is aimed at creating favorable conditions for the realization of the historic choice of the Gabonese people to strengthen the rule of law, market economy and democratic society, to focus on the social dimension. Нerewith this article analyzes the main provisions of the foreign policy of the Gabonese Republic, considered in conjunction with the country's development objectives defined in the strategic plan “A prosperous Gabon”. Particular attention is paid to the role of the President in making foreign policy decisions and ideas about the prospects for the development of Gabon's foreign policy. Key value of principles of maintenance of the sovereignty and the international inclusiveness, influence of the factor of the French language and policy of multilateral diplomacy is underlined at definition of objectives and priorities of foreign policy of Gabon during an epoch of new international realities. It is noted, that foreign policy activity of Gabon is aimed at creation a wide range of the international partnership in interests of national development in in the context of globalization.

  8. The peasantry of the Volga German Republic in the Period of the New Economic Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina L. Furman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the main directions of governmental policy on the peasant question and also the peculiarities of its implementation on the example of the peasantry of Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of the Volga Germans. Archival documents and statistics show the position of the peasantry during the October Revolution and the Russian Civil War. It has been found that the collective farms (cooperatives, communes and associations for the joint cultivation of the land were the most acceptable form of association under conditions of poverty in villages in the lean years. They allowed accumulating joint efforts and waiting for the next harvest even under the lack of inventory. The author comes to the conclusion that governmental interventions in the agricultural sector (land management, the introduction of the Unified Agricultural Tax, the distribution of breeding seed loan, the implementation of credit policy, etc. was adapted to the interests, primarily to the poorest ones in villages. In conjunction with a very meager budget of the Republic allocated for the development of agriculture, state power sought to solve the problems of the peasant population at the expense of redistribution from the rich peasants to the poorest ones. In this case the main tax burden laid on the proactive and strong part of the village (peasants of average means and substantial farmers that as a result neutralized all attempts to eradicate peasant debt and to generate financial flows for technical re-equipment of the village and intensification of the agricultural production.

  9. The politics of population policy in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoodfar, H; Assadpour, S

    2000-03-01

    The Islamic Republic of Iran arguably has one of the most successful family planning programs in the developing world. This success is all the more interesting for advocates of population programs because the political leaders of the Islamic regime were once strongly opposed to family planning. Indeed, after gaining power following the 1979 revolution, they were responsible for dismantling Iran's relatively new family planning program and introducing pronatalist policies. This article provides an account of the different phases of the population policy in Iran and examines the diverse elements that led politico-religious leaders to revise their views about fertility control and to participate in creating a workable family planning program. The complex formal and informal strategies that the political experts, the media, the religious authorities, and the government of the Islamic Republic adopted in order to achieve this about-face are described. The analysis is based on data collected by the first author during anthropological field research in 1993-96, by means of informal interviews with officials, with medical personnel, with family planning clients, and with religious leaders.

  10. EFFECTS OF MONETARY - EXCHANGE POLICY TO DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMPETITIVENESS IN THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radica Pavlović

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Serbia has one of the most important resources - agricultural resources, which are affected by the monetary - exchange policy, and that, as such, is the backbone of Serbia's economic development, which should be based on the exploitation of agricultural land since this resource puts our country in the region with expressed relative, comparative advantages in relation to a large number of countries. The rise in prices of agricultural products in the long period was much slower than the growth in the price level, which is the agricultural activity in the context of primary production was placed in a very disadvantageous position. The active fiscal policy, through excise taxes on petroleum products leads to higher costs in farming than in any other area. Consumption of petroleum products is the biggest expense that directly participate in the production process. Neither in terms of monetary -exchange policy situation is not favorable. The unreal exchange rate policy stimulated imports and discouraged real exports of agricultural product results in the "unrealistic" low productivity in this sector. In this regard, it is important to establish an appropriate economic policy through monetary, fiscal and exchange mechanism, in order to create a competitive advantage of agricultural production in this area.

  11. The regional approach in the policy of the Russian Federation towards the Republic of Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanko Dmitry

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This author uses regionalism as a theoretical framework for analyzing the foreign policy of the Russian Federation towards the Republic of Estonia. Regionalism is interpreted as a situation, when a political leader’s beliefs change depending on what region of the world is considered. Leaders of great powers often assume that, for example, small European countries are subject to a treatment different from that of small Middle Eastern countries. The method of operational coding is employed to identify the impact of the regional approach on the beliefs of political leaders. The author comes to the conclusion that Russia’s policy towards Estonia largely depends on Russia’s policy towards the regions which the Russian elite relate Estonia to — the Baltic States, Northern Europe, and Europe as a whole. The results of the study can further the understanding of Russia’s policy towards Estonia both in Russia and abroad. Lack of understanding sometimes results in sharing the views of radical Estonian politicians who claim that Russia’s policy towards Estonia is unpredictable and thus poses a threat to security and stability in Europe.

  12. The Role of the OECD and the EU in the Development of Labour Market Policy in the Czech Republic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porte, Caroline de la

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses the role of the OECD through its "Jobs Strategy" and the European Union (EU) through the "European Employment Strategy" in the development of macro-economic, employment and labour market policy in the Czech Republic. As a full member of the two organisations, the Czech...... Republic has been subject to their soft non-binding policy advice in the area of labour market reform. The OECD and EU policy models are similar, both insisting on growth-oriented macro-economic policy, supported by active labour market policies, an active and effective public employment service (PES......) and the de-regulation of labour markets. However, the OECD actively advocates private actor involvement in labour markets, while the EU insists on the role of the public sector. The inquisitive styles of the two organisations differ: the OECD has a decontextualised and quantified analysis of performance...

  13. Energy policies of IEA countries: 1994 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This 1994 edition contributes to the IEA's on-going analysis of countries'energy policies and market developments. it reviews recent trends and developments in energy demand and supply, efficiency, technology and environment. This year's Energy Policies includes: - critical reviews of all 23 IEA Member countries, including in-depth reviews of Finland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg and Switzerland; - a synthesis report highlighting major energy policy developments and market trends in IEA Member countries and an overview of significant energy developments elsewhere in the world; -an analysis of trends in key energy indicators over a twenty year period. (authors)

  14. Haramaya Law Review: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All feature articles that satisfy the internal review process shall be reviewed by at least two external reviewers. • External reviewers are experts on the subject matter under discussion with proven experience on the area by their scholarly contribution, publication or practice. • HLR aims at a general legal audience who may or ...

  15. IAEA Completes Nuclear Security Review Mission in Republic of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Full text: A team of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) experts today completed a mission to review national nuclear security practices in the Republic of Korea. At the request of the Government of the ROK, the IAEA conducted a two-week International Physical Protection Advisory Service (IPPAS) mission that reviewed the nation's nuclear security-related legislative and regulatory framework for nuclear and other radioactive material and associated facilities, as well as security arrangements applied to the transport of nuclear material and radioactive sources, and to computer systems. In addition, the team reviewed physical protection systems at the Hanbit Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), operated by Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Company (KHNP), and at the High-Flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor (HANARO), operated by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The IPPAS team concluded that Korea is working well to conduct strong and sustainable nuclear security activities. Moreover, the team identified a number of good practices in the national nuclear security regime, and at the visited facilities. The team also made recommendations and suggestions for continuous improvement in nuclear security. The IAEA team was led by Joseph Sandoval, a staff member at the Sandia National Laboratories in the United States, and it included eight experts from six nations and the IAEA. The team met in Daejeon with officials from the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC), representatives of the Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Control (KINAC), the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS), KAERI, and the Korea Electric Power Corporation Nuclear Fuel (KEPCO NF). They conducted site visits to the Hanbit NPP, the HANARO research reactor, the irradiation facility at KAERI's Advanced Radiation Technology Institute (ARTI), and the KHNP Cyber Security Center. ''Successful development of a nuclear power programme necessitates a strong commitment to

  16. Principle Trajectories of the Domestic and Foreign Policy Crises in Modern Turkish Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Alekseevich Avatkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Turkey in the year of 2015 has gone through the period of critical transformation of its foreign and domestic policies. The main reason for this transformation is the inability of the Justice and Development Party to reach its goals to draft the new constitution and vest the president of the country with new powers. Nevertheless, the authors believe that there are also historic and demographic reasons for this transformation that have been developing for several decades. The basis of this transformation is the destructive foreign policy course pursued by the ruling elites aimed at fomenting crises inside and outside Turkey. The most tangible signs of that are the resumption of hostilities between the Turkish army and PKK and also regular shillings of the positions of Syrian Kurds by Turkish artillery. According to the authorities of Turkey such policy is likely to force the Turkish society and foreign partners to make concessions and give the Justice and Development Party the right to reform the country in its own way. However, such policy also increases the possibility that some internal and external actors will try to make everything possible to overthrow the ruling regime one way or another.

  17. Problems and social policy priorities sustainable development of rural territories (on the Republic Komi example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliy Nikolaevich Lazhentsev

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the concept of term «sustainable development» of rural areas. Social problems of rural development of the republic of Komi are identified. An intra-rural typology creation is performed. An increasing differentiation in the development of rural areas is concluded. Rural settlements in the republic are characterized by low population density and a rare network of settlements. Low level and quality of rural life (low rural incomes, poor living conditions and high unemployment and better living conditions in urban areas adversely affect migration processes of the village. Characteristic features of modern rural labour market are: inconsistency of supply and demand of labour in vocational and qualification angle, seasonality of production and temporary nature of the proposed work, low wages, low competitiveness of the youth labour market, high level of registered unemployment and even higher — of unregistered. Analytical material allowed the authors to determine the direction of social policy for sustainable development of rural areas according to the conditions of the North.

  18. THE ANALYSIS OF THE CURRENT STATE OF HOUSING AND COMMUNAL SERVICES AND TARIFF POLICY IN THE REPUBLIC OF DAGHESTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Shabanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In article the condition of housing and communal services in the Republic of Daghestan is considered, the main problems, characteristic for the present stage of development of this sphere are revealed, the priority directions of improvement of tariff policy and management of development of housing and communal services are defined. 

  19. Globalisation, Language Planning and Language Rights: The Recent Script Policy Measures Adopted by Japan and the People's Republic of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premaratne, Dilhara D.

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, two significant script policy measures were adopted by Japan and the People's Republic of China (China hereafter), both as a response to national language needs triggered by globalisation. However, the measures chosen by the two countries were very different, Japan choosing to increase and China choosing to standardise the Chinese…

  20. Devices and desires: population policy and gender roles in the Islamic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoodfar, H

    1994-01-01

    There is a widely held assumption that Islamist ideology is incompatible with modernity and feminism. Active debate in Iran about the dynamics of population policy and women's rights and responsibilities, together with the government's efforts to build public consensus on the need for birth control and family planning, however, suggest that Islam may be flexible and adaptable in response to political and economic realities. Iranian women individually and collectively have questioned the male interpretation of the proper Islamic role of women. They have encouraged the government to introduce reforms in the areas of marriage, divorce, and education, and are agitating for more improvement in women's legal and social position. These activities indicate that reproductive choices and strategies are not decided by Islam, but are the product of the political and economic realities of a given society. The first population policy of the Islamic Republic was formulated in 1989. Since then, the Family Planning Board has regenerated itself well beyond its pre-revolution capacity in terms of research and public services. Population policy before and after the Islamic Revolution, building national consensus on family planning, the family planning network, women's status, contradictory signals, and women's options are discussed.

  1. Mizan Law Review: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Mizan Law Review publishes peer reviewed scholarly articles that identify, examine, explore and analyze legal and related principles, stipulations and concepts based on research findings. Mizan's articles aim at interpretation, description, exploration and diagnosis towards the solution of problems (or ...

  2. Nigerian Music Review: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Nigerian Music Review is aimed at the scholarly review of the developments in various musical practices in Nigeria. It considers well researched articles in any of the following areas: Musicology, Ethnomusicology, African Music, Music Education, Performance, Composition, Music Technology, Music ...

  3. 76 FR 60803 - Fourth Administrative Review of Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... International Trade Administration Fourth Administrative Review of Certain Activated Carbon From the People's... notice of initiation of an administrative review of certain activated carbon from the People's Republic... section 751(a)(3)(A) of the Act and 19 CFR 351.213(h)(2). Dated: September 26, 2011. Christian Marsh...

  4. National Information Policies: A Review of the Situation in Seventeen Industrialised Countries, with Particular Reference to Scientific and Technical Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Michael W., Comp.

    This report reviews the information policies that are concerned with, or relevant to, the scientific and technical information of 17 industrialized countries: Australia, Austria, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany (Federal Republic), Hungary, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Spain, the United Kingdom, the United…

  5. Renewable energy action plan. Policy action plan for promotion of renewable energy in the Czech Republic to 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-08-01

    Energy efficiency and renewable energy production contribute to the three major goals of the national energy policy of the Czech Republic: overall competitiveness, security of supply; and environmental protection. Therefore, the Czech government promotes these two sustainable options. The Energy Policy White Paper, which is being developed at the time of writing (June 1999), will provide the general framework for the future role of energy efficiency and renewable energy in the Czech Republic. However, in addition, it is necessary to develop specific policies. The National Energy Efficiency Study aimed to support the Czech government in the formula tion of energy efficiency and renewable energy policy. The National Energy Efficiency Study has resulted in the following documents: (1) The Renewable Energy Action Plan (this report) addresses renewable energy production. The Energy Efficiency Action Plan focuses on the promotion of energy efficiency in end use (separate report; ECN-C--99-065). These two Action Plans provide policy makers in the Czech government with information on potentials, targets, budgets and recommended policy instruments. The core of the Action Plans is the list of concrete policy actions, ready for implementation; (2) The National Energy Efficiency Study NEES (separate report; ECN-C--99-063). This report is the background document to the two Action Plans. It contains detailed information on options and measures, potentials, barriers and policy instruments for energy efficiency and renewables. The main part is a detailed outline for a new energy efficiency and renewable policy. Also, it includes recommendations for financing schemes to overcome the invest ment constraints in the Czech Republic. Finally, a list of concrete projects is included to support project identification

  6. LBS Management Review: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The Lagos Business School Management Review is published by management professionals for practising managers without sacrificing academic standards. It carries articles on all aspects of management that reflect issues growing out of management research relevant to Africa and it provides ...

  7. Family policy in the Czech Republic: Redistribution of wealth through the child tax bonus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Jahoda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Families with children are traditionally the target group of the social system in developed countries. This paper deals with one component of family policy in the Czech Republic, which is household entitlement. The main focus is on the child tax bonus (hereafter CTB. The paper is divided into descriptive and methodological-analytical parts. The descriptive section provides basic information about the beneficiaries of CTB. In the latter section we formulate research questions about the impacts and effects of CTB. We discover that the influence of tax instruments has grown in recent years. The amount of the tax bonus for children exceeded CZK 3 billion in 2009, with almost 22% of all households with children eligible. Although CTB is income-tested, its redistributive impact is rather small – approximately 80% of recipients cannot be considered as poor. Outcomes from our microsimulation model reveal that 82 to 86% households with CTB were at the same time modelled as eligible and therefore we can use microsimulation techniques for future analyses of policy change.

  8. [The War on "Red Drugs": Anticommunism and Drug Policy in Republic of Korea, 1945-1960].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Young

    2016-04-01

    This paper investigates the discourses and policies on narcotics in Republic of Korea from 1945 to 1960. Since the Liberation the narcotic problem was regarded as the vestige of Japanese imperialism. which was expected to be cleaned up. The image of narcotic crimes as the legacy of the colonial past was turned into as the result of the Red Army's tactics to attack on the liberalist camp around the Korean war. The government of ROK represented the source of the illegal drugs as the Red army and the spy from North Korea. The anticommunist discourse about narcotics described the spies, who introduced the enormous amount of poppies into ROK and brought about the addicts, as the social evil. Through this discourse on poppies from North Korea, the government of ROK emphasized the immorality of the communists reinforcing the anticommunist regime, which was inevitable for the government of ROK to legitimize the division of Korea and the establishment of the government alone. This paper examines how the discourses and policies on narcotics in ROK was shaped and transformed from 1945 to 1960 focusing the relationship between the them and the political context such as anticommunism, Korean war, the division of Korea, and etc. This approach would be helpful to reveal the effect of the ROK's own political situation to the public health system involving the management for drugs.

  9. IEA energy policies review: the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-09-04

    For the first time, the IEA has reviewed the energy policies of the European Union which shape the energy use of almost 500 million citizens in 27 EU member countries. A unique entity governed under complex and almost constantly evolving structures, the EU constitutes a challenge for energy policy makers. Its energy policy has a global impact, not only because of its 16% share of world energy demand, but also because of the EU leadership in addressing climate change. Strong policy drives are underway in the EU to achieve the completion of the internal energy market, increase renewable energy supply, reduce CO2 emissions and make the EU more energy-efficient. Concerns about security of supply have also led to a greater focus on improved energy relations with supplier countries, and new institutional structures are being put in place. How much progress has been made in the field of security, internal market and external energy policies? And in which of these areas has the EU already implemented a fully integrated policy? This publication addresses these questions and also analyses the impact of the most recent major EU policy measures, in particular the Energy and Climate Package of January 2008 and the 3rd Liberalisation Package of September 2007. This book finds that both of these proposals are highly ambitious. But implementing them and reviewing both volume and allocation of energy R and D will be necessary to achieve a sustainable energy future in a fully competitive integrated EU energy market.

  10. The Centers of Strategic Research of Foreign Policy of the Republic of Turkey: the General Characteristic and Stages of Functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Алим Видадиевич Сулейманов

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes and complication of an existing international political situation provide new challenges for diplomacy of every state. During making of foreign policy decisions complete and deep understanding of a subject of policy is required. Because of this matter in many countries of the world there are special nongovernmental organizations that provide the qualitative analysis of internal and foreign politics situation. In the given article the centers of strategic research which are carrying out the analysis of foreign policy of Turkish Republic are characterized. Their structure, level and scale of expertise and also stages of functioning are analyzed.

  11. The radioactive waste management policy and practice in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucerka, M.

    1996-01-01

    In recent period, the new Czech Atomic Law is in the final stage of preparation, and the author expects that Parliament of the Czech Republic will approve it in the first half of the year 1996. Partly the law deals with new distribution of responsibilities among bodies involved in utilization of nuclear energy and ionizing radiation, the state and local authorities. The new provisions include also radioactive waste management activities. These provisions clarify the relations between radioactive waste generators and state, and define explicitly duties of waste generators. One of the most important duties is to cover all expenses for radioactive waste management now and in the future, including radioactive waste disposal and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The law establishes radioactive waste management and decommissioning funds and the new, on waste generators independent radioactive waste management organization, controlled by state, to ensure the safety of inhabitants and the environment, and a optimization of expenses. Parallel to the preparation of the law, the Ministry of Industry and Trade prepares drafts of a statute of the radioactive waste management organization and its control board, and of the methodology and rules of management the radioactive waste fund. First drafts of these documents are expected to be complete in January 1996. The paper will describe recent practice and policy of the radioactive waste management including uranium mining and milling tailings, amounts of waste and its activities, economical background, and safety. A special attention will be paid to description of expected changes in connection with the new Atomic Law and expected steps and time schedule of reorganization of the radioactive waste management structure in the Czech Republic

  12. Communication of 22 March 2002 from the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Kazakhstan to the International Atomic Energy Agency regarding Kazakhstan's nuclear policies and practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Director General has received a note verbale of 22 March 2002 from the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Kazakhstan providing information about the nuclear policies and practices of the Republic of Kazakhstan. In the light of the wish expressed in the note verbale, its text is attached hereto

  13. Communication of 12 June 2000 received from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Slovenia regarding Slovenia's nuclear export policies and practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Note Verbale dated 12 June 2000 received by the Secretariat of the IAEA from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Slovenia providing information on the nuclear export policies and practices of the Government of the Republic of Slovenia

  14. Communication of 20 October 2003 from the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Estonia to the International Atomic Energy Agency regarding Estonia's nuclear policies and practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Director General has received a Note Verbale of 20 October 2003 from the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Estonia providing information about the nuclear policies and practices of the Republic of Estonia. In light of the wish expressed in the Note Verbale, its text is attached hereto

  15. Communication of 10 December 2003 from the Permanent Mission of the People's Republic of China to the International Atomic Energy Agency regarding China's nuclear policies and practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Director General has received a letter of 10 December 2003 from the Permanent Mission of the People's Republic of China providing a White Paper on the nuclear non-proliferation policy and measures of the People's Republic of China. In light of the wish expressed in the penultimate paragraph, the letter and the White Paper are attached hereto

  16. The Impact of the Crisis on Illegal Employment of Foreigners and the Related Policy - Case study: Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera–Karin BRAZOVA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to provide a critical perspective of the public policy measures to tackle the illegal employment of foreigners in the Czech Republic taken by the Czech government in the wake of the global financial crisis. In the introductory part of the article, the problem of illegal employment of migrants in the Czech Republic is delimitated and put into a theoretical context. Based on the study of official documents as well as on expert interviews, the analysis of the changes in the public policy dealing with the problem of illegal employment is conducted. While the crisis triggered a more open public debate and brought the problem on the agenda of some core public policy actors and while new measures were taken to address the issue, some of the main underlying problems remain unaddressed. In the final part, a possible future development in the area of illegal employment of migrants is outlined, drawing on the global labor migration trends as well as on the current public policy practice in the Czech Republic.

  17. European integration and transatlantic relations as the cornerstone of the foreign policy of the Federal Republic of Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Bojan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main task of this paper is to determine the main factors of the foreign policy of the Federal Republic of Germany, as well as to predict in which direction its foreign policy will move in the upcoming period. The consolidation and rise of the Federal Republic of Germany after World War II are based on its Westbindung policy (policy of binding for the West, which, basically, relied on a firm integration of Germany into Euro-Atlantic structures. By joining the euro-integration processes, whose prerequisite was a historic reconciliation with the powerful neighbor, France, Germany was no longer a disruptive factor in the European scene, and the NATO as a security “umbrella”, in which the United States of America had the most important role, provided it with adequate framework within which Germany could devote itself to the further development of society and economy. The preservation and further development of the European Union, as well as the transatlantic partnership, whose core consists of partnership relations with the United States of America, for Germany represents one of the key preconditions for maintaining global order, providing a mechanism within which the Federal Republic of Germany achieves the stability and prosperity of its society. As a country whose share in 2015 amounted to over 7% of the world trade (world’s third largest exporter and importer, there is no doubt that modern Germany “harvests” the fruits of globalization in an effective manner. Accordingly, the Federal Republic of Germany has every reason to defend the existing global order, whose leaders are the countries which are its main foreign policy partners.

  18. Hepatitis B and C in the Syrian Arab Republic: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashour, H; Muhjazi, G

    2016-07-10

    This paper reviews the epidemiology and determinants of hepatitis B and C in the Syrian Arab Republic as well as their treatment and prevention. A systematic search of Medline, PubMed and Index Medicus for the Eastern Mediterranean Region was carried out in addition to a review of grey literature and relevant datasets in the Syrian Arab Republic. Low to low-intermediate levels of endemicity of both infections were noted at the national level. However, striking geographic differences and high prevalence among high-risk groups were noticeable. As a result of data limitations, further research is needed, and a national control strategy to combat hepatitis B and C in the Syrian Arab Republic should be developed, especially during the current conflict.

  19. A Review of the Turnaround in Iranian Foreign Policy during President Hassan Rohani's Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Haghgoo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The transition of power in the Islamic Republic of Iran is not only a change of guards in the different political and executive institutions during each electoral cycle but it also radically redefines the fundamental aspects of self-identity and the very definition of national interests and priorities and even how they should be defined. Upon the assumption of power by President Hassan Rohani in Iran, foreign policy of the government of the Islamic Republic of Iran has been exposed to tremendous developments. Prevalence of conservatism over revolutionary mindset, nationalism over trans-nationalism, and structuralism over agent-oriented trends are considered as the three main pillars of these developments. In Rohani’s administration there is no longer any trace of the revolutionary behavior of Ahmadinejad’s era. This turnaround in the Islamic Republic of Iran’s foreign policy is not a new phenomenon. We have witnessed such a shift in Iranian foreign policy after the end of the 8-year war with Iraq, albeit with different dimensions. An assessment of this issue would greatly enhance our understanding of the country’s foreign policy. Accordingly, assessment of the real roots of these foreign policy shifts is the main objective of the present article. Evidently, the shift in foreign policy, more than anything else can be attributed to changes in the definition of the concept of national interests, and how each administration defines such national and transnational interests. Any shift or transformation in this concept, as the guiding principal of foreign policy, creates a context for the shift in the national priorities, orientations, and strategies in its interaction with its external environment. By highlighting the three concepts of “circulation of elites”, “perception towards national identity”, and “structural developments”, the present article endeavors to review the causes of differing understandings of the concept of

  20. Harmonization of customs policy of the Republic of Serbia in the field of agriculture as a condition for accession to the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Đurica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Union wants to expand its market in order to qualify their products, and one way is to carry out the admission of new member states into the European Union. Some Balkan countries that are also used to be the former Yugoslav Republic want to become a full member of the European Union. In order to become an inclusive member, the Republic of Serbia must adjust economic, foreign trade, customs, security and other policies. The aim is to indicate how and in which way to harmonize customs policy of the European Union and of the Republic of Serbia. Comparing the tariff policy in the field of Agriculture of the Republic of Serbia and the European Union we want to point out the similarities and differences in the measures of protection of domestic agriculture in the Republic of Serbia and in the European Union, with the desire the Republic of Serbia, as far as possible, harmonize customs policies in the field of agriculture with policy of the European Union, in order to, among other conditions, allow for accession to the European Union. The process of harmonization is time consuming, requires knowledge, skill and expertise of the people at the Ministry of Finance and the Customs Administration. It is very important that all the recommendations given by the competent bodies of the European Union are implemented in a timely manner by the Republic of Serbia.

  1. Analysis of Drug Policy in the Republic of Slovenia and in the EU Context: A Platform for Prevention in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvaternik, Ines; Rihter, Liljana

    2012-01-01

    Aims: This article presents an overview of the strategies and measures used in the context of school-based prevention in Slovenia, both on a declaratory and on a practical level. Methods: A review of the Resolution on the National Programme on Drugs in the Republic of Slovenia [ReNPPD (2004). Resolucija o nacionalnem programu na podrocju drog…

  2. 78 FR 13626 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-890] Wooden Bedroom Furniture... bedroom furniture from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). The anniversary month of this order is... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on wooden bedroom furniture from the PRC covering multiple...

  3. The Emergence of Social Work Practice Research in the Peoples' Republic of China: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Timothy; Lau, Victor C. Y.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: In China where social work is a fledgling profession, practice research is still a novelty. This article aims to provide an overview of the development of social work practice research in mainland China. Methods: This review analyzes the content of 206 Chinese journal articles published in the Peoples' Republic of China since 1915 using…

  4. SOME QUESTIONS OF INSTITUTIONAL CHANGES IN THE STRUCTURAL POLICY IN THE TRANSITIONAL ECONOMY OF THE REPUBLIC OF TAJIKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vakhobov A. A.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article examines patterns of structural change in the transformation to ensure the sustainability of economic growth as the base address socio-economic problems in the national economy. Author, classified and disclosed the concept of structural policies outlined in the article. And theoretically analyzed the problem of macroeconomic policies and institutional reforms in the current stage of market reforms in the Republic of Tajikistan. The main factors to reform laws and achieve economic independence of the state, through the creation of a favorable investment climate.

  5. OECD Reviews of School Resources: Czech Republic 2016. OECD Reviews of School Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewbridge, Claire; Herczynski, Jan; Radinger, Thomas; Sonnemann, Julie

    2016-01-01

    The effective use of school resources is a policy priority across OECD countries. The "OECD Reviews of School Resources" explore how resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school education. The series considers four types of resources: financial resources, such as…

  6. Microgrid Policy Review of Selected Major Countries, Regions, and Organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Min [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Marnay, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-11-30

    This report collects and reviews policies and regulations related to microgrid development, and is intended as a reference. The material is divided into three parts under five dimensions: interconnection, RD&D, tariff policy, other policies, and recommendations.

  7. Assessing the impact of research on policy: A literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Annette Boaz; Siobhan Fitzpatrick; Ben Shaw

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the impact of research on policy is a vital, and often overlooked, element of policy-making. A systematic literature review was conducted to examine methods for evaluating the impact of research on policy outcomes. The review focused in particular on strategic policy levels (rather than implementation) and waste, environment and pollution policy. The review draws on an international literature, although it is limited to English language publications. The findings identify the di...

  8. Energy policies of IEA countries: 2006 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This compilation contains a broad analysis of recent trends and an easily accessible overview of energy policy of the 26 member countries of the International Energy Agency and other key non-member countries such as China, India and Russia, during the last 12 months. The overview section examines trends in energy markets, including an analysis of energy demand and supply, energy prices and energy related CO{sub 2} emissions. It highlights key policy trends across member and non-member countries on energy security, energy market reform, climate change mitigation, energy efficiency, renewables and energy R&D. The book contains a special chapter on energy efficiency, which compares the most successful efficiency policies of member countries on the basis of In-Depth Review findings of the past three years. It also presents the major findings of the World Energy Outlook 2006, key statistical information and brief summaries of major IEA publications released during the past year. In past years summaries of In-Depth Reviews conducted in the cycle covered by this book, as well as Standard Reviews, were published as part of the book. From this year they will only be available from the IEA's website on www.iea.org. Chapter headings are: Executive summary; Energy efficiency; World energy outlook 2006; Energy security; Energy market reform; Climate change; Renewable energy; Technology, research and development; Energy policies in key non-member countries; and Energy balances and key statistical data of IEA countries. 25 figs., 11 tabs., 4 annexes.

  9. Energy policy and environmental policy of the Czech Republic. Vol. 1: Eastern enlargement of the EU; Energie- und Umweltpolitik der Tschechischen Republik. Bd. 1: Osterweiterung der Europaeischen Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauch, H.G. [Arbeitsgruppe Friedensforschung und Europaeische Sicherheitspolitik (AFES), Mosbach (Germany)

    2002-01-01

    This report has been prepared as part of a bilateral German-Czech project on ''Energy and Environment in the Czech Republic'' that has been financed by the German Federal Ministry of Environment, Nature protection and Nuclear Safety. The project is focused on strengthening the cooperation between Germany and the Czech Republic in the field of energy and environment as well as on assisting the Czech Republic in its EU accession process. The project was launched by the German Federal Environmental Agency (UBA) and is managed by Gertec GmbH, an engineering company in Essen. Additional subcontractors and cooperating organisations included both German and Czech partners: ITUT, e.V., Leipzig, AFES-PRESS, Mosbach, the Czech Energy Agency - CEA Prague, SEVEn, the Energy Efficiency Center, o.p.s., Prague, the German-Czech Chamber of Commerce in Prague, the Euroregion Nisa, Liberec, and KSUE, o.p.s., Litvinov. The goal of this report is to provide brief but focused information for the German and Czech business community, for investors and decision makers both on the current situation and the development in 1990s in the area of energy and environment in the Czech Republic. This report consists of an Executive Summary, a detailed survey in part I with a detailed description of the energy sector and environment and in part II three regional studies focusing on North Bohemia, North Moravia, and Prague. These are supplemented by six appendices. As part of this project two additional studies were prepared by AFES-PRESS that focus - from a social science perspective - on the accession process of the Czech Republic: Enlargement of the European Union - Energy and Environment Policy of the Czech Republic (Volume 1), Liberalisation of the Energy Market for Electricity and Gas in the European Union: a Survey and Implications for the Czech Republic (Volume 3) More information on the whole project, the conducted studies and project partners can be found on internet www

  10. The impact of monetary policy and exchange rate regime on real GDP and prices in the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeqiri Izet

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relative costs and benefits associated with introducing a more active monetary and a different exchange rate regime in the Republic of Macedonia. In this finding, the econometrics result show that introducing a more active monetary policy and a different strategy of the exchange rate targeting in order to promote rapid economic growth could easy disturb macroeconomic stability (after having achieved it at a substantial cost without any significant economic benefits. Therefore, introducing a more active monetary policy and a different strategy of the exchange rate regime is likely to incur more costs than benefits, since changes of the monetary policy and exchange rate regime type do not show a persistent effect on real GDP, while changes of money stock and exchange rate regime do show a strong and persistent effect on prices level.

  11. Reactions to smoke-free public policies and smoke-free home policies in the Republic of Georgia: results from a 2014 national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Carla J; Topuridze, Marina; Maglakelidze, Nino; Starua, Lela; Shishniashvili, Maia; Kegler, Michelle C

    2016-05-01

    We examined receptivity to public smoke-free policies and smoke-free home status among adults in the Republic of Georgia. In Spring 2014, we conducted a national household survey of 1163 adults. Our sample was on average 42.4 years old, 51.1 % male, and 43.2 % urban. Current smoking prevalence was 54.2 % in men and 6.5 % in women. Notably, 42.2 % reported daily secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe). Past week SHSe was 29.9 % in indoor public places and 33.0 % in outdoor public places. The majority reported no opposition to public smoke-free policies. Correlates of greater receptivity to public policies included being older, female, and a nonsmoker. Past week SHSe in homes was 54.2 %; 38.8 % reported daily SHSe at home. Only 14.3 % reported complete smoke-free home policies; 39.0 % had partial policies. The only correlate of allowing smoking in the home was being a smoker. Among smokers, correlates of allowing smoking in the home were being male and lower confidence in quitting. SHSe is prevalent in various settings in Georgia, requiring efforts to promote support for public smoke-free policies and implementation of personal policies.

  12. Challenging the premises of international policy review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feinstein, Noah Weeth; Læssøe, Jeppe; Blum, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, a think tank called the International Alliance of Leading Education Institutes (IALEI) announced the results of a study entitled Climate Change and Sustainable Development: The Response from Education. Intended for a policy audience, the study offered a glimpse into the status of Education...... for Sustainable Development (ESD) and an early look at the emergence of Climate Change Education (CCE), in 10 different nations. As with most international reports, the IALEI report provoked many questions, some of which are more broadly relevant to scholarship and practice. This paper introduces a review...

  13. Buddhist Religious Education in the Context of Modern Russian Policy of Multicultural Education: A Case of the Republic of Buryatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyuna Dorzhigushaeva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The increase of ethnocultural and ethnoconfessional interactions in the context of modern cultural and religious diversity of Russia demands modernization of learning process according to the existing educational policy of multicultural education and defines the relevancy of the article. The purpose of the article is to analyze retrospectively the functioning of Buddhist religious education system in the Republic of Buryatia taking into account the multicultural component. The central methods in this research along with analysis, synthesis, abstraction, induction, deduction, generalization are the analysis of interactive documents and the method of case-study, an active problem-contextual analysis. The article briefly characterizes the main stages of Buddhist education development and the current religious situation in the Republic of Buryatia, reveals the peculiarities of introducing the subjects studying the basics of religious cultures and secular ethics in educational process, defines national and territorial characteristics of Buddhist education implementation in secular schools in the Republic of Buryatia, justifies its preventive educational potential for multicultural society. The study material can be useful for orientalist scholars and also both theorists and practitioners of general pedagogics, Buddhist and multicultural education.

  14. Electric mobility in China. A policy review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagscherer, Ulrike

    2012-02-15

    different main targets which influence the development of e-mobility or electric vehicles to a certain degree. The following review looks especially at the impact of these different national policies on the development of electric vehicles and tries to analyze the relations between these policies as far as this is possible from an outsider's perspective. The current strategy of the Chinese government concerning the development of electric vehicles is supported mainly by three major policy fields: support for R and D, support for the related industry, and support for private and public consumption. The majority of the policies are in fact industrial policies and they have been adopted by the highest levels of government.

  15. Tobacco Industry Manipulation of Tobacco Excise and Tobacco Advertising Policies in the Czech Republic: An Analysis of Tobacco Industry Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirane, Risako; Smith, Katherine; Ross, Hana; Silver, Karin E.; Williams, Simon; Gilmore, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Background The Czech Republic has one of the poorest tobacco control records in Europe. This paper examines transnational tobacco companies' (TTCs') efforts to influence policy there, paying particular attention to excise policies, as high taxes are one of the most effective means of reducing tobacco consumption, and tax structures are an important aspect of TTC competitiveness. Methods and Findings TTC documents dating from 1989 to 2004/5 were retrieved from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library website, analysed using a socio-historical approach, and triangulated with key informant interviews and secondary data. The documents demonstrate significant industry influence over tobacco control policy. Philip Morris (PM) ignored, overturned, and weakened various attempts to restrict tobacco advertising, promoting voluntary approaches as an alternative to binding legislation. PM and British American Tobacco (BAT) lobbied separately on tobacco tax structures, each seeking to implement the structure that benefitted its own brand portfolio over that of its competitors, and enjoying success in turn. On excise levels, the different companies took a far more collaborative approach, seeking to keep tobacco taxes low and specifically to prevent any large tax increases. Collective lobbying, using a variety of arguments, was successful in delaying the tax increases required via European Union accession. Contrary to industry arguments, data show that cigarettes became more affordable post-accession and that TTCs have taken advantage of low excise duties by raising prices. Interview data suggest that TTCs enjoy high-level political support and continue to actively attempt to influence policy. Conclusion There is clear evidence of past and ongoing TTC influence over tobacco advertising and excise policy. We conclude that this helps explain the country's weak tobacco control record. The findings suggest there is significant scope for tobacco tax increases in the Czech Republic and

  16. Examining the policy climate for HIV prevention in the Caribbean tourism sector: a qualitative study of policy makers in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Mark B; Reyes, Armando Matiz; Connolly, Maureen; Natsui, Shaw; Puello, Adrian; Chapman, Helena

    2012-05-01

    The Caribbean has the highest prevalence rates of HIV/AIDS outside sub-Saharan Africa, and a broad literature suggests an ecological association between tourism areas and sexual vulnerability. Tourism employees have been shown to engage in high rates of sexual risk behaviours. Nevertheless, no large-scale or sustained HIV prevention interventions have been conducted within the tourism industry. Policy barriers and resources are under-studied. In order to identify the policy barriers and resources for HIV prevention in the tourism sector, our research used a participatory approach involving a multisectoral coalition of representatives from the tourism industry, government, public health and civil society in the Dominican Republic. We conducted 39 in-depth semi-structured interviews with policy makers throughout the country focusing on: prior experiences with HIV prevention policies and programmes in the tourism sector; barriers and resources for such policies and programmes; and future priorities and recommendations. Findings suggest perceptions among policy makers of barriers related to the mobile nature of tourism employees; the lack of centralized funding; fear of the 'image problem' associated with HIV; and the lack of multisectoral policy dialogue and collaboration. Nevertheless, prior short-term experiences and changing attitudes among some private sector tourism representatives suggest emerging opportunities for policy change. We argue that the time is ripe for dialogue across the public-private divide in order to develop regulatory mechanisms, joint responsibilities and centralized funding sources to ensure a sustainable response to the HIV-tourism linkage. Policy priorities should focus on incorporating HIV prevention as a component of occupational health; reinforcing workers' health care rights as guaranteed by existing law; using private sector tourism representatives who support HIV prevention as positive role models for national campaigns; and

  17. Review of International Policies for Vehicle Fuel Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This paper reviews past and current voluntary and regulatory fuel efficiency programs and then assesses the effectiveness of these policies from the viewpoints of enforcement, standard design, standard stringency and standard related policies.

  18. LATERAL MARKETING IN THE CONTEXT OF THE SUCCESSFUL PRODUCT POLICY OF WINERIES IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana GHENOVA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This scientific publication is aimed at solving application of lateral marketing the issues of in the context of commodity policy of wineries in the Republic of Moldova. Currently, Moldovan wineries face with a high level of competition,both in foreign and domestic market of alcoholic beverages, which leads to an unstable dynamics of growth of volumes of production and sales of their products. We have also studied examples of applying the lateral technology of Moldovan wineries, which revealed the level of the problem and their implementation. Along with this, a number of recommendations have been made in the framework of lateral marketing at the product level, market and marketing mix, allowing increasing the efficiency of commodity policy of domestic wineries.

  19. NRC Enforcement Policy Review, July 1995-July 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieberman, J.; Pedersen, R.M.

    1998-04-01

    On June 30, 1995, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued a complete revision of its General Statement of Policy and Procedure for Enforcement Action (Enforcement Policy) (60 FR 34381). In approving the 1995 revision to the Enforcement Policy, the Commission directed the staff to perform a review of its implementation of the Policy after approximately 2 years of experience and to consider public comments. This report represents the results of that review

  20. Use of social science research on migration policy in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uherek, Zdeněk

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 179 (2004), s. 101-113 ISSN 0020-8701 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK9058117 Keywords : integration foreigners * social anthropology * Czech Republic Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 0.155, year: 2004

  1. Comparative Policy Brief: Status of Intellectual Disabilities in the Republic of Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mung'omba, James

    2008-01-01

    In the Republic of Zambia, an estimated 256,000 persons have some form of disability, and of these, 5.4% have intellectual disabilities. Even now, traditional beliefs about the etiology of intellectual disabilities persist and considerable stigma is attached to the presence of persons with intellectual disabilities who are often excluded from…

  2. Meeting the Needs of Persons with Acquired Brain Injury in the Republic of Ireland: A Contextual Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeneffe, Charles Edmund; Fullerton, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This article examines how the Republic of Ireland conceptualizes disability, specifically acquired brain injury (ABI); how it meets the needs of people with ABI; and its similarities and difference with the U.S. system of ABI professional care, policy, and services. The article provides ideas for improvements and innovations toward ABI…

  3. Telecommunication Policy in the Caribbean: A Comparison of Telecommunications in the Dominican Republic and Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Publishers. Morrison, H. (2009). Las telecomunicaciones en republica Dominicana: Origen , evolucion e impacto en el desarrollo economico. Santo Domingo...and the big cities of Santiago and La Romana (Library of Congress, 1989). This middle class is the majority in the country’s political institutions...organizations of which Dominican Republic is a member, especially to the recommendations of the World Trade Organization and the International

  4. Do policy-makers find commissioned rapid reviews useful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Gabriel; Redman, Sally; Rudge, Sian; Haynes, Abby

    2018-02-26

    Rapid reviews are increasingly used by policy agencies to access relevant research in short timeframes. Despite the growing number of programmes, little is known about how rapid reviews are used by health policy agencies. This study examined whether and how rapid reviews commissioned using a knowledge brokering programme were used by Australian policy-makers. This study used interview data to examine the use of 139 rapid reviews by health policy agencies that were commissioned between 2006 and 2015. Transcripts were coded to identify how rapid reviews were used, the type of policy processes in which they were used, what evidence of use was provided and what reasons were given when rapid reviews were not used. Fisher's exact test was used to assess variation between types of agencies. Overall, 89% of commissioned rapid reviews were used by the commissioning agencies and 338 separate instances of use were identified, namely, on average, three uses per review. Policy-makers used reviews primarily to determine the details of a policy or programme, identify priorities for future action or investment, negotiate interjurisdictional decisions, evaluate alternative solutions for a policy problem, and communicate information to stakeholders. Some variation in use was observed across agencies. Reasons for non-use were related to changes in organisational structures, resources or key personnel in the commissioning agencies, or changes in the broader political environment. This study found that almost all rapid reviews had been used by the agencies who commissioned them, primarily in policy and programme development, agenda-setting, and to communicate information to stakeholders. Reviews were used mostly in instrumental and conceptual ways and there was little evidence of symbolic use. Variations in use were identified across agencies. The findings suggest that commissioned rapid reviews are an effective means of providing timely relevant research for use in policy processes

  5. 76 FR 52315 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Final Rescission of New Shipper Reviews of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Final Rescission of New Shipper Reviews of Jining Yifa Garlic Produce Co., Ltd... (Department) published a preliminary intent to rescind the new shipper reviews (NSRs) of fresh garlic from the...

  6. A Review of Open Access Self-Archiving Mandate Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jingfeng; Gilchrist, Sarah B.; Smith, Nathaniel X. P.; Kingery, Justin A.; Radecki, Jennifer R.; Wilhelm, Marcia L.; Harrison, Keith C.; Ashby, Michael L.; Mahn, Alyson J.

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the history of open access (OA) policies and examines the current status of mandate policy implementations. It finds that hundreds of policies have been proposed and adopted at various organizational levels and many of them have shown a positive effect on the rate of repository content accumulation. However, it also detects…

  7. Potential of criminological research in evaluation of victim-focused policy and legislation in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štefunková Michaela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For effective victim-focused legislation, evidence-based knowledge is essential, thus making criminological research of great importance. Victimization surveys represent a globally recognized type of criminological investigation. Although they are primarily focused on measuring the dark figure of crime, they can also provide a broad spectrum of information on victimization-related issues. The latest victimization survey was carried out in the Czech Republic by the Institute of Criminology and Social Prevention in 2013. Through face to face interviews, victimization was explored through eight selected offences in the period of 12 months prior the survey. The representative sample included 3000 respondents 15 years of age and older. The next round is planned for 2017. Since 2013, a new Act no. 45/2013 Coll., on Victims of Crime has come into effect in the Czech Republic. This paper will discuss how victimization surveys can enrich the knowledge on victimization-related issues and how they can help in the evaluation of criminal policy.

  8. Institutional factors of energy policy in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehfeld, D.

    1986-01-01

    Energy policy serves to demonstrate the interrelation of political field analysis and conceptional political discussion. A theoretical political field analysis results in the fact that energy policy must not be considered a clearly defined political field but rather a domain affected by economic policy. Based on this principle the publication is entering into an empirically founded discussion of topical aspects of political science (policy science, corporatism, governability, marxian theories). The respective problems at issue are applied to energy policy in order to work out the potential and topical problems of all aspects involved. (orig.) [de

  9. The Pied Piper of Neo Liberalism Calls the Tune in the Republic of Ireland: An Analysis of Education Policy Text from 2000-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmie, Geraldine Mooney

    2012-01-01

    This article offers an analysis of the rhetoric of education policy text during the timeframe from 2000 to 2012 in the Republic of Ireland. The study was framed within two different discourses of the role of the teacher: one discourse regards the teacher as a professional within a dynamic system of democratic relations (Anyon, 2011; Apple, 2012;…

  10. Communication of 26 January 2004 from the Permanent Mission of the People's Republic of China to the International Atomic Energy Agency regarding China's nuclear policies and practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Director General has received a Note Verbale dated 26 January 2004 from the Permanent Mission of the People's Republic of China regarding China's nuclear policies and practices. In the light of the wish expressed in the penultimate paragraph, the Note Verbale is attached hereto

  11. Monetary and Fiscal Policy Interaction and the Relationship between the Central Bank and the Government. (The Case of Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Chironachi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author is analyzing the impact of fiscal and monetary policies on the dynamics of the exchange rate, inflation and other macroeconomic variables. The author investigates the forms of strategic interaction between the Government and the Central Bank in designing and implementing these policies. As a result, the author concludes the necessity of institutions cooperation in the development and implementation of monetary and fiscal policy measures, but also concluded that the responsible institutions must remain independent in achieving an efficient monetary and fiscal policy of the Republic of Moldova.

  12. Book Review: Market Liquidity: Theory, Evidence, and Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boscan, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Review of: Market Liquidity: Theory, Evidence, and Policy / by Thierry Foucault, Marco Pagano and Ailsa Röell. Oxford University Press. April 2013.......Review of: Market Liquidity: Theory, Evidence, and Policy / by Thierry Foucault, Marco Pagano and Ailsa Röell. Oxford University Press. April 2013....

  13. STUDY ON THE INCIDENCE OF NATIONAL FISCAL POLICIES ON THE GROWTH OF ECONOMY IN POLAND, CZECH REPUBLIC AND HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COSTACHE BIANCA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper is mainly focused on a key subject of economic literature, respectively the way in which the fiscal policy impact economic growth of countries; therefore, these effects have been illustrated by taking into consideration the real economic context, within which they act as indicators of fiscal policy (direct and indirect taxes, as well as other sectors of economy (public debt, capital investments. The study contains the analysis and evaluation of the instruments’ effects of fiscal policy on the real growth rate within the 3 selected countries: Poland, Czech Republic and Hungary. I conducted the analysis through the regression model, more precisely through the least squares method, which reflects the effects of those six selected indicators: public debt, capital investments, direct taxes, indirect taxes, social benefits and revenues from the capitalization of public goods on real growth rate of the gross domestic product. The assumption for starting the research was the fact that fiscal policy’s instruments act different according to the nature of the indicator. Following the recording of the results which showed a negative effect drove by indicators like social benefits, capital investments, revenues from capitalization of public goods, indirect taxes, the hypothesis was confirmed. Also, the model proved to be statistically valid and that it has a liniar correlation between the variables after application of the econometric tests.

  14. Structural policies for the development of the energy sector of the Republic of Honduras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, J.C.R.

    1993-12-31

    The development of the energy sources in the Republic of Honduras is discussed. A program has been instituted that is intended to raise productivity, competitiveness and domestic and export production within a free market system and in a stable economic environment. The key elements of the program include the adoption of a market system for exchange rate adjustments; reduction of the fiscal deficit by limiting government spending and increasing local revenues; significant reduction in the level of import protection; liberalization of prices; termination of all state subsides; and liberalization of the investment regime.

  15. Structural policies for the development of the energy sector of the Republic of Honduras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes, J.C.R.

    1993-01-01

    The development of the energy sources in the Republic of Honduras is discussed. A program has been instituted that is intended to raise productivity, competitiveness and domestic and export production within a free market system and in a stable economic environment. The key elements of the program include the adoption of a market system for exchange rate adjustments; reduction of the fiscal deficit by limiting government spending and increasing local revenues; significant reduction in the level of import protection; liberalization of prices; termination of all state subsides; and liberalization of the investment regime

  16. Waste management in the Federal Republic of Germany - a survey of policy and research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randl, R.P.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of closing the nuclear fuel cycle in the Federal Republic of Germany is described with special emphasis on waste conditioning and disposal in selected salt formations. The practice and technology of the present status of the treatment of low level wastes and medium level wastes are discussed. The new concept of ''in-situ''-solidification of these waste types is given. The r+d-development in this area shows very promising results. The different high level waste-solidification programmes are presented, which are presently carried out in the Federal Republic. It is shown that a broad variety of feasible and safe processes are in hand to secure the appropriate product quality for the terminal storage. The experience on the disposal of low level wastes and medium level wastes is given from the ASSE experimental programme. A large programme on disposal of high level waste has started recently and the future development lines are discussed. The concept for waste management and disposal on the industrial scale e.g. for the ''integrated back end fuel cycle park'', is presented and the necessary steps to reach the implementation of this concept until the start up operation of the industrial reprocessing plant are described

  17. On the Issue of Regional Policy in the Sphere of Ecological Safety (Based on the Documents Concerning the Republic of Kalmykia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elza I. Mantaeva

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The regional government should provide ecological safety in order to ensure stable social and economic development of the country. The article outlines theoretical approach and recommendations on practice concerning ecological issues, investigates state policy aiming to preserve nature and analyses sources of threat to ecological safety in the region. The modern paradigm of the country’s and region’s development is characterized by the combination of ecological and economic policy. The ecological policy providing measures for efficient use of natural resources, their protection and restoration is implemented in the economic strategy of highly developed countries and encourages stable social and economic development of the country and the region. Some researchers assert that Russia’s most regions do not possess sufficient resources necessary to implement structural shifts which can eliminate the main threats to ecological safety. The Republic of Kalmykia can be included into this list. It is rich in natural resources but they are not restored due to the lack of regulation for efficient consumption. The main concerns of the republic are water supply, desertification, and pollution of atmosphere, waste disposal, and protection of wildlife and environment, preservation of hunting ground, forest management. The republic generates no electricity so it is delivered by neighboring regions. The republic should use the renewable ways of producing energy which can contribute to the energy and ecological safety and can attract new investment funds. There is an urgent need for stricter state regulation to ensure socioeconomic development and ecological safety in Kalmykia.

  18. Building sustainable policy framework for transport development: A review of national transport policy initiatives in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaila A.F.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with building a sustainable policy framework for transport development in Nigeria. Its objective is to review the country’s transport policy initiatives in order to understand the extent to which it addresses Nigeria’s mobility and transportation problems. From published materials and official government documents and files, the study identifies four national policy initiatives which are reviewed and analysed with regard to their context, contents, and consequences. The study reveals that while the policy initiatives could be said to be adequate and comprehensive in terms of their context and contents, the major challenge is implementation of recommended solutions. The study therefore provides a general checklist to guide policy direction, while advocating for policy-based researches and empirical studies in order to provide the data base for formulation of a sustainable national transport policy for Nigeria.

  19. ECONOMIC COOPERATION BETWEEN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS IN THE FIELD OF MIGRATION POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Strel'chenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the general trends of migration processes between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus, briefly describes the main features of the socio-economic development and migration policy of the two countries, including in the context of their cooperation within the framework of the Eurasian Economic Union. The article defines the key directions of economic cooperation between Russia and Belarus on migration policies and the promotion of desirable forms of migration. The relevance of the topic chosen due to both diversity and unsystematic legal framework that regulates the various aspects of migration policy and the lack of established legal concepts of migration, the migration process and the migration policy. In addition, in recent years can be seen working mobility growth in the context of globalization, which creates conditions for employment are not only highly qualified professionals in the fields of finance, insurance, banking, communications, and migrant workers employed in agriculture, construction, landscaping, catering, hotel service.Methodology. In conducting this study the main sources of raw data served as the information contained in scientific, reference, periodical literature on the subject in question, including the sources in the "Internet" information and telecommunications network. The basis of methodological developments laid the comparative methods of analysis and synthesis of the available data.Conclusions / relevance. Supporters of immigration openness believes that the strengthening of migration one of the solutions to the demographic problems of Russia and the problem of replenishment of the labor market. Their opponents believe that immigration creates an excess supply in the labor market, allowing employers to permanently reduce the level of payment of labor and social security, working conditions deteriorate.Practical application of the results of this work will improve the forecasting and

  20. Results of indoor radon measurements in the republic of macedonia: - a review -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojanovska, Zdenka; Boev, Blazho; Boev, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Radon and its short lived decay products accumulated in indoor environment are the main source of public exposure to natural radiations. The health effects as well as a great number of natural and artificial factors affecting the radon accumulation in indoor environments are some of the motives for the scientific interest in radon issue. Following this global trend, many studies of indoor radon in the Balkan region, including the Republic of Macedonia have been conducted in the last decade. This paper is an overview of the published papers regarding indoor radon concentration measurements with nuclear track detectors in the Republic of Macedonia. It gives basic information about the spatial and temporal variability of indoor radon over the territory of the country, following by a description of the some factors which affect its variations. This review attempts: to organize available indoor radon results in order to show clear picture of the so far conducted surveys; to highlight the need for continuation of more extensive radon investigation in workplaces; to motivate the building professionals to create as much as possible mitigation methods for indoor radon reduction, to motivate the health professionals for epidemiological studies etc. (author)

  1. Understanding Environmental Education in the People's Republic of China: A National Policy, Locally Interpreted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Tammy Yim-Lin; Lidstone, John

    1998-01-01

    Describes the processes whereby environmental policies are created and disseminated in China and points to some of the issues facing western educators who wish to work with Chinese colleagues in advancing global sustainability. (Author/PVD)

  2. Rent extraction by large shareholders: evidence using dividend policy in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanousek, Jan; Bena, Jan

    -, č. 556 (2006), s. 1-38 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/06/1293 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : rent extraction * large shareholders * dividend policy Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  3. Policy implementation of the Republic Act (RA) No. 9003 in the Philippines: a case study of Cebu City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premakumara, Dickella Gamaralalage Jagath; Canete, Aloysius Mariae L; Nagaishi, Masaya; Kurniawan, Tonni Agustiono

    2014-06-01

    Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) is considered to be one of the most serious environmental issues in the Philippines. The annual waste generation was estimated at 10.6 million tonnes in 2012 and this is expected to double in 2025. The Republic Act (RA) No. 9003, widely known as the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000, provides the required policy framework, institutional mechanisms and mandate to the Local Government Units (LGUs) to achieve 25% waste reduction target through establishing an integrated solid waste management plan based on the 3Rs (reduce, reuse and recycling). Although the initial impact of the LGUs is still very limited in implementing the national mandate, this article highlights the successful experiences of Cebu, the second largest city in the Philippines, in reducing its MSW generation by more than 30% in the past three years. This study also explores the implementation process, innovative actions taken by the Cebu City Government in implementing the national mandate at local level and identifies the factors that influence the policy implementation. The findings suggest that the impacts of the national mandate can be achieved if the LGUs have the high degree of political commitment, planning and development of effective local strategies in a collaborative manner to meet with local conditions, partnership building with other stakeholders, capacity development, adequate financing and incentives, and in the close monitoring and evaluation of performance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The War on “Red Drugs”: Anticommunism and Drug Policy in Republic of Korea, 1945-1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Young Park

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the discourses and policies on narcotics in Republic of Korea from 1945 to 1960. Since the Liberation the narcotic problem was regarded as the vestige of Japanese imperialism. which was expected to be cleaned up. The image of narcotic crimes as the legacy of the colonial past was turned into as the result of the Red Army’s tactics to attack on the liberalist camp around the Korean war. The government of ROK represented the source of the illegal drugs as the Red army and the spy from North Korea. The anticommunist discourse about narcotics described the spies, who introduced the enormous amount of poppies into ROK and brought about the addicts, as the social evil. Through this discourse on poppies from North Korea, the government of ROK emphasized the immorality of the communists reinforcing the anticommunist regime, which was inevitable for the government of ROK to legitimize the division of Korea and the establishment of the government alone. This paper examines how the discourses and policies on narcotics in ROK was shaped and transformed from 1945 to 1960 focusing the relationship between the them and the political context such as anticommunism, Korean war, the division of Korea, and etc. This approach would be helpful to reveal the effect of the ROK’s own political situation to the public health system involving the management for drugs.

  5. A review on global wind energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidur, R.; Islam, M.R.; Rahim, N.A.; Solangi, K.H.

    2010-01-01

    With the increasing negative effects of fossil fuel combustion on the environment in addition to limited stock of fossil fuel have forced many countries to inquire into and change to environmentally friendly alternatives that are renewable to sustain the increasing energy demand. Energy policy plays a vital role to mitigate the impacts of global warming and crisis of energy availability. This paper explores the wind energy industry from the point of view of the wind energy policy. It is noticed that energy policy could help increasing wind power generation as well as stimulating the energy industry. It may be stated that without specific energy policy, a country would not be able to solve the acute problems like reducing greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission, scarcity of energy, etc. This paper discussed the existing successful energy policies for few selected countries. Based on literatures, it has been found that FIT, RPS, incentives, pricing law and Quota system are the most useful energy policies practiced by many countries around the world. Then, status of wind energy policy for Malaysia was investigated and compared with few selected countries around the world. (author)

  6. 76 FR 19322 - Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Garlic From the People's... Commerce (Department) published preliminary results for the new shipper reviews (NSRs) of fresh garlic from... October 31, 2009. See Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of New Shipper...

  7. 78 FR 67112 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of New Shipper Review of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC) covering the period of review (POR) of..., through October 31, 2012. Scope of the Order The products covered by the order are all grades of garlic...

  8. 77 FR 777 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... antidumping duty order fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''), pursuant to section 751(c... the third sunset review of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the PRC pursuant to section...

  9. 75 FR 61130 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of New Shipper Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC) covering the period of review... exporter who participated fully and demonstrated its eligibility for separate rate. See Fresh Garlic From...

  10. 75 FR 5764 - Honey from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper Antidumping Duty Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ... International Trade Administration Honey from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper... determined that two requests for new shipper reviews (``NSRs'') of the antidumping duty order on honey from...-6905. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The antidumping duty order on honey from the PRC was...

  11. 78 FR 77425 - Raw Flexible Magnets From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... the countervailing duty (``CVD'') order on raw flexible magnets (``RFM'') from the People's Republic... Operations, Enforcement and Compliance, International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, 14th... of Expedited Sunset Review of the Countervailing Duty Order on Raw Flexible Magnets from the People's...

  12. A review of EIAs on trade policy in China: Exploring the way for economic policy EIAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Xianqiang; Song, Peng; Kørnøv, Lone; Corsetti, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    During the discussion on the “Environmental Protection Law Amendment (draft)” in 2011, it was decided to drop the proposed clauses related to environmental impact assessments (EIAs) on policy, which means that there remained no provisions for policy EIAs, and China's strategic environmental assessment system stayed limited to the planning level. However, considering that economic policy making is causing significant direct and indirect environmental problems and that almost every aspect of governmental policy has an economic aspect, EIAs on economic policies are of the utmost urgency. The purpose of this study is to review the EIA work that has been carried out on trade policy in China through four case studies, and illustrate how trade policy EIAs can be helpful in achieving better environmental outcomes in the area of trade. Through the trade policy EIA case studies we try to argue for the feasibility of conducting EIAs on economic policies in China. We also discuss the implications of the case studies from the point of view of how to proceed with EIAs on economic policy and how to promote their practice. - Highlights: • SEA system is incomplete and stays limited to the plan EIA level in China. • EIA on economic policy is of utmost importance for all the developing countries. • Four case studies of trade policy EIA in China are reviewed for policy implications. • Departmental competition for political power impedes economic policy EIAs in China. • Legislative regulation on policy EIA is the first thing needed to overcome barrier

  13. 15 CFR 2002.1 - Trade Policy Committee Review Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trade Policy Committee Review Group. 2002.1 Section 2002.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE OPERATION OF COMMITTEES § 2002.1 Trade Policy Committee...

  14. Review of Australian Higher Education: An Australian Policy Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montague, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Higher education is one of the key foundations that economic prosperity is founded upon. Government policies, funding and strategic planning require a fine balance to stimulate growth, prosperity health and well-being. The key Australian government policies influenced by a Review of Australian Higher Education report include attracting many more…

  15. Review: Questioning Ireland: debates in political philosophy and public policy

    OpenAIRE

    Sheehan, Helena

    2000-01-01

    This is a review of a collection of essays entitled Questioning Ireland: debates in political philosophy and public policy, edited by Joseph Dunne, Attracta Ingram and Frank Litton, published in Dublin by the Institute of Public Administration in 2000.

  16. Antimalarial activity of medicinal plants from the Democratic Republic of Congo: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memvanga, Patrick B; Tona, Gaston L; Mesia, Gauthier K; Lusakibanza, Mariano M; Cimanga, Richard K

    2015-07-01

    Malaria is the most prevalent parasitic disease and the foremost cause of morbidity and mortality in the Democratic Republic of Congo. For the management of this disease, a large Congolese population recourses to traditional medicinal plants. To date the efficacy and safety of many of these plants have been validated scientifically in rodent malaria models. In order to generate scientific evidence of traditional remedies used in the Democratic Republic of Congo for the management of malaria, and show the potential of Congolese plants as a major source of antimalarial drugs, this review highlights the antiplasmodial and toxicological properties of the Congolese antimalarial plants investigated during the period of 1999-2014. In doing so, a useful resource for further complementary investigations is presented. Furthermore, this review may pave the way for the research and development of several available and affordable antimalarial phytomedicines. In order to get information on the different studies, a Google Scholar and PubMed literature search was performed using keywords (malaria, Congolese, medicinal plants, antiplasmodial/antimalarial activity, and toxicity). Data from non-indexed journals, Master and Doctoral dissertations were also collected. Approximately 120 extracts and fractions obtained from Congolese medicinal plants showed pronounced or good antiplasmodial activity. A number of compounds with interesting antiplasmodial properties were also isolated and identified. Some of these compounds constituted new scaffolds for the synthesis of promising antimalarial drugs. Interestingly, most of these extracts and compounds possessed high selective activity against Plasmodium parasites compared to mammalian cells. The efficacy and safety of several plant-derived products was confirmed in mice, and a good correlation was observed between in vitro and in vivo antimalarial activity. The formulation of several plant-derived products also led to some clinical trials

  17. Health Policy Training: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry J. Heiman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The context within which health care and public health systems operate is framed by health policies. There is growing consensus about the need for increased health policy leadership and a health professional workforce prepared to assume these leadership roles. At the same time, there is strong evidence supporting the need for a broader policy lens and the need to intentionally target health disparities. We reviewed the published literature between 1983 and 2013 regarding health policy training. From 5124 articles identified, 33 met inclusion criteria. Articles varied across common themes including target audience, goal(s, health policy definition, and core curricular content. The majority of articles were directed to medical or nursing audiences. Most articles framed health policy as health care policy and only a small number adopted a broader health in all policies definition. Few articles specifically addressed vulnerable populations or health disparities. The need for more rigorous research and evaluation to inform health policy training is compelling. Providing health professionals with the knowledge and skills to engage and take leadership roles in health policy will require training programs to move beyond their limited health care-oriented health policy framework to adopt a broader health and health equity in all policies approach.

  18. FISCAL POLICY OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA: ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE FISCAL CONTROL AND ENTITY BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpiu GHERMAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is an actual theme, determined by achievements of tax control in Moldova and its impact on the behaviour of the entity as important elements of fiscal policy. There are examined different methods for differentiating the problem, supplemented by deduction, induction, synthesis, analysis of defining phenomena of fiscal policy and its elements. The methodology used in this study is based on assessments of the theory, studies and interpretations of specialized literature and analyzes the practical activities specific for taxation at national, European and international levels, depending on which some opinions, conclusions and proposals were founded and formulated, to minimize the impact of tax evasion and fraud.

  19. Cost allocation policy review: options and preferred alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-10-15

    This policy review of the consultation process on the electricity cost allocation issue is presented with specific cost allocation policy issues addressed herein, such as: the new microFIT rate, accounting changes and the transition to IFRS, and review of allocating costs to load displacement generation. This report gave the current situation for all these issues, previous work, issues, viable options for dealing with these issues and the preferred alternatives.

  20. Designing policies for reducing future emissions of greenhouse gases in the People's Republic of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streets, D.G.; He Jiankun; Wu Zongxin

    1994-01-01

    The People's Republic of China gas recognized the importance of climate change concerns and has signed the Climate Change Convention, formulated at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. China is now beginning the process of developing an appropriate response strategy for climate change. Several projects have been initiated that deal with various aspects of global climate change. The Asian Development Bank is assisting the Chinese Government in this endeavor by providing technical assistance under an agreement signed in August 1992. The Bank selected a team of international consultants, coordinated by the East-West Center in Hawaii and including Argonne National Laboratory and Japanese scientists, to work closely with Chinese scientists to develop information that would contribute to a national response strategy. The Chinese research team is led by scientists from Tsinghua University and includes specialists from a number of research institutes and government agencies, all under the aegis of the State Science and Technology Commission. This paper presents results from the study concerning the interrelationship among economic growth, energy use, and carbon dioxide emissions in China, The study shows that, despite rapid improvements in energy efficiency and development of nonfossil-fuel energy sources, it will be difficult to prevent a two to three-fold increase in carbon dioxide emissions between 1990 and 2050

  1. Local energy policies in Poland and the Czech Republic. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-06-01

    This project has prepared a study of the framework for energy management in local authorities in Poland and the Czech Republic with the objective of better: identifying the current situation, identifying the opportunities for action both now and in an extended European Union, identifying the constraints that may hinder full integration of East European municipalities in European Union programmes and improve the integration of municipalities in the countries concerned in pan-European networks of municipalities interested in energy issues. The report provides then recommendations to the Commission and to the European Union. First it is vital that more emphasis is put on energy monitoring as an essential first stage in raising finance to improve energy performance. Secondly the existing energy laws seem to generally provide the potential basis for effective energy planning (they simply need to have sufficient support to ensure that they are implemented with reasonable speed). There are problems however in coordinating the actions of competing networks, aggravated by the fact that the coordinators themselves are usually proprietors of one of the networks and so have an interest. It is therefore important that sufficient weight is given to the demand side and consideration could helpfully be given by government as to how this could best be achieved. Thirdly there is need to promote renewable energy with more vigor. Fourthly, the Agenda 21 process will only take off very slowly in the absence of a lead from government. This is confirmed by action in the European Union. (A.L.B.)

  2. Policy risk in action: pension reforms and social security wealth in Hungary, Czech Republic, and Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dušek, Libor; Kopecsni, J.

    -, 9/2008 (2008), s. 1-34 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/05/0711 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : pension reforms * social security * policy risk Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://ies.fsv.cuni.cz/default/file/download/id/8361

  3. The effects of monetary policy in the Czech Republic: an empirical study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Morgese Borys, Magdalena; Horvath, R.

    -, č. 922 (2008), s. 1-27 Grant - others:Česká národní banka(CZ) A3/07 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : monetary policy transmission * vector autoregression * sectoral prices Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.wdi.umich.edu/files/Publications/WorkingPapers/wp922.pdf

  4. An unsustainable state: Contrasting food practices and state policies in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jehlička, Petr; Smith, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 3 (2011), s. 362-372 ISSN 0016-7185 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP404/10/0521 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : food policies * household consumption * food practices Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 1.927, year: 2011

  5. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: European Union 2008 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    For the first time, the IEA has reviewed the energy policies of the European Union which shape the energy use of almost 500 million citizens in 27 EU member countries. A unique entity governed under complex and almost constantly evolving structures, the EU constitutes a challenge for energy policy makers. Its energy policy has a global impact, not only because of its 16% share of world energy demand, but also because of the EU leadership in addressing climate change. Strong policy drives are underway in the EU to achieve the completion of the internal energy market, increase renewable energy supply, reduce CO2 emissions and make the EU more energy-efficient. Concerns about security of supply have also led to a greater focus on improved energy relations with supplier countries, and new institutional structures are being put in place. How much progress has been made in the field of security, internal market and external energy policies? And in which of these areas has the EU already implemented a fully integrated policy? IEA Energy Policies Review: The European Union - 2008 addresses these questions and also analyses the impact of the most recent major EU policy measures, in particular the Energy & Climate Package of January 2008 and the 3rd Liberalisation Package of September 2007. This book finds that both of these proposals are highly ambitious. But implementing them and reviewing both volume and allocation of energy R&D will be necessary to achieve a sustainable energy future in a fully competitive integrated EU energy market.

  6. NEA international peer reviews of post-accident protection policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazo, T.

    2011-01-01

    For many years, the NEA has offered international peer reviews of national, high-level radioactive waste management policies and approaches. Until recently, this service had not been requested in the area of radiological protection. However, the 3. International Nuclear Emergency Exercise (INEX-3, 2005-2006) addressed post-accident consequence management for the first time in a broad, international sense, and helped generate significant national reflections in this area. In particular, in 2005 the French government began an extensive programme of post-emergency consequence management planning, resulting in a draft national policy to address such situations. The Finnish government used the INEX-3 exercise as a vehicle to discuss post-emergency consequence management with a broad group of governmental and private stakeholders, and also began to develop national policy in this area. In order to further refine national efforts, the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) invited the NEA to perform in April 2011 its first international peer review in the radiological protection area focusing on its post-emergency consequence management policy under development. Finnish experts participated in this peer review team, and as a result, subsequently invited the NEA to perform an international peer review of its developing policy in this area in September 2011. These draft national policies and their international peer reviews are briefly presented in this paper. Feedback from both the French ASN and the Finnish STUK suggests that the detailed, external input provided by the international peer review teams have been extremely valuable in refining the content of the guides so that they are more clear, concise, understandable and implementable. It should be recalled that both national policy documents reviewed are far more detailed and extensive than described here. The intent of this article was not to provide a review of the national policies themselves, but rather to give an

  7. Reviews of National Policies for Education: Yugoslavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    The educational policies of Yugoslavia are presented in this report by examiners from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). A comprehensive report on all aspects of education in Yugoslavia was used as their frame of reference; data were collected by them from a two-week tour of the country. The volume is divided into…

  8. Effectiveness of Direct Safety Regulations on Manufacturers and Users of Industrial Machines: Its Implications on Industrial Safety Policies in Republic of Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Gi Heung

    2017-01-01

    Background: Despite considerable efforts made in recent years, the industrial accident rate and the fatality rate in the Republic of Korea are much higher than those in most developed countries in Europe and North America. Industrial safety policies and safety regulations are also known to be ineffective and inefficient in some cases. Methods: This study focuses on the quantitative evaluation of the effectiveness of direct safety regulations such as safety certification, self-declaration o...

  9. Migration Policy of the Regions of the Republic of Kazakhstan: Socio-political Mechanisms of Easing the Interethnic Tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulsara Madanievna Kappassova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A change in the ethnic structure of the population is observed in the Republic of Kazakhstan, which is described by ethnic and cultural diversity. The current situation in the Republic of Kazakhstan has been analysed based on the author's methodology for the quantitative assessment of interethnic tension. The author outlined a set of measures to stabilise interethnic relations, strengthen mutual understanding between citizens of various nationalities, and prevent interethnic conflicts in the Republic of Kazakhstan.

  10. Rent extraction by large shareholders: evidence using dividend policy in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bena, J.; Hanousek, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 58, 3-4 (2008), s. 106-130 ISSN 0015-1920 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/06/1293; GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : rent extraction * large shareholders * dividend policy Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.275, year: 2008 http://journal.fsv.cuni.cz/storage/1125_str_106_130--bena-hanousek.pdf

  11. A general equilibrium evaluation of trade policy changes in Moldova Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Alanoca

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account that the economy of Moldova is open to the international markets, it is necessary to study the macroeconomic actions of the country, that are expressed in the elaboration of structural changes in the trade policy, in the exchange rate, in the evaluation of its influence on the Moldavian producers and consumers, and on the income of the government budget. These questions will be the object of the proposed article.

  12. Policy risk in action: pension reforms and social security wealth in Hungary, Czech Republic, and Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dušek, Libor; Kopecsni, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 58, 7-8 (2008), s. 329-358 ISSN 0015-1920 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : pension reforms * social security * policy risk Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.275, year: 2008 http://journal.fsv.cuni.cz/storage/1137_dusek-kopecsni_-_329-358-opravené.pdf

  13. Tax Policy in Action: 2016 Tax Amnesty Experience of the Republic of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmiryzan Wasrinil Said

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Tax amnesty programs are often used by governments to improve tax compliance and to increase tax revenue. However, the policy choice to provide a tax amnesty often results in adverse consequences, including the violation of other legal rules. For this reason, the policy choice to offer a tax amnesty (‘tax amnesty policy’ is often controversial. The tax amnesty policy and resulting program offered by the Government of Indonesia has been criticized both because it is considered to be unfair and because it favors the perpetrators of tax evasion. In particular, the tax amnesty law offered special treatment to taxpayers who participated in the program, such as no checking of the source of funds, no checking of the financial statements reported by law enforcers, protection from punishment on the financial reports provided to the Director General of Taxation, and the requirement to pay only a small penalty. Tax amnesty programs also provide the potential for money laundering. This is certainly the case in Indonesia. In addition, tax amnesty programs weaken law enforcement in Indonesia; in particular, in the areas of corruption and money laundering. This is because law enforcement officers cannot investigate the perpetrators of white-collar crime that benefit from the tax amnesty program. Under the terms of the tax amnesty program, the financial data is not accessible by them.

  14. Threshold power. Nuclear energy and foreign policy of the Federal Republic of Germany from 1949 until 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geier, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    The proliferation of nuclear weapons is one of the most serious problems for international security today. Since the end of the Cold War states like India, Pakistan and North Korea performed tests of nuclear explosive devices and the number of nuclear weapons states seems to be growing even more. Iran is pursuing actively a nuclear programme with unclear prospects and despite the catastrophe at Fukushima other states remain interested in the use of nuclear energy. In principle it is not possible to distinguish clearly between civil and military use of nuclear technology. The international regime to prevent the misuse of nuclear power and the dissemination of nuclear weapons is based on the Nonproliferation Treaty of 1970 and several other treaties and informal agreements. While the legal aspects of the nonproliferation regime are well studied, much less attention has been paid to the evolution of this regime, which was set up during the Cold War. Especially the role of the nonnuclear weapons states in this process remains unclear. This work explores the influence of the Federal Republic of Germany, one of the most influential nuclear threshold powers, on the formulation of the international nonproliferation regime as well as the role of nuclear energy in German foreign policy in general.

  15. Framing and the health policy process: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koon, Adam D; Hawkins, Benjamin; Mayhew, Susannah H

    2016-07-01

    Framing research seeks to understand the forces that shape human behaviour in the policy process. It assumes that policy is a social construct and can be cast in a variety of ways to imply multiple legitimate value considerations. Frames provide the cognitive means of making sense of the social world, but discordance among them forms the basis of policy contestation. Framing, as both theory and method, has proven to generate considerable insight into the nature of policy debates in a variety of disciplines. Despite its salience for understanding health policy debates; however, little is known about the ways frames influence the health policy process. A scoping review using the Arksey and O'Malley framework was conducted. The literature on framing in the health sector was reviewed using nine health and social science databases. Articles were included that explicitly reported theory and methods used, data source(s), at least one frame, frame sponsor and evidence of a given frame's effect on the health policy process. A total of 52 articles, from 1996 to 2014, and representing 12 countries, were identified. Much of the research came from the policy studies/political science literature (n = 17) and used a constructivist epistemology. The term 'frame' was used as a label to describe a variety of ideas, packaged as values, social problems, metaphors or arguments. Frames were characterized at various levels of abstraction ranging from general ideological orientations to specific policy positions. Most articles presented multiple frames and showed how actors advocated for them in a highly contested political process. Framing is increasingly an important, yet overlooked aspect of the policy process. Further analysis on frames, framing processes and frame conflict can help researchers and policymakers to understand opaque and highly charged policy issues, which may facilitate the resolution of protracted policy controversies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford

  16. 28 CFR 0.23b - Office of Asylum Policy and Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office of Asylum Policy and Review. 0.23b...-Office of Legal Policy § 0.23b Office of Asylum Policy and Review. There is established, in the Office of Legal Policy, the Asylum Policy and Review Unit, headed by a Director, under the general supervision and...

  17. Ideation, social construction and drug policy: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gstrein, Vanessa

    2018-01-01

    Within drug policy scholarship there is a growing body of literature applying ideational and social constructionist approaches to address the complexity of drug policy making and the apparent failure of the evidence-based policy paradigm to free the process from controversy and contestation. Ideational approaches are concerned with the roles played by ideas and beliefs in policy making, while social construction explores the way policy problems are constructed, and agendas are set and delineated by dominant frames and narratives. Interest in these approaches has developed over the last two decades, but has rapidly gained momentum over the last five years. There has been limited reflection on the state of the field, therefore it is timely to conduct a review of the literature to assess the value of these approaches, capture emerging themes and issues, and identify gaps in the literature to support future research directions. Using the Arksey and O'Malley framework, a scoping review was conducted to survey the breadth of the field. Following database and hand searching, 48 studies from 1996 to 2016 were selected for inclusion in the review. A narrative synthesis was undertaken and the literature was grouped into five broad theoretical approaches: ideational policy theory, problem construction, narratives and frames (including media analysis), construction of target populations, and policy transfer and mobilities. The majority of the studies are focused on single countries and drug policy issues, with few studies undertaking comparative work or reflecting on general theoretical developments in the literature. This study found that the Arksey and O'Malley framework was effective in capturing a potentially diverse field of literature and demonstrates the importance of ideational and social constructionist approaches to drug policy scholarship. Further research is required to achieve expanded geographic coverage, test policy making models and undertake comparative work

  18. 'Penetrated system' or 'normal' state? An exploration of INF arms control policy, East-West economic relations, and inter-German policy in the Federal Republic of Germany, 1979-1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    The thesis explores policy-making processes in the Federal Republic from 1979-1987 in three areas: INF arms control policy, East-West economic relations, and inter-German policy. Each case study assesses the degree of complexity and domestic accountability in policy-making processes and evaluates the relative influence of domestic and external factors on policy choices. It argues that the trends in West German foreign policy toward greater assertiveness reflected the evolution of the FRG as a state, society, and polity. The 'maturation' of the Federal Republic has introduced greater complexity into foreign policy-making processes, and more frequent societal intervention into what heretofore were elite deliberations. Domestic actors have begun to demand greater accountability, while West German leaders, in turn, have become more assertive and confident in defending German national interests. As the FRG has gained respect and self-respect, it has begun to assume the international role that might be expected of a state of its size, population, geo-political importance, and level of political and economic development. The FRG has become a 'normal' state

  19. Penetrated system' or normal' state An exploration of INF arms control policy, East-West economic relations, and inter-German policy in the Federal Republic of Germany, 1979-1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    The thesis explores policy-making processes in the Federal Republic from 1979-1987 in three areas: INF arms control policy, East-West economic relations, and inter-German policy. Each case study assesses the degree of complexity and domestic accountability in policy-making processes and evaluates the relative influence of domestic and external factors on policy choices. It argues that the trends in West German foreign policy toward greater assertiveness reflected the evolution of the FRG as a state, society, and polity. The maturation' of the Federal Republic has introduced greater complexity into foreign policy-making processes, and more frequent societal intervention into what heretofore were elite deliberations. Domestic actors have begun to demand greater accountability, while West German leaders, in turn, have become more assertive and confident in defending German national interests. As the FRG has gained respect and self-respect, it has begun to assume the international role that might be expected of a state of its size, population, geo-political importance, and level of political and economic development. The FRG has become a normal' state.

  20. Ethics policy review: a case study in quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolic, Andrea Nadine; Drolet, Katherine

    2013-02-01

    Policy work is often cited as one of the primary functions of Hospital Ethics Committees (HECs), along with consultation and education. Hospital policies can have far reaching effects on a wide array of stakeholders including, care providers, patients, families, the culture of the organisation and the community at large. In comparison with the wealth of information available about the emerging practice of ethics consultation, relatively little attention has been paid to the policy work of HECs. In this paper, we hope to advance the development of best practices in HEC policy work by describing the quality improvement process that we undertook at Hamilton Health Sciences, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. In the first section of the paper we describe the context of our HEC policy work, and the shortcomings of our historical review process. In subsequent sections, we detail the quality improvement project we undertook in 2010, the results of the project and the specific tools we developed to enhance the quality of HEC policy work. Our goal in sharing this organisational case study is to prompt other HECs to publish qualitative descriptions of their policy work, in order to generate a body of knowledge that can inform the development of best practices for ethics policy review.

  1. Fuel trade: a victim of energy policy. [Federal Republic of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-11-01

    Germany's heating oil consumers are puzzled by the blunt thesis which says 'away from petroleum' and which is propagated by the current energy policy. This slogan also justifies misinvestments in the range of billions of DM. The powers of the market are overruled by subsidies for main-bound energy projects. Thus 'the piper is paid by the citizen', i.e. by higher heating costs. The fuel trade must come to grief if the free competition for the heating of buildings is suspended and if the persons involved ignore their remaining chances. The author is appealing to Bonn and calling upon the traders to think.

  2. The Evolution of Environmental Policy in the People’s Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Louis Edmonds

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines how the evolution of China’s policy and study of the environment are reflected in the scholarly literature, paying special attention to the impact of the country’s environmental developments on international relations. In particular, it examines accounts of how China has moved from an isolated national scientific and environmental control infrastructure into the centre of international environmental debates as its society has opened and the geographical scale of ecological problems has expanded. The paper also identifies the continuing inhibitors to China’s ability to control environmental degradation – including lack of transparency, elite manipulation, and bureaucratic weaknesses – despite the opening of China’s system to limited participation of civil society in its environmental debates.

  3. Results of a peer review process: the distribution of codes by examining dentists in the Republic of Ireland 2006-2007.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lynch, Liam

    2009-02-01

    The Health Service Executive (HSE) appointed 20 examining dentists in April 2006 under contract for one year as part of a probity assurance initiative by peer review in the Dental Treatment Services Scheme (DTSS) in the Republic of Ireland.

  4. National medicines policies – a review of the evolution and development processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Continuous provision of appropriate medicines of assured quality, in adequate quantities, and at reasonable prices is a concern for all national governments. A national medicines policy (NMP) developed in a collaborative fashion identifies strategies needed to meet these objectives and provides a comprehensive framework to develop all components of a national pharmaceutical sector. To meet the health needs of the population, there is a general need for medicine policies based on universal principles, but nevertheless adapted to the national situation. This review aims to provide a quantitative and qualitative (describing the historical development) study of the development process and evolution of NMPs. Methods The number of NMPs and their current status has been obtained from the results of the assessment of WHO Level I indicators. The policy formulation process is examined in more detail with case studies from four countries: Sri Lanka, Australia, former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and South Africa. Results The number of NMPs worldwide has increased in the last 25 years with the highest proportional increase in the last 5–10 years in high-income countries. Higher income countries seem to have more NMP implementation plans available and have updated their NMP more recently. The four case studies show that the development of a NMP is a complex process that is country specific. In addition, it demonstrates that an appropriate political window is needed for the policy to be passed (for South Africa and the FYR Macedonia, a major political event acted as a trigger for initiating the policy development). Policy-making does not stop with the official adoption of a policy but should create mechanisms for implementation and monitoring. The NMPs of the FYR Macedonia and Australia provide indicators for monitoring. Conclusions To date, not all countries have a NMP since political pressure by national experts or non-governmental organizations is generally

  5. Health economic evaluations of medical devices in the People's Republic of China: A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rongrong; Modaresi, Farhang; Borisenko, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to identify and review the methodological quality of health economic evaluations of medical devices performed in the People's Republic of China. To our knowledge, no such investigations have been performed to date. A systematic literature review involving searches of Medline, Medline In-Process, the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database, the Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Registry of the Tufts Medical Center, and the Wanfang Database was performed. The search spanned the period from 1990 to 2013. Studies on health economic evaluations of medical devices, in-vitro diagnostics, procedures, and the use of medical devices in Chinese health care settings were included. Full-text articles and conference abstracts in English and Chinese were included. Fifty-seven publications were included, 26 (46%) of which were in English and 31 (54%) of which were in Chinese. The included publications covered a wide range of clinical areas, such as surgery (n=23, 40%), screening (n=9, 16%), imaging use (n=6, 11%), kidney intervention (n=4, 7%), and nine other technological areas. Most of the studies (n=31, 54%) were cost analyses. Among the others, 13 (50%) studies used modeling, and another 13 (50%) were within-trial evaluations. Among studies that used modeling, eleven (85%) conducted sensitivity analyses, six of which had one-way sensitivity analysis, whereas one conducted both one-way and two-way sensitivity analyses; four of these eleven modeling-based analyses included probabilistic sensitivity analyses. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was reported in ten (18%) studies, eight of which were screening studies. The remaining two modeling studies were in areas of imaging and oncology. This study indicates that there are major limitations and deficiencies in the health economic evaluations on medical devices performed in the People's Republic of China. Further efforts are required from different stakeholders - academic, governmental

  6. Energy policies of IEA countries: Australia 2005 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-11-16

    The report reviews Australia's energy policies and makes recommendations to the government on future policy development. The IEA commends the efficiency and security of the Australian energy market but recommends that the country will have to substantially alter future energy supply and/or demand behaviour if it wants to moderate emission levels and work within any future global climate change mitigation programme. 23 figs., 27 tabs., 3 annexes.

  7. African Journal of Economic Review: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Journal of Economic Review (AJER) is a refereed, biannual Journal that publishes high quality and scholarly articles on economic issues relevant to Africa. ... This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global ...

  8. South African Gastroenterology Review: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The South African Gastroenterology Review is written by specialists in the field. Its aim is to publish articles pertinent to the practising Gastroenterologist in South Africa. It is distributed to a broad spectrum of clinicians who have an interest in clinical gastroenterology and hepatology.

  9. Alcohol industry involvement in policy making: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCambridge, Jim; Mialon, Melissa; Hawkins, Ben

    2018-03-15

    To summarise the substantive findings of studies of alcohol industry involvement in national or supra-national policy-making, and to produce a new synthesis of current evidence. This study examined peer-reviewed journal reports published in the English language between 1980-2016 of studies of alcohol industry involvement in policy making. Included studies were required to provide information on data collection and analysis and to have sought explicitly to investigate interventions by alcohol industry actors within the process of public policy making. Eight electronic databases were searched on 27/02/17. The methodological strengths and limitations of individual studies and the literature as a whole were examined. A thematic synthesis using an inductive approach to the generation of themes was guided by the research aims and objectives. Twenty reports drawn from 15 documentary and interview studies identify pervasive influence of alcohol industry actors in policy making. This evidence synthesis indicates that industry actors seek to influence policy in two principal ways: 1) by framing policy debates in a cogent and internally consistent manner, which excludes from policy agendas issues that are contrary to commercial interests; and 2) by adopting short and long term approaches to managing threats to commercial interests within the policy arena, by building relationships with key actors using a variety of different organisational forms. This review pools findings from existing studies on the range of observed impacts on national alcohol policy decision-making across the world. Alcohol industry actors are highly strategic, rhetorically sophisticated and well organised in influencing national policy-making. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Policy Development for Biodiversity Offsets: A Review of Offset Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenney, Bruce A.; Kiesecker, Joseph M.

    2010-01-01

    Biodiversity offsets seek to compensate for residual environmental impacts of planned developments after appropriate steps have been taken to avoid, minimize or restore impacts on site. Offsets are emerging as an increasingly employed mechanism for achieving net environmental benefits, with offset policies being advanced in a wide range of countries (i.e., United States, Australia, Brazil, Colombia, and South Africa). To support policy development for biodiversity offsets, we review a set of major offset policy frameworks—US wetlands mitigation, US conservation banking, EU Natura 2000, Australian offset policies in New South Wales, Victoria, and Western Australia, and Brazilian industrial and forest offsets. We compare how the frameworks define offset policy goals, approach the mitigation process, and address six key issues for implementing offsets: (1) equivalence of project impacts with offset gains; (2) location of the offset relative to the impact site; (3) “additionality” (a new contribution to conservation) and acceptable types of offsets; (4) timing of project impacts versus offset benefits; (5) offset duration and compliance; and (6) “currency” and mitigation replacement ratios. We find substantial policy commonalities that may serve as a sound basis for future development of biodiversity offsets policy. We also identify issues requiring further policy guidance, including how best to: (1) ensure conformance with the mitigation hierarchy; (2) identify the most environmentally preferable offsets within a landscape context; and (3) determine appropriate mitigation replacement ratios.

  11. Alcohol policy in South Africa: a review of policy development processes between 1994 and 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Charles D H

    2010-08-01

    Implementation of effective policies to reduce harmful alcohol consumption requires both a good understanding of the policy development process and which strategies are likely to work. To contribute to this understanding by reviewing four specific policy development initiatives that have taken place in South Africa between 1994 and 2009: restrictions on alcohol advertising and counter-advertising, regulation of retail sales of alcohol, alcohol taxation and controls on alcohol packaging. Material was drawn from a record of meetings and conferences held between 1994 and 2009 and a database of reports, newspaper clippings and policy documentation. When the policy process resulted in a concrete outcome there was always a clear recognition of the problem and policy alternatives, but success was more likely if there was an alignment of 'political' forces and/or when there was a determined bureaucracy. The impact of the other factors such as the media, community mobilization, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), the liquor industry and research are also discussed. Future avenues for policy research are identified, including the need for more systematic studies that give greater consideration to economic factors. Alcohol policy development in South Africa takes place in a piecemeal fashion and is the product of various competing influences. Having a comprehensive national alcohol strategy cutting across different sectors may be a better way for other developing countries to proceed.

  12. Energy policies of IEA countries. Sweden 1996 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This IEA report provides a comprehensive, in-depth assessment of the energy policies of Sweden, including recommendations on future policy developments. Electricity is a focal point of Sweden's energy policy. After a shift in the energy mix to favour electricity in the early 1970's, nuclear and hydro power each make up about half of the electricity supply. Two key events have occurred since then: the 1980 referendum, which calls for the phase-out of all nuclear plants by 2010; the recent restructuring and liberalization of the electricity sector with the creation of a Nordic electricity market. In this context, the report argues the case for making a decision now on the nuclear issue to clarify Sweden's electricity future. Other key issues highlighted in the report include Sweden's use of economic policy instruments such as a carbon tax to achieve energy and environment goals, and the adequacy and effectiveness of government efforts to promote biofuels and energy efficiency. This report forms part of a series of periodic in-depth reviews conducted and discussed by the IEA Member countries on a four-year cycle. Short reviews of energy policy developments in all twenty-three Member countries are published annually in Energy Policies of IEA Countries. (author). 13 figs., 9 tabs., 4 appends

  13. Energy policies of IEA Countries. The Netherlands 1996 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    As part of the IEA's on-going analysis of Member countries' energy policies, this review assess the Netherlands and offers recommendations taking account of major reforms announced by the Dutch Government in December 1995. The prominence of environmental objectives in Dutch energy policy and the widespread use of voluntary long-term agreements with industry provide constructive lessons for other countries. Targets for energy efficiency and renewability are especially ambitious. Moreover, the Dutch Government has made an important contribution to environmental policy by striving for a combination of market liberalization and a sustainable energy economy. The review recommends that market reforms be further developed, if necessary in the context of developments in European energy market policy. Gas pricing and a tendency for over-capacity to develop in the electricity sector are particular areas of discussion in the report. The review also draws attention to potentially high economic costs which may arise form energy-environment policies and affect the competitiveness of Dutch industry. (author). 18 figs., 13 tabs

  14. State policy and teen childbearing: a review of research studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltz, Martha A; Sacks, Vanessa H; Moore, Kristin A; Terzian, Mary

    2015-02-01

    Teen childbearing is affected by many individual, family, and community factors; however, another potential influence is state policy. Rigorous studies of the relationship between state policy and teen birth rates are few in number but represent a body of knowledge that can inform policy and practice. This article reviews research assessing associations between state-level policies and teen birth rates, focusing on five policy areas: access to family planning, education, sex education, public assistance, and access to abortion services. Overall, several studies have found that measures related to access to and use of family planning services and contraceptives are related to lower state-level teen birth rates. These include adolescent enrollment in clinics, minors' access to contraception, conscience laws, family planning expenditures, and Medicaid waivers. Other studies, although largely cross-sectional analyses, have concluded that policies and practices to expand or improve public education are also associated with lower teen birth rates. These include expenditures on education, teacher-to-student ratios, and graduation requirements. However, the evidence regarding the role of public assistance, abortion access, and sex education policies in reducing teen birth rates is mixed and inconclusive. These conclusions must be viewed as tentative because of the limited number of rigorous studies that examine the relationship between state policy and teen birth rates over time. Many specific policies have only been analyzed by a single study, and few findings are based on recent data. As such, more research is needed to strengthen our understanding of the role of state policies in teen birth rates. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. 77 FR 79 - Honey From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Rescission of the Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ... covered by the order are natural honey, artificial honey containing more than 50 percent natural honey by... (August 5, 2004). \\13\\ See Freshwater Crawfish Tail Meat from the People's Republic of China: Notice of...

  16. Challenges to the New Republic: Prelude to the War of 1812. Public Policy Debate in the Classroom. Choices for the 21st Century Education Project. [Student Guidebook and] Teacher's Resource Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampmeier, Scott

    This 4-day curriculum unit explores U.S. foreign policy between 1787 and 1812. During this time the United States faced a series of foreign policy challenges that threatened its survival as an independent, constitutional republic. Between 1793 and 1815, a nearly continuous series of wars pitting the French against the British engulfed the European…

  17. A comprehensive review of the policy and programmatic response to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in Ghana have caused significant illness and death in Ghana for many years. Yet, until recently, they have been neglected and not considered a health priority. This paper reviews the national policy and programme response to chronic NCDs over the period 1992 ...

  18. "Big Society" in the UK: A Policy Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    Alongside the UK Coalition Government's historic public spending cuts, the "Big Society" has become a major narrative in UK political discourse. This article reviews key features of Big Society policies against their aims of rebalancing the economy and mending "Broken Britain", with particular reference to their implications…

  19. Funding Us Higher Education: Policy Making Theories Reviewed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Asya

    2015-01-01

    Higher education policy and politics in the United States (US) has been an issue of studies for several decades. Since the 1960s, researchers have been attempting to understand, explain and extrapolate on the relationships between higher education funding and political institutions. This review attempts to assess recent studies concerned with US…

  20. Challenges in actual implementation of health policies: a review of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges in actual implementation of health policies: a review of payment exemption in Nigeria. CA Onoka, OE Onwujekwe, BSC Uzochukwu. Abstract. Background: As a response to the negative impact of implementation of user fees for health care services, an exemption scheme from payment was developed in many ...

  1. Tourism and rural community development in Namibia: policy issues review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erling Kavita

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available During the past decades, the tourism sector has become an increasing important issue for governments and regional agencies searching for socio-economic development. Especially in the Global South the increasing tourism demand has been seen highly beneficial as evolving tourism can create direct and indirect income and employment effects to the host regions and previously marginalised communities, with potential to aid with the poverty reduction targets. This research note reviews the existing policy and planning frameworks in relation to tourism and rural development in Namibia. Especially the policy aims towards rural community development are overviewed with focus on Community-Based Tourism (CBT initiatives. The research note involves a retrospective review of tourism policies and rural local development initiatives in Namibia where the Ministry of Environment and Tourism (MET initiated a community-based tourism policy. The policy emphasises structures and processes helping local communities to benefit from the tourism sector, and the active and coordinating involvement of communities, especially, is expected to ensure that the benefits of tourism trickle down to the local level where tourist activities take place. However, it is noted that in addition to public policy-makers also other tourism developers and private business environment in Namibia need to recognize the full potential of rural tourism development in order to meet the created politically driven promises at the policy level. In this respect, a national tourism policy could provide an enabling framework, integrating the tourism sector’s development aims to rural and community development needs in future. In addition, there is a need to coordinate a comprehensive vision of what type of rural tourism development or tourism in rural environments holds the most potential to benefit both local communities and the mainstream sector.

  2. New Policy Conclusions from Starting Strong II: An Update on the OECD Early Childhood Policy Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, John

    2006-01-01

    Since the start of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) thematic review of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) Policy in 1998, some 20 countries across the world have been involved in the project. Recently the OECD has had a very successful launch of the report from the second round--Starting Strong II. This…

  3. Barriers to universal health coverage in Republic of Moldova: a policy analysis of formal and informal out-of-pocket payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vian, Taryn; Feeley, Frank G; Domente, Silviu; Negruta, Ala; Matei, Andrei; Habicht, Jarno

    2015-08-11

    Universal Health Coverage seeks to assure that everyone can obtain the health services they need without financial hardship. Countries which rely heavily on out-of-pocket (OOP) payments, including informal payments (IP), to finance total health expenditures are not likely to achieve universal coverage. The Republic of Moldova is committed to promoting universal coverage, reducing inequities, and expanding financial protection. To achieve these goals, the country must reduce the proportion of total health expenditures paid by households. This study documents the extent of OOP payments and IP in Moldova, analyses trends over time, and identifies factors which may be driving these payments. The study includes analysis of household budget survey data and previous research and policy documents. The team also conducted a review of administrative law intended to control OOP payments and IPs. Focus groups, interviews, and a policy dialogue with key stakeholders were held to validate and discuss findings. OOP payments account for 45% of total health expenditures. Sixteen percent of outpatients and 30% of inpatients reporting that they made OOP payments when seeking care at a health facility in 2012, more than two-thirds of whom also reported paying for medicines at a pharmacy. Among those who paid anything, 36% of outpatients and 82% of inpatients reported paying informally, with the proportion increasing over time for inpatient care. Although many patients consider these payments to be gifts, around one-third of IPs appear to be forced, posing a threat to health care access. Patients perceive that payments are driven by the limited list of reimbursable medicines, a desire to receive better treatment, and fear or extortion. Providers suggested irrational prescribing and ordering of tests as drivers. Providers may believe that IPs are gifts and do not cause harm for patients and the health system in general. Efforts to expand financial protection should focus on reducing

  4. Linguistic policy and “minority” languages in the People’s Republic of China : The case of the Tai Lue of Sipsong Panna

    OpenAIRE

    Casas, Roger; ,; ,

    2011-01-01

    This paper offers a brief discussion of some of the contradictions informing linguistic policies implemented by the government of the People´s Republic of China (PRC) in “minority” areas, allegedly aimed at preserving and promoting non-Han languages, through the case of the Tai Lue (officially classified as Dai) in Yunnan province. It is argued that, while all (recognized) ethnic groups (minzu) in the PRC are granted the right to use and develop their own spoken and written languages by the s...

  5. Sustainable development based energy policy making frameworks, a critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyar-Naimi, H.; Vaez-Zadeh, S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper, in the first step, presents an overview of the origination and formulation of sustainable development (SD) concept and the related policy making frameworks. The frameworks include Pressure–State–Response (PSR), Driving Force–State–Response (DSR), Driving Force–Pressure–State–Impact–Response (DPSIR), Driving Force–Pressure–State–Effect–Action (DPSEA) and Driving Force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action (DPSEEA). In this regard, 40 case studies using the reviewed frameworks reported during 1994–2011 are surveyed. Then, their application area and application intensity are investigated. It is concluded that PSR, and DPSEA and DPSEEA have the higher and lower application intensities, respectively. Moreover, using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) with a set of criteria, it is shown that PSR and DPSIR have the highest and lowest priorities. Finally, the shortcomings of frameworks applications are discussed. The paper is helpful in selecting appropriate policy making frameworks and presents some hints for future research in the area for developing more comprehensive models especially for sustainable electric energy policy making. - Highlights: ► The origination and formulation of sustainable development (SD) concept is reviewed. ► SD based frameworks (PSR, DSR, DPSIR, DPSEA and DPSEEA) are also reviewed. ► Then, the frameworks application area and intensity in recent years are investigated. ► Finally, the SD concept and the SD based frameworks are criticized. ► It will be helpful for developing more comprehensive energy policy making models.

  6. Energy operations policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    It is reported that energy policy was designed following the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development review of the most pressing energy issues confronting Central and Eastern Europe and the republics of the former Soviet Union. The main features of the policy described in the document set the general framework for the Bank's energy operations. Energy strategies for particular countries are designed as an integral part of the Bank's individual country strategies. Tabs

  7. An integrative review of pursing policy and political competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, D C; Al Maaitah, R; Gharaibeh, M

    2017-03-01

    For several decades, there have been repeated calls for nurses to become more involved in policy and political processes. The purpose of this article is to conduct an integrative review to identify and assess the current state of the science relating to supporting the pursuit of greater involvement by the nursing profession in policy and political processes. Standard integrative review procedures were used to identify studies that examined how policy competence could be achieved. A comparative thematic approach to synthesis was used. Both published and grey literature written in English between January 1965 and January 2015 were identified via a structured search of CINAHL, SCOPUS, Science Direct and Google Scholar. Forty-five primary studies were identified with literature from North America dominating, but contributions from low- and middle-income countries have recently started to feature. Studies tended to focus on the immediate impact of didactic and action learning-based approaches. The majority of articles were descriptive survey designs utilizing small convenience samples. Many programmes of education have focused on developing an understanding of legislative policy and political processes, but the development of policy and political competencies at team and institutional levels has been ignored. Existing research have looked at the short-term effects of educational programmes. At this time, there are conflicting reports on the impact of variables such as gender and educational preparation on policy and political competence. There is an urgent need to address these major gaps if nurses at all levels are to play a full role in shaping policy and political process. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  8. Barriers to Integration of Immigrants and Integration Policy in the Czech Republic with Focus on Stakeholders and Their Co-operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Rákoczyová

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Social integration of migrants and related social work with this target group is increasingly becoming a focus of the enlarged conception of social policies in advanced economies. While immigration policy is often defined and shaped at a national level, its effects influence the lives of migrants and, consequently, also the host society, particularly at the regions and localities, where this policy is confronted with the specifics of the measures in other policy areas. Integration policies at the local level are created and implemented by a wide range of stakeholders, which places considerable demands on the mutual coordination and co-operation to achieve maximum efficiency of services provided. In the Czech Republic, coordination among different actors is still under-developed. Non-governmental organizations, which are oriented towards specific needs of foreigners, are generally considered to be the principal actors in the delivery of services to and social work with migrants. Public institutions’ competences are usually limited to the exercise of specific services defined by the legislation. Yet the cooperation between actors from among representatives of government and nonprofit organizations is not based on equal partnership. Based on qualitative interviews with the key stakeholders of social integration in the Czech Republic, this study aims to provide some insight into strategies for the integration of foreigners charged with activities of local actors with special emphasis on the role of NGOs in this process. Moreover, the authors try to highlight some barriers of collaboration between the actors, and the risk of inefficient allocation of resources to support social services for migrants.

  9. A review of tuberculosis prevention, diagnosis and treatment system in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, John A; Tan, Bernard; Casey, Michael

    2008-10-01

    This paper describes the current prevalence of tuberculosis and its management in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea. A review of technical reports of NGOs' experience working in North Korea with Democratic People's Republic of Korea officials, tuberculosis healthcare personnel and tuberculosis patients. Site visits, observations and experiences are also included. Until 2001, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, was predominately isolated with an unknown healthcare system but has since allowed NGOs, WHO and international agencies to rehabilitate the healthcare infrastructure involving 200 people's Country Hospitals, 13 Prophylactic Hospitals, 62 Sanitariums and 4 Special Hospitals. The mid 1990s witnessed a resurgence of tuberculosis in North Korea with 100,000 new cases reported yearly. Preliminary analysis revealed that poverty, neglect, lack of resources and isolation resulted in the overall deterioration of public health services. Present estimates suggest a prevalence of 220 per 100,000 with 45,000 new cases. Tuberculosis is a major public health problem in North Korea that will require increased efforts by the national government and international agencies to control

  10. Carbon Taxes: A Review of Experience and Policy Design Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumner, J.; Bird, L.; Smith, H.

    2009-12-01

    State and local governments in the United States are evaluating a wide range of policies to reduce carbon emissions, including, in some instances, carbon taxes, which have existed internationally for nearly 20 years. This report reviews existing carbon tax policies both internationally and in the United States. It also analyzes carbon policy design and effectiveness. Design considerations include which sectors to tax, where to set the tax rate, how to use tax revenues, what the impact will be on consumers, and how to ensure emissions reduction goals are achieved. Emission reductions that are due to carbon taxes can be difficult to measure, though some jurisdictions have quantified reductions in overall emissions and other jurisdictions have examined impacts that are due to programs funded by carbon tax revenues.

  11. Carbon Taxes. A Review of Experience and Policy Design Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumner, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Hillary [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2009-12-01

    State and local governments in the United States are evaluating a wide range of policies to reduce carbon emissions, including, in some instances, carbon taxes, which have existed internationally for nearly 20 years. This report reviews existing carbon tax policies both internationally and in the United States. It also analyzes carbon policy design and effectiveness. Design considerations include which sectors to tax, where to set the tax rate, how to use tax revenues, what the impact will be on consumers, and how to ensure emissions reduction goals are achieved. Emission reductions that are due to carbon taxes can be difficult to measure, though some jurisdictions have quantified reductions in overall emissions and other jurisdictions have examined impacts that are due to programs funded by carbon tax revenues.

  12. Energy policies of IEA countries - Switzerland. 2007 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-26

    Switzerland is entering decisive times in its energy policy. In 2008, the country should see remarkable advance in electricity market reform. Support for renewable electricity is set to increase massively. Decisions on post-Kyoto targets are getting closer, and a CO{sub 2} tax will be introduced for heating and process fuels. Plus, new measures to increase energy efficiency and the broader use of renewable energy are high on the political agenda. Since the last in-depth review in 2003, Switzerland has made progress in most areas of energy policy. Still, more work remains to be done. Maintaining sufficient electricity capacity implies even stronger policies to promote energy efficiency and renewable energy sources. At the same time, the country will also need to decide which sources to use for large-scale power supply. High dependency on oil can become a burden in a post-Kyoto world. In particular, Switzerland's climate policy should focus more on reducing emissions from private car use, the largest and fastest-growing emitter. Current measures have not proven effective, and the costs of reducing CO{sub 2} emissions are being distorted across sectors. Switzerland's world-class energy R and D is expected to more than halve energy needs per capita by the second half of this century. This ambitious goal needs to be supported by consistent policies on energy efficiency and climate change. This book takes an in-depth look at the energy challenges facing Switzerland and provides critiques and recommendations for policy improvements. The review guides the country towards a sustainable energy future.

  13. Examples of Consistency and Variability: Rural Policy Reviews of OECD Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Freshwater, David; Trapasso, Raffaele

    2012-01-01

    Between 2006 and 2009, the OECD undertook a series of reviews of national rural development policy. The reviews largely followed a consistent approach and used the OECD's New Rural Paradigm (NRP) as a common metric for assessing various national approaches. Although the reviews cannot be considered a formal evaluation of these rural policies, they do provide: a fairly uniform description of the policies being followed, a critique of the policies, and recommendations on how policies might be m...

  14. Examples of Consistency and Variability: Rural Policy Reviews of OECD Countries January 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Freshwater, David; Trapasso, Raffaele

    2012-01-01

    Between 2006 and 2009, the OECD undertook a series of reviews of national rural development policy. The reviews largely followed a consistent approach and used the OECD’s New Rural Paradigm (NRP) as a common metric for assessing various national approaches. Although the reviews cannot be considered a formal evaluation of these rural policies, they do provide: a fairly uniform description of the policies being followed, a critique of the policies, and recommendations on how policies might be m...

  15. In-Depth Review of the Investment Climate and Market Structure in the Energy Sector. Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Republic of Macedonia became an independent country in 1991. It is a country with an economy in transition. Against this background, efforts have been dedicated towards implementing the provisions of the Energy Charter Treaty (ECT), especially in the field of the investment climate and market structure in the energy sector of the Republic of Macedonia. The Republic of Macedonia is a small economy with a gross domestic product representing about 0.01% of the total world output. It is also an open economy, highly integrated into international trade, with a total trade-to-GDP ratio of over 90%. Agriculture and industry have been the two most important sectors of the economy, but the services sector has gained prominence in the past few years. Like most transition economies, problems persist, even as Macedonia takes steps toward reform. A largely obsolete industrial infrastructure has not seen much investment during the transition period. Work force education and skills are competitive, but without adequate job opportunities, many with the best skills seek employment abroad. A low standard of living, high unemployment rate, and relatively low economic growth rate are the central economic problems. The Republic of Macedonia remains committed to pursuing membership in European and global economic structures. It became a full World Trade Organization (WTO) member in April 2003. Following a 1997 cooperation agreement with the European Union (EU), the Republic of Macedonia signed a Stabilization and Association Agreement with the EU in April 2001, giving Macedonia duty-free access to European markets. The Republic of Macedonia has signed Free Trade Agreements with Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia and Montenegro, Bulgaria, Croatia, Ukraine, Slovenia, Turkey, Romania, and the European Free Trade Association countries. It also has signed an Interim Free Trade Agreement with the UN Mission in Kosovo. The major policy objective and priority of the Republic of

  16. Energy policies of IEA countries 2003. 2003 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This volume contains an analysis of developments in energy policies in the Member countries of the International Energy Agency. It features an overview of major trends in the energy markets, notably the renewed interest in energy security on the part of policy-makers. The study describes how, during the period before and during the war in Iraq, the IEA successfully worked to secure oil supply. 2003 was also a year when growing gas demand and rising import dependency in most IEA Member countries obliged energy policy makers to look at the longer term issue of security of gas supply. In addition to these external developments, an internal dimension of energy security arose in the context of electricity and gas market reform. The book also describes the efforts by countries having ratified the Kyoto Protocol to implement the agreements and the trend of energy R and D policies, as well as developments in energy security and energy market reform in major non-OECD countries. It includes: summaries of the in-depth reviews of Austria, Hungary, Italy, Ireland, Japan and Switzerland conducted from October 2002 to June 2003. The full reviews are published separately

  17. A review of UK housing policy: ideology and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, J

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to review UK public health policy, with a specific reference to housing as a key health determinant, since its inception in the Victorian era to contemporary times. This paper reviews the role of social and private housing policy in the development of the UK public health movement, tracing its initial medical routes through to the current socio-economic model of public health. The paper establishes five distinct ideologically and philosophically driven eras, placing public health and housing within liberal (Victorian era), state interventionist (post World War 1; post World War 2), neoliberal (post 1979) and "Third Way" (post 1997) models, showing the political perspective of policy interventions and overviewing their impact on public health. The paper particularly focuses on the contemporary model of public health since the Acheson Report, and how its recommendations have found their way into policy, also the impact on housing practice. Public health is closely related to political ideology, whether driven by the State, individual or partnership arrangements. The current political system, the Third Way, seeks to promote a sustainable "social contract" between citizens and the State, public, private and voluntary organizations in delivering community-based change in areas where health inequalities can be most progressively and successfully addressed.

  18. Energy policies of IEA countries: Denmark 2006 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-12-18

    Denmark has had a very pro-active energy policy in both energy efficiency and renewable energy while at the same time opening its gas and power markets to competition. The share of renewable energy has increased dramatically, going from 3% of all electricity generation in 1990 to 25% in 2004. At the same time, the government's renewable support policies up to the early 2000s came with a high cost for consumers and taxpayers. However, the current government is very attentive to cost-effectiveness and inclined to market-based approaches. Greater use of cost-benefit analysis, including for offshore wind plants, is crucial in shaping future policies. The review indicates that energy efficiency programmes have historically been more cost-effective than renewable energy programmes in lowering emissions and enhancing energy security. Denmark's energy intensity is 35% below the IEA average, due in substantial part to the government's efforts to improve efficiency. This policy provides an excellent example for other countries, although the review notes that more should be done for transport efficiency.

  19. Energy policies of IEA countries: Greece 2006 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The report provides an in-depth assessment of the energy policies of Greece and makes recommendations on future policy. Lignite, the main domestic fossil fuel resource of Greece, will continue to play a major role in the country's fuel mix in the future. The government and the regulator should consider introducing more advanced generation technology through retrofits or into new lignite power stations. It may be an option to construct a power station using lignite from unopened deposits, for the exploitation of which a new bidding procedure is currently open. Since the previous review in 2002, Greece has also made significant progress in setting the course for reforming its electricity and gas markets. Energy diversification has improved, with natural gas becoming increasingly important. Significant challenges, however, remain. The market power of the incumbent energy suppliers continues to restrict competition. Unless this issue is addressed, a fully competitive energy market is inconceivable. Of particular concern are the arrangements for ownership of the electricity and gas transmission systems. The review suggests various options to overcome these obstacles. Greece is getting close to missing its target set under the Kyoto Protocol and the government is urged to closely monitor the situation. The supply and demand situation is addressed.. Recommendations are made on how to reduce the country's high oil dependence and advice offered to policy makers on steps to develop a long-term energy efficiency policy with measurable targets that tackle the demand side of the Greek energy sector.

  20. Non-biomedical sources for systematic reviews of pharmaceutical policy

    OpenAIRE

    Greyson, Devon

    2010-01-01

    It has been well documented that reaching beyond MEDLINE into a diversity of databases enhances search results, but a chronic question in comprehensive and systematic searching is how far, and where, to search. When published in business or economics sources, articles focusing on cost outcomes of health and health policy interventions may not be indexed in the biomedical databases that are traditionally consulted for clinical systematic reviews. This dual case study explores and documents ...

  1. Review and Prospect of BIM Policy in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bingsheng; Wang, Min; Zhang, Yutao; Liu, Rui; Wang, Anmin

    2017-10-01

    In the process of architectural design, construction, operation and maintenance, the problem of inefficiency and inaccuracy in information application and exchange has caused substantial waste of resources and risk in construction industry. Building Information Management provides an opportunity to address the issue. Building information modelling (BIM) has been increasingly applied in design, construction and other information management in China as its important role in reducing engineering changes, improving engineering quality, shortening project duration, saving project cost, enhancing information sharing among the participants many others. As an integration of process and product, its development and implementation need government regulation to enhance its applications effect and standardize its adoption and implementation. Especially, the government guidance affects the application and development of new technology to a great extent in China. However, relevant policy development falls behind the rapid development of its application in practice in China, which has led to many problems in construction practice. In order to develop effective BIM policy for China, this paper conducted a comprehensive review about existing BIM policy in China by analysing its status and problems, comparing it with the corresponding policy in developed countries such as the USA and UK. The expected policy development direction is also discussed and proposed.

  2. Educating "Barbaros": Educational Policies on the Latin American Frontiers between Colonies and Independent Republics (Araucania, Southern Chile/Sonora, Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holck, Lasse; Saiz, Monika Contreras

    2010-01-01

    This article compares the methods and means employed by the state to enforce the education of (semi-)autonomous indigenous groups in southern Chile and northwestern Mexico (Sonora), border regions in the Latin American periphery, covering the transition from colonial times to the consolidation of independent republics until the middle of the…

  3. State Policies and Women's Autonomy in China, India, and the Republic of Korea, 1950-2000: Lessons from Contrasting Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Das Gupta, Monica; Lee, Sunhwa; Uberoi, Patricia; Wang, Danning; Wang, Lihong; Zhang, Xiaodan

    2000-01-01

    The authors compare changes in gender roles and women's empowerment in China, India, and the Republic of Korea. Around 1950, these newly formed states were largely poor and agrarian, with common cultural factors that placed similar severe constraints on women's autonomy. They adopted very different paths of development, which are well known to have profoundly affected development outcomes....

  4. A comparative review of governments' views on objectives and policy instruments in the field of population and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    It is possible to assess population policies through statements and decisions taken by governments as they reflect the views and commitments of political authorities in the field of population and development. Cases in the following African countries are reviewed with focus on objectives and policy instruments: Algeria; Angola; Benin; Botswana; Cape Verde; Central African Republic; Congo; Djibouti; Egypt; Ethiopia; Guinea; Gabon; Gambia; Ghana; Equatorial Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Ivory Coast; Kenya; Lesotho; Liberia; Libyan Arab Jamahiriya; Madagascar; Malawi; Mali; Mauritania; Mauritius; Morocco; Mozambique; Niger; Nigeria; Rwanda; Sao Tome and Principe; Senegal; Seychelles; Sierra Leone; Somalia; Sudan; Swaziland; Togo; Tunisia; Uganda; United Republic of Cameroon; Tanzania; Upper Volta; Zaire; Zambia; and Zimbabwe. The information presented was drawn from the following publications: UN Population Division, "Population Policy Briefs: Current Situation in Developing Countries and Selected Territories," and UNFPA, "Population Programs and Projects," Volume 2, 1980-1981. On the basis of this review the following conclusions are drawn, which could indicate areas in which technical assistance to the Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) member States would be required: among the 50 country members of ECA, 34 countries (68%) have as a development objective the reduction of mortality, and in particular, maternal and child mortality; the 2nd important objective is stabilizing or improving spatial distribution of population, and 44% of the 50 countries have adopted this objective which involves the distribution of population from 1 place to another within a country; the 3rd important objective consists of restricting the migratory flow from rural areas to urban areas; the countries of Botswana, Egypt, Ghana, Kenya, Lesotho, Mauritius, Morocco, Rwanda, Seychelles, Swaziland, and Tunisia adopted the objective of reducing the rate of population growth; 34% of African countries

  5. 76 FR 51940 - Administrative Review of Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... Duty Order on Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the People's Republic of China: Industry-Specific... the Preliminary Results, we used Sharat Industries Limited (``Sharat'') 2008-2009 financial statements... Hilltop, Yelin Enterprise Co., Ltd., Ocean Beauty Corporation, and Ever Hope International Co., Ltd. to be...

  6. 75 FR 38986 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC), meet the statutory and regulatory... garlic from the PRC was published on November 16, 1994. See Antidumping Duty Order: Fresh Garlic from the...

  7. Energy policies of IEA countries: United States - 2007 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-02-15

    The United States is the largest economy and energy user in the world. Significant developments have taken place in its energy policy since the last IEA review in 2002. Most important is the Energy Policy Act 2005 - a comprehensive energy legislation which has set new directions, including opening the way for a nuclear renaissance. Two closely connected challenges shape all debates on the nation's energy policy path: how to increase security by reducing the dependence on imported supplies; and how to address growing emissions of greenhouse gases. The United States national strategy is to find solutions largely through technology. It is a world leader in R&D and is driving development of carbon capture and storage and second-generation biofuels. But thus far, no federal government policy is in place to establish as a target an absolute reduction of CO2 emissions. The resulting uncertainty risks holding back investments into new technologies and may delay projects that are urgently required. The transport sector will be a key to a sustainable success. In the short to medium term, reduced fuel demand through higher vehicle efficiency will increase security and reduce CO2 emissions. Yet the policy for the revision of CAFE (the corporate average fuel economy) standards will leave consumers with vehicles that fall short of the technological possibilities. This review takes an in-depth look at these issues and provides recommendations on how the United States can do more to answer the challenges of both improving its security of energy supply and lowering its emissions intensity, demonstrating the significant improvements that can already be realised through existing technologies.

  8. Energy policies of IEA countries: Germany 2007 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The IEA report takes an in-depth look at the energy challenges facing Germany, and through comparisons with good examples in other IEA countries, provides critiques and recommendations for policy improvements. The review guides the country towards a sustainable energy future. Few countries can have as great an impact on energy policy in Europe as Germany. Its large size and strategic location make it a critical component of the region's energy markets - as a result, sound energy policies and strong energy market design are a necessity. In these respects, Germany continues to make notable progress. The country has continued to reform its electricity and natural gas markets, set a timetable to phase out coal subsidies, is meeting key climate and environmental targets and is bringing energy, efficiency and environment to the top of the world agenda with its presidencies of both the G8 and European Union. The International Energy Agency (IEA) praises these efforts. Nevertheless, work remains to be done to further improve German energy policies and markets. The planned phase-out of nuclear power over the coming years would have major impacts on the country's energy mix, raising concerns about energy security, economic efficiency and environmental sustainability for the country and for Europe as a whole. Furthermore, though progress has been made, more needs to be done to set a truly level playing field for competition to develop in gas and electricity markets, which means effective unbundling of transport activities and a strongly empowered regulatory authority. Finally, the country's environmental policies, though helping meet ambitious goals, are expensive - and sometimes various policies work at cross-purposes. 22 figs., 27 tabs., 4 apps.

  9. Effectiveness of Direct Safety Regulations on Manufacturers and Users of Industrial Machines: Its Implications on Industrial Safety Policies in Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Gi Heung

    2017-03-01

    Despite considerable efforts made in recent years, the industrial accident rate and the fatality rate in the Republic of Korea are much higher than those in most developed countries in Europe and North America. Industrial safety policies and safety regulations are also known to be ineffective and inefficient in some cases. This study focuses on the quantitative evaluation of the effectiveness of direct safety regulations such as safety certification, self-declaration of conformity, and safety inspection of industrial machines in the Republic of Korea. Implications on safety policies to restructure the industrial safety system associated with industrial machines are also explored. Analysis of causes in industrial accidents associated with industrial machines confirms that technical causes need to be resolved to reduce both the frequency and the severity of such industrial accidents. Statistical analysis also confirms that the indirect effects of safety device regulation on users are limited for a variety of reasons. Safety device regulation needs to be shifted to complement safety certification and self-declaration of conformity for more balanced direct regulations on manufacturers and users. An example of cost-benefit analysis on conveyor justifies such a transition. Industrial safety policies and regulations associated with industrial machines must be directed towards eliminating the sources of danger at the stage of danger creation, thereby securing the safe industrial machines. Safety inspection further secures the safety of workers at the stage of danger use. The overall balance between such safety regulations is achieved by proper distribution of industrial machines subject to such regulations and the intensity of each regulation. Rearrangement of industrial machines subject to safety certification and self-declaration of conformity to include more movable industrial machines and other industrial machines with a high level of danger is also suggested.

  10. Energy policies of IEA countries: Luxembourg -- 2008 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-03-20

    Luxembourg has reformed its energy policies across all sectors since the last IEA in-depth review in 2004. The country has fully liberalised its electricity and natural gas markets, and is actively participating in the development of the evolving Central West European regional electricity system. Luxembourg has also prepared a broad action plan on energy efficiency, improved the support system for renewable energy sources and revised taxes to mitigate climate change. The country's energy policy in the coming decade will be shaped by the EU 2020 targets that call for substantial reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, and strong increases in renewable energy and energy efficiency. These targets will be hard to meet, given that roughly half of energy-related CO2 emissions come from transport fuel use by foreign truckers and motorists, and that Luxembourg's potential for producing much more renewable energy is limited. Luxembourg is heavily dependent on oil. Although oil sources are well diversified by country of origin, more than 85% of oil stocks are held in neighbouring countries and often based on short-term leasing contracts. This leaves the country vulnerable to potential oil supply disruptions. Luxembourg should swiftly implement a plan to improve the security of oil supply. This review analyses the energy challenges facing Luxembourg and provides critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide the country towards achieving its sustainability targets.

  11. The right to culture and public policies in Brazil: an analysis of direct and indirect public spending in the audiovisual sector during the New Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Maia de Souza

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the result of direct and indirect public spending on culture. Such expenses are taken as part of the institutional configuration designed to fulfill the right to culture in Brazil during the New Republic. For methodological reasons, we focused on the development policies designed to support and foster the audiovisual sector. In the realm of policies oriented to support cultural productions and conservation, the audiovisual sector received the most support from the Federal Government and had the most indicators and reports available. Our research explored the literature on cultural policies and tax incentive laws. We also examined institutional reports elaborated by federal agencies and organizations related to the cultural sector. Our research indicated that indirect expenses comprehend a significant part of total federal spending on culture. A thorough examination of the reports revealed serious limitations of the tax incentive mechanisms specifically for the audiovisual sector. In the end, we suggest possible improvements of cultural policies in light of the guidelines present in our Federal Constitution.

  12. The Control of Environmental Tobacco Smoke: A Policy Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence William Gill

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available According to World Health Organisation figures, 30% of all cancer deaths, 20% of all coronary heart diseases and strokes and 80% of all chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are caused by cigarette smoking. Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS exposure has also been shown to be associated with disease and premature death in non-smokers. In response to this environmental health issue, several countries have brought about a smoking ban policy in public places and in the workplace. Countries such as the U.S., France, Italy, Ireland, Malta, the Netherlands, Sweden, Scotland, Spain, and England have all introduced policies aimed at reducing the population exposure to ETS. Several investigations have monitored the effectiveness of these smoking ban policies in terms of ETS concentrations, human health and smoking prevalence, while others have also investigated a number of alternatives to smoking ban policy measures. This paper reviews the state of the art in research, carried out in the field of ETS, smoking bans and Tobacco Control to date and highlights the need for future research in the area.

  13. A review of China`s energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, F. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Duan, N. [Environment Management Institute, Beijing (China); Zhijie, H. [Energy Research Institute, Beijing (China)

    1994-12-01

    In 1992 China`s primary energy production reached 1075 million tons of coal equivalent by far the largest in the developing world. Because coal is the primary commercial fuel, rapid growth of carbon dioxide emissions is certain. Thus the attitude of the Chinese government toward energy and environmental issues becomes increasingly important to those involved in the study and analysis of global climate change and energy issues. This report is intended to provide a basic understanding of the development of China`s energy policymaking over the past four decades. The paper first reviews institutional development and policymaking and then describes the transition to the market-oriented system. While energy has consistently received a great deal of attention from the central government, the institutional basis for setting and implementing policies has shifted often. Reforms during the past 15 years have been incremental, piecemeal, and occasionally contradictory, but overall have freed a large portion of the energy industry from the strictures of a planned economy and laid the basis for broad price liberalization. Responsibility for energy planning is now dispersed among a number of organizations, rendering coordination of energy development difficult. Economic reform has rendered obsolete most of the policy-implementation means of the planning era. Although the new tools of central control are not fully effective, the trend toward decentralized decisionmaking has been strengthened. The report ends with a summary of energy forecasts used by Chinese policymakers, highlighting current policy goals and the issues that will shape future policy.

  14. The control of environmental tobacco smoke: a policy review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNabola, Aonghus

    2009-02-01

    According to World Health Organisation figures, 30% of all cancer deaths, 20% of all coronary heart diseases and strokes and 80% of all chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are caused by cigarette smoking. Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure has also been shown to be associated with disease and premature death in non-smokers. In response to this environmental health issue, several countries have brought about a smoking ban policy in public places and in the workplace. Countries such as the U.S., France, Italy, Ireland, Malta, the Netherlands, Sweden, Scotland, Spain, and England have all introduced policies aimed at reducing the population exposure to ETS. Several investigations have monitored the effectiveness of these smoking ban policies in terms of ETS concentrations, human health and smoking prevalence, while others have also investigated a number of alternatives to smoking ban policy measures. This paper reviews the state of the art in research, carried out in the field of ETS, smoking bans and Tobacco Control to date and highlights the need for future research in the area.

  15. Energy policies of IEA countries: New Zealand 2006 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-09-23

    New Zealand faces some serious energy sector challenges, requiring special attention to security of supply issues, both in oil and gas domains. Natural gas production from the major Maui field is rapidly declining. New Zealand's greenhouse gas emissions are rising: the most recent estimates put them at 21% above their Kyoto target over the first commitment period. These challenges are not insurmountable. New Zealand's energy policy is characterised by a commitment to free and open markets complimented by light-handed regulation. The IEA commends this approach and encourages continued policy improvements and enhancements. The energy policy review of New Zealand offers a comprehensive analysis of the country's energy sector, evaluating its strengths and weaknesses across the fuel mix, as well as looking at broader issues such as energy efficiency, environmental performance and technology research and development. It also includes policy critiques and recommendations, drawing on experience across IEA member countries. 33 figs., 21 tabs., 3 annexes.

  16. Communication Received from the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Director General has received a note verbale, dated 1 October 2002, from the Permanent Mission of the Federal Republic of Germany to the IAEA in the enclosure of which the Government of Germany, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in document INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998) has made available the data on the plutonium inventory on German territory as of 31 December 2001

  17. PRICING POLICY AND MARKETING STRATEGIES AS A PART OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE OF RETAILS STORES IN THE SLOVAK REPUBLIC

    OpenAIRE

    Jaroslava Gburová; Róbert Štefko; Radovan Baèík

    2013-01-01

    The paper deals with price and marketing pricing strategies of retail chain stores in the Slovak Republic. The aim of this paper is to highlight the perception of the impact of economic recession in the retail chain stores. To determine the most used marketing pricing strategies has been used analysis of variance ANOVA. The global finance crisis does not have influence to selection and implementation of pricing strategy, which is used by branches of chain stores marketing management of in are...

  18. Sources of change in foreign policy. A review of foreign policy models for developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba E. Gámez

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of what could be called the reorientation of State foreign policy is not a new phenomenon. Changes in alliances, economic partners and attitudes in the face of international issues have been reflected in myriad texts. Nevertheless, few theoretical frameworksdeal with this issue as an area of study in and of itself. Overcoming this situation would contribute to identifying and comparing the changes in attitude and discourse in the relations between countries, especially in the case of developing countries, and, by extension, thesources of these changes. This article reviews the different models for the analysis of foreign policy, using the conceptual framework of Hermann (1990 as its starting point. This framework suggests the existence of four graded levels of change which allow for studying forms of change which are subtle but important in foreign policy; it also offers a reasoned analysis for testing the relative importance of their sources. This conceptual framework can be situated in the traditional division of levels of analysis: the characteristics of the leader, bureaucratic proposer, internal adjustment, and external impact; and, while it does not provide a conclusive answer, it may be a useful tool in clarifying the ways of using empirical evidence and establishing the relative importance of the sources of change in foreign policy orientation.

  19. Energy policies of IEA countries: Sweden - 2008 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-05-15

    Sweden is one of the leading IEA countries in the use of renewable energy and has a long tradition of ambitious and successful policies to improve energy efficiency. Compared to the other IEA countries, Sweden's CO2 emissions per capita and per unit of GDP are low, partly owing to efficient and low-carbon space heating, and virtually carbon-free electricity generation. The country also remains a forerunner in electricity market liberalisation. Still, even if Sweden has continued to make progress in most areas of its energy policy since the IEA last conducted an in-depth review in 2004, there is room for improvement. As Sweden plans to further increase the use of renewable energy, it is crucial that these supplies are produced and used in the most sustainable manner for the environment and the economy as a whole. With regard to CO2 emissions, more can be done in all sectors, but as transport is the largest polluter and its emissions are increasing, it is the logical focus for Sweden's efforts to reduce emissions further. This is a significant challenge. Nuclear provides almost half of the electricity in Sweden, at a low cost and without CO2 emissions. But the future of nuclear power in the national power mix is still uncertain. To provide clear guidance to the electricity sector, Sweden will need to resolve the ambiguity about the future of nuclear power in the country. This review analyses the energy challenges facing Sweden and provides critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to provide input to Swedish energy policy makers to help them identify a path towards a more sustainable energy future.

  20. Review of current and anticipated regulations on air protection in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jilek, P.; Novotny, V. [Ministry of the Environment of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    Environmental issues, especially the solution of the air pollution problem, have taken on great significance in the Czech Republic (which was a part of the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic until the end of 1992) since the 1989 {open_quotes}Velvet{close_quotes} Revolution. The former CSFR Federal Committee for the Environment and both the Republic Ministries started immediately with creating new environmental legislation, which is the main governmental tool for protecting the environment in the newly developing democracy state system with a market oriented economy. The inspiration for that activity was found in legislation of developed countries - member states of the European Union, and in German environmental law in particular. This paper surveys the major laws and regulations that gradually came into force in the Czech Republic since 1990. The provisions of the primary significance are the Act No.309/1991 S.B., dated July 9, 1991, on the protection of the air against pollutants - The Clean Air Act, the Act No.218/1992 S.B., dated April 27, 1992, which changes and supplements the Act No.309 - The Clean Air Act, the Measure of the Federal Committee for the Environment of October 1, 1991 to the Clean Air Act, and its amended wordings of June 23, 1992, 84/1991 S.B., and 84/1992 S.B., the Act No.389/1991 S.B., dated September 10, 1991 on the state administration of air protection and charges for the pollution of air, and several regulations based on the Act No.389/1991 S.B., issued in the period 1992 -1993.

  1. Energy policies of IEA countries: Japan - 2008 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-06-15

    Declaring climate change and environment as a top priority of the 2008 G8 Summit in Hokkaido, host country Japan has demonstrated its commitment to pressing ahead in these domains. Already a world leader in advancing energy technology transfer and environmental policy, the country is determined to further improve its domestic policies, moving it towards a more sustainable and secure energy pathway for the long term. Along with other accomplishments, government support for energy R and D is very strong and policies to enhance the efficiency of appliances - both for domestic consumption and export - are models for other countries. Yet there is still room for progress. Most importantly, a greater reliance on market forces throughout the system could lead customers to choices that enhance security, raise economic efficiency and promote environmental protection. Particularly with respect to climate change goals - Japan is the world's fifth-largest greenhouse gas emitter - strengthening the value on greenhouse gas emissions would help give consumers the appropriate signals they need to make the right choices. Enhancing energy savings through efforts aimed at particular sectors (sectoral approaches) could be a part of the overall policy mix, along with ongoing leadership in promoting energy efficiency. The government should continue to work to complement existing voluntary instruments with stronger ones, including ones that rely more on market incentives, and standards and requirements. This review takes an in-depth look at the energy challenges facing Japan today and provides critiques and recommendations for policy improvements to help guide the country towards a more sustainable energy future.

  2. Coronary heart disease policy models: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capewell Simon

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevention and treatment of coronary heart disease (CHD is complex. A variety of models have therefore been developed to try and explain past trends and predict future possibilities. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the strengths and limitations of existing CHD policy models. Methods A search strategy was developed, piloted and run in MEDLINE and EMBASE electronic databases, supplemented by manually searching reference lists of relevant articles and reviews. Two reviewers independently checked the papers for inclusion and appraisal. All CHD modelling studies were included which addressed a defined population and reported on one or more key outcomes (deaths prevented, life years gained, mortality, incidence, prevalence, disability or cost of treatment. Results In total, 75 articles describing 42 models were included; 12 (29% of the 42 models were micro-simulation, 8 (19% cell-based, and 8 (19% life table analyses, while 14 (33% used other modelling methods. Outcomes most commonly reported were cost-effectiveness (36%, numbers of deaths prevented (33%, life-years gained (23% or CHD incidence (23%. Among the 42 models, 29 (69% included one or more risk factors for primary prevention, while 8 (19% just considered CHD treatments. Only 5 (12% were comprehensive, considering both risk factors and treatments. The six best-developed models are summarised in this paper, all are considered in detail in the appendices. Conclusion Existing CHD policy models vary widely in their depth, breadth, quality, utility and versatility. Few models have been calibrated against observed data, replicated in different settings or adequately validated. Before being accepted as a policy aid, any CHD model should provide an explicit statement of its aims, assumptions, outputs, strengths and limitations.

  3. Energy policies of IEA countries. Spain 1996 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The energy sector in Spain is at the end of a transition period from public to private ownership and from monopoly to competition. In keeping with the 1994 law calling for more competition in the electricity sector and planning an independent system, this review recommends that more concrete measures be taken to increase competition. The report examines Spanish policy on increasing natural gas consumption with the construction of the Maghreb pipeline from Algeria. It looks closely at the organization of the oil industry and the restructuring of the coal industry. It also examines the new measures to increase energy efficiency. (authors). 13 figs., 23 tabs

  4. [Public policies for the elderly in Brazil: an integrative review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Luana Machado; Sena, Edite Lago da Silva; Pinheiro, Gleide Magali Lemos; Meira, Edmeia Campos; Lira, Lais Santana Santos Pereira

    2013-12-01

    This paper is an integrative review analyzing the scientific production and legal documents regarding public policies for the elderly in Brazil. Research was conducted in the Virtual Health Library and Scopus databases, examining publications since 2003. Data were collected from June to September of 2011 using the following key words: "elderly" (idosos), "public policies" (políticas públicas), "elderly person" (pessoa idosa), "aging" (envelhecimento) and "civic participation" (participação cidadã). The search resulted in the selection of 15 articles and six legal documents targeted at the elderly in Brazil that were submitted to content analysis by categorization. The results revealed that aging in Brazil has occurred in the midst of adaptations entrenched in cultural biases, social, economic and educational discrepancies and the implementation of public welfare policies. There were few studies that indicated the importance of strengthening social movements that elicit discussion related to the elderly in Brazil. The conclusion reached is that the study will provide material for reflection about the construction of a new reality about aging in Brazil.

  5. Religious policy and secular education during the Second Republic | La política religiosa y la educación laica en la Segunda República

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Moreno Seco

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a redefinition of certain concepts through the analysis of religious policy during the Second Republic. A number of highly controversial measures may be better understood by taking into account the Mediterranean context, pinpointing the various attitudes and positions, or examining more closely social perceptions regarding decisions made by Republican governments. In essence, a distinction needs to be drawn between secular and anticlerical policy, by studying the provisions adopted in religious affairs by the administrations of the first two-year period of the Second Republic. Most of these decisions are of a secular nature, avoiding simplistic descriptions containing terms such as sectarianism and antireligiousness. In short, this article aims to contribute towards an accurate assessment of the Republican period. | Este artículo propone una redefinición de algunos conceptos a partir del análisis de la política religiosa de la Segunda República. La contextualización del caso español en el entorno mediterráneo, la matización de posturas o el acercamiento a las percepciones sociales ante las decisiones de los gobernantes republicanos pueden ayudar a delimitar con precisión unas medidas rodeadas de gran polémica. Se plantea en esencia una distinción entre política laica y política anticlerical desde el estudio de las disposiciones adoptadas en materia religiosa por los gobernantes del primer bienio republicano. La mayor parte de dichas resoluciones se adscriben al ámbito del laicismo, huyendo de caracterizaciones simplistas que acuden a términos como sectarismo o antirreligiosidad. Con ello se persigue contribuir a un balance ajustado del periodo republicano.

  6. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Hungary 2006 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Hungary has arrived at an important moment in its energy policy. The Hungarian government has improved energy policies in a number of areas. Still, significant challenges remain. To prepare the country for the full liberalisation of the EU electricity and gas market by July 2007, further steps in market reform are urgently required. At this point in time, there is no clarity about the system under which the market should operate after its full opening. Subsidies are another problem. Even though substantial progress has been made in reforming payments to gas consumers, the overall level of subsidies to producers and consumers of energy needs to be reviewed. This analysis makes recommendations to tackle these concerns and also discusses the potential contribution of energy efficiency to increasing energy security and economic competitiveness. The gas dispute between Russia and Ukraine in January 2006 focused global attention on consumer nations' vulnerability to supply disruptions. The Hungarian government has since placed greater emphasis on diversification of suppliers and has supported the development of new routes to bring gas into Europe. Hungary has dramatically improved its energy efficiency during the last 15 years. Nevertheless, enhanced efficiency, particularly in the field of gas use will continue to play a key role for securing future national energy supplies. This review has identified significant room for progress particularly in the gas-to-power sector, where old power stations need to be replaced, and in the residential sector, where improved thermal performance of Hungarian housing could bring impressive results.

  7. Energy policies of IEA countries: Austria - 2007 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-03-15

    Since the last review in 2002, Austrian energy policy has seen many positive developments. Today, Austria counts among the IEA member countries with the highest share of renewable energy supply, thus increasing energy security and reducing CO2 emissions. Great progress has also been made in the utilisation of biomass for heat and electricity production. Nevertheless, many challenges remain. The climate strategy revision in 2007 is commendably realistic, but uncertainty remains whether it will be sufficient, and whether renewables and energy efficiency are well-balanced within it. While Austria is strongly promoting an increase of renewables production by adopting challenging targets, it is less ambitious in the area of energy efficiency. To achieve the renewables target, their supply will have to double, leading to significant increases in costs. In energy efficiency, while Austria is leading in developing efficient building solutions, there are concerns about implementation, especially about the lack of ambition and divergence in building codes. Overall, energy intensity has increased in recent years, and the government will have to put a strong focus on reversing this development. Despite the early opening of the energy markets, effective competition has failed to emerge. This is partially due to systemic weaknesses such as dominant incumbents, lack of transparency in price formulation and a weak regulatory system with the potential for conflicts of interest. This review thoroughly analyses Austrian energy policy and identifies the key challenges that need to be addressed. With recommendations for improvements, it is an important guide for Austrian policy makers toward a safer and cleaner energy future.

  8. Book Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Christopher C.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Scholarly reviews of nine books are presented. Topics include nuclear deterrence, urban planning in France, human rights in the Republic of China, the United States' support of Israel, U. S. military policy, an analysis of Rousseau's social contract, political influences on the U. S. presidency, the state and political theory, and the loss of…

  9. Energy policies of IEA countries: Finland - 2007 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-03-15

    Faced with considerable challenges related to its geography and size, Finland's sound energy policies do much to overcome its situation. The country leverages its small market where it can - such as by adopting or harmonising with EU directives and policies. To counter its relative isolation, Finland strengthened its position by becoming part of the larger Nordic electricity market and enhancing energy linkages. At the core, however, the country ensures energy security by relying on transparency and sound market signals to investors and customers, as well as by making good use of domestic sources of biomass and nuclear. As Finland continues to refine and enhance its energy policy, there are some areas that warrant special attention. As nearly all fossil fuels are imported and all natural gas comes through a single interconnection, the government should continue to explore ways to diversify import sources and routes. The new nuclear power plant currently being built - the first in a liberalised market - will help safeguard energy security, though the construction delays necessitate continued monitoring. Subsidies for peat, a fuel in abundance in Finland, should be reconsidered, as they do not enhance energy security. On the other hand, the government should continue to explore ways to expand new renewables, building on the current stock of biomass and hydro. This book takes an in-depth look at Finland's energy policy today and, through comparisons with good examples in other IEA countries, provides critiques and recommendations for improvements to guide the country towards a sustainable energy future. While the review provides comprehensive coverage of all topics, this thematic report highlights energy efficiency and energy R and D.

  10. Factors Affecting Development of Rural Areas in the Czech Republic: a Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Straka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rural development is a topic that is frequently discussed, but there is no consensus on how to measure it. Various criteria exist such as economic, social, cultural or environmental, which can be used to assess rural development. Therefore the main question addressed in this paper is to identify what factors and indicators are suitable for scrutinizing development of rural areas under the conditions of the Czech Republic. For this purpose, articles focused on Czech rural regions were analysed. Fourteen most frequently used indicators were identified based on the comprehensive analysis of the selected Czech studies.

  11. Review of maritime transportation air emission pollution and policy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haifeng; Liu, Dahai; Dai, Guilin

    2009-09-01

    The study of air emission in maritime transportation is new, and the recognition of its importance has been rising in the recent decade. The emissions of CO2, SO2, NO2 and particulate matters from maritime transportation have contributed to climate change and environmental degradation. Scientifically, analysts still have controversies regarding how to calculate the emissions and how to choose the baseline and methodologies. Three methods are generally used, namely the ‘bottom up’ approach, the ‘top down’ approach and the STEEM, which produce very different results, leading to various papers with great uncertainties. This, in turn, results in great difficulties to policy makers who attempt to regulate the emissions. A recent technique, the STEEM, is intended to combine the former two methods to reduce their drawbacks. However, the regulations based on its results may increase the costs of shipping companies and cause the competitiveness of the port states and coastal states. Quite a few papers have focused on this area and provided another fresh perspective for the air emission to be incorporated in maritime transportation regulations; these facts deserve more attention. This paper is to review the literature on the debates over air emission calculation, with particular attention given to the STEEM and the refined estimation methods. It also reviews related literature on the economic analysis of maritime transportation emission regulations, and provides an insight into such analysis. At the end of this paper, based on a review and analysis of previous literature, we conclude with the policy indications in the future and work that should be done. As the related regulations in maritime transportation emissions are still at their beginning stage in China, this paper provides specific suggestions on how China should regulate emissions in the maritime transportation sector.

  12. A review of crude oil participation in the energetics of the Republic of Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janevski, Risto

    1998-01-01

    Republic of Macedonia its primary energy needs, particularly after being independent, in a bigger part (approx. 70%) satisfies from its own sources, and the other part from import. The own power sources are: lignite, hydro energetics potential and firewood. Some restorable resources are represented in a much smaller range, with a consumption of geothermal and solar power. The imported energy sources are: crude oil, oil derivatives, hard coal, brown coal and coke. In the future, one more energy source it is expected from import which is natural gas. Crude oil as an energy source takes up the biggest part of the imported primary energy. In this paper the petroleum industry in Macedonia for the period 1982-1997 is presented. The period 1982-1990 is analysed separately since 1982 is the year when Macedonian Petroleum Refinery started its work in the framework of Yugoslavia. The attention is given to the second period 1991-1997 after Macedonia became an independent state. This was a period of political problems for Macedonia, first of all the Greek blockade against Macedonia, UN blockade against Yugoslavia, the unsolved relations with the former Yugoslav Republics, and on the other hand the economic problems

  13. Adapting to social and political transitions - the influence of history on health policy formation in the Republic of the Union of Myanmar (Burma).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, John; Annear, Peter; Ahmed, Shakil; Biggs, Beverley-Ann

    2014-04-01

    The Republic of the Union of Myanmar (Burma) has a long and complex history characterized by internal conflict and tense international relations. Post-independence, the health sector has gradually evolved, but with health service development and indicators lagging well behind regional expectations. In recent years, the country has initiated political reforms and a reorientation of development policy towards social sector investment. In this study, from a systems and historical perspective, we used publicly available data sources and grey literature to describe and analyze links between health policy and history from the post-independence period up until 2012. Three major periods are discernable in post war health system development and political history in Myanmar. The first post-independence period was associated with the development of the primary health care system extending up to the 1988 political events. The second period is from 1988 to 2005, when the country launched a free market economic model and was arguably experiencing its highest levels of international isolation as well as very low levels of national health investment. The third period (2005-2012) represents the first attempts at health reform and recovery, linked to emerging trends in national political reform and international politics. Based on the most recent period of macro-political reform, the central state is set to transition from a direct implementer of a command and control management system, towards stewardship of a significantly more complex and decentralized administrative order. Historical analysis demonstrates the extent to which these periodic shifts in the macro-political and economic order acts to reset the parameters for health policy making. This case demonstrates important lessons for other countries in transition by highlighting the extent to which analysis of political history can be instructive for determination of more feasible boundaries for future health policy action

  14. Policy-Relevant Systematic Reviews to Strengthen Health Systems: Models and Mechanisms to Support Their Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Sandra; Dickson, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    Support for producing systematic reviews about health systems is less well developed than for those about clinical practice. From interviewing policy makers and systematic reviewers we identified institutional mechanisms which bring systematic reviews and policy priorities closer by harnessing organisational and individual motivations, emphasising…

  15. Social Media Policy in Social Work Education: A Review and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpman, Hannah E.; Drisko, James

    2016-01-01

    Although social media use has grown dramatically, program policies have not kept pace. Some programs now state that student social media activities have led to professional conduct reviews and may violate ethical standards. This article reviews current social media policies and conceptualizes their key elements. A review of current social media…

  16. Reviews of the Norwegian climate policy - a synthesis of four international reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfsen, Knut H.; Bjoernaes, Christian; Reed, Eilif Ursin

    2011-07-01

    The report is a synthesis of four reviews on the Norwegian climate policy: 1. Environmental performance review of Norway, OECD 2011 2. Energy Policies of IEA Countries, Norway, IEA 2011 3. Economic Survey of Norway, OECD 2010 4. Report on the in-depth review of the fifth national communication of Norway.(auth)

  17. Financial Literacy: A Review of Government Policy and Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Taylor

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades there has been robust discussion by many governments and financial communityleaders generally, that financial security can only be achieved when a country’s population is considered to befinancially literate. Hence individuals need to be financially literate if they are to make informed decisionsabout savings, investments, debt and most importantly when considering retirement issues. No longer canthere be a reliance on social security in retirement due to the ever increasing ageing population and adeclining tax base worldwide.In both Australia and New Zealand, governments have put structures in place as a result of external evidencesuggesting both populations have questionable levels of financial literacy. Both governments have formulatedpolicies and embarked upon initiatives to address this issue. The strategies and structures used, whilst similar,encompassed some unique elements which makes a comparative investigation and discussion interesting.The outcomes of this research paper highlight that even with similar desired outcomes there can be multiplepathways.The rationale for this paper was the lack of any published academic literature in both Australia and NewZealand that reported on the stated government policies and there subsequent initiatives that related to theimprovement of financial literacy. Whilst structures to address government concerns have been put in place,the ability to assess the effectiveness of these initiatives has proven difficult, due to the sparse nature ofpublicly available information and the lack of access to the survey design, development and analysis. It shouldbe noted that this is an exploratory paper primarily to raise questions rather that provide a critical assessmentof either countries policies.While this research paper primarily seeks to describe and review both the policies and strategies implementedby the Australian and New Zealand governments in respect of financial literacy

  18. Unemployment: Some Trends, Causes and Policy Implications. Evidence from the Federal Republic of Germany, France, and the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ginneken, W.

    1981-01-01

    About three-quarters of current unemployment in these countries is due to deficient labor force demand. Changes in economic policy and improvement in labor mobility are necessary elements in solving the problem. (Author/SK)

  19. Climate protection policy in Germany. A critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemmer, P.

    2000-01-01

    The review of the economic aspects of environmental protection by Paul Klemmer covers these three points: (1) Is there a need for action to protect the climate, and what are its dimensions? (2) How should the German negotiating position in Kyoto and within the European Union be evaluated? (3) Did Germany promise more than it will be able to deliver in its CO 2 reduction policy? It is seen, against the very background of economic factors, that it remains highly unclear why Germany insists on conducting a climate protection policy mainly within the country, although the same amount of money spent in non-OECD countries could achieve a vastly greater reduction of CO 2 emissions. The authors also shows that Germany is unable to meet the postulated goals of reduction unless it is willing to accept grave economic problems. Especially the reduction in the contribution of nuclear power is counterproductive in the light of aspects of climate protection. This is even more true in a deregulated electricity market. (orig.) [de

  20. Energy policies of IEA countries: Ireland 2007 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Ireland's remarkable economic growth over the last 15 years had strong effects on the energy sector. Due to rapidly increasing demand, Ireland has become much more dependent on international energy markets than it was in the past. For Irish energy policy, 2007 marks the end of the transition in market liberalisation with the introduction of a unified national electricity market. In addition, the publication of a new energy policy should help to ensure future security of supply and bring environmental improvements of energy use. Ireland is highly dependent on oil and increasingly dependent on natural gas. The price of these two commodities has strongly increased recently, which results in a heavy burden for the Irish economy and a risk for energy security. The main alternative in the supply side is coal and peat, which causes greenhouse gas emissions to rise much faster than expected. This review analyses the energy challenges facing Ireland and suggests solutions, focussing on moving ahead with market reform and increasing the energy efficiency of the Irish economy. Establishing the 'all-island' electricity market will be of critical importance. Sharper focus on energy efficiency in all sectors of the economy, but in particular in transport and buildings, must be a priority. Finally, to achieve its ambitious goals for renewables in energy supply, Ireland will have to provide ample resources for research and development, to allow technologies such as ocean power to move from the laboratory to the market. 23 figs., 26 tabs., 4 annexes

  1. Policies for closing down nuclear power plants. A Spanish review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz del Olmo, G.A.

    2000-01-01

    A review of policies concerned with closing down the Spanish nuclear power plants is described, together with the role of Spanish Group of Municipalities affected by NPPs (AMAC) since its establishment in 1988. Currently there are 9 nuclear reactors operating in seven cities, contributing to the national network bu 39.3% of gross power generation, and one reactor dismantled after the accident in Vandellos in 1989. The main objectives of AMAC activity are concerned with security, economic development and transparency. It has an important role in improvement of the quality of life of the population in municipalities with operating NPPs. It is involved in solving the problems related to radioactive waste management and disposal

  2. Housing Relocation Policy and Violence: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Andrea; Duell, Jessica; O'Malley, Teagen; Documet, Patricia; Garland, Richard; Albert, Steven; Fabio, Anthony

    2016-12-01

    This article summarizes and reviews the cross-discipline literature on violent crime in destination neighborhoods postrelocation in order to build a more comprehensive picture of risk factors for violence, as well as how and why housing policies influence risk of violence. High rates of violent crime continue to be a persistent problem in areas of concentrated poverty and public housing. Modern housing programs such as Moving to Opportunity and Housing Opportunities for People Everywhere are popular interventions for reducing the density of low-income people receiving public housing assistance by relocating residents of distressed housing projects. However, evidence suggests that relocated residents may not experience less violence or improved safety in their new communities. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Forest Reform in Tanzania: A Review of Policy and Legislation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community participation in forest management has existed in the United Republic of Tanzania for a long time, but on a small scale. It is common to find trees of certain species are being protected and managed for traditional reasons. It has been observed that forests and woodlands that are managed using traditional ...

  4. Energy policies of IEA countries: the United Kingdom 2006 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The United Kingdom is facing a critical moment in its energy policy: North Sea oil and gas production is declining, dependence on imported energy is increasing, while rising energy prices and climate change considerations pose further challenges. The second thematic review of the UK addresses these challenges, focusing on energy investment, energy efficiency, and the return of nuclear power to the political agenda. Almost all coal-fired and nuclear power capacity in the United Kingdom will be retired within the next 15 years. The review encourages the government to maintain its trust in the market mechanism for the delivery of required investment and security of supply. However, it also identifies the need for the government to play a more active role in setting the framework. On the demand side, the IEA considers the government's 'Energy Efficiency Commitment' (EEC) an impressive success. The EEC was introduced in 2002 and is an energy-saving programme under which suppliers must achieve efficiency targets in households. Challenges, such as the requirement that 50 per cent of savings come from low-income households, remain, and the review invites the government to investigate ways in which fuel poverty could be reduced without distorting the EEC. The review also assesses the government's shifting direction on nuclear energy and backs this new path. It argues that the development of a positive investment framework in planning and licensing - without direct intervention in investment decisions favouring nuclear - will allow investors to judge the viability of new plants. 3 apps.

  5. Special Report on China and Chinese Provinces. Policy and Regulatory Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, A.; Hinostroza Parades, J.A.; O' Leary, M.; Owen, G. (ed.); Lemaire, X. (ed.) [Sustainable Energy Regulation Network SERN, Warwick Business School, University of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    This review outlines the legislation and policies and roles of institutions involved in sustainable energy (renewable energy and energy efficiency) in China at Central and Provincial Government level.

  6. Rape in Armed Conflicts in the Democratic Republic of Congo: A Systematic Review of the Scientific Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabengele Mpinga, Emmanuel; Koya, Mapendo; Hasselgard-Rowe, Jennifer; Jeannot, Emilien; Rehani, Sylvie B; Chastonay, Philippe

    2017-12-01

    We conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature between 1996 and 2013 on rape in war-ridden Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in order to better understand the interest of the scientific community in describing the magnitude and characteristics of the problem. The literature search was conducted in French and English using several databases (Pubmed, PsycInfo, Sapphire, BDSP, Embase, Rero, and Web of Science) with the key words "rape and DRC" combined with several Medical Subject Headings concepts. Our systematic review yielded 2,087 references, among which only 27 are original studies, that is 20 are based on population surveys and the remaining 7 are original data based on case studies and reviews. Ten studies provided prevalence rates of rape victims, 18 provided specific information on the profile of the victims, 10 reported that most of the perpetrators of rape were military personnel, 14 referred to the negligence of the government in protecting victims, and 10 reported a lack of competent health-care facilities. The awareness of rape in conflict-ridden DRC is still limited as reported in the scientific literature: Published scientific papers are scarce. Yet more research would probably help mobilize local authorities and the international community against this basic human rights violation.

  7. Preventive impact on corruption in the Republic of Kazakhstan: review of the commentary to the law of the Republic of Kazakhstan «on combating corruption»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey P. Danilov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective evaluation of the Commentary to the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan quotOn combating corruptionquot prepared by a group of authors under the scientific editorship of Doctor of Law N. N. Turetskiy and the assessment of preventative impact on corrupt behaviour in that state based on the the Commentary. Methods universal dialectical method of scientific cognition of social phenomena and processes with application of general scientific methods analysis synthesis comparison used in the modern law. Results the paper gives a positive assessment of the Commentary to the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan quotOn combating corruptionquot prepared by a group of authors under the scientific editorship of Doctor of Law N. N. Turetskiy. The tools and mechanisms of preventive impact on corrupt behaviour in the Republic of Kazakhstan are examined and some measures on the improvement of tools and mechanisms for combating corruption in the Russian Federation are suggested with the account of experience accumulated by Kazakhstan specialists.

  8. Plug-in Electric Vehicle Policy Effectiveness: Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Levin, Todd [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Plotkin, Steven E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The U.S. federal government first introduced incentives for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) through the American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009, which provided a tax credit of up to $7,500 for a new PEV purchase. Soon after, in December 2010, two mass-market PEVs were introduced, the plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) Chevrolet Volt and the battery electric vehicle (BEV) Nissan LEAF. Since that time, numerous additional types of PEV incentives have been provided by federal and regional (state or city) government agencies and utility companies. These incentives cover vehicle purchases as well as the purchase and installation of electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) through purchase rebates, tax credits, or discounted purchase taxes or registration fees. Additional incentives, such as free high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lane access and parking benefits, may also be offered to PEV owners. Details about these incentives, such as the extent to which each type is offered by region, can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Alternative Fuel Data Center (http://www.afdc.energy.gov/). In addition to these incentives, other policies, such as zero-emission vehicle (ZEV) mandates,1 have also been implemented, and community-scale federal incentives, such as the DOE PEV Readiness Grants, have been awarded throughout the country to improve PEV market penetration. This report reviews 18 studies that analyze the impacts of past or current incentives and policies that were designed to support PEV adoption in the U.S. These studies were selected for review after a comprehensive survey of the literature and discussion with a number of experts in the field. The report summarizes the lessons learned and best practices from the experiences of these incentive programs to date, as well as the challenges they face and barriers that inhibit further market adoption of PEVs. Studies that make projections based on future policy scenarios and those that focus solely

  9. Labor positions on worksite tobacco control policies: a review of arbitration cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, G; Youngstrom, R; Maclachlan, C; Gibson, S J; Emmons, K; Johnston, D; Levenstein, C

    1997-01-01

    Although worksite smoking restrictions have become increasingly common in recent years, organized labor has generally not been involved in the adoption of these policies; some evidence suggests that unions often oppose the adoption of worksite smoking policies. To contribute to an understanding of labor's role in tobacco control policies, this paper reports the results of a review of 85 arbitration cases and 5 cases of unfair labor practices charges published between 1986 and 1994. In most of the cases reviewed, management unilaterally imposed a new smoking policy, which the union then grieved. Union opposition to the policy generally focused on the process by which the policy was adopted, rather than the content of the policy; the concern was that management had breached its duty to bargain with the union regarding the adoption of the policy. These results underline the importance of joint labor-management actions on worksite tobacco control policies.

  10. Integrated environmental policy: A review of economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesmeth, Hans; Häckl, Dennis

    2017-04-01

    Holistic environmental policies, which emerged from a mere combination of technical activities in waste management some 40 years ago, constitute the most advanced level of environmental policies. These approaches to environmental policy, among them the policies in integrated waste management, attempt to guide economic agents to an environment-friendly behaviour. Nevertheless, current holistic policies in waste management, including policies on one-way drinks containers and waste electrical and electronic equipment, and implementations of extended producer responsibility with further applications to waste electrical and electronic equipment, reveal more or less severe deficiencies - despite some positive examples. This article relates these policy failures, which are not necessarily the result of an insufficient compliance with the regulations, to missing constitutive elements of what is going to be called an 'integrated environmental policy'. This article therefore investigates - mostly from a practical point of view - constitutive elements, which are necessary for a holistic policy to serve as a well-functioning allocation mechanism. As these constitutive elements result from a careful 'integration' of the environmental commodities into the economic allocation problems, we refer to these policies as 'integrated environmental policies'. The article also discusses and illustrates the main steps of designing such a policy - for waste electrical and electronic equipment and a (possible) ban of Glyphosat in agriculture. As these policies are dependent on economic and political stability with environmental awareness sufficiently developed, the article addresses mostly waste management policies in highly industrialised countries.

  11. Training of teachers in the context of the first Republic in Portugal: guidelines for understanding of a policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Gomes Ferreira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we set out to study teacher training in the framework of the First Republic of Portugal (1910-1926. Republicanism embodied a project of the refounding of the nation, which found in education the means of achieving such aspiration. Believing in human plasticity, it elected education, aligned with scientific development, through the path of schooling, as the tool for shaping the new Republican citizen. Teachers had a crucial part to play in this project. Addressing legislation, file sources (exercises, summary books, assignments, inter allia, printed sources (books, workbooks, etc. and specialised media on education and teaching, we discuss training programmes for primary and secondary education teachers. We look into the virtues of its implementation and submit our reading thereof, comparing regular primary education to regular teacher training. We conduct an in depth analysis of the curricula and the training guidelines, focusing in particular on the study plans and their components, from scientific education, the specialisation in the area of expertise and psycho-pedagogy, to teaching practice.Received:  26/10/2013 / Accepted: 17/11/2013How to reference this articleGomes Ferreira, A., Mota, L. (2014. Formación de profesorado en el contexto de la Primera República en Portugal: pautas para la comprensión de una política. Foro de Educación, 12(17, pp. 45-68. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14516/fde.2014.012.017.003

  12. Regional disparities in medical equipment distribution in the Slovak Republic - a platform for a health policy regulatory mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavurová, Beáta; Kováč, Viliam; Fedačko, Ján

    2017-11-09

    This study aims to examine the localisation of selected parameters in the deployment and use of medical equipment in the Slovak Republic and to verify potential regional disparities. The study evaluates the benefits of an analytical platform for regulatory mechanisms in the healthcare system. The correspondence analysis is applied to the entire data set containing information regarding medical equipment distribution and mortality. The results highlight regional differences in the use of medical equipment throughout the analysed period from 2008 to 2014. The total amount of medical equipment increased slightly to 9192 devices during the time span. In 2014, there was a significant decrease of 16.44%. Disparities are found in the frequencies and structure of medical equipment. In some regions, medical equipment is not present or is present in low numbers. The results regarding regional disparities demonstrate the regional development of the amount of medical equipment. The deployment of medical equipment is not proportional, and not all of the analysed devices are available in each region. The tests also indicate the appropriateness of the amount of medical equipment and create a platform for further investigation. The results of the analysis suggest the unsuitable distribution of medical equipment throughout the Slovak regions, where there are significant regional disparities. These findings can serve as a monitoring platform to evaluate the accessibility and efficiency of medical equipment usage. No human participants were involved in the research.

  13. IT Policies for Development: Analysis and Recommendations of Free Libre Open Source Software Initiatives of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado Rangel, Edgar A.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years the two concepts of economic development and technological advancement have become entwined so that they have, in many cases, come to mean the same thing. For countries seeking economic development through engagement with the Information Economy, policies supporting technological development claim privileged positions in national…

  14. 3 CFR 13493 - Executive Order 13493 of January 22, 2009. Review of Detention Policy Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Detention Policy Options 13493 Order 13493 Presidential Documents Executive Orders Executive Order 13493 of January 22, 2009 EO 13493 Review of Detention Policy Options By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, in order to develop policies for the...

  15. HIV/AIDS and Housing Policy Review in South Africa | Ndinda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article discusses policy issues around HIV/ AIDS, through a review of international and. South African literature on housing. The article identifi es gaps in the existing housing and other sectoral policies and makes suggestions on the possible policy options that can be devised to address the HIV/AIDS epidemic in South

  16. Energy Policies of IEA Countries - Canada -- 2009 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-04-12

    Canada, with its diverse and balanced portfolio of energy resources, is one of the largest producers and exporters of energy among IEA member countries. The energy sector plays an increasingly important role for the Canadian economy and for global energy security, as its abundant resource base has the potential to deliver even greater volumes of energy. The federal, provincial and territorial governments of Canada are all strongly committed to the sustainable development of the country's natural resources and have a long-standing and informed awareness of the need for each to contribute to the development of the energy sector. Furthermore, the government of Canada seeks to achieve a balance between the environmentally responsible production and use of energy, the growth and competitiveness of the economy, and secure and competitively priced energy and infrastructure. Nonetheless, the long-term sustainability of the sector remains a challenge. Due to climatic, geographic and other factors, Canada is one of the highest per-capita CO2 emitters in the OECD and has higher energy intensity than any IEA member country. A comprehensive national energy efficiency strategy, coupled with a coordinated climate change policy targeted at the key emitting sectors, is needed. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a priority for the federal government and presents Canada with an opportunity to develop a new technology that can reduce greenhouse gas emissions on a large scale. The IEA recommends that Canada provide international leadership in the development of CCS technology. This review analyses the energy challenges facing Canada and provides sectoral critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide Canada towards a more sustainable energy future.

  17. A review of the Australian healthcare system: A policy perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambasivan, Murali

    2018-01-01

    This article seeks to review the Australian healthcare system and compare it to similar systems in other countries to highlight the main issues and problems. A literature search for articles relating to the Australian and other developed countries’ healthcare systems was conducted by using Google and the library of Victoria University, Melbourne. Data from the websites of the Commonwealth of Australia, the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, the Australian Productivity Commission, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Bank have also been used. Although care within the Australian healthcare system is among the best in the world, there is a need to change the paradigm currently being used to measure the outcomes and allocate resources. The Australian healthcare system is potentially dealing with two main problems: (a) resource allocation, and (b) performance and patient outcomes improvements. An interdisciplinary research approach in the areas of performance measurement, quality and patient outcomes improvement could be adopted to discover new insights, by using the policy implementation error/efficiency and bureaucratic capacity. Hospital managers, executives and healthcare management practitioners could use an interdisciplinary approach to design new performance measurement models, in which financial performance, quality, healthcare and patient outcomes are blended in, for resource allocation and performance improvement. This article recommends that public policy implementation error and the bureaucratic capacity models be applied to healthcare to optimise the outcomes for the healthcare system in Australia. In addition, it highlights the need for evaluation of the current reimbursement method, freedom of choice to patients and a regular scrutiny of the appropriateness of care. PMID:29686869

  18. Republic of Armenia Export-led Industrial Development Strategy : Implementation Review and Recommendations on New Toolset

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    The lessons learned from the implications of the global crisis for the Armenian economy led the Government of Armenia to refine its approach to economic development policy. The business environment, the market structure, and the incentive pattern had not fostered reallocation of resources into more productive areas or the emergence of internationally competitive products and services. Desp...

  19. Manpower Policy and Programmes in Canada. Reviews of Manpower and Social Policies No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This report describes the Canadian labor force and economic climate, and the employment and manpower policies which comprise Canada's active manpower policy. Expanded programs for vocational and technical training are recommended, especially for unemployed youth. (BH)

  20. A Review of School Board Cyberbullying Policies in Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosworthy, Nicole; Rinaldi, Christina

    2012-01-01

    An online search for school board cyberbullying/bullying policies in Alberta was conducted. The results showed that while only five school boards had a bullying policy, many schools had technology or Internet use guidelines. The online search included an assessment of one extensive school board cyberbullying policy as well as Internet use…

  1. 75 FR 24578 - Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of New Shipper Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic from the People...) under the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC) covering the... initiation of a NSR and initiated Qingdao Sea-line's NSR. See Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of...

  2. A Policy Intervention Study to Identify High-Risk Groups to Prevent Industrial Accidents in Republic of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwan Hyung Yi

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: The manufacturing industry, age over 50 years and workplaces with more than 50 employees showed a high severity level of occupational accidents. Male workers showed a higher severity level of occupational accidents than female workers. The employment period of < 3 years and newly hired workers with a relatively shorter working period are likely to have more occupational accidents than others. Overall, an industrial accident prevention policy must be established by concentrating all available resources and capacities of these high-risk groups.

  3. Management of dredge material in the Republic of Ireland - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, C; Harrington, J

    2012-05-01

    As an island nation the Republic of Ireland's ports and harbours are key to the economic wellbeing of the country as they are the primary transport link to the United Kingdom, mainland Europe and beyond. This paper examines the main aspects of the Irish dredging industry with comparison to international practice and standards, including the source of the dredge material and volumes generated annually, the dredging plant employed and the management processes currently practised. Relevant European and Irish legislation governing dredging, disposal at sea and waste licensing are presented. The potential impacts of disposal at sea are discussed with the implications for the Irish dredging industry of recently introduced European Directives assessed. Beneficial use rates for dredge material and the techniques implemented in Ireland are examined and compared with international practice. Recent notable beneficial use projects for dredge material and proposed innovative dredge material management techniques for specific dredging projects in Ireland are presented. Proposals to encourage greater beneficial use of dredge material and minimise disposal at sea for Ireland are presented including the introduction of environmental credits, tax breaks and a grant system for pilot schemes. An alternative disposal at sea charge fee structure is also recommended to encourage alternative dredge material management practices. Ireland's management of contaminated sediment is also presented with recent projects described highlighting the current practice of primarily exporting contaminated sediment to mainland Europe. Alternative methods of treatment of contaminated sediment are assessed in an Irish context. Future issues and challenges facing the Irish dredging industry are assessed and a critical analysis of the current approaches to dredge material management is presented. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Information sources for obesity prevention policy research: a review of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanneke, Rosie; Young, Sabrina K

    2017-08-08

    Systematic identification of evidence in health policy can be time-consuming and challenging. This study examines three questions pertaining to systematic reviews on obesity prevention policy, in order to identify the most efficient search methods: (1) What percentage of the primary studies selected for inclusion in the reviews originated in scholarly as opposed to gray literature? (2) How much of the primary scholarly literature in this topic area is indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE? (3) Which databases index the greatest number of primary studies not indexed in PubMed, and are these databases searched consistently across systematic reviews? We identified systematic reviews on obesity prevention policy and explored their search methods and citations. We determined the percentage of scholarly vs. gray literature cited, the most frequently cited journals, and whether each primary study was indexed in PubMed. We searched 21 databases for all primary study articles not indexed in PubMed to determine which database(s) indexed the highest number of these relevant articles. In total, 21 systematic reviews were identified. Ten of the 21 systematic reviews reported searching gray literature, and 12 reviews ultimately included gray literature in their analyses. Scholarly articles accounted for 577 of the 649 total primary study papers. Of these, 495 (76%) were indexed in PubMed. Google Scholar retrieved the highest number of the remaining 82 non-PubMed scholarly articles, followed by Scopus and EconLit. The Journal of the American Dietetic Association was the most-cited journal. Researchers can maximize search efficiency by searching a small yet targeted selection of both scholarly and gray literature resources. A highly sensitive search of PubMed and those databases that index the greatest number of relevant articles not indexed in PubMed, namely multidisciplinary and economics databases, could save considerable time and effort. When combined with a gray literature search and

  5. Family Planning Policy Environment in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Levers of Positive Change and Prospects for Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukaba, Thibaut; Binanga, Arsene; Fohl, Sarah; Bertrand, Jane T

    2015-06-17

    Building on expressed support from the Prime Minister to the Ministries of Health and Planning, the country's new family planning commitment grew out of: (1) recognition of the impact of family planning on maternal mortality and economic development; (2) knowledge sharing of best practices from other African countries; (3) participatory development of a national strategic plan; (4) strong collaboration between stakeholders; (5) effective advocacy by champions including country and international experts; and (6) increased donor support. The question becomes: Will the favorable policy environment translate into effective local programming?

  6. Amendment of Republic Act No. 5207 and creation of the Philippine Regulatory Commission: a policy issue paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, G. Jr.

    1987-10-01

    In line with the government's reorganization and in view of the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) being replaced by the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) with a different function, an assessment of the usefulness and relevance of RA 5207 is discussed and the different stakeholders identified. The policy problem is how to revive the provision of RA 5207 and create the agency which will implement the provision of the Act. The author's recommendation includes the amendment of RA 5207 and the creation of the Philippine Regulatory Commission with five members who would be responsible for protecting the public health and safety, the environment and safeguarding nuclear materials and nuclear installations. (ELC)

  7. 75 FR 343 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... determined that three timely requests for a new shipper review of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic... INFORMATION: [[Page 344

  8. 75 FR 7566 - Saccharin from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Changed Circumstances Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    ...-nutritive sweetener used in beverages and foods, personal care products such as toothpaste, table top... received a letter opposing the request for a changed circumstances review from Kinetic Industries...

  9. 75 FR 64695 - First Administrative Review of Sodium Hexametaphosphate From the People's Republic of China...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... tariff heading, CAS registry number or CAS name. The product covered by this review includes sodium...--Electricity Comment 2: Date of Sale Comment 3: Surrogate Values A. Sodium Pyrophosphate B. Coal C. Coke D...

  10. Putting theory into practice: the introduction of obstetric near-miss case reviews in the Republic of Moldova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltag, Valentina; Filippi, Véronique; Bacci, Alberta

    2012-04-01

    The quality of obstetric services remains a major issue in the Republic of Moldova. Services are well staffed and intensively used but do not deliver the expected outputs. Providers have limited experience with clinical audits and perceive them as a way to punish individuals. Near-miss case reviews were introduced. Discussing near-miss cases might be less threatening to providers than discussing maternal deaths because the women survived. The quality of audits was evaluated against explicit criteria in three pilot maternities. On average one case was discussed every 5-6 weeks. Information from women's interviews was presented at all meetings, although the quality of the women's interviews was low. The weakest aspect of care was monitoring and follow-up treatment; the majority of proposed actions concerned the availability or compliance to protocols (52-69%). Proposed actions were consistent with prior analysis (95-100%), formulated in a clear and measurable way (58-90%), but the rate of failure to identify important actions was quite high in one facility (33%). Actions were more likely to be implemented when they concerned organization and management, drugs and supplies and least likely when they concerned staff. It is relatively easy to build capacity in organizing obstetric 'near-miss' audits, but more difficult to ensure that discussions are transposed into actions. In settings with no tradition of patients' involvement, increased attention should be given to providers' capacity to tackle patient-related factors.

  11. Prevalence of Endemic Pig-Associated Zoonoses in Southeast Asia: A Review of Findings from the Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, Anna L; Burniston, Stephanie; Conlan, James V; Inthavong, Phouth; Khamlome, Boualam; Welburn, Susan C; Gilbert, Jeffrey; Allen, John; Blacksell, Stuart D

    2015-05-01

    The increasing intensification of pork production in southeast Asia necessitates an urgent requirement to better understand the dual impact of pig-associated zoonotic disease on both pig production and human health in the region. Sharing porous borders with five countries and representing many regional ethnicities and agricultural practices, the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) appears well placed to gauge the levels of pig-associated zoonoses circulating in the wider region. Despite this, little is known about the true impact of zoonotic pathogens such as leptospirosis, Trichinella, hepatitis E virus (HEV), Japanese encephalitis (JE), and Taenia solium on human health and livestock production in the country. A comprehensive review of the published prevalences of these five pig-associated zoonoses in Lao PDR has demonstrated that although suspicion remains high of their existence in pig reservoirs across the country, epidemiological data are scarce; only 31 epidemiological studies have been undertaken on these diseases in the past 25 years. A greater understanding of the zoonoses prevalence and subsequent risks associated with pork production in the southeast Asian region could help focus public health and food safety interventions at key points along the value chain, benefiting both livestock producers and the broader animal and human health systems in the region. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  12. Book Review Education Policy: Globalization, Citizenship and Democracy

    OpenAIRE

    Toraman, Çetin

    2014-01-01

    In today's world, countries are facing with the fact that they are getting more global day by day. Accordingly, education is getting more complex and there is an increasing cultural and ethnic diversity among schools. This also has an impact on educational policies. Mark Olssen, John Codd and Anne-Marie O'Neill describe how educational policies should be made and applied in their 12-chapter-book “Education Policy: Globalization, Citizenship and Democracy” which also focuses on cultu...

  13. Critical review of jatropha biodiesel promotion policies in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sunil; Chaube, Alok; Jain, Shashi Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Jatropha, a non-edible oil seed yielding plant has been identified by the Government of India to produce biodiesel under National Biodiesel Mission. Failure of phase-I of National Biodiesel Mission and likely failure of phase-II requires critical analysis of policy frameworks related to its long term sustainability. Indian biofuel promotion policies like Biodiesel Purchase Policy and National Biofuel Policy have failed to yield any visible results. No tangible ground work is visible as of now to ensure success of various government plans and policies related to adoption of jatropha biodiesel. It is clearly evident that some serious bottlenecks are delaying the adoption of jatropha biodiesel. Present work identifies important policy bottlenecks like availability of land, non-remunerative pricing policy and state fear relating to loss of revenue in the case of zero duty regimes. This paper attempts to explore and critically analyze present policies and possible options taking into account the recent Indian experiences for successful adoption of jatropha biodiesel. - Highlights: ► Wrong waste land estimates for jatropha has failed Biodiesel Mission. ► No redressal of technological problems with biodiesel usage. ► Present estimated costing of jatropha biodiesel is Rs. 46.45 per liter. ► Promotion of any biofuel needs central government assistance to the states. ► Targets under National Biofuel Policy are also unlikely to be met.

  14. The evolution of health policy guidelines for assisted reproduction in the Republic of Ireland, 2004-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sills Eric

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This analysis reports on Irish regulatory policies for in vitro fertilisation (IVF from 2004-2009, in the context of membership changes within the Medical Council of Ireland. To achieve this, the current (2009 edition of the Guide to Professional Conduct & Ethics was compared with the immediately preceding version (2004. The statutory composition of the Medical Council from 2004-2009 was also studied. Content analysis of the two editions identified the following differences: 1 The 2004 guide states that IVF "should only be used after thorough investigation has failed to reveal a treatable cause of the infertility", while the 2009 guide indicates IVF "should only be used after thorough investigation has shown that no other treatment is likely to be effective"; 2 The 2004 stipulation stating that fertilized ovum (embryo "must be used for normal implantation and must not be deliberately destroyed" is absent from the 2009 guidelines; 3 The option to donate "unused fertilised ova" (embryos is omitted from the 2009 guidelines; 4 The 2009 guidelines state that ART should be offered only by "suitably qualified professionals, in appropriate facilities, and according to the international best practice"; 5 The 2009 guidelines introduce criteria that donations as part of a donor programme should be "altruistic and non-commercial". These last two points represent original regulatory efforts not appearing in the 2004 edition. The Medical Practitioners Act 2007 reduced the number of physicians on the Medical Council to 6 (of 25 members. The ethical guidelines from 2004 preceded this change, while the reconstituted Medical Council published the 2009 version. Between 2004 and 2009, substantial modifications in reproductive health policy were incorporated into the Medical Council's ethical guidelines. The absence of controlling Irish legislation means that patients and IVF providers in Ireland must rely upon these guidelines by default. Our critique

  15. The evolution of health policy guidelines for assisted reproduction in the Republic of Ireland, 2004-2009

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, David J

    2011-06-24

    Abstract This analysis reports on Irish regulatory policies for in vitro fertilisation (IVF) from 2004-2009, in the context of membership changes within the Medical Council of Ireland. To achieve this, the current (2009) edition of the Guide to Professional Conduct & Ethics was compared with the immediately preceding version (2004). The statutory composition of the Medical Council from 2004-2009 was also studied. Content analysis of the two editions identified the following differences: 1) The 2004 guide states that IVF "should only be used after thorough investigation has failed to reveal a treatable cause of the infertility", while the 2009 guide indicates IVF "should only be used after thorough investigation has shown that no other treatment is likely to be effective"; 2) The 2004 stipulation stating that fertilized ovum (embryo) "must be used for normal implantation and must not be deliberately destroyed" is absent from the 2009 guidelines; 3) The option to donate "unused fertilised ova" (embryos) is omitted from the 2009 guidelines; 4) The 2009 guidelines state that ART should be offered only by "suitably qualified professionals, in appropriate facilities, and according to the international best practice"; 5) The 2009 guidelines introduce criteria that donations as part of a donor programme should be "altruistic and non-commercial". These last two points represent original regulatory efforts not appearing in the 2004 edition. The Medical Practitioners Act 2007 reduced the number of physicians on the Medical Council to 6 (of 25) members. The ethical guidelines from 2004 preceded this change, while the reconstituted Medical Council published the 2009 version. Between 2004 and 2009, substantial modifications in reproductive health policy were incorporated into the Medical Council\\'s ethical guidelines. The absence of controlling Irish legislation means that patients and IVF providers in Ireland must rely upon these guidelines by default. Our critique traces the

  16. Dismissive reviews in education policy research: A list

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P. Phelps

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Included in these web pages are the statements—the dismissive reviews—of some prominent education policy researchers. Most of their statements are inaccurate; it is possible that all of them are. Certainly, all of them are misleading. Each linked file includes the dismissive statements, the names of the lead authors (in bold when known and co-authors, title, source, date, and, page numbers for the statement and hyperlink to the source, when available, all listed in reverse chronological order. “Dismissive review” is the general term. In the “type” column of the files, a finer distinction is made among simply “dismissive”—meaning a claim that there is no or little previous research, “denigrating”—meaning a claim that previous research exists but is so inferior it is not worth even citing, and “firstness”—a claim to be the first in the history of the world to ever conduct such a study. For the most part, I have included statements made by “serial dismissers”, researchers who dismiss repeatedly on a variety of topics. This is done to help counter the argument that they might be innocent, actually did make an effort to look for previous research, and simply could not find it. In most cases they dismiss a research literature that is hundreds or thousands of studies deep. And, when they do that repeatedly across a variety of topics, the odds that their dismissive behavior could be innocent fade to minuscule. - See more at: http://nonpartisaneducation.org/Review/Resources/DismissiveList.htm#sthash.TXzlmZhZ.dpuf

  17. A literature review of the market effects of federal biofuel policy and recommendations for future policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Alex Elgin

    The United States has had a federal biofuels policy since the 1970s. The purpose of this policy was to help the development of a biofuel industry during a time of high fuel prices in order to provide a domestic alternative to expensive foreign oil. Later the policy was changed to help lower the environmental impact caused by conventional fuels. Since that time the industry has grown and currently produces around 15 billion gallons of biofuels every year. The current federal biofuel policy is largely based on one program, the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS), which mandates the production and blending of several different classes of biofuels and provides a form of subsidy to the biofuel industry. This paper examines the market effects of the federal biofuel policy and provides recommendations for improving the policy to counteract any negative effects. Federal biofuel policy has many far-reaching market effects. Some are easily calculable through expenditures and lost revenues, while others are harder to quantify because their full effects are not yet known. By evaluating these market effects, this paper will provide ample evidence that the federal biofuels policy needs to change, and will show what effects these changes could induce. The biofuels industry largely owes its existence to government policies, however as the research shows the industry can now stand on its own. This paper will examine what will happen if the federal policy is eliminated and what the future of the biofuels industry could hold. Based on these examinations, it is unlikely that the industry needs further government support and policies should be adjusted in light of this.

  18. Policy options to contain healthcare costs: a review and classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stadhouders, N.W.; Koolman, X.; Tanke, M.A.C.; Maarse, H.; Jeurissen, P.P.T.

    2016-01-01

    Containing health care costs has been a challenge for most OECD member states. We classify 2250 cost containment policies in forty-one groups of policy options. This conceptual framework might act as a toolkit for policymakers that seek to develop strategies for cost control; and for researchers

  19. Policy options to contain healthcare costs: a review and classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadhouders, Niek; Koolman, Xander; Tanke, Marit; Maarse, Hans; Jeurissen, Patrick

    2016-05-01

    Containing health care costs has been a challenge for most OECD member states. We classify 2250 cost containment policies in forty-one groups of policy options. This conceptual framework might act as a toolkit for policymakers that seek to develop strategies for cost control; and for researchers that seek to evaluate them. We found that certain important cost drivers such as wages and capital are being sparsely covered. We distinguish four primary targets to contain costs: volume controls, price controls, budgeting and market oriented policies. Price controls and budgeting, both seen as relatively effective, appear substantially less often in literature than volume controls and market oriented policies. The relative use of each option hardly changed over time, although the health system type did matter. Market oriented policies were more likely to be suggested for countries with public provision of health care, as well as for the US system. In contrast, budgeting policy proposals were more likely to be suggested for countries with market provision systems, such as Canada, Germany and France. Implementation of cost containment policies could lead to convergence of health care systems, except for the US system, if policies are implemented based on the literature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Colonial land policies in Lagos | Davies | Lagos Historical Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Land policies in colonial Lagos were variegated. They alternated between freehold at inception of colonialism in 1861, and customary tenure at the beginning of the twentieth century and later coalesced into a combination of both. The variegated nature of the colonial government's land policies created a lot of confusion in ...

  1. Review of National Education Policies: Teacher Quality and Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Frances

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of how teacher quality and learning outcomes are included in national education policies. It responds to a set of specific questions focused on strategies to improve learning, links between teacher quality and learning outcomes, and how policy seeks to overcome learning obstacles for the most disadvantaged. The…

  2. 77 FR 266 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... determined that two requests for a new shipper review (NSR) under the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The Department published the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from...

  3. College anti-smoking policies and student smoking behavior: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Brooke L; Deiner, Melodi; Pokhrel, Pallav

    2017-01-01

    Currently, most college campuses across the U.S. in some way address on-campus cigarette smoking, mainly through policies that restrict smoking on campus premises. However, it is not well understood whether college-level anti-smoking policies help reduce cigarette smoking among students. In addition, little is known about policies that may have an impact on student smoking behavior. This study attempted to address these issues through a literature review. A systematic literature review was performed. To identify relevant studies, the following online databases were searched using specific keywords: Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Google Scholar. Studies that met the exclusion and inclusion criteria were selected for review. Studies were not excluded based on the type of anti-smoking policy studied. Total 11 studies were included in the review. The majority of the studies (54.5%) were cross-sectional in design, 18% were longitudinal, and the rest involved counting cigarette butts or smokers. Most studies represented more women than men and more Whites than individuals of other ethnic/racial groups. The majority (54.5%) of the studies evaluated 100% smoke-free or tobacco-free campus policies. Other types of policies studied included the use of partial smoking restriction and integration of preventive education and/or smoking cessation programs into college-level policies. As far as the role of campus smoking policies on reducing student smoking behavior is concerned, the results of the cross-sectional studies were mixed. However, the results of the two longitudinal studies reviewed were promising in that policies were found to significantly reduce smoking behavior and pro-smoking attitudes over time. More longitudinal studies are needed to better understand the role of college anti-smoking policies on student smoking behavior. Current data indicate that stricter, more comprehensive policies, and policies that incorporate prevention and cessation programming

  4. Scope of Policy Issues in eHealth: Results From a Structured Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrani, Hammad; Nayani, Parvez; Fahim, Ammad

    2012-01-01

    Background eHealth is widely used as a tool for improving health care delivery and information. However, distinct policies and strategies are required for its proper implementation and integration at national and international levels. Objective To determine the scope of policy issues faced by individuals, institutions, or governments in implementing eHealth programs. Methods We conducted a structured review of both peer-reviewed and gray literature from 1998–2008. A Medline search for peer-reviewed articles found 40 papers focusing on different aspects of eHealth policy. In addition, a Google search found 20 national- and international-level policy papers and documents. We reviewed these articles to extract policy issues and solutions described at different levels of care. Results The literature search found 99 policy issues related to eHealth. We grouped these issues under the following themes: (1) networked care, (2) interjurisdictional practice, (3) diffusion of eHealth/digital divide, (4) eHealth integration with existing systems, (5) response to new initiatives, (6) goal-setting for eHealth policy, (7) evaluation and research, (8) investment, and (9) ethics in eHealth. Conclusions We provide a list of policy issues that should be understood and addressed by policy makers at global, jurisdictional, and institutional levels, to facilitate smooth and reliable planning of eHealth programs. PMID:22343270

  5. Wind energy with special review on its usage in the Republic of Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenov, Arsen

    1996-01-01

    In this paper a short theoretical survey is given on the power limits that could be obtained as a result of the wind kinetic energy and on the development in the construction of different elements of eol power plants. A review is made on the different types of generator's losses. Multiple ways are shown for wind energy storage. Also, a review is given of the autonomic wind systems which are considered as especially attractive, as well as some examples for their realization. The wind energetic potential is analyzed for one location (Main Meteorological station - Stip), and the results from the calculations are given in a graphical form in the appendix. (author). 9 refs., 12 charts

  6. Review of Policy Documents for Nuclear Safety and Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Woong Sik; Choi, Kwang Sik; Choi, Young Sung; Kim, Hho Jung; Kim, Ho Ki

    2006-01-01

    The goal of regulation is to protect public health and safety as well as environment from radiological hazards that may occur as a result of the use of atomic energy. In September 1994, the Korean government issued the Nuclear Safety Policy Statement (NSPS) to establish policy goals of maintaining and achieving high-level of nuclear safety and also help the public understand the national policy and a strong will of the government toward nuclear safety. It declares the importance of establishing safety culture in nuclear community and also specifies five nuclear regulatory principles (Independence, Openness, Clarity, Efficiency and Reliability) and provides the eleven regulatory policy directions. In 2001, the Nuclear Safety Charter was declared to make the highest goal of safety in driving nuclear business clearer; to encourage atomic energy- related institutions and workers to keep in mind the mission and responsibility for assuring safety; to guarantee public confidence in related organizations. The Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) also issues Yearly Regulatory Policy Directions at the beginning of every year. Recently, the third Atomic Energy Promotion Plan (2007-2011) has been established. It becomes necessary for the relevant organizations to prepare the detailed plans on such areas as nuclear development, safety management, regulation, etc. This paper introduces a multi-level structure of nuclear safety and regulation policy documents in Korea and presents some improvements necessary for better application of the policies

  7. Review of Policy Documents for Nuclear Safety and Regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woong Sik; Choi, Kwang Sik; Choi, Young Sung; Kim, Hho Jung; Kim, Ho Ki [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    The goal of regulation is to protect public health and safety as well as environment from radiological hazards that may occur as a result of the use of atomic energy. In September 1994, the Korean government issued the Nuclear Safety Policy Statement (NSPS) to establish policy goals of maintaining and achieving high-level of nuclear safety and also help the public understand the national policy and a strong will of the government toward nuclear safety. It declares the importance of establishing safety culture in nuclear community and also specifies five nuclear regulatory principles (Independence, Openness, Clarity, Efficiency and Reliability) and provides the eleven regulatory policy directions. In 2001, the Nuclear Safety Charter was declared to make the highest goal of safety in driving nuclear business clearer; to encourage atomic energy- related institutions and workers to keep in mind the mission and responsibility for assuring safety; to guarantee public confidence in related organizations. The Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) also issues Yearly Regulatory Policy Directions at the beginning of every year. Recently, the third Atomic Energy Promotion Plan (2007-2011) has been established. It becomes necessary for the relevant organizations to prepare the detailed plans on such areas as nuclear development, safety management, regulation, etc. This paper introduces a multi-level structure of nuclear safety and regulation policy documents in Korea and presents some improvements necessary for better application of the policies.

  8. Valuation of Drug Abuse: A Review of Current Methodologies and Implications for Policy Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schori, Maayan

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the use of several valuation methods as they relate to drug abuse and places them within the context of U.S. policy. First, cost-of-illness (COI) studies are reviewed and their limitations discussed. Second, three additional economic methods of valuing drug abuse are reviewed, including cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA),…

  9. BOOK REVIEW OPEN EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES: Policy, Costs and Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can GULER

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This book presents 15 case studies contributed by researchers and policy makers. The Open Educational Resources (OER implementations are expressed through different point of views. This book focused on three themes: policy, costs and transformation. Policy theme is related to the establishment of priorities for supporting the decisions made by an institution or organization. Costs theme explores the funding of OER, particularly in the sense of cost effectiveness. Transformation theme provides examples that demonstrate how OER can be used in ways that go beyond replication of current teaching and learning models. The editors in the Introduction elaborately describe these three themes.

  10. A Review of TenneT's Connections Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapuerta, C.; Hesmondhalgh, S.; Harris, D.

    2007-07-01

    The Office of Energy Regulation (DTe) requested TenneT to commission an external agency to conduct an independent investigation of TenneT's current connection policy. TenneT subsequently selected the Brattle Group to conduct the study. In addition to its own investigations, the firm consulted several third parties who were recently involved in TenneT connection procedures. In its report, the Brattle Group recommends that key elements of the current policy be retained. The consulting firm also presented several proposals for further improvement of the connection policy, including enhanced transparency, introduction of a system involving milestones and cancellation fines, and a new planning methodology.

  11. Energy Efficiency Policies around the World: Review and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-01-15

    Since 1992 the World Energy Council (WEC) and ADEME (Agency for Environment and Energy Efficiency, France) have been collaborating on a joint project ''Energy Efficiency Policies and Indicators'' with technical assistance by ENERDATA (France). The latest report presents and evaluates energy efficiency policies in nearly 70 countries around the world, with a specific focus on five policy measures: mandatory energy audits, ESCO's, energy incentives for cars, energy efficiency obligations for utilities, and 'packages of measures' for solar water heaters. The report describes the implemented measures and identifies those proven most effective.

  12. Rapid Reviews in Health Policy: A Study of Intended Use in the New South Wales' Evidence Check Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Gabriel Mary; Redman, Sally; Turner, Tari; Haines, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Rapid reviews of research are a key way in which policy makers use research. This paper examines 74 rapid reviews commissioned by health policy agencies through the Sax Institute's Evidence Check programme. We examine what prompted policy makers to commission rapid reviews, their purpose, how and when they intended to use them, and how this varied…

  13. Kosovo: Review and Analysis of Policy Objectives, 1998-June 1999

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Julie

    1999-01-01

    This report provides an overview of U.S. and international policy objectives in Kosovo from 1998 to mid-1999, when NATO ended an 11-week air strike operation against Yugoslavia and began to deploy a U.N...

  14. Population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    Participants in the Seminar on Population Policies for Top-level Policy Makers and Program Managers, meeting in Thailand during January 1987, examined the challenges now facing them regarding the implementation of fertility regulation programs in their respective countries -- Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. This Seminar was organized to coincide with the completion of an Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) study investigating the impact and efficiency of family planning programs in the region. Country studies were reviewed at the Seminar along with policy issues about the status of women, incentive and disincentive programs, and socioeconomic factors affecting fertility. In Bangladesh the government recognizes population growth as its top priority problem related to the socioeconomic development of the country and is working to promote a reorientation strategy from the previous clinic-oriented to a multidimensional family welfare program. China's family planning program seeks to postpone marraige, space the births of children between 3-5 years, and promote the 1-child family. Its goal is to reduce the rate of natural increase from 12/1000 in 1978 to 5/1000 by 1985 and 0 by 2000. India's 7th Five-Year-Plan (1986-90) calls for establishing a 2-child family norm by 2000. In Indonesia the government's population policy includes reducing the rate of population growth, achieving a redistribution of the population, adjusting economic factors, and creating prosperous families. The government of Indonesia reversed its policy to reduce the population growth rate in 1984 and announced its goal of achieving a population of 70 million by 2100 in order to support mass consumption industries. It has created an income tax deduction system favoring large families and maternity benefits for women who have up to 5 children as incentives. Nepal's official policy is to

  15. Pilates for Low Back Pain: Complete Republication of a Cochrane Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamato, Tiê P; Maher, Christopher G; Saragiotto, Bruno T; Hancock, Mark J; Ostelo, Raymond W J G; Cabral, Cristina M N; Costa, Luciola C Menezes; Costa, Leonardo O P

    2016-06-01

    Systematic review. To determine the effects of the Pilates method for patients with nonspecific acute, subacute, or chronic low back pain. The Pilates method is one of the most common forms of intervention based on exercise used for treating patients with low back pain. However, its effectiveness is not well established. We conducted searches on CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro, and SPORTDiscus up to March 2014. We included randomized controlled trials examining the effectiveness of Pilates in patients with acute, subacute, or chronic nonspecific low back pain. The outcomes evaluated were pain, disability, function, and global impression of recovery. Two independent reviewers screened for potentially eligible studies, assessed risk of bias, and extracted the data. We evaluated the overall quality of evidence using the GRADE approach and treatment effect sizes were described using mean differences and 95% confidence intervals. Searches retrieved 126 trials, of which 10 were included in the review (n = 510 participants). Seven studies were considered to have low risk of bias, and three were considered at high risk of bias. When compared to minimal intervention, Pilates reduces pain at short and intermediate term with low- to moderate-quality evidence and medium effect sizes. For disability, there is also a significant difference in favor to Pilates with low- to moderate-quality evidence and small effect size for short term and medium effect size for intermediate term compared with minimal intervention. It is unclear whether Pilates is better than other exercises for short-term pain, but there is low-quality evidence that Pilates reduces pain at intermediate term. For disability, there is moderate-quality evidence that there is no significant difference between Pilates and other exercises in either the short term or the intermediate term. There is low- to moderate-quality evidence that Pilates is more effective than minimal intervention with most of the

  16. New AGU scientific integrity and professional ethics policy available for review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, Linda C.

    2012-01-01

    The AGU Task Force on Scientific Ethics welcomes your review and comments on AGU's new Scientific Integrity and Professional Ethics Policy. The policy has at its heart a code of conduct adopted from the internationally accepted "Singapore Statement," originally created by the Second World Conference on Research Integrity (http://www.singaporestatement.org/), held in 2010. The new policy also encompasses professional and publishing ethics, providing a single source of guidance to AGU members, officers, authors, and editors

  17. Report of the IPERS (International Peer Review Service) phase 1 review mission for the Temelin nuclear power plant Level 1 probabilistic safety assessment in the Czech Republic 24 April to 5 May 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results of the IAEA International Peer Review Services Phase 1 review of the internal events, Level 1 probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) for the Temelin Unit 1 and 2 NPP. The review was based on the PSA documentation available and on intensive communications with the analysis team and representatives from the utility and future plant operator. The results presented herein reflect the views of the international experts carrying out the review. They are provided for consideration by the responsible authorities of the Czech Republic. 2 refs, 1 fig., 5 tabs

  18. Inventory and review of existing PRISM hydrogeologic data for the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The USGS entered into an agreement with the Mauritania Ministry of Mines and Industry to inventory and review the quality of information collected as part of the Project for Strengthening of the Institutions in the Mining Sector (PRISM). Whereas the PRISM program collected geophysical, geochemical, geological, satellite, and hydrogeologic information, this report focuses on an inventory and review of available hydrogeologic data provided to the USGS in multiple folders, files, and formats. Most of the information pertained to the hydrogeologic setting and the water budget of evaporation, evapotranspiration, and precipitation in the Choum-Zouerate area in northwestern Mauritania, and the country of Mauritania itself. Other information about the quantity and quality of groundwater was found in the relational Access database. In its present form, the limited hydrogeologic information was not amenable to conducting water balance, geostatistical, and localized numerical modeling studies in support of mineral exploration and development. Suggestions are provided to remedy many of the data's shortcomings, such as performing quality assurance on all SIPPE2 data tables and sending questionnaires to appropriate agencies, mining and other companies to populate the database with additional meteorology, hydrology, and groundwater data.

  19. Situational analysis of infant and young child nutrition policies and programmatic activities in the Islamic Republic of Mauritania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuehler, Sara E; El Hafed Ould Dehah, Cheikh Mohamed

    2011-04-01

    . The policy framework is supportive of optimal IYCN practices, but greater resources and capacity building are needed to (i) support activities to adapt training materials and programme protocols to fit local needs, (ii) expand and track the implementation of evidence-based programmes nationally, (iii) improve and carry out monitoring and evaluation that identify effective and ineffective programmes, and (iv) apply these findings in developing, disseminating, and improving effective programmes. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Source apportionment analysis of air pollutants using CMAQ/BFM for national air quality management policy over Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, N.; Kim, S.; Seo, J.; Lee, Y. J.

    2017-12-01

    Recently, the Korean government is focusing on solving air pollution problem such as fine particulate matter and ozone. Korea has high population density and concentrated industrial complex in its limited land space. For better air quality management, it is important to understand source and contribution relation to target pollutant. The air quality analysis representing the mutual contribution among the local regions enables to understand the substantive state of the air quality of a region in association with neighboring regions. Under this background, the source apportionment of PM10, PM2.5, O3, NO2, SO2 using WRF and CMAQ/BFM was analyzed over Korea and BFM was applied to mobile, area and point sources in each local government. The contribution rate from neighboring region showed different pattern for each pollutant. In case of primary pollutants such as NO2, SO2, local source contribution is dominant, on the other hand secondary pollutants case especially O3, contribution from neighboring region is higher than that from source region itself. Local source contribution to PM10 showed 20-25% and the contribution rate to O3 has big difference with different meteorological condition year after year. From this study, we tried to estimate the conversion rate between source (NOx, VOC, SO2, NH3, PMC, PM2.5, CO) and concentration (PM10, PM2.5, O3, NO2, SO2,) by regional group over Korea. The result can contribute to the decision-making process of important national planning related to large-scale industrial developments and energy supply policies (eg., operations of coal-fired power plants and diesel cars) and emission control plan, where many controversies and concerns are currently concentrated among local governments in Korea. With this kind of approach, various environmental and social problems related to air quality can also be identified early so that a sustainable and environmentally sound plan can be established by providing data infrastructures to be utilized

  1. Urban housing policy review of China : From economic growth to social inclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, W.; Hoekstra, J.S.C.M.; Elsinga, M.G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the housing policy of China from 1949-2013. It examines the housing tenure change, policy instruments, and impacts social structures in different time periods. After the welfare period of 1949-77, the dual provision period of 1978-1998, and the market dominant period of 1999-2011,

  2. Urban Housing Policy Review of China : From Economic Growth to Social Inclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, W.; Hoekstra, J.S.C.M.; Elsinga, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the housing policy of China from 1949-2013. It examines the housing tenure change, policy instruments, and impacts social structures in different time periods. After the welfare period of 1949-77, the dual provision period of 1978-1998, and the market dominant period of 1999-2011,

  3. The IEA's review of France's energy policy: the challenge of opening the doors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appert, O.

    2000-01-01

    There has been a continuity in French energy policy for several decades now - the aim to guarantee a supply of energy under reliable, economical conditions. The review, which the International Energy Agency has just conducted, notes how successful this policy has been. But it also emphasizes the need for France to open the doors of this market to the rest of Europe. (authors)

  4. Review and Analysis of the Colombian Foreign Language Bilingualism Policies and Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Sará, Mary Mily

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews the background of the foreign language bilingualism in Colombia, as well as the Colombian bilingualism plans and the policy launched between 2004 and 2016. Then, these plans and policy are analyzed taking into account the most common criticisms from the academic community. In this sense, aspects such as the lack of continuity,…

  5. Book Review: Regulating Private Tutoring for Public Good: Policy Options for Supplementary Education in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    T. Marimuthu

    2015-01-01

    Book Review Regulating Private Tutoring for Public Good: Policy Options for Supplementary Education in Asia By Mark Bray and Ora Kwo (2014), 93pp. ISBN: 978-988-17852-9-9, Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre.

  6. The Effectiveness of Policy Interventions for School Bullying: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, William

    2017-01-01

    Objective Bullying threatens the mental and educational well-being of students. Although anti-bullying policies are prevalent, little is known about their effectiveness. This systematic review evaluates the methodological characteristics and summarizes substantive findings of studies examining the effectiveness of school bullying policies. Method Searches of 11 bibliographic databases yielded 489 studies completed since January 1, 1995. Following duplicate removal and double-independent screening based on a priori inclusion criteria, 21 studies were included for review. Results Substantially more educators perceive anti-bullying policies to be effective rather than ineffective. Whereas several studies show that the presence or quality of policies is associated with lower rates of bullying among students, other studies found no such associations between policy presence or quality and reductions in bullying. Consistent across studies, this review found that schools with anti-bullying policies that enumerated protections based on sexual orientation and gender identity were associated with better protection of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) students. Specifically, LGBTQ students in schools with such policies reported less harassment and more frequent and effective intervention by school personnel. Findings are mixed regarding the relationship between having an anti-bullying policy and educators’ responsiveness to general bullying. Conclusions Anti-bullying policies might be effective at reducing bullying if their content is based on evidence and sound theory and if they are implemented with a high level of fidelity. More research is needed to improve on limitations among extant studies. PMID:28344750

  7. Do evidence summaries increase policy-makers' use of evidence from systematic reviews: A systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkovic, Jennifer; Welch, Vivian; Tugwell, Peter

    2015-09-28

    Systematic reviews are important for decision-makers. They offer many potential benefits but are often written in technical language, are too long, and do not contain contextual details which makes them hard to use for decision-making. There are many organizations that develop and disseminate derivative products, such as evidence summaries, from systematic reviews for different populations or subsets of decision-makers. This systematic review will assess the effectiveness of systematic review summaries on increasing policymakers' use of systematic review evidence and to identify the components or features of these summaries that are most effective. We will include studies of policy-makers at all levels as well as health-system managers. We will include studies examining any type of "evidence summary," "policy brief," or other products derived from systematic reviews that present evidence in a summarized form. The primary outcomes are the following: (1) use of systematic review summaries decision-making (e.g., self-reported use of the evidence in policy-making, decision-making) and (2) policy-maker understanding, knowledge, and/or beliefs (e.g., changes in knowledge scores about the topic included in the summary). We will conduct a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomized controlled trials (NRCTs), controlled before-after studies (CBA), and interrupted time series (ITS) studies. The results of this review will inform the development of future systematic review summaries to ensure that systematic review evidence is accessible to and used by policy-makers making health-related decisions.

  8. The application of theories of the policy process to obesity prevention: a systematic review and meta-synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Brydie; Swinburn, Boyd; Sacks, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Background Theories of the policy process are recommended as tools to help explain both policy stasis and change. Methods A systematic review of the application of such theoretical frameworks within the field of obesity prevention policy was conducted. A meta-synthesis was also undertaken to identify the key influences on policy decision-making. Results The review identified 17 studies of obesity prevention policy underpinned by political science theories. The majority of included studies wer...

  9. 77 FR 71608 - Notification of the Removal of Conditions of Entry on Vessels Arriving From the Republic of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... countries not maintaining effective anti- terrorism measures is as follows: Cambodia, Cameroon, Comoros... arriving from the country of the Republic of Indonesia. DATES: The policy announced in this notice is... certain countries. All such notices are available for review online by going to http://homeport.uscg.mil...

  10. Review on Policy Developments of FDI in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arben Sahiti

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available India has been witnessing an extensive amount of foreign capital flowing to the market over the past twenty years after drastic changes made on its FDI policy. The aim of this research is to evaluate the policy developments of FDI during different stages since its independence and its impact on capital inflows. This research attempts also to uncover lessons that can be learnt from the case of India. A qualitative approach has been adopted for this research. The narrative analysis used in this study is based on secondary data that have been drawn from a pool of diverse sources including various databases, journal publications and books.

  11. U.S. Congressional Committee Reviews National Science Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    Vernon Ehlers has a tall order. The Republican congressman from Michigan is aiming for the completion of a comprehensive yet concise national science policy report by about June.That would be less than one year after the Republican leadership assigned him the task of leading the development of the report by the House of Representatives science committee that could stimulate a national debate on science policy, serve as a long-range vision statement, and perhaps form the basis for a House resolution.

  12. Education in Latvia. Reviews of National Policies for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    How can Latvia improve the quality and equity of its education system and realise long-term efficiency gains? This report covers the whole education system from early childhood education and care to tertiary education and provides an assessment of Latvia's policies and practices against the best approaches in education and skills across the OECD.…

  13. Review of Policy, Regulatory, and Organizational Frameworks of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kim

    Results: The Constitution of Ethiopia has policy provisions related to air pollution, occupational safety and health. (OSH), and climate change and health. Proclamation No. 300/2002 on Environmental Pollution Control specifies ambient air quality standards and allowable emissions. However, there were no documents that ...

  14. European policy review: Functional agrobiodiversity supporting sustainable agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delbaere, B.; Mikos, V.; Pulleman, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    This short communication introduces the concept of functional agrobiodiversity and how this provides ecosystem services in support of a transition towards a more sustainable agriculture in Europe. It describes the European policy framework for measures in support of functional agrobiodiversity and

  15. Reviewing Strategies in/for ESD Policy Engagement: Agency Reclaimed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotz-Sisitka, Heila

    2016-01-01

    In this response article, I draw on critical realist perspectives to engage with the argument put forward in Bengtsson's study, which sees agency as an ontological necessity for Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) policy engagement. Bengtsson supports a notion of the logic of contingent action over the logic of power as dominance,…

  16. Book Review: Declining inequality in Latin America: Policy Changes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New Agenda: South African Journal of Social and Economic Policy. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 57 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  17. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hence it is an indispensable source of critical analysis on contemporary national and regional policies and issues that are of interest to researchers, development planners, decision-makers, and academics. Main Disciplines Covered by the EASSRR Anthropology and Sociology Political Science Economics Education ...

  18. Clinical review: impact of statin substitution policies on patient outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atar, Dan; Carmena, Rafael; Clemmensen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The increasing awareness of cost issues in health care has led to the increasing use of policy-driven substitution of branded for generic medications, particularly relative to statin treatment for cardiovascular diseases. While there are potential short-term health care savings, the c...

  19. Clinical review: impact of statin substitution policies on patient outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atar, Dan; Carmena, Rafael; Clemmensen, Peter; K-Laflamme, Annik; Wassmann, Sven; Lansberg, Peter; Hobbs, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The increasing awareness of cost issues in health care has led to the increasing use of policy-driven substitution of branded for generic medications, particularly relative to statin treatment for cardiovascular diseases. While there are potential short-term health care savings, the consequences for

  20. Financial Inclusion and Monetary Policy: A Review of Recent Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-01

    May 1, 2017 ... between financial inclusion and monetary policy has been studied in few instances and through models that estimate a direct relationship. ... by financial innovation. Financial innovation can be defined as the act of creating and then popularising ...... endogenous growth. Journal of Financial Intermediation, ...

  1. Economic and Policy Review - Vol 13, No 4 (2007)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    F G Carneiro. High oil prices and the African economy. African Development Bank Group. Africa\\'s oil and gas sector: Implications for U.S. Policy. A Cohen, R Alasa. Diversifying Nigeria\\'s petroleum industry. I Aigbedion, S E Iyayi. The Nigerian petroleum downstream sector and product pricing: Issues and the way forward.

  2. Review of Togolese agricultural policies from independence in 1960 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Once again, this policy failed, because its implementation was not based on evidence. Also, the strategies of reduction of distortionary impact of agricultural support were not well defined. In addition, the social unrest and political environment were not taken into account leading all investments opportunities collapsing in the ...

  3. [Burkina Faso: review of population policies and programs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, H

    1999-12-01

    When Burkina Faso gained its independence, no one thought to act upon the various demographic variables with the aim of achieving certain specific, planned goals. It was necessary to wait until 1986 for the adoption of a planning policy and the abrogation of part of 1920 legislation on contraceptive distribution before the first signs of attitudinal change could be observed with regard to population concerns. Formerly confused with birth limiting policy, family planning is increasingly becoming an essential component of maternal and infant health. The author describes the evolution of population policies in Burkina Faso from independence, after the 1974 Bucharest conference on population, and up until now. Today, general population policy goals in Burkina Faso are in favor of whatever will improve quality of life and well-being across all social strata. This goal will only be attained through the establishment of better balance between population and available resources. It involves meeting the population¿s essential food, nutrition, health, education, and employment needs; raising the value of available human resources; lowering morbidity and mortality; improving women¿s status; improving the population¿s spatial distribution; managing the environment better; and accounting for demographic variables when establishing development goals. Burkina Faso therefore plans to pursue a comprehensive approach toward its population problems.

  4. Science and Technology Policy in Colombia: A Comparative Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Correa-Restrepo, Juan Santiago; Tejada-Gomez, Maria Alejandra; Cayon-Fallon, Edgardo; Ordonez Matamoros, Hector Gonzalo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to assess the current situation of the science and technology system in Colombia from a comparative perspective of quality indicators in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). We analyze the development of the science and technology policy in Colombia form a

  5. Energy shocks, crises and the policy process: A review of theory and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, Peter Z.

    2015-01-01

    What motivates changes in energy policy? Typically, the process begins with a notable exogenous event, a shock. Often, the shock leads to what is perceived to be a crisis. This review essay surveys theories of crisis policymaking from the social science literature and considers their application to changes in energy policy. Two cases — one from the U.S., the other from Germany — are examined in more detail from the standpoint of the theories discussed. Suggestions are made for improving energy policy analysis in the future. - Highlights: • An analysis of the idea of “crisis” and its application to energy. • A review of theories and models of the policy process and of policy change. • Theory applied to two energy cases. • Suggestion as to how the analysis of energy policymaking might be approached in the future

  6. How to reduce household carbon emissions: A review of experience and policy design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaoling; Wang, Yue

    2017-01-01

    Global warming and environment problems caused by the excessive emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs), along with rapid economic development has attracted the attention of many countries and regions of the world. Reducing GHG emissions is essential to mitigate the threat of global warming. Household carbon (dioxide) emissions have been recognized as one of the most important contributors to climate change, with a significant impact on both the local and global environment, and various policy instruments have been implemented by governments to bring about the reduction. This paper reviews these carbon abatement policy measures from demand-side and supply-side perspectives based on 144 countries across the world. The advantages and disadvantages of the policies are analyzed and it is found that income level largely affects the choice of policy, with high-income countries being mostly associated with demand-side policy instruments. Low-income countries adopt less demand-side policy measures and mainly depend on supply-side polices such as targets and regulations. Geographic location is also an important factor influencing the choice of policy instruments due to the different climates between different regions, although targets, regulations and carbon taxes are dominant GHG reduction policy measures worldwide. In America, tendering and net metering are popular, while in Europe feed-in-tariff (FIT) policies are implemented for more than 70% of the time. In Asia, policy measures, whether supply-side or demand-side, are comparatively weakly implemented and influenced by location, urbanization and economic growth. This paper suggests that, although the economic level is different, low-income countries and particularly developing countries can promote carbon abatement as well as the financial market by gradually changing from supply-side policy instruments to demand-side policies. This critical review provides a systematic understanding of various carbon emission policies in

  7. Manpower Policy in Denmark. OECD Reviews of Manpower and Social Policies, No. 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    Two elements were identified as being of paramount importance in the examination of manpower policy in Denmark: (1) the division of responsibilities for matters of direct concern to the labor market between different branches of government and the social partners--an important facet of the social framework of a country, and (2) the impact of…

  8. Communication received from the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium. Statements on the management of plutonium and of high enriched uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Director General has received a Note Verbale, dated 17 September 2004, from the Permanent Mission of the Federal Republic of Germany to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of Germany, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines'), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2003. The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany has also made available a statement of the estimated amounts of highly enriched uranium (HEU) as of 31 December 2003. In light of the request expressed by the Federal Republic of Germany in its Note Verbale of 1 December 1997 concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium (INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998), the Note Verbale of 17 September 2004 and the enclosures thereto are attached for the information of all Member States

  9. Communication received from the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium. Statements on the management of plutonium and of high enriched uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Director General has received a Note Verbale, dated 22 September 2003, from the Permanent Mission of the Federal Republic of Germany to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of Germany, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2002. 2. The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany has also made available a statement of the estimated amounts of high enriched uranium (HEU) as of 31 December 2002. 3. In light of the request expressed by the Federal Republic of Germany in its Note Verbale of 1 December 1997 concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium (INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998), the Note Verbale of 22 September 2003 and the enclosures thereto are attached for the information of all Member States

  10. Communication Received from the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management Of Plutonium. Statements on the Management of Plutonium and of Highly Enriched Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Director General has received a note verbale dated 7 November 2001 from the Permanent Mission of the Federal Republic of Germany to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines') and with reference to the statement on the policies which it has decided to apply to the management of plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549/Add.2), has made available the data on the plutonium inventory on German territory as of 31 December 2000. The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany has conveyed in its note verbale that 'Regarding any material that has been shipped abroad, especially for reprocessing, Germany would like to point out that the data on such material are not available at the German side. This should be taken into consideration whenever these data are used for statistical purposes. All nuclear materials within the states of the EU are property of the European Union, represented by the EURATOM Supply Agency'

  11. The Journal of Consumer Policy Outstanding Reviewer Award 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia A.

    2016-01-01

    The article announces the Outstanding Reviewer Award 2016 to be given by the journal to Wencke Gwozdz, Associate Professor at Copenhagen Business School, Denmark.......The article announces the Outstanding Reviewer Award 2016 to be given by the journal to Wencke Gwozdz, Associate Professor at Copenhagen Business School, Denmark....

  12. Use and Impacts of Campbell Systematic Reviews on Policy, Practice, and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Brandy R.; Dell, Nathaniel A.

    2018-01-01

    Aim: This study examines use and impacts of systematic reviews produced by the Campbell Collaboration's Social Welfare Coordinating Group (SWCG) on practice, policy, and research. Methods: A mixed-method research design was used to examine impacts of 52 systematic reviews published by the SWCG. We conducted author surveys and retrieved multiple…

  13. [Antibiotic use in Mexico: review of problems and policies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreser, Anahí; Wirtz, Veronika J; Corbett, Kitty K; Echániz, Gabriela

    2008-01-01

    The inappropriate use of antibiotics signifies a risk for individual health and a waste of health resources. It triggers the development of antibiotic resistance, which increases expenditures and mortality related to infectious disease, and is hence considered a serious public health problem. The World Health Organization has thus recommended a series of strategies to be included within national pharmaceutical policies. In Mexico, diverse factors related to the inappropriate use of antibiotics have been documented. While the response has been mainly in the form of educational and managerial interventions directed toward physicians in public health services, as well as epidemiological surveillance, there is a paucity of research and interventions focused on consumers, pharmacies, and the private sector. Fundamentally, a comprehensive national strategy for antibiotics is not incorporated into health and pharmaceutical policies.

  14. 75 FR 29996 - Review of MMS NEPA Policies, Practices, and Procedures for OCS Oil and Gas Exploration and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Review of MMS NEPA Policies, Practices, and Procedures for OCS... Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) policies, practices, and procedures for the Minerals Management Service (MMS) decisions for Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) oil and gas exploration and development. This review of MMS NEPA...

  15. "The Transmission Mechanism of Monetary Policy: A Critical Review"

    OpenAIRE

    Greg Hannsgen

    2004-01-01

    Recently, many economists have credited the late-1990s economic boom in the United States for the easy money policies of the Federal Reserve. On the other hand, observers have noted that very low interest rates have had very little positive effect on the chronically weak Japanese economy. Therefore, some theory of how money affects the economy when it is endogenous would be useful. This paper pursues several such explanations, including the effects of interest rate changes on (1) investment; ...

  16. 75 FR 69415 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of New Shipper Reviews and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... countries are Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kyrgyz Republic, Moldova, North Korea, the People's... declarations to CBP to that effect. Non-Market Economy Country Status In every case conducted by the Department involving the PRC, the PRC has been treated as a non-market economy (NME) country. In accordance with...

  17. Lepidological review on the fish fauna of the Kučlín locality (Upper Eocene, Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přikryl, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 67, 3/4 (2011), s. 149-156 ISSN 0036-5343 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : fossil fish fauna * Osteichthyes * scales * morphology * Paleogene * Upper Eocene * Upper Eocene (Czech Republic) Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://www.nm.cz/publikace/archiv-en.php?id=4&rok=67&kcislu=3-4&f_=Show

  18. Dentistry in Taiwan, Republic of China: National health insurance reforms, illegal dentistry and peer review quality control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, R.; Shiau, Y.Y.

    1999-01-01

    The dental health care system in Taiwan, Republic of China is described in terms of demographics, structure, context of treatment and historical development of the dental health care payment system. A notable characteristic of the system is the existence of trade dentists, who operate without lic...

  19. A review of the alien and expansive species of freshwater cyanobacteria and algae in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaštovský, J.; Hauer, Tomáš; Mareš, J.; Krautová, M.; Bešta, T.; Komárek, Jiří; Desortová, B.; Heteša, J.; Hindáková, A.; Houk, Václav; Janeček, E.; Kopp, Radovan; Marvan, P.; Pumann, P.; Skácelová, O.; Zapomělová, Eliška

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 10 (2010), s. 3599-3625 ISSN 1387-3547 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0318 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516; CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : Microphytes * expanzive species * Czech Republic Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.474, year: 2010

  20. Risk mapping of clonorchiasis in the People's Republic of China: A systematic review and Bayesian geostatistical analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Si Lai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Clonorchiasis, one of the most important food-borne trematodiases, affects more than 12 million people in the People's Republic of China (P.R. China. Spatially explicit risk estimates of Clonorchis sinensis infection are needed in order to target control interventions.Georeferenced survey data pertaining to infection prevalence of C. sinensis in P.R. China from 2000 onwards were obtained via a systematic review in PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Chinese National Knowledge Internet, and Wanfang Data from January 1, 2000 until January 10, 2016, with no restriction of language or study design. Additional disease data were provided by the National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Diseases Control and Prevention in Shanghai. Environmental and socioeconomic proxies were extracted from remote-sensing and other data sources. Bayesian variable selection was carried out to identify the most important predictors of C. sinensis risk. Geostatistical models were applied to quantify the association between infection risk and the predictors of the disease, and to predict the risk of infection across P.R. China at high spatial resolution (over a grid with grid cell size of 5×5 km.We obtained clonorchiasis survey data at 633 unique locations in P.R. China. We observed that the risk of C. sinensis infection increased over time, particularly from 2005 onwards. We estimate that around 14.8 million (95% Bayesian credible interval 13.8-15.8 million people in P.R. China were infected with C. sinensis in 2010. Highly endemic areas (≥ 20% were concentrated in southern and northeastern parts of the country. The provinces with the highest risk of infection and the largest number of infected people were Guangdong, Guangxi, and Heilongjiang.Our results provide spatially relevant information for guiding clonorchiasis control interventions in P.R. China. The trend toward higher risk of C. sinensis infection in the recent past urges the Chinese government to

  1. Geothermal Induced Seismicity National Environmental Policy Act Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Aaron L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cook, Jeffrey J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beckers, Koenraad J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Young, Katherine R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-04

    In 2016, the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) contracted with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to assist the BLM in developing and building upon tools to better understand and evaluate induced seismicity caused by geothermal projects. This review of NEPA documents for four geothermal injection or EGS projects reveals the variety of approaches to analyzing and mitigating induced seismicity. With the exception of the Geysers, where induced seismicity has been observed and monitored for an extended period of time due to large volumes of water being piped in to recharge the hydrothermal reservoir, induced seismicity caused by geothermal projects is a relative new area of study. As this review highlights, determining the level of mitigation required for induced seismic events has varied based on project location, when the review took place, whether the project utilized the International Energy Agency or DOE IS protocols, and the federal agency conducting the review. While the NEPA reviews were relatively consistent for seismic monitoring and historical evaluation of seismic events near the project location, the requirements for public outreach and mitigation for induced seismic events once stimulation has begun varied considerably between the four projects. Not all of the projects were required to notify specific community groups or local government entities before beginning the project, and only one of the reviews specifically stated the project proponent would hold meetings with the public to answer questions or address concerns.

  2. Improving the evidence base for energy policy: The role of systematic reviews

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorrell, Steve

    2007-01-01

    The concept of evidence-based policy and practice (EBPP) has gained increasing prominence in the UK over the last 10 years and now plays a dominant role in a number of policy areas, including healthcare, education, social work, criminal justice and urban regeneration. But despite this substantial, influential and growing activity, the concept remains largely unknown to policymakers and researchers within the energy field. This paper defines EBPP, identifies its key features and examines the potential role of systematic reviews of evidence in a particular area of policy. It summarises the methods through which systematic reviews are achieved; discusses their advantages and limitations; identifies the particular challenges they face in the energy policy area; and assesses whether and to what extent they can usefully be applied to contemporary energy policy questions. The concept is illustrated with reference to a proposed review of evidence for a 'rebound effect' from improved energy efficiency. The paper concludes that systematic reviews may only be appropriate for a subset of energy policy questions and that research-funding priorities may need to change if their use is to become more widespread

  3. Employment Policies in an Aging Society: Review of the Experiences of the OECD Countries with Population Aging and Their Policy Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Heon Kim

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we review the experiences of OECD countries with population aging and their policy responses, and suggest directions and measures of medium and long-term employment policies to cope with population aging in a comprehensive perspective. Specifically, following the policy objective of sustainable economic growth, we systematically classify policy types to cope with population aging and review possibilities and limitations of each policy type, while also considering Korea-specific situations as well as the experiences of other OECD countries. There are two broad types of employment policies to sustain economic growth in an aging society. One is to increase the quantity of labor force and the other is to enhance the quality of labor force. Policies to increase the quantity of labor force include pro-natalist policies, immigration policies, and policies to fully mobilize the labor resources of women and older people. Policies to enhance the quality of labor force include human resource development and flexicurity policies in the labor market. Our review suggests that direct pro-natalist policies seem to be ineffective. Also immigration policies cannot fundamentally solve the problem caused by population aging. Policies to fully mobilize the labor resources of women and older people seem to be the most effective policy. However, labor productivity should be an engine of economic growth in the long run when labor input reaches the limit of its capacity. In conclusion, in the long run, it is most important to enhance the quality of human capital and improve the functioning of the labor market to cope with the challenges of population aging.

  4. Macroeconomic policy interaction: State dependency and implications for financial stability in UK: A systemic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Nasir

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The association between economic and financial stabilities and influence of macroeconomic policies on the financial sector creates scope of active policy role in financial stability. As a contribution to the existing body of knowledge, this study has analysed the implications of macroeconomic policy interaction/coordination for financial stability, proxied by financial assets, i.e. equity and bonds price oscillation. The critical review and analysis of the existing literature on the subject suggests that there is also ample evidence of interdependence between monetary and fiscal policies and this interrelation necessitates coordination between them for the sake of financial stability. There is also a case for analysing the symmetry of financial markets responses to macroeconomic policy interaction. On methodological and empirical grounds, it is vital to test the robustness of policy recommendations to overcome the limitation of a single empirical approach (Jeffrey–Lindley’s paradox. Hence, the Frequentist and Bayesian approaches should be used in commentary manner. The policy interaction and optimal policy combination should also be analysed in the context of institutional design and major financial events to gain insight into the implications of policy interaction in the periods of stable economic and financial environments as well as period of financial and economic distress.

  5. Access to Orphan Drugs: A Comprehensive Review of Legislations, Regulations and Policies in 35 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammie, Todd

    2015-01-01

    Objective To review existing regulations and policies utilised by countries to enable patient access to orphan drugs. Methods A review of the literature (1998 to 2014) was performed to identify relevant, peer-reviewed articles. Using content analysis, we synthesised regulations and policies for access to orphan drugs by type and by country. Results Fifty seven articles and 35 countries were included in this review. Six broad categories of regulation and policy instruments were identified: national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, incentives, marketing exclusivity, and pricing and reimbursement. The availability of orphan drugs depends on individual country’s legislation and regulations including national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, marketing exclusivity and incentives such as tax credits to ensure research, development and marketing. The majority of countries (27/35) had in place orphan drug legislation. Access to orphan drugs depends on individual country’s pricing and reimbursement policies, which varied widely between countries. High prices and insufficient evidence often limit orphan drugs from meeting the traditional health technology assessment criteria, especially cost-effectiveness, which may influence access. Conclusions Overall many countries have implemented a combination of legislations, regulations and policies for orphan drugs in the last two decades. While these may enable the availability and access to orphan drugs, there are critical differences between countries in terms of range and types of legislations, regulations and policies implemented. Importantly, China and India, two of the largest countries by population size, both lack national legislation for orphan medicines and rare diseases, which could have substantial negative impacts on their patient populations with rare diseases. PMID:26451948

  6. Access to Orphan Drugs: A Comprehensive Review of Legislations, Regulations and Policies in 35 Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammie, Todd; Lu, Christine Y; Babar, Zaheer Ud-Din

    2015-01-01

    To review existing regulations and policies utilised by countries to enable patient access to orphan drugs. A review of the literature (1998 to 2014) was performed to identify relevant, peer-reviewed articles. Using content analysis, we synthesised regulations and policies for access to orphan drugs by type and by country. Fifty seven articles and 35 countries were included in this review. Six broad categories of regulation and policy instruments were identified: national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, incentives, marketing exclusivity, and pricing and reimbursement. The availability of orphan drugs depends on individual country's legislation and regulations including national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, marketing exclusivity and incentives such as tax credits to ensure research, development and marketing. The majority of countries (27/35) had in place orphan drug legislation. Access to orphan drugs depends on individual country's pricing and reimbursement policies, which varied widely between countries. High prices and insufficient evidence often limit orphan drugs from meeting the traditional health technology assessment criteria, especially cost-effectiveness, which may influence access. Overall many countries have implemented a combination of legislations, regulations and policies for orphan drugs in the last two decades. While these may enable the availability and access to orphan drugs, there are critical differences between countries in terms of range and types of legislations, regulations and policies implemented. Importantly, China and India, two of the largest countries by population size, both lack national legislation for orphan medicines and rare diseases, which could have substantial negative impacts on their patient populations with rare diseases.

  7. Access to Orphan Drugs: A Comprehensive Review of Legislations, Regulations and Policies in 35 Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Gammie

    Full Text Available To review existing regulations and policies utilised by countries to enable patient access to orphan drugs.A review of the literature (1998 to 2014 was performed to identify relevant, peer-reviewed articles. Using content analysis, we synthesised regulations and policies for access to orphan drugs by type and by country.Fifty seven articles and 35 countries were included in this review. Six broad categories of regulation and policy instruments were identified: national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, incentives, marketing exclusivity, and pricing and reimbursement. The availability of orphan drugs depends on individual country's legislation and regulations including national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, marketing exclusivity and incentives such as tax credits to ensure research, development and marketing. The majority of countries (27/35 had in place orphan drug legislation. Access to orphan drugs depends on individual country's pricing and reimbursement policies, which varied widely between countries. High prices and insufficient evidence often limit orphan drugs from meeting the traditional health technology assessment criteria, especially cost-effectiveness, which may influence access.Overall many countries have implemented a combination of legislations, regulations and policies for orphan drugs in the last two decades. While these may enable the availability and access to orphan drugs, there are critical differences between countries in terms of range and types of legislations, regulations and policies implemented. Importantly, China and India, two of the largest countries by population size, both lack national legislation for orphan medicines and rare diseases, which could have substantial negative impacts on their patient populations with rare diseases.

  8. Impact of school policies on non-communicable disease risk factors - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ankur; Bassi, Shalini; Nazar, Gaurang P; Saluja, Kiran; Park, MinHae; Kinra, Sanjay; Arora, Monika

    2017-04-04

    Globally, non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are identified as one of the leading causes of mortality. NCDs have several modifiable risk factors including unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, tobacco use and alcohol abuse. Schools provide ideal settings for health promotion, but the effectiveness of school policies in the reduction of risk factors for NCD is not clear. This study reviewed the literature on the impact of school policies on major NCD risk factors. A systematic review was conducted to identify, collate and synthesize evidence on the effectiveness of school policies on reduction of NCD risk factors. A search strategy was developed to identify the relevant studies on effectiveness of NCD policies in schools for children between the age of 6 to 18 years in Ovid Medline, EMBASE, and Web of Science. Data extraction was conducted using pre-piloted forms. Studies included in the review were assessed for methodological quality using the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP) quality assessment tool. A narrative synthesis according to the types of outcomes was conducted to present the evidence on the effectiveness of school policies. Overall, 27 out of 2633 identified studies were included in the review. School policies were comparatively more effective in reducing unhealthy diet, tobacco use, physical inactivity and inflammatory biomarkers as opposed to anthropometric measures, overweight/obesity, and alcohol use. In total, for 103 outcomes independently evaluated within these studies, 48 outcomes (46%) had significant desirable changes when exposed to the school policies. Based on the quality assessment, 18 studies were categorized as weak, six as moderate and three as having strong methodological quality. Mixed findings were observed concerning effectiveness of school policies in reducing NCD risk factors. The findings demonstrate that schools can be a good setting for initiating positive changes in reducing NCD risk factors, but more research is

  9. Child Fatality Review Teams: A Content Analysis of Social Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Emily M.; McCarthy, Sean C.

    2011-01-01

    Child fatality review teams (CFRTs) have existed since the 1970s; yet, a comprehensive understanding of their procedures, practices, and outcomes is lacking. This article addresses that gap in this study of CFRT state statutes. Findings indicate CFRT laws address nine areas of practice, from team composition, to purpose, to outcomes. Results also…

  10. Review of Policies and Programs for Reducing Maternal Mortality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to determine the status of maternal health in Cross River State, a state in the Niger-Delta region of Nigeria with high rate of maternal mortality. The study consisted of analysis of clinical data, desk reviews of published and unpublished materials and interviews with policymakers and service providers ...

  11. Mexico Higher Education. Reviews of National Policies for Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This review focuses on higher education in Mexico and also covers the upper secondary level including the broader range of education and training courses and institutions for students who complete basic education. Part 1 provides background data on Mexico and its system of higher education. Chapter 1 includes a general description of Mexico today…

  12. A Review of the Achievements and Policy Lessons of Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reviewed the experiences of five English speaking African countries in implementing public management reforms during the 1980s and 1990s. The paper focuses specifically on: (a) the underlying reasons for the adoption of the reforms; (b) the drivers of the actual implementation of the reforms; (c) their ...

  13. Iceland. OECD Reviews of National Policies for Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    Three general concerns of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) examiners in preparing this first review of Iceland's educational system were that: (1) education contribute to the broader social and economic culture; (2) it differentiate itself from the educational forms of other countries in response to Iceland's…

  14. African Review of Economics and Finance: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All manuscripts are subject to an editorial pre-screening process to assess suitability for the journal. Subject to the pre-screening, manuscripts are processed and sent to at least two independent expert reviewers. Final responsibility for the selection and acceptance of articles rests with the Editors. Submission of an article to ...

  15. Environmental values and risk: A review of Sierra Club policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, P.P.

    1999-01-01

    Sierra Club values are driven by an overriding environmental ethic. Sierra Club environmental values may be characterized by the concept of 'usufruct' a term favored by United States Founding Father Thomas Jefferson. Usufruct conveys the idea that the environment is ours to use, but not to destroy. Each generation has the obligation to pass on to future generations a world at least as environmentally rich as the one it inherited. It is appropriate to accept risk today in order to preserve the environment for generations yet to come. As viewed through the lens of its formal policies, the Sierra Club is an organization that embraces technology, but insists that technology be evaluated comprehensively, taking full account of both environmental and social externalities. The Club is 'risk averse' with respect to early introduction of technologies seen as likely to have significant negative environmental or social impact. The Club places heavy emphasis on process, which must involve the public meaningfully

  16. Review of the Renewable Energy Policies of Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labriet, M.; Laguna, M.; Cabal, H.; Lechon, Y.

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this report is to describe the Spanish energy policies related to renewable energy sources (RES). It will contribute to the analysis of the renewable energy potential at the European level (RES2020 project). Despite the successful case of wind development in spain, with a favourable feed-in systems in place, and a very favourable regulation (building code) promoting solar thermal technologies, strong administrative barriers for RES projects still exist and Spain is still far from reaching its RES electricity targets, and even further from the target related to RES heating and cooling and bio fuel use. This work has been partially funded by the European Commission, Intelligent Energy-europe Programme. (Author) 7 refs.

  17. A review of pharmaceutical policies in response to economic crises and sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirandish, Mehrnaz; Rashidian, Arash; Kebriaeezade, Abbas; Cheraghali, Abdol Majid; Soleymani, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    An economic crisis has been defined as a situation in which the scale of a country's economy becomes smaller in a period of time. Economic crises happen for various reasons, including economic sanctions. Economic crises in a country may affect national priorities for investment and expenditure and reduce available resources, and hence may affect the health care sector including access to medicines. We reviewed the pharmaceutical policies that the countries adopted in order to mitigate the potential negative effects on access to medicines. We reviewed published reports and articles after conducting a comprehensive search of the PubMed and the Google Scholar. After extracting relevant data from the identified articles, we used the World Health Organization (WHO) access to medicines framework as a guide for the categorization of the policies. We identified a total of 40 studies, of which 10 reported the national pharmaceutical policies adopted to reduce the negative impacts of economic crises on access to medicines in high-income and middle-income countries. We identified 89 policies adopted in the 11 countries and categorized them into 12 distinct policy directions. Most of the policies focused on financial aspects of the pharmaceutical sector. In some cases, countries adopted policies that potentially had negative effects on access to medicines. Only Italy had adopted policies encompassing all four accesses to medicine factors recommended by the WHO. While the countries have adopted many seemingly effective policies, little evidence exists on the effectiveness of these policies to improve access to medicines at a time of an economic crisis.

  18. Strategies to Promote the Impact of Systematic Reviews on Healthcare Policy: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, Frances; Sworn, Katie

    2011-01-01

    The last few decades have seen a growing emphasis on evidence-based decision making in healthcare. Systematic reviews synthesising research have been a key component of this movement. However, there is concern that such syntheses do not have the expected impact on policy with more work needed to enable us to maximise their potential. The aim of…

  19. Stemming the impact of health professional brain drain from Africa: a systemic review of policy options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Zimbudzi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Africa has been losing professionally trained health workers who are the core of the health system of this continent for many years. Faced with an increased burden of disease and coupled by a massive exodus of the health workforce, the health systems of many African nations are risking complete paralysis. Several studies have suggested policy options to reduce brain drain from Africa. The purpose of this paper is to review possible policies, which can stem the impact of health professional brain drain from Africa. A systemic literature review was conducted. Cinahl, Science Direct and PubMed databases were searched with the following terms: health professional brain drain from Africa and policies for reducing impact of brain drain from Africa. References were also browsed for relevant articles. A total of 425 articles were available for the study but only 23 articles met the inclusion criteria. The review identified nine policy options, which were being implemented in Africa, but the most common was task shifting which had success in several African countries. This review has demonstrated that there is considerable consensus on task shifting as the most appropriate and sustainable policy option for reducing the impact of health professional brain drain from Africa.

  20. TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN MALAYSIA. A REVIEW ON FEDERAL GOVERNMENT POLICIES

    OpenAIRE

    Azizan MARZUKI

    2010-01-01

    Tourism development in Malaysia began since 1960s. Embarking on the strategy to develop rural areas and provide diversity in national economy, tourism industry drastically become as the second most important sector after petroleum. Therefore, the aim of this article is to review the progress of tourism development in Malaysia from the period of the First Malaysian Plan (1966-1970) until the Ninth Malaysian Plan (2006-2010). This paper is also discussed several approaches related to tourism ad...

  1. Vietnam's energy sector: A review of current energy policies and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tien Minh Do; Sharma, Deepak

    2011-01-01

    Since the introduction of market-oriented economy in 1986, Vietnam has made noticeable socio-economic progress. In this progress, the energy sector has played a vital role. This role is likely to deepen in the years to come as Vietnam strives to achieve even higher levels in economic progress. Such deepening in the role of energy, this paper argues, will heighten concerns about the security of energy supply, and economic, environmental, social and political consequences. In order to address these issues, Vietnam has over the last decade, developed a suite of energy policies. A deeper review of these policies suggests that they are typified by economic-growth orientation, exclusive focus on a single-sector or single issue, and largely neglect the significance of cross-sectoral and cross-thematic issues arising from the interdependencies between energy, economy, and the polity at large. The existing energy policy settings are, therefore, unlikely to be able to provide a satisfactory redress to the challenges noted above. This paper provides an overview of the current energy policies with a view to identify areas where further policy effort is needed in order to facilitate a sustainable development of the Vietnamese energy sector. - Highlights: → Identifying challenges faced by the Vietnamese energy sector. → Analyzing limitations of the existing energy policy settings (policies, strategies and institutions) in addressing these challenges. → Developing recommendations on improving the existing energy policy settings to provide a satisfactory redress for the challenges noted above.

  2. Environmental values and risk: A review of Sierra Club policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, P.P. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Graduate Group in Ecology

    1999-12-01

    Sierra Club values are driven by an overriding environmental ethic. Sierra Club environmental values may be characterized by the concept of 'usufruct' a term favored by United States Founding Father Thomas Jefferson. Usufruct conveys the idea that the environment is ours to use, but not to destroy. Each generation has the obligation to pass on to future generations a world at least as environmentally rich as the one it inherited. It is appropriate to accept risk today in order to preserve the environment for generations yet to come. As viewed through the lens of its formal policies, the Sierra Club is an organization that embraces technology, but insists that technology be evaluated comprehensively, taking full account of both environmental and social externalities. The Club is 'risk averse' with respect to early introduction of technologies seen as likely to have significant negative environmental or social impact. The Club places heavy emphasis on process, which must involve the public meaningfully.

  3. Energy policies of IEA countries: Belgium 2005 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Belgium continues to make measured progress in its energy policy, particularly with respect to electricity market liberalisation. The country has improved the independent functioning of the electricity market. An electricity exchange will begin operation shortly. However, to enable Belgian customers to fully benefit from energy market liberalisation, more work needs to be done. In 2003, Belgium decided to phase out nuclear power between 2015 and 2025. As nuclear energy supplies about 55% of the country's electricity, this will be a significant challenge. The federal government should conduct more comprehensive long-term studies on the nuclear energy phase-out and its effects on energy security, environmental protection and economic growth. Belgium's natural gas and electricity markets are highly concentrated. Companies owned by the international power group Suez SA dominate at all levels. Belgium has made some efforts to unbundle these industries and reduce their market dominance, but much more must be done to encourage new entry, increase competition and bring real economic benefits to Belgian customers. 50 refs., 40 tabs., 3 annexes.

  4. Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    The population of the Dominican Republic was estimated at 6.4 million in 1986, with an annual growth rate of 2.4%. The infant mortality rate is 96/1000, and life expectancy is 60 years. The literacy level is 68%. The gross domestic product (GDP) in the Dominican Republic in 1986 was US$5.59 billion, with a real annual growth rate of 1.3% and a per capita GDP of $873. The labor force is distributed as follows: agriculture, 45%; industry and commerce, 21% services, 14%; and government, 20%. The Dominican economy entered a recovery period in 1986, and expenditures were cut to create savings for a massive public investment program. This fiscal spending has created a domestically-led growth of the Dominican economy and increased purchasing power among the poor. However, it remains for the government to come to terms with fiscal and monetary imbalances so that a more sustainable, noninflationary growth of the Dominican economy is ensured. Since 1966, the Dominican Republic has been a representative democracy whose national powers are divided among independent executive, legislative, and judicial branches.

  5. How do we define the policy impact of public health research? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alla, Kristel; Hall, Wayne D; Whiteford, Harvey A; Head, Brian W; Meurk, Carla S

    2017-10-02

    In order to understand and measure the policy impact of research we need a definition of research impact that is suited to the task. This article systematically reviewed both peer-reviewed and grey literature for definitions of research impact to develop a definition of research impact that can be used to investigate how public health research influences policy. Keyword searches of the electronic databases Web of Science, ProQuest, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, Informit, PsycINFO, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Google Scholar were conducted between August 2015 and April 2016. Keywords included 'definition' and 'policy' and 'research impact' or 'research evidence'. The search terms 'health', public health' or 'mental health' and 'knowledge transfer' or 'research translation' were used to focus the search on relevant health discipline approaches. Studies included in the review described processes, theories or frameworks associated with public health, health services or mental health policy. We identified 108 definitions in 83 publications. The key findings were that literature on research impact is growing, but only 23% of peer-reviewed publications on the topic explicitly defined the term and that the majority (76%) of definitions were derived from research organisations and funding institutions. We identified four main types of definition, namely (1) definitions that conceptualise research impacts in terms of positive changes or effects that evidence can bring about when transferred into policies (example Research Excellence Framework definition), (2) definitions that interpret research impacts as measurable outcomes (Research Councils UK), and (3) bibliometric and (4) use-based definitions. We identified four constructs underpinning these definitions that related to concepts of contribution, change, avenues and levels of impact. The dominance of bureaucratic definitions, the tendency to discuss but not define the concept of research impact, and the

  6. Mission Report on the Integrated Nuclear Infrastructure Review (INIR), 18-29 June 2012, Minsk, Republic of Belarus. Counterpart: Ministry of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    In a letter dated 23 November 2011, the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Belarus to the International Organizations in Vienna requested the IAEA to carry out an Integrated Nuclear Infrastructure Review Mission (INIR). The Republic of Belarus (hereafter Belarus) also provided their self-evaluation report (in Russian and English) entitled: Report on the Assessment of the National Nuclear Infrastructure of the Republic of Belarus. After preparatory activities, the INIR mission was conducted from 18 to 29 June 2012 in Minsk and represents an evaluation of the development status of the infrastructure issues described in the Milestones in the Development of a National Infrastructure for Nuclear Power (Nuclear Energy Series No. NG-G-3.1). The methodology for the evaluation is described in Evaluation of the Status of National Nuclear Infrastructure Development (Nuclear Energy Series No. NG-T-3.2). Given the status of Belarus's programme, the mission covered conditions for both Phases 1 and 2. Belarus began its preparations for nuclear power in the 1980s but stopped after the Chernobyl accident. In July 2006, after strategic energy planning activities, Belarus decided to again consider the possibility of introducing nuclear power into the national energy mix. Subsequently on September 17, 2007, The Concept of Energy Security of the Republic of Belarus was approved by the Decree No. 433 of the President and included a plan to commission two nuclear power units with total power capacity of 2000 MWe by 2020. The Resolution of the Security Council of Belarus in 2008 approved the construction. The Law on the Use of Atomic Energy in Belarus was adopted on July 30, 2008 and provides the legal basis for safe nuclear power development. In 2009, the Master Plan of Key Organizational Measures for Construction of Nuclear Power Plant was adopted. The mission team concluded that the Government of Belarus has made a clear commitment to a nuclear power programme, which is important to

  7. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Czech Republic 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Czech Republic for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  8. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Slovak Republic 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Slovak Republic for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  9. Review of wind power tariff policies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Zheng; Wang, Jianhui; Byrne, John; Kurdgelashvili, Lado

    2013-01-01

    In the past 20 years, China has paid significant attention to wind power. Onshore wind power in China has experienced tremendous growth since 2005, and offshore wind power development has been on-going since 2009. In 2010, with a total installed wind power capacity of 41.8 GW, China surpassed the U.S. as the country with the biggest wind power capacity in the world. By comparing the wind power situations of three typical countries, Germany, Spain, and Denmark, this paper provides a comprehensive evaluation and insights into the prospects of China’s wind power development. The analysis is carried out in four aspects including technology, wind resources, administration and time/space frame. We conclude that both German and Spanish have been growing rapidly in onshore capacity since policy improvements were made. In Denmark, large financial subsidies flow to foreign markets with power exports, creating inverse cost-benefit ratios. Incentives are in place for German and Danish offshore wind power, while China will have to remove institutional barriers to enable a leap in wind power development. In China, cross-subsidies are provided from thermal power (coal-fired power generation) in order to limit thermal power while encouraging wind power. However, the mass installation of wind power capacity completely relies on power subsidies. Furthermore, our study illustrates that capacity growth should not be the only consideration for wind power development. It is more important to do a comprehensive evaluation of multi-sectorial efforts in order to achieve long-term development. - Highlights: ► Key components to exam China’s wind power. ► Evaluation of Europe could be helpful. ► China has to remove institutional barrier.

  10. Article Review on World Bank Report, Optimal Design for a Minimum Wage Policy in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Nurrachmi, Rininta; Mad-Ahin, Ashanee; Waeowanjit, Phimpaporn; Kareemarif Arif, Naz Abdul

    2012-01-01

    There are many pros and cons with the implementation of minimum wage in Malaysia, since it is the first time. This article review is to analyze the World Bank report on Malaysian minimum wage policy that will be implemented in 2013. There are strength and weakness on the report. Moreover the review will also be analyzed from Islamic perspective since majority population in Malaysia is Muslim.

  11. Intimate partner homicide: review and implications of research and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Glass, Nancy; Sharps, Phyllis W; Laughon, Kathryn; Bloom, Tina

    2007-07-01

    Current rates of intimate partner homicide of females are approximately 4 to 5 times the rate for male victims, although the rates for both have decreased during the past 25 years. The major risk factor for intimate partner homicide, no matter if a female or male partner is killed, is prior domestic violence. This review presents and critiques the evidence supporting the other major risk factors for intimate partner homicide in general, and for intimate partner homicide of women (femicide) in particular, namely guns, estrangement, stepchild in the home, forced sex, threats to kill, and nonfatal strangulation (choking). The demographic risk factors are also examined and the related phenomena of pregnancy-related homicide, attempted femicide, and intimate partner homicide-suicide.

  12. The energy-economic situation in the Republic of Moldova and the energy policy characteristics during the transition period to market economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vern, G.; Medvev, L.; Lumer, I.; Reabuhina, L.

    1994-01-01

    A significant characteristics of the present situation of the Moldavian economy is the social impact of cyclic and structural economic crises. The energy crisis is an important concern for social-political background of the Republic and it requires updating the elements of the permanent capital implied in electrothermal power production. Comparative calculations were done for electrothermal demands and the results illustrate the dynamics of the energy intensity for the power output. Several suggestions are advanced to settle the energy-economical problems

  13. The Agency's technical co-operation programme in the Islamic Republic of Iran 1982-1995 country programme evaluation review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    This evaluation of the country programme in Iran was requested by the Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran. The main reasons for the evaluation were the desire to determine the results of the Agency's TC programme in Iran since 1982 (the post-revolution period) and how they are being utilized, and to identify specific areas for future co-operation. The evaluation included a two-week field mission during November/December 1995, integrated by three outside experts and one Agency staff member. Figs, tabs

  14. HIV policy implementation in two health and demographic surveillance sites in Uganda: findings from a national policy review, health facility surveys and key informant interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRobie, Ellen; Wringe, Alison; Nakiyingi-Miiro, Jessica; Kiweewa, Francis; Lutalo, Tom; Nakigozi, Gertrude; Todd, Jim; Eaton, Jeffrey William; Zaba, Basia; Church, Kathryn

    2017-04-05

    Successful HIV testing, care and treatment policy implementation is essential for realising the reductions in morbidity and mortality those policies are designed to target. While adoption of new HIV policies is rapid, less is known about the facility-level implementation of new policies and the factors influencing this. We assessed implementation of national policies about HIV testing, treatment and retention at health facilities serving two health and demographic surveillance sites (HDSS) (10 in Kyamulibwa, 14 in Rakai). Ugandan Ministry of Health HIV policy documents were reviewed in 2013, and pre-determined indicators were extracted relating to the content and nature of guidance on HIV service provision. Facility-level policy implementation was assessed via a structured questionnaire administered to in-charge staff from each health facility. Implementation of policies was classified as wide (≥75% facilities), partial (26-74% facilities) or minimal (≤25% facilities). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with key informants (policy-makers, implementers, researchers) to identify factors influencing implementation; data were analysed using the Framework Method of thematic analysis. Most policies were widely implemented in both HDSS (free testing, free antiretroviral treatment (ART), WHO first-line regimen as standard, Option B+). Both had notable implementation gaps for policies relating to retention on treatment (availability of nutritional supplements, support groups or isoniazid preventive therapy). Rakai implemented more policies relating to provision of antiretroviral treatment than Kyamulibwa and performed better on quality of care indicators, such as frequency of stock-outs. Factors facilitating implementation were donor investment and support, strong scientific evidence, low policy complexity, phased implementation and effective planning. Limited human resources, infrastructure and health management information systems were perceived as major

  15. Science Education and Test-Based Accountability: Reviewing Their Relationship and Exploring Implications for Future Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kevin J. B.

    2012-01-01

    Assuming that quality science education plays a role in economic growth within a country, it becomes important to understand how education policy might influence science education teaching and learning. This integrative research review draws on Cooper's methodology (Cooper, 1982; Cooper & Hedges, 2009) to synthesize empirical findings on the…

  16. Seasonal influenza vaccine policy, use and effectiveness in the tropics and subtropics - a systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirve, S.; Lambach, P.; Paget, J.; Vandemaele, K.; Fitzner, J.; Zhang, W.

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The evidence needed for tropical countries to take informed decisions on influenza vaccination is scarce. This article reviews policy, availability, use and effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccine in tropical and subtropical countries. METHOD: Global health databases were searched in three

  17. Seasonal influenza vaccine policy, use and effectiveness in the tropics and subtropics: a systematic literature review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirve, S.; Lambach, P.; Paget, J.; Vandemaele, K.; Fitzner, J.; Zhang, W.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The evidence needed for tropical countries to take informed decisions on influenza vaccination is scarce. This paper reviews policy, availability, use and effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccine in tropical and subtropical countries. Method: Global health databases were searched in three

  18. A review of policy acts and initiatives in plantain and banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A review of policy acts and initiatives in plantain and banana innovation system in Nigeria. ... research institutes, both of which has developed many technologies aimed at improving the production of the crop and removing constraints posed by pest and diseases, marketing opportunities and perishability. Despite these ...

  19. Human Trafficking in Ethiopia: A Scoping Review to Identify Gaps in Service Delivery, Research, and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Dana C; Choi, Kristen R; Munro-Kramer, Michelle L; Lori, Jody R

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this review is to integrate evidence on human trafficking in Ethiopia and identify gaps and recommendations for service delivery, research and training, and policy. A scoping literature review approach was used to systematically search nursing, medical, psychological, law, and international databases and synthesize information on a complex, understudied topic. The search yielded 826 articles, and 39 met the predetermined criteria for inclusion in the review. Trafficking in Ethiopia has occurred internally and externally in the form of adult and child labor and sex trafficking. There were also some reports of organ trafficking and other closely related human rights violations, such as child marriage, child soldiering, and exploitative intercountry adoption. Risk factors for trafficking included push factors (poverty, political instability, economic problems, and gender discrimination) and pull factors (demand for cheap labor). Trafficking was associated with poor health and economic outcomes for victims. Key recommendations for service delivery, research and training, and policy are identified, including establishing comprehensive services for survivor rehabilitation and reintegration, conducting quantitative health outcomes research, and reforming policy around migration and trafficking. Implementing the recommendations identified by this review will allow policy makers, researchers, and practitioners to take meaningful steps toward confronting human trafficking in Ethiopia.

  20. Policy, Practice and Purpose in the Field of Education: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Jill

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a critical review of papers in this special issue on Bourdieu and practice. What is different about this collection is that, in analysing policy and practice through a Bourdieusian lens, the thinking tools of field, disposition (collective and individual), logics of practice and doxa have been mobilised with regard to the…

  1. A Research Review of the Impact of Accountability Policies on Teachers' Workplace Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mausethagen, Solvi

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews research on changes in teachers' workplace relations in a policy context that increasingly emphasizes accountability. The findings indicate that a greater focus on testing and student performance often leads to less attention to the caring and relational aspects of teachers' work. Prevailing and enduring ideas about teachers'…

  2. Children and Environment: A UNICEF Strategy for Sustainable Development. A UNICEF Policy Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    This policy review discusses the impact of environmental degradation on the health and well-being of children and women. It analyzes ways in which environmental threats such as deforestation, atmospheric pollution, and global warming add to the environment of ill health, malnutrition and ignorance to perpetuate the cycle of poverty. The review…

  3. Cesarean section in the People’s Republic of China: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng XL

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Xing Lin Feng,1 Ying Wang,1 Lin An,2 Carine Ronsmans3 1Department of Health Policy and Administration, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Women, Children and Adolescent Health, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, England Objective: To review the current knowledge on the prevalence, reasons, and consequences of cesarean sections in the People’s Republic of China. Methods: Peer-reviewed articles were systematically searched on PubMed. The following Chinese databases were comprehensively searched: the China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, and the VIP information. The databases were searched from inception to September 1, 2013. Two reviewers independently screened the titles and abstracts for eligibility. Full texts of eligible papers were reviewed, where relevant references were hand-searched and reviewed. Findings: Sixty articles were included from PubMed, 17 articles were intentionally picked out from Chinese journals, and five additional articles were added, for a total of 82 articles for the analysis. With a current national rate near 40%, the literature consistently reported a rapid rise of cesarean sections in the People’s Republic of China in the past decades, irrespective of where people lived or their socioeconomic standing. Nonclinical factors were considered as the main drivers fueling the rise of cesareans in the People’s Republic of China. There was a lively debate on whether women’s preferences or providers’ distorted financial incentives affected the rise in cesarean sections. However, recent evidence suggests that it might be the People’s Republic of China’s health development approach – focusing on specialized care and marginalizing primary care – that is playing a role. Although 30 articles

  4. Regional Development Planning in the Slovak Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentková, Katarína

    2017-10-01

    Regional development is very closely related to a region and its competitive advantages which affect the competitiveness of the region. The regional development is influenced by many factors that act differently depending on the region. To ensure the effective and harmonized regional development, the systematic approach is needed. Every region is unique and differs from the other by the level of economic development, living standards of its inhabitants, unemployment rate and by employment possibilities. Regional policy is a strategic investment policy which focuses on all regions and cities in the European Union. The aim is to boost economic growth and to improve the quality of people’s lives. Solidarity is the main feature of the policy, because policy focuses on support for less developed regions. A fundamental aspect of regional development is to reduce disparities between the regions and cities. The paper focuses on the analysis of regional development of Slovakia. The intention is to follow the logical continuity of the article’s parts, the correctness and the adequacy of information and data. First part is focused on the definition of the regional policy and regional development. Important task is to identify the differences between European policies - regional, structural and cohesion policy. This section is prepared by using the analytical methods - the analysis, the casual and historical analysis. This part is based on literature review. The empirical part is based on statistics and secondary analysis which were aimed to analyse the regional development and effectiveness of its planning in the Slovak Republic. The question of this article is whether it is possible to plan the regional development by application of the plan for economic and social development, called the Municipal Development Plan.

  5. Using media to impact health policy-making: an integrative systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou-Karroum, Lama; El-Jardali, Fadi; Hemadi, Nour; Faraj, Yasmine; Ojha, Utkarsh; Shahrour, Maher; Darzi, Andrea; Ali, Maha; Doumit, Carine; Langlois, Etienne V; Melki, Jad; AbouHaidar, Gladys Honein; Akl, Elie A

    2017-04-18

    Media interventions can potentially play a major role in influencing health policies. This integrative systematic review aimed to assess the effects of planned media interventions-including social media-on the health policy-making process. Eligible study designs included randomized and non-randomized designs, economic studies, process evaluation studies, stakeholder analyses, qualitative methods, and case studies. We electronically searched Medline, EMBASE, Communication and Mass Media Complete, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the WHO Global Health Library. We followed standard systematic review methodology for study selection, data abstraction, and risk of bias assessment. Twenty-one studies met our eligibility criteria: 10 evaluation studies using either quantitative (n = 7) or qualitative (n = 3) designs and 11 case studies. None of the evaluation studies were on social media. The findings of the evaluation studies suggest that media interventions may have a positive impact when used as accountability tools leading to prioritizing and initiating policy discussions, as tools to increase policymakers' awareness, as tools to influence policy formulation, as awareness tools leading to policy adoption, and as awareness tools to improve compliance with laws and regulations. In one study, media-generated attention had a negative effect on policy advocacy as it mobilized opponents who defeated the passage of the bills that the media intervention advocated for. We judged the confidence in the available evidence as limited due to the risk of bias in the included studies and the indirectness of the evidence. There is currently a lack of reliable evidence to guide decisions on the use of media interventions to influence health policy-making. Additional and better-designed, conducted, and reported primary research is needed to better understand the effects of media interventions, particularly social media, on health policy-making processes, and

  6. Policy responses to problematic video game use: A systematic review of current measures and future possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Király, Orsolya; Griffiths, Mark D; King, Daniel L; Lee, Hae-Kook; Lee, Seung-Yup; Bányai, Fanni; Zsila, Ágnes; Takacs, Zsofia K; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2017-09-01

    Background and aims Empirical research into problematic video game playing suggests that overuse might cause functional and psychological impairments for a minority of gamers. Therefore, the need for regulation in the case of video games (whether governmental or self-imposed) has arisen but has only been implemented in a few countries around the world, and predominantly in Asia. This paper provides a systematic review of current and potential policies addressing problematic gaming. Methods After conducting a systematic search in the areas of prevention, treatment, and policy measures relating to problematic Internet and video game use, papers were selected that targeted problematic gaming policies (N = 12; six in English and six in Korean). These papers served as the basis of this review. Results Policies were classified into three major groups: (i) policy measures limiting availability of video games (e.g., shutdown policy, fatigue system, and parental controls), (ii) measures aiming to reduce risk and harm (e.g., warning messages), and (iii) measures taken to provide help services for gamers. Beyond the attempt to classify the current and potential policy measures, the authors also tried to evaluate their efficiency theoretically and (if data were available) empirically. Discussion and conclusions Overall, it appears that although several steps have been taken to address problematic video game playing, most of these steps were not as effective as expected, or had not been evaluated empirically for efficacy. The reason for this may lie in the fact that the policies outlined only addressed or influenced specific aspects of the problem instead of using a more integrative approach.

  7. ANSTO`s radioactive waste management policy. Preliminary environmental review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levins, D.M.; Airey, P.; Breadner, B.; Bull, P.; Camilleri, A.; Dimitrovski, L.; Gorman, T.; Harries, J.; Innes, R.; Jarquin, E.; Jay, G.; Ridal, A.; Smith, A.

    1996-05-01

    For over forty years, radioactive wastes have been generated by ANSTO (and its predecessor, the AAEC) from the operation of nuclear facilities, the production of radioisotopes for medical and industrial use, and from various research activities. the quantities and activities of radioactive waste currently at Lucas Heights are very small compared to many other nuclear facilities overseas, especially those in countries with nuclear power program. Nevertheless, in the absence of a repository for nuclear wastes in Australia and guidelines for waste conditioning, the waste inventory has been growing steadily. This report reviews the status of radioactive waste management at ANSTO, including spent fuel management, treatment of effluents and environmental monitoring. It gives details of: relevant legislative, regulatory and related requirements; sources and types of radioactive waste generated at ANSTO; waste quantities and activities (both cumulative and annual arisings); existing practices and procedures for waste management and environmental monitoring; recommended broad strategies for dealing with radioactive waste management issues. Detailed proposals on how the recommendations should be implemented is the subject of a companion internal document, the Radioactive Waste Management Action Plan 1996-2000 which provides details of the tasks to be undertaken, milestones and resource requirements. 44 refs., 2 tabs., 18 figs.

  8. ANSTO's radioactive waste management policy. Preliminary environmental review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levins, D.M.; Airey, P.; Breadner, B.; Bull, P.; Camilleri, A.; Dimitrovski, L.; Gorman, T.; Harries, J.; Innes, R.; Jarquin, E.; Jay, G.; Ridal, A.; Smith, A.

    1996-05-01

    For over forty years, radioactive wastes have been generated by ANSTO (and its predecessor, the AAEC) from the operation of nuclear facilities, the production of radioisotopes for medical and industrial use, and from various research activities. the quantities and activities of radioactive waste currently at Lucas Heights are very small compared to many other nuclear facilities overseas, especially those in countries with nuclear power program. Nevertheless, in the absence of a repository for nuclear wastes in Australia and guidelines for waste conditioning, the waste inventory has been growing steadily. This report reviews the status of radioactive waste management at ANSTO, including spent fuel management, treatment of effluents and environmental monitoring. It gives details of: relevant legislative, regulatory and related requirements; sources and types of radioactive waste generated at ANSTO; waste quantities and activities (both cumulative and annual arisings); existing practices and procedures for waste management and environmental monitoring; recommended broad strategies for dealing with radioactive waste management issues. Detailed proposals on how the recommendations should be implemented is the subject of a companion internal document, the Radioactive Waste Management Action Plan 1996-2000 which provides details of the tasks to be undertaken, milestones and resource requirements. 44 refs., 2 tabs., 18 figs

  9. The interference of paid work with household demands in different social policy contexts: perceived work-household conflict in Sweden, the UK, the Netherlands, Hungary, and the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandh, Mattias; Nordenmark, Mikael

    2006-12-01

    The article explores whether people experiences a lower level of work-household conflict in a context that is characterized by extensive family policies (Sweden and to some extent Hungary and Czech Republic) aimed at facilitating participation in the labour market. This is done by studying perceived work-household conflict among women and men living in Sweden, the UK, the Netherlands, Hungary, and the Czech Republic. The analyses are based on the answers to a questionnaire distributed to nearly 6,000 randomly selected individuals within the framework of the European Union financed 'Household, Work, and Flexibility' (HWF) study. The results show that women in Sweden experience conflicts between work and household demands to a higher degree than any other category in all five countries. The differences between Swedish women and women living in the Netherlands and the UK are explained by variables indicating qualifications and workload in the main job, but the lower degree of work-household conflict among Czech and Hungarian women is still significant when controlling for household composition and working conditions. Data indicate that a possible explanation for this can be found in the interplay between men's and women's attitudes toward gender roles and the actual situation in terms of division of labour.

  10. Conflict of Interest Disclosure Policies and Practices in Peer-reviewed Biomedical Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Richelle J; Gupta, Malkeet; Wilkes, Michael S; Hoffman, Jerome R

    2006-12-01

    We undertook this investigation to characterize conflict of interest (COI) policies of biomedical journals with respect to authors, peer-reviewers, and editors, and to ascertain what information about COI disclosures is publicly available. We performed a cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of 135 editors of peer-reviewed biomedical journals that publish original research. We chose an international selection of general and specialty medical journals that publish in English. Selection was based on journal impact factor, and the recommendations of experts in the field. We developed and pilot tested a 3-part web-based survey. The survey included questions about the presence of specific policies for authors, peer-reviewers, and editors, specific restrictions on authors, peer-reviewers, and editors based on COI, and the public availability of these disclosures. Editors were contacted a minimum of 3 times. The response rate for the survey was 91 (67%) of 135, and 85 (93%) of 91 journals reported having an author COI policy. Ten (11%) journals reported that they restrict author submissions based on COI (e.g., drug company authors' papers on their products are not accepted). While 77% report collecting COI information on all author submissions, only 57% publish all author disclosures. A minority of journals report having a specific policy on peer-reviewer 46% (42/91) or editor COI 40% (36/91); among these, 25% and 31% of journals state that they require recusal of peer-reviewers and editors if they report a COI. Only 3% of respondents publish COI disclosures of peer-reviewers, and 12% publish editor COI disclosures, while 11% and 24%, respectively, reported that this information is available upon request. Many more journals have a policy regarding COI for authors than they do for peer-reviewers or editors. Even author COI policies are variable, depending on the type of manuscript submitted. The COI information that is collected by journals is often not published

  11. An Energy Overview of the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is the Czech Republic. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need an d resources permit

  12. Systematic review of emergency medicine clinical practice guidelines: Implications for research and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Arjun K; Savage, Dan; Sandefur, Benjamin; Bernard, Kenneth R; Rothenberg, Craig; Schuur, Jeremiah D

    2017-01-01

    Over 25 years, emergency medicine in the United States has amassed a large evidence base that has been systematically assessed and interpreted through ACEP Clinical Policies. While not previously studied in emergency medicine, prior work has shown that nearly half of all recommendations in medical specialty practice guidelines may be based on limited or inconclusive evidence. We sought to describe the proportion of clinical practice guideline recommendations in Emergency Medicine that are based upon expert opinion and low level evidence. Systematic review of clinical practice guidelines (Clinical Policies) published by the American College of Emergency Physicians from January 1990 to January 2016. Standardized data were abstracted from each Clinical Policy including the number and level of recommendations as well as the reported class of evidence. Primary outcomes were the proportion of Level C equivalent recommendations and Class III equivalent evidence. The primary analysis was limited to current Clinical Policies, while secondary analysis included all Clinical Policies. A total of 54 Clinical Policies including 421 recommendations and 2801 cited references, with an average of 7.8 recommendations and 52 references per guideline were included. Of 19 current Clinical Policies, 13 of 141 (9.2%) recommendations were Level A, 57 (40.4%) Level B, and 71 (50.4%) Level C. Of 845 references in current Clinical Policies, 67 (7.9%) were Class I, 272 (32.3%) Class II, and 506 (59.9%) Class III equivalent. Among all Clinical Policies, 200 (47.5%) recommendations were Level C equivalent, and 1371 (48.9%) of references were Class III equivalent. Emergency medicine clinical practice guidelines are largely based on lower classes of evidence and a majority of recommendations are expert opinion based. Emergency medicine appears to suffer from an evidence gap that should be prioritized in the national research agenda and considered by policymakers prior to developing future quality

  13. Report of the review of WWER-1000 safety issues resolution at Temelin nuclear power plant, Temelin, Czech Republic 11 to 15 March 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, C.; Hoehn, J.; Seiberling, R.; Chambon, J.L.; Fil, N.S.; Munoz, A.; Roennberg, G.; Wenk, W.

    1996-01-01

    At the request of the Government of the Czech Republic, the IAEA conducted, in the period of 11-15 March 1996, a mission to review the resolution of WWER-1000 safety issues at Temelin NPP. These safety issues have been identified for WWER-1000 model 320 reactors and ranked according to their importance to safety in the frameworks of the IAEA Extrabudgetary Programme on Safety of WWER and RBMK Nuclear Power Plants. The Temelin NPP is a WWER-1000 and was originally designed according to standards of the former Soviet Union. After a series of reviews in the 1980s, a decision was taken by the Temelin NPP management to upgrade the design of Temelin, including the supply of fuel and instrumentation and control by a western company. The objective of the mission was to review the response of Temelin to the safety issues identified by the IAEA. The mission assessed the current Temelin design, including proposed modifications and plans for operation at Temelin, in the light of the IAEA recommendations for each relevant issue. The present report contains the mission's general conclusions and recommendations and an overview of the review performed in each topical area. The attachment contains a brief summary of the discussions on each individual safety issue and associated conclusions and recommendations. 3 refs

  14. Do Latin American scientific journals follow dual-use review policies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valles, Edith Gladys; Bernacchi, Adriana Silvina

    2014-01-01

    During the past decade, a number of journals have implemented dual-use policies in order to analyze whether the papers submitted for publication could raise concern because of the potential for misuse of their content. In this context, an analysis was performed on Latin American scientific journals to examine whether they apply formal written dual-use review policies and whether they inform their authors and reviewers about potentially sensitive issues in this area, as other international journals do. Peer-reviewed life sciences journals indexed in Latindex from Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, and Chile were analyzed. The Guide for Authors and the Instructions to Referees of 216 journals included in the Latindex catalogue (which means that they meet the best quality standards of the Latindex system) were screened for biosecurity-related information using the keywords biosecurity, biological weapons, and dual-use research of concern. Results showed that the screened publications had a total lack of dual-use review policies, even though some of them pointed out ethical behaviors to be followed related to authorship, plagiarism, simultaneous submission, research results misappropriation, ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects, guiding principles for the care and use of animals in research, research standard violations, and reviewer bias, among others.

  15. The rise and fall of Australian physical activity policy 1996 – 2006: a national review framed in an international context

    OpenAIRE

    Bellew, Bill; Schöeppe, Stephanie; Bull, Fiona C; Bauman, Adrian

    2008-01-01

    Background This paper provides an historical review of physical activity policy development in Australia for a period spanning a decade since the release of the US Surgeon General's Report on Physical Activity and Health in 1996 and including the 2004 WHO Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health. Using our definition of 'HARDWIRED' policy criteria, this Australian review is compared with an international perspective of countries with established national physical activity policie...

  16. The reporting characteristics and methodological quality of Cochrane reviews about health policy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiu-xia, Li; Ya, Zheng; Yao-long, Chen; Ke-hu, Yang; Zong-jiu, Zhang

    2015-04-01

    The systematic review has increasingly become a popular tool for researching health policy. However, due to the complexity and diversity in the health policy research, it has also encountered more challenges. We set out the Cochrane reviews on health policy research as a representative to provide the first examination of epidemiological and descriptive characteristics as well as the compliance of methodological quality with the AMSTAR. 99 reviews were included by inclusion criteria, 73% of which were Implementation Strategies, 15% were Financial Arrangements and 12% were Governance Arrangements; involved Public Health (34%), Theoretical Exploration (18%), Hospital Management (17%), Medical Insurance (12%), Pharmaceutical Policy (9%), Community Health (7%) and Rural Health (2%). Only 39% conducted meta-analysis, and 49% reported being updates, and none was rated low methodological quality. Our research reveals that the quantity and quality of the evidence should be improved, especially Financial Arrangements and Governance Arrangements involved Rural Health, Health Care Reform and Health Equity, etc. And the reliability of AMSTAR needs to be tested in larger range in this field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Review of Policy, Regulatory, and Organizational Frameworks of Environment and Health in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitike, Getnet; Motbainor, Achenef; Kumie, Abera; Samet, Jonathan; Wipfli, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Ethiopia produced its Environmental Health Situational Analysis and Needs Assessment (SANA) report in 2010 as part of the global endeavor to characterize and underscore the importance of connecting health and environment. The assessment methods used in SANA 2010 were updated, replicated and used in this SABNA. with a focus on air pollution, occupational safety and health, and climate change. The purpose of the review was to examine national policies and identify gaps in regulations and organizational arrangements that determine Ethiopia's ability to mitigate and eventually prevent the health impacts of air pollution, occupational hazards, and climate change. The national policy and regulatory documents were reviewed. Literature was identified through electronic searches. Hard copies of past reports and policies were reviewed whenever necessary. A semi-structured guideline was used to conduct in-depth interviews aimed at identifying gaps and needs. The Constitution of Ethiopia has policy provisions related to air pollution, occupational safety and health (OSH), and climate change and health. Proclamation No. 300/2002 on Environmental Pollution Control specifies ambient air quality standards and allowable emissions. However, there were no documents that outlined the national or regional strategies that the ministries and agencies could adopt to translate existing policies, legal provisions, or guidelines for air pollution into practical programs. In the same way, a national OSH policy was lacking at the time this review was made on how occupational safety and health should be handled nationally or at lower governing levels as required by the International Occupation Safety and Health and Working Environment Convention No. 155/1981. Ethiopia is a signatory of this Convention. The results of the situational analysis indicate that there are cross-cutting gaps in the various sectors. Among these, addressing the critical shortage of skilled personnel is an urgent priority

  18. Influence of school competitive food and beverage policies on obesity, consumption, and availability: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chriqui, Jamie F; Pickel, Margaret; Story, Mary

    2014-03-01

    The US Department of Agriculture recently issued an interim final rule governing the sale of foods and beverages sold outside of the school meal programs ("competitive foods and beverages" [CF&Bs]). To examine the potential influence that the federal rule may have based on peer-reviewed published studies examining the relationship between state laws and/or school district policies and student body mass index (BMI) and weight outcomes, consumption, and availability of CF&Bs. Keyword searches of peer-reviewed literature published between January 2005 and March 2013 were conducted using multiple databases. Titles and abstracts for 1160 nonduplicate articles were reviewed, with a full review conducted on 64 of those articles to determine their relevancy. Qualitative studies, studies of self-reported policies, or studies examining broad policies without a specific CF&B element were excluded. Twenty-four studies were selected for inclusion. Studies focused on state laws (n = 14), district policies (n = 8), or both (n = 2), with the majority of studies (n = 18) examining foods and beverages (as opposed to food-only or beverage-only policies). Sixteen studies examined prepolicy/postpolicy changes, and 8 studies examined postpolicy changes. Study designs were cross-sectional (n = 20), longitudinal (n = 3), or a combination (n = 1). Outcomes examined included change in BMI, weight, probability of overweight or obesity (n = 4), consumption (n = 10), and availability (n = 13); 3 studies examined more than 1 outcome. The majority of studies primarily reported results in the expected direction (n = 15), with the remaining studies (n = 9) reporting primarily mixed or nonsignificant results. In most cases, CF&B policies are associated with changes in consumption and/or availability in the expected direction; however, caution should be exercised, given that nearly all were cross-sectional. The influence of such policies on overall

  19. International heat pump status and policy review 1993-1996. Part 2. National Position Papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breembroek, G.; Lazaro, F.

    1999-07-01

    Four years after the publication of the International heat pump status and policy review, the International Energy Agency (IEA) Heat Pump Centre set out to compile an update of this study. The update reviews developments in the years 1993-96 and provides an outlook on future developments. Where available it includes data on 1997 as well. In 1997, roughly 90 million heat pumps were in operation worldwide (55 million in 1992). The main objective of the update of the International heat pump status and policy review is to provide an assessment of basic factors affecting heat pumps, policy measures regarding heat pumps, the status of various heat pump technologies and the current and expected penetration of heat pumps in all marker sectors. The analysis is based on a survey of the heat pump situation in 18 countries: Austria, Canada, China, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK and USA. In part one, for which a separate abstract has been prepared, the information from all these countries is brought together, compared and analysed. The information is gathered from detailed reviews of the situations in the individual countries, the so-called National Position Papers, which can be found in this volume (part two) of the report. The reports reveal that overall the heat pump market showed a favourable development in the years 1993-96

  20. Policy and Programs for Cycling in the City of Zagreb – A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Pilko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Studying cycling traffic issues in a beginner city – City of Zagreb, stems from unclear development policy, an increase in cycling volume, a large number of traffic accidents, an inadequate infrastructure and legislation, a small number of high quality studies and published papers, and the question, did current cycling policy and programs advance cycling? A comprehensive search of available literature, including data from the Zagreb Traffic Department, was made. These data do not adequately address the direction of causality, such as whether current cycling policy and programs advance cycling or whether cycling demand led to increased levels of cycling. This review paper suggests that, it is not yet possible to evaluate which pro-bicycle packages are the most effective and, development of cycling traffic requires a coordinated holistic planning strategy. Results could serve as a beacon light for similarly sized beginner cities, especially those who are located in South-eastern and Eastern Europe.

  1. Migration and development policies: The state of affairs before the 2015 European migration crises in the Czech Republic and its current implications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stojanov, R.; Bureš, O.; Duží, Barbora

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 3 (2017), s. 169-181 ISSN 0967-067X Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : development policy * migration policy * coherence * international migration * European Union Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography OBOR OECD: Cultural and economic geography Impact factor: 0.607, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0967067X17300272

  2. Migration and development policies: The state of affairs before the 2015 European migration crises in the Czech Republic and its current implications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stojanov, R.; Bureš, O.; Duží, Barbora

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 3 (2017), s. 169-181 ISSN 0967-067X Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : development policy * migration policy * coherence * international migration * European Union Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.607, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0967067X17300272

  3. Political and institutional influences on the use of evidence in public health policy. A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Liverani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is increasing recognition that the development of evidence-informed health policy is not only a technical problem of knowledge exchange or translation, but also a political challenge. Yet, while political scientists have long considered the nature of political systems, the role of institutional structures, and the political contestation of policy issues as central to understanding policy decisions, these issues remain largely unexplored by scholars of evidence-informed policy making. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of empirical studies that examined the influence of key features of political systems and institutional mechanisms on evidence use, and contextual factors that may contribute to the politicisation of health evidence. Eligible studies were identified through searches of seven health and social sciences databases, websites of relevant organisations, the British Library database, and manual searches of academic journals. Relevant findings were extracted using a uniform data extraction tool and synthesised by narrative review. FINDINGS: 56 studies were selected for inclusion. Relevant political and institutional aspects affecting the use of health evidence included the level of state centralisation and democratisation, the influence of external donors and organisations, the organisation and function of bureaucracies, and the framing of evidence in relation to social norms and values. However, our understanding of such influences remains piecemeal given the limited number of empirical analyses on this subject, the paucity of comparative works, and the limited consideration of political and institutional theory in these studies. CONCLUSIONS: This review highlights the need for a more explicit engagement with the political and institutional factors affecting the use of health evidence in decision-making. A more nuanced understanding of evidence use in health policy making requires both additional empirical studies

  4. Review of policies adopted in 34 Countries to improve diet and physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ceccarelli

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Today, obesity can be considered in most OECD and EU countries as an unprecedented public health challenge which has been underestimated, poorly assessed and not fully accepted as a strategic governmental problem with substantial economic implications.
    The aim of this paper is to provide a review of the major policy statements on diet and physical activity adopted in 34 OECD and other EU countries until 2008, and to point out similarities and differences between country approaches and factors that may explain them.


    Methods: Information about policies and interventions was mainly retrieved from official sources such as the WHO Regional Office for Europe nutrition policy database, and websites of Health Ministries and national public health institutions.


    Results: The review pointed out that almost all WHO and OECD Member States have government-approved policies on nutrition and food safety. Although countries have large data and documents on overweight and obesity, they do not seem to rely on them to define clear strategies and plans for action which, as a result, are often vague and unspecific.

    Conclusions: In order to reverse the obesity trend down to decent levels and to reach the lower socio-economic groups, concerted, multisectorial, long-term actions are needed in combination with a much larger political determination.

  5. A review of pharmaceutical policies in response to economic crises and sanctions

    OpenAIRE

    Kheirandish, Mehrnaz; Rashidian, Arash; Kebriaeezade, Abbas; Cheraghali, Abdol Majid; Soleymani, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    An economic crisis has been defined as a situation in which the scale of a country's economy becomes smaller in a period of time. Economic crises happen for various reasons, including economic sanctions. Economic crises in a country may affect national priorities for investment and expenditure and reduce available resources, and hence may affect the health care sector including access to medicines. We reviewed the pharmaceutical policies that the countries adopted in order to mitigate the pot...

  6. A Critical Review on Interest Rate as a Tool of Monetary Policy

    OpenAIRE

    diyah putriani; pras towo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This research is aimed to critically review the relationship between interest rate and economic downturnMethods: Meta-analysis.Results: The existing monetary policy will always create higher inflation rate overtime triggering economic crisis in the long run. This is not merely about how the monetary authority strictly manages the supply and demand for money in the economy.Conclusion:This paper concludes that interest rate give negative contribution to the economic growth.

  7. A Critical Review on Interest Rate as a Tool of Monetary Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    diyah putriani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This research is aimed to critically review the relationship between interest rate and economic downturnMethods: Meta-analysis.Results: The existing monetary policy will always create higher inflation rate overtime triggering economic crisis in the long run. This is not merely about how the monetary authority strictly manages the supply and demand for money in the economy.Conclusion:This paper concludes that interest rate give negative contribution to the economic growth.

  8. Forensic Accounting and Fraud: A Review of Literature and Policy Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Ozili, Peterson K

    2015-01-01

    This review present some evidence on fraud, forensic accounting, the skills and education of the forensic investigator. Also, some ex-planation for the diverging views among academics and regulators in relation to detecting fraud are provided. To regulators, I address the question on why academic research in forensic accounting have little significance to inform policy. Further, I present some rich set of questions and identify a number of important directions for future research in forensic ...

  9. Research policy and review 34: The development of ideas of uncertainty representation

    OpenAIRE

    B Tonn

    1991-01-01

    The historical range and current applications of important ideas about uncertainty are reviewed. It is undertaken for the benefit of decisionmakers and policy analysts who need to confront in a rigorous fashion complex problems that entail large uncertainties. Numerous ideas are addressed, gleaned from many disciplines, including philosophy, mathematics, and artificial intelligence, which can supplement the basic approaches to uncertainty associated with objective and subjective probability. ...

  10. A Review of Electric Vehicle Lifecycle Emissions and Policy Recommendations to Increase EV Penetration in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachana Vidhi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicles reduce pollution only if a high percentage of the electricity mix comes from renewable sources and if the battery manufacturing takes place at a site far from the vehicle use region. Industries developed due to increased electric vehicle adoption may also cause additional air pollution. The Indian government has committed to solving New Delhi’s air pollution issues through an ambitious policy of switching 100% of the light duty consumer vehicles to electric vehicles by 2030. This policy is based on vehicle grid interaction and relies on shared mobility through the electric vehicle fleet. There are several human behavioral changes necessary to achieve 100% adoption of electric vehicles. This paper reviews different steps in the lifecycle of an electric vehicle (EV, their impact on environmental emissions, and recommends policies suitable for different socio-economic group that are relevant to the Indian market. To reduce air pollution through adoption of electric vehicles, the Indian government needs to adopt policies that increase sale of electric vehicles, increase percentage of renewable energy in the electricity mix, and prevent air pollution caused from battery manufacturing. The recommended policies can be customized for any market globally for reducing air pollution through increased adoption of electric vehicles.

  11. A review and assessment of energy policy in the Middle East and North Africa region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, Steven

    2017-01-01

    The energy landscape of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region has undergone a significant transformation in recent years as a result of intersecting technological, economic and political trends, both regional and international. The evolving dynamics of international energy markets, increased diversification of energy sources, global concerns for climate change, and regional conflict are among the leading factors impacting the evolution of MENA energy policy. This paper provides an assessment and outlook for energy policy in the MENA region within the context of the myriad factors impacting policy design and implementation. A review and analysis of the social, political and economic factors that are impacting regional energy policy is provided and followed by analysis of regional energy policy with consideration of hydrocarbon exploration and production, regional energy trade, demand management and clean energy production. The findings show that the MENA region is in the midst of an energy transition that has uncertain outcomes but will undoubtedly have long lasting impacts on the global energy system. - Highlights: • The MENA region is undergoing an energy transition shaped by political, social and economic dynamics. • Political, economic and social turmoil will constrain energy systems developments in many MENA countries. • MENA countries that can evolve their energy systems are prioritizing energy security and energy cost minimization. • Energy demand management, sustainable energy supply and regional cooperation are essential to achieving energy priorities.

  12. Review of policies and guidelines concerning adults' alcohol consumption and promotion in Australian government schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Bernadette M; Buykx, Penelope; Munro, Geoff; Hausdorf, Katrin; Wiggers, John

    2014-08-01

    Schools are recognised as important settings for promoting student and community wellbeing through education, policies and the modelling of behaviour. Recently, there has been controversy regarding the promotion and use of alcohol by adults at school events. The aim of this study was to examine the policy approach of all Australian jurisdictions to the possession and use of alcohol, by adults, at government school events when students are present. A desktop review of Australian governments' alcohol in schools policy/guidelines documents was undertaken. Results Eighteen documents across eight jurisdictions were retrieved. There were inconsistencies between jurisdictions and lack of policy clarity regarding the promotion and/or use of alcohol by adults at events organised by schools for recreation, celebration and fundraising purposes. Clarity is needed about the role of alcohol in Australian schools, particularly in relation to its use of alcohol when there is a duty of care to children. The possession and/or use of alcohol by adults at school events may contribute to the pervasive role of drinking in Australian social life. SO WHAT? Clear and evidence-based guidelines are needed to inform school policies across all jurisdictions as to whether, when and under which circumstances it is appropriate for schools to promote and/or supply alcohol. This would also strengthen the ability of school principals and communities to make appropriate evidence-based decisions that focus on the interests of children.

  13. Improvement of Inventory Control Using Continuous Review Policy in A Local Hospital at Bandung City, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fina Hafnika

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This research was aimed to analyze the excess inventories issue in pharmacy and medical equipment unit at a local hospital in Bandung which affected the service level of the hospital. As one of the busy hospital in Java, proven by the higher amount of the patient/year than in other average Java typical hospital, the hospital needs to concern about the pharmaceutical and medical equipment inventories in order to fulfill patients’ needs and in the same time keeping the inventory level under control. Therefore, an inventory control evaluation was conducted to determine the appropriate number of inventories and time of order to avoid the excessive goods in central warehouse of the hospital. By using probabilistic inventory model and continuous review policy, the pharmaceutical inventory in the hospital was calculated to compare the ideal and actual amount of the average inventory level (AIL. ABC (Always, Better, Control classification also classified in this research to identify the proper item which potentially can be reduced from the inventory. From the analysis, we have discovered that the hospital potentially able to reduce almost Rp 830 million or 57% from the overstock inventory level by using continuous review policy as the basis of inventory control calculation system. Keywords: Continuous review policy, inventory control, EOQ, ROP, AIL

  14. Transforming healthcare with information technology in Japan: a review of policy, people, and progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Chon; Nishihara, Eitaro; Akiyama, Miki

    2011-03-01

    Healthcare reform as part of the economic recovery plan in Japan is placing emphasis on the use of healthcare information technology (HIT). This research mainly focuses on the HIT efforts in Japan with reference to the US for context. The purpose is to: (a) provide detail on governmental policy impacting promotion of HIT adoption to provide services to the people of Japan, (b) describe the outcomes of past and present policy impacting progress based on a case study of HIT use in the Kyoto Yamashina area, and (c) discuss issues for refinement of current policy. The method is case study, and data collection techniques include: (a) interviews of people involved in policy making for HIT in Japan (Japanese healthcare professionals, government officials, and academics involved in HIT research in Japan) and use in the medical community of HIT in the Kyoto Yamashina area, (b) archived document analysis of reports regarding government policy for HIT policy and user assessment for HIT mainly in the case study site, and (c) the literature review about HIT progression and effectiveness assessments to explore and describe issues concerning the transformation with HIT in Japan. This study reveals the aspects of governmental policy that have been effective in promoting successful HIT initiatives as well as some that have been detriments in Japan to help solve pressing social issues regarding healthcare delivery. For example, Japan has stipulated some standardized protocols and formats for HIT but does not mandate exactly how to engage in inter-organizational or intra-organizational health information exchange. This provides some desired autonomy for healthcare organizations and or governments in medical communities and allows for more advanced organizations to leverage current resources while providing a basis for lesser equipped organizations to use in planning the initiative. The insights gained from the Kyoto Yamashina area initiative reflect the success of past governmental

  15. A Comprehensive Approach in Recruitment and Employment Policies for Faculty Members: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleiman Ahmady

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Experts in the field of human resource management have always emphasized on human work force as the most important strategic factor and the organization's most valuable asset and believe that effective management of human resources is the key to organizational success. Recruitment and selection are one of the aspects of human resource management that are of great importance and adopting appropriate policies in this area could provide the appropriate use of human resources. In universities and higher education institutions, faculty members are one of the major capitals and development and application of appropriate policies play a major role in their success. This study is based on critical review where relevant search terms were used to collect the studies using extensive and structured search of the databases. One hundred fifty titles were retrieved. Then, with purposive sampling, texts screening was conducted in three stages: A primary screening or title screening on the grounds that are associated with managing recruiting faculty members, B secondary screening performed based on study summary and introduction texts, and C tertiary screening: the texts were briefly studied and the texts were prioritized based on conceptual richness and related to contextual studies and irrelevant articles were excluded. Complete and in-depth study of the richest papers began. Forty-five articles and text were examined. The results suggest that in most universities management of recruiting faculty members is decentralized and based on the department. Findings show that policies such as reducing the use of tenure track, the long-term contracts, limiting the tenure to faculty of science, limiting tenure to higher levels of associate professor and design the diverse career paths and different forms of employment are of the policies that can be considered by university managers. The findings also suggest that universities can use flexible policies, such as

  16. The rise and fall of Australian physical activity policy 1996 - 2006: a national review framed in an international context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellew, Bill; Schöeppe, Stephanie; Bull, Fiona C; Bauman, Adrian

    2008-07-31

    This paper provides an historical review of physical activity policy development in Australia for a period spanning a decade since the release of the US Surgeon General's Report on Physical Activity and Health in 1996 and including the 2004 WHO Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health. Using our definition of 'HARDWIRED' policy criteria, this Australian review is compared with an international perspective of countries with established national physical activity policies and strategies (New Zealand, Canada, Brazil, Scotland, Switzerland, the Netherlands and Finland). Methods comprised a literature and policy review, audit of relevant web sites, document searches and surveys of international stakeholders. All these selected countries embraced multi-strategic policies and undertook monitoring of physical activity through national surveys. Few committed to policy of more than three years duration and none undertook systematic evaluation of national policy implementation. This Australian review highlights phases of innovation and leadership in physical activity-related policy, as well as periods of stagnation and decline; early efforts were amongst the best in the world but by the mid-point of this review (the year 2000), promising attempts towards development of a national intersectoral policy framework were thwarted by reforms in the Federal Sport and Recreation sector. Several well received reviews of evidence on good practices in physical activity and public health were produced in the period but leadership and resources were lacking to implement the policies and programs indicated. Latterly, widespread publicity and greatly increased public and political interest in chronic disease prevention, (especially in obesity and type 2 diabetes) have dominated the framework within which Australian policy deliberations have occurred. Finally, a national physical activity policy framework for the Health sector emerged, but not as a policy vision that was

  17. Beyond Synthesis: Augmenting Systematic Review Procedures with Practical Principles to Optimise Impact and Uptake in Educational Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Chris; Taylor, Celia; Buckley, Sharon; Hean, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Whilst systematic reviews, meta-analyses and other forms of synthesis are considered amongst the most valuable forms of research evidence, their limited impact on educational policy and practice has been criticised. In this article, we analyse why systematic reviews do not benefit users of evidence more consistently and suggest how review teams…

  18. Conflict of Interest and Disclosure Policies in Psychiatry and Medicine: A Comparative Study of Peer-Reviewed Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Gauri; Henderson, Schuyler; Walter, Garry; Martin, Andres

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors reviewed and characterized conflict of interest (COI) and disclosure policies published in peer-reviewed psychiatric and nonpsychiatric journals. Methods: The authors examined peer-reviewed publications in the psychiatric (N=20) and nonpsychiatric (N=20) literature. Using qualitative and quantitative approaches, they…

  19. Why Public Comments Matter: The Case of the National Institutes of Health Policy on Single Institutional Review Board Review of Multicenter Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervin, Ann-Margret; Taylor, Holly A; Ehrhardt, Stephan; Meinert, Curtis L

    2018-03-06

    In 2014, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) requested public comments on a draft policy requiring NIH-funded, U.S.-based investigators to use a single institutional review board (sIRB) for ethical review of multicenter studies. The authors conducted a directed content analysis and qualitative summary of the comments and discuss how they shaped the final policy. Two reviewers independently assessed support for the policy from a review of comments responding to the draft policy in 2016. A reviewer conducted an open text review to identify prespecified and additional comment themes. A second researcher reviewed 20% of the comments; discrepancies were resolved through discussion. The NIH received 167 comments: 65% (108/167) supportive of the policy, 23% (38/167) not supportive, and 12% (21/167) not indicating support. Clarifications or changes to the policy were suggested in 102/167 comments (61%). Criteria for selecting sIRBs were addressed in 32/102 comments (31%). Also addressed were IRB responsibilities (39/102; 38%), cost (27/102; 26%), the role of local IRBs (14/102; 14%), and allowable policy exceptions (19/102; 19%). The NIH further clarified or provided additional guidance for selection criteria, IRB responsibilities, and cost in the final policy (June 2016). Local IRB reviews and exemptions guidance were unchanged. In this case study, public comments were effective in shaping policy as the NIH modified provisions or planned supplemental guidance in response to comments. Yet critical knowledge gaps remain and empirical data are necessary. The NIH is considering mechanisms to support the establishment of best practices for sIRB implementation.

  20. Policy, Practice, and Research Agenda for Emergency Medical Services Oversight: A Systematic Review and Environmental Scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taymour, Rekar K; Abir, Mahshid; Chamberlin, Margaret; Dunne, Robert B; Lowell, Mark; Wahl, Kathy; Scott, Jacqueline

    2018-02-01

    criteria; 46 included process, 36 outcomes, and 18 structural measures. Most studies applied quality measures at the personnel level (40), followed by the agency (28) and system of care (28), and few at the oversight level (5). Numerous grey literature articles provided principles for high-quality EMS oversight. Limited quality measurement at the oversight level is an important gap in the peer-reviewed literature. The grey literature is ahead in this realm and can guide the policy and research agenda for EMS oversight quality measurement. Taymour RK , Abir M , Chamberlin M , Dunne RB , Lowell M , Wahl K , Scott J . Policy, practice, and research agenda for Emergency Medical Services oversight: a systematic review and environmental scan. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(1):89-97.

  1. A review of HIV testing and counseling policies and practices in the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermez, Joumana; Petrak, Jenny; Karkouri, Mehdi; Riedner, Gabriele

    2010-07-01

    To review HIV testing and counseling policies and practices in the World Health Organization's (WHO) Eastern Mediterranean Region. We reviewed gray and published literature on HIV testing policies and practices in the 22 countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region, including surveillance, monitoring and evaluation reports. Missing or unclear information was clarified by telephone interviews of key informants. Field observations were conducted in four countries. Of reported diagnostic HIV tests conducted in the Eastern Mediterranean Region from 1995 to 2008, 59.3% were carried out on migrant workers. Only 4.0% were carried out on key populations at higher risk for HIV and 8.1% were conducted in sexually transmitted infection, tuberculosis and antenatal care services. The largest proportions of HIV-positive cases identified were among key populations at higher risk (23.4%) and in sexually transmitted infection, tuberculosis and antenatal care services (17.5%). Mandatory testing was the most common approach to identifying HIV-positive cases, yet most policy documents reviewed identified voluntary counseling and testing as a key intervention for prevention, care and treatment. Provider initiated testing and counseling was rarely considered. HIV testing strategies are cumbersome, as they require central laboratory-based Enzyme Linked Immuno-Sorbant Assay (ELISA) and/or Western Blot confirmation in most countries presenting barriers to receiving results. Although policies in the Eastern Mediterranean Region include a mix of mandatory and voluntary HIV testing, mandatory testing predominates, especially for migrant and foreign workers and key populations at higher risk of HIV. There is a paucity of programs providing voluntary testing. Strategies to enhance access to true voluntary HIV testing and counseling services are urgently needed, particularly targeting key populations at higher risk.

  2. Availability of caregiver-friendly workplace policies (CFWPs): an international scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireson, Rachelle; Sethi, Bharati; Williams, Allison

    2018-01-01

    Little research has been done to summarise: what is currently available to caregiver-employees (CEs), what types of employers are offering caregiver-friendly workplace policies (CFWPs), and the characteristics of employers offering CFWPs. The purpose of this scoping review was to explore the availability of CFWPs within workplaces on an international scale while being observant of how gender is implicated in care-giving. This paper followed the Arksey & O'Malley (2005) methodology for conducting scoping reviews. The authors applied an iterative method of determining study search strings, study inclusion and data extraction, and qualitative thematic analysis of the search results. Searches were performed in both the academic and grey literature, published between 1994 and 2014. A total of 701 articles were found. Seventy (n = 70) articles met all inclusion criteria and were included in this review. Four main qualitative themes were identified: (i) Diversity and Inclusiveness, (ii) Motivation, (iii) Accessibility, and (iv) Workplace Culture. Policy recommendations are discussed. This scoping review narrows the gap in the literature with respect to determining: (i) the workplaces which offer CFWPs, (ii) the sectors of the labour force shown to be supportive and (iii) the most frequently offered CFWPs. © 2016 The Authors. Health and Social Care in the Community Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Systematic literature searching in policy relevant, inter-disciplinary reviews: an example from culture and sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schucan Bird, Karen; Tripney, Janice

    2011-09-01

    Within the systematic review process, the searching phase is critical to the final synthesis product, its use and value. Yet, relatively little is known about the utility of different search strategies for reviews of complex, inter-disciplinary evidence. This article used a recently completed programme of work on cultural and sporting engagement to conduct an empirical evaluation of a comprehensive search strategy. Ten different types of search source were evaluated, according to three dimensions: (i) effectiveness in identifying relevant studies; (ii) efficiency in identifying studies; and (iii) adding value by locating studies that were not identified by any other sources. The study found that general bibliographic databases and specialist databases ranked the highest on all three dimensions. Overall, websites and journals were the next most valuable types of source. For reviewers, these findings highlight that general and specialist databases should remain a core component of the comprehensive search strategy, supplemented with other types of sources that can efficiently identify unique or grey literature. For policy makers and other research commissioners, this study highlights the value of methodological analysis for improving the understanding of, and practice in, policy relevant, inter-disciplinary systematic reviews. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Equity impact of interventions and policies to reduce smoking in youth: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tamara; Platt, Stephen; Amos, Amanda

    2014-11-01

    A systematic review to assess the equity impact of interventions/policies on youth smoking. Biosis, Cinahl, Cochrane Library, Conference Proceedings Citation Index, Embase, Eric, Medline, Psycinfo, Science Citation Index Expanded, Social Sciences Citation Index and tobacco control experts. Published January 1995 to October 2013. Primary studies of interventions/policies reporting smoking-related outcomes in youth (11-25 years) of lower compared to higher socioeconomic status (SES). References were screened and independently checked. Studies were quality assessed; characteristics and outcomes were extracted. A narrative synthesis by intervention/policy type. Equity impact was assessed as: positive (reduced inequity), neutral (no difference by SES), negative (increased inequity), mixed (equity impact varied) or unclear.Thirty-eight studies of 40 interventions/policies were included: smokefree (12); price/tax (7); mass media campaigns (1); advertising controls (4); access controls (5); school-based programmes (5); multiple policies (3), individual-level cessation support (2), individual-level support for smokefree homes (1). The distribution of equity effects was: 7 positive, 16 neutral, 12 negative, 4 mixed, 1 unclear. All 7 positive equity studies were US-based: price/tax (4), age-of-sales laws (2) and text-messaging cessation support (1). A British school-based intervention (A Stop Smoking in Schools Trial (ASSIST)) showed mixed equity effects (neutral and positive). Most neutral equity studies benefited all SES groups. Very few studies have assessed the equity impact of tobacco control interventions/policies on young people. Price/tax increases had the most consistent positive equity impact. There is a need to strengthen the evidence base for the equity impact of youth tobacco control interventions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. 76 FR 24857 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Intent To Rescind New Shipper Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... conducting three new shipper reviews (NSRs) under the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People... Yifa Garlic Produce Co., Ltd. (Jining Yifa) for the period of review (POR) November 1, 2009, through...

  6. Podhradem Interstadial; A critical review of the middle and late MIS 3 (Denekamp, Hengelo) in Moravia, Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisá, Lenka; Neruda, Petr; Nerudová, Zdeňka; Nejman, Ladislav

    2018-02-01

    Knowledge of global climatic fluctuations in the last glacial period has been instrumental for understanding evolution of the landscape and human behavior. Regional environmental responses to these fluctuations are influenced by many factors and their identification at the regional level usually results in local chronostratigraphic schemes. The term Podhradem Interstadial was introduced to the scientific community in 1966 on the basis of the results of an interdisciplinary excavation at Pod Hradem Cave in the Moravian Karst (Czech Republic). Brown soil horizons preserved in the upper part of the section were interpreted as evidence for a warmer period in the last glacial period. The upper part of this soil complex contained fauna remains and lithic artefacts indirectly dated to the time range 28.2-33.3 14C ka BP. Although based on contemporary state of knowledge, the Podhradem Interstadial had no stratigraphic equivalent in loess profiles of former Czechoslovakia and Lower Austria, the term was occasionally used in the European literature. The new interdisciplinary excavations of Pod Hradem Cave (2011-2016) yielded new data, which we use to re-evaluate the concept of the Podhradem Interstadial. In light of the new results, it seems that the original definition of Podhradem Interstadial has a number of problems. It does not fulfill stratigraphic standards and it is evident that the contemporaneous sediments differ lithologically in different parts of the cave. Furthermore, when we take into account the current availability of sophisticated climatostratigraphic schemes for the MIS 3 period, the continuing use of the Podhradem Interstadial should be considered redundant.

  7. Federal policies to promote the widespread utilization of photovoltaic systems. Supplement: review and critique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.L.

    1980-04-15

    This document is intended as a supplement to the two-volume report entitled Federal Policies to Promote the Widespread Utilization of Photovoltaic Systems that was submitted to Congress by the Department of Energy in February and April of 1980. This supplement contains review comments prepared by knowledgeable experts who reviewed early drafts of the Congressional report. Responses to the review comments by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, preparer of the Congressional report, are also included in this supplement. The Congressional report, mandated in the Solar Photovoltaic Energy Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1978 (P.L. 95-590), discusses various issues related to promoting the deployment of photovoltaic systems through the Federal Photovoltaic Program. Various program strategies and funding levels are examined.

  8. Sexual Assault Prevention and Reporting on College Campuses in the US: A Review of Policies and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streng, Tara K.; Kamimura, Akiko

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Sexual violence within the collegiate environment is a pressing issue within American society. One way to address sexual violence is through the adaptation and implementation of a sexual assault policy by colleges and universities. The purpose of this study is to review sexual misconduct and assault policies of ten public universities…

  9. Why media representations of corporations matter for public health policy: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weishaar, Heide; Dorfman, Lori; Freudenberg, Nicholas; Hawkins, Benjamin; Smith, Katherine; Razum, Oliver; Hilton, Shona

    2016-08-30

    Media representations play a crucial role in informing public and policy opinions about the causes of, and solutions to, ill-health. This paper reviews studies analysing media coverage of non-communicable disease (NCD) debates, focusing on how the industries marketing commodities that increase NCD risk are represented. A scoping review identified 61 studies providing information on media representations of NCD risks, NCD policies and tobacco, alcohol, processed food and soft drinks industries. The data were narratively synthesized to describe the sample, media depictions of industries, and corporate and public health attempts to frame the media debates. The findings indicate that: (i) the limited research that has been undertaken is dominated by a focus on tobacco; (ii) comparative research across industries/risk-factors is particularly lacking; and (iii) coverage tends to be dominated by two contrasting frames and focuses either on individual responsibilities ('market justice' frames, often promoted by commercial stakeholders) or on the need for population-level interventions ('social justice' frames, frequently advanced by public health advocates). Establishing the underlying frameworks is crucial for the analysis of media representation of corporations, as they reflect the strategies that respective actors use to influence public health debates and decision making. The potential utility of media research lies in the insights that it can provide for public health policy advocates about successful framing of public health messages and strategies to counter frames that undermine public health goals. A better understanding of current media debates is of paramount importance to improving global health.

  10. Review: Miller, Michelle Ann (2009, Rebellion and Reform in Indonesia – Jakarta’s Security and Autonomy Policies in Aceh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Missbach

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of the monograph: Miller, Michelle Ann, Rebellion and Reform in Indonesia – Jakarta’s Security and Autonomy Policies in Aceh, London/ New York: Routledge, 2009, ISBN 13: 978-0-415-45467-4, 240 pages.

  11. Progress in ZEBs—A review of definitions, policies and construction activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panagiotidou, Maria; Fuller, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review three interlinked aspects of Zero Energy (or Emissions) Buildings (ZEB): definitions, government policies and construction activity. It is critical to understand the current status of these three aspects in order to advance the ZEB concept. In broad terms, a ZEB can be described as a residential or commercial building with greatly reduced energy needs and/or carbon emissions, achieved through efficiency gains, such that the balance of energy needs can be supplied by renewable energy. The paper explores how leading countries have defined and are implementing the concept of ZEBs. Although the term ZEB can be used for both commercial and residential buildings, the paper is limited to the latter since this sector produces the greatest amount of emissions. Case studies are used to illustrate the current level of understanding in various countries. The paper concludes that although the term ZEB has been used for some time, there is still no globally-agreed definition or pathway to it. In addition, construction progress is still limited to demonstration projects located in or driven by countries which have already established ZEB policies or a tradition in low energy buildings. -- Highlights: •Not enough ZEBs globally and activity levels are too slow. •No evidence of consensus emerging over ZEB definition. •Countries that have ZEB policies are encountering resistance from building industry. •ZEB definitions and policies focus only on operational energy use

  12. Review of hookah tobacco smoking among college students: policy implications and research recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathuru, Irene M; Tarter, Ralph E; Klein-Fedyshin, Michele

    2015-01-01

    About 30% of college students have smoked hookah tobacco. Although most students perceive this product to be innocuous and non-addictive, hookah tobacco increases the risk for disease and nicotine dependence. Currently, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not regulate the manufacture, distribution, or sale of hookah tobacco. Empirical literature pertaining to hookah tobacco smoking is reviewed with a focus on the implications for regulatory policy. PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases were searched to locate articles published in English. The literature search combined several key words including "hookahs", "college", "advertising", "health effects", and "health policy". Smoking hookah tobacco may play a role in the initiation of smoking among tobacco-naïve college students and may portend persistent smoking among those who have smoked cigarettes. College students are typically nondaily, social smokers. They do not perceive that their heightened risk for tobacco diseases and nicotine dependence relates to their smoking behavior. However, few public health messages target college-age adults to counter media messages that endorse hookah tobacco smoking. Given that the FDA is not authorized to ban specific tobacco products, policy actions should focus on the development of effective risk communication strategies that target college-age adults and on limiting the accessibility of hookah tobacco products to these adults. Accordingly, a research agenda that would inform these policy actions is proposed.

  13. The concept of addiction in law and regulatory policy related to pain management: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilson, Aaron M

    2010-01-01

    To present a critical appraisal of the present definitions of addiction-related terminology that appear in US laws and regulatory policies that apply to the prescription of controlled substances for pain management. To establish an appropriate context for existing policy definitions, a historical review was conducted of reports from the World Health Organization expert committees on addiction-related concepts, beginning in 1950. In addition, current World Health Organization and American Psychiatric Association diagnostic classification nomenclature were examined. Results from recent criteria-based evaluations of federal and state laws and regulatory policies containing addiction-related terminology also were referenced. Numerous examples are provided to clarify how inaccurate understandings of the nature of addiction, which can be corroborated by archaic definitions in some states' laws, can impact treatment decisions and patient care. Finally, this article discusses terminological and treatment implications of such concepts as "risk mitigation" and "responsible prescribing", which are goals currently emphasized in the pain management field as principal means to reduce addiction to or abuse of prescription opioid medications. Although notable improvement has been achieved, policy content in some states has not kept pace with advancements in medical and scientific knowledge about the interface between pain management and addictive disease. Effective translation of addiction-related concepts into clinical practice remains an important objective for promoting public health related to treating pain and reducing non-medical use of opioids.

  14. Foreign Policy of The United States Against the Global Powers and Regional Actors: Case Study “Russian Federation” and “The Islamic Republic of Iran”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Мехди Хедайати Шахидани

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines US foreign policy strategy toward the global powers and regional actors in the post-bipolar period. The aim of the article is to demonstrate the theoretical and scientific significance of the concept of balance in the structure of international relations in the post-bipolar period, by defining behaviors of US against Russia and Iran. The results of the research show that US foreign policy toward Russia and Iran in the short term based on a soft balance, and in the long term - on the depletion of power.

  15. 77 FR 70417 - Administrative Review of Honey From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... Bee Healthy Co., Ltd., because the requests for review of these companies were withdrawn and they were... be accessed directly on the Internet at http://www.trade.gov/ia . The signed I&D Memo and the...

  16. Bilingualism in the United Republic of Cameroon: proficiency and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, D.

    1974-01-01

    This study has focused on the use of language in the United Republic of Cameroon and on individual bilingualism with consideration of the social and political repercussions of social practices and educational policy. (RK)

  17. Dutch climate and energy policy. Analysis of policy reviews 1989-2012; Het Nederlandse Klimaat- en Energiebeleid. Analyse van beleidsevaluaties 1989-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, J.; Blom, M.J.; De Bruyn, S.M.; Nelissen, D.; Aarnink, S.J.; De Buck, A.; Bennink, D. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Oosterhuis, F.H.; Kuik, O.J. [Instituut voor Milieuvraagstukken IVM, Vrije Universiteit VU, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-11-15

    The Dutch government has had climate policy in place since 1989. Since 1999 that policy has been intensified with a view to meeting Kyoto commitments for the period 2008-2012. The Dutch Parliament requested a review of the costs and effects of the measures implemented in the context of Dutch climate and energy policy, based on the available review studies, with led to the commissioning of the present report [Dutch] De Nederlandse overheid voert sinds 1989 klimaatbeleid. Vanaf 1999 is het beleid geïntensiveerd met het oog op het halen van de Kyoto-doelstelling in de periode 2008-2012. De Tweede Kamer wil een overzicht hebben van de kosten en effecten van beleidsinstrumenten van het Nederlandse klimaat- en energiebeleid, op basis van bestaande evaluatiestudies en heeft daarom deze studie laten uitvoeren.

  18. Transport, environment and health in central and Eastern Europe. State of affairs and policy options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The report provides a review of the current state of affairs and development trends in the transport sector in Central and Eastern Europe including the associated environmental and health effects. Focus in the report is on the challenges and policy options for counteracting the negative effects from transport as well as integrating environmental and health aspects in transport policies. The report is undertaken as a desk study supplemented by two case studies in the Czech Republic and Bulgaria. (au)

  19. The Coming-of-Age of China's Single-Child Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoughlin, Caven S.

    2005-01-01

    China's one-child policy is now 25 years of age--the officially sanctioned age for marriage by men in the People's Republic of China. A significant proportion of those now about to enter their child-bearing years are themselves the product of the first generation of one-child homes. This article reviews the history of the single-child policy, with…

  20. The tool of power legitimisation and guardianship. Social policy and its implementation in the pension systems of Czechoslovakia and the German Democratic Republic (1970-1989)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vilímek, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 1 (2015), s. 57-89 ISSN 2336-3142 Institutional support: RVO:68378114 Keywords : social policies * normalization * Czechoslovakia 1970-1989 * East Germany 1970-1989 Subject RIV: AB - History http://www.usd.cas.cz/casopis/czech-journal-of-contemporary-history-3-2015/

  1. The Revenge of History – The Institutional Roots of Post-Communist Family Policy in the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hašková, Hana; Saxonberg, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 5 (2016), s. 559-579 ISSN 0144-5596 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP404/10/0021; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-13766S Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : Historical institutionalism * Family policy * Central Europe Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 1.239, year: 2016

  2. State Policies and Women's Autonomy in China, the Republic of Korea, and India, 1950-2000: Lessons from Contrasting Experiences. Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Gupta, Monica; Lee, Sunhwa; Uberoi, Patricia; Wang, Danning; Wang, Lihong; Zhang, Xiaodan

    This paper compares the influence of state policies on gender roles and women's empowerment in China, India, and South Korea. In 1950, these newly formed states were largely poor and agrarian, with common cultural factors that placed similar severe constraints on women's autonomy. The three countries followed very different paths of development,…

  3. Expanding Public/Private Partnerships For Improving Basic Education through School Sponsorship in the Dominican Republic. Final Report. Basic Education and Policy Support Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Patricia; Kane, Michael

    The Basic Education and Policy Support Activity (BEPS), a new five-year initiative sponsored by United States Agency for International Development's (USAID) Center for Human Capacity Development, is designed to improve the quality, effectiveness, and access to formal and nonformal basic education. BEPS operates through both core funds and buy-ins…

  4. Foot and mouth disease in the Lao People's Democratic Republic: I. A review of recent outbreaks and lessons from control programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khounsy, S; Conlan, J V; Gleeson, L J; Westbury, H A; Colling, A; Paton, D J; Knowles, N J; Ferris, N P; Blacksell, S D

    2008-12-01

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) causes sporadic disease outbreaks in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). As the Lao PDR is a major thoroughfare for transboundary animal movements, regular FMD outbreaks occur, causing economic hardship for farmers and their families. In this review of the recent history of FMD in the Lao PDR between 1997 and 2006, the authors examine the virological and epidemiological aspects of the disease and appropriate control measures, including the distribution of outbreaks, causative serotypes and the molecular epidemiology of the viruses, as well as large-scale vaccination programmes. The dominant serotype, type O, was reported every year from 1998 to 2005. The majority of outbreaks occurred in Vientiane Capital (n = 42; 28%) and the highest number of outbreaks were reported in cattle (n = 94; 61%); followed by buffalo (n = 41; 27%) and pigs (n = 18; 12%). All type A outbreaks occurred in cattle. Type Asia 1 outbreaks were reported in the central provinces around Vientiane Capital between 1996 and 1998.

  5. Can policy ameliorate socioeconomic inequities in obesity and obesity-related behaviours? A systematic review of the impact of universal policies on adults and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olstad, D L; Teychenne, M; Minaker, L M; Taber, D R; Raine, K D; Nykiforuk, C I J; Ball, K

    2016-12-01

    This systematic review examined the impact of universal policies on socioeconomic inequities in obesity, dietary and physical activity behaviours among adults and children. PRISMA-Equity guidelines were followed. Database searches spanned from 2004 to August 2015. Eligible studies assessed the impact of universal policies on anthropometric, dietary or physical activity-related outcomes in adults or children according to socioeconomic position. Thirty-six studies were included. Policies were classified as agentic, agento-structural or structural, and their impact on inequities was rated as positive, neutral, negative or mixed according to the dominant associations observed. Most policies had neutral impacts on obesity-related inequities regardless of whether they were agentic (60% neutral), agento-structural (68% neutral) or structural (67% neutral). The proportion of positive impacts was similar across policy types (10% agentic, 18% agento-structural and 11% structural), with some differences for negative impacts (30% agentic, 14% agento-structural and 22% structural). The majority of associations remained neutral when stratified by participant population, implementation level and socioeconomic position measures and by anthropometric and behavioural outcomes. Fiscal measures had consistently neutral or positive impacts on inequities. Findings suggest an important role for policy in addressing obesity in an equitable manner and strengthen the case for implementing a broad complement of policies spanning the agency-structure continuum. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  6. Family eating out-of-home: a review of nutrition and health policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuffin, L E; Wallace, J M W; McCrorie, T A; Price, R K; Pourshahidi, L K; Livingstone, M B E

    2013-02-01

    Childhood obesity is a growing problem worldwide. In recent years, out-of-home (OH) eating has been highlighted as one of the many factors contributing to the obesogenic environment. This review seeks to identify a range of existing guidelines for the provision of healthy food options for families who eat OH frequently. Nationally available nutrition policies were identified using targeted and untargeted searches of the internet to identify established strategies for providing food for children in the family eating out sector in America (US), Australia, Canada and the WHO's European Region (EUR). These were categorised on the basis of eleven pre-defined criteria including: family eating out sector included as stakeholder; inclusion of children's food OH; cost strategies for healthier food choices; provision of nutrition information for customers; nutrition training of catering staff; and monitoring and evaluation structures. Fifty-five policies were reviewed, of which 71% addressed children's food served OH, but principally only for food available in schools. Two voluntary programmes, from Colorado and Slovenia, were identified as possible best practice models as they met a majority of the evaluation criteria. The most frequently used strategy by policies to promote healthier eating OH was the provision of nutrition information on menus, while monitoring and evaluation plans were poorly incorporated into any OH strategies, thus raising issues about their effectiveness. This review has identified a range of initiatives that could be employed to make healthier eating OH more accessible for families. However, to establish best practice guidelines for healthier OH food choices further investigations are required.

  7. 77 FR 60675 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade... antidumping duty order on certain frozen fish fillets (``fish'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam...

  8. Governing the transition to renewable energy: A review of impacts and policy issues in the small hydropower boom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly-Richards, Sarah; Silber-Coats, Noah; Crootof, Arica; Tecklin, David; Bauer, Carl

    2017-01-01

    The transition to renewable energy technologies raises new and important governance questions. With small hydropower (SHP) expanding as part of renewable energy and climate mitigation strategies, this review assesses its impacts and identifies escalating policy issues. To provide a comprehensive literature review of small hydropower, we evaluated over 3600 articles and policy documents. This review identified four major concerns: (1) confusion in small hydropower definitions is convoluting scholarship and policy-making; (2) there is a lack of knowledge and acknowledgement of small hydropower’s social, environmental, and cumulative impacts; (3) small hydropower’s promotion as a climate mitigation strategy can negatively affect local communities, posing contradictions for climate change policy; and (4) institutional analysis is needed to facilitate renewable energy integration with existing environmental laws to ensure sustainable energy development. For readers interested in small hydropower, we clarify areas of confusion in definition and explain the corresponding impacts for distinct system designs. For a broader readership, we situate small hydropower implementation within international trends of renewable energy development – the contradictory impacts of climate change policy, emerging dynamics in energy finance, and reliance on market mechanisms. Our paper provides a timely contribution to scholarship on small hydropower and the transition to renewable energy. - Highlights: • Confusion in small hydropower definitions is convoluting small hydropower debates. • Small hydropower’s negative impacts are largely overlooked in policy discussions. • Small hydropower exemplifies paradoxical problems with climate change policy. • Policies needed to integrate renewable energy development with national environmental institutions.

  9. In Search of the Underclass: Marginalization, Poverty and Fatalism in the Republic of Ireland. Published as 'Marginalization, Deprivation and Fatalism in the Republic of Ireland: Class and Underclass Perspectives', European Sociological Review, Vol 12 No 1

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher T. Whelan

    1994-01-01

    The emergence of large scale long-term unemployment in the Republic of Ireland suggest that it might provide an interesting case in which to apply the concept of an ?underclass?. In this paper we explore the relationship between labour market marginality, social exclusion and fatalism. No evidence is found of the kind interactions, which would justify applying the term ?underclass? to the Irish case. Instead what we are confronted with is different types of working class marginalization. In r...

  10. Special Classes for the Gifted and Talented: A Review of Research in the Republic of China (Taiwan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Wei-fan

    The presentation reviews research on the status of special educational programs for gifted and talented students in Taiwan. The effects of special class settings on gifted students' anxiety levels as well as on their self concept are considered. The author suggests that the studies cited do not demonstrate negative effects of special classes:…

  11. 75 FR 55307 - Honey From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Intent To Rescind New Shipper Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-10

    ... Compliance Analyst, Office 9, regarding ``Placing CBP Data on the Record of New Shipper Reviews of Honey from... basis.\\7\\ Accordingly, the Department considers a number of factors in its bona fides analysis, ``all of which may speak to the commercial realities surrounding an alleged sale of the subject merchandise.'' \\8...

  12. 78 FR 14269 - Folding Gift Boxes From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the Second Sunset Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... that is the only ] calculated rate that reflects the behavior of exporters without the discipline of an... next five- year review of the Order not later than 30 days prior to the fifth anniversary of the... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...

  13. Gender, citizenship and dementia care: a scoping review of studies to inform policy and future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Ruth; Gjernes, Trude; Lotherington, Ann-Therese; Obstefelder, Aud

    2018-01-01

    Gender is a neglected dimension in public discourse related to people with dementia. Those living with this condition are typically portrayed in policies and strategies in gender neutral terms as 'people with dementia' and 'family carers' as if gender does not matter, when clearly it does. The purpose of this scoping review was to take stock of knowledge about gender differences in relation to dementia care to inform policy and future research. The work is grounded in a feminist perspective to citizenship, as this provide a lens with which to expose and examine gendered assumptions within dementia studies. A search of four databases, including CINAHL, Web of Science, Medline and Cochrane was conducted using systematic techniques between May and July 2014. A repeat search was conducted in February 2015. We found a significant amount of valuable research concerned with gender differences in relation to dementia care published from 1990 to 2014; the majority of which lacks a feminist citizenship perspective. Moreover, a disproportionate number of studies focused solely on caregivers rather than citizens with dementia. As such, questions about gender equality are not being raised and the voices of men and women with dementia are silent. Thus we argue for increased gender-sensitivity in policy making and recommend that social scientists inject a feminist citizenship perspective into their work. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. A review of the role of carbon cycle science in supporting carbon management policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilling, L.; Doney, S.; Edmonds, J.; Gurney, K. R.; Harriss, R.; Schimel, D.; Stephens, B.; Stokes, G.

    2003-12-01

    Over the past few centuries, concentrations of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases have increased in the atmosphere, leading to potential changes in climate. Concern has risen such that societies are now contemplating actions designed to mitigate or prevent further increases. A variety of approaches has been suggested: direct reduction of emissions, deliberate manipulation of the natural carbon cycle to enhance sequestration, and capture and isolation of carbon from fossil fuel use. Policy development to date has laid out some of the principles to which carbon management should adhere, including quantification and verification, additionality and separation, permanence, and environmental acceptability. Much of this policy is still being debated, however, and many of the issues involve significant scientific and technological challenges. This presentation will summarize these carbon management principles, and briefly review examples of the scientific knowledge base available to support specific application of policy options. The issues of scaling of observations and mechanistic understanding of the carbon cycle in North America will be emphasized.

  15. China’s foreign policy towards Central and Eastern Europe: The “16+1” format in the South–South cooperation perspective. Cases of the Czech Republic and Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Kowalski

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the “16+1” format initiated in 2012 as a platform for economic, trade, and cultural cooperation between Central and Eastern Europe (CEE and China. As Chinese authorities claim, the “16+1” initiative is complementary to the “New Silk Road” strategy, being a pragmatic formula without political goals, whose main rationale is to bring mutual benefits to all of its participants (win–win. However, despite the Chinese narratives concerning cooperation with the CEE countries as an economic bridgehead of the “One Road, One Belt” (OBOR initiative, some signs of the political dimension of the project can be noticed. Since at least the 1950s, active participation and promotion of the South–South cooperation has become an important component of China’s foreign relations. Although for Chinese policy makers Sino–South relations have been traditionally defined within the frame of, mostly postcolonial, developing countries of Southeast Asia, Central Asia, Africa, and Latin America, this article tries to examine the “South–South” pattern of China’s diplomacy towards Central and Eastern European states with a focus on the Czech Republic and Hungary.

  16. Aftercare Services for Child Victims of Sex Trafficking: A Systematic Review of Policy and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraya, Dorothy Neriah; Fry, Deborah

    2016-04-01

    To explore aftercare services provided to child victims of sex trafficking globally based on the results of a systematic review of published and unpublished research, organizational policy, and current practice. This systematic review serves as a first step toward developing best practices for aftercare service providers. A systematic search was conducted of four English language databases, two human trafficking resource libraries, and one Internet search engine for journal articles and "grey" literature published between January 2000 and May 2013 on the services offered to child sex trafficking victims globally. The search yielded 15 documents for inclusion in the review. The 15 documents emphasized the need for aftercare service provision to be founded on children's rights and trauma-informed service provision. They recommended delivery practices such as case management and multidisciplinary, multiagency and multinational coordination to ensure the child victims benefit fully from the services. The systematic review revealed that there are three phases to aftercare service provision: rescue, recover, and reintegration. Each of these phases is characterized by different needs and types of services provided. The recovery phase received the most attention compared to recovery and reintegration phases. The literature highlighted that aftercare service provision for child sex trafficking victims is a new area that needs an evidence base from which policy and practice can be formed. There is great need for further research and better documentation of service provision. While this research provides insight into this area, the gap in literature remains wide. The area of aftercare service provision for children who have been trafficked has experienced phenomenal growth within the last 10 years, and with more research and resources being directed to the area, the achievement of international minimum standards of care provision is possible. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Education in the Soviet Baltic Republics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soviet Education, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Includes 11 articles about education in the Soviet Baltic Republics. The articles include historical studies of Estonian and Latvian schools and medieval Estonian folk games. The impact of Marxist educational theories and Soviet policies on educational research, teacher education, and teaching methods in the Baltic region from 1920-50 is…

  18. Sport and Transgender People: A Systematic Review of the Literature Relating to Sport Participation and Competitive Sport Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bethany Alice; Arcelus, Jon; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Haycraft, Emma

    2017-04-01

    Whether transgender people should be able to compete in sport in accordance with their gender identity is a widely contested question within the literature and among sport organisations, fellow competitors and spectators. Owing to concerns surrounding transgender people (especially transgender female individuals) having an athletic advantage, several sport organisations place restrictions on transgender competitors (e.g. must have undergone gender-confirming surgery). In addition, some transgender people who engage in sport, both competitively and for leisure, report discrimination and victimisation. To the authors' knowledge, there has been no systematic review of the literature pertaining to sport participation or competitive sport policies in transgender people. Therefore, this review aimed to address this gap in the literature. Eight research articles and 31 sport policies were reviewed. In relation to sport-related physical activity, this review found the lack of inclusive and comfortable environments to be the primary barrier to participation for transgender people. This review also found transgender people had a mostly negative experience in competitive sports because of the restrictions the sport's policy placed on them. The majority of transgender competitive sport policies that were reviewed were not evidence based. Currently, there is no direct or consistent research suggesting transgender female individuals (or male individuals) have an athletic advantage at any stage of their transition (e.g. cross-sex hormones, gender-confirming surgery) and, therefore, competitive sport policies that place restrictions on transgender people need to be considered and potentially revised.

  19. Troubling the Boundaries: Overcoming Methodological Challenges in a Multi-Sectoral and Multi-Jurisdictional HIV/HCV Policy Scoping Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Kathleen A.; Dubé, Anik; Marshall, Zack; Gahagan, Jacqueline; Harris, Gregory E.; Tucker, Maryanne; Dykeman, Margaret; MacDonald, Jo-Ann

    2016-01-01

    Policy scoping reviews are an effective method for generating evidence-informed policies. However, when applying guiding methodological frameworks to complex policy evidence, numerous, unexpected challenges can emerge. This paper details five challenges experienced and addressed by a policy trainee-led, multi-disciplinary research team, while…

  20. Current status and analysis of renewable promotional policies in Indian restructured power sector - A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Randhir; Sood, Yog Raj

    2011-01-01

    Restructuring has changed the traditional mission and mandates of power utilities in complex ways, and had large impacts on environmental, social, and political conditions for any particular country. At the same time, new regulatory approaches are being found for reducing environmental impacts in restructured power sectors. India has a vast supply of renewable energy resources, and it has one of the largest programs in the world for deploying renewable energy based products and systems. So this paper attempts to review the various policies and measures undertaken by Indian government for promotion of renewable energy. The aim of this paper is also to review the current policy mechanisms, especially investment- or generation-based price-driven and capacity-driven mechanisms, ranging from investment incentives for the development of renewable energy projects, feed-in tariffs, production tax incentives, tradable green certificates, and their effects upon the prospects of encouraging as well as expanding the development of renewable energy in Indian restructured power sector. This will make renewable more attractive in the Indian future electricity market. (author)

  1. Public Policies and Interventions for Diabetes in Latin America: a Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaselitz, Elizabeth; Rana, Gurpreet K; Heisler, Michele

    2017-08-01

    Successful interventions are needed to diagnose and manage type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in Latin America, a region that is experiencing a significant rise in rates of T2DM. Complementing an earlier review exploring diabetes prevention efforts in Latin America, this scoping review examines the literature on (1) policies and governmental programs intended to improve diabetes diagnosis and treatment in Latin America and (2) interventions to improve diabetes management in Latin America. It concludes with a brief discussion of promising directions for future research. Governmental policies and programs for the diagnosis and treatment of diabetes in different Latin American countries have been implemented, but their efficacy to date has not been rigorously evaluated. There are some promising intervention approaches in Latin America to manage diabetes that have been evaluated. Some of these utilize multidisciplinary teams, a relatively resource-intensive approach difficult to replicate in low-resource settings. Other evaluated interventions in Latin America have successfully leveraged mobile health tools, trained peer volunteers, and community health workers (CHWs) to improve diabetes management and outcomes. There are some promising approaches and large-scale governmental efforts underway to curb the growing burden of type 2 diabetes in Latin America. While some of these interventions have been rigorously evaluated, further research is warranted to determine their effectiveness, cost, and scalability in this region.

  2. Improving health through policies that promote active travel: a review of evidence to support integrated health impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Nazelle, Audrey; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Antó, Josep M; Brauer, Michael; Briggs, David; Braun-Fahrlander, Charlotte; Cavill, Nick; Cooper, Ashley R; Desqueyroux, Hélène; Fruin, Scott; Hoek, Gerard; Panis, Luc Int; Janssen, Nicole; Jerrett, Michael; Joffe, Michael; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; van Kempen, Elise; Kingham, Simon; Kubesch, Nadine; Leyden, Kevin M; Marshall, Julian D; Matamala, Jaume; Mellios, Giorgos; Mendez, Michelle; Nassif, Hala; Ogilvie, David; Peiró, Rosana; Pérez, Katherine; Rabl, Ari; Ragettli, Martina; Rodríguez, Daniel; Rojas, David; Ruiz, Pablo; Sallis, James F; Terwoert, Jeroen; Toussaint, Jean-François; Tuomisto, Jouni; Zuurbier, Moniek; Lebret, Erik

    2011-05-01

    Substantial policy changes to control obesity, limit chronic disease, and reduce air pollution emissions, including greenhouse gasses, have been recommended. Transportation and planning policies that promote active travel by walking and cycling can contribute to these goals, potentially yielding further co-benefits. Little is known, however, about the interconnections among effects of policies considered, including potential unintended consequences. We review available literature regarding health impacts from policies that encourage active travel in the context of developing health impact assessment (HIA) models to help decision-makers propose better solutions for healthy environments. We identify important components of HIA models of modal shifts in active travel in response to transport policies and interventions. Policies that increase active travel are likely to generate large individual health benefits through increases in physical activity for active travelers. Smaller, but population-wide benefits could accrue through reductions in air and noise pollution. Depending on conditions of policy implementations, risk tradeoffs are possible for some individuals who shift to active travel and consequently increase inhalation of air pollutants and exposure to traffic injuries. Well-designed policies may enhance health benefits through indirect outcomes such as improved social capital and diet, but these synergies are not sufficiently well understood to allow quantification at this time. Evaluating impacts of active travel policies is highly complex; however, many associations can be quantified. Identifying health-maximizing policies and conditions requires integrated HIAs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A review of Ghana’s energy sector national energy statistics and policy framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Asumadu-Sarkodie

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a review of Ghana’s energy sector national energy statistics and policy framework is done to create awareness of the strategic planning and energy policies of Ghana’s energy sector that will serve as an informative tool for both local and foreign investors, help in national decision-making for the efficient development and utilization of energy resources. The review of Ghana’s energy sector policy is to answer the question, what has been done so far? And what is the way forward? The future research in Ghana cannot progress without consulting the past. In order to ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy for all, Ghana has begun expanding her economy with the growing Ghanaian population as a way to meet the SDG (1, which seeks to end poverty and improve well-being. There are a number of intervention strategies by Ghana’s Energy sector which provides new, high-quality, and cost-competitive energy services to poor people and communities, thus alleviating poverty. Ghana’s Energy sector has initiated the National Electrification Scheme, a Self-Help Electrification Program, a National Off-grid Rural Electrification Program, and a Renewable Energy Development Program (REDP. The REDP aims to: assess the availability of renewable energy resources, examine the technical feasibility and cost-effectiveness of promising renewable energy technologies, ensure the efficient production and use of the Ghana’s renewable energy resources, and develop an information base that facilitates the establishment of a planning framework for the rational development and the use of the Ghana’s renewable energy resources.

  4. Legislative, educational, policy and other interventions targeting physicians' interaction with pharmaceutical companies: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhaled, Lina; Kahale, Lara; Nass, Hala; Brax, Hneine; Fadlallah, Racha; Badr, Kamal; Akl, Elie A

    2014-07-01

    Pharmaceutical company representatives likely influence the prescribing habits and professional behaviour of physicians. The objective of this study was to systematically review the effects of interventions targeting practising physicians' interactions with pharmaceutical companies. We included observational studies, non-randomised controlled trials (non-RCTs) and RCTs evaluating legislative, educational, policy or other interventions targeting the interactions between physicians and pharmaceutical companies. The search strategy included an electronic search of MEDLINE and EMBASE. Two reviewers performed duplicate and independent study selection, data abstraction and assessment of risk of bias. We assessed the risk of bias in each included study. We summarised the findings narratively because the nature of the data did not allow a meta-analysis to be conducted. We assessed the quality of evidence by outcome using the GRADE methodology. Of 11 189 identified citations, one RCT and three observational studies met the eligibility criteria. All four studies specifically targeted one type of interaction with pharmaceutical companies, that is, interactions with drug representatives. The RCT provided moderate quality evidence of no effect of a 'collaborative approach' between the pharmaceutical industry and a health authority. The three observational studies provided low quality evidence suggesting a positive effect of policies aiming to reduce interaction between physicians and pharmaceutical companies (by restricting free samples, promotional material, and meetings with pharmaceutical company representatives) on prescription behaviour. We identified too few studies to allow strong conclusions. Available evidence suggests a potential impact of policies aiming to reduce interaction between physicians and drug representatives on physicians' prescription behaviour. We found no evidence concerning interventions affecting other types of interaction with pharmaceutical

  5. Enhanced labelling on alcoholic drinks: reviewing the evidence to guide alcohol policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Moreno, Jose M; Harris, Meggan E; Breda, Joao; Møller, Lars; Alfonso-Sanchez, Jose L; Gorgojo, Lydia

    2013-12-01

    Consumer and public health organizations have called for better labelling on alcoholic drinks. However, there is a lack of consensus about the best elements to include. This review summarizes alcohol labelling policy worldwide and examines available evidence to support enhanced labelling. A literature review was carried out in June-July 2012 on Scopus using the key word 'alcohol' combined with 'allergens', 'labels', 'nutrition information', 'ingredients', 'consumer information' and/or 'warning'. Articles discussing advertising and promotion of alcohol were excluded. A search through Google and the System for Grey Literature in Europe (SIGLE) identified additional sources on alcohol labelling policies, mainly from governmental and organizational websites. Five elements were identified as potentially useful to consumers: (i) a list of ingredients, (ii) nutritional information, (iii) serving size and servings per container, (iv) a definition of 'moderate' intake and (v) a health warning. Alcohol labelling policy with regard to these aspects is quite rudimentary in most countries, with few requiring a list of ingredients or health warnings, and none requiring basic nutritional information. Only one country (Australia) requires serving size and servings per container to be displayed. Our study suggests that there are both potential advantages and disadvantages to providing consumers with more information about alcohol products. Current evidence seems to support prompt inclusion of a list of ingredients, nutritional information (usually only kcal) and health warnings on labels. Standard drink and serving size is useful only when combined with other health education efforts. A definition of 'moderate intake' and recommended drinking guidelines are best suited to other contexts.

  6. The policy challenges of tradable credits: A critical review of eight markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2011-01-01

    This article offers a critical review of eight tradable permit markets: water permits at Fox River, Wisconsin; the U.S. leaded gasoline phase-out; sulfur dioxide credits under the U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990; the Regional Clean Air Incentives Market (RECLAIM) for controlling ozone and acid rain in Southern California; renewable energy credit trading at the regional level in the United States; individual transferrable quotas for fisheries at the national level in New Zealand; carbon credits traded under the European Union-Emissions Trading Scheme; and carbon offsets permitted under the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol. By 'critical' the article does not fully weigh the costs and benefits of each tradable credit scheme and instead identifies key challenges and problems. By 'review' the author relied exclusively on secondary data from an interdisciplinary review of the academic literature. Rather than performing as economic theory suggests, the article shows that in many cases credit markets are prone to compromises in program design, transaction costs, price volatility, leakage, and environmental degradation. The article concludes by discussing the implications of these problems for those seeking to design more equitable and effective public policies addressing environmental degradation and climate change. - Research Highlights: →This study reviews eight tradable credit markets. →It finds that markets are prone to common problems. →It concludes that tradable permit markets are political instruments as much as they are economic ones.

  7. COLLABORATION ASPECTS IN THE YOUTH POLICY FIELD BETWEEN TWO REPUBLICS: NORTH-OSSETIA ALANIA AND SOUTH-OSSETIA IN THE 90-th OF THE XX-th CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzadzieva Elizaveta Aleksandrovna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the global political social and economic changes of the post-Soviet society at the turn of the 80th - 90th GG XX century, ossetian ethnos group was divided into two separate states. Problems and possible prospects of socio-economic integration of North Ossetia and South Ossetia, the consolidation of the Ossetian people and the preservation of its ethnic and cultural unity, most acutely heard in the 90s, have not lost their social significance today. The integration process at the present stage is one of cooperation between North Ossetia and South Ossetia in the various spheres of socio-political, socio-economic and cultural life. Cooperation in youth policy refers to the most promising areas of this process. Meanwhile, the existing problems in this area and possible prospects still remain out of view of researchers in both North and South Ossetia. The significance of the problems and the lack of it are determined by the relevance of research on this topic in general, and in particular the proposed article. Source base of this article are documents, coordinating youth policy at the national authorities and public national and patriotic associations, as well as materials of official and independent national press, chronologically related to the 90th years of XX century. Analyzing the documents and materials used method content analysis, as well as specific analytical approach to the published information, limiting the sample articles of interest topics. Research findings can be used for planning and organizing the youth policy at the national authorities and community youth organizations, as well as in the educational process.

  8. The application of theories of the policy process to obesity prevention: a systematic review and meta-synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Brydie; Swinburn, Boyd; Sacks, Gary

    2016-10-13

    Theories of the policy process are recommended as tools to help explain both policy stasis and change. A systematic review of the application of such theoretical frameworks within the field of obesity prevention policy was conducted. A meta-synthesis was also undertaken to identify the key influences on policy decision-making. The review identified 17 studies of obesity prevention policy underpinned by political science theories. The majority of included studies were conducted in the United States (US), with significant heterogeneity in terms of policy level (e.g., national, state) studied, areas of focus, and methodologies used. Many of the included studies were methodologically limited, in regard to rigour and trustworthiness. Prominent themes identified included the role of groups and networks, political institutions, and political system characteristics, issue framing, the use of evidence, personal values and beliefs, prevailing political ideology, and timing. The limited application of political science theories indicates a need for future theoretically based research into the complexity of policy-making and multiple influences on obesity prevention policy processes.

  9. Main trends of foreign policy of Georgia and some aspects of its cooperation with the People’s Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beniamin Viktorovich Mailyan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the characteristics and key aspects of cooperation between Georgia and China. Is celebrating the success of these countries in the institutionalization of economic contacts, which is the core of Beijing's initiative to form a pool of around his project «Economic Zone - the new Silk Road». At the same time it emphasizes that the potential for cooperation between the Georgian and Chinese sides only just gaining a positive momentum. Its rapid development in the near future promises to change the configuration of some of Georgia's foreign policy doctrine, which is now fixed focus exclusively on the Western community of nations. The country of the Golden Fleece clearly looking for themselves the status of the main partner of China in the South Caucasus region. The most active participation of the Georgian side in the implementation of China's geo-economic models in the already foreseeable future promises to the official Tbilisi to make the issue of accession of Georgia to NATO and the EU is not as relevant as it is today. Georgia's foreign policy strategy will be influenced by agreements signed in the framework of the strategic partnership between China and Russia on the multi-vector model of transportation of goods and resources within the framework of the convergence of the Eurasian Economic Union and Silk Road Economic Belt.

  10. Beyond excise taxes: a systematic review of literature on non-tax policy approaches to raising tobacco product prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Shelley D; Smith, Margaret Holt; Feighery, Ellen C; Roeseler, April; Rogers, Todd; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2016-07-01

    Raising the price of tobacco products is considered one of the most effective ways to reduce tobacco use. In addition to excise taxes, governments are exploring other policies to raise tobacco prices and minimise price dispersion, both within and across price tiers. We conducted a systematic review to determine how these policies are described, recommended and evaluated in the literature. We systematically searched six databases and the California Tobacco Control library for English language studies or reports, indexed on or before 18 December 2013, that included a tobacco keyword (eg, cigarette), policy keyword (eg, legislation) and a price keyword (eg, promotion). We identified 3067 abstracts. Two coders independently reviewed all abstracts and identified 56 studies or reports that explicitly described a public policy likely to impact the retail price of tobacco products through non-tax means. Two coders independently identified tobacco products targeted by policies described, recommendations for implementing policies and empirical assessments of policy impacts. The most prevalent non-tax price policies were price promotion restrictions and minimum price laws. Few studies measured the impact of non-tax policies on average prices, price dispersion or disparities in tobacco consumption, but the literature includes suggestions for crafting policies and preparing for legal challenges or tobacco industry opposition. Price-focused evaluations of well-implemented non-tax price policies are needed to determine whether they can deliver on their promise to raise prices, reduce price dispersion and serve as an important complement to excise taxes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. Higher Education in the Republic of Yemen: The University of Sana'a. Policy, Research, and External Affairs Working Papers Series. Education and Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaratnam, Viswanathan; Regel, Omporn L.

    This analytical report reviews higher education in Yemen, specifically at Yemen's national university, the University of Sana'a. It finds that university enrollment has been increasing very rapidly from 17,000 students in 1987 to a projected enrollment of 79,000 students by 2000. This explosive growth has resulted in overcrowded classrooms,…

  12. Transmitted drug resistance among antiretroviral-naive patients with established HIV type 1 infection in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic and review of the Latin American and Caribbean literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Julie E; Taylor, Barbara S; Rojas Fermín, Rita A; Reyes, Emily Virginia; Vaughan, Catherine; José, Lina; Javier, Carmen; Franco Estévez, Ramona; Donastorg Cabral, Yeycy; Batista, Arelis; Lie, Yolanda; Coakley, Eoin; Hammer, Scott M; Brudney, Karen

    2012-07-01

    Emergence of HIV resistance is a concerning consequence of global scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART). To date, there is no published information about HIV resistance from the Dominican Republic. The study's aim was to determine the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) to reverse transcriptase and protease inhibitors in a sample of chronically HIV-1-infected patients in one clinic in Santo Domingo. The data are presented in the context of a review of the TDR literature from Latin America and the Caribbean. Genotype testing was successfully performed on 103 treatment-naive adults planning to initiate antiretroviral therapy; the World Health Organization (WHO) list of surveillance drug resistance mutations (SDRM) was used to determine the presence of TDR mutations. WHO SDRM were identified in eight patients (7.8%); none had received sdNVP. There were no significant differences in epidemiologic or clinical variables between those with or without WHO SDRM. The prevalence of WHO SDRM was 1.0% and 6.8% for nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, respectively. No WHO SDRMs for protease inhibitors were identified. Among 12 studies of TDR in the region with a sample size of at least 100 subjects, the reported prevalence of SDRM ranged from 2.8% to 8.1%. The most commonly identified SDRM was K103N. This information adds to our understanding of the epidemiology of TDR in the region and the possible role such mutations could play in undermining first-line treatment. Ongoing surveillance is clearly needed to better understand the TDR phenomenon in the Caribbean.

  13. Policy lessons from health taxes: a systematic review of empirical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Wright

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taxes on alcohol and tobacco have long been an important means of raising revenues for public spending in many countries but there is increasing interest in using taxes on these, and other unhealthy products, to achieve public health goals. We present a systematic review of the research on health taxes, and aim to generate insights into how such taxes can: (i reduce consumption of targeted products and related harms; (ii generate revenues for health objectives and distribute the tax burden across income groups in an efficient and equitable manner; and (iii be made politically sustainable. Methods Six scientific and four grey-literature databases were searched for empirical studies of ‘health taxes’ – defined as those intended to increase the costs of manufacturing, distributing, retailing and/or consuming health-damaging products. Since reviews already exist of the evidence relating to traditional alcohol and tobacco excise taxes, we focus on other taxes such as taxes on retailers and manufacturers of unhealthy products, and consumer taxes targeting unhealthy foods, such as sugar-sweetened beverages. Results Ninety-one peer-reviewed and 11 grey-literature studies met our inclusion criteria. The review highlights a recent, rapid rise in research in this area, most of which focuses on high-income countries and on taxes on food products or nutrients. Findings demonstrate that high tax rates on sugar-sweetened beverages are likely to have a positive impact on health behaviours and outcomes, and, while taxes on products reduce demand, they add to fiscal revenues. Common concerns about health taxes are also discussed. Conclusions If the primary policy goal of a health tax is to reduce consumption of unhealthy products, then evidence supports the implementation of taxes that increase the price of products by 20% or more. However, where taxes are effective in changing health behaviours, the predictability of the revenue stream

  14. Risk Policies in the United States: Definition and Characteristics Based on a Scoping Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Steve; Schiffino, Nathalie

    2015-05-01

    The concept of "risk policy" is used with increasing frequency by decisionmakers, researchers, and the media. However, there is no precise, generally accepted definition of what is covered by policies in this area. Based on a scoping review of the literature published in key journals in the sector, we have identified the main characteristics of public risk policies drawn up and implemented in the United States. The sample comprised 21 articles published in six multidisciplinary journals between 2000 and 2010. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. A review of nursing workforce policies in five European countries: Denmark, Finland, Ireland, Portugal and United Kingdom*/England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attree, Moira; Flinkman, Mervi; Howley, Breeda; Lakanmaa, Riitta-Liisa; Lima-Basto, Marta; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth

    2011-09-01

    Review nursing workforce policies in five European countries: Denmark, Finland, Ireland, Portugal and the United Kingdom*. Imbalances in registered nurse (RN) supply and demand is a global, significant and recurring issue that impacts on healthcare systems, organizations, staff and patients. Policy Review using resources located by a systematic search of relevant healthcare databases and policies in Danish, English, Finnish and Portuguese over the time period 2003-2007. Content analysis was used to identify themes and compare policies. Common nursing workforce policy themes were identified across the five countries: (1) improving retention through effective human resource management, improving the practice environment and nurses' working lives and (2) improving recruitment through attracting more new recruits and RNs back to practice, and international recruitment. The present study also identified methodological issues relating to data quality and quantity. Lack of an agreed definition and standardized measures of nursing need and shortage makes comparison and evaluation of policy effectiveness and impact difficult. Healthcare systems and organizations need to identify and implement effective policies that promote the retention of RNs in the workforce, or risk threats to healthcare system sustainability, as well as patient care quality and safety. 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Review of the White Paper on Language Policy in Australia: Australia's Language--The Australian Language and Literacy Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, David

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the extent to which the Australian language policy "White Paper" meets the real needs of the Australian people, and the quality of Australia's on-going performance in and commitment to well-articulated language and language education policymaking relating to languages other than English. (GLR)

  17. Inclusion of equity in economic analyses of public health policies: systematic review and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Anita; Moodie, Marjory; Peeters, Anna; Carter, Rob

    2017-09-12

    To assess current approaches to inclusion of equity in economic analysis of public health interventions and to recommend best approaches and future directions. We conducted a systematic review of studies that have used socioeconomic position (SEP) in cost-effectiveness analyses. Studies were identified using MedLine, EconLit and HEED and were evaluated based on their SEP specific inputs and methods of quantification of the health and financial inequalities. Twenty-nine relevant studies were identified. The majority of studies comparing two or more interventions left interpretation of the size of the health and financial inequality differences to the reader. Newer approaches include: i) use of health inequality measures to quantify health inequalities; ii) inclusion of financial impacts, such as out-of-pocket expenditures; and iii) use of equity weights. The challenge with these approaches is presenting results that policy makers can easily interpret. Using CEA techniques to generate new information about the health equity implications of alternative policy options has not been widely used, but should be considered to inform future decision making. Implications for public health: Inclusion of equity in economic analysis would facilitate a more nuanced comparison of interventions in relation to efficiency, equity and financial impact. © 2017 The Authors.

  18. Child trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation: a review of promising prevention policies and programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Yvonne

    2013-10-01

    Child trafficking, including commercial sexual exploitation (CSE), is one of the fastest growing and most lucrative criminal activities in the world. The global enslavement of children affects countless numbers of victims who are trafficked within their home countries or transported away from their homes and treated as commodities to be bought, sold, and resold for labor or sexual exploitation. All over the world, girls are particularly likely to be trafficked into the sex trade: Girls and women constitute 98% of those who are trafficked for CSE. Health and safety standards in exploitative settings are generally extremely low, and the degree of experienced violence has been linked with adverse physical, psychological, and social-emotional development. The human-rights-based approach to child trafficking provides a comprehensive conceptual framework whereby victim-focused and law enforcement responses can be developed, implemented, and evaluated. This article highlights promising policies and programs designed to prevent child trafficking and CSE by combating demand for sex with children, reducing supply, and strengthening communities. The literature reviewed includes academic publications as well as international and governmental and nongovernmental reports. Implications for social policy and future research are presented. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  19. A literature review of the disruptive effects of user fee exemption policies on health systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridde Valéry

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several low- and middle-income countries have exempted patients from user fees in certain categories of population or of services. These exemptions are very effective in lifting part of the financial barrier to access to services, but they have been organized within unstable health systems where there are sometimes numerous dysfunctions. The objective of this article is to bring to light the disruptions triggered by exemption policies in health systems of low- and middle-income countries. Methods Scoping review of 23 scientific articles. The data were synthesized according to the six essential functions of health systems. Results The disruptions included specifically: 1 immediate and significant increases in service utilization; 2 perceived heavier workloads for health workers, feelings of being exploited and overworked, and decline in morale; 3 lack of information about free services provided and their reimbursement; 4 unavailability of drugs and delays in the distribution of consumables; 5 unpredictable and insufficient funding, revenue losses for health centres, reimbursement delays; 6 the multiplicity of actors and the difficulty of identifying who is responsible (‘no blame’ game, and deficiencies in planning and communication. Conclusions These disruptive elements give us an idea of what is to be expected if exemption policies do not put in place all the required conditions in terms of preparation, planning and complementary measures. There is a lack of knowledge on the effects of exemptions on all the functions of health systems because so few studies have been carried out from this perspective.

  20. A literature review of the disruptive effects of user fee exemption policies on health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridde, Valéry; Robert, Emilie; Meessen, Bruno

    2012-06-08

    Several low- and middle-income countries have exempted patients from user fees in certain categories of population or of services. These exemptions are very effective in lifting part of the financial barrier to access to services, but they have been organized within unstable health systems where there are sometimes numerous dysfunctions. The objective of this article is to bring to light the disruptions triggered by exemption policies in health systems of low- and middle-income countries. Scoping review of 23 scientific articles. The data were synthesized according to the six essential functions of health systems. The disruptions included specifically: 1) immediate and significant increases in service utilization; 2) perceived heavier workloads for health workers, feelings of being exploited and overworked, and decline in morale; 3) lack of information about free services provided and their reimbursement; 4) unavailability of drugs and delays in the distribution of consumables; 5) unpredictable and insufficient funding, revenue losses for health centres, reimbursement delays; 6) the multiplicity of actors and the difficulty of identifying who is responsible ('no blame' game), and deficiencies in planning and communication. These disruptive elements give us an idea of what is to be expected if exemption policies do not put in place all the required conditions in terms of preparation, planning and complementary measures. There is a lack of knowledge on the effects of exemptions on all the functions of health systems because so few studies have been carried out from this perspective.