WorldWideScience

Sample records for policy review process

  1. Framing and the health policy process: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koon, Adam D; Hawkins, Benjamin; Mayhew, Susannah H

    2016-07-01

    Framing research seeks to understand the forces that shape human behaviour in the policy process. It assumes that policy is a social construct and can be cast in a variety of ways to imply multiple legitimate value considerations. Frames provide the cognitive means of making sense of the social world, but discordance among them forms the basis of policy contestation. Framing, as both theory and method, has proven to generate considerable insight into the nature of policy debates in a variety of disciplines. Despite its salience for understanding health policy debates; however, little is known about the ways frames influence the health policy process. A scoping review using the Arksey and O'Malley framework was conducted. The literature on framing in the health sector was reviewed using nine health and social science databases. Articles were included that explicitly reported theory and methods used, data source(s), at least one frame, frame sponsor and evidence of a given frame's effect on the health policy process. A total of 52 articles, from 1996 to 2014, and representing 12 countries, were identified. Much of the research came from the policy studies/political science literature (n = 17) and used a constructivist epistemology. The term 'frame' was used as a label to describe a variety of ideas, packaged as values, social problems, metaphors or arguments. Frames were characterized at various levels of abstraction ranging from general ideological orientations to specific policy positions. Most articles presented multiple frames and showed how actors advocated for them in a highly contested political process. Framing is increasingly an important, yet overlooked aspect of the policy process. Further analysis on frames, framing processes and frame conflict can help researchers and policymakers to understand opaque and highly charged policy issues, which may facilitate the resolution of protracted policy controversies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford

  2. Alcohol policy in South Africa: a review of policy development processes between 1994 and 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Charles D H

    2010-08-01

    Implementation of effective policies to reduce harmful alcohol consumption requires both a good understanding of the policy development process and which strategies are likely to work. To contribute to this understanding by reviewing four specific policy development initiatives that have taken place in South Africa between 1994 and 2009: restrictions on alcohol advertising and counter-advertising, regulation of retail sales of alcohol, alcohol taxation and controls on alcohol packaging. Material was drawn from a record of meetings and conferences held between 1994 and 2009 and a database of reports, newspaper clippings and policy documentation. When the policy process resulted in a concrete outcome there was always a clear recognition of the problem and policy alternatives, but success was more likely if there was an alignment of 'political' forces and/or when there was a determined bureaucracy. The impact of the other factors such as the media, community mobilization, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), the liquor industry and research are also discussed. Future avenues for policy research are identified, including the need for more systematic studies that give greater consideration to economic factors. Alcohol policy development in South Africa takes place in a piecemeal fashion and is the product of various competing influences. Having a comprehensive national alcohol strategy cutting across different sectors may be a better way for other developing countries to proceed.

  3. Energy shocks, crises and the policy process: A review of theory and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, Peter Z.

    2015-01-01

    What motivates changes in energy policy? Typically, the process begins with a notable exogenous event, a shock. Often, the shock leads to what is perceived to be a crisis. This review essay surveys theories of crisis policymaking from the social science literature and considers their application to changes in energy policy. Two cases — one from the U.S., the other from Germany — are examined in more detail from the standpoint of the theories discussed. Suggestions are made for improving energy policy analysis in the future. - Highlights: • An analysis of the idea of “crisis” and its application to energy. • A review of theories and models of the policy process and of policy change. • Theory applied to two energy cases. • Suggestion as to how the analysis of energy policymaking might be approached in the future

  4. Engaging policy-makers, heath system managers, and policy analysts in the knowledge synthesis process: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricco, Andrea C; Zarin, Wasifa; Rios, Patricia; Nincic, Vera; Khan, Paul A; Ghassemi, Marco; Diaz, Sanober; Pham, Ba'; Straus, Sharon E; Langlois, Etienne V

    2018-02-12

    It is unclear how to engage a wide range of knowledge users in research. We aimed to map the evidence on engaging knowledge users with an emphasis on policy-makers, health system managers, and policy analysts in the knowledge synthesis process through a scoping review. We used the Joanna Briggs Institute guidance for scoping reviews. Nine electronic databases (e.g., MEDLINE), two grey literature sources (e.g., OpenSIGLE), and reference lists of relevant systematic reviews were searched from 1996 to August 2016. We included any type of study describing strategies, barriers and facilitators, or assessing the impact of engaging policy-makers, health system managers, and policy analysts in the knowledge synthesis process. Screening and data abstraction were conducted by two reviewers independently with a third reviewer resolving discrepancies. Frequency and thematic analyses were conducted. After screening 8395 titles and abstracts followed by 394 full-texts, 84 unique documents and 7 companion reports fulfilled our eligibility criteria. All 84 documents were published in the last 10 years, and half were prepared in North America. The most common type of knowledge synthesis with knowledge user engagement was a systematic review (36%). The knowledge synthesis most commonly addressed an issue at the level of national healthcare system (48%) and focused on health services delivery (17%) in high-income countries (86%). Policy-makers were the most common (64%) knowledge users, followed by healthcare professionals (49%) and government agencies as well as patients and caregivers (34%). Knowledge users were engaged in conceptualization and design (49%), literature search and data collection (52%), data synthesis and interpretation (71%), and knowledge dissemination and application (44%). Knowledge users were most commonly engaged as key informants through meetings and workshops as well as surveys, focus groups, and interviews either in-person or by telephone and emails

  5. An Analysis of the Extent of Social Inclusion and Equity Consideration in Malawi's National HIV and AIDS Policy Review Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinyama, Mathews Junior; MacLachlan, Malcolm; McVeigh, Joanne; Huss, Tessy; Gawamadzi, Sylvester

    2017-07-29

    Equity and social inclusion for vulnerable groups in policy development processes and resulting documents remain a challenge globally. Most often, the marginalization of vulnerable groups is overlooked in both the planning and practice of health service delivery. Such marginalization may occur because authorities deem the targeting of those who already have better access to healthcare a cheaper and easier way to achieve short-term health gains. The Government of Malawi wishes to achieve an equitable and inclusive HIV and AIDS Policy. The aim of this study is to assess the extent to which the Malawi Policy review process addressed regional and international health priorities of equity and social inclusion for vulnerable groups in the policy content and policy revision process. This research design comprised two phases. First, the content of the Malawi HIV and AIDS Policy was assessed using EquiFrame regarding its coverage of 21 Core Concepts of human rights and inclusion of 12 Vulnerable Groups. Second, the engagement of vulnerable groups in the policy process was assessed using the EquIPP matrix. For the latter, 10 interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of representatives of public sector, civil society organizations and development partners who participated in the policy revision process. Data was also collected from documented information of the policy processes. Our analyses indicated that the Malawi HIV and AIDS Policy had a relatively high coverage of Core Concepts of human rights and Vulnerable Groups; although with some notable omissions. The analyses also found that reasonable steps were taken to engage and promote participation of vulnerable groups in the planning, development, implementation, monitoring and evaluation processes of the HIV and AIDS Policy, although again, with some notable exceptions. This is the first study to use both EquiFrame and EquIPP as complimentary tools to assess the content and process of policy. While the findings

  6. Economic and Policy Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The NESG Economic and Policy Review (EPR) is a quarterly publication of the Nigerian Economic Summit Group (NESG), established to serve as an avenue for constructive analysis of economic policies and their impacts on different aspects of the business and economic environment. The EPR aims to provide unbiased, ...

  7. Removing user fees in the health sector: a review of policy processes in six sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meessen, Bruno; Hercot, David; Noirhomme, Mathieu; Ridde, Valéry; Tibouti, Abdelmajid; Tashobya, Christine Kirunga; Gilson, Lucy

    2011-11-01

    In recent years, governments of several low-income countries have taken decisive action by removing fully or partially user fees in the health sector. In this study, we review recent reforms in six sub-Saharan African countries: Burkina Faso, Burundi, Ghana, Liberia, Senegal and Uganda. The review describes the processes and strategies through which user fee removal reforms have been implemented and tries to assess them by referring to a good practice hypotheses framework. The analysis shows that African leaders are willing to take strong action to remove financial barriers met by vulnerable groups, especially pregnant women and children. However, due to a lack of consultation and the often unexpected timing of the decision taken by the political authorities, there was insufficient preparation for user fee removal in several countries. This lack of preparation resulted in poor design of the reform and weaknesses in the processes of policy formulation and implementation. Our assessment is that there is now a window of opportunity in many African countries for policy action to address barriers to accessing health care. Mobilizing sufficient financial resources and obtaining long-term commitment are obviously crucial requirements, but design details, the formulation process and implementation plan also need careful thought. We contend that national policy-makers and international agencies could better collaborate in this respect.

  8. Macroprudential Policy: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Ebrahimi Kahou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The severity and longevity of the recession caused by the 2007 financial crisis has highlighted the lack of a reliable macro-based financial regulation framework. As a consequence, addressing the link between the stability of the financial system as a whole and the performance of the overall economy has become a mandate for policymakers and scholars. Many countries have adopted macroprudential tools as policy responses for safeguarding the financial system. This paper provides a literature review of macroprudential policies, its objectives and the challenges that a macro-based framework needs to overcome, such as financial stability, procyclicality, and systemic risk.

  9. Knowledge exchange processes in organizations and policy arenas: a narrative systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contandriopoulos, Damien; Lemire, Marc; Denis, Jean-Louis; Tremblay, Emile

    2010-12-01

    This article presents the main results from a large-scale analytical systematic review on knowledge exchange interventions at the organizational and policymaking levels. The review integrated two broad traditions, one roughly focused on the use of social science research results and the other focused on policymaking and lobbying processes. Data collection was done using systematic snowball sampling. First, we used prospective snowballing to identify all documents citing any of a set of thirty-three seminal papers. This process identified 4,102 documents, 102 of which were retained for in-depth analysis. The bibliographies of these 102 documents were merged and used to identify retrospectively all articles cited five times or more and all books cited seven times or more. All together, 205 documents were analyzed. To develop an integrated model, the data were synthesized using an analytical approach. This article developed integrated conceptualizations of the forms of collective knowledge exchange systems, the nature of the knowledge exchanged, and the definition of collective-level use. This literature synthesis is organized around three dimensions of context: level of polarization (politics), cost-sharing equilibrium (economics), and institutionalized structures of communication (social structuring). The model developed here suggests that research is unlikely to provide context-independent evidence for the intrinsic efficacy of knowledge exchange strategies. To design a knowledge exchange intervention to maximize knowledge use, a detailed analysis of the context could use the kind of framework developed here. © 2010 Milbank Memorial Fund. Published by Wiley Periodicals Inc.

  10. Review of energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-11-01

    Following the accident at the Chernobyl reactor in April 1986, the 1986 Annual Delegate Conference of the Institution of Professional Civil Servants set up a Working Party to review the Institution's energy policy, including safety and environmental factors. The review is presented in two volumes as the basis for discussion by the members. Volume I is the main report. Section A, the introduction, includes a summary of the detailed conclusions and recommendations of the Working Party. Section B (chapters 4-12) concerns all aspects of nuclear power including fuel reprocessing and waste management. Section C (chapters 13-16) considers the alternatives to nuclear power and Section D (chapters 17-24) looks at the economic and social aspects of energy policy. The appendices, which contain the detailed technical and source information used by the Working Party in reaching its conclusions, are printed separately in Volume II. (UK)

  11. Collaboration: a SWOT analysis of the process of conducting a review of nursing workforce policies in five European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth; Lakanmaa, Riitta-Liisa; Flinkman, Mervi; Basto, Marta Lima; Attree, Moira

    2014-05-01

    This paper critically reviews the literature on international collaboration and analyses the collaborative process involved in producing a nursing workforce policy analysis. Collaboration is increasingly promoted as a means of solving shared problems and achieving common goals; however, collaboration creates its own opportunities and challenges. Evidence about the collaboration process, its outcomes and critical success factors is lacking. A literature review and content analysis of data collected from six participants (from five European countries) members of the European Academy of Nursing Science Scholar Collaborative Workforce Workgroup, using a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis template. Two major factors affecting scholarly collaboration were identified: Facilitators, which incorporated personal attributes and enabling contexts/mechanisms, including individual commitment, responsibility and teamwork, facilitative supportive structures and processes. The second, Barriers, incorporated unmet needs for funding; time; communication and impeding contexts/mechanisms, including workload and insufficient support/mentorship. The literature review identified a low level of evidence on collaboration processes, outcomes, opportunities and challenges. The SWOT analysis identified critical success factors, planning strategies and resources of effective international collaboration. Collaboration is an important concept for management. Evidence-based knowledge of the critical success factors facilitating and impeding collaboration could help managers make collaboration more effective. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Food Classification Systems Based on Food Processing: Significance and Implications for Policies and Actions: A Systematic Literature Review and Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Parra, Diana C; Cannon, Geoffrey; Monteiro, Carlos A

    2014-06-01

    This paper is the first to make a systematic review and assessment of the literature that attempts methodically to incorporate food processing into classification of diets. The review identified 1276 papers, of which 110 were screened and 21 studied, derived from five classification systems. This paper analyses and assesses the five systems, one of which has been devised and developed by a research team that includes co-authors of this paper. The quality of the five systems is assessed and scored according to how specific, coherent, clear, comprehensive and workable they are. Their relevance to food, nutrition and health, and their use in various settings, is described. The paper shows that the significance of industrial food processing in shaping global food systems and supplies and thus dietary patterns worldwide, and its role in the pandemic of overweight and obesity, remains overlooked and underestimated. Once food processing is systematically incorporated into food classifications, they will be more useful in assessing and monitoring dietary patterns. Food classification systems that emphasize industrial food processing, and that define and distinguish relevant different types of processing, will improve understanding of how to prevent and control overweight, obesity and related chronic non-communicable diseases, and also malnutrition. They will also be a firmer basis for rational policies and effective actions designed to protect and improve public health at all levels from global to local.

  13. Shaping Education Policy: Power and Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Douglas E., Ed.; Crowson, Robert L., Ed.; Shipps, Dorothy, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Shaping Education Policy" is a comprehensive overview of education politics and policy during the most turbulent and rapidly changing period in American history. Respected scholars review the history of education policy to explain the political powers and processes that shape education today. Chapters cover major themes that have…

  14. Economic and Policy Review: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The NESG Economic and Policy Review (EPR) is a quarterly publication of the ... of government and the Nigerian economy in the short, medium and long terms. ... must be of impeccable quality and must conform to world class standard.

  15. Rapid review programs to support health care and policy decision making: a descriptive analysis of processes and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polisena, Julie; Garritty, Chantelle; Kamel, Chris; Stevens, Adrienne; Abou-Setta, Ahmed M

    2015-03-14

    Health care decision makers often need to make decisions in limited timeframes and cannot await the completion of a full evidence review. Rapid reviews (RRs), utilizing streamlined systematic review methods, are increasingly being used to synthesize the evidence with a shorter turnaround time. Our primary objective was to describe the processes and methods used internationally to produce RRs. In addition, we sought to understand the underlying themes associated with these programs. We contacted representatives of international RR programs from a broad realm in health care to gather information about the methods and processes used to produce RRs. The responses were summarized narratively to understand the characteristics associated with their processes and methods. The summaries were compared and contrasted to highlight potential themes and trends related to the different RR programs. Twenty-nine international RR programs were included in our sample with a broad organizational representation from academia, government, research institutions, and non-for-profit organizations. Responses revealed that the main objectives for RRs were to inform decision making with regards to funding health care technologies, services and policy, and program development. Central themes that influenced the methods used by RR programs, and report type and dissemination were the imposed turnaround time to complete a report, resources available, the complexity and sensitivity of the research topics, and permission from the requestor. Our study confirmed that there is no standard approach to conduct RRs. Differences in processes and methods across programs may be the result of the novelty of RR methods versus other types of evidence syntheses, customization of RRs for various decision makers, and definition of 'rapid' by organizations, since it impacts both the timelines and the evidence synthesis methods. Future research should investigate the impact of current RR methods and reporting to

  16. 14 CFR 415.23 - Policy review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy review. 415.23 Section 415.23... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE Policy Review and Approval § 415.23 Policy review. (a) The FAA reviews a... raised during a policy review that would impede issuance of a policy approval. The applicant may respond...

  17. Solar energy policy review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-08-17

    A number of memoranda and reports are collected which deal with evaluations of solar energy policy options, including direct and indirect labor impacts and costs of different options and consumer protection. (LEW)

  18. Façade insulation retrofitting policy implementation process and its effects on health equity determinants: A realist review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camprubí, Lluís; Malmusi, Davide; Mehdipanah, Roshanak

    2016-01-01

    Fuel poverty and cold housing constitute a significant public health problem. Energy efficiency interventions, such as façade retrofitting, address the problem from a structural and long-term perspective. Despite evidence of the health benefits of insulation, little is known about the political and social contexts that contribute to social inequalities in receiving and experiencing health benefits from these interventions. We used a realist review methodology to better understand the mechanisms that explain how and why variations across different social groups appear in receiving energy efficiency façade retrofitting interventions and in their impact on health determinants. We considered the four stages of the policy implementation framework: public policy approach; policy; receiving intervention and impact on health determinants. We found strong evidence that certain social groups (low-income, renters, elderly) suffering most from fuel poverty, experience more barriers for undertaking a building retrofitting (due to factors such as upfront costs, “presentism” thinking, split incentives, disruption and lack of control), and that some public policies on housing energy efficiency may exacerbate these inequalities. This can be avoided if such policies specifically aim at tackling fuel poverty or social inequities, are completely free to users, target the most affected groups and are adapted to their needs. - Highlights: •Health benefits of housing façade insulation more pronounced in fuel poor groups. •Social groups suffering most from fuel poverty least likely to undergo insulation. •Energy efficiency policies focused solely on CO_2 reduction may increase inequalities. •Split Incentives and “Take-Back” effect show socioeconomic and contextual variability. •Universal policies without targeting increase inequalities in retrofitting uptake.

  19. 14 CFR 431.23 - Policy review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy review. 431.23 Section 431.23... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH AND REENTRY OF A REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE (RLV) Policy Review and Approval for Launch and Reentry of a Reusable Launch Vehicle § 431.23 Policy review. (a) The FAA reviews an RLV...

  20. Public humanization policies: integrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Márcia Adriana Dias Meirelles; Lustosa, Abdon Moreira; Dutra, Fernando; Barros, Eveline de Oliveira; Batista, Jaqueline Brito Vidal; Duarte, Marcella Costa Souto

    2015-10-01

    The study aimed to investigate the scientific literature on Public Humanization Policies, available in online periodicals, from 2009 to 2012, in the health field. This is an integrative literature review conducted in the Virtual Health Library databases: Latin-America and Caribbean Health Sciences (Lilacs) and the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) and Portal Capes. Data were collected in July 2013. To this end, the following Health Sciences Descriptors (DeCS) were used: "Humanization of Care," "Public Policies," "National Humanization Policy". The sample consisted of 27 articles about the investigated theme. From the publications selected for the research, three categories emerged according to their respective approaches: National Human-ization Policy: history and processes involved in its implementation; National Humanization Policy: health professionals contribution; Humanization and in the care process. The study showed that the National Humanization Policy is an important benchmark in the development of health practices. For this reason, there is a pressing multiplication of related reflections on ways to promote human-ization in health services.

  1. Energy policy review of Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-11-21

    The Republic of Indonesia is the world's fourth most populous nation and a developing economy in transition. It is now consolidating its democratic government and implementing governance and financial reforms. After the Asian financial crisis of 1997-99, Indonesia's economy has returned to a strong and stable 5-6% annual growth. Over recent decades, its resource wealth, openness to trade and investment, and a strategically favourable location in East Asia have made Indonesia a key global exporter of oil, gas, and coal. However, Indonesia now faces the serious challenge of fast-rising domestic energy demand with declining oil and gas production. The country's energy policy makers are looking closely at domestic energy requirements and best policies to meet these needs. This includes moving prices towards international parity, improving the energy sector investment climate, and developing electricity generation capacity. While some very difficult decisions have been made over recent years, many challenges remain. This study assesses the country's major energy issues. The study was conducted by a team of IEA member country specialists - an approach which has also been used for national and sectoral reviews of other non-IEA countries, including Angola, China, India, Russia, and Ukraine, as well as the Western Balkan region. The Review offers an analysis of Indonesia's energy sector, with findings and recommendations that draw on experience in IEA member countries. Six areas are suggested for priority attention, including progressive reduction in fuel and electricity subsidies, better implementation of policy, improving clarity of the investment framework, helping the energy regulators do their job more effectively, and harnessing a sustainable development agenda particularly renewable energy and energy efficiency.

  2. Energy policy review of Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-11-21

    The Republic of Indonesia is the world's fourth most populous nation and a developing economy in transition. It is now consolidating its democratic government and implementing governance and financial reforms. After the Asian financial crisis of 1997-99, Indonesia's economy has returned to a strong and stable 5-6% annual growth. Over recent decades, its resource wealth, openness to trade and investment, and a strategically favourable location in East Asia have made Indonesia a key global exporter of oil, gas, and coal. However, Indonesia now faces the serious challenge of fast-rising domestic energy demand with declining oil and gas production. The country's energy policy makers are looking closely at domestic energy requirements and best policies to meet these needs. This includes moving prices towards international parity, improving the energy sector investment climate, and developing electricity generation capacity. While some very difficult decisions have been made over recent years, many challenges remain. This study assesses the country's major energy issues. The study was conducted by a team of IEA member country specialists - an approach which has also been used for national and sectoral reviews of other non-IEA countries, including Angola, China, India, Russia, and Ukraine, as well as the Western Balkan region. The Review offers an analysis of Indonesia's energy sector, with findings and recommendations that draw on experience in IEA member countries. Six areas are suggested for priority attention, including progressive reduction in fuel and electricity subsidies, better implementation of policy, improving clarity of the investment framework, helping the energy regulators do their job more effectively, and harnessing a sustainable development agenda particularly renewable energy and energy efficiency.

  3. Chile Energy Policy Review 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-22

    Since 1990, Chile has been the fastest growing economy in Latin America thanks to sound economic management and integration into the global economy. Chile can also be proud of its energy policy achievements. The pioneering privatisation and liberalisation of its electricity sector in the 1980s was the foundation for a competitive energy sector, which has sustained the rapid growth of the Chilean economy over the past two decades. Nonetheless, Chile faces the continuing challenge of finding additional energy supplies to fuel economic growth. Chile has limited fossil energy resources and depends on imports to meet three-quarters of its energy needs. The country's electricity sector has faced three periods of significant stress over the past decade. The last episode took place in 2007/2008, when the loss of natural gas imports from Argentina was further exacerbated by a drought in the central system, where hydropower normally accounts for over half of electricity generation. Drawing on the experience of IEA member countries, the Review assesses Chile's major energy challenges and provides recommendations. Six main themes emerge: the successful liberalisation of the power sector in the 1980s; the essential role played by the state in ensuring energy security; the re-formulation of Chile's long-term energy policy; the proposed reorganisation of the institutional framework; greater independence for the system operators; and the need for a clear framework of regulation so that long-term investment decisions integrate social and environmental costs. This publication is essential reading for all who are interested in Chilean energy issues and in learning about the important role sound energy policy can play in developing a nation's economic and social welfare.

  4. Ukraine: energy policy review 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-10-13

    Ukraine has one of the most energy-intensive economies in the industrialized world. While energy consumption has dropped since the country's independence, reliance on imports, particularly on gas from Russia, has not declined. This dependence increases risks for security of supply. As tension between Ukraine and its main energy supplier has grown in recent years, the country's energy policy is driven by a strong desire to improve domestic energy security and reduce natural gas imports. Energy transit through the Ukraine is significant. Due to its geographic position, the country plays a major role in securing Europe's energy needs: 84% of Russian gas supplies to Europe transit through Ukraine via pipeline. This report addresses how Ukraine can meet its energy challenges. Three priority areas for action identified are: energy efficiency, cost-reflective pricing, and transparency. Efficiency represents not only Ukraine's single best opportunity to improve energy security but is also vital for the country's growth and development. The review covers all aspects of the energy sector, such as energy demand, the policy framework, and sub-sectors including energy efficiency, oil, gas, coal, electricity, district heating and renewable energy.

  5. Ukraine: energy policy review 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-10-13

    Ukraine has one of the most energy-intensive economies in the industrialized world. While energy consumption has dropped since the country's independence, reliance on imports, particularly on gas from Russia, has not declined. This dependence increases risks for security of supply. As tension between Ukraine and its main energy supplier has grown in recent years, the country's energy policy is driven by a strong desire to improve domestic energy security and reduce natural gas imports. Energy transit through the Ukraine is significant. Due to its geographic position, the country plays a major role in securing Europe's energy needs: 84% of Russian gas supplies to Europe transit through Ukraine via pipeline. This report addresses how Ukraine can meet its energy challenges. Three priority areas for action identified are: energy efficiency, cost-reflective pricing, and transparency. Efficiency represents not only Ukraine's single best opportunity to improve energy security but is also vital for the country's growth and development. The review covers all aspects of the energy sector, such as energy demand, the policy framework, and sub-sectors including energy efficiency, oil, gas, coal, electricity, district heating and renewable energy.

  6. Science, Policy, and Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, D.

    2006-12-01

    These are intense times at the convergence between science and public policy. Because issues like climate change, stem cell research and environmental protection are being contested in choppy political water, political interests are being deployed to challenge science and researchers, and also to generate pseudo- scientific claims made in the interest of particular policy ends. In a number of cases reported in Science, administration officials have silenced their own employees, or withheld data selectively from draft reports. Added to that challenge to integrity, there is a new statutory environment that adds some complexity of its own. Beginning with the Data Quality Act, more familiarly the "Shelby Amendment," research results with significant economic impacts through regulation are now available through the Freedom of Information Act. Its successor, the Data Quality Act -- which opens a route of challenge to information released by government or gathered by others and used in advice or regulation has exposed scientists not only to having their primary data reanalyzed for the purposes of others, but to charges of research misconduct. These influences have made journal peer review more challenging in several ways, and I will outline some case examples.

  7. Review process for low-level radioactive waste disposal license application under Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittiglio, C.L. Jr.

    1987-08-01

    This document estimates the level of effort and expertise that is needed to review a license application within the required time. It is intended to be used by the NRC staff as well as States and interested parties to provide a better understanding of what the NRC envisions will be involved in licensing a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  8. Energy policies of IEA countries. 1993 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Energy policies in Member countries's and the international energy situation are highlighted in this 1993 edition. It reviews recent trends and developments in energy demand, conservation and efficiency, supply of primary fuels, environment, technology and R and D. This year's Review also gives an overview of significant developments in key policy areas since the IEA's creation, on the occasion of its 20th anniversary. Member countries' energy policies are reviewed in depth on a four-year cycle. In-depth reviews of the energy policies of Austria, Denmark, Germany, Greece, the United Kingdom and the United States were conducted in 1993. Energy policy developments and supply and demand trends for the other 17 countries are updated from the previous in-depth reviews and summarized in this volume. (authors). figs., tabs

  9. Understanding the Federal Proposal Review Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavin, Janis I.

    Information on the peer review process for the evaluation of federal grant proposals is presented to help college grants administrators and faculty develop good proposals. This guidebook provides an overview of the policies and conventions that govern the review and selection of proposals for funding, and details the review procedures of the…

  10. Energy policies of IEA countries: 1994 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This 1994 edition contributes to the IEA's on-going analysis of countries'energy policies and market developments. it reviews recent trends and developments in energy demand and supply, efficiency, technology and environment. This year's Energy Policies includes: - critical reviews of all 23 IEA Member countries, including in-depth reviews of Finland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg and Switzerland; - a synthesis report highlighting major energy policy developments and market trends in IEA Member countries and an overview of significant energy developments elsewhere in the world; -an analysis of trends in key energy indicators over a twenty year period. (authors)

  11. Cost allocation policy review: options and preferred alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-10-15

    This policy review of the consultation process on the electricity cost allocation issue is presented with specific cost allocation policy issues addressed herein, such as: the new microFIT rate, accounting changes and the transition to IFRS, and review of allocating costs to load displacement generation. This report gave the current situation for all these issues, previous work, issues, viable options for dealing with these issues and the preferred alternatives.

  12. Nigerian Music Review: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Nigerian Music Review is aimed at the scholarly review of the developments in various musical practices in Nigeria. It considers well researched articles in any of the following areas: Musicology, Ethnomusicology, African Music, Music Education, Performance, Composition, Music Technology, Music ...

  13. Radiopharmaceutical drug review process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankel, R.

    1985-01-01

    To ensure proper radioactive drug use (such as quality, diagnostic improvement, and minimal radioactive exposure), the Food and Drug Administration evaluates new drugs with respect to safety, effectiveness, and accuracy and adequacy of the labeling. The IND or NDA process is used for this purpose. A brief description of the process, including the Chemical Classification System and the therapeutic potential classification, is presented as it applies to radiopharmaceuticals. Also, the status of the IND or NDA review of radiopharmaceuticals is given

  14. Simulating Policy Processes through Electronic Mail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, John P.

    1987-01-01

    Focuses on the use of electronic mail for teaching and learning about social welfare policy processes and compares electronic mail as a simulation medium to more structured computer applications. (Author)

  15. Haramaya Law Review: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The Haramaya Law Review (HLR) publishes original scientific manuscripts and disseminates scientific and information to the users in Ethiopia, Africa and elsewhere in the world. It also enhances exchange of ideas among scientists engaged in research and development activities and accepts papers ...

  16. IEA energy policies review: the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-09-04

    For the first time, the IEA has reviewed the energy policies of the European Union which shape the energy use of almost 500 million citizens in 27 EU member countries. A unique entity governed under complex and almost constantly evolving structures, the EU constitutes a challenge for energy policy makers. Its energy policy has a global impact, not only because of its 16% share of world energy demand, but also because of the EU leadership in addressing climate change. Strong policy drives are underway in the EU to achieve the completion of the internal energy market, increase renewable energy supply, reduce CO2 emissions and make the EU more energy-efficient. Concerns about security of supply have also led to a greater focus on improved energy relations with supplier countries, and new institutional structures are being put in place. How much progress has been made in the field of security, internal market and external energy policies? And in which of these areas has the EU already implemented a fully integrated policy? This publication addresses these questions and also analyses the impact of the most recent major EU policy measures, in particular the Energy and Climate Package of January 2008 and the 3rd Liberalisation Package of September 2007. This book finds that both of these proposals are highly ambitious. But implementing them and reviewing both volume and allocation of energy R and D will be necessary to achieve a sustainable energy future in a fully competitive integrated EU energy market.

  17. Ethics policy review: a case study in quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolic, Andrea Nadine; Drolet, Katherine

    2013-02-01

    Policy work is often cited as one of the primary functions of Hospital Ethics Committees (HECs), along with consultation and education. Hospital policies can have far reaching effects on a wide array of stakeholders including, care providers, patients, families, the culture of the organisation and the community at large. In comparison with the wealth of information available about the emerging practice of ethics consultation, relatively little attention has been paid to the policy work of HECs. In this paper, we hope to advance the development of best practices in HEC policy work by describing the quality improvement process that we undertook at Hamilton Health Sciences, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. In the first section of the paper we describe the context of our HEC policy work, and the shortcomings of our historical review process. In subsequent sections, we detail the quality improvement project we undertook in 2010, the results of the project and the specific tools we developed to enhance the quality of HEC policy work. Our goal in sharing this organisational case study is to prompt other HECs to publish qualitative descriptions of their policy work, in order to generate a body of knowledge that can inform the development of best practices for ethics policy review.

  18. Peer Review in a Social Policy Course: Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shauna P. Acquavita

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Peer review is a tool that provides students with a sense of how their work is perceived by others. Built on refection and feedback, peer review assesses the quality of academic processes and products based on well-understood criteria. Peer review was implemented in a baccalaureate social work policy course to enhance writing and critical thinking skills. Students were surveyed on their experiences and indicated that peer review activities provided beneficial learning exercises. The information gathered suggests methods for future implementation of peer review in social work education.

  19. NEA international peer reviews of post-accident protection policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazo, T.

    2011-01-01

    For many years, the NEA has offered international peer reviews of national, high-level radioactive waste management policies and approaches. Until recently, this service had not been requested in the area of radiological protection. However, the 3. International Nuclear Emergency Exercise (INEX-3, 2005-2006) addressed post-accident consequence management for the first time in a broad, international sense, and helped generate significant national reflections in this area. In particular, in 2005 the French government began an extensive programme of post-emergency consequence management planning, resulting in a draft national policy to address such situations. The Finnish government used the INEX-3 exercise as a vehicle to discuss post-emergency consequence management with a broad group of governmental and private stakeholders, and also began to develop national policy in this area. In order to further refine national efforts, the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) invited the NEA to perform in April 2011 its first international peer review in the radiological protection area focusing on its post-emergency consequence management policy under development. Finnish experts participated in this peer review team, and as a result, subsequently invited the NEA to perform an international peer review of its developing policy in this area in September 2011. These draft national policies and their international peer reviews are briefly presented in this paper. Feedback from both the French ASN and the Finnish STUK suggests that the detailed, external input provided by the international peer review teams have been extremely valuable in refining the content of the guides so that they are more clear, concise, understandable and implementable. It should be recalled that both national policy documents reviewed are far more detailed and extensive than described here. The intent of this article was not to provide a review of the national policies themselves, but rather to give an

  20. 'Race', disadvantage, and policy processes in British planning

    OpenAIRE

    H Thomas; V Krishnarayan

    1994-01-01

    In this paper some of the mechanisms by which black and ethnic minorities can be put at a particular disadvantage within the planning system in Britain (and how these processes can be challenged) are examined. A number of types of policy processes operating in British planning are identified, and, drawing on a range of secondary and primary data, the influence of black and ethnic minorities within these processes are analysed. The paper is concluded with a review of the possibilities for the ...

  1. Reviewing and reforming policy in health enterprise information security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sostrom, Kristen; Collmann, Jeff R.

    2001-08-01

    Health information management policies usually address the use of paper records with little or no mention of electronic health records. Information Technology (IT) policies often ignore the health care business needs and operational use of the information stored in its systems. Representatives from the Telemedicine & Advanced Technology Research Center, TRICARE and Offices of the Surgeon General of each Military Service, collectively referred to as the Policies, Procedures and Practices Work Group (P3WG), examined military policies and regulations relating to computer-based information systems and medical records management. Using a system of templates and matrices created for the purpose, P3WG identified gaps and discrepancies in DoD and service compliance with the proposed Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Security Standard. P3WG represents an unprecedented attempt to coordinate policy review and revision across all military health services and the Office of Health Affairs. This method of policy reform can identify where changes need to be made to integrate health management policy and IT policy in to an organizational policy that will enable compliance with HIPAA standards. The process models how large enterprises may coordinate policy revision and reform across broad organizational and work domains.

  2. Pricing Policy and the College Choice Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Randall G.

    1979-01-01

    A marketing management paradigm for academe is discussed along with aspects of the pricing policy process. The two most important factors affecting the college choice process are shown to be college quality and price-related considerations. Implications for marketing are discussed. (Author/LBH)

  3. NASA Product Peer Review Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenks, Ken

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes NASA's product peer review process. The contents include: 1) Inspection/Peer Review at NASA; 2) Reasons for product peer reviews; 3) Different types of peer reviews; and 4) NASA requirements for peer reviews. This presentation also includes a demonstration of an actual product peer review.

  4. Energy policies of IEA countries: 2006 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This compilation contains a broad analysis of recent trends and an easily accessible overview of energy policy of the 26 member countries of the International Energy Agency and other key non-member countries such as China, India and Russia, during the last 12 months. The overview section examines trends in energy markets, including an analysis of energy demand and supply, energy prices and energy related CO{sub 2} emissions. It highlights key policy trends across member and non-member countries on energy security, energy market reform, climate change mitigation, energy efficiency, renewables and energy R&D. The book contains a special chapter on energy efficiency, which compares the most successful efficiency policies of member countries on the basis of In-Depth Review findings of the past three years. It also presents the major findings of the World Energy Outlook 2006, key statistical information and brief summaries of major IEA publications released during the past year. In past years summaries of In-Depth Reviews conducted in the cycle covered by this book, as well as Standard Reviews, were published as part of the book. From this year they will only be available from the IEA's website on www.iea.org. Chapter headings are: Executive summary; Energy efficiency; World energy outlook 2006; Energy security; Energy market reform; Climate change; Renewable energy; Technology, research and development; Energy policies in key non-member countries; and Energy balances and key statistical data of IEA countries. 25 figs., 11 tabs., 4 annexes.

  5. Microgrid Policy Review of Selected Major Countries, Regions, and Organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Min [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Marnay, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-11-30

    This report collects and reviews policies and regulations related to microgrid development, and is intended as a reference. The material is divided into three parts under five dimensions: interconnection, RD&D, tariff policy, other policies, and recommendations.

  6. Supporting Biotechnology Regulatory Policy Processes in Southeast ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Supporting Biotechnology Regulatory Policy Processes in Southeast Asia. Biotechnology innovations or bio-innovations can provide solutions to problems associated with food security, poverty and environmental degradation. Innovations such as genetically engineered (GE) crops can increase food production and ...

  7. Alberta's transmission development policy : review and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubbings, R.V.

    2004-01-01

    Alberta's Department of Energy (ADOE) released a policy paper in November 2003 regarding power transmission development for the province. The transmission development policy (TDP) is intended to promote economic growth in Alberta while ensuring consumers with reliable, reasonably priced electricity. This presentation reviewed the main features of the policy and then focused on the allocation of costs to generation customers. The author argued that the proposed changes would result in a sub-optimal development of generation and higher total electricity bills for consumers. He argued that the policy will spare generation customers of any obligation to pay wire-related costs other than local interconnection costs. This would weaken a long-standing ADOE policy which requires generators to pay costs that depend on their location on the transmission system. With the new proposal, generators would not be responsible for ancillary service costs even when they provide direct benefits, and they would pay for system losses on a zonal basis. The author recommended that location charges should be large enough to influence the siting decisions of generators. He also recommended that generators should pay their fare share of transmission use-of-system charges, including ancillary services that provide benefits to generators in the form of a stable, reliable transmission system. 2 tabs., 2 figs

  8. Policy development for biodiversity offsets: a review of offset frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenney, Bruce A; Kiesecker, Joseph M

    2010-01-01

    Biodiversity offsets seek to compensate for residual environmental impacts of planned developments after appropriate steps have been taken to avoid, minimize or restore impacts on site. Offsets are emerging as an increasingly employed mechanism for achieving net environmental benefits, with offset policies being advanced in a wide range of countries (i.e., United States, Australia, Brazil, Colombia, and South Africa). To support policy development for biodiversity offsets, we review a set of major offset policy frameworks-US wetlands mitigation, US conservation banking, EU Natura 2000, Australian offset policies in New South Wales, Victoria, and Western Australia, and Brazilian industrial and forest offsets. We compare how the frameworks define offset policy goals, approach the mitigation process, and address six key issues for implementing offsets: (1) equivalence of project impacts with offset gains; (2) location of the offset relative to the impact site; (3) "additionality" (a new contribution to conservation) and acceptable types of offsets; (4) timing of project impacts versus offset benefits; (5) offset duration and compliance; and (6) "currency" and mitigation replacement ratios. We find substantial policy commonalities that may serve as a sound basis for future development of biodiversity offsets policy. We also identify issues requiring further policy guidance, including how best to: (1) ensure conformance with the mitigation hierarchy; (2) identify the most environmentally preferable offsets within a landscape context; and (3) determine appropriate mitigation replacement ratios.

  9. Energy policies of IEA countries: 2006 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This compilation contains a broad analysis of recent trends and an easily accessible overview of energy policy of the 26 member countries of the International Energy Agency and other key non-member countries such as China, India and Russia, during the last 12 months. The overview section examines trends in energy markets, including an analysis of energy demand and supply, energy prices and energy related CO{sub 2} emissions. It highlights key policy trends across member and non-member countries on energy security, energy market reform, climate change mitigation, energy efficiency, renewables and energy R&D. The book contains a special chapter on energy efficiency, which compares the most successful efficiency policies of member countries on the basis of In-Depth Review findings of the past three years. It also presents the major findings of the World Energy Outlook 2006, key statistical information and brief summaries of major IEA publications released during the past year. In past years summaries of In-Depth Reviews conducted in the cycle covered by this book, as well as Standard Reviews, were published as part of the book. From this year they will only be available from the IEA's website on www.iea.org. Chapter headings are: Executive summary; Energy efficiency; World energy outlook 2006; Energy security; Energy market reform; Climate change; Renewable energy; Technology, research and development; Energy policies in key non-member countries; and Energy balances and key statistical data of IEA countries. 25 figs., 11 tabs., 4 annexes.

  10. Policy and process of innovation in techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Su; Lee, Jin Ju

    1982-09-01

    This book mentions policy and process of innovation in techniques, which deals with introduction, macroscopic analysis of development of science and technology including analysis of existing research about system of development on science and technology and new development system of science and technology, macroscopic analysis of development of science and technology of Korea. It also indicates innovation of technology in Korean industry with various access.

  11. Tourism and rural community development in Namibia: policy issues review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erling Kavita

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available During the past decades, the tourism sector has become an increasing important issue for governments and regional agencies searching for socio-economic development. Especially in the Global South the increasing tourism demand has been seen highly beneficial as evolving tourism can create direct and indirect income and employment effects to the host regions and previously marginalised communities, with potential to aid with the poverty reduction targets. This research note reviews the existing policy and planning frameworks in relation to tourism and rural development in Namibia. Especially the policy aims towards rural community development are overviewed with focus on Community-Based Tourism (CBT initiatives. The research note involves a retrospective review of tourism policies and rural local development initiatives in Namibia where the Ministry of Environment and Tourism (MET initiated a community-based tourism policy. The policy emphasises structures and processes helping local communities to benefit from the tourism sector, and the active and coordinating involvement of communities, especially, is expected to ensure that the benefits of tourism trickle down to the local level where tourist activities take place. However, it is noted that in addition to public policy-makers also other tourism developers and private business environment in Namibia need to recognize the full potential of rural tourism development in order to meet the created politically driven promises at the policy level. In this respect, a national tourism policy could provide an enabling framework, integrating the tourism sector’s development aims to rural and community development needs in future. In addition, there is a need to coordinate a comprehensive vision of what type of rural tourism development or tourism in rural environments holds the most potential to benefit both local communities and the mainstream sector.

  12. Challenging the premises of international policy review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feinstein, Noah Weeth; Læssøe, Jeppe; Blum, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, a think tank called the International Alliance of Leading Education Institutes (IALEI) announced the results of a study entitled Climate Change and Sustainable Development: The Response from Education. Intended for a policy audience, the study offered a glimpse into the status of Education...... for Sustainable Development (ESD) and an early look at the emergence of Climate Change Education (CCE), in 10 different nations. As with most international reports, the IALEI report provoked many questions, some of which are more broadly relevant to scholarship and practice. This paper introduces a review...

  13. Education Policy Implementation: A Literature Review and Proposed Framework. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 162

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viennet, Romane; Pont, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    This literature review focuses on education policy implementation, its definition, processes and determinants. It aims to clarify what implementing policies involve in complex education systems to support policy work, building on the literature and country examples. An introduction delves into the reasons behind the need to update the concept of…

  14. Detecting causality in policy diffusion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabow, Carsten; Macinko, James; Silver, Diana; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2016-08-01

    A universal question in network science entails learning about the topology of interaction from collective dynamics. Here, we address this question by examining diffusion of laws across US states. We propose two complementary techniques to unravel determinants of this diffusion process: information-theoretic union transfer entropy and event synchronization. In order to systematically investigate their performance on law activity data, we establish a new stochastic model to generate synthetic law activity data based on plausible networks of interactions. Through extensive parametric studies, we demonstrate the ability of these methods to reconstruct networks, varying in size, link density, and degree heterogeneity. Our results suggest that union transfer entropy should be preferred for slowly varying processes, which may be associated with policies attending to specific local problems that occur only rarely or with policies facing high levels of opposition. In contrast, event synchronization is effective for faster enactment rates, which may be related to policies involving Federal mandates or incentives. This study puts forward a data-driven toolbox to explain the determinants of legal activity applicable to political science, across dynamical systems, information theory, and complex networks.

  15. Slovak Republic - energy policy review 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Slovakia has implemented impressive energy reforms over the recent past, a unique performance in Central and Eastern Europe. The 2000 energy policy prioritised market reforms and sectoral policies, notably on energy security and environment, in order to comply with EU requirements, which were largely met at the time of the country's EU accession in 2004. Also, Slovakia established new regulations, notably cost reflective pricing enforced by an independent energy regulator, thereby attracting significant foreign direct investment. Notably, this rapid transition has occurred without disruption in this key energy transit country. New challenges ahead include strengthening energy security by diversification, opening energy markets and integrating them into the EU, strongly increasing energy efficiency to offset the high economic burden of energy prices and to help better controlling pollution and CO{sub 2} emissions in line with EU and international obligations. This review analyses the Slovak energy sector and policies, and provides recommendations for the government. It is a comprehensive assessment of what constitutes a remarkable case study of effective energy reforms in an economy in transition, which has applied for IEA membership. 39 refs., 32 tabs., 4 apps.

  16. Electric mobility in China. A policy review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagscherer, Ulrike

    2012-02-15

    different main targets which influence the development of e-mobility or electric vehicles to a certain degree. The following review looks especially at the impact of these different national policies on the development of electric vehicles and tries to analyze the relations between these policies as far as this is possible from an outsider's perspective. The current strategy of the Chinese government concerning the development of electric vehicles is supported mainly by three major policy fields: support for R and D, support for the related industry, and support for private and public consumption. The majority of the policies are in fact industrial policies and they have been adopted by the highest levels of government.

  17. Sustainable development based energy policy making frameworks, a critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyar-Naimi, H.; Vaez-Zadeh, S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper, in the first step, presents an overview of the origination and formulation of sustainable development (SD) concept and the related policy making frameworks. The frameworks include Pressure–State–Response (PSR), Driving Force–State–Response (DSR), Driving Force–Pressure–State–Impact–Response (DPSIR), Driving Force–Pressure–State–Effect–Action (DPSEA) and Driving Force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action (DPSEEA). In this regard, 40 case studies using the reviewed frameworks reported during 1994–2011 are surveyed. Then, their application area and application intensity are investigated. It is concluded that PSR, and DPSEA and DPSEEA have the higher and lower application intensities, respectively. Moreover, using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) with a set of criteria, it is shown that PSR and DPSIR have the highest and lowest priorities. Finally, the shortcomings of frameworks applications are discussed. The paper is helpful in selecting appropriate policy making frameworks and presents some hints for future research in the area for developing more comprehensive models especially for sustainable electric energy policy making. - Highlights: ► The origination and formulation of sustainable development (SD) concept is reviewed. ► SD based frameworks (PSR, DSR, DPSIR, DPSEA and DPSEEA) are also reviewed. ► Then, the frameworks application area and intensity in recent years are investigated. ► Finally, the SD concept and the SD based frameworks are criticized. ► It will be helpful for developing more comprehensive energy policy making models.

  18. Practical guide for defending the rights of refugee children and refugee unaccompanied minors in South Africa: policy review, processes, procedures & practical experience

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shabangu, T

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available CHAPTER?8:?ACCESS?TO?SOCIAL?SERVICE?AND?LOCAL?INTEGRATION? 52 Introduction? 52 International?Policy?Frameworks? 52 Relevant?National?Legislation? 53 CHAPTER?9:?ACCESS?TO?HOUSING?AND?SHELTER? 56 Introduction? 56 International?Policy?Frameworks? 56....? Section? 28? of? the? Bill? of? Rights? outlines? children?s?rights?and?states?that:??Every?child?has?the?right??to?basic?nutrition,?shelter,?basic?health?care? services?and?social...

  19. Review of International Policies for Vehicle Fuel Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This paper reviews past and current voluntary and regulatory fuel efficiency programs and then assesses the effectiveness of these policies from the viewpoints of enforcement, standard design, standard stringency and standard related policies.

  20. Introduction of male circumcision for HIV prevention in Uganda: analysis of the policy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoch, Walter Denis; Kabali, Kenneth; Ankunda, Racheal; Zulu, Joseph Mumba; Tetui, Moses

    2015-06-20

    Health policy analysis is important for all health policies especially in fields with ever changing evidence-based interventions such as HIV prevention. However, there are few published reports of health policy analysis in sub-Saharan Africa in this field. This study explored the policy process of the introduction of male circumcision (MC) for HIV prevention in Uganda in order to inform the development processes of similar health policies. Desk review of relevant documents was conducted between March and May 2012. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Conceptual frameworks that demonstrate the interrelationship within the policy development processes and influence of actors in the policy development processes guided the analysis. Following the introduction of MC on the national policy agenda in 2007, negotiation and policy formulation preceded its communication and implementation. Policy proponents included academic researchers in the early 2000s and development partners around 2007. Favourable contextual factors that supported the development of the policy included the rising HIV prevalence, adoption of MC for HIV prevention in other sub-Saharan African countries, and expertise on MC. Additionally, the networking capability of proponents facilitated the change in position of non-supportive or neutral actors. Non-supportive and neutral actors in the initial stages of the policy development process included the Ministry of Health, traditional and Muslim leaders, and the Republican President. Using political authority, legitimacy, and charisma, actors who opposed the policy tried to block the policy development process. Researchers' initial disregard of the Ministry of Health in the research process of MC and the missing civil society advocacy arm contributed to delays in the policy development process. This study underscores the importance of securing top political leadership as well as key implementing partners' support in policy development processes

  1. NRC Enforcement Policy Review, July 1995-July 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieberman, J.; Pedersen, R.M.

    1998-04-01

    On June 30, 1995, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued a complete revision of its General Statement of Policy and Procedure for Enforcement Action (Enforcement Policy) (60 FR 34381). In approving the 1995 revision to the Enforcement Policy, the Commission directed the staff to perform a review of its implementation of the Policy after approximately 2 years of experience and to consider public comments. This report represents the results of that review

  2. Defending the scientific integrity of conservation-policy processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Carlos; Hartl, Brett; Goldman, Gretchen T; Rohlf, Daniel J; Treves, Adrian; Kerr, Jeremy T; Ritchie, Euan G; Kingsford, Richard T; Gibbs, Katherine E; Maron, Martine; Watson, James E M

    2017-10-01

    Government agencies faced with politically controversial decisions often discount or ignore scientific information, whether from agency staff or nongovernmental scientists. Recent developments in scientific integrity (the ability to perform, use, communicate, and publish science free from censorship or political interference) in Canada, Australia, and the United States demonstrate a similar trajectory. A perceived increase in scientific-integrity abuses provokes concerted pressure by the scientific community, leading to efforts to improve scientific-integrity protections under a new administration. However, protections are often inconsistently applied and are at risk of reversal under administrations publicly hostile to evidence-based policy. We compared recent challenges to scientific integrity to determine what aspects of scientific input into conservation policy are most at risk of political distortion and what can be done to strengthen safeguards against such abuses. To ensure the integrity of outbound communications from government scientists to the public, we suggest governments strengthen scientific integrity policies, include scientists' right to speak freely in collective-bargaining agreements, guarantee public access to scientific information, and strengthen agency culture supporting scientific integrity. To ensure the transparency and integrity with which information from nongovernmental scientists (e.g., submitted comments or formal policy reviews) informs the policy process, we suggest governments broaden the scope of independent reviews, ensure greater diversity of expert input and transparency regarding conflicts of interest, require a substantive response to input from agencies, and engage proactively with scientific societies. For their part, scientists and scientific societies have a responsibility to engage with the public to affirm that science is a crucial resource for developing evidence-based policy and regulations in the public interest.

  3. Hanford process review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    This report is a summary of past incidents at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site. The purpose of the report is to provide the major, significant, nuclear-safety-related incidents which incurred at the Hanford Site in a single document for ease of historical research. It should be noted that the last major accident occurred in 1980. This document is a summary of reports released and available to the public in the DOE Headquarters and Richland public reading rooms. This document provides no new information that has not previously been reported. This report is not intended to cover all instances of radioactivity release or contamination, which are already the subject of other major reviews, several of which are referenced in Section 1.3

  4. Studying and evaluating pharmaceutical policy--becoming a part of the policy and consultative process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Traulsen, Janine Marie

    2006-01-01

    In this last article in the series the authors focus on the issue of researching and evaluating pharmaceutical policy. The past five articles made an argument for why pharmaceutical policy is important and why it is different from health policy. The evidence base needed for pharmaceutical policym...... culture around pharmaceutical policy. They emphasize the importance of pharmaceutical specialists' (i.e., pharmacists') involvement in pharmaceutical policy analysis and the policy consultative process....

  5. Energy policies of IEA countries - Switzerland. 2007 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-26

    Switzerland is entering decisive times in its energy policy. In 2008, the country should see remarkable advance in electricity market reform. Support for renewable electricity is set to increase massively. Decisions on post-Kyoto targets are getting closer, and a CO{sub 2} tax will be introduced for heating and process fuels. Plus, new measures to increase energy efficiency and the broader use of renewable energy are high on the political agenda. Since the last in-depth review in 2003, Switzerland has made progress in most areas of energy policy. Still, more work remains to be done. Maintaining sufficient electricity capacity implies even stronger policies to promote energy efficiency and renewable energy sources. At the same time, the country will also need to decide which sources to use for large-scale power supply. High dependency on oil can become a burden in a post-Kyoto world. In particular, Switzerland's climate policy should focus more on reducing emissions from private car use, the largest and fastest-growing emitter. Current measures have not proven effective, and the costs of reducing CO{sub 2} emissions are being distorted across sectors. Switzerland's world-class energy R and D is expected to more than halve energy needs per capita by the second half of this century. This ambitious goal needs to be supported by consistent policies on energy efficiency and climate change. This book takes an in-depth look at the energy challenges facing Switzerland and provides critiques and recommendations for policy improvements. The review guides the country towards a sustainable energy future.

  6. Review, Analysis and Evaluation of Certain Areas and Facets of Policies, Systems, Processes and Management of the U.S. Government Printing Office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopers & Lybrand, New York, NY.

    Covered in this report of the 1978 project of the Joint Committee on Printing are aspects of three selected areas. Part one, Management Review and Assessment, contains a summary of management and user interviews, a review of GPO's goals and organizational structure, and an assessment of management systems and procedures. The accounting system is…

  7. SRL process hazards review manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-08-01

    The principal objective of the Process Hazards Management Program is to provide a regular, systematic review of each process at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) to eliminate injuries and to minimize property damage resulting from process hazards of catastrophic potential. Management effort is directed, through the Du Pont Safety Program, toward those controls and practices that ensure this objective. The Process Hazards Management Program provides an additional dimension to further ensure the health and safety of employees and the public. Du Pont has concluded that an organized approach is essential to obtain an effective and efficient process hazards review. The intent of this manual is to provide guidance in creating such an organized approach to performing process hazards reviews on a continuing basis

  8. A Review of Open Access Self-Archiving Mandate Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jingfeng; Gilchrist, Sarah B.; Smith, Nathaniel X. P.; Kingery, Justin A.; Radecki, Jennifer R.; Wilhelm, Marcia L.; Harrison, Keith C.; Ashby, Michael L.; Mahn, Alyson J.

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the history of open access (OA) policies and examines the current status of mandate policy implementations. It finds that hundreds of policies have been proposed and adopted at various organizational levels and many of them have shown a positive effect on the rate of repository content accumulation. However, it also detects…

  9. The process of changing national malaria treatment policy: lessons from country-level studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Holly Ann; Durrheim, David; Shretta, Rima

    2004-11-01

    Widespread resistance of Plasmodium falciparum parasites to commonly used antimalarials, such as chloroquine, has resulted in many endemic countries considering changing their malaria treatment policy. Identifying and understanding the key influences that affect decision-making, and factors that facilitate or undermine policy implementation, is critical for improving the policy process and guiding resource allocation during this process. A historical review of archival documents from Malaŵi and data obtained from in-depth policy studies in four countries (Tanzania, South Africa, Kenya and Peru) that have changed malaria treatment policy provides important lessons about decision-making, the policy cycle and complex policy environment, while specifically identifying strategies successfully employed to facilitate policy-making and implementation. Findings from these country-level studies indicate that the process of malaria drug policy review should be institutionalized in endemic countries and based on systematically collected data. Key stakeholders need to be identified early and engaged in the process, while improved communication is needed on all levels. Although malaria drug policy change is often perceived to be a daunting task, using these and other proven strategies should assist endemic countries to tackle this challenge in a systematic fashion that ensures the development and implementation of the rational malaria drug policy.

  10. Book Review: Market Liquidity: Theory, Evidence, and Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boscan, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Review of: Market Liquidity: Theory, Evidence, and Policy / by Thierry Foucault, Marco Pagano and Ailsa Röell. Oxford University Press. April 2013.......Review of: Market Liquidity: Theory, Evidence, and Policy / by Thierry Foucault, Marco Pagano and Ailsa Röell. Oxford University Press. April 2013....

  11. Public Policies – Embodiments of Democratization Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Ţicu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Public policies are the most practical part of the triad polity-politics-policy. Public policies are related to the practical areas of planning, implementation and evaluation of the governmental activities. From this perspective, to talk about a perfect public policy (or which aspires to perfection means to speak about an efficient institutional system of a state as a sign of its degree of democratization. This article aims to explore “the cuisine” of democratic systems taking into account the applied perspective of public policy functionality, a type of functionality which is determined by a particular decision, by a kind of rationality or motivation of the actors involved or by a type of an organizational culture. Thus, the study of democracies involves an analytical approach developed at a micro level (the types of parties, institutional designs, election systems, public policies becoming indices of democratization for every state system.

  12. Policy Process Editor for P3BM Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Mark; Chang, Hsin-Ping; Chow, Edward T.; Crichton, Gerald A.

    2010-01-01

    A computer program enables generation, in the form of graphical representations of process flows with embedded natural-language policy statements, input to a suite of policy-, process-, and performance-based management (P3BM) software. This program (1) serves as an interface between users and the Hunter software, which translates the input into machine-readable form; and (2) enables users to initialize and monitor the policy-implementation process. This program provides an intuitive graphical interface for incorporating natural-language policy statements into business-process flow diagrams. Thus, the program enables users who dictate policies to intuitively embed their intended process flows as they state the policies, reducing the likelihood of errors and reducing the time between declaration and execution of policy.

  13. Public policy processes and getting physical activity into Alberta's urban schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladwin, Catherine P; Church, John; Plotnikoff, Ronald C

    2008-01-01

    Public policies impact the amount of physical activity (PA) that children receive at school. These policies are of interest because overweight and obesity among Canadian children have grown at significant rates, and increasing PA among children is one way to reverse this trend. This research investigates the public policy processes that have resulted in Alberta's education system adopting in-school daily physical activity (DPA) and not supporting walk-to-school (WTS) initiatives. Using the policy process described by Kingdon and others as a conceptual framework, this research reviews literature and documents on public policy relating to PA in schools and interviews key individuals (N = 20) to identify the policy-related facilitators and barriers in Alberta, Canada to increasing PA in school-aged children. DPA was mandated because Kingdon's three policy streams (problem, solution and politics) became joined or linked. DPA was the most viable solution because literature supports and teachers believe in the educational benefits of PA. As well, a physician with personal beliefs about the benefits of PA became the minister of education and coupled the solution with the political stream through his ministerial power. Reasons that WTS programs have not become school or health policy include advocacy led by politically weak organizations, lack of a supportive policy entrepreneur and poor saliency among educators. This research illuminates the inner workings of the policy process shaping PA in schools, identifying the unseen forces of the policy process that move issues forward. The findings provide valuable insight for building other healthy public policies.

  14. Engaged: Educators and the Policy Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Richard Lee; Bassett, Katherine; Hansen, Jessica; Boffy, Holly Franks; DelColle, Jeanne; Fennell, Maddie; Izzo, Marguerite; Lechleiter-Luke, Leah; Mieliwocki, Rebecca; Minkel, Justin; Pearson, Michelle; Poulos, Christopher; Woods-Murphy, Maryann

    2015-01-01

    The premise of the white paper is that education policy results are better for students when policies are informed and shaped by highly effective educators who know firsthand what it takes to deliver excellent teaching and learning. Policymakers and educators should share a sense of urgency to work together to provide every child in our country…

  15. The Role of Interstate Policy Organizations in State Higher Education Policy Processes: Perceptions of Policymakers and Policy Shapers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelau, Demaree K.

    2010-01-01

    Political science offers rich explanations for how different types of organizations that are focused on public policy decisions (e.g., boundary organizations, interest groups, policy networks (or communities), and think tanks) influence public policy processes (Cash, Clark, Alcock, Dickson, Eckley, Guston, Jager, and Mitchell 2003; Guston 2001;…

  16. Building sustainable policy framework for transport development: A review of national transport policy initiatives in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaila A.F.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with building a sustainable policy framework for transport development in Nigeria. Its objective is to review the country’s transport policy initiatives in order to understand the extent to which it addresses Nigeria’s mobility and transportation problems. From published materials and official government documents and files, the study identifies four national policy initiatives which are reviewed and analysed with regard to their context, contents, and consequences. The study reveals that while the policy initiatives could be said to be adequate and comprehensive in terms of their context and contents, the major challenge is implementation of recommended solutions. The study therefore provides a general checklist to guide policy direction, while advocating for policy-based researches and empirical studies in order to provide the data base for formulation of a sustainable national transport policy for Nigeria.

  17. The JSC Engineering Directorate Product Peer Review Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenks, Kenneth C.

    2009-01-01

    The JSC Engineering Directorate has developed a Product Peer Review process in support of NASA policies for project management and systems engineering. The process complies with the requirements of NPR 7120.5, NPR 7123.1 and NPR 7150.2 and follows the guidance in NASA/SP-2007-6105. This presentation will give an overview of the process followed by a brief demonstration of an actual peer review, with audience participation.

  18. A review on global wind energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidur, R.; Islam, M.R.; Rahim, N.A.; Solangi, K.H.

    2010-01-01

    With the increasing negative effects of fossil fuel combustion on the environment in addition to limited stock of fossil fuel have forced many countries to inquire into and change to environmentally friendly alternatives that are renewable to sustain the increasing energy demand. Energy policy plays a vital role to mitigate the impacts of global warming and crisis of energy availability. This paper explores the wind energy industry from the point of view of the wind energy policy. It is noticed that energy policy could help increasing wind power generation as well as stimulating the energy industry. It may be stated that without specific energy policy, a country would not be able to solve the acute problems like reducing greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission, scarcity of energy, etc. This paper discussed the existing successful energy policies for few selected countries. Based on literatures, it has been found that FIT, RPS, incentives, pricing law and Quota system are the most useful energy policies practiced by many countries around the world. Then, status of wind energy policy for Malaysia was investigated and compared with few selected countries around the world. (author)

  19. Review of Biomedical Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciaccio Edward J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article is a review of the book: 'Biomedical Image Processing', by Thomas M. Deserno, which is published by Springer-Verlag. Salient information that will be useful to decide whether the book is relevant to topics of interest to the reader, and whether it might be suitable as a course textbook, are presented in the review. This includes information about the book details, a summary, the suitability of the text in course and research work, the framework of the book, its specific content, and conclusions.

  20. A review of EIAs on trade policy in China: Exploring the way for economic policy EIAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Xianqiang, E-mail: maoxq@bnu.edu.cn [Center for Global Environmental Policy, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Song, Peng, E-mail: songpeng_ee@163.com [Center for Global Environmental Policy, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Kørnøv, Lone, E-mail: lonek@plan.aau.dk [The Danish Centre for Environmental Assessment, Department of Planning, Aalborg University, Skibbrogade 5, B1-04, 9000 Aalborg (Denmark); Corsetti, Gabriel, E-mail: gabriel.corsetti@gmail.com [Center for Global Environmental Policy, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2015-01-15

    During the discussion on the “Environmental Protection Law Amendment (draft)” in 2011, it was decided to drop the proposed clauses related to environmental impact assessments (EIAs) on policy, which means that there remained no provisions for policy EIAs, and China's strategic environmental assessment system stayed limited to the planning level. However, considering that economic policy making is causing significant direct and indirect environmental problems and that almost every aspect of governmental policy has an economic aspect, EIAs on economic policies are of the utmost urgency. The purpose of this study is to review the EIA work that has been carried out on trade policy in China through four case studies, and illustrate how trade policy EIAs can be helpful in achieving better environmental outcomes in the area of trade. Through the trade policy EIA case studies we try to argue for the feasibility of conducting EIAs on economic policies in China. We also discuss the implications of the case studies from the point of view of how to proceed with EIAs on economic policy and how to promote their practice. - Highlights: • SEA system is incomplete and stays limited to the plan EIA level in China. • EIA on economic policy is of utmost importance for all the developing countries. • Four case studies of trade policy EIA in China are reviewed for policy implications. • Departmental competition for political power impedes economic policy EIAs in China. • Legislative regulation on policy EIA is the first thing needed to overcome barrier.

  1. A review of EIAs on trade policy in China: Exploring the way for economic policy EIAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Xianqiang; Song, Peng; Kørnøv, Lone; Corsetti, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    During the discussion on the “Environmental Protection Law Amendment (draft)” in 2011, it was decided to drop the proposed clauses related to environmental impact assessments (EIAs) on policy, which means that there remained no provisions for policy EIAs, and China's strategic environmental assessment system stayed limited to the planning level. However, considering that economic policy making is causing significant direct and indirect environmental problems and that almost every aspect of governmental policy has an economic aspect, EIAs on economic policies are of the utmost urgency. The purpose of this study is to review the EIA work that has been carried out on trade policy in China through four case studies, and illustrate how trade policy EIAs can be helpful in achieving better environmental outcomes in the area of trade. Through the trade policy EIA case studies we try to argue for the feasibility of conducting EIAs on economic policies in China. We also discuss the implications of the case studies from the point of view of how to proceed with EIAs on economic policy and how to promote their practice. - Highlights: • SEA system is incomplete and stays limited to the plan EIA level in China. • EIA on economic policy is of utmost importance for all the developing countries. • Four case studies of trade policy EIA in China are reviewed for policy implications. • Departmental competition for political power impedes economic policy EIAs in China. • Legislative regulation on policy EIA is the first thing needed to overcome barrier

  2. Review of automated vehicle technology : policy and implementation implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-14

    The goals of this project were to undergo a systematic review of automated vehicle technologies with a focus on policy : implications, methods of implementation, regulation by states, and developments occurring on legal fronts, ultimately creating a ...

  3. Review: Questioning Ireland: debates in political philosophy and public policy

    OpenAIRE

    Sheehan, Helena

    2000-01-01

    This is a review of a collection of essays entitled Questioning Ireland: debates in political philosophy and public policy, edited by Joseph Dunne, Attracta Ingram and Frank Litton, published in Dublin by the Institute of Public Administration in 2000.

  4. Review of Australian Higher Education: An Australian Policy Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montague, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Higher education is one of the key foundations that economic prosperity is founded upon. Government policies, funding and strategic planning require a fine balance to stimulate growth, prosperity health and well-being. The key Australian government policies influenced by a Review of Australian Higher Education report include attracting many more…

  5. Health Policy Training: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiman, Harry J; Smith, L Lerissa; McKool, Marissa; Mitchell, Denise N; Roth Bayer, Carey

    2015-12-23

    The context within which health care and public health systems operate is framed by health policies. There is growing consensus about the need for increased health policy leadership and a health professional workforce prepared to assume these leadership roles. At the same time, there is strong evidence supporting the need for a broader policy lens and the need to intentionally target health disparities. We reviewed the published literature between 1983 and 2013 regarding health policy training. From 5124 articles identified, 33 met inclusion criteria. Articles varied across common themes including target audience, goal(s), health policy definition, and core curricular content. The majority of articles were directed to medical or nursing audiences. Most articles framed health policy as health care policy and only a small number adopted a broader health in all policies definition. Few articles specifically addressed vulnerable populations or health disparities. The need for more rigorous research and evaluation to inform health policy training is compelling. Providing health professionals with the knowledge and skills to engage and take leadership roles in health policy will require training programs to move beyond their limited health care-oriented health policy framework to adopt a broader health and health equity in all policies approach.

  6. Health Policy Training: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry J. Heiman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The context within which health care and public health systems operate is framed by health policies. There is growing consensus about the need for increased health policy leadership and a health professional workforce prepared to assume these leadership roles. At the same time, there is strong evidence supporting the need for a broader policy lens and the need to intentionally target health disparities. We reviewed the published literature between 1983 and 2013 regarding health policy training. From 5124 articles identified, 33 met inclusion criteria. Articles varied across common themes including target audience, goal(s, health policy definition, and core curricular content. The majority of articles were directed to medical or nursing audiences. Most articles framed health policy as health care policy and only a small number adopted a broader health in all policies definition. Few articles specifically addressed vulnerable populations or health disparities. The need for more rigorous research and evaluation to inform health policy training is compelling. Providing health professionals with the knowledge and skills to engage and take leadership roles in health policy will require training programs to move beyond their limited health care-oriented health policy framework to adopt a broader health and health equity in all policies approach.

  7. Fiscal policy lags and income adjustment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Cesare, Luigi; Sportelli, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► There are delays either in the government expenditure or in the tax system. ► Both delays affect fiscal policy outcomes. ► The system of differential equations with two delays may be chaotic. ► Fiscal policy outcomes might be inconsistent with their stabilization purposes. - Abstract: The interest in the impact of fiscal policy lags on economic stability increased in the last decade. Several studies have been made on delays either in the government expenditure or in the tax system, where lags exist between the accrual and the payment of taxes. Nevertheless there is in the literature no model where time delays in government expenditures and in tax revenues are considered together as it happens in the real world. In this paper we remedied this defect and proposed a macro-dynamic model where two delays appear: the first pertains to the public expenditure, the second, to the tax revenue. The resulting system of delayed differential equations is studied qualitatively and numerically. The analysis suggests that only particular combinations of the two delays make the system stable. Prevalently the system is unstable and chaotic motions may arise. This implies that the economy may need appropriate structural changes in the public sector to improve fiscal policy outcomes in such a way they may really be consistent with their stabilization purposes.

  8. 1993 in review: Science policy developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Richard M.; Mockler, Susan Bucci

    Looking back over 1993, here are some of the major policy developments affecting the geophysical sciences community:JANUARY: John Gibbons confirmed as Office of Science and Technology Policy director and President Clinton's science advisor… Walter Massey resigns as National Science Foundation director… Hazel O'Leary becomes Department of Energy secretary … House Science, Space and Technology Committee is reorganized, reducing its six subcommittees to five… NSF's Division of Polar Programs elevated to the Office of Polar Programs, now a part of the Office of the Director… Bruce Babbitt confirmed as Secretary of the Interior.

  9. 29 CFR 42.5 - Policy review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... policies of OSHA, ESA and the United States Employment Service (USES), and the Office of the Solicitor and... complaints under, and to detect promptly violations of, any of the protective statutes. (2) The expedited... State agency of violations or complaints discovered by or reported to DOL agencies or appropriate State...

  10. Reviews of National Policies for Education: Yugoslavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    The educational policies of Yugoslavia are presented in this report by examiners from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). A comprehensive report on all aspects of education in Yugoslavia was used as their frame of reference; data were collected by them from a two-week tour of the country. The volume is divided into…

  11. Some opinions on the review process of research papers destined for publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohi, Ehsan; Mahian, Omid

    2015-06-01

    The current paper discusses the peer review process in journals that publish research papers purveying new science and understandings (scientific journals). Different aspects of peer review including the selection of reviewers, the review process and the decision policy of editor are discussed in details. Here, the pros and cons of different conventional methods of review processes are mentioned. Finally, a suggestion is presented for the review process of scientific papers.

  12. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: European Union 2008 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    For the first time, the IEA has reviewed the energy policies of the European Union which shape the energy use of almost 500 million citizens in 27 EU member countries. A unique entity governed under complex and almost constantly evolving structures, the EU constitutes a challenge for energy policy makers. Its energy policy has a global impact, not only because of its 16% share of world energy demand, but also because of the EU leadership in addressing climate change. Strong policy drives are underway in the EU to achieve the completion of the internal energy market, increase renewable energy supply, reduce CO2 emissions and make the EU more energy-efficient. Concerns about security of supply have also led to a greater focus on improved energy relations with supplier countries, and new institutional structures are being put in place. How much progress has been made in the field of security, internal market and external energy policies? And in which of these areas has the EU already implemented a fully integrated policy? IEA Energy Policies Review: The European Union - 2008 addresses these questions and also analyses the impact of the most recent major EU policy measures, in particular the Energy & Climate Package of January 2008 and the 3rd Liberalisation Package of September 2007. This book finds that both of these proposals are highly ambitious. But implementing them and reviewing both volume and allocation of energy R&D will be necessary to achieve a sustainable energy future in a fully competitive integrated EU energy market.

  13. Critical Review of NOAA's Observation Requirements Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaJoie, M.; Yapur, M.; Vo, T.; Templeton, A.; Bludis, D.

    2017-12-01

    NOAA's Observing Systems Council (NOSC) maintains a comprehensive database of user observation requirements. The requirements collection process engages NOAA subject matter experts to document and effectively communicate the specific environmental observation measurements (parameters and attributes) needed to produce operational products and pursue research objectives. User observation requirements documented using a structured and standardized manner and framework enables NOAA to assess its needs across organizational lines in an impartial, objective, and transparent manner. This structure provides the foundation for: selecting, designing, developing, acquiring observing technologies, systems and architectures; budget and contract formulation and decision-making; and assessing in a repeatable fashion the productivity, efficiency and optimization of NOAA's observing system enterprise. User observation requirements are captured independently from observing technologies. Therefore, they can be addressed by a variety of current or expected observing capabilities and allow flexibility to be remapped to new and evolving technologies. NOAA's current inventory of user observation requirements were collected over a ten-year period, and there have been many changes in policies, mission priorities, and funding levels during this time. In light of these changes, the NOSC initiated a critical, in-depth review to examine all aspects of user observation requirements and associated processes during 2017. This presentation provides background on the NOAA requirements process, major milestones and outcomes of the critical review, and plans for evolving and connecting observing requirements processes in the next year.

  14. Reviews of National Policies for Education: Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    Recent reforms affecting every aspect of Spain's educational system are reviewed in this report. The first part presents the observations of three educators from other European countries ("The Examiners' Report"). Part 2 is a "Record of the Review Meeting" held in Paris in December of 1985 10 months after the examiners' visit…

  15. Evidence based policy-making: A review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Strydom, FW

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The process of facilitating the uptake of evidence, for example, scientific research findings, into the policymaking process is multifaceted and thus complex. It is therefore important for scientists to understand this process in order to influence...

  16. Economic and Policy Review - Vol 13, No 3 (2007)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic and Policy Review - Vol 13, No 3 (2007). Journal Home > Archives > Vol 13, No 3 ... Snagging the wheel of progress: Corruption, New anti-corruption drive and Nigeria\\'s quest for development. S B Kura ... Book Review: challenges of African growth opportunities, constraints and strategic directions. S I Owualah ...

  17. How do environmental policies fit within larger strategic planning processes

    OpenAIRE

    Crowe, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explores how environmental policies fit within larger strategic processes relevant to sport management and development. It identifies key policy areas such as environmental impact assessment, sustainable land use planning, environmental protection and visitor impact management. Good practice and guidelines which will enable sport managers to integrate their work with these environmental policies are explored. Detailed guidance on design and longer term management and maintenance ...

  18. Southern African Business Review: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Southern African Business Review is a refereed and accredited scientific ... Accounting, Public Management, Tourism Management and related fields. ... This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that ...

  19. Energy policies of IEA countries. Canada 1996 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This IEA report provides a comprehensive, in-depth assessment of the energy policies of Canada, including recommendations on future policy developments. The report acknowledges the marked shift of federal energy policy in the last decade away from heavy intervention to a more market-based approach. This has increased the strength and competitive position of Canada's energy producers, especially in oil and gas, and has provided more choice for consumers. Electricity, however, is an area that could benefit from a more market-based policy orientation. Federal provincial co-ordination is of fundamental importance. Other key issues highlighted in the review include the opportunities and challenges of international agreements on the environment, which increasingly drive energy policy decision-making; the adequacy and effectiveness of programmes to promote energy efficiency; and the balance and direction of energy research and development efforts. This report forms part of a series of periodic in-depth reviews conducted and discussed by the IEA Member countries on a four-year cycle. Short reviews of energy policy developments in all twenty-three Member countries are published annually in Energy Policies of IEA Countries. (author)

  20. Review of Togolese agricultural policies from independence in 1960 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The green revolution policy launched in the aftermath of independence could have resulted in the upswing of Togolese agriculture sector and shift it towards modernisation and market orientation. Unfortunately, the weakness of institutions in charge of its implementation and carelessness of policy process led to its failure.

  1. Facilitating participatory processes for policy change in natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    processes and capacity for developing, implementing and enforcing local policies and byelaws to improve the adoption ... and integrated agricultural research for development ..... agriculture and natural resource management (soil and water.

  2. Review of Tax Policy and Reform Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhail-Wilcox, Bettye

    1982-01-01

    Summarizes the activities of the 97th Congress on taxes. Reviews 1981 enactments and 1982 proposals regarding tax cuts, tax increases, indexing of tax brackets, interest earnings, depreciation, and business incentives. Examines tax administration problems and flat-rate tax proposals and discusses the progressive income tax. (Author/RW)

  3. African Journal of Economic Review: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The African Journal of Economic Review (AJER) is a refereed, biannual Journal that publishes high quality and scholarly articles on economic issues relevant to Africa. The AJER is an applied journal with keen interest in the following areas: Public sector economics, monetary economics, international ...

  4. Aging in comparative perspective: processes and policies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cook, Ian G; Halsall, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    .... This timely volume analyzes the aging process in various countries, with special focus on the stresses placed on their economies as the numbers of elders increase with fewer young people available...

  5. Process Coordination and Policy Officer | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Such liaison aims to ensure that the operational aspects and requirements are taken into account. ... Business Process Coordination and Change Management ... Liaises with the Resources Planning and Development Officer of the Office of ...

  6. Process Coordination & Policy Officer | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Such liaison aims to ensure that the operational aspects and requirements are taken into account. ... Business Process Coordination and Change Management ... plan and coordinating the update of the Division's work plan by all managers; ...

  7. Energy policies of IEA countries: Australia 2005 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-11-16

    The report reviews Australia's energy policies and makes recommendations to the government on future policy development. The IEA commends the efficiency and security of the Australian energy market but recommends that the country will have to substantially alter future energy supply and/or demand behaviour if it wants to moderate emission levels and work within any future global climate change mitigation programme. 23 figs., 27 tabs., 3 annexes.

  8. Energy policies of IEA countries: Australia 2005 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-11-16

    The report reviews Australia's energy policies and makes recommendations to the government on future policy development. The IEA commends the efficiency and security of the Australian energy market but recommends that the country will have to substantially alter future energy supply and/or demand behaviour if it wants to moderate emission levels and work within any future global climate change mitigation programme. 23 figs., 27 tabs., 3 annexes.

  9. Ecohydrological processes and ecosystem services in the Anthropocene: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Dennis Hallema; Heidi Asbjornsen

    2017-01-01

    The framework for ecosystem services has been increasingly used in integrated watershed ecosystem management practices that involve scientists, engineers, managers, and policy makers. The objective of this review is to explore the intimate connections between ecohydrological processes and water-related ecosystem services in human-dominated ecosystems in the...

  10. Demystifying the peer-review process - workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientific writing and peer-review are integral parts of the publishing process. This workshop aims to demystify the peer-review process for early career scientists and provide insightful tips for streamlining the submission and peer review process for all researchers. Providing ...

  11. Detecting causality in policy diffusion processes

    OpenAIRE

    Grabow, Carsten; Macinko, James; Silver, Diana; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    A universal question in network science entails learning about the topology of interaction from collective dynamics. Here, we address this question by examining diffusion of laws across US states. We propose two complementary techniques to unravel determinants of this diffusion process: information-theoretic union transfer entropy and event synchronization. In order to systematically investigate their performance on law activity data, we establish a new stochastic model to generate synthetic ...

  12. Why UFI nudges will get stuck in the policy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Joshua; Howard, Brendan

    2012-01-01

    User financial incentives (UFI), in the context of behavioural public policy, have the potential to shape Canadian health policy by replacing or augmenting traditional information-based mechanisms and by imparting a viewpoint that has traditionally been foreign to the public sphere. Whether or not UFI and more traditional "nudges" should be used, they will likely be limited by traditional moral, efficacy and cost/ benefit challenges, as well as the political and bureaucratic impediments that emerge throughout the policy implementation process. These challenges will likely preclude UFI and nudges from having a transformative effect on public policy, but this new school of thought will likely gain prominence through more amorphous means as more individuals learn and adopt its central theory. We should be excited about the potential of UFI and the use of behavioural public policy, but should temper our excitement with realistic expectations about how extensively such an approach should and will be used.

  13. Energy policies of IEA countries. Sweden 1996 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This IEA report provides a comprehensive, in-depth assessment of the energy policies of Sweden, including recommendations on future policy developments. Electricity is a focal point of Sweden's energy policy. After a shift in the energy mix to favour electricity in the early 1970's, nuclear and hydro power each make up about half of the electricity supply. Two key events have occurred since then: the 1980 referendum, which calls for the phase-out of all nuclear plants by 2010; the recent restructuring and liberalization of the electricity sector with the creation of a Nordic electricity market. In this context, the report argues the case for making a decision now on the nuclear issue to clarify Sweden's electricity future. Other key issues highlighted in the report include Sweden's use of economic policy instruments such as a carbon tax to achieve energy and environment goals, and the adequacy and effectiveness of government efforts to promote biofuels and energy efficiency. This report forms part of a series of periodic in-depth reviews conducted and discussed by the IEA Member countries on a four-year cycle. Short reviews of energy policy developments in all twenty-three Member countries are published annually in Energy Policies of IEA Countries. (author). 13 figs., 9 tabs., 4 appends

  14. Energy policies of IEA Countries. The Netherlands 1996 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    As part of the IEA's on-going analysis of Member countries' energy policies, this review assess the Netherlands and offers recommendations taking account of major reforms announced by the Dutch Government in December 1995. The prominence of environmental objectives in Dutch energy policy and the widespread use of voluntary long-term agreements with industry provide constructive lessons for other countries. Targets for energy efficiency and renewability are especially ambitious. Moreover, the Dutch Government has made an important contribution to environmental policy by striving for a combination of market liberalization and a sustainable energy economy. The review recommends that market reforms be further developed, if necessary in the context of developments in European energy market policy. Gas pricing and a tendency for over-capacity to develop in the electricity sector are particular areas of discussion in the report. The review also draws attention to potentially high economic costs which may arise form energy-environment policies and affect the competitiveness of Dutch industry. (author). 18 figs., 13 tabs

  15. State health agencies and the legislative policy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Crowe, S M; Aultman, T V

    1994-01-01

    A new era of health care reform places increasing pressure on public health leaders and agencies to participate in the public policy arena. Public health professionals have long been comfortable in providing the scientific knowledge base required in policy development. What has been more recent in its evolution, however, is recognition that they must also play an active role in leading and shaping the debate over policy. A profile of effective State legislative policy "entrepreneurs" and their strategies has been developed to assist health agencies in developing such a leadership position. Based on the experiences of State legislative liaison officers, specific strategies for dealing with State legislatures have been identified and are organized into five key areas--agency organization, staff skills, communications, negotiation, and active ongoing involvement. A public health agency must be organized effectively to participate in the legislative policy process. Typically, effective agencies centralize responsibility for policy activities and promote broad and coordinated participation throughout the organization. Playing a key role in the agency's political interventions, the legislative liaison office should be staffed with persons possessing excellent interpersonal skills and a high degree of technical competence. Of central importance to effective legislative policy entrepreneurship is the ability to communicate the agency's position clearly. This includes setting forward a focused policy agenda, documenting policy issues in a meaningful manner, and reaching legislators with the proper information. Once a matter is on the legislative agenda, the agency must be prepared to negotiate and build broad support for the measure. Finally, public health agencies must be active policy players. To take advantage of new opportunities for action, the public health (policy) leader must monitor the political environment continually.By working to anticipate and formulate

  16. State policy and teen childbearing: a review of research studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltz, Martha A; Sacks, Vanessa H; Moore, Kristin A; Terzian, Mary

    2015-02-01

    Teen childbearing is affected by many individual, family, and community factors; however, another potential influence is state policy. Rigorous studies of the relationship between state policy and teen birth rates are few in number but represent a body of knowledge that can inform policy and practice. This article reviews research assessing associations between state-level policies and teen birth rates, focusing on five policy areas: access to family planning, education, sex education, public assistance, and access to abortion services. Overall, several studies have found that measures related to access to and use of family planning services and contraceptives are related to lower state-level teen birth rates. These include adolescent enrollment in clinics, minors' access to contraception, conscience laws, family planning expenditures, and Medicaid waivers. Other studies, although largely cross-sectional analyses, have concluded that policies and practices to expand or improve public education are also associated with lower teen birth rates. These include expenditures on education, teacher-to-student ratios, and graduation requirements. However, the evidence regarding the role of public assistance, abortion access, and sex education policies in reducing teen birth rates is mixed and inconclusive. These conclusions must be viewed as tentative because of the limited number of rigorous studies that examine the relationship between state policy and teen birth rates over time. Many specific policies have only been analyzed by a single study, and few findings are based on recent data. As such, more research is needed to strengthen our understanding of the role of state policies in teen birth rates. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Addressing the Challenges in Tonsillectomy Research to Inform Health Care Policy: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandavia, Rishi; Schilder, Anne G M; Dimitriadis, Panagiotis A; Mossialos, Elias

    2017-09-01

    Eighty-five percent of investment in medical research has been wasted, with lack of effect on clinical practice and policy. There is increasing effort to improve the likelihood of research being used to influence clinical practice and policy. Tonsillectomy is one of the most common otorhinolaryngologic surgical procedures, and its frequency, cost, and morbidity create a clear need for evidence-based guidelines and policy. The first systematic review on tonsillectomy was conducted 40 years ago and highlighted the lack of definitive evidence for the procedure. Since that study, the body of evidence has still not been able to sufficiently inform policy. This review provides an overview of the key challenges in research to inform tonsillectomy policy and recommendations to help bridge the evidence-policy gap. The challenges in using research to inform policy can be summarized as 4 main themes: (1) non-policy-focused evidence and lack of available evidence, (2) quality of evidence, (3) communication of research findings, and (4) coordinating time frames. Researchers and decision makers should be aware of the limitations of research designs and conflicts of interest that can undermine policy decisions. Researchers must work with decision makers and patients throughout the research process to identify areas of unmet need and political priority, align research and policy time frames, and disseminate research findings. Incentives for researchers should be reorganized to promote dissemination of findings. It is important to consider why evidence gaps in tonsillectomy research have not been addressed during the past 40 years despite considerable investment in time and resources. These findings and recommendations will help produce research that is more responsive to policy gaps and more likely to result in policy changes.

  18. Funding Us Higher Education: Policy Making Theories Reviewed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Asya

    2015-01-01

    Higher education policy and politics in the United States (US) has been an issue of studies for several decades. Since the 1960s, researchers have been attempting to understand, explain and extrapolate on the relationships between higher education funding and political institutions. This review attempts to assess recent studies concerned with US…

  19. Engineering - a key aspect of the UK nuclear policy review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindon, J.L.; Butcher, Sally

    1993-01-01

    In anticipation of the forthcoming nuclear review, a forum on issues relevant to the industry was held at the Institution of Electrical Engineers HQ in London, in association with the Institute of Energy and the Watt Committee on Energy. The forum was divided into five sections, dealing with energy policy, the environment, industry, economics and safety. (author)

  20. "Big Society" in the UK: A Policy Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    Alongside the UK Coalition Government's historic public spending cuts, the "Big Society" has become a major narrative in UK political discourse. This article reviews key features of Big Society policies against their aims of rebalancing the economy and mending "Broken Britain", with particular reference to their implications…

  1. Parental leave policies in graduate medical education: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Laura S; Lyon, Sarah; Garza, Rebecca; Butz, Daniel R; Lemelman, Benjamin; Park, Julie E

    2017-10-01

    A thorough understanding of attitudes toward and program policies for parenthood in graduate medical education (GME) is essential for establishing fair and achievable parental leave policies and fostering a culture of support for trainees during GME. A systematic review of the literature was completed. Non-cohort studies, studies completed or published outside of the United States, and studies not published in English were excluded. Studies that addressed the existence of parental leave policies in GME were identified and were the focus of this study. Twenty-eight studies addressed the topic of the existence of formal parental leave policies in GME, which was found to vary across time and ranged between 22 and 90%. Support for such policies persisted across time. Attention to formal leave policies in GME has traditionally been lacking, but may be increasing. Negative attitudes towards parenthood in GME persist. Active awareness of the challenges faced by parent-trainees combined with formal parental leave policy implementation is important in supporting parenthood in GME. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. A Review on Regulatory Enforcement Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Ji Han; Lee, Kyung Joo; Choi, Young Sung

    2017-01-01

    This paper examine the meaning and principle of enforcement through examples from other countries. Regulatory enforcement is the last stage of safety regulation and how it is exercised when one failing to meet regulatory requirements can have significant ripple effect across the industry. Thus, right philosophy and principle should be established. It is not recommended to emphasize neither deterrence approach nor behavior modification approach. This should be also taken into consideration when setting up the principle and system of regulatory enforcement. In the process of Vienna Declaration, Europe and the U.S showed the fundamental differences in their approaches to safety regulation. Considering this, it is required to remain cautious at all times on what to be improved in the aspect of internal consistency within our system and also in the aspect of procedure.

  3. Environmental policy without costs? A review of the Porter hypothesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braennlund, Runar; Lundgren, Tommy. e-mail: runar.brannlund@econ.umu.se

    2009-03-15

    This paper reviews the theoretical and empirical literature connected to the so called Porter Hypothesis. That is, to review the literature connected to the discussion about the relation between environmental policy and competitiveness. According to the conventional wisdom environmental policy, aiming for improving the environment through for example emission reductions, do imply costs since scarce resources must be diverted from somewhere else. However, this conventional wisdom has been challenged and questioned recently through what has been denoted the 'Porter hypothesis'. Those in the forefront of the Porter hypothesis challenge the conventional wisdom basically on the ground that resources are used inefficiently in the absence of the right kind of environmental regulations, and that the conventional neo-classical view is too static to take inefficiencies into account. The conclusions that can be made from this review is (1) that the theoretical literature can identify the circumstances and mechanisms that must exist for a Porter effect to occur, (2) that these circumstances are rather non-general, hence rejecting the Porter hypothesis in general, (3) that the empirical literature give no general support for the Porter hypothesis. Furthermore, a closer look at the 'Swedish case' reveals no support for the Porter hypothesis in spite of the fact that Swedish environmental policy the last 15-20 years seems to be in line the prerequisites stated by the Porter hypothesis concerning environmental policy

  4. Impact of policy game on insight and attitude to inter sectoral policy processes - EU country cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lau, C.; Glümer, Charlotte; Spitters, Hilde

    of the collaboration process in NL (100%). The fraction of participants who enhanced their insight to leadership aspects of their network varied across aspects of leadership and across countries, from 14% in NL to 86% in RO. The fraction of participants being more positive towards use of knowledge varied across...... collaboration and use of knowledge. Differences between countries may be a result of diversity in potential for change in game participant groups and game processes. Key message: The policy game encountered changes at the domains ‘organization network’, ‘collaboration’, ‘leadership’ and ‘use of knowledge...... change insight and attitude towards inter sectoral policy processes, such as the organization network, collaboration, and use of knowledge in HEPA policy making in three European countries. Methods The Netherlands (NL), Denmark (DK) and Romania (RO), partners in the REPOPA program, have carried out...

  5. Systematic reviews addressing identified health policy priorities in Eastern Mediterranean countries: a situational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Akl, Elie A; Karroum, Lama Bou; Kdouh, Ola; Akik, Chaza; Fadlallah, Racha; Hammoud, Rawan

    2014-08-20

    Systematic reviews can offer policymakers and stakeholders concise, transparent, and relevant evidence pertaining to pressing policy priorities to help inform the decision-making process. The production and the use of systematic reviews are specifically limited in the Eastern Mediterranean region. The extent to which published systematic reviews address policy priorities in the region is still unknown. This situational analysis exercise aims at assessing the extent to which published systematic reviews address policy priorities identified by policymakers and stakeholders in Eastern Mediterranean region countries. It also provides an overview about the state of systematic review production in the region and identifies knowledge gaps. We conducted a systematic search of the Health System Evidence database to identify published systematic reviews on policy-relevant priorities pertaining to the following themes: human resources for health, health financing, the role of the non-state sector, and access to medicine. Priorities were identified from two priority-setting exercises conducted in the region. We described the distribution of these systematic reviews across themes, sub-themes, authors' affiliations, and countries where included primary studies were conducted. Out of the 1,045 systematic reviews identified in Health System Evidence on selected themes, a total of 200 systematic reviews (19.1%) addressed the priorities from the Eastern Mediterranean region. The theme with the largest number of systematic reviews included was human resources for health (115) followed by health financing (33), access to medicine (27), and role of the non-state sector (25). Authors based in the region produced only three systematic reviews addressing regional priorities (1.5%). Furthermore, no systematic review focused on the Eastern Mediterranean region. Primary studies from the region had limited contribution to systematic reviews; 17 systematic reviews (8.5%) included primary

  6. Systematic reviews addressing identified health policy priorities in Eastern Mediterranean countries: a situational analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Systematic reviews can offer policymakers and stakeholders concise, transparent, and relevant evidence pertaining to pressing policy priorities to help inform the decision-making process. The production and the use of systematic reviews are specifically limited in the Eastern Mediterranean region. The extent to which published systematic reviews address policy priorities in the region is still unknown. This situational analysis exercise aims at assessing the extent to which published systematic reviews address policy priorities identified by policymakers and stakeholders in Eastern Mediterranean region countries. It also provides an overview about the state of systematic review production in the region and identifies knowledge gaps. Methods We conducted a systematic search of the Health System Evidence database to identify published systematic reviews on policy-relevant priorities pertaining to the following themes: human resources for health, health financing, the role of the non-state sector, and access to medicine. Priorities were identified from two priority-setting exercises conducted in the region. We described the distribution of these systematic reviews across themes, sub-themes, authors’ affiliations, and countries where included primary studies were conducted. Results Out of the 1,045 systematic reviews identified in Health System Evidence on selected themes, a total of 200 systematic reviews (19.1%) addressed the priorities from the Eastern Mediterranean region. The theme with the largest number of systematic reviews included was human resources for health (115) followed by health financing (33), access to medicine (27), and role of the non-state sector (25). Authors based in the region produced only three systematic reviews addressing regional priorities (1.5%). Furthermore, no systematic review focused on the Eastern Mediterranean region. Primary studies from the region had limited contribution to systematic reviews; 17 systematic reviews

  7. Challenges and opportunities for policy decisions to address health equity in developing health systems: case study of the policy processes in the Indian state of Orissa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopalan Saji S

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Achieving health equity is a pertinent need of the developing health systems. Though policy process is crucial for planning and attaining health equity, the existing evidences on policy processes are scanty in this regard. This article explores the magnitude, determinants, challenges and prospects of 'health equity approach' in various health policy processes in the Indian State of Orissa - a setting comparable with many other developing health systems. Methods A case-study involving 'Walt-Gilson Policy Triangle' employed key-informant interviews and documentary reviews. Key informants (n = 34 were selected from the departments of Health and Family Welfare, Rural Development, and Women and Child Welfare, and civil societies. The documentary reviews involved various published and unpublished reports, policy pronouncements and articles on health equity in Orissa and similar settings. Results The 'health policy agenda' of Orissa was centered on 'health equity' envisaging affordable and equitable healthcare to all, integrated with public health interventions. However, the subsequent stages of policy process such as 'development, implementation and evaluation' experienced leakage in the equity approach. The impediment for a comprehensive approach towards health equity was the nexus among the national and state health priorities; role, agenda and capacity of actors involved; and existing constraints of the healthcare delivery system. Conclusion The health equity approach of policy processes was incomprehensive, often inadequately coordinated, and largely ignored the right blend of socio-medical determinants. A multi-sectoral, unified and integrated approach is required with technical, financial and managerial resources from different actors for a comprehensive 'health equity approach'. If carefully geared, the ongoing health sector reforms centered on sector-wide approaches, decentralization, communitization and involvement of

  8. Carbon Taxes. A Review of Experience and Policy Design Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumner, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Hillary [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2009-12-01

    State and local governments in the United States are evaluating a wide range of policies to reduce carbon emissions, including, in some instances, carbon taxes, which have existed internationally for nearly 20 years. This report reviews existing carbon tax policies both internationally and in the United States. It also analyzes carbon policy design and effectiveness. Design considerations include which sectors to tax, where to set the tax rate, how to use tax revenues, what the impact will be on consumers, and how to ensure emissions reduction goals are achieved. Emission reductions that are due to carbon taxes can be difficult to measure, though some jurisdictions have quantified reductions in overall emissions and other jurisdictions have examined impacts that are due to programs funded by carbon tax revenues.

  9. Carbon Taxes: A Review of Experience and Policy Design Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumner, J.; Bird, L.; Smith, H.

    2009-12-01

    State and local governments in the United States are evaluating a wide range of policies to reduce carbon emissions, including, in some instances, carbon taxes, which have existed internationally for nearly 20 years. This report reviews existing carbon tax policies both internationally and in the United States. It also analyzes carbon policy design and effectiveness. Design considerations include which sectors to tax, where to set the tax rate, how to use tax revenues, what the impact will be on consumers, and how to ensure emissions reduction goals are achieved. Emission reductions that are due to carbon taxes can be difficult to measure, though some jurisdictions have quantified reductions in overall emissions and other jurisdictions have examined impacts that are due to programs funded by carbon tax revenues.

  10. Beyond the lab: observations on the process by which science successfully informs management and policy decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, S.

    2012-12-01

    Scientific findings inform management decisions and policy products through various ways, these include: synthesis reports, white papers, in-person and web-based seminars (webinars), communication from specialized staff, and seminal peer-reviewed journal articles. Scientists are often told that if they want their science to inform management decisions and policy products that they must: clearly and simply articulate discreet pieces of scientific information and avoid attaching advocacy messages to the science; however, solely relying on these tenants does not ensure that scientific products will infuse the realms of management and policy. The process by which science successfully informs management decisions and policy products rarely begins at the time the results come out of the lab, but rather, before the research is carried out. Having an understanding of the political climate, management needs, agency research agendas, and funding limitations, as well as developing a working relationship with the intended managers and policy makers are key elements to developing the kind of science results and products that often make an impact in the management and policy world. In my presentation I will provide case-studies from California (USA) to highlight the type of coastal, ocean and climate science that has been successful in informing management decisions and policy documents, as well as provide a state-level agency perspective on the process by which this occurs.

  11. Insights from the panel review process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Searborn, B.

    1998-01-01

    The environmental review process for nuclear waste management and disposal was unusual in that the Panel was asked to examine a concept rather than a specific project at a specific site. The Panel was charged with commenting on the safety and acceptability of the AECL concept, examining criteria for determining the safety and acceptability of any concept for managing nuclear fuel waste, and examining future steps which should be taken. In short, it was asked to provide policy advice to governments. The Panel concluded that safety is a key part, but only one part, of acceptability, and that safety must be viewed from both a technical and a social perspective. It judged that safety of the AECL concept had been adequately demonstrated from a technical perspective, but not from a social perspective. It also concluded that the AECL concept does not have the required level of public acceptability to be adopted as Canada's approach for managing nuclear fuel wastes. The paper examines in some detail the various aspects of the public concerns surrounding the nuclear cycle in general, and the safety of the proposals put forward by AECL for nuclear fuel waste management in particular. It notes the differences between those who look at safety from a technical perspective, and those who look at safety from a social perspective. And it lists the concerns related to acceptability in addition to the key factor of safety. After outlining the Panel's recommendations to governments on future steps to be taken, the paper discusses the extent to which the recommendations respond to the public's concerns. It stresses the importance of Aboriginal participation; of the creation of a new agency to deal with the full range of activities, technical and social, related to long-term management; of the public and decision-makers having more than one viable option to choose from; and of the essentiality of an inter-active process of public participation at all stages of decision-making. Finally

  12. Energy policies of IEA countries 2003. 2003 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This volume contains an analysis of developments in energy policies in the Member countries of the International Energy Agency. It features an overview of major trends in the energy markets, notably the renewed interest in energy security on the part of policy-makers. The study describes how, during the period before and during the war in Iraq, the IEA successfully worked to secure oil supply. 2003 was also a year when growing gas demand and rising import dependency in most IEA Member countries obliged energy policy makers to look at the longer term issue of security of gas supply. In addition to these external developments, an internal dimension of energy security arose in the context of electricity and gas market reform. The book also describes the efforts by countries having ratified the Kyoto Protocol to implement the agreements and the trend of energy R and D policies, as well as developments in energy security and energy market reform in major non-OECD countries. It includes: summaries of the in-depth reviews of Austria, Hungary, Italy, Ireland, Japan and Switzerland conducted from October 2002 to June 2003. The full reviews are published separately

  13. Energy policies of IEA countries: Greece 2006 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The report provides an in-depth assessment of the energy policies of Greece and makes recommendations on future policy. Lignite, the main domestic fossil fuel resource of Greece, will continue to play a major role in the country's fuel mix in the future. The government and the regulator should consider introducing more advanced generation technology through retrofits or into new lignite power stations. It may be an option to construct a power station using lignite from unopened deposits, for the exploitation of which a new bidding procedure is currently open. Since the previous review in 2002, Greece has also made significant progress in setting the course for reforming its electricity and gas markets. Energy diversification has improved, with natural gas becoming increasingly important. Significant challenges, however, remain. The market power of the incumbent energy suppliers continues to restrict competition. Unless this issue is addressed, a fully competitive energy market is inconceivable. Of particular concern are the arrangements for ownership of the electricity and gas transmission systems. The review suggests various options to overcome these obstacles. Greece is getting close to missing its target set under the Kyoto Protocol and the government is urged to closely monitor the situation. The supply and demand situation is addressed.. Recommendations are made on how to reduce the country's high oil dependence and advice offered to policy makers on steps to develop a long-term energy efficiency policy with measurable targets that tackle the demand side of the Greek energy sector.

  14. Energy policies of IEA countries: Denmark 2006 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-12-18

    Denmark has had a very pro-active energy policy in both energy efficiency and renewable energy while at the same time opening its gas and power markets to competition. The share of renewable energy has increased dramatically, going from 3% of all electricity generation in 1990 to 25% in 2004. At the same time, the government's renewable support policies up to the early 2000s came with a high cost for consumers and taxpayers. However, the current government is very attentive to cost-effectiveness and inclined to market-based approaches. Greater use of cost-benefit analysis, including for offshore wind plants, is crucial in shaping future policies. The review indicates that energy efficiency programmes have historically been more cost-effective than renewable energy programmes in lowering emissions and enhancing energy security. Denmark's energy intensity is 35% below the IEA average, due in substantial part to the government's efforts to improve efficiency. This policy provides an excellent example for other countries, although the review notes that more should be done for transport efficiency.

  15. A review of UK housing policy: ideology and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, J

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to review UK public health policy, with a specific reference to housing as a key health determinant, since its inception in the Victorian era to contemporary times. This paper reviews the role of social and private housing policy in the development of the UK public health movement, tracing its initial medical routes through to the current socio-economic model of public health. The paper establishes five distinct ideologically and philosophically driven eras, placing public health and housing within liberal (Victorian era), state interventionist (post World War 1; post World War 2), neoliberal (post 1979) and "Third Way" (post 1997) models, showing the political perspective of policy interventions and overviewing their impact on public health. The paper particularly focuses on the contemporary model of public health since the Acheson Report, and how its recommendations have found their way into policy, also the impact on housing practice. Public health is closely related to political ideology, whether driven by the State, individual or partnership arrangements. The current political system, the Third Way, seeks to promote a sustainable "social contract" between citizens and the State, public, private and voluntary organizations in delivering community-based change in areas where health inequalities can be most progressively and successfully addressed.

  16. Using media to impact health policy-making: an integrative systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou-Karroum, Lama; El-Jardali, Fadi; Hemadi, Nour; Faraj, Yasmine; Ojha, Utkarsh; Shahrour, Maher; Darzi, Andrea; Ali, Maha; Doumit, Carine; Langlois, Etienne V; Melki, Jad; AbouHaidar, Gladys Honein; Akl, Elie A

    2017-04-18

    Media interventions can potentially play a major role in influencing health policies. This integrative systematic review aimed to assess the effects of planned media interventions-including social media-on the health policy-making process. Eligible study designs included randomized and non-randomized designs, economic studies, process evaluation studies, stakeholder analyses, qualitative methods, and case studies. We electronically searched Medline, EMBASE, Communication and Mass Media Complete, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the WHO Global Health Library. We followed standard systematic review methodology for study selection, data abstraction, and risk of bias assessment. Twenty-one studies met our eligibility criteria: 10 evaluation studies using either quantitative (n = 7) or qualitative (n = 3) designs and 11 case studies. None of the evaluation studies were on social media. The findings of the evaluation studies suggest that media interventions may have a positive impact when used as accountability tools leading to prioritizing and initiating policy discussions, as tools to increase policymakers' awareness, as tools to influence policy formulation, as awareness tools leading to policy adoption, and as awareness tools to improve compliance with laws and regulations. In one study, media-generated attention had a negative effect on policy advocacy as it mobilized opponents who defeated the passage of the bills that the media intervention advocated for. We judged the confidence in the available evidence as limited due to the risk of bias in the included studies and the indirectness of the evidence. There is currently a lack of reliable evidence to guide decisions on the use of media interventions to influence health policy-making. Additional and better-designed, conducted, and reported primary research is needed to better understand the effects of media interventions, particularly social media, on health policy-making processes, and

  17. Negative ion formation processes: A general review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.

    1990-01-01

    The principal negative ion formation processes will be briefly reviewed. Primary emphasis will be placed on the more efficient and universal processes of charge transfer and secondary ion formation through non-thermodynamic surface ionization. 86 refs., 20 figs

  18. Internal quality assurance reviews: challenges and processes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Internal quality assurance reviews: challenges and processes – Walter Sisulu University\\'s Business, Management Sciences and Law Faculty. ... This article examines some of the challenges and processes followed by six of the departments ...

  19. Terrorism-Related Loss of Citizenship - A Policy Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Renunciation of Citizenship .” Densho Digital Repository, accessed September 10, 2016, http://ddr.densho.org/browse/topics/87/. 24 World War II...www.inth.ugent.be/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/Impact-UDHR.pdf. 119 Densho Digital Repository. “Renunciation of Citizenship .” Accessed September 10, 2016...LOSS OF CITIZENSHIP — A POLICY REVIEW by James H. Martin September 2016 Thesis Advisor: Carolyn Halladay Second Reader: Christopher

  20. Understanding the Development of Minimum Unit Pricing of Alcohol in Scotland: A Qualitative Study of the Policy Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Hilton, Shona; Bonell, Chris; Bond, Lyndal

    2014-01-01

    Background Minimum unit pricing of alcohol is a novel public health policy with the potential to improve population health and reduce health inequalities. Theories of the policy process may help to understand the development of policy innovation and in turn identify lessons for future public health research and practice. This study aims to explain minimum unit pricing’s development by taking a ‘multiple-lenses’ approach to understanding the policy process. In particular, we apply three perspectives of the policy process (Kingdon’s multiple streams, Punctuated-Equilibrium Theory, Multi-Level Governance) to understand how and why minimum unit pricing has developed in Scotland and describe implications for efforts to develop evidence-informed policymaking. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with policy actors (politicians, civil servants, academics, advocates, industry representatives) involved in the development of MUP (n = 36). Interviewees were asked about the policy process and the role of evidence in policy development. Data from two other sources (a review of policy documents and an analysis of evidence submission documents to the Scottish Parliament) were used for triangulation. Findings The three perspectives provide complementary understandings of the policy process. Evidence has played an important role in presenting the policy issue of alcohol as a problem requiring action. Scotland-specific data and a change in the policy ‘image’ to a population-based problem contributed to making alcohol-related harms a priority for action. The limited powers of Scottish Government help explain the type of price intervention pursued while distinct aspects of the Scottish political climate favoured the pursuit of price-based interventions. Conclusions Evidence has played a crucial but complex role in the development of an innovative policy. Utilising different political science theories helps explain different aspects of the policy process

  1. Understanding the development of minimum unit pricing of alcohol in Scotland: a qualitative study of the policy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Hilton, Shona; Bonell, Chris; Bond, Lyndal

    2014-01-01

    Minimum unit pricing of alcohol is a novel public health policy with the potential to improve population health and reduce health inequalities. Theories of the policy process may help to understand the development of policy innovation and in turn identify lessons for future public health research and practice. This study aims to explain minimum unit pricing's development by taking a 'multiple-lenses' approach to understanding the policy process. In particular, we apply three perspectives of the policy process (Kingdon's multiple streams, Punctuated-Equilibrium Theory, Multi-Level Governance) to understand how and why minimum unit pricing has developed in Scotland and describe implications for efforts to develop evidence-informed policymaking. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with policy actors (politicians, civil servants, academics, advocates, industry representatives) involved in the development of MUP (n = 36). Interviewees were asked about the policy process and the role of evidence in policy development. Data from two other sources (a review of policy documents and an analysis of evidence submission documents to the Scottish Parliament) were used for triangulation. The three perspectives provide complementary understandings of the policy process. Evidence has played an important role in presenting the policy issue of alcohol as a problem requiring action. Scotland-specific data and a change in the policy 'image' to a population-based problem contributed to making alcohol-related harms a priority for action. The limited powers of Scottish Government help explain the type of price intervention pursued while distinct aspects of the Scottish political climate favoured the pursuit of price-based interventions. Evidence has played a crucial but complex role in the development of an innovative policy. Utilising different political science theories helps explain different aspects of the policy process, with Multi-Level Governance particularly useful for

  2. Interactive policy processes: a challenge for street-level bureaucrats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Annika; Damgaard, Bodil

    2018-01-01

    public managers are expected to work closely and directly with affected stakeholders in order to solve cross-cutting ‘wicked problems’. More interactive and participative collaborative policy processes increasingly require public managers to move from back-office work to front-office work, in effect...... in order to secure transparent processes that keep the rule of law and that support well-functioning local communities – or in more broad terms: skills needed to secure democracy and economic efficiency....

  3. Mediating Policy-Relevant Evidence at Speed: Are Systematic Reviews of Systematic Reviews a Useful Approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caird, Jenny; Sutcliffe, Katy; Kwan, Irene; Dickson, Kelly; Thomas, James

    2015-01-01

    When swift, accurate appraisal of evidence is required to inform policy concerning broad research questions, and budgetary constraints limit the employment of large research teams, researchers face a significant challenge which is sometimes met by reviewing existing systematic reviews. In this paper we highlight the challenges inherent in the…

  4. Developmental State Policy, Educational Development, and Economic Development: Policy Processes in South Korea (1961-1979)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Su

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores two inter-connected issues--the state's role in educational development and educational contribution to economic development--in the policy processes entailed by the South Korean state's pursuit of economic development during the Park Chung Hi era, 1961-1979. It disputes the statist view that South Korea's economic development…

  5. The comparative evaluation of expanded national immunization policies in Korea using an analytic hierarchy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Taeksoo; Kim, Chun-Bae; Ahn, Yang-Heui; Kim, Hyo-Youl; Cha, Byung Ho; Uh, Young; Lee, Joo-Heon; Hyun, Sook-Jung; Lee, Dong-Han; Go, Un-Yeong

    2009-01-29

    The purpose of this paper is to propose new evaluation criteria and an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) model to assess the expanded national immunization programs (ENIPs) and to evaluate two alternative health care policies. One of the alternative policies is that private clinics and hospitals would offer free vaccination services to children and the other of them is that public health centers would offer these free vaccination services. Our model to evaluate the ENIPs was developed using brainstorming, Delphi techniques, and the AHP model. We first used the brainstorming and Delphi techniques, as well as literature reviews, to determine 25 criteria with which to evaluate the national immunization policy; we then proposed a hierarchical structure of the AHP model to assess ENIPs. By applying the proposed AHP model to the assessment of ENIPs for Korean immunization policies, we show that free vaccination services should be provided by private clinics and hospitals rather than public health centers.

  6. 10 CFR 26.413 - Review process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Review process. 26.413 Section 26.413 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS FFD Program for Construction § 26.413 Review process. Licensees and other entities who implement an FFD program under this subpart shall establish and implement...

  7. A review of human milk banking and public health policy in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lording, Roslyn J

    2006-11-01

    Breastmilk is the perfect food for human infants. It is markedly different from, and uniquely superior to, artificial baby milk. Human milk banks are services which collect, screen, process and distribute donated breastmilk. Recipients are generally ill and premature infants whose mothers are unable to breastfeed them. This review of human milk banking in Australian public health policy draws from local and international research. This history of human milk banking and contemporary Australian policies, pertaining to breastfeeding and milk banking, are examined. Human milk banking is noted to be largely invisible from national breastfeeding policies. The barriers to establishing human milk banks in the Australian context are explored. Strategies which have helped generate support for human milk banking are discussed. International research has demonstrated the cost-effectiveness of banked donor milk. It is time for human milk banking to become an integral component of Australian breastfeeding policies, viewed as one of several initiatives to protect and support breastfeeding.

  8. Purex process solvent: literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geier, R.G.

    1979-10-01

    This document summarizes the data on Purex process solvent presently published in a variety of sources. Extracts from these various sources are presented herein and contain the work done, the salient results obtained, and the original, unaltered conclusions of the author of each paper. Three major areas are addressed: solvent stability, solvent quality testing, and solvent treatment processes. 34 references, 44 tables.

  9. Purex process solvent: literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geier, R.G.

    1979-10-01

    This document summarizes the data on Purex process solvent presently published in a variety of sources. Extracts from these various sources are presented herein and contain the work done, the salient results obtained, and the original, unaltered conclusions of the author of each paper. Three major areas are addressed: solvent stability, solvent quality testing, and solvent treatment processes. 34 references, 44 tables

  10. Energy policies of IEA countries: United States - 2007 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-02-15

    The United States is the largest economy and energy user in the world. Significant developments have taken place in its energy policy since the last IEA review in 2002. Most important is the Energy Policy Act 2005 - a comprehensive energy legislation which has set new directions, including opening the way for a nuclear renaissance. Two closely connected challenges shape all debates on the nation's energy policy path: how to increase security by reducing the dependence on imported supplies; and how to address growing emissions of greenhouse gases. The United States national strategy is to find solutions largely through technology. It is a world leader in R&D and is driving development of carbon capture and storage and second-generation biofuels. But thus far, no federal government policy is in place to establish as a target an absolute reduction of CO2 emissions. The resulting uncertainty risks holding back investments into new technologies and may delay projects that are urgently required. The transport sector will be a key to a sustainable success. In the short to medium term, reduced fuel demand through higher vehicle efficiency will increase security and reduce CO2 emissions. Yet the policy for the revision of CAFE (the corporate average fuel economy) standards will leave consumers with vehicles that fall short of the technological possibilities. This review takes an in-depth look at these issues and provides recommendations on how the United States can do more to answer the challenges of both improving its security of energy supply and lowering its emissions intensity, demonstrating the significant improvements that can already be realised through existing technologies.

  11. Energy policies of IEA countries: United States - 2007 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-02-15

    The United States is the largest economy and energy user in the world. Significant developments have taken place in its energy policy since the last IEA review in 2002. Most important is the Energy Policy Act 2005 - a comprehensive energy legislation which has set new directions, including opening the way for a nuclear renaissance. Two closely connected challenges shape all debates on the nation's energy policy path: how to increase security by reducing the dependence on imported supplies; and how to address growing emissions of greenhouse gases. The United States national strategy is to find solutions largely through technology. It is a world leader in R&D and is driving development of carbon capture and storage and second-generation biofuels. But thus far, no federal government policy is in place to establish as a target an absolute reduction of CO2 emissions. The resulting uncertainty risks holding back investments into new technologies and may delay projects that are urgently required. The transport sector will be a key to a sustainable success. In the short to medium term, reduced fuel demand through higher vehicle efficiency will increase security and reduce CO2 emissions. Yet the policy for the revision of CAFE (the corporate average fuel economy) standards will leave consumers with vehicles that fall short of the technological possibilities. This review takes an in-depth look at these issues and provides recommendations on how the United States can do more to answer the challenges of both improving its security of energy supply and lowering its emissions intensity, demonstrating the significant improvements that can already be realised through existing technologies.

  12. The Hinkley Point decision: An analysis of the policy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    In 2006, the British government launched a policy to build nuclear power reactors based on a claim that the power produced would be competitive with fossil fuel and would require no public subsidy. A decade later, it is not clear how many, if any, orders will be placed and the claims on costs and subsidies have proved false. Despite this failure to deliver, the policy is still being pursued with undiminished determination. The finance model that is now proposed is seen as a model other European countries can follow so the success or otherwise of the British nuclear programme will have implications outside the UK. This paper contends that the checks and balances that should weed out misguided policies, have failed. It argues that the most serious failure is with the civil service and its inability to provide politicians with high quality advice – truth to power. It concludes that the failure is likely to be due to the unwillingness of politicians to listen to opinions that conflict with their beliefs. Other weaknesses include the lack of energy expertise in the media, the unwillingness of the public to engage in the policy process and the impotence of Parliamentary Committees. - Highlights: •Britain's nuclear power policy is failing due to high costs and problems of finance. •This has implications for European countries who want to use the same financing model. •The continued pursuit of a failing policy is due to poor advice from civil servants. •Lack of expertise in the media and lack of public engagement have contributed. •Parliamentary processes have not provided proper critical scrutiny.

  13. Crisis, neoliberal health policy, and political processes in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurell, A C

    1991-01-01

    The Mexican case represents an orthodox neoliberal health policy in the context of the structural adjustment adopted by the Mexican government in 1983. The social costs of this strategy are very high, including an increase in unemployment, wage depression, regressive redistribution of wealth, and profound changes in social policies. These transformations are reflected in the health sector, where the four main axes of neoliberal policy--expenditure restrictions, targeting, decentralization, and privatization--have been implemented. This represents a change in social policy from a model based on citizens' social rights and the state's obligation to guarantee them, to a model characterized by selective public charity. This strategy has been imposed on society as a result of the Mexican corporative political regime based on a state party system. Since 1985, however, there has been a growing process of independent organization of civil society. This led in the presidential elections of 1988 to the defeat of the candidate of the governing party by the candidate of a popular-democratic opposition front. Although the government party imposed its candidate through electoral fraud, social mobilization against neoliberal policies continues in the midst of an important political crisis that can only be resolved by profound democratization of Mexican society.

  14. How do we define the policy impact of public health research? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alla, Kristel; Hall, Wayne D; Whiteford, Harvey A; Head, Brian W; Meurk, Carla S

    2017-10-02

    In order to understand and measure the policy impact of research we need a definition of research impact that is suited to the task. This article systematically reviewed both peer-reviewed and grey literature for definitions of research impact to develop a definition of research impact that can be used to investigate how public health research influences policy. Keyword searches of the electronic databases Web of Science, ProQuest, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, Informit, PsycINFO, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Google Scholar were conducted between August 2015 and April 2016. Keywords included 'definition' and 'policy' and 'research impact' or 'research evidence'. The search terms 'health', public health' or 'mental health' and 'knowledge transfer' or 'research translation' were used to focus the search on relevant health discipline approaches. Studies included in the review described processes, theories or frameworks associated with public health, health services or mental health policy. We identified 108 definitions in 83 publications. The key findings were that literature on research impact is growing, but only 23% of peer-reviewed publications on the topic explicitly defined the term and that the majority (76%) of definitions were derived from research organisations and funding institutions. We identified four main types of definition, namely (1) definitions that conceptualise research impacts in terms of positive changes or effects that evidence can bring about when transferred into policies (example Research Excellence Framework definition), (2) definitions that interpret research impacts as measurable outcomes (Research Councils UK), and (3) bibliometric and (4) use-based definitions. We identified four constructs underpinning these definitions that related to concepts of contribution, change, avenues and levels of impact. The dominance of bureaucratic definitions, the tendency to discuss but not define the concept of research impact, and the

  15. US policies to enhance older driver safety: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Elizabeth; Barton, Kelli N; Coyle, Caitlin; Lee, Chae Man

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature related to state policies concerning older drivers and to draw policy conclusions about which policies appear to work to reduce older driver crashes and to identify areas needed for further research. Specific policies examined in this paper concern medical reporting and medical review, license renewal processes, and driver testing. A study was included in the systematic review if it met the following criteria: published in English between 1991and January 2013; included data on human subjects aged 65 and older residing in the United States; included information on at least one policy related to older drivers; and had a transportation-related outcome variable (e.g., crash, fatality, renewal). A total of 29 studies met inclusion criteria. Twenty-two studies investigated license renewal and seven articles examined medical reporting. In-person license renewal requirements were associated with reduced risk for fatal crashes. Restricted licenses were associated with reduced number of miles driven per week. More intensive renewal requirements and being the subject of a medical report to the licensing authority was associated with delicensure. Given the importance of driving to mobility, quality of life, and public safety, more research is needed.

  16. Energy policies of IEA countries: Germany 2007 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The IEA report takes an in-depth look at the energy challenges facing Germany, and through comparisons with good examples in other IEA countries, provides critiques and recommendations for policy improvements. The review guides the country towards a sustainable energy future. Few countries can have as great an impact on energy policy in Europe as Germany. Its large size and strategic location make it a critical component of the region's energy markets - as a result, sound energy policies and strong energy market design are a necessity. In these respects, Germany continues to make notable progress. The country has continued to reform its electricity and natural gas markets, set a timetable to phase out coal subsidies, is meeting key climate and environmental targets and is bringing energy, efficiency and environment to the top of the world agenda with its presidencies of both the G8 and European Union. The International Energy Agency (IEA) praises these efforts. Nevertheless, work remains to be done to further improve German energy policies and markets. The planned phase-out of nuclear power over the coming years would have major impacts on the country's energy mix, raising concerns about energy security, economic efficiency and environmental sustainability for the country and for Europe as a whole. Furthermore, though progress has been made, more needs to be done to set a truly level playing field for competition to develop in gas and electricity markets, which means effective unbundling of transport activities and a strongly empowered regulatory authority. Finally, the country's environmental policies, though helping meet ambitious goals, are expensive - and sometimes various policies work at cross-purposes. 22 figs., 27 tabs., 4 apps.

  17. Exploring health systems research and its influence on policy processes in low income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Shamsuzzoha B

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interface between research and policymaking in low-income countries is highly complex. The ability of health systems research to influence policy processes in such settings face numerous challenges. Successful analysis of the research-policy interface in these settings requires understanding of contextual factors as well as key influences on the interface. Future Health Systems (FHS: Innovations for Equity is a consortium conducting research in six countries in Asia and Africa. One of the three cross-country research themes of the consortium is analysis of the relationship between research (evidence and policy making, especially their impact on the poor; insights gained in the initial conceptual phase of FHS activities can inform the global knowledge pool on this subject. Discussion This paper provides a review of the research-policy interface in low-income countries and proposes a conceptual framework, followed by directions for empirical approaches. First, four developmental perspectives are considered: social institutional factors; virtual versus grassroots realities; science-society relationships; and construction of social arrangements. Building on these developmental perspectives three research-policy interface entry points are identified: 1. Recognizing policy as complex processes; 2. Engaging key stakeholders: decision-makers, providers, scientists, and communities; and 3. Enhancing accountability. A conceptual framework with three entry points to the research-policy interface – policy processes; stakeholder interests, values, and power; and accountability – within a context provided by four developmental perspectives is proposed. Potential empirical approaches to the research-policy interface are then reviewed. Finally, the value of such innovative empirical analysis is considered. Conclusion The purpose of this paper is to provide the background, conceptual framework, and key research directions for

  18. Energy policies of IEA countries: Luxembourg -- 2008 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-03-20

    Luxembourg has reformed its energy policies across all sectors since the last IEA in-depth review in 2004. The country has fully liberalised its electricity and natural gas markets, and is actively participating in the development of the evolving Central West European regional electricity system. Luxembourg has also prepared a broad action plan on energy efficiency, improved the support system for renewable energy sources and revised taxes to mitigate climate change. The country's energy policy in the coming decade will be shaped by the EU 2020 targets that call for substantial reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, and strong increases in renewable energy and energy efficiency. These targets will be hard to meet, given that roughly half of energy-related CO2 emissions come from transport fuel use by foreign truckers and motorists, and that Luxembourg's potential for producing much more renewable energy is limited. Luxembourg is heavily dependent on oil. Although oil sources are well diversified by country of origin, more than 85% of oil stocks are held in neighbouring countries and often based on short-term leasing contracts. This leaves the country vulnerable to potential oil supply disruptions. Luxembourg should swiftly implement a plan to improve the security of oil supply. This review analyses the energy challenges facing Luxembourg and provides critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide the country towards achieving its sustainability targets.

  19. The control of environmental tobacco smoke: a policy review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNabola, Aonghus

    2009-02-01

    According to World Health Organisation figures, 30% of all cancer deaths, 20% of all coronary heart diseases and strokes and 80% of all chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are caused by cigarette smoking. Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure has also been shown to be associated with disease and premature death in non-smokers. In response to this environmental health issue, several countries have brought about a smoking ban policy in public places and in the workplace. Countries such as the U.S., France, Italy, Ireland, Malta, the Netherlands, Sweden, Scotland, Spain, and England have all introduced policies aimed at reducing the population exposure to ETS. Several investigations have monitored the effectiveness of these smoking ban policies in terms of ETS concentrations, human health and smoking prevalence, while others have also investigated a number of alternatives to smoking ban policy measures. This paper reviews the state of the art in research, carried out in the field of ETS, smoking bans and Tobacco Control to date and highlights the need for future research in the area.

  20. Energy policies of IEA countries: New Zealand 2006 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-09-23

    New Zealand faces some serious energy sector challenges, requiring special attention to security of supply issues, both in oil and gas domains. Natural gas production from the major Maui field is rapidly declining. New Zealand's greenhouse gas emissions are rising: the most recent estimates put them at 21% above their Kyoto target over the first commitment period. These challenges are not insurmountable. New Zealand's energy policy is characterised by a commitment to free and open markets complimented by light-handed regulation. The IEA commends this approach and encourages continued policy improvements and enhancements. The energy policy review of New Zealand offers a comprehensive analysis of the country's energy sector, evaluating its strengths and weaknesses across the fuel mix, as well as looking at broader issues such as energy efficiency, environmental performance and technology research and development. It also includes policy critiques and recommendations, drawing on experience across IEA member countries. 33 figs., 21 tabs., 3 annexes.

  1. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Austria - 2014 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-03-01

    Austria's energy policy rests on three pillars – security of supply, energy efficiency and renewable energy sources. The country's decarbonisation drive has strengthened as the economy and renewable energy use have continued to grow, while fossil fuel use has decreased. Notably, Austria has more than tripled the public funding for energy research, development and demonstration since 2007. Greenhouse gas emissions from energy use, which peaked in 2005, still need to be reduced further, and the transport sector offers prime opportunities for this. In the context of EU negotiations on an energy and climate policy framework to 2030, Austria should develop a strategy that also integrates security of supply and internal market dimensions. Closer cross-border integration of both electricity and natural gas markets and systems is required to build a single European market. This calls for increased co-ordination and co-operation with neighbouring countries. Austria should also encourage investment in networks, optimise demand response and integrate variable renewable energy supply in a cost-effective and market-based manner. A well-functioning internal market can help reduce the growing concerns over energy prices and costs, both for industry and for citizens. Austria could address these concerns also by implementing more energy efficiency measures and facilitating greater retail market competition. This review analyses the energy policy challenges facing Austria and provides sectoral studies and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future.

  2. A review of China`s energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, F. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Duan, N. [Environment Management Institute, Beijing (China); Zhijie, H. [Energy Research Institute, Beijing (China)

    1994-12-01

    In 1992 China`s primary energy production reached 1075 million tons of coal equivalent by far the largest in the developing world. Because coal is the primary commercial fuel, rapid growth of carbon dioxide emissions is certain. Thus the attitude of the Chinese government toward energy and environmental issues becomes increasingly important to those involved in the study and analysis of global climate change and energy issues. This report is intended to provide a basic understanding of the development of China`s energy policymaking over the past four decades. The paper first reviews institutional development and policymaking and then describes the transition to the market-oriented system. While energy has consistently received a great deal of attention from the central government, the institutional basis for setting and implementing policies has shifted often. Reforms during the past 15 years have been incremental, piecemeal, and occasionally contradictory, but overall have freed a large portion of the energy industry from the strictures of a planned economy and laid the basis for broad price liberalization. Responsibility for energy planning is now dispersed among a number of organizations, rendering coordination of energy development difficult. Economic reform has rendered obsolete most of the policy-implementation means of the planning era. Although the new tools of central control are not fully effective, the trend toward decentralized decisionmaking has been strengthened. The report ends with a summary of energy forecasts used by Chinese policymakers, highlighting current policy goals and the issues that will shape future policy.

  3. Healthy kids: Making school health policy a participatory learning process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjernqvist, Nanna Wurr; Bruselius-Jensen, Maria; Høstgaard Bonde, Ane

    enjoyed having a voice in school matters and to deal with real life during health education. Teachers were very positive towards the integration of school health policy work into teaching the curriculum in Danish, Maths and Biology. However, the transferring from the classroom to the organizational levels....... Methods The presented model works at two levels - the classroom and the organizational level – and is based on four phases, namely: Investigation – Vision – Action – Change, viewed as an iterative process. Pupil perspectives and learning is the basis in all four phases based on a set of health education...... was weakhindering sustainable health changes. Conclusion Findings indicate that integrating school policy processes into the teaching of curriculum might pave the way for schools to engage in health promotion. But further knowledge on how to likewise engage the staff on an organisational level is needed....

  4. Identification of Optimal Policies in Markov Decision Processes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sladký, Karel

    46 2010, č. 3 (2010), s. 558-570 ISSN 0023-5954. [International Conference on Mathematical Methods in Economy and Industry. České Budějovice, 15.06.2009-18.06.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA402/08/0107; GA ČR GA402/07/1113 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : finite state Markov decision processes * discounted and average costs * elimination of suboptimal policies Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.461, year: 2010 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/E/sladky-identification of optimal policies in markov decision processes.pdf

  5. An International Perspective on Pharmacy Student Selection Policies and Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, John; Kennedy, Julia; Jensen, Maree; Sheridan, Janie

    2015-10-25

    Objective. To reflect on selection policies and procedures for programs at pharmacy schools that are members of an international alliance of universities (Universitas 21). Methods. A questionnaire on selection policies and procedures was distributed to admissions directors at participating schools. Results. Completed questionnaires were received from 7 schools in 6 countries. Although marked differences were noted in the programs in different countries, there were commonalities in the selection processes. There was an emphasis on previous academic performance, especially in science subjects. With one exception, all schools had some form of interview, with several having moved to multiple mini-interviews in recent years. Conclusion. The majority of pharmacy schools in this survey relied on traditional selection processes. While there was increasing use of multiple mini-interviews, the authors suggest that additional new approaches may be required in light of the changing nature of the profession.

  6. BOOK REVIEW: THE HISTORY OF CULTURAL POLICY IN INDONESIA 1900s-2000s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wildan Sena Utama

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This book investigates how culture, particularly national culture, in Indonesia has been shaped by the government policies from the Dutch colonial period in 1900s to the Reformation era in 2000s. It is an attempt to show the relationship between the state and culture around the process of production, circulation, regulation and reception of cultural policy through different regimes. Although this book discusses government policy, the author has realized that the book needs to overcome contradictions and confusions of cultural discourse by incorporating people as explanatory element. Many aspect of culturality may be influenced by the state, but according to Jones, “it is a field that is not stable and easy to shift that facilitates resistance, and is able to turn against the state, market and other institutions” (p. 31. Jones employs two postcolonial cultural policy tools to review the history of cultural policy in Indonesia: authoritarian cultural policy and command culture. The first means that the state has assumption if majority of citizen do not have capability to inspirit a responsible citizenship and need a state’s direction in the choice of their culture. On the contrary, command culture shows that the cultural idea that is planned in fact always been placing the state as center in planning, creating policy and revising cultural practice.

  7. Sources of change in foreign policy. A review of foreign policy models for developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba E. Gámez

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of what could be called the reorientation of State foreign policy is not a new phenomenon. Changes in alliances, economic partners and attitudes in the face of international issues have been reflected in myriad texts. Nevertheless, few theoretical frameworksdeal with this issue as an area of study in and of itself. Overcoming this situation would contribute to identifying and comparing the changes in attitude and discourse in the relations between countries, especially in the case of developing countries, and, by extension, thesources of these changes. This article reviews the different models for the analysis of foreign policy, using the conceptual framework of Hermann (1990 as its starting point. This framework suggests the existence of four graded levels of change which allow for studying forms of change which are subtle but important in foreign policy; it also offers a reasoned analysis for testing the relative importance of their sources. This conceptual framework can be situated in the traditional division of levels of analysis: the characteristics of the leader, bureaucratic proposer, internal adjustment, and external impact; and, while it does not provide a conclusive answer, it may be a useful tool in clarifying the ways of using empirical evidence and establishing the relative importance of the sources of change in foreign policy orientation.

  8. Review process for license renewal applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, John W.; Kuo, P.T.

    1991-01-01

    In preparation for license renewal reviews, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission has recently published for public review and comment a proposed rule for license renewal and a draft Standard Review Plan as well as a draft Regulatory Guide relating to the implementation of the proposed rule. In support of future license renewal applications, the nuclear industry has also submitted 11 industry reports for NRC review and approval. This paper briefly describe how these parallel regulatory and industry activities will be factored into the NRC review process for license renewal. (author)

  9. Policy development: a more formal systems approach process

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greeff, AP

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Policy developers in corporate and governance roles are often developing policies by means of policy development cycles that typically resemble a system life cycle approach. Although policy development cycles often vary, depending on the applicable...

  10. Energy policies of IEA countries: Sweden - 2008 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-05-15

    Sweden is one of the leading IEA countries in the use of renewable energy and has a long tradition of ambitious and successful policies to improve energy efficiency. Compared to the other IEA countries, Sweden's CO2 emissions per capita and per unit of GDP are low, partly owing to efficient and low-carbon space heating, and virtually carbon-free electricity generation. The country also remains a forerunner in electricity market liberalisation. Still, even if Sweden has continued to make progress in most areas of its energy policy since the IEA last conducted an in-depth review in 2004, there is room for improvement. As Sweden plans to further increase the use of renewable energy, it is crucial that these supplies are produced and used in the most sustainable manner for the environment and the economy as a whole. With regard to CO2 emissions, more can be done in all sectors, but as transport is the largest polluter and its emissions are increasing, it is the logical focus for Sweden's efforts to reduce emissions further. This is a significant challenge. Nuclear provides almost half of the electricity in Sweden, at a low cost and without CO2 emissions. But the future of nuclear power in the national power mix is still uncertain. To provide clear guidance to the electricity sector, Sweden will need to resolve the ambiguity about the future of nuclear power in the country. This review analyses the energy challenges facing Sweden and provides critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to provide input to Swedish energy policy makers to help them identify a path towards a more sustainable energy future.

  11. PROCESS APPROACH TO CULTURAL POLICY IN THE REGIONAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryna Lavryshsheva

    2017-02-01

    Characteristics of cultural policy, as a process, i.e. procedural approach, allows us to see the specific aspects of interaction of subjects over the governmental authorities. However, due to the fact, that in its scale cultural process is the same as political environment of the state, some scientists identify it either with politics in general or with the totality of the shares of behavioral government entities, change their status and influence. Supporters of the institutional approach associates the cultural political process with the functioning and the transformation of the government institutionы, based on a set of the political system reactions on the environmental challenges. As we speak in the current economic conditions in Ukraine is actual the development of anti-crisis measures for the rehabilitation and development of the conceptual approach of cultural policies in the region. As such, the obvious is the development of a measures set by all courses of the plan, that will mutualize the key goals, objectives and tools into a uniform system of measures. This plan should provide the combined model in the region and provide a transition to the zonal management principle of the transition period. In the plan it is also should be provided institutional support for the proposed measures, namely the mechanisms of technological and socio-cultural issues implementation in range of the cultural policy of the society [1, p.18].

  12. CMS Nonpayment Policy, Quality Improvement, and Hospital-Acquired Conditions: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sung-Heui

    This integrative review synthesized evidence on the consequences of the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) nonpayment policy on quality improvement initiatives and hospital-acquired conditions. Fourteen articles were included. This review presents strong evidence that the CMS policy has spurred quality improvement initiatives; however, the relationships between the CMS policy and hospital-acquired conditions are inconclusive. In future research, a comprehensive model of implementation of the CMS nonpayment policy would help us understand the effectiveness of this policy.

  13. Energy policies of IEA countries: Japan - 2008 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-06-15

    Declaring climate change and environment as a top priority of the 2008 G8 Summit in Hokkaido, host country Japan has demonstrated its commitment to pressing ahead in these domains. Already a world leader in advancing energy technology transfer and environmental policy, the country is determined to further improve its domestic policies, moving it towards a more sustainable and secure energy pathway for the long term. Along with other accomplishments, government support for energy R and D is very strong and policies to enhance the efficiency of appliances - both for domestic consumption and export - are models for other countries. Yet there is still room for progress. Most importantly, a greater reliance on market forces throughout the system could lead customers to choices that enhance security, raise economic efficiency and promote environmental protection. Particularly with respect to climate change goals - Japan is the world's fifth-largest greenhouse gas emitter - strengthening the value on greenhouse gas emissions would help give consumers the appropriate signals they need to make the right choices. Enhancing energy savings through efforts aimed at particular sectors (sectoral approaches) could be a part of the overall policy mix, along with ongoing leadership in promoting energy efficiency. The government should continue to work to complement existing voluntary instruments with stronger ones, including ones that rely more on market incentives, and standards and requirements. This review takes an in-depth look at the energy challenges facing Japan today and provides critiques and recommendations for policy improvements to help guide the country towards a more sustainable energy future.

  14. Protocol: a realist review of user fee exemption policies for health services in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Emilie; Ridde, Valéry; Marchal, Bruno; Fournier, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Background Four years prior to the Millenium Development Goals (MDGs) deadline, low- and middle-income countries and international stakeholders are looking for evidence-based policies to improve access to healthcare for the most vulnerable populations. User fee exemption policies are one of the potential solutions. However, the evidence is disparate, and systematic reviews have failed to provide valuable lessons. The authors propose to produce an innovative synthesis of the available evidence on user fee exemption policies in Africa to feed the policy-making process. Methods The authors will carry out a realist review to answer the following research question: what are the outcomes of user fee exemption policies implemented in Africa? why do they produce such outcomes? and what contextual elements come into play? This type of review aims to understand how contextual elements influence the production of outcomes through the activation of specific mechanisms, in the form of context-mechanism-outcome configurations. The review will be conducted in five steps: (1) identifying with key stakeholders the mechanisms underlying user fee exemption policies to develop the analytical framework, (2) searching for and selecting primary data, (3) assessing the quality of evidence using the Mixed-Method Appraisal Tool, (4) extracting the data using the analytical framework and (5) synthesising the data in the form of context-mechanism-outcomes configurations. The output will be a middle-range theory specifying how user fee exemption policies work, for what populations and under what circumstances. Ethics and dissemination The two main target audiences are researchers who are looking for examples to implement a realist review, and policy-makers and international stakeholders looking for lessons learnt on user fee exemption. For the latter, a knowledge-sharing strategy involving local scientific and policy networks will be implemented. The study has been approved by the ethics

  15. Energy policies of IEA countries. Spain 1996 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The energy sector in Spain is at the end of a transition period from public to private ownership and from monopoly to competition. In keeping with the 1994 law calling for more competition in the electricity sector and planning an independent system, this review recommends that more concrete measures be taken to increase competition. The report examines Spanish policy on increasing natural gas consumption with the construction of the Maghreb pipeline from Algeria. It looks closely at the organization of the oil industry and the restructuring of the coal industry. It also examines the new measures to increase energy efficiency. (authors). 13 figs., 23 tabs

  16. Work and pregnancy. Review of the literature and policy discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavkin, W

    1986-08-01

    An increasing proportion of obstetric patients are working women. This widens the world of concern for the obstetrician, who must now become familiar with the consequences of workplace exposures and conditions for both maternal and fetal health. This review briefly explores interactions between chemical and physical hazards on the job and the physiologic changes of pregnancy in order to propose ways in which the obstetrician can intervene on behalf of the individual patient, as well as on the public level. Through discussion of the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, job transfer and modification, disability, breastfeeding, etc., emphasis is placed on the social and policy factors that affect reproductive outcome for the working pregnant woman.

  17. Domestic policy 1982-1986 - a performance review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    The report reviews the achievements of domestic policy of the last four years, i.e. work performed by the various departments of the German Federal Ministry of the Interior. The activities are widespread, including besides the traditional ones such as public safety, civil defence and disaster control, some new services in the field of pollution control, reactor safety, and many others. The common goal is to maintain peace and public safety, to ensure freedom and the natural bases of existence, and to thus create the basic conditions for public well-being and pursuit of happiness for every citizen. (orig./HSCH) [de

  18. A review: deposition and resuspension processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    A review chapter was written on deposition and resuspension processes for the forthcoming Department of Energy publication, Atmospheric Sciences and Power Production, edited by D. Randerson. The chapter includes eleven tables and thirteen figures summarizing data from 241 references. The conclusions of that review chapter are given

  19. Review of NRC Regulatory processes and functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) has spent much time over many years observing and examining the NRC licensing process. The Committee is, consequently, in a position to comment on the situation, and it believes this review will be helpful to those examining the regulatory process by discussing how it works, where it is weak, and the opportunities for improvement. The Committee's review may also help put current proposals and discussions in perspective

  20. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Slovak Republic 2005 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Slovakia has implemented impressive energy reforms over the recent past, a unique performance in Central and Eastern Europe. The 2000 energy policy prioritised market reforms and sectoral policies, notably on energy security and environment, in order to comply with EU requirements, which were largely met at the time of the country’s EU accession in 2004. Also, Slovakia established new regulations, notably cost reflective pricing enforced by an independent energy regulator, thereby attracting significant foreign direct investment. Notably, this rapid transition has occurred without disruption in this key energy transit country. New challenges ahead include strengthening energy security by diversification, opening energy markets and integrating them into the EU, strongly increasing energy efficiency to offset the high economic burden of energy prices and to help better controlling pollution and CO2 emissions in line with EU and international obligations. This review analyses the Slovak energy sector and policies, and provides recommendations for the government. It is a comprehensive assessment of what constitutes a remarkable case study of effective energy reforms in an economy in transition, which has applied for IEA membership.

  1. Abortion law, policy and services in India: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirve, Siddhivinayak S

    2004-11-01

    Despite 30 years of liberal legislation, the majority of women in India still lack access to safe abortion care. This paper critically reviews the history of abortion law and policy in India since the 1960s and research on abortion service delivery. Amendments in 2002 and 2003 to the 1971 Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, including devolution of regulation of abortion services to the district level, punitive measures to deter provision of unsafe abortions, rationalisation of physical requirements for facilities to provide early abortion, and approval of medical abortion, have all aimed to expand safe services. Proposed amendments to the MTP Act to prevent sex-selective abortions would have been unethical and violated confidentiality, and were not taken forward. Continuing problems include poor regulation of both public and private sector services, a physician-only policy that excludes mid-level providers and low registration of rural compared to urban clinics; all restrict access. Poor awareness of the law, unnecessary spousal consent requirements, contraceptive targets linked to abortion, and informal and high fees also serve as barriers. Training more providers, simplifying registration procedures, de-linking clinic and provider approval, and linking policy with up-to-date technology, research and good clinical practice are some immediate measures needed to improve women's access to safe abortion care.

  2. [Public policies for the elderly in Brazil: an integrative review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Luana Machado; Sena, Edite Lago da Silva; Pinheiro, Gleide Magali Lemos; Meira, Edmeia Campos; Lira, Lais Santana Santos Pereira

    2013-12-01

    This paper is an integrative review analyzing the scientific production and legal documents regarding public policies for the elderly in Brazil. Research was conducted in the Virtual Health Library and Scopus databases, examining publications since 2003. Data were collected from June to September of 2011 using the following key words: "elderly" (idosos), "public policies" (políticas públicas), "elderly person" (pessoa idosa), "aging" (envelhecimento) and "civic participation" (participação cidadã). The search resulted in the selection of 15 articles and six legal documents targeted at the elderly in Brazil that were submitted to content analysis by categorization. The results revealed that aging in Brazil has occurred in the midst of adaptations entrenched in cultural biases, social, economic and educational discrepancies and the implementation of public welfare policies. There were few studies that indicated the importance of strengthening social movements that elicit discussion related to the elderly in Brazil. The conclusion reached is that the study will provide material for reflection about the construction of a new reality about aging in Brazil.

  3. National Environmental Policy Act guidance: A model process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angle, B.M.; Lockhart, V.A.T.; Sema, B.; Tuott, L.C.; Irving, J.S.

    1995-04-01

    The ''Model National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Process'' includes: References to regulations, guidance documents, and plans; training programs; procedures; and computer databases. Legislative Acts and reference documents from Congress, US Department of Energy, and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company provide the bases for conducting NEPA at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) NEPA / Permitting Department, the Contractor Environmental Organization (CEO) is responsible for developing and maintaining LITCO NEPA and permitting policies, guidance, and procedures. The CEO develops procedures to conduct environmental evaluations based on NEPA, Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations, and DOE guidance. This procedure includes preparation or support of environmental checklists, categorical exclusion determinations, environmental assessment determinations, environmental assessments, and environmental impact statements. In addition, the CEO uses this information to train personnel conducting environmental evaluations at the INEL. Streamlining these procedures fosters efficient use of resources, quality documents, and better decisions on proposed actions

  4. From chloroquine to artemether-lumefantrine: the process of drug policy change in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snow Robert W

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following the recognition that morbidity and mortality due to malaria had dramatically increased in the last three decades, in 2002 the government of Zambia reviewed its efforts to prevent and treat malaria. Convincing evidence of the failing efficacy of chloroquine resulted in the initiation of a process that eventually led to the development and implementation of a new national drug policy based on artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT. Methods All published and unpublished documented evidence dealing with the antimalarial drug policy change was reviewed. These data were supplemented by the authors' observations of the policy change process. The information has been structured to capture the timing of events, the challenges encountered, and the resolutions reached in order to achieve implementation of the new treatment policy. Results A decision was made to change national drug policy to artemether-lumefantrine (AL in the first quarter of 2002, with a formal announcement made in October 2002. During this period, efforts were undertaken to identify funding for the procurement of AL and to develop new malaria treatment guidelines, training materials, and plans for implementation of the policy. In order to avoid a delay in implementation, the policy change decision required a formal adoption within existing legislation. Starting with donated drug, a phased deployment of AL began in January 2003 with initial use in seven districts followed by scaling up to 28 districts in the second half of 2003 and then to all 72 districts countrywide in early 2004. Conclusion Drug policy changes are not without difficulties and demand a sustained international financing strategy for them to succeed. The Zambian experience demonstrates the need for a harmonized national consensus among many stakeholders and a political commitment to ensure that new policies are translated into practice quickly. To guarantee effective policies requires

  5. The Process Architecture of EU Territorial Cohesion Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Faludi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available When preparing the European Spatial Development Perspective (ESDP, Member States were supported by the European Commission but denied the EU a competence in the matter. Currently, the Treaty of Lisbon identifies territorial cohesion as a competence shared between the Union and the Member States. This paper is about the process architecture of territorial cohesion policy. In the past, this architecture resembled the Open Method of Coordination (OMC which the White Paper on European Governance praised, but only in areas where there was no EU competence. This reflected zero-sum thinking which may continue even under the Lisbon Treaty. After all, for as long as territorial cohesion was not a competence, voluntary cooperation as practiced in the ESDP process was pursued in this way. However, the practice of EU policies, even in areas where there is an EU competence, often exhibits features of the OMC. Surprisingly effective innovations hold the promise of rendering institutions of decision making comprehensible and democratically accountable. In the EU as a functioning polity decision making is thus at least part deliberative so that actors’ preferences are transformed by the force of the better argument. This brings into focus the socialisation of the deliberators into epistemic communities. Largely an informal process, this is reminiscent of European spatial planning having been characterised as a learning process.

  6. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Hungary 2006 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Hungary has arrived at an important moment in its energy policy. The Hungarian government has improved energy policies in a number of areas. Still, significant challenges remain. To prepare the country for the full liberalisation of the EU electricity and gas market by July 2007, further steps in market reform are urgently required. At this point in time, there is no clarity about the system under which the market should operate after its full opening. Subsidies are another problem. Even though substantial progress has been made in reforming payments to gas consumers, the overall level of subsidies to producers and consumers of energy needs to be reviewed. This analysis makes recommendations to tackle these concerns and also discusses the potential contribution of energy efficiency to increasing energy security and economic competitiveness. The gas dispute between Russia and Ukraine in January 2006 focused global attention on consumer nations' vulnerability to supply disruptions. The Hungarian government has since placed greater emphasis on diversification of suppliers and has supported the development of new routes to bring gas into Europe. Hungary has dramatically improved its energy efficiency during the last 15 years. Nevertheless, enhanced efficiency, particularly in the field of gas use will continue to play a key role for securing future national energy supplies. This review has identified significant room for progress particularly in the gas-to-power sector, where old power stations need to be replaced, and in the residential sector, where improved thermal performance of Hungarian housing could bring impressive results.

  7. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Hungary 2006 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Hungary has arrived at an important moment in its energy policy. The Hungarian government has improved energy policies in a number of areas. Still, significant challenges remain. To prepare the country for the full liberalisation of the EU electricity and gas market by July 2007, further steps in market reform are urgently required. At this point in time, there is no clarity about the system under which the market should operate after its full opening. Subsidies are another problem. Even though substantial progress has been made in reforming payments to gas consumers, the overall level of subsidies to producers and consumers of energy needs to be reviewed. This analysis makes recommendations to tackle these concerns and also discusses the potential contribution of energy efficiency to increasing energy security and economic competitiveness. The gas dispute between Russia and Ukraine in January 2006 focused global attention on consumer nations' vulnerability to supply disruptions. The Hungarian government has since placed greater emphasis on diversification of suppliers and has supported the development of new routes to bring gas into Europe. Hungary has dramatically improved its energy efficiency during the last 15 years. Nevertheless, enhanced efficiency, particularly in the field of gas use will continue to play a key role for securing future national energy supplies. This review has identified significant room for progress particularly in the gas-to-power sector, where old power stations need to be replaced, and in the residential sector, where improved thermal performance of Hungarian housing could bring impressive results.

  8. Energy policies of IEA countries: Austria - 2007 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-03-15

    Since the last review in 2002, Austrian energy policy has seen many positive developments. Today, Austria counts among the IEA member countries with the highest share of renewable energy supply, thus increasing energy security and reducing CO2 emissions. Great progress has also been made in the utilisation of biomass for heat and electricity production. Nevertheless, many challenges remain. The climate strategy revision in 2007 is commendably realistic, but uncertainty remains whether it will be sufficient, and whether renewables and energy efficiency are well-balanced within it. While Austria is strongly promoting an increase of renewables production by adopting challenging targets, it is less ambitious in the area of energy efficiency. To achieve the renewables target, their supply will have to double, leading to significant increases in costs. In energy efficiency, while Austria is leading in developing efficient building solutions, there are concerns about implementation, especially about the lack of ambition and divergence in building codes. Overall, energy intensity has increased in recent years, and the government will have to put a strong focus on reversing this development. Despite the early opening of the energy markets, effective competition has failed to emerge. This is partially due to systemic weaknesses such as dominant incumbents, lack of transparency in price formulation and a weak regulatory system with the potential for conflicts of interest. This review thoroughly analyses Austrian energy policy and identifies the key challenges that need to be addressed. With recommendations for improvements, it is an important guide for Austrian policy makers toward a safer and cleaner energy future.

  9. Energy policies of IEA countries: Turkey 2005 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report provides a comprehensive in-depth assessment of the energy policies of Turkey including recommendations by the IEA on future policy developments. Recently, Turkey has taken steps to implement energy market reforms which have resulted in clear and significant benefits. Now, continued action is needed to see the process through to a successful conclusion. It is necessary to restructure the state-owned enterprises to operate in a competitive market, to create independent electricity and gas operators and to remove cross-subsidies from electricity and gas prices. Turkey has been very active in international co-operation in the energy sector. Some important oil and gas pipeline projects are underway or almost completed. This will improve the security of supply in Turkey and maintain its role as an important 'energy corridor' between East and West, while avoiding overuse of the Turkish Straits. Synchronisation of Turkey's electricity networks with the European UCTE grid is planned for 2006. Furthermore, the country already has transposed most EU energy laws and standards into national legislation. Turkey's general approach to energy policy has been highly supply-oriented. However, recent efforts have begun to focus more on energy efficiency and conservation. Nevertheless, stronger energy efficiency policies are needed, particularly in the transport sector. Turkey ratified the Framework Convention on Climate Change in February 2004 and is developing its climate change strategy. The government should strive to monitor the cost-effectiveness of its policies, consider defining an emissions target and ensure coordination among the various government bodies. Despite past progress, work remains to be done to achieve further reductions in air pollution. 28 figs., 23 tabs., 3 annexes

  10. Energy policies of IEA countries: Finland - 2007 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-03-15

    Faced with considerable challenges related to its geography and size, Finland's sound energy policies do much to overcome its situation. The country leverages its small market where it can - such as by adopting or harmonising with EU directives and policies. To counter its relative isolation, Finland strengthened its position by becoming part of the larger Nordic electricity market and enhancing energy linkages. At the core, however, the country ensures energy security by relying on transparency and sound market signals to investors and customers, as well as by making good use of domestic sources of biomass and nuclear. As Finland continues to refine and enhance its energy policy, there are some areas that warrant special attention. As nearly all fossil fuels are imported and all natural gas comes through a single interconnection, the government should continue to explore ways to diversify import sources and routes. The new nuclear power plant currently being built - the first in a liberalised market - will help safeguard energy security, though the construction delays necessitate continued monitoring. Subsidies for peat, a fuel in abundance in Finland, should be reconsidered, as they do not enhance energy security. On the other hand, the government should continue to explore ways to expand new renewables, building on the current stock of biomass and hydro. This book takes an in-depth look at Finland's energy policy today and, through comparisons with good examples in other IEA countries, provides critiques and recommendations for improvements to guide the country towards a sustainable energy future. While the review provides comprehensive coverage of all topics, this thematic report highlights energy efficiency and energy R and D.

  11. Energy policies of IEA countries: Finland - 2007 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-03-15

    Faced with considerable challenges related to its geography and size, Finland's sound energy policies do much to overcome its situation. The country leverages its small market where it can - such as by adopting or harmonising with EU directives and policies. To counter its relative isolation, Finland strengthened its position by becoming part of the larger Nordic electricity market and enhancing energy linkages. At the core, however, the country ensures energy security by relying on transparency and sound market signals to investors and customers, as well as by making good use of domestic sources of biomass and nuclear. As Finland continues to refine and enhance its energy policy, there are some areas that warrant special attention. As nearly all fossil fuels are imported and all natural gas comes through a single interconnection, the government should continue to explore ways to diversify import sources and routes. The new nuclear power plant currently being built - the first in a liberalised market - will help safeguard energy security, though the construction delays necessitate continued monitoring. Subsidies for peat, a fuel in abundance in Finland, should be reconsidered, as they do not enhance energy security. On the other hand, the government should continue to explore ways to expand new renewables, building on the current stock of biomass and hydro. This book takes an in-depth look at Finland's energy policy today and, through comparisons with good examples in other IEA countries, provides critiques and recommendations for improvements to guide the country towards a sustainable energy future. While the review provides comprehensive coverage of all topics, this thematic report highlights energy efficiency and energy R and D.

  12. Electron beam flue gas treatment process. Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honkonen, V.A.

    1996-01-01

    The basis of the process for electron beam flue gas treatment are presented in the report. In tabular form the history of the research is reviewed. Main dependences of SO 2 and NO x removal efficiencies on different physico-chemical parameters are discussed. Trends concerning industrial process implementation are presented in the paper,finally. (author). 74 refs, 11 figs, 1 tab

  13. The Faroe Islands’ Security Policy in a Process of Devolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beinta í Jákobsstovu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the late 1990s there has been a remarkable change in the institutional context of safety and security policies for the Faroes. The end of the Cold War led to a reduction in the strategic importance of, and military presence in, the islands. However, today Faroese sea and air space is increasingly exposed to heavy civilian traffic due to expected oil production as well as new sailing routes from the High North. The Faroese government is in a process, nearly completed, of taking over the full responsibility for societal security policy, a field it used to share with the Danish state authorities. In April 2002, the Faroese authorities took over the responsibility for SAR in Faroese sea territory and established a MRCC Center in Tórshavn. A new civic security law was passed by Løgtingið (the parliament in May 2012. This article discusses micro-states’ options in the international arena; provides a brief overview of the history of Faroese security policy; and discusses the present and future challenges involved in assuring protection and rescue services for the Faroese region of the North Atlantic.

  14. Review of maritime transportation air emission pollution and policy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haifeng; Liu, Dahai; Dai, Guilin

    2009-09-01

    The study of air emission in maritime transportation is new, and the recognition of its importance has been rising in the recent decade. The emissions of CO2, SO2, NO2 and particulate matters from maritime transportation have contributed to climate change and environmental degradation. Scientifically, analysts still have controversies regarding how to calculate the emissions and how to choose the baseline and methodologies. Three methods are generally used, namely the ‘bottom up’ approach, the ‘top down’ approach and the STEEM, which produce very different results, leading to various papers with great uncertainties. This, in turn, results in great difficulties to policy makers who attempt to regulate the emissions. A recent technique, the STEEM, is intended to combine the former two methods to reduce their drawbacks. However, the regulations based on its results may increase the costs of shipping companies and cause the competitiveness of the port states and coastal states. Quite a few papers have focused on this area and provided another fresh perspective for the air emission to be incorporated in maritime transportation regulations; these facts deserve more attention. This paper is to review the literature on the debates over air emission calculation, with particular attention given to the STEEM and the refined estimation methods. It also reviews related literature on the economic analysis of maritime transportation emission regulations, and provides an insight into such analysis. At the end of this paper, based on a review and analysis of previous literature, we conclude with the policy indications in the future and work that should be done. As the related regulations in maritime transportation emissions are still at their beginning stage in China, this paper provides specific suggestions on how China should regulate emissions in the maritime transportation sector.

  15. IT Policy Archive

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CIO defines IT processes and policies. The CIO defines the development processes, milestones, review gates, and the overall policies for all capital planning,...

  16. A Review of Policies, Acts and Initiatives in Rice Innovation System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A review of rice policies, acts and initiatives in Nigeria is presented under ... World Bank, World Trade Organization, and International Monetary Fund (IMF) ... the desirable political will by government and sound agricultural rice policy are ...

  17. A literature review to identify factors that determine policies for influenza vaccination.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, M.L.; Perrier, L.; Cohen, J.M.; Paget, W.J.; Mosnier, A.; Späth, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To conduct a literature review of influenza vaccination policy, describing roles and interactions between stakeholders and the factors influencing policy-making. Methods: Major databases were searched using keywords related to influenza vaccination, decision-making and healthpolicy.

  18. Framework for assessing the capacity of a health ministry to conduct health policy processes--a case study from Tajikistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzoev, Tolib N; Green, Andrew; Van Kalliecharan, Ricky

    2015-01-01

    An adequate capacity of ministries of health (MOH) to develop and implement policies is essential. However, no frameworks were found assessing MOH capacity to conduct health policy processes within developing countries. This paper presents a conceptual framework for assessing MOH capacity to conduct policy processes based on a study from Tajikistan, a former Soviet republic where independence highlighted capacity challenges. The data collection for this qualitative study included in-depth interviews, document reviews and observations of policy events. Framework approach for analysis was used. The conceptual framework was informed by existing literature, guided the data collection and analysis, and was subsequently refined following insights from the study. The Tajik MOH capacity, while gradually improving, remains weak. There is poor recognition of wider contextual influences, ineffective leadership and governance as reflected in centralised decision-making, limited use of evidence, inadequate actors' participation and ineffective use of resources to conduct policy processes. However, the question is whether this is a reflection of lack of MOH ability or evidence of constraining environment or both. The conceptual framework identifies five determinants of robust policy processes, each with specific capacity needs: policy context, MOH leadership and governance, involvement of policy actors, the role of evidence and effective resource use for policy processes. Three underlying considerations are important for applying the capacity to policy processes: the need for clear focus, recognition of capacity levels and elements, and both ability and enabling environment. The proposed framework can be used in assessing and strengthening of the capacity of different policy actors. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Policy-Relevant Systematic Reviews to Strengthen Health Systems: Models and Mechanisms to Support Their Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Sandra; Dickson, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    Support for producing systematic reviews about health systems is less well developed than for those about clinical practice. From interviewing policy makers and systematic reviewers we identified institutional mechanisms which bring systematic reviews and policy priorities closer by harnessing organisational and individual motivations, emphasising…

  20. Social Media Policy in Social Work Education: A Review and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpman, Hannah E.; Drisko, James

    2016-01-01

    Although social media use has grown dramatically, program policies have not kept pace. Some programs now state that student social media activities have led to professional conduct reviews and may violate ethical standards. This article reviews current social media policies and conceptualizes their key elements. A review of current social media…

  1. Reviews of the Norwegian climate policy - a synthesis of four international reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfsen, Knut H.; Bjoernaes, Christian; Reed, Eilif Ursin

    2011-07-01

    The report is a synthesis of four reviews on the Norwegian climate policy: 1. Environmental performance review of Norway, OECD 2011 2. Energy Policies of IEA Countries, Norway, IEA 2011 3. Economic Survey of Norway, OECD 2010 4. Report on the in-depth review of the fifth national communication of Norway.(auth)

  2. Promoting healthy food consumption: a review of state-level policies to improve access to fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Carlyn; Martinez-Donate, Ana; Meinen, Amy

    2012-12-01

    Research indicates poor nutrition is a leading determinant of the development of chronic disease, and increasing fruit and vegetable consumption is one method for decreasing obesity. Many policies have focused on increasing the demand for fruits and vegetables through price reductions and coupons. However, without ensuring a stable supply, increased demand can continue to raise prices, crowding out individuals who may otherwise have purchased fruits and vegetables and ultimately leading to continued disparities in access. This paper presents a review of selected state-level policy options recently proposed or implemented in states across the United States, and provides an evidence-based lens through which food access policy can be shaped in the Midwest. This review and potential framework uses Wisconsin to illustrate the feasibility of different state-level decisions and their potential impact on particular populations. Future supply-side policies to consider include expanding Electronic Benefit Transfer to the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC),program and farmers markets, incentivizing the purchase of locally grown produce, assisting local specialty farmers directly, and/or establishing a state-level food policy council. This review reveals that a food policy council would create a more sustainable policy analysis process to better ensure future policy adoption is truly comprehensive, encompassing the production, distribution and purchase of locally grown fruits and vegetables.

  3. Financial Literacy: A Review of Government Policy and Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Taylor

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades there has been robust discussion by many governments and financial communityleaders generally, that financial security can only be achieved when a country’s population is considered to befinancially literate. Hence individuals need to be financially literate if they are to make informed decisionsabout savings, investments, debt and most importantly when considering retirement issues. No longer canthere be a reliance on social security in retirement due to the ever increasing ageing population and adeclining tax base worldwide.In both Australia and New Zealand, governments have put structures in place as a result of external evidencesuggesting both populations have questionable levels of financial literacy. Both governments have formulatedpolicies and embarked upon initiatives to address this issue. The strategies and structures used, whilst similar,encompassed some unique elements which makes a comparative investigation and discussion interesting.The outcomes of this research paper highlight that even with similar desired outcomes there can be multiplepathways.The rationale for this paper was the lack of any published academic literature in both Australia and NewZealand that reported on the stated government policies and there subsequent initiatives that related to theimprovement of financial literacy. Whilst structures to address government concerns have been put in place,the ability to assess the effectiveness of these initiatives has proven difficult, due to the sparse nature ofpublicly available information and the lack of access to the survey design, development and analysis. It shouldbe noted that this is an exploratory paper primarily to raise questions rather that provide a critical assessmentof either countries policies.While this research paper primarily seeks to describe and review both the policies and strategies implementedby the Australian and New Zealand governments in respect of financial literacy

  4. Policies for closing down nuclear power plants. A Spanish review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz del Olmo, G.A.

    2000-01-01

    A review of policies concerned with closing down the Spanish nuclear power plants is described, together with the role of Spanish Group of Municipalities affected by NPPs (AMAC) since its establishment in 1988. Currently there are 9 nuclear reactors operating in seven cities, contributing to the national network bu 39.3% of gross power generation, and one reactor dismantled after the accident in Vandellos in 1989. The main objectives of AMAC activity are concerned with security, economic development and transparency. It has an important role in improvement of the quality of life of the population in municipalities with operating NPPs. It is involved in solving the problems related to radioactive waste management and disposal

  5. Energy policies of IEA countries: Ireland 2007 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Ireland's remarkable economic growth over the last 15 years had strong effects on the energy sector. Due to rapidly increasing demand, Ireland has become much more dependent on international energy markets than it was in the past. For Irish energy policy, 2007 marks the end of the transition in market liberalisation with the introduction of a unified national electricity market. In addition, the publication of a new energy policy should help to ensure future security of supply and bring environmental improvements of energy use. Ireland is highly dependent on oil and increasingly dependent on natural gas. The price of these two commodities has strongly increased recently, which results in a heavy burden for the Irish economy and a risk for energy security. The main alternative in the supply side is coal and peat, which causes greenhouse gas emissions to rise much faster than expected. This review analyses the energy challenges facing Ireland and suggests solutions, focussing on moving ahead with market reform and increasing the energy efficiency of the Irish economy. Establishing the 'all-island' electricity market will be of critical importance. Sharper focus on energy efficiency in all sectors of the economy, but in particular in transport and buildings, must be a priority. Finally, to achieve its ambitious goals for renewables in energy supply, Ireland will have to provide ample resources for research and development, to allow technologies such as ocean power to move from the laboratory to the market. 23 figs., 26 tabs., 4 annexes

  6. Introducing payment for performance in the health sector of Tanzania- the policy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimhutu, Victor; Tjomsland, Marit; Songstad, Nils Gunnar; Mrisho, Mwifadhi; Moland, Karen Marie

    2015-09-02

    Prompted by the need to achieve progress in health outcomes, payment for performance (P4P) schemes are becoming popular policy options in the health systems in many low income countries. This paper describes the policy process behind the introduction of a payment for performance scheme in the health sector of Tanzania illuminating in particular the interests of and roles played by the Government of Norway, the Government of Tanzania and the other development partners. The study employed a qualitative research design using in-depth interviews (IDIs), observations and document reviews. Thirteen IDIs with key-informants representing the views of ten donor agencies and government departments influential in the process of introducing the P4P scheme in Tanzania were conducted in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and Oslo, Norway. Data was collected on the main trends and thematic priorities in development aid policy, countries and actors perceived to be proponents and opponents to the P4P scheme, and P4P agenda setting in Tanzania. The initial introduction of P4P in the health sector of Tanzania was controversial. The actors involved including the bilateral donors in the Health Basket Fund, the World Bank, the Tanzanian Government and high level politicians outside the Health Basket Fund fought for their values and interests and formed alliances that shifted in the course of the process. The process was characterized by high political pressure, conflicts, changing alliances, and, as it evolved, consensus building. The P4P policy process was highly political with external actors playing a significant role in influencing the agenda in Tanzania, leaving less space for the Government of Tanzania to provide leadership in the process. Norway in particular, took a leading role in setting the agenda. The process of introducing P4P became long and frustrating causing mistrust among partners in the Health Basket Fund.

  7. [National Policy of Humanization and education of health care professionals: integrative review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Guilherme Correa; Meneguim, Silmara; Lima, Silvana Andréa Molina; Moreno, Vania

    2013-01-01

    The National Policy of Humanization aims at innovations in health production, management and care with emphasis on permanent education for workers in the Unified Public Health System and training of university students in the health care field. This study aimed to know, through an integrative review of the literature, the scientific production about the National Policy of Humanization and education of health care professionals, from 2002 to 2010. Ten articles were analyzed in thematic strand through three axes: humanization and users caring, humanization and the work process, humanization and training. The articles point to the need to overcome the biological conception, valuing cultural aspects of users. The work process is marked by the devaluation of workers and by users deprived of their rights. The training of health professionals is grounded in health services where the prevailing standards are practices that hinder innovative attitudes.

  8. Energy policies of IEA countries: the United Kingdom 2006 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The United Kingdom is facing a critical moment in its energy policy: North Sea oil and gas production is declining, dependence on imported energy is increasing, while rising energy prices and climate change considerations pose further challenges. The second thematic review of the UK addresses these challenges, focusing on energy investment, energy efficiency, and the return of nuclear power to the political agenda. Almost all coal-fired and nuclear power capacity in the United Kingdom will be retired within the next 15 years. The review encourages the government to maintain its trust in the market mechanism for the delivery of required investment and security of supply. However, it also identifies the need for the government to play a more active role in setting the framework. On the demand side, the IEA considers the government's 'Energy Efficiency Commitment' (EEC) an impressive success. The EEC was introduced in 2002 and is an energy-saving programme under which suppliers must achieve efficiency targets in households. Challenges, such as the requirement that 50 per cent of savings come from low-income households, remain, and the review invites the government to investigate ways in which fuel poverty could be reduced without distorting the EEC. The review also assesses the government's shifting direction on nuclear energy and backs this new path. It argues that the development of a positive investment framework in planning and licensing - without direct intervention in investment decisions favouring nuclear - will allow investors to judge the viability of new plants. 3 apps.

  9. The systematic review as a research process in music therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson-Abromeit, Deanna; Sena Moore, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Music therapists are challenged to present evidence on the efficacy of music therapy treatment and incorporate the best available research evidence to make informed healthcare and treatment decisions. Higher standards of evidence can come from a variety of sources including systematic reviews. To define and describe a range of research review methods using examples from music therapy and related literature, with emphasis on the systematic review. In addition, the authors provide a detailed overview of methodological processes for conducting and reporting systematic reviews in music therapy. The systematic review process is described in five steps. Step 1 identifies the research plan and operationalized research question(s). Step 2 illustrates the identification and organization of the existing literature related to the question(s). Step 3 details coding of data extracted from the literature. Step 4 explains the synthesis of coded findings and analysis to answer the research question(s). Step 5 describes the strength of evidence evaluation and results presentation for practice recommendations. Music therapists are encouraged to develop and conduct systematic reviews. This methodology contributes to review outcome credibility and can determine how information is interpreted and used by clinicians, clients or patients, and policy makers. A systematic review is a methodologically rigorous research method used to organize and evaluate extant literature related to a clinical problem. Systematic reviews can assist music therapists in managing the ever-increasing literature, making well-informed evidence based practice and research decisions, and translating existing music-based and nonmusic based literature to clinical practice and research development. © the American Music Therapy Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Plug-in Electric Vehicle Policy Effectiveness: Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Levin, Todd [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Plotkin, Steven E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The U.S. federal government first introduced incentives for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) through the American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009, which provided a tax credit of up to $7,500 for a new PEV purchase. Soon after, in December 2010, two mass-market PEVs were introduced, the plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) Chevrolet Volt and the battery electric vehicle (BEV) Nissan LEAF. Since that time, numerous additional types of PEV incentives have been provided by federal and regional (state or city) government agencies and utility companies. These incentives cover vehicle purchases as well as the purchase and installation of electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) through purchase rebates, tax credits, or discounted purchase taxes or registration fees. Additional incentives, such as free high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lane access and parking benefits, may also be offered to PEV owners. Details about these incentives, such as the extent to which each type is offered by region, can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Alternative Fuel Data Center (http://www.afdc.energy.gov/). In addition to these incentives, other policies, such as zero-emission vehicle (ZEV) mandates,1 have also been implemented, and community-scale federal incentives, such as the DOE PEV Readiness Grants, have been awarded throughout the country to improve PEV market penetration. This report reviews 18 studies that analyze the impacts of past or current incentives and policies that were designed to support PEV adoption in the U.S. These studies were selected for review after a comprehensive survey of the literature and discussion with a number of experts in the field. The report summarizes the lessons learned and best practices from the experiences of these incentive programs to date, as well as the challenges they face and barriers that inhibit further market adoption of PEVs. Studies that make projections based on future policy scenarios and those that focus solely

  11. Group-buying inventory policy with demand under Poisson process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammarat Kleebmek

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The group-buying is the modern business of selling in the uncertain market. With an objective to minimize costs for sellers arising from ordering and reordering, we present in this paper the group buying inventory model, with the demand governed by a Poisson process and the product sale distributed as Binomial distribution. The inventory level is under continuous review, while the lead time is fixed. A numerical example is illustrated.

  12. Special Report on China and Chinese Provinces. Policy and Regulatory Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, A.; Hinostroza Parades, J.A.; O'Leary, M.; Owen, G.

    2010-06-01

    This review outlines the legislation and policies and roles of institutions involved in sustainable energy (renewable energy and energy efficiency) in China at Central and Provincial Government level.

  13. Environmental review process: The U.S. experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, T.N.

    1993-01-01

    The environmental review process used by the United States Federal Energy Regulatory Commission was discussed. The process has enabled the Commission to assess proposed small hydropower projects, but in the view of the author the Commission has done so at considerable cost and time to developers. Principal reasons for the delays and additional costs were examined, and ways were suggested that developers, agencies, regulators and other stakeholders could facilitate the siting of small hydropower projects without sacrificing the quality of the environmental review process. The highly duplicative nature of the environmental review process for hydropower projects was highlighted. The Commissions's power to regulate hydropower was claimed to have become severely eroded and the Energy Policy Act of 1992 did not significantly improve the process. Conflicts between developers, federal and state agencies, and the Commission over jurisdiction and interpretation of statutes continue to cause siting delays, which could render many projects financially infeasible. A more proactive Federal Energy Regulatory Commission was suggested to work with developers, agencies, Indian tribes and non-government organizations to resolve disputes. 1 tab

  14. Exploring maintenance policy selection using the Analytic Hierarchy Process : an application for naval ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, A.J.M.; Basten, R.J.I.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate maintenance policy selection (MPS) through the use of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). A maintenance policy is a policy that dictates which parameter triggers a maintenance action. In practice, selecting the right maintenance policy appears to be a difficult

  15. Processes for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, J.D.

    1992-11-01

    This paper reviews existing and proposed pretreatment processes for biomass. The focus is on the mechanisms by which the various pretreatments act and the influence of biomass structure and composition on the efficacy of particular pretreatment techniques. This analysis is used to identify pretreatment technologies and issues that warrant further research.

  16. Processing Instruction: A Review of Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasuki, Muhlisin

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides a critical review of Processing Instruction (PI). This type of instructional option was specifically designed to help second/foreign language (L2) learners grasp meaning manifested in the use of particular grammatical forms in a target language effectively through the provision of input. In this way, PI attempts to help…

  17. How do external donors influence national health policy processes? Experiences of domestic policy actors in Cambodia and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mishal S; Meghani, Ankita; Liverani, Marco; Roychowdhury, Imara; Parkhurst, Justin

    2018-03-01

    Although concerns have historically been raised about the influence of external donors on health policy process in recipient countries, remarkably few studies have investigated perspectives and experiences of domestic policymakers and advisers. This study examines donor influence at different stages of the health policy process (priority setting, policy formulation, policy implementation and monitoring and evaluation) in two aid-dependent LMICs, Cambodia and Pakistan. It identifies mechanisms through which asymmetries in influence between donors and domestic policy actors emerge. We conducted 24 key informant interviews-14 in Pakistan and 10 in Cambodia-with high-level decision-makers who inform or authorize health priority setting, allocate resources and/or are responsible for policy implementation, identifying three routes of influence: financial resources, technical expertise and indirect financial and political incentives. We used both inductive and deductive approaches to analyse the data. Our findings indicate that different routes of influence emerged depending on the stage of the policy process. Control of financial resources was the most commonly identified route by which donors influenced priority setting and policy implementation. Greater (perceived) technical expertise played an important role in donor influence at the policy formulation stage. Donors' power in influencing decisions, particularly during the final (monitoring and evaluation) stage of the policy process, was mediated by their ability to control indirect financial and political incentives as well as direct control of financial resources. This study thus helps unpack the nuances of donor influence over health policymaking in these settings, and can potentially indicate areas that require attention to increase the ownership of domestic actors of their countries' health policy processes. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of

  18. Political Limits to the Processing of Policy Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. May

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This contribution addresses political limits to the processing of policy problems in the United States. Our foci are the forces that limit policymakers' attention to different aspects of problems and how this affects the prospects for problem resolution. We theorize about three sets of forces: interest engagement, linkages among relevant institutions for policymaking, and partisan conflict. We show how the interplay of these forces limits efforts to address complex problems. Based on secondary accounts, we consider these underlying dynamics for ten complex problems. These include the thorny problems of the financial crisis, climate change, and health care; the persistent problems of K-12 education, drug abuse, and food safety; and the looming problems associated with critical infrastructure, the obesity epidemic, ocean health, and terrorism and extreme events. From these accounts we identify different patterns that we label fractured, allied, bureaucratic, and anemic policymaking.

  19. Integrated environmental policy: A review of economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesmeth, Hans; Häckl, Dennis

    2017-04-01

    Holistic environmental policies, which emerged from a mere combination of technical activities in waste management some 40 years ago, constitute the most advanced level of environmental policies. These approaches to environmental policy, among them the policies in integrated waste management, attempt to guide economic agents to an environment-friendly behaviour. Nevertheless, current holistic policies in waste management, including policies on one-way drinks containers and waste electrical and electronic equipment, and implementations of extended producer responsibility with further applications to waste electrical and electronic equipment, reveal more or less severe deficiencies - despite some positive examples. This article relates these policy failures, which are not necessarily the result of an insufficient compliance with the regulations, to missing constitutive elements of what is going to be called an 'integrated environmental policy'. This article therefore investigates - mostly from a practical point of view - constitutive elements, which are necessary for a holistic policy to serve as a well-functioning allocation mechanism. As these constitutive elements result from a careful 'integration' of the environmental commodities into the economic allocation problems, we refer to these policies as 'integrated environmental policies'. The article also discusses and illustrates the main steps of designing such a policy - for waste electrical and electronic equipment and a (possible) ban of Glyphosat in agriculture. As these policies are dependent on economic and political stability with environmental awareness sufficiently developed, the article addresses mostly waste management policies in highly industrialised countries.

  20. U.S. Trade and Investment Policy Making Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overall, EPA’s trade and environment policy organization is designed to create a flexible and collaborative mechanism so that EPA can participate fully and effectively in the development and implementation of U.S. trade and environment policy.

  1. U.S. EPA. 2000. Science Policy Council Handbook: Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of the Peer Review Policy and this Handbook is to enhance the quality and credibility of Agency decisions by ensuring that the scientific and technical work products underlying these decisions receive appropriate levels of peer review by independe

  2. A note on optimal (s,S) and (R,nQ) policies under a stuttering Poisson demand process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    In this note, a new efficient algorithm is proposed to find an optimal (s, S) replenishment policy for inventory systems with continuous reviews and where the demand follows a stuttering Poisson process (the compound element is geometrically distributed). We also derive three upper bounds...

  3. DECOMPOSITION OF MANUFACTURING PROCESSES: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M.Z.N. Mohamed

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing is a global activity that started during the industrial revolution in the late 19th century to cater for the large-scale production of products. Since then, manufacturing has changed tremendously through the innovations of technology, processes, materials, communication and transportation. The major challenge facing manufacturing is to produce more products using less material, less energy and less involvement of labour. To face these challenges, manufacturing companies must have a strategy and competitive priority in order for them to compete in a dynamic market. A review of the literature on the decomposition of manufacturing processes outlines three main processes, namely: high volume, medium volume and low volume. The decomposition shows that each sub process has its own characteristics and depends on the nature of the firm’s business. Two extreme processes are continuous line production (fast extreme and project shop (slow extreme. Other processes are in between these two extremes of the manufacturing spectrum. Process flow patterns become less complex with cellular, line and continuous flow compared with jobbing and project. The review also indicates that when the product is high variety and low volume, project or functional production is applied.

  4. Energy Policies of IEA Countries - Canada -- 2009 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-04-12

    Canada, with its diverse and balanced portfolio of energy resources, is one of the largest producers and exporters of energy among IEA member countries. The energy sector plays an increasingly important role for the Canadian economy and for global energy security, as its abundant resource base has the potential to deliver even greater volumes of energy. The federal, provincial and territorial governments of Canada are all strongly committed to the sustainable development of the country's natural resources and have a long-standing and informed awareness of the need for each to contribute to the development of the energy sector. Furthermore, the government of Canada seeks to achieve a balance between the environmentally responsible production and use of energy, the growth and competitiveness of the economy, and secure and competitively priced energy and infrastructure. Nonetheless, the long-term sustainability of the sector remains a challenge. Due to climatic, geographic and other factors, Canada is one of the highest per-capita CO2 emitters in the OECD and has higher energy intensity than any IEA member country. A comprehensive national energy efficiency strategy, coupled with a coordinated climate change policy targeted at the key emitting sectors, is needed. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a priority for the federal government and presents Canada with an opportunity to develop a new technology that can reduce greenhouse gas emissions on a large scale. The IEA recommends that Canada provide international leadership in the development of CCS technology. This review analyses the energy challenges facing Canada and provides sectoral critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide Canada towards a more sustainable energy future.

  5. A review of the Australian healthcare system: A policy perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambasivan, Murali

    2018-01-01

    This article seeks to review the Australian healthcare system and compare it to similar systems in other countries to highlight the main issues and problems. A literature search for articles relating to the Australian and other developed countries’ healthcare systems was conducted by using Google and the library of Victoria University, Melbourne. Data from the websites of the Commonwealth of Australia, the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, the Australian Productivity Commission, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Bank have also been used. Although care within the Australian healthcare system is among the best in the world, there is a need to change the paradigm currently being used to measure the outcomes and allocate resources. The Australian healthcare system is potentially dealing with two main problems: (a) resource allocation, and (b) performance and patient outcomes improvements. An interdisciplinary research approach in the areas of performance measurement, quality and patient outcomes improvement could be adopted to discover new insights, by using the policy implementation error/efficiency and bureaucratic capacity. Hospital managers, executives and healthcare management practitioners could use an interdisciplinary approach to design new performance measurement models, in which financial performance, quality, healthcare and patient outcomes are blended in, for resource allocation and performance improvement. This article recommends that public policy implementation error and the bureaucratic capacity models be applied to healthcare to optimise the outcomes for the healthcare system in Australia. In addition, it highlights the need for evaluation of the current reimbursement method, freedom of choice to patients and a regular scrutiny of the appropriateness of care. PMID:29686869

  6. Energy Policies of IEA Countries - Canada -- 2009 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-04-12

    Canada, with its diverse and balanced portfolio of energy resources, is one of the largest producers and exporters of energy among IEA member countries. The energy sector plays an increasingly important role for the Canadian economy and for global energy security, as its abundant resource base has the potential to deliver even greater volumes of energy. The federal, provincial and territorial governments of Canada are all strongly committed to the sustainable development of the country's natural resources and have a long-standing and informed awareness of the need for each to contribute to the development of the energy sector. Furthermore, the government of Canada seeks to achieve a balance between the environmentally responsible production and use of energy, the growth and competitiveness of the economy, and secure and competitively priced energy and infrastructure. Nonetheless, the long-term sustainability of the sector remains a challenge. Due to climatic, geographic and other factors, Canada is one of the highest per-capita CO2 emitters in the OECD and has higher energy intensity than any IEA member country. A comprehensive national energy efficiency strategy, coupled with a coordinated climate change policy targeted at the key emitting sectors, is needed. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a priority for the federal government and presents Canada with an opportunity to develop a new technology that can reduce greenhouse gas emissions on a large scale. The IEA recommends that Canada provide international leadership in the development of CCS technology. This review analyses the energy challenges facing Canada and provides sectoral critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide Canada towards a more sustainable energy future.

  7. Towards improved policy processes for promoting innovation in renewable electricity technologies in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foxon, T.J.; Pearson, P.J.G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses recent, current and potential future relations between policy processes and substantive outcomes in UK low carbon innovation policy, focussing on policies relating to renewable electricity generation technologies. It examines the development of policy processes relating to the adoption and implementation of the Renewables Obligation and how these may affect the current and likely future success of the Obligation in promoting low carbon innovation. It examines the new policy and institutional processes put in place in the 2003 Energy White Paper and argues that these are unlikely to provide the strategic long-term framework needed to realise the ambitious goals for UK energy policy set out in the White Paper. Finally, it outlines some suggestions for further development of policy processes to facilitate improved delivery of these goals, based on guiding principles for sustainable innovation policy processes, developed by the authors and their colleagues

  8. Transportation of Wheelchair Seated Students in School Buses: A Review of State Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Britta; Fuhrman, Susan; Karg, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    This study quantitatively reviews publicly available state policies as they relate to the transportation of wheelchair-seated students in school buses. Inclusion of best practices in specially equipped school bus and driver training policies was assessed. Key points of interest within state policies were identified based on site visits, common…

  9. A Review of Patti Lather's "Engaging Science Policy from the Side of the Messy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Sue V.

    2011-01-01

    In "Engaging Science Policy from the Side of the Messy," Patti Lather explores the relationship between science and policy. In this review Rosser explores how Lather argues for the use of all forms of research to make policy that is democratic, complex and messy.

  10. Environmental values and risk: A review of Sierra Club policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, P.P.

    1999-01-01

    Sierra Club values are driven by an overriding environmental ethic. Sierra Club environmental values may be characterized by the concept of 'usufruct' a term favored by United States Founding Father Thomas Jefferson. Usufruct conveys the idea that the environment is ours to use, but not to destroy. Each generation has the obligation to pass on to future generations a world at least as environmentally rich as the one it inherited. It is appropriate to accept risk today in order to preserve the environment for generations yet to come. As viewed through the lens of its formal policies, the Sierra Club is an organization that embraces technology, but insists that technology be evaluated comprehensively, taking full account of both environmental and social externalities. The Club is 'risk averse' with respect to early introduction of technologies seen as likely to have significant negative environmental or social impact. The Club places heavy emphasis on process, which must involve the public meaningfully

  11. A Review of School Board Cyberbullying Policies in Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosworthy, Nicole; Rinaldi, Christina

    2012-01-01

    An online search for school board cyberbullying/bullying policies in Alberta was conducted. The results showed that while only five school boards had a bullying policy, many schools had technology or Internet use guidelines. The online search included an assessment of one extensive school board cyberbullying policy as well as Internet use…

  12. Science and environmental policy-making : bias-proofing the assessment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKitrick, R.

    2005-01-01

    Politicians and policy-makers appeal to the concept of peer-reviewed research as a foundation for decision-making. However, peer review does not typically guarantee that data and methods are open to scrutiny or that results are reproducible. This paper argued that additional checks and balances are needed for scientific assessment reports when they are being used to justify major policy investments. The need for such mechanisms was examined with reference to the debate in climate change, which allowed the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to downplay fundamental scientific uncertainties in research in order to claim that the 1990s were the warmest decade of the millennium. Two mechanisms were proposed to address biases in expert assessment panels. The creation of a scientific audit or permanent agency was recommended that would act independently of assessment panels to identify key studies influencing panel decisions to ensure that data are publicly available and that statistical methods are fully described and correctly implemented. The creation of a counterweight panel was also advised, which would then be convened to prepare the strongest possible counter argument to the conclusions of an assessment panel. It was concluded that, given the far-reaching implications of policy decisions that are based on expert assessments, audits and counterweight panels should be integrated into the process by which science is used to guide decision-making. 17 refs., 4 figs

  13. Policy processes and decision making of environmental policy in Great Britain and France. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, H.

    1991-01-01

    Research of central aspects of British environmental policy. This report concentrates on the role of the constitutional system of environmental policy, on the evaluation of a growing of 'Green Policy' in Great Britain, on the central problems of environmental policy and finally on the role of international environmental policy for Great Britain and Great Britain's role in international environmental activities. Beyond that this report contains a presentation of the state of the British environment (Pollution: Air, Water, Waste, Soil; Radioactivity and Noise). (orig.) With 205 refs., 18 tabs., 14 figs [de

  14. Streamlining the license renewal review process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dozier, J.; Lee, S.; Kuo, P.T.

    2001-01-01

    The staff of the NRC has been developing three regulatory guidance documents for license renewal: the Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL) report, Standard Review Plan for License Renewal (SRP-LR), and Regulatory Guide (RG) for Standard Format and Content for Applications to Renew Nuclear Power Plant Operating Licenses. These documents are designed to streamline the license renewal review process by providing clear guidance for license renewal applicants and the NRC staff in preparing and reviewing license renewal applications. The GALL report systematically catalogs aging effects on structures and components; identifies the relevant existing plant programs; and evaluates the existing programs against the attributes considered necessary for an aging management program to be acceptable for license renewal. The GALL report also provides guidance for the augmentation of existing plant programs for license renewal. The revised SRP-LR allows an applicant to reference the GALL report to preclude further NRC staff evaluation if the plant's existing programs meet the criteria described in the GALL report. During the review process, the NRC staff will focus primarily on existing programs that should be augmented or new programs developed specifically for license renewal. The Regulatory Guide is expected to endorse the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) guideline, NEI 95-10, Revision 2, entitled 'Industry Guideline for Implementing the Requirements of 10 CFR Part 54 - The License Renewal Rule', which provides guidance for preparing a license renewal application. This paper will provide an introduction to the GALL report, SRP-LR, Regulatory Guide, and NEI 95-10 to show how these documents are interrelated and how they will be used to streamline the license renewal review process. This topic will be of interest to domestic power utilities considering license renewal and international ICONE participants seeking state-of-the-art information about license renewal in the United States

  15. Policy Review on Adult Learning: The Adult Non-Formal Education Policy of Mali, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadio, Moussa

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the issue of policy development for adult learning in Mali, West Africa. On January 2007, the Malian government adopted the "Adult Non-formal Education Policy Document," which was intended to regulate the adult learning sector and federate the actions of policy makers, adult education providers, and adult…

  16. Policy, Practice, and Research Agenda for Emergency Medical Services Oversight: A Systematic Review and Environmental Scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taymour, Rekar K; Abir, Mahshid; Chamberlin, Margaret; Dunne, Robert B; Lowell, Mark; Wahl, Kathy; Scott, Jacqueline

    2018-02-01

    criteria; 46 included process, 36 outcomes, and 18 structural measures. Most studies applied quality measures at the personnel level (40), followed by the agency (28) and system of care (28), and few at the oversight level (5). Numerous grey literature articles provided principles for high-quality EMS oversight. Limited quality measurement at the oversight level is an important gap in the peer-reviewed literature. The grey literature is ahead in this realm and can guide the policy and research agenda for EMS oversight quality measurement. Taymour RK , Abir M , Chamberlin M , Dunne RB , Lowell M , Wahl K , Scott J . Policy, practice, and research agenda for Emergency Medical Services oversight: a systematic review and environmental scan. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(1):89-97.

  17. The MELCOR peer review process and findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyack, B.E.; Dhir, V.K.; Haste, T.J.; Gieseke, J.A.; Viskanta, R.; Kenton, M.A.; Khatib-Rahbar, M.; Leonard, M.T.

    1991-01-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code the models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. MELCOR is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a second-generation plant risk assessment tool and as the successor to the Source Term Code Package. MELCOR has been under development since 1982. The code has now reached sufficient maturity that a number of organizations inside and outside the NRC are using or are planning to use the code. Although the quality control and validation efforts are in progress, the NRC identified the need to have a broad technical review of recognized experts to determine or confirm the technical adequacy of the code for the serious and complex analyses it is expected to perform. A peer review committee was organized using recognized experts from the national laboratories, universities, MELCOR user community, and independent contractors to perform this assessment. The objective of this paper is to summarize the peer review process and to summarize the findings of the MELCOR Peer Review Committee formed to conduct the MELCOR peer review

  18. Processing Instruction: A review of issues

    OpenAIRE

    Muhlisin Rasuki

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides a critical review of Processing Instruction (PI). This type of instructional option was specifically designed to help second/foreign language (L2) learners grasp meaning manifested in the use of particular grammatical forms in a target language effectively through the provision of input. In this way, PI attempts to help learners develop grammatical competence in a target language in ways that foster their comprehension and production skills. The paper starts with outlining...

  19. Krsko periodic safety review project prioritization process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic, I.; Vrbanic, I.; Spiler, J.; Lambright, J.

    2004-01-01

    Definition of a Krsko Periodic Safety Review (PSR) project is a comprehensive safety review of a plant after last ten years of operation. The objective is a verification by means of a comprehensive review using current methods that Krsko NPP remains safety when judged against current safety objectives and practices and that adequate arrangements are in place to maintain plant safety. This objective encompasses the three main criteria or goals: confirmation that the plant is as safe as originally intended, determination if there are any structures, systems or components that could limit the life of the plant in the foreseeable future, and comparison the plant against modern safety standards and to identify where improvements would be beneficial at justifiable cost. Krsko PSR project is structured in the three phases: Phase 1: Preparation of Detailed 10-years PSR Program, Phase 2: Performing of 10-years PSR Program and preparing of associated documents (2001-2003), and Phase 3: Implementation of the prioritized compensatory measures and modifications (development of associated EEAR, DMP, etc.) after agreement with the SNSA on the design, procedures and time-scales (2004-2008). This paper presents the NEK PSR results of work performed under Phase 2 focused on the ranking of safety issues and prioritization of corrective measures needed for establishing an efficient action plan. Safety issues were identified in Phase 2 during the following review processes: Periodic Safety Review (PSR) task; Krsko NPP Regulatory Compliance Program (RCP) review; Westinghouse Owner Group (WOG) catalog items screening/review; SNSA recommendations (including IAEA RAMP mission suggestions/recommendations).(author)

  20. A code inspection process for security reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzoglio, Gabriele

    2010-04-01

    In recent years, it has become more and more evident that software threat communities are taking an increasing interest in Grid infrastructures. To mitigate the security risk associated with the increased numbers of attacks, the Grid software development community needs to scale up effort to reduce software vulnerabilities. This can be achieved by introducing security review processes as a standard project management practice. The Grid Facilities Department of the Fermilab Computing Division has developed a code inspection process, tailored to reviewing security properties of software. The goal of the process is to identify technical risks associated with an application and their impact. This is achieved by focusing on the business needs of the application (what it does and protects), on understanding threats and exploit communities (what an exploiter gains), and on uncovering potential vulnerabilities (what defects can be exploited). The desired outcome of the process is an improvement of the quality of the software artifact and an enhanced understanding of possible mitigation strategies for residual risks. This paper describes the inspection process and lessons learned on applying it to Grid middleware.

  1. A code inspection process for security reviews

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garzoglio, Gabriele; /Fermilab

    2009-05-01

    In recent years, it has become more and more evident that software threat communities are taking an increasing interest in Grid infrastructures. To mitigate the security risk associated with the increased numbers of attacks, the Grid software development community needs to scale up effort to reduce software vulnerabilities. This can be achieved by introducing security review processes as a standard project management practice. The Grid Facilities Department of the Fermilab Computing Division has developed a code inspection process, tailored to reviewing security properties of software. The goal of the process is to identify technical risks associated with an application and their impact. This is achieved by focusing on the business needs of the application (what it does and protects), on understanding threats and exploit communities (what an exploiter gains), and on uncovering potential vulnerabilities (what defects can be exploited). The desired outcome of the process is an improvement of the quality of the software artifact and an enhanced understanding of possible mitigation strategies for residual risks. This paper describes the inspection process and lessons learned on applying it to Grid middleware.

  2. A code inspection process for security reviews

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garzoglio, Gabriele

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, it has become more and more evident that software threat communities are taking an increasing interest in Grid infrastructures. To mitigate the security risk associated with the increased numbers of attacks, the Grid software development community needs to scale up effort to reduce software vulnerabilities. This can be achieved by introducing security review processes as a standard project management practice. The Grid Facilities Department of the Fermilab Computing Division has developed a code inspection process, tailored to reviewing security properties of software. The goal of the process is to identify technical risks associated with an application and their impact. This is achieved by focusing on the business needs of the application (what it does and protects), on understanding threats and exploit communities (what an exploiter gains), and on uncovering potential vulnerabilities (what defects can be exploited). The desired outcome of the process is an improvement of the quality of the software artifact and an enhanced understanding of possible mitigation strategies for residual risks. This paper describes the inspection process and lessons learned on applying it to Grid middleware.

  3. WHO policy development processes for a new vaccine: case study of malaria vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheyne James

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recommendations from the World Health Organization (WHO are crucial to inform developing country decisions to use, or not, a new intervention. This article analysed the WHO policy development process to predict its course for a malaria vaccine. Methods The decision-making processes for one malaria intervention and four vaccines were classified through (1 consultations with staff and expert advisors to WHO's Global Malaria Programme (GMP and Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals Department (IVB; (2 analysis of the procedures and recommendations of the major policy-making bodies of these groups; (3 interviews with staff of partnerships working toward new vaccine availability; and (4 review and analyses of evidence informing key policy decisions. Case description WHO policy formulation related to use of intermittent preventive treatment in infancy (IPTi and the following vaccine interventions: Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (Hib, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV, rotavirus vaccine (RV, and human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV, five interventions which had relatively recently been through systematic WHO policy development processes as currently constituted, was analysed. Required information was categorized in three areas defined by a recent WHO publication on development of guidelines: safety and efficacy in relevant populations, implications for costs and population health, and localization of data to specific epidemiological situations. Discussion and evaluation Data needs for a malaria vaccine include safety; the demonstration of efficacy in a range of epidemiological settings in the context of other malaria prevention interventions; and information on potential rebound in which disease increases subsequent to the intervention. In addition, a malaria vaccine would require attention to additional factors, such as costs and cost-effectiveness, supply and demand, impact of use on other interventions, and

  4. Information sources for obesity prevention policy research: a review of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanneke, Rosie; Young, Sabrina K

    2017-08-08

    Systematic identification of evidence in health policy can be time-consuming and challenging. This study examines three questions pertaining to systematic reviews on obesity prevention policy, in order to identify the most efficient search methods: (1) What percentage of the primary studies selected for inclusion in the reviews originated in scholarly as opposed to gray literature? (2) How much of the primary scholarly literature in this topic area is indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE? (3) Which databases index the greatest number of primary studies not indexed in PubMed, and are these databases searched consistently across systematic reviews? We identified systematic reviews on obesity prevention policy and explored their search methods and citations. We determined the percentage of scholarly vs. gray literature cited, the most frequently cited journals, and whether each primary study was indexed in PubMed. We searched 21 databases for all primary study articles not indexed in PubMed to determine which database(s) indexed the highest number of these relevant articles. In total, 21 systematic reviews were identified. Ten of the 21 systematic reviews reported searching gray literature, and 12 reviews ultimately included gray literature in their analyses. Scholarly articles accounted for 577 of the 649 total primary study papers. Of these, 495 (76%) were indexed in PubMed. Google Scholar retrieved the highest number of the remaining 82 non-PubMed scholarly articles, followed by Scopus and EconLit. The Journal of the American Dietetic Association was the most-cited journal. Researchers can maximize search efficiency by searching a small yet targeted selection of both scholarly and gray literature resources. A highly sensitive search of PubMed and those databases that index the greatest number of relevant articles not indexed in PubMed, namely multidisciplinary and economics databases, could save considerable time and effort. When combined with a gray literature search and

  5. Health Policy Making System in Islamic Republic of Iran: Review an Experience

    OpenAIRE

    B Larijani; A Delavari; B Damari; A Vosoogh Moghadam; R Majdzadeh

    2009-01-01

    "nIn Iran, the policy making process still has room for improvement. These include the opportunities for better co-ordina­tion of policies on medical education, health research and service provision; improvement of decision making mecha­nisms; a more evidence-based policy making process, and more involvement of stakeholders; reducing fragmentation of policy making foci; and establishing a qualified institution for system analyses and progress monitoring. The Health Pol&am...

  6. What factors in the policy-making process determine the priority given to a policy issue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erisa Xhixho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Agenda setting is the process by which problems and alternative solutions gain or lose public attention (Birkland T. (2007, p.63; Werner J. and Wegrich K. (2007, p.46.. The main factor that determine an issue that it could become a priority, drawing the attention of decision makers, the public, reaching for it to become part of the agenda are: “Window of Opportunity”, which is a strategy used by less powerful groups, which are benefiting from the fact that powerful groups in certain situations may lose control of the agenda, they manage this circumstances to make their case to the priority. Another factor are the “Focus Event” that emphasizes the fact that unexpected events that shock the public opinion, as were the cases of corruption of officials, case “Snowden” or 11 September in the USA, affecting an issue that directly lead the decision-making agenda. Advocacy coalitions, is a form that use less powerful groups by joining on the basis of certain principles, values, beliefs they have about a particular issue. This alliance of values, resources and coordination of actions helps to advance the issue becoming a priority. “Venue shop” as a factor that aims to reach groups through institutions, be heard, be able to attract the attention of decision makers, also using the media as a very important factor nowadays for sensitizing public opinion on the issue and influence in order to become a priority issue. “Policy network” has come as a need of developing a relationship between government and the private sector, thus forming a power dependency relationship mainly the exchange of resources and thereby influencing the political agenda on particular issues. Therefore in this article I will try to argue that these factors affect in various ways becoming determinant that the issue be the priority on the decision agenda. Also, I can say that after the development of the analysis, I think that the two factors have a greater influence

  7. Facilitating participatory processes for policy change in natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    an open and participatory policy and decision -making at the lower .... people who are open minded and who believe in the success of change ..... Figure 3: Policy Task Force Critical Triangle. Source: Adapted form Catacutan et al. (2001). Farmers and local organisations. R&D Facilitators. Decentralized local government.

  8. Energy policies of IEA countries. France 1996 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This IEA report provides a comprehensive, in-depth assessment of the energy policies of France, including recommendations on how policies could be improved. The report acknowledges the considerable progress made since the first oil crisis towards meeting stated energy policy goals-energy security, competitiveness and environmental protection - but argues the case for some reorientation of policy. Key issues highlighted in the report include restructuring and liberalization of the electricity and gas sectors, distortions to inter-fuel competition and the need for a more rational system of energy taxation, and the adequacy and effectiveness of government efforts to promote energy efficiency. (authors). 13 figs., 6 tabs

  9. Critical review of jatropha biodiesel promotion policies in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sunil; Chaube, Alok; Jain, Shashi Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Jatropha, a non-edible oil seed yielding plant has been identified by the Government of India to produce biodiesel under National Biodiesel Mission. Failure of phase-I of National Biodiesel Mission and likely failure of phase-II requires critical analysis of policy frameworks related to its long term sustainability. Indian biofuel promotion policies like Biodiesel Purchase Policy and National Biofuel Policy have failed to yield any visible results. No tangible ground work is visible as of now to ensure success of various government plans and policies related to adoption of jatropha biodiesel. It is clearly evident that some serious bottlenecks are delaying the adoption of jatropha biodiesel. Present work identifies important policy bottlenecks like availability of land, non-remunerative pricing policy and state fear relating to loss of revenue in the case of zero duty regimes. This paper attempts to explore and critically analyze present policies and possible options taking into account the recent Indian experiences for successful adoption of jatropha biodiesel. - Highlights: ► Wrong waste land estimates for jatropha has failed Biodiesel Mission. ► No redressal of technological problems with biodiesel usage. ► Present estimated costing of jatropha biodiesel is Rs. 46.45 per liter. ► Promotion of any biofuel needs central government assistance to the states. ► Targets under National Biofuel Policy are also unlikely to be met.

  10. Dismissive reviews in education policy research: A list

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P. Phelps

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Included in these web pages are the statements—the dismissive reviews—of some prominent education policy researchers. Most of their statements are inaccurate; it is possible that all of them are. Certainly, all of them are misleading. Each linked file includes the dismissive statements, the names of the lead authors (in bold when known and co-authors, title, source, date, and, page numbers for the statement and hyperlink to the source, when available, all listed in reverse chronological order. “Dismissive review” is the general term. In the “type” column of the files, a finer distinction is made among simply “dismissive”—meaning a claim that there is no or little previous research, “denigrating”—meaning a claim that previous research exists but is so inferior it is not worth even citing, and “firstness”—a claim to be the first in the history of the world to ever conduct such a study. For the most part, I have included statements made by “serial dismissers”, researchers who dismiss repeatedly on a variety of topics. This is done to help counter the argument that they might be innocent, actually did make an effort to look for previous research, and simply could not find it. In most cases they dismiss a research literature that is hundreds or thousands of studies deep. And, when they do that repeatedly across a variety of topics, the odds that their dismissive behavior could be innocent fade to minuscule. - See more at: http://nonpartisaneducation.org/Review/Resources/DismissiveList.htm#sthash.TXzlmZhZ.dpuf

  11. Image processing system for videotape review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettendroffer, E.

    1988-01-01

    In a nuclear plant, the areas in which fissile materials are stored or handled, have to be monitored continuously. One method of surveillance is to record pictures of TV cameras with determined time intervals on special video recorders. The 'time lapse' recorded tape is played back at normal speed and an inspector checks visually the pictures. This method requires much manpower and an automated method would be useful. The present report describes an automatic reviewing method based on an image processing system; the system detects scene changes in the picture sequence and stores the reduced data set on a separate video tape. The resulting reduction of reviewing time by inspector is important for surveillance data with few movements

  12. Road pricing policy process : The interplay between policy actors, the media and public

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ardiç, O.

    2015-01-01

    Although road pricing policies are generally seen as an effective measure to deal with transport related problems (e.g. congestion), the number of implemented road pricing schemes is relatively limited. The thesis aims to gain insights into complex interplay between policy actors, media and public

  13. Environmental values and risk: A review of Sierra Club policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, P.P. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Graduate Group in Ecology

    1999-12-01

    Sierra Club values are driven by an overriding environmental ethic. Sierra Club environmental values may be characterized by the concept of 'usufruct' a term favored by United States Founding Father Thomas Jefferson. Usufruct conveys the idea that the environment is ours to use, but not to destroy. Each generation has the obligation to pass on to future generations a world at least as environmentally rich as the one it inherited. It is appropriate to accept risk today in order to preserve the environment for generations yet to come. As viewed through the lens of its formal policies, the Sierra Club is an organization that embraces technology, but insists that technology be evaluated comprehensively, taking full account of both environmental and social externalities. The Club is 'risk averse' with respect to early introduction of technologies seen as likely to have significant negative environmental or social impact. The Club places heavy emphasis on process, which must involve the public meaningfully.

  14. Library Records: A Review of Confidentiality Laws and Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Million, Angela C.; Fisher, Kim N.

    1986-01-01

    Cites the importance of having a state law, knowing what it says, and having a library policy statement regarding the confidentiality of patron records. Discussion covers writing and implementing a policy, the role of automation, existing laws, library records defined, exceptions to confidentiality, and legal liability. Thirty-seven references are…

  15. Policy options to contain healthcare costs: a review and classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stadhouders, N.W.; Koolman, X.; Tanke, M.A.C.; Maarse, H.; Jeurissen, P.P.T.

    2016-01-01

    Containing health care costs has been a challenge for most OECD member states. We classify 2250 cost containment policies in forty-one groups of policy options. This conceptual framework might act as a toolkit for policymakers that seek to develop strategies for cost control; and for researchers

  16. A review of Agent Based Modeling for agricultural policy evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremmydas, Dimitris; Athanasiadis, I.N.; Rozakis, Stelios

    2018-01-01

    Farm level scale policy analysis is receiving increased attention due to a changing agricultural policy orientation. Agent based models (ABM) are farm level models that have appeared in the end of 1990's, having several differences from traditional farm level models, like the consideration of

  17. People, Processes, and Policy-Making in Canadian Post-secondary Education, 1990-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Paul; Desai-Trilokekar, Roopa; Shanahan, Theresa; Wellen, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Policy-making in Canadian post-secondary education is rarely the subject of intensive, systematic study. This paper seeks to identify the distinctive ways in which Canadian post-secondary education policy decisions were constructed and implemented, and to posit an analytical framework for interpreting policy-making process in post-secondary…

  18. A literature review of the market effects of federal biofuel policy and recommendations for future policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Alex Elgin

    The United States has had a federal biofuels policy since the 1970s. The purpose of this policy was to help the development of a biofuel industry during a time of high fuel prices in order to provide a domestic alternative to expensive foreign oil. Later the policy was changed to help lower the environmental impact caused by conventional fuels. Since that time the industry has grown and currently produces around 15 billion gallons of biofuels every year. The current federal biofuel policy is largely based on one program, the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS), which mandates the production and blending of several different classes of biofuels and provides a form of subsidy to the biofuel industry. This paper examines the market effects of the federal biofuel policy and provides recommendations for improving the policy to counteract any negative effects. Federal biofuel policy has many far-reaching market effects. Some are easily calculable through expenditures and lost revenues, while others are harder to quantify because their full effects are not yet known. By evaluating these market effects, this paper will provide ample evidence that the federal biofuels policy needs to change, and will show what effects these changes could induce. The biofuels industry largely owes its existence to government policies, however as the research shows the industry can now stand on its own. This paper will examine what will happen if the federal policy is eliminated and what the future of the biofuels industry could hold. Based on these examinations, it is unlikely that the industry needs further government support and policies should be adjusted in light of this.

  19. Policy Making Processes with Respect to Teacher Education in Finland and Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afdal, Hilde Wagsas

    2013-01-01

    This article examines policy making processes in the area of teacher education (TE) in Finland and Norway. Particular attention is given to the roles different actors play in these processes and the potential effects of their involvement on the TE programs in the two countries. Contemporary policy processes are analyzed through a set of interviews…

  20. Review of desulfurization process for biogas purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Cong; Ma, Yunqian; Ji, Dandan; Zang, Lihua

    2017-12-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a toxic and odorous compound present in biogas produced by the anaerobic digestion of biosolids and other organic materials. Elimination of H2S is necessary as it is extremely hazardous to human health, poisonous to process catalysts and corrosive to equipment. The desulfurization technology is an important part for efficient utilization of biogas. In this paper, the traditional wet and dry desulfurization technology for biogas was reviewed, and the new research progress of biological desulfurization technologies are also introduced.

  1. Environmental Education Policy Processes in the Southern African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    implementation of environmental education policy. Further questions .... for Environmental Management (in Ketlhoilwe, 2003) calls for an informed and environmentally ..... As priority issues such as HIV/AIDS, poverty, water resources and solid.

  2. Scope of Policy Issues in eHealth: Results From a Structured Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrani, Hammad; Nayani, Parvez; Fahim, Ammad

    2012-01-01

    Background eHealth is widely used as a tool for improving health care delivery and information. However, distinct policies and strategies are required for its proper implementation and integration at national and international levels. Objective To determine the scope of policy issues faced by individuals, institutions, or governments in implementing eHealth programs. Methods We conducted a structured review of both peer-reviewed and gray literature from 1998–2008. A Medline search for peer-reviewed articles found 40 papers focusing on different aspects of eHealth policy. In addition, a Google search found 20 national- and international-level policy papers and documents. We reviewed these articles to extract policy issues and solutions described at different levels of care. Results The literature search found 99 policy issues related to eHealth. We grouped these issues under the following themes: (1) networked care, (2) interjurisdictional practice, (3) diffusion of eHealth/digital divide, (4) eHealth integration with existing systems, (5) response to new initiatives, (6) goal-setting for eHealth policy, (7) evaluation and research, (8) investment, and (9) ethics in eHealth. Conclusions We provide a list of policy issues that should be understood and addressed by policy makers at global, jurisdictional, and institutional levels, to facilitate smooth and reliable planning of eHealth programs. PMID:22343270

  3. Australian uranium exports: nuclear issues and the policy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trood, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    The subject is discussed as follows: general introduction; formulation of uranium policy (the public debate; the Ranger Enquiry into all environmental aspects of a proposal by the AAEC and Ranger Uranium Mines to develop certain uranium deposits in the Northern Territory of Australia; the Government's decision); issues (non-proliferation and uranium safeguards policy; uranium enrichment in Australia; government involvement in uranium development; U development and environmental protection; U development and the Australian aborigines); conclusions. (U.K.)

  4. Review of Policy Documents for Nuclear Safety and Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Woong Sik; Choi, Kwang Sik; Choi, Young Sung; Kim, Hho Jung; Kim, Ho Ki

    2006-01-01

    The goal of regulation is to protect public health and safety as well as environment from radiological hazards that may occur as a result of the use of atomic energy. In September 1994, the Korean government issued the Nuclear Safety Policy Statement (NSPS) to establish policy goals of maintaining and achieving high-level of nuclear safety and also help the public understand the national policy and a strong will of the government toward nuclear safety. It declares the importance of establishing safety culture in nuclear community and also specifies five nuclear regulatory principles (Independence, Openness, Clarity, Efficiency and Reliability) and provides the eleven regulatory policy directions. In 2001, the Nuclear Safety Charter was declared to make the highest goal of safety in driving nuclear business clearer; to encourage atomic energy- related institutions and workers to keep in mind the mission and responsibility for assuring safety; to guarantee public confidence in related organizations. The Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) also issues Yearly Regulatory Policy Directions at the beginning of every year. Recently, the third Atomic Energy Promotion Plan (2007-2011) has been established. It becomes necessary for the relevant organizations to prepare the detailed plans on such areas as nuclear development, safety management, regulation, etc. This paper introduces a multi-level structure of nuclear safety and regulation policy documents in Korea and presents some improvements necessary for better application of the policies

  5. Review of Policy Documents for Nuclear Safety and Regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woong Sik; Choi, Kwang Sik; Choi, Young Sung; Kim, Hho Jung; Kim, Ho Ki [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    The goal of regulation is to protect public health and safety as well as environment from radiological hazards that may occur as a result of the use of atomic energy. In September 1994, the Korean government issued the Nuclear Safety Policy Statement (NSPS) to establish policy goals of maintaining and achieving high-level of nuclear safety and also help the public understand the national policy and a strong will of the government toward nuclear safety. It declares the importance of establishing safety culture in nuclear community and also specifies five nuclear regulatory principles (Independence, Openness, Clarity, Efficiency and Reliability) and provides the eleven regulatory policy directions. In 2001, the Nuclear Safety Charter was declared to make the highest goal of safety in driving nuclear business clearer; to encourage atomic energy- related institutions and workers to keep in mind the mission and responsibility for assuring safety; to guarantee public confidence in related organizations. The Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) also issues Yearly Regulatory Policy Directions at the beginning of every year. Recently, the third Atomic Energy Promotion Plan (2007-2011) has been established. It becomes necessary for the relevant organizations to prepare the detailed plans on such areas as nuclear development, safety management, regulation, etc. This paper introduces a multi-level structure of nuclear safety and regulation policy documents in Korea and presents some improvements necessary for better application of the policies.

  6. Sustainability indicator system and policy processes in Malaysia: a framework for utilisation and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hezri, A A

    2004-12-01

    Formulation of effective sustainability indicators for national assessment demands a comprehensive understanding of the utilisation, diffusion and dissemination of information in policy processes. To illustrate the dynamic of sustainability assessment within the context of policy processes, this paper uses a case study of national sustainability indicators development in Malaysia. Subsequently, this paper ascribes the limited achievement of national sustainability assessment in Malaysia to four types of constraints: meta-policy issues; technical capacities; communication concerns; and the inherent knowledge gaps within the indicator developer community vis-a-vis their theoretical limitations. It is proposed that such constraints will be encountered in many countries. Drawing from the literature on public policy, this paper outlines a framework for investigating indicator behaviour within policy processes based on well-established concepts such as knowledge utilisation and policy learning. I conclude this paper by elaborating on the corresponding future challenges that must be addressed before effective integration of sustainability indicators within policy systems can occur.

  7. Valuation of Drug Abuse: A Review of Current Methodologies and Implications for Policy Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schori, Maayan

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the use of several valuation methods as they relate to drug abuse and places them within the context of U.S. policy. First, cost-of-illness (COI) studies are reviewed and their limitations discussed. Second, three additional economic methods of valuing drug abuse are reviewed, including cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA),…

  8. Energy Efficiency Policies around the World: Review and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-01-15

    Since 1992 the World Energy Council (WEC) and ADEME (Agency for Environment and Energy Efficiency, France) have been collaborating on a joint project ''Energy Efficiency Policies and Indicators'' with technical assistance by ENERDATA (France). The latest report presents and evaluates energy efficiency policies in nearly 70 countries around the world, with a specific focus on five policy measures: mandatory energy audits, ESCO's, energy incentives for cars, energy efficiency obligations for utilities, and 'packages of measures' for solar water heaters. The report describes the implemented measures and identifies those proven most effective.

  9. BOOK REVIEW OPEN EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES: Policy, Costs and Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can GULER

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This book presents 15 case studies contributed by researchers and policy makers. The Open Educational Resources (OER implementations are expressed through different point of views. This book focused on three themes: policy, costs and transformation. Policy theme is related to the establishment of priorities for supporting the decisions made by an institution or organization. Costs theme explores the funding of OER, particularly in the sense of cost effectiveness. Transformation theme provides examples that demonstrate how OER can be used in ways that go beyond replication of current teaching and learning models. The editors in the Introduction elaborately describe these three themes.

  10. Dietary and Policy Priorities for Cardiovascular Disease, Diabetes, and Obesity – A Comprehensive Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2015-01-01

    Suboptimal nutrition is a leading cause of poor health. Nutrition and policy science have advanced rapidly, creating confusion yet also providing powerful opportunities to reduce the adverse health and economic impacts of poor diets. This review considers the history, new evidence, controversies, and corresponding lessons for modern dietary and policy priorities for cardiovascular diseases, obesity, and diabetes. Major identified themes include the importance of evaluating the full diversity of diet-related risk pathways, not just obesity and blood lipids; focusing on foods and overall diet patterns, rather than single isolated nutrients; recognizing the complex influences of different foods on long-term weight regulation, rather than simply counting calories; and characterizing and implementing evidence-based strategies, including policy approaches, for lifestyle change. Evidence-informed dietary priorities include increased fruits, nonstarchy vegetables, nuts, legumes, fish, vegetable oils, yogurt, and minimally processed whole grains; and fewer red meats, processed (e.g., sodium-preserved) meats, and foods rich in refined grains, starch, added sugars, salt, and trans fat. More investigation is needed on cardiometabolic effects of phenolics, dairy fat, probiotics, fermentation, coffee, tea, cocoa, eggs, specific vegetable and tropical oils, vitamin D, individual fatty acids, and diet-microbiome interactions. Little evidence to-date supports cardiometabolic relevance of other popular priorities: e.g., local, organic, grass-fed, farmed/wild, non-GMO. Evidence-based personalized nutrition appears to depend more on non-genetic characteristics (e.g., physical activity, abdominal adiposity, gender, socioeconomic status, culture) than genetic factors. Food choices must be strongly supported by clinical behavior change efforts, health systems reforms, novel technologies, and robust policy strategies, including those targeting economic incentives, schools and workplaces

  11. Dietary and Policy Priorities for Cardiovascular Disease, Diabetes, and Obesity: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2016-01-12

    Suboptimal nutrition is a leading cause of poor health. Nutrition and policy science have advanced rapidly, creating confusion yet also providing powerful opportunities to reduce the adverse health and economic impacts of poor diets. This review considers the history, new evidence, controversies, and corresponding lessons for modern dietary and policy priorities for cardiovascular diseases, obesity, and diabetes mellitus. Major identified themes include the importance of evaluating the full diversity of diet-related risk pathways, not only blood lipids or obesity; focusing on foods and overall diet patterns, rather than single isolated nutrients; recognizing the complex influences of different foods on long-term weight regulation, rather than simply counting calories; and characterizing and implementing evidence-based strategies, including policy approaches, for lifestyle change. Evidence-informed dietary priorities include increased fruits, nonstarchy vegetables, nuts, legumes, fish, vegetable oils, yogurt, and minimally processed whole grains; and fewer red meats, processed (eg, sodium-preserved) meats, and foods rich in refined grains, starch, added sugars, salt, and trans fat. More investigation is needed on the cardiometabolic effects of phenolics, dairy fat, probiotics, fermentation, coffee, tea, cocoa, eggs, specific vegetable and tropical oils, vitamin D, individual fatty acids, and diet-microbiome interactions. Little evidence to date supports the cardiometabolic relevance of other popular priorities: eg, local, organic, grass-fed, farmed/wild, or non-genetically modified. Evidence-based personalized nutrition appears to depend more on nongenetic characteristics (eg, physical activity, abdominal adiposity, gender, socioeconomic status, culture) than genetic factors. Food choices must be strongly supported by clinical behavior change efforts, health systems reforms, novel technologies, and robust policy strategies targeting economic incentives, schools and

  12. Systematising "System": One Reviewer's Analysis of the Review Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coniam, David

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes one reviewer's experience of reviewing for the journal "System" over an eight-year period, 2003-2011. The paper reports on the reviews produced by the single reviewer, which have been compiled into a specific purpose--an "occluded"--corpus (Swales, 1996) of 122 reviews, comprising 93,000 words. The paper first describes the…

  13. The Australian government's review of positron emission tomography: evidence-based policy-making in action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Robert E; Francis, Hilton W; Read, Kenneth E

    2004-06-21

    The Commonwealth Government constituted the Medicare Services Advisory Committee (MSAC) to implement its commitment to entrench the principles of evidence-based medicine in Australian clinical practice. With its recent review of positron emission tomography (PETReview), the Commonwealth intervened in an established MSAC process, and sanctioned the stated objective to restrict expenditure on the technology. In our opinion: The evaluation of evidence by PETReview was fundamentally compromised by a failure to meet the terms of reference, poor science, poor process and unique decision-making benchmarks. By accepting the recommendations of PETReview, the Commonwealth is propagating information which is not of the highest quality. The use of inferior-quality information for decision-making by doctors, patients and policy-makers is likely to harm rather than enhance healthcare outcomes.

  14. 15 CFR 2002.1 - Trade Policy Committee Review Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE OPERATION OF COMMITTEES § 2002.1 Trade Policy Committee..., December 11, 1971 (15 CFR 2002.1), is abolished and there is hereby established as a subordinate body of...

  15. Financial Inclusion and Monetary Policy: A Review of Recent Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghana Journal of Development Studies ... in addition to cross-country and regional studies on the impact of financial inclusion on monetary policy using panel data. Keywords: Financial Inclusion, Financial Development, Financial Innovation, ...

  16. National Medicines Policy in retrospective: a review of (almost) 20 years of implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Daniela Moulin Maciel de; Chaves, Gabriela Costa; Azeredo, Thiago Botelho; Silva, Rondineli Mendes da

    2017-08-01

    Pharmaceutical services and the formulation of a medicines policy are SUS areas ensured by the organic health care law 8,080/90. Thus, after a widely participative process, involving stakeholders, the National Medicines Policy (NMP) was approved in 1998 by Ordinance 3,916.The NMP presents directives and priorities, aligned with organic health care law, which should guide the federal, states and municipals entities actions to achieve the policy goals. Considering almost 20 years of the NMP, this paper took stock discussed some of the directives in light of the SUS principles. It was not the objective to provide an exhaustive review of all the activities performed during this period. The authors tried to get close to those that have brought advances and dilemmas, with potential risk of regression. Efforts to implement an ambitious agenda applied to pharmaceutical services were identified. This agenda tried to deal with different challenges like the dynamics of the pharmaceutical market and the operation of pharmaceutical services to guarantee the supply of medicines aligned with principles and directives of SUS.

  17. Revamping the Teacher Evaluation Process. Education Policy Brief. Volume 9, Number 4, Fall 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Rodney S.; Shi, Dingjing; Plucker, Jonathan A.

    2011-01-01

    This policy brief explores Senate Enrolled Act 001 (SEA 1), specifically the provisions for how teachers must be evaluated. After a short summary of SEA 1 and its direct changes to evaluation policies and practices, the brief reviews literature in teacher evaluation and highlights important issues for school corporations to consider when selecting…

  18. Europeanization in VET Policy as a Process of Reshaping the Educational Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista Loogma

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The EU represents a transforming educational space, where national and supranational boundaries in educational governance are becoming blurred. The EU has become an  important actor in educational governance and an important arena for policy learning and transfer. This paper explores how the process of reshaping the educational space manifests itself in the process of the Europeanization of VET policy in the case of Estonia. In Estonia, this process was followed by the growth of executive VET institutions and has developed from rather uncritical initial policy transfer to more active learning from the EU, although conformism can still be seen in cases of the introduction of standardizing policy tools.

  19. The Process Of Advocacy In Romanian Public Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gurgu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Influencing public policy in favor of interest groups can be achieved through advocacy associations legally constituted whose mission is to: promovate professional excellence in the application of advanced practices of advocacy, strengthen civil society participation in development of public policies and continuously develop policies to private firms.. Through advocacy associations can uphold and enforce the values of entrepreneurship and free enterprise. Any resource used in advocacy efforts associations should generate added value and impact, contribute to the progress, development and improved quality of life. Advocacy associations must primarily promotes technical and professional skills of advocacy for any civil society interested group with honesty, dignity, mutual respect, transparency and social responsibility in order to strengthen the system of participatory democracy to which they are signatories.

  20. Urban Housing Policy Review of China : From Economic Growth to Social Inclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, W.; Hoekstra, J.S.C.M.; Elsinga, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the housing policy of China from 1949-2013. It examines the housing tenure change, policy instruments, and impacts social structures in different time periods. After the welfare period of 1949-77, the dual provision period of 1978-1998, and the market dominant period of 1999-2011,

  1. The IEA's review of France's energy policy: the challenge of opening the doors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appert, O.

    2000-01-01

    There has been a continuity in French energy policy for several decades now - the aim to guarantee a supply of energy under reliable, economical conditions. The review, which the International Energy Agency has just conducted, notes how successful this policy has been. But it also emphasizes the need for France to open the doors of this market to the rest of Europe. (authors)

  2. Review and Analysis of the Colombian Foreign Language Bilingualism Policies and Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Sará, Mary Mily

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews the background of the foreign language bilingualism in Colombia, as well as the Colombian bilingualism plans and the policy launched between 2004 and 2016. Then, these plans and policy are analyzed taking into account the most common criticisms from the academic community. In this sense, aspects such as the lack of continuity,…

  3. Urban housing policy review of China : From economic growth to social inclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, W.; Hoekstra, J.S.C.M.; Elsinga, M.G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the housing policy of China from 1949-2013. It examines the housing tenure change, policy instruments, and impacts social structures in different time periods. After the welfare period of 1949-77, the dual provision period of 1978-1998, and the market dominant period of 1999-2011,

  4. The Effectiveness of Policy Interventions for School Bullying: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, William

    2017-01-01

    Objective Bullying threatens the mental and educational well-being of students. Although anti-bullying policies are prevalent, little is known about their effectiveness. This systematic review evaluates the methodological characteristics and summarizes substantive findings of studies examining the effectiveness of school bullying policies. Method Searches of 11 bibliographic databases yielded 489 studies completed since January 1, 1995. Following duplicate removal and double-independent screening based on a priori inclusion criteria, 21 studies were included for review. Results Substantially more educators perceive anti-bullying policies to be effective rather than ineffective. Whereas several studies show that the presence or quality of policies is associated with lower rates of bullying among students, other studies found no such associations between policy presence or quality and reductions in bullying. Consistent across studies, this review found that schools with anti-bullying policies that enumerated protections based on sexual orientation and gender identity were associated with better protection of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) students. Specifically, LGBTQ students in schools with such policies reported less harassment and more frequent and effective intervention by school personnel. Findings are mixed regarding the relationship between having an anti-bullying policy and educators’ responsiveness to general bullying. Conclusions Anti-bullying policies might be effective at reducing bullying if their content is based on evidence and sound theory and if they are implemented with a high level of fidelity. More research is needed to improve on limitations among extant studies. PMID:28344750

  5. Do evidence summaries increase policy-makers' use of evidence from systematic reviews: A systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkovic, Jennifer; Welch, Vivian; Tugwell, Peter

    2015-09-28

    Systematic reviews are important for decision-makers. They offer many potential benefits but are often written in technical language, are too long, and do not contain contextual details which makes them hard to use for decision-making. There are many organizations that develop and disseminate derivative products, such as evidence summaries, from systematic reviews for different populations or subsets of decision-makers. This systematic review will assess the effectiveness of systematic review summaries on increasing policymakers' use of systematic review evidence and to identify the components or features of these summaries that are most effective. We will include studies of policy-makers at all levels as well as health-system managers. We will include studies examining any type of "evidence summary," "policy brief," or other products derived from systematic reviews that present evidence in a summarized form. The primary outcomes are the following: (1) use of systematic review summaries decision-making (e.g., self-reported use of the evidence in policy-making, decision-making) and (2) policy-maker understanding, knowledge, and/or beliefs (e.g., changes in knowledge scores about the topic included in the summary). We will conduct a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomized controlled trials (NRCTs), controlled before-after studies (CBA), and interrupted time series (ITS) studies. The results of this review will inform the development of future systematic review summaries to ensure that systematic review evidence is accessible to and used by policy-makers making health-related decisions.

  6. Businesses' voluntary pro-health tobacco policies: a review and research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Malone, Ruth E

    2012-01-01

    Research on the role of businesses in tobacco control has focused primarily on retailers, advertising firms and the hospitality industry, all of which have tended to support tobacco industry interests and resist effective tobacco control policies. However, in several countries, businesses have a history of voluntarily adopting tobacco-related policies that may advance tobacco control objectives. These phenomena have received little research attention. Existing literature on businesses ending tobacco sales, instituting voluntary workplace smoking restrictions and establishing non-smoker only hiring policies was reviewed. A research agenda on voluntary business initiatives would enhance and complement research on mandatory tobacco control policies by identifying new advocacy opportunities; suggesting avenues for strengthening or reinforcing existing policy initiatives; laying the groundwork for new mandatory policies; helping to inform ethical debates about contentious voluntary policies; and contributing to a better understanding of how alliances between the tobacco industry and other businesses might be weakened.

  7. The Policy-Making Process of the State University System of Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Sandra M.

    The policy-making process of the State University System of Florida is described using David Easton's model of a political system as the conceptual framwork. Two models describing the policy-making process were developed from personal interviews with the primary participants in the governance structure and from three case studies of policy…

  8. Mental health policy process: a comparative study of Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kigozi Fred

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental illnesses are increasingly recognised as a leading cause of disability worldwide, yet many countries lack a mental health policy or have an outdated, inappropriate policy. This paper explores the development of appropriate mental health policies and their effective implementation. It reports comparative findings on the processes for developing and implementing mental health policies in Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia as part of the Mental Health and Poverty Project. Methods The study countries and respondents were purposively selected to represent different levels of mental health policy and system development to allow comparative analysis of the factors underlying the different forms of mental health policy development and implementation. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and document analysis. Data analysis was guided by conceptual framework that was developed for this purpose. A framework approach to analysis was used, incorporating themes that emerged from the data and from the conceptual framework. Results Mental health policies in Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia are weak, in draft form or non-existent. Mental health remained low on the policy agenda due to stigma and a lack of information, as well as low prioritisation by donors, low political priority and grassroots demand. Progress with mental health policy development varied and respondents noted a lack of consultation and insufficient evidence to inform policy development. Furthermore, policies were poorly implemented, due to factors including insufficient dissemination and operationalisation of policies and a lack of resources. Conclusions Mental health policy processes in all four countries were inadequate, leading to either weak or non-existent policies, with an impact on mental health services. Recommendations are provided to strengthen mental health policy processes in these and other African countries.

  9. Processing Instruction: A review of issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhlisin Rasuki

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a critical review of Processing Instruction (PI. This type of instructional option was specifically designed to help second/foreign language (L2 learners grasp meaning manifested in the use of particular grammatical forms in a target language effectively through the provision of input. In this way, PI attempts to help learners develop grammatical competence in a target language in ways that foster their comprehension and production skills. The paper starts with outlining main characteristics of PI which distinguish it from other types of L2 grammar instruction. Then, a large body of research attempting to investigate the relative efficacy of PI is scrutinized. The paper concludes with a number of important issues that future studies on PI need to address.

  10. The communication process in Telenursing: integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Ingrid de Almeida; Silva, Karen Cristina da Conceição Dias da; Silva, Vladimir Araújo da; Silva, Maria Júlia Paes da

    2016-01-01

    to identify scientific evidence about the communication process in Telenursing and analyze them. integrative review performed in March 2014. The search strategy, structured with the descriptors "telenursing" and "communication", was implemented in the databases Medline, Bireme, Cinahl, Scopus, Web of Science, Scielo, and Cochrane. ten studies were selected after inclusion and exclusion criteria. The main challenges were: the clinical condition of patients, the possibility for inadequate communication to cause misconduct, the absence of visual references in interactions without video, and difficulty understanding nonverbal communication. distance imposes communicative barriers in all elements: sender, recipient and message; and in both ways of transmission, verbal and nonverbal. The main difficulty is to understand nonverbal communication. To properly behave in this context, nurses must receive specific training to develop abilities and communication skills.

  11. Why media representations of corporations matter for public health policy: a scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heide Weishaar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Media representations play a crucial role in informing public and policy opinions about the causes of, and solutions to, ill-health. This paper reviews studies analysing media coverage of non-communicable disease (NCD debates, focusing on how the industries marketing commodities that increase NCD risk are represented. Methods A scoping review identified 61 studies providing information on media representations of NCD risks, NCD policies and tobacco, alcohol, processed food and soft drinks industries. The data were narratively synthesized to describe the sample, media depictions of industries, and corporate and public health attempts to frame the media debates. Results The findings indicate that: (i the limited research that has been undertaken is dominated by a focus on tobacco; (ii comparative research across industries/risk-factors is particularly lacking; and (iii coverage tends to be dominated by two contrasting frames and focuses either on individual responsibilities (‘market justice’ frames, often promoted by commercial stakeholders or on the need for population-level interventions (‘social justice’ frames, frequently advanced by public health advocates. Conclusions Establishing the underlying frameworks is crucial for the analysis of media representation of corporations, as they reflect the strategies that respective actors use to influence public health debates and decision making. The potential utility of media research lies in the insights that it can provide for public health policy advocates about successful framing of public health messages and strategies to counter frames that undermine public health goals. A better understanding of current media debates is of paramount importance to improving global health.

  12. Processes for consensus building and role sharing. Lessons learned from HLW policies in European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagano, Koji

    2003-01-01

    This report attempts to obtain lessons in implementation of HLW management policies for Japan by reviewing past experiences and present status of policy formulation and implementation as well as reflection of public opinions and consensus building of selected European countries, such as Finland, Sweden and others. After examining the situations of those countries, the author derives four key aspects that need to be addressed; separation of nuclear energy policies and HLW policies, fundamental support shared among national public, sense of controllability, and proper scheme of responsibility sharing. (author)

  13. A review of obesity-themed policy briefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Elizabeth A; Eyler, Amy A; Chalifour, Stephanie; Wintrode, Christopher G

    2012-09-01

    Policy approaches are one of the most promising population-based means of addressing the epidemic of obesity in the U.S., especially as they create supportive environments for healthy living. Policy briefs can be an effective means of disseminating research information to inform obesity prevention efforts; however, they are often ineffective because of length, density, and inaccessibility. The purposes of this project were to identify a collection of obesity-related policy briefs, analyze the content, and make recommendations for model policy briefs. In 2010, online searching strategies were developed with criteria that included a primary topical focus on obesity, written between 2000 and 2010, targeting any population age group, including a policy-change message, and being readily available online. The research team developed a coding tool and used it to analyze briefs. A subsample of the briefs was used for further analysis on dissemination. Analyses were conducted on 100 briefs. Most (72%) were developed between 2005 and 2010; the average length was five pages. The majority had no tables, few figures, and only 36% included photos. The average reading level was high. A lack of monitoring or evaluating dissemination efforts prevailed. Policy briefs represent an effective, often-preferred, potent tool for public health practitioners and researchers to communicate information to policymakers. Recommendations include presenting information clearly, using a concise format, including design elements, noting reference and contact information, employing active and targeted dissemination efforts, and conducting evaluation. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The relevance of systematic reviews on pharmaceutical policy to low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Andrew Lofts; Suleman, Fatima

    2015-10-01

    Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) rely on available evidence when devising and implementing pharmaceutical policies. Aim of the review To provide a critical overview of systematic reviews of pharmaceutical policies, with particular focus on the relevance of such reviews in low- and middle-income countries. A search for systematic reviews (SRs) of studies of the interventions of interest was conducted until May 2009 in MEDLINE, EconLit, CINAHL, the Cochrane site, ProQuest, EMBASE, JOLIS, ISI Web of Science, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, International Network for Rational Use of Drugs, National Technical Information Service, Public Affairs Information Service, SourceOECD, the System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe, and the WHO library database. The search was updated to July 2013, based on the yields of the initial search strategy. 20 SRs that met all inclusion criteria were retrieved in full text. Four SRs were subsequently rejected on the basis of quality considerations and the findings of 16 SRs were extracted and their applicability in LMICs considered. Of these, 5 were Cochrane Reviews. All included SRs were published in English. SRs related to registration and classification policies, marketing policies, prescribing policies, reimbursement policies, policies on price and payments, co-payments and caps and multi-component policies were retrieved. No SRs related to patent and profit policies, sales and dispensing policies, policies that regulate the provision of health insurance, or policies on patient information were retrieved. Only one of the systematic reviews retrieved utilised a study conducted in a developing country. The direct applicability of the evidence from these SRs in LMICs is limited. However, as middle-income countries move towards universal health coverage, the multi-component policies that govern reimbursement for medicines, and which impose caps on payments and co-payments by patients, may become more applicable

  15. A review of Ghana’s energy sector national energy statistics and policy framework

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Asumadu-Sarkodie; Phebe Asantewaa Owusu

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a review of Ghana’s energy sector national energy statistics and policy framework is done to create awareness of the strategic planning and energy policies of Ghana’s energy sector that will serve as an informative tool for both local and foreign investors, help in national decision-making for the efficient development and utilization of energy resources. The review of Ghana’s energy sector policy is to answer the question, what has been done so far? And what is the way forward...

  16. Energy policy of the International Energy Agency (IEA) countries. General review of the year 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This book is a general review on energy policy leaded by Members countries of International Energy Agency (IEA) during the year 1990. This book describes also the trends and the recent events which have affected energy demand, energy conservation, energy efficiency, energy supply and energy source development. This annual review gives the IEA energy forecasting for the next years, till year 2001. A detailed study of energy policy in Federal Republic of Germany, Austria, Denmark, Greece, Ireland and Japan is given. The policy of fifteen another Members countries, which have been analyzed the previous years, is recapitulated and briefly brought up to date

  17. European experiences as guidelines for public, private and civil sector role redefinition in spatial policy formulation process in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksić Milica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The period of post-socialist transition in Serbia brings more complex actors environment compared to socialistic period, while institutional arrangements are not enough developed to actively involve different groups of actors in spatial policy formulation process. In order to gather certain knowledge as guidelines for redefining institutional practices in Serbia, institutional framework of Serbia was compared in this paper with institutional framework of three developed European countries, especially in relation to the roles of public, private and civil sector in spatial policy formulation process. The European countries selected for the analysis are United Kingdom, Netherlands and Germany because of diverse national administrative traditions, so different institutional arrangements could be researched. By comparing institutional framework in Serbia with the ones in developed European countries following questions are researched: which actors are missing in Serbia, what are the ways institutional arrangements for different groups inclusion into spatial policy formulation process are formed, what are the differences between the roles of certain groups of actors in decision-making process. Current roles of actors in spatial policy formulation process in Serbia are reviewed and possible directions for public, private and civil sector role redefinition in Serbia are discussed in accordance with experiences of developed European countries.

  18. A comprehensive review of the policy and programmatic response to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 46, No 2 (2012) > ... Yet, until recently, they have been neglected and not considered a health priority. ... Methods: Unpublished reports, documents, relevant files of the Ghana Health Service (GHS) were examined ... Keywords: chronic non-communicable diseases, health systems, health policy, funding, ...

  19. Clinical review: impact of statin substitution policies on patient outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atar, Dan; Carmena, Rafael; Clemmensen, Peter; K-Laflamme, Annik; Wassmann, Sven; Lansberg, Peter; Hobbs, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The increasing awareness of cost issues in health care has led to the increasing use of policy-driven substitution of branded for generic medications, particularly relative to statin treatment for cardiovascular diseases. While there are potential short-term health care savings, the consequences for

  20. Science and Technology Policy in Colombia: A Comparative Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Correa-Restrepo, Juan Santiago; Tejada-Gomez, Maria Alejandra; Cayon-Fallon, Edgardo; Ordonez Matamoros, Hector Gonzalo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to assess the current situation of the science and technology system in Colombia from a comparative perspective of quality indicators in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). We analyze the development of the science and technology policy in Colombia form a

  1. Clinical review: impact of statin substitution policies on patient outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atar, Dan; Carmena, Rafael; Clemmensen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The increasing awareness of cost issues in health care has led to the increasing use of policy-driven substitution of branded for generic medications, particularly relative to statin treatment for cardiovascular diseases. While there are potential short-term health care savings...

  2. Financial Inclusion and Monetary Policy: A Review of Recent Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-01

    May 1, 2017 ... financial inclusion and its implications for monetary policy and financial stability. ... These studies have discussed the implications of financial exclusion for the parameters ... and allocating capital, monitoring firms and exerting corporate ... decisions, and technological innovations and hence economic ...

  3. Political processes and variation in renewable energy policies between U.S. states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasseur, Michael

    Over the past forty years federal efforts at renewable energy policy in the United States have been fragmented and are largely stalled. This is much different from U.S. states, which enact a diverse array of renewable energy policies. What factors explain this subnational variation? Addressing this question requires moving past the standard model of binary policy adoption that dominates studies of renewable energy policy. In its place I provide analyses of multifaceted policy outcomes, and also include predictors from a more inclusive view of politics than the standard economic and political interest factors. These additions to the standard energy policy model shed light not just on when states take policy action, but also on the content of the policies states ultimately adopt. In this dissertation I argue that different combinations of state-level political and economic characteristics influence policy adoption and policy content, a fact that is obscured by analysis of only binary policy action. I demonstrate this through three empirical projects that utilize an original longitudinal dataset and a variety of quantitative methods. The first project examines the diffusion of two varieties of a single regulatory policy instrument within a political context. I demonstrate that, contrary to most diffusion studies, policy adoption should be thought of as a multifaceted process, with separate factors determining the impetus for action and others shaping the content of the policy. My second project examines the role of economic, political, institutional, and cultural factors on a state's portfolio of policies. This work extends findings from prior literature on tax policies and incorporates institutional and cultural accounts of policy adoption into the study of renewable energy policy. I show that state economic and political factors, the predictors in traditional energy policy models, predict policy action but not policy content. Instead it is a state's cultural context

  4. How to reduce household carbon emissions: A review of experience and policy design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaoling; Wang, Yue

    2017-01-01

    Global warming and environment problems caused by the excessive emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs), along with rapid economic development has attracted the attention of many countries and regions of the world. Reducing GHG emissions is essential to mitigate the threat of global warming. Household carbon (dioxide) emissions have been recognized as one of the most important contributors to climate change, with a significant impact on both the local and global environment, and various policy instruments have been implemented by governments to bring about the reduction. This paper reviews these carbon abatement policy measures from demand-side and supply-side perspectives based on 144 countries across the world. The advantages and disadvantages of the policies are analyzed and it is found that income level largely affects the choice of policy, with high-income countries being mostly associated with demand-side policy instruments. Low-income countries adopt less demand-side policy measures and mainly depend on supply-side polices such as targets and regulations. Geographic location is also an important factor influencing the choice of policy instruments due to the different climates between different regions, although targets, regulations and carbon taxes are dominant GHG reduction policy measures worldwide. In America, tendering and net metering are popular, while in Europe feed-in-tariff (FIT) policies are implemented for more than 70% of the time. In Asia, policy measures, whether supply-side or demand-side, are comparatively weakly implemented and influenced by location, urbanization and economic growth. This paper suggests that, although the economic level is different, low-income countries and particularly developing countries can promote carbon abatement as well as the financial market by gradually changing from supply-side policy instruments to demand-side policies. This critical review provides a systematic understanding of various carbon emission policies in

  5. Label, nudge or tax? A review of health policies for risky behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galizzi, Matteo M

    2012-02-17

    This work proposes a critical, non systematic, review of the three main lines of health policy interventions to deal with risky behaviours, such as over-eating, smoking, sedentary lives, and excess alcohol drinking, namely: i) the release of information on health risks and consequences; ii) the use of incentives; and iii) direct policy intervention in markets, through regulation and taxation. First, the health and economic impact of the risky behaviours epidemics are briefly described. Then a critical review follows on the evidence existing on the effectiveness of each type of intervention. The review will also highlight the public health approach staying beyond each type of policy on risky behaviours and critically consider them within the context of more general health and social policy interventions.

  6. Label, nudge or tax? A review of health policies for risky behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo M. Galizzi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes a critical, non systematic, review of the three main lines of health policy interventions to deal with risky behaviours, such as over-eating, smoking, sedentary lives, and excess alcohol drinking, namely: i the release of information on health risks and consequences; ii the use of financial incentives; and iii direct policy intervention in markets, through regulation and taxation. First, the health and economic impact of the risky behaviours epidemics are briefly described. Then a critical review follows on the evidence existing on the effectiveness of each type of intervention. The review will also highlight the public health approach staying beyond each type of policy on risky behaviours and critically consider them within the context of more general health and social policy interventions.

  7. Warehouse Order-Picking Process. Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Korobkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes basic warehousing activities, namely: movement, information storage and transfer, as well as connections between typical warehouse operations (reception, transfer, assigning storage position and put-away, order-picking, hoarding and sorting, cross-docking, shipping. It presents a classification of the warehouse order-picking systems in terms of manual labor on offer as well as external (marketing channels, consumer’s demand structure, supplier’s replenishment structure and inventory level, total production demand, economic situation and internal (mechanization level, information accessibility, warehouse dimensionality, method of dispatch for shipping, zoning, batching, storage assignment method, routing method factors affecting the designing systems complexity. Basic optimization considerations are described. There is a literature review on the following sub-problems of planning and control of orderpicking processes.A layout design problem has been taken in account at two levels — external (facility layout problem and internal (aisle configuration problem. For a problem of distributing goods or stock keeping units the following methods are emphasized: random, nearest open storage position, and dedicated (COI-based, frequency-based distribution, as well as class-based and familygrouped (complimentary- and contact-based one. Batching problem can be solved by two main methods, i.e. proximity order batching (seed and saving algorithms and time-window order batching. There are two strategies for a zoning problem: progressive and synchronized, and also a special case of zoning — bucket brigades method. Hoarding/sorting problem is briefly reviewed. Order-picking routing problem will be thoroughly described in the next article of the cycle “Warehouse order-picking process”.

  8. The Journal of Consumer Policy Outstanding Reviewer Award 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia A.

    2016-01-01

    The article announces the Outstanding Reviewer Award 2016 to be given by the journal to Wencke Gwozdz, Associate Professor at Copenhagen Business School, Denmark.......The article announces the Outstanding Reviewer Award 2016 to be given by the journal to Wencke Gwozdz, Associate Professor at Copenhagen Business School, Denmark....

  9. International Processes of Education Policy Formation: An Analytic Framework and the Case of Plan 2021 in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    This article uses multiple perspectives to frame international processes of education policy formation and then applies the framework to El Salvador's Plan 2021 between 2003 and 2005. These perspectives are policy attraction, policy negotiation, policy imposition, and policy hybridization. Research reveals that the formation of Plan 2021 was the…

  10. [Review of food policy approaches: from food security to food sovereignty (2000-2013)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Giraldo, Luis Alirio; Franco-Giraldo, Álvaro

    2015-07-01

    Food policies have attracted special interest due to the global food crisis in 2008 and promotion of the Millennium Development Goals, leading to approaches by different fields. This thematic review aims to describe the main theoretical and methodological approaches to food security and food sovereignty policies. A search was performed in databases of scientific journals from 2000 to 2013. 320 complete articles were selected from a total of 2,699. After reading the articles to apply the inclusion criteria, 55 items were maintained for analysis. In conclusion, with the predominance of food security as a guiding policy, food sovereignty has emerged as a critical response to be included in designing and researching food policies. Food policies are essential for achieving public health goals. Public health should thus take a leading role in linking and orienting such policies.

  11. Research review of nongovernmental organizations' security policies for humanitarian programs in war, conflict, and postconflict environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Elizabeth; Burns, Lauren; Burnham, Gilbert

    2013-06-01

    To identify the most and least commonly cited security management messages that nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) are communicating to their field staff, to determine the types of documentation that NGOs most often use to communicate key security messages, and to distinguish the points of commonality and divergence across organizations in the content of key security messages. The authors undertook a systematic review of available security policies, manuals, and training materials from 20 international humanitarian NGOs using the InterAction Minimum Operating Security Standards as the basis for a review framework. The most commonly cited standards include analytical security issues such as threat and risk assessment processes and guidance on acceptance, protection, and deterrence approaches. Among the least commonly cited standards were considering security threats to national staff during staffing decision processes, incorporating security awareness into job descriptions, and ensuring that national staff security issues are addressed in trainings. NGO staff receive security-related messages through multiple document types, but only 12 of the 20 organizations have a distinct security policy document. Points of convergence across organizations in the content of commonly cited standards were found in many areas, but differences in security risk and threat assessment guidance may undermine communication between aid workers about changes in local security environments. Although the humanitarian community has experienced significant progress in the development of practical staff security guidance during the past 10 years, gaps remain that can hinder efforts to garner needed resources, clarify security responsibilities, and ensure that the distinct needs of national staff are recognized and addressed.

  12. 78 FR 22771 - Statement of Policy on the Development and Review of Regulations and Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ... the basic principles that guide the FDIC in its promulgation and review of regulations and written... basic principles which guide the FDIC's promulgation and review of regulations and written statements of... Housing Finance Agency) has become more common. Some rulemakings also require consultation with the...

  13. Port economics, policy and management : review of an emerging research field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pallis, A.A.; Vitsounis, T.K.; Langen, de P.W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews research in port economics, policy and management during the period 1997-2008. In an increasingly international economy, research interest in ports is gradually emerging. This paper examines the developments, themes and characteristics of this research, by reviewing a

  14. A Review of Cash Management Policies, Procedures and Practices of Mississippi's Institutions of Higher Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi State Legislature, Jackson. Performance Evaluation and Expenditure Review Committee.

    This report to the Mississippi Legislature presents the findings of a review of the cash management policies, procedures, and practices of the State Board of Trustees of Institutions of Higher Learning (IHL). The methodology involved review of: applicable Mississippi statutes; standards promulgated by the National Association of College and…

  15. Use and Impacts of Campbell Systematic Reviews on Policy, Practice, and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Brandy R.; Dell, Nathaniel A.

    2018-01-01

    Aim: This study examines use and impacts of systematic reviews produced by the Campbell Collaboration's Social Welfare Coordinating Group (SWCG) on practice, policy, and research. Methods: A mixed-method research design was used to examine impacts of 52 systematic reviews published by the SWCG. We conducted author surveys and retrieved multiple…

  16. Energy policies of IEA countries: Turkey 1997 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This IEA report provides a comprehensive in-depth assessment of the energy policies of Turkey, including recommendations on future policy developments. The report highlights the rapid increase in Turkey`s energy consumption and the large investments needed to meet the demand growth. Turkey has sought to attract private inward investment in the energy sector, in particular in electricity, through build-own-operate and build-operate-transfer schemes and transfers of operating rights. Turkey needs to set up a stable legal framework to continue this policy. It needs to push forward with market reforms, as well as to create a level playing field for competition, with energy prices reflecting the true costs of various fuels. Natural gas consumption is also expected to continue to increase. The new regulatory framework should be designed to encourage more rapid increase in the use of gas and more corresponding investments. Turkey is situated near the Caspian Sea, where natural gas and oil production are expected to increase substantially. The report describes projects for oil and natural gas pipelines. 33 figs., 31 tabs., 4 apps.

  17. Using research evidence to reframe the policy debate around mental illness and guns: process and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Emma E; Frattaroli, Shannon; Appelbaum, Paul S; Bonnie, Richard J; Grilley, Anna; Horwitz, Joshua; Swanson, Jeffrey W; Webster, Daniel W

    2014-11-01

    Recent mass shootings have prompted a national dialogue around mental illness and gun policy. To advance an evidence-informed policy agenda on this controversial issue, we formed a consortium of national gun violence prevention and mental health experts. The consortium agreed on a guiding principle for future policy recommendations: restricting firearm access on the basis of certain dangerous behaviors is supported by the evidence; restricting access on the basis of mental illness diagnoses is not. We describe the group's process and recommendations.

  18. A formal communication process: Pathway to improved policy making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, A.; Robison, A.C.; Seidler, P.E.

    1993-01-01

    This paper will examine the efforts made and the steps taken by the US DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (DOE/OCRWM) to establish and keep open lines of communication with officials in Nye County, Nevada, the location of Yucca Mountain, the site of a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository. These efforts include creating policies and procedures for conducting oversight of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP), as well as developing programs for engaging in technical studies, requests for impact assistance and financial assistance, and ensuring there's a continuous flow of information to the residents of Nevada

  19. China's fuel economy standards for passenger vehicles. Rationale, policy process, and impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, Hongyan H.; Gallagher, Kelly Sims; Tian, Donglian; Zhang, Jinhua

    2009-01-01

    China issued its first Fuel Economy Standards (FES) for light-duty passenger vehicles (LDPV) in September 2004, and the first and second phases of the FES took effective in July 2005 and January 2008, respectively. The stringency of the Chinese FES ranks third globally, following the Japanese and European standards. In this paper, we first review the policy-making background, including the motivations, key players, and the process; and then explain the content and the features of the FES and why there was no compliance flexibility built into it. Next, we assess the various aspects of the standard's impact, including fuel economy improvement, technology changes, shift of market composition, and overall fuel savings. Lastly, we comment on the prospect of tightening the existing FES and summarize the complementary policies that have been adopted or may be considered by the Chinese government for further promoting efficient vehicles and reducing transport energy consumption. The Chinese experience is highly relevant for countries that are also experiencing or anticipating rapid growth in personal vehicles, those wishing to moderate an increase in oil demand, or those desirous of vehicle technology upgrades. (author)

  20. Crossing borders: a critical review of the role of the European Court of Justice in EU health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Eleanor

    2012-04-01

    Over the last two decades, the European Union (EU) has steadily increased its involvement in the health policies of its member states, with considerable support from the European Court of Justice (ECJ). However, much of the literature examining the Court's role has focused upon the intersection between internal market law and the health services sector; the majority of studies have failed to examine the potential role for the Court in public health policy. Observers such as Greer have seen the development of healthcare as a clear case of neofunctional spillover, a view supported but qualified by Wasserfallen and others, who present a more detailed account of the mechanics of the process. Alternative analyses have focused upon the new modes of governance, soft law and other factors - this article reviews the current state of research in the field and the extent to which it should concern health policy actors and non-specialists in EU policy alike. It concludes that the Court has played and continues to play a crucial role in the development of EU public health policy, as well as in health services and broader social policy, where its influence has already been well documented. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Geothermal Induced Seismicity National Environmental Policy Act Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Aaron L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cook, Jeffrey J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beckers, Koenraad J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Young, Katherine R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-04

    In 2016, the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) contracted with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to assist the BLM in developing and building upon tools to better understand and evaluate induced seismicity caused by geothermal projects. This review of NEPA documents for four geothermal injection or EGS projects reveals the variety of approaches to analyzing and mitigating induced seismicity. With the exception of the Geysers, where induced seismicity has been observed and monitored for an extended period of time due to large volumes of water being piped in to recharge the hydrothermal reservoir, induced seismicity caused by geothermal projects is a relative new area of study. As this review highlights, determining the level of mitigation required for induced seismic events has varied based on project location, when the review took place, whether the project utilized the International Energy Agency or DOE IS protocols, and the federal agency conducting the review. While the NEPA reviews were relatively consistent for seismic monitoring and historical evaluation of seismic events near the project location, the requirements for public outreach and mitigation for induced seismic events once stimulation has begun varied considerably between the four projects. Not all of the projects were required to notify specific community groups or local government entities before beginning the project, and only one of the reviews specifically stated the project proponent would hold meetings with the public to answer questions or address concerns.

  2. Peer Review as a Strategy for Improving Students' Writing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kimberly M.

    2016-01-01

    Peer review is an established strategy for improving the quality of students' writing. This study moves beyond the focus on outcomes to assess the peer-review process. In particular, this study focuses on the timing of the peer review, a highly structured feedback form, and student writers' revisions after engaging in peer review. This study draws…

  3. Use of Comparative Case Study Methodology for US Public Health Policy Analysis: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinour, Lauren M; Kwan, Amy; Freudenberg, Nicholas

    There is growing recognition that policies influence population health, highlighting the need for evidence to inform future policy development and reform. This review describes how comparative case study methodology has been applied to public health policy research and discusses the methodology's potential to contribute to this evidence. English-language, peer-reviewed articles published between 1995 and 2012 were sought from 4 databases. Articles were included if they described comparative case studies addressing US public health policy. Two researchers independently assessed the 20 articles meeting review criteria. Case-related characteristics and research design tactics utilized to minimize threats to reliability and validity, such as the use of multiple sources of evidence and a case study protocol, were extracted from each article. Although comparative case study methodology has been used to analyze a range of public health policies at all stages and levels, articles reported an average use of only 3.65 (out of 10) research design tactics. By expanding the use of accepted research design tactics, public health policy researchers can contribute to expanding the evidence needed to advance health-promoting policies.

  4. Improving the evidence base for energy policy: The role of systematic reviews

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorrell, Steve

    2007-01-01

    The concept of evidence-based policy and practice (EBPP) has gained increasing prominence in the UK over the last 10 years and now plays a dominant role in a number of policy areas, including healthcare, education, social work, criminal justice and urban regeneration. But despite this substantial, influential and growing activity, the concept remains largely unknown to policymakers and researchers within the energy field. This paper defines EBPP, identifies its key features and examines the potential role of systematic reviews of evidence in a particular area of policy. It summarises the methods through which systematic reviews are achieved; discusses their advantages and limitations; identifies the particular challenges they face in the energy policy area; and assesses whether and to what extent they can usefully be applied to contemporary energy policy questions. The concept is illustrated with reference to a proposed review of evidence for a 'rebound effect' from improved energy efficiency. The paper concludes that systematic reviews may only be appropriate for a subset of energy policy questions and that research-funding priorities may need to change if their use is to become more widespread

  5. Dissolving decision making? : Models and their roles in decision-making processes and policy at large

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeiss, Ragna; van Egmond, S.

    2014-01-01

    This article studies the roles three science-based models play in Dutch policy and decision making processes. Key is the interaction between model construction and environment. Their political and scientific environments form contexts that shape the roles of models in policy decision making.

  6. Revitalizing REDD+ Policy Processes in Vietnam: The Roles of State and Non-State Actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thu Ba Huynh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Vietnam was one of the first countries to introduce the National REDD+ (Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation Action Program in 2012. The country has recently revised the Program to aim for a more inclusive 2016–2020 strategy and a vision to 2030. This study explores how Vietnam policy actors view REDD+ policy development and their influence in these processes. The results can contribute to the discussion on how policy actors can effectively influence policy processes in the evolving context of REDD+ and in the types of political arrangements represented in Vietnam. We examined the influence of state and non-state actors on the 2012 National REDD+ Action Program (NRAP processes, and explored factors that may have shaped this influence, using a combination of document analysis and semi-structured interviews with 81 policy actors. It was found that non-state actors in REDD+ are still on the periphery of decision making, occupying “safe” positions, and have not taken either full advantage of their capacities, or of recent significant changes in the contemporary policy environment, to exert stronger influence on policy. We suggest that REDD+ policy processes in Vietnam need to be revitalized with key actors engaging collectively to promote the possibilities of REDD+ within a broader view of social change that reaches beyond the forestry sector.

  7. Employment Policies in an Aging Society: Review of the Experiences of the OECD Countries with Population Aging and Their Policy Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Heon Kim

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we review the experiences of OECD countries with population aging and their policy responses, and suggest directions and measures of medium and long-term employment policies to cope with population aging in a comprehensive perspective. Specifically, following the policy objective of sustainable economic growth, we systematically classify policy types to cope with population aging and review possibilities and limitations of each policy type, while also considering Korea-specific situations as well as the experiences of other OECD countries. There are two broad types of employment policies to sustain economic growth in an aging society. One is to increase the quantity of labor force and the other is to enhance the quality of labor force. Policies to increase the quantity of labor force include pro-natalist policies, immigration policies, and policies to fully mobilize the labor resources of women and older people. Policies to enhance the quality of labor force include human resource development and flexicurity policies in the labor market. Our review suggests that direct pro-natalist policies seem to be ineffective. Also immigration policies cannot fundamentally solve the problem caused by population aging. Policies to fully mobilize the labor resources of women and older people seem to be the most effective policy. However, labor productivity should be an engine of economic growth in the long run when labor input reaches the limit of its capacity. In conclusion, in the long run, it is most important to enhance the quality of human capital and improve the functioning of the labor market to cope with the challenges of population aging.

  8. Constellation Mission Operation Working Group: ESMO Maneuver Planning Process Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The Earth Science Mission Operation (ESMO) Project created an Independent Review Board to review our Conjunction Risk evaluation process and Maneuver Planning Process to identify improvements that safely manages mission conjunction risks, maintains ground track science requirements, and minimizes overall hours expended on High Interest Events (HIE). The Review Board is evaluating the current maneuver process which requires support by multiple groups. In the past year, there have been several changes to the processes although many prior and new concerns exist. This presentation will discuss maneuver process reviews and Board comments, ESMO assessment and path foward, ESMO future plans, recent changes and concerns.

  9. Review of site recommendation process in Draft Environmental Assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, H.; Longo, T.; Burton, E.S.

    1985-01-01

    In December 1984, the US Department of Energy (DOE) published Draft Environmental Assessments (EAs) on nine potentially acceptable nuclear waste repository sites. Five sites in the states of Mississippi, Nevada, Texas, Utah, and Washington were proposed in the Draft EAs for nomination under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act as suitable for further detailed study (site characterization). The Nevada, Texas, and Washington sites were further proposed for recommendation to the President as preferred for site characterization. This paper reviews the process that DOE used in selecting the three sites proposed for site characterization. The process is consistent with DOE's implementation guidelines for selecting repository sites, and proceeds in three steps. First, the sites are ranked in order of preference for each of twenty technical guidelines based on information in the Draft EAs. The second step combines the individual guideline rankings into postclosure and preclosure guideline group rankings, and, finally, into an overall ranking. In the third step, the sensitivity of the choice of the three preferred sites is examined for a range of guideline weightings

  10. 7 CFR 275.9 - Review process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PERFORMANCE REPORTING SYSTEM Management Evaluation (ME..., reporting points, and data management units selected for review and the techniques used to select them; (iv.... Bias can be introduced through leading questions, incomplete reviews, incorrect sampling techniques...

  11. Transformation Directions of the Financial Policy in the Process of Stabilisation of the Ukrainian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrushevska Viktoriya V.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is consideration of theoretical provisions with respect to the state financial policy. The article considers the role of the financial policy in ensuring stabilisation of the Ukrainian financial system. It presents conceptual provisions regarding main goals, mechanisms and instruments of the stabilisation financial policy of the state. It develops economic indicators of its efficiency. The use of indicators of economic efficiency of the stabilisation financial policy by the bodies of state authority in their practical activity would provide the society with a possibility to assess expediency of measures of this policy increasing its efficiency and decreasing criticism at the government. A necessary direction of achievement of effectiveness and efficiency of the stabilisation financial policy is taking into consideration interests of all social groups (population, entrepreneurs, financial institutes and companies, etc. by the bodies of state authority in the process of its development and realisation.

  12. Macroeconomic policy interaction: State dependency and implications for financial stability in UK: A systemic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Nasir

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The association between economic and financial stabilities and influence of macroeconomic policies on the financial sector creates scope of active policy role in financial stability. As a contribution to the existing body of knowledge, this study has analysed the implications of macroeconomic policy interaction/coordination for financial stability, proxied by financial assets, i.e. equity and bonds price oscillation. The critical review and analysis of the existing literature on the subject suggests that there is also ample evidence of interdependence between monetary and fiscal policies and this interrelation necessitates coordination between them for the sake of financial stability. There is also a case for analysing the symmetry of financial markets responses to macroeconomic policy interaction. On methodological and empirical grounds, it is vital to test the robustness of policy recommendations to overcome the limitation of a single empirical approach (Jeffrey–Lindley’s paradox. Hence, the Frequentist and Bayesian approaches should be used in commentary manner. The policy interaction and optimal policy combination should also be analysed in the context of institutional design and major financial events to gain insight into the implications of policy interaction in the periods of stable economic and financial environments as well as period of financial and economic distress.

  13. African Review of Economics and Finance: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The African Review of Economics and Finance (AREF) is the official journal of the African Centre for Economics and Finance (AFRICEF). The Journal acknowledges that the word 'economic' is plural and all economies are positioned, situated, and embedded in particular societies. Therefore, how the ...

  14. Review of Policies and Programs for Reducing Maternal Mortality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to determine the status of maternal health in Cross River State, a state in the Niger-Delta region of Nigeria with high rate of maternal mortality. The study consisted of analysis of clinical data, desk reviews of published and unpublished materials and interviews with policymakers and service providers ...

  15. The Policy Formation Process: A Conceptual Framework for Analysis. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, E. F.

    1972-01-01

    A conceptual framework for analysis which is intended to assist both the policy analyst and the policy researcher in their empirical investigations into policy phenomena is developed. It is meant to facilitate understanding of the policy formation process by focusing attention on the basic forces shaping the main features of policy formation as a dynamic social-political-organizational process. The primary contribution of the framework lies in its capability to suggest useful ways of looking at policy formation reality. It provides the analyst and the researcher with a group of indicators which suggest where to look and what to look for when attempting to analyze and understand the mix of forces which energize, maintain, and direct the operation of strategic level policy systems. The framework also highlights interconnections, linkage, and relational patterns between and among important variables. The framework offers an integrated set of conceptual tools which facilitate understanding of and research on the complex and dynamic set of variables which interact in any major strategic level policy formation process.

  16. Experiences with a dialogue process between policy makers and global modellers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Daalen, C.E.; Thissen, W.A.H.; Berk, M.M.

    1998-01-01

    Between 1995 and 1997, a series of five workshops, henceforth called the Delft process, took place with the aim to explore and enhance use of the IMAGE 2 model to support international climate negotiations. The IMAGE 2 model is a multi-disciplinary, integrated model designed to simulate the dynamics of the global society-biosphere-climate system. The workshops facilitated a dialogue between policy makers and scientists involved in the development and applications of the IMAGE 2 model. In this way, policy makers would benefit from the policy makers on how to improve the policy relevance of the IMAGE 2 model. The evaluation at the end of the workshop series showed that participants have used information from the workshop at international negotiation conferences and in preparation of policy documents. The process shows that creating a forum for direct science-policy interactions can be very useful and productive, and has confirmed the importance of creating an open and constructive atmosphere between policy makers, and between policy makers and analysts, to enhance utilisation of scientific knowledge. The authors' analysis also suggests that many factors have to be 'in the right position at the right time and place' to achieve such a success, and that it is difficult to prevent the occurrence of biases in processes like this. 33 refs

  17. Assessing the influence of knowledge translation platforms on health system policy processes to achieve the health millennium development goals in Cameroon and Uganda: a comparative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongolo-Zogo, Pierre; Lavis, John N; Tomson, Goran; Sewankambo, Nelson K

    2018-05-01

    There is a scarcity of empirical data on the influence of initiatives supporting evidence-informed health system policy-making (EIHSP), such as the knowledge translation platforms (KTPs) operating in Africa. To assess whether and how two KTPs housed in government-affiliated institutions in Cameroon and Uganda have influenced: (1) health system policy-making processes and decisions aiming at supporting achievement of the health millennium development goals (MDGs); and (2) the general climate for EIHSP. We conducted an embedded comparative case study of four policy processes in which Evidence Informed Policy Network (EVIPNet) Cameroon and Regional East African Community Health Policy Initiative (REACH-PI) Uganda were involved between 2009 and 2011. We combined a documentary review and semi structured interviews of 54 stakeholders. A framework-guided thematic analysis, inspired by scholarship in health policy analysis and knowledge utilization was used. EVIPNet Cameroon and REACH-PI Uganda have had direct influence on health system policy decisions. The coproduction of evidence briefs combined with tacit knowledge gathered during inclusive evidence-informed stakeholder dialogues helped to reframe health system problems, unveil sources of conflicts, open grounds for consensus and align viable and affordable options for achieving the health MDGs thus leading to decisions. New policy issue networks have emerged. The KTPs indirectly influenced health policy processes by changing how interests interact with one another and by introducing safe-harbour deliberations and intersected with contextual ideational factors by improving access to policy-relevant evidence. KTPs were perceived as change agents with positive impact on the understanding, acceptance and adoption of EIHSP because of their complementary work in relation to capacity building, rapid evidence syntheses and clearinghouse of policy-relevant evidence. This embedded case study illustrates how two KTPs influenced

  18. Access to Orphan Drugs: A Comprehensive Review of Legislations, Regulations and Policies in 35 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammie, Todd

    2015-01-01

    Objective To review existing regulations and policies utilised by countries to enable patient access to orphan drugs. Methods A review of the literature (1998 to 2014) was performed to identify relevant, peer-reviewed articles. Using content analysis, we synthesised regulations and policies for access to orphan drugs by type and by country. Results Fifty seven articles and 35 countries were included in this review. Six broad categories of regulation and policy instruments were identified: national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, incentives, marketing exclusivity, and pricing and reimbursement. The availability of orphan drugs depends on individual country’s legislation and regulations including national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, marketing exclusivity and incentives such as tax credits to ensure research, development and marketing. The majority of countries (27/35) had in place orphan drug legislation. Access to orphan drugs depends on individual country’s pricing and reimbursement policies, which varied widely between countries. High prices and insufficient evidence often limit orphan drugs from meeting the traditional health technology assessment criteria, especially cost-effectiveness, which may influence access. Conclusions Overall many countries have implemented a combination of legislations, regulations and policies for orphan drugs in the last two decades. While these may enable the availability and access to orphan drugs, there are critical differences between countries in terms of range and types of legislations, regulations and policies implemented. Importantly, China and India, two of the largest countries by population size, both lack national legislation for orphan medicines and rare diseases, which could have substantial negative impacts on their patient populations with rare diseases. PMID:26451948

  19. Access to Orphan Drugs: A Comprehensive Review of Legislations, Regulations and Policies in 35 Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammie, Todd; Lu, Christine Y; Babar, Zaheer Ud-Din

    2015-01-01

    To review existing regulations and policies utilised by countries to enable patient access to orphan drugs. A review of the literature (1998 to 2014) was performed to identify relevant, peer-reviewed articles. Using content analysis, we synthesised regulations and policies for access to orphan drugs by type and by country. Fifty seven articles and 35 countries were included in this review. Six broad categories of regulation and policy instruments were identified: national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, incentives, marketing exclusivity, and pricing and reimbursement. The availability of orphan drugs depends on individual country's legislation and regulations including national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, marketing exclusivity and incentives such as tax credits to ensure research, development and marketing. The majority of countries (27/35) had in place orphan drug legislation. Access to orphan drugs depends on individual country's pricing and reimbursement policies, which varied widely between countries. High prices and insufficient evidence often limit orphan drugs from meeting the traditional health technology assessment criteria, especially cost-effectiveness, which may influence access. Overall many countries have implemented a combination of legislations, regulations and policies for orphan drugs in the last two decades. While these may enable the availability and access to orphan drugs, there are critical differences between countries in terms of range and types of legislations, regulations and policies implemented. Importantly, China and India, two of the largest countries by population size, both lack national legislation for orphan medicines and rare diseases, which could have substantial negative impacts on their patient populations with rare diseases.

  20. Access to Orphan Drugs: A Comprehensive Review of Legislations, Regulations and Policies in 35 Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Gammie

    Full Text Available To review existing regulations and policies utilised by countries to enable patient access to orphan drugs.A review of the literature (1998 to 2014 was performed to identify relevant, peer-reviewed articles. Using content analysis, we synthesised regulations and policies for access to orphan drugs by type and by country.Fifty seven articles and 35 countries were included in this review. Six broad categories of regulation and policy instruments were identified: national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, incentives, marketing exclusivity, and pricing and reimbursement. The availability of orphan drugs depends on individual country's legislation and regulations including national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, marketing exclusivity and incentives such as tax credits to ensure research, development and marketing. The majority of countries (27/35 had in place orphan drug legislation. Access to orphan drugs depends on individual country's pricing and reimbursement policies, which varied widely between countries. High prices and insufficient evidence often limit orphan drugs from meeting the traditional health technology assessment criteria, especially cost-effectiveness, which may influence access.Overall many countries have implemented a combination of legislations, regulations and policies for orphan drugs in the last two decades. While these may enable the availability and access to orphan drugs, there are critical differences between countries in terms of range and types of legislations, regulations and policies implemented. Importantly, China and India, two of the largest countries by population size, both lack national legislation for orphan medicines and rare diseases, which could have substantial negative impacts on their patient populations with rare diseases.

  1. Health policy evolution in Lao People's Democratic Republic: context, processes and agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, Kristina; Phoummalaysith, Bounfeng; Wahlström, Rolf; Tomson, Göran

    2015-05-01

    During the last 20 years Lao People's Democratic Republic has successfully developed and adopted some 30 health policies, strategies, decrees and laws in the field of health. Still, the implementation process remains arduous. This article aims at discussing challenges of health policy development and effective implementation by contextualizing the policy evolution over time and by focusing particularly on the National Drug Policy and the Health Care Law. Special attention is given to the role of research in policymaking. The analysis was guided by the conceptual framework of policy context, process, content and actors, combined with an institutional perspective, and showed that effective implementation of a health policy is highly dependent on both structures and agency of those involved in the policy process. The National Drug Policy was formulated and adopted in a short period of time in a resource-scarce setting, but with dedicated policy entrepreneurs and support of concerned international collaborators. Timely introduction of operational health systems research played a crucial role to support the implementation, as well as the subsequent revision of the policy. The development of the Health Care Law took several years and once adopted, the implementation was delayed by institutional legacies and issues concerning the choice of institutional design and financing, despite strong support of the law among the policymakers. Among many factors, timing of the implementation appeared to be of crucial importance, in combination with strong leadership. These two examples show that more research, that problematizes the complex policy environment in combination with improved communication between researchers and policymakers, is necessary to inform about measures for effective implementation. A way forward can be to strengthen the domestic research capacity and the international research collaboration regionally as well as globally. Published by Oxford University Press

  2. A review of public policies to procure and distribute kidneys for transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, P A

    1990-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an up-to-date review of the current status of frequently changing public policies for the procurement and distribution of donor kidneys for transplantation. Issues in procurement involve the Uniform Anatomical Gift Act, criteria for brain death, routine inquiry/required request policies, and the use of living kidney donors. Issues in distribution involve access to the transplant waiting list and use of the new national point system to select recipients from the list. These public policies are relevant for internists, who often care for potential organ donors and patients with end-stage renal disease. The issues are also relevant for policy-minded physicians because renal transplantation is the paradigm for organ transplant policy.

  3. Changes in 900 MW PWR alarm processing policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pont, M [Electricite de France, Generation and Transmission, Nuclear Power Plant Operations, Paris (France)

    1997-09-01

    Following a brief description of the current 900 MW PWR alarm processing system, this document presents the feasibility study carried out within the scope of the Instrumentation and Control Refurbishment project (R2C). (author). 4 figs, tabs.

  4. Changes in 900 MW PWR alarm processing policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pont, M.

    1997-01-01

    Following a brief description of the current 900 MW PWR alarm processing system, this document presents the feasibility study carried out within the scope of the Instrumentation and Control Refurbishment project (R2C). (author). 4 figs, tabs

  5. Review of the Renewable Energy Policies of Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labriet, M.; Laguna, M.; Cabal, H.; Lechon, Y.

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this report is to describe the Spanish energy policies related to renewable energy sources (RES). It will contribute to the analysis of the renewable energy potential at the European level (RES2020 project). Despite the successful case of wind development in spain, with a favourable feed-in systems in place, and a very favourable regulation (building code) promoting solar thermal technologies, strong administrative barriers for RES projects still exist and Spain is still far from reaching its RES electricity targets, and even further from the target related to RES heating and cooling and bio fuel use. This work has been partially funded by the European Commission, Intelligent Energy-europe Programme. (Author) 7 refs.

  6. TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN MALAYSIA. A REVIEW ON FEDERAL GOVERNMENT POLICIES

    OpenAIRE

    Azizan MARZUKI

    2010-01-01

    Tourism development in Malaysia began since 1960s. Embarking on the strategy to develop rural areas and provide diversity in national economy, tourism industry drastically become as the second most important sector after petroleum. Therefore, the aim of this article is to review the progress of tourism development in Malaysia from the period of the First Malaysian Plan (1966-1970) until the Ninth Malaysian Plan (2006-2010). This paper is also discussed several approaches related to tourism ad...

  7. Pricing Policy and the College Choice Process. AIR Forum Paper 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Randall G.

    A presentation of a conceptual framework for viewing the admissions management process in higher education institutions and a discussion of the pricing policy process, particularly of private colleges and universities, precedes an examination of the stochastic utility model, a statistical model of the college choice process. Using student choice…

  8. The Ghosts of Higher Education Reform: On the Organisational Processes Surrounding Policy Borrowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brøgger, Katja

    2014-01-01

    The Bologna Process is one of the most extensive examples of policy borrowing processes. Based on qualitative data, this article argues in favour of studying part of this process as "global smallness", centring on the organisational effects of the implementation of a globalised curriculum. Through Derrida's notion on hauntology,…

  9. Review of the SEERG process for DOE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budnitz, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Senior External Events Review Group (SEERG) has been assembled by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to advise the Department of Energy on those aspects of DOE's New Production Reactor project involving external events (earthquakes, high winds, flooding, etc.) The Review Group is an independent advisory body comprised of experts in a broad range of technical disciplines relevant to its charter. This brief paper will provide an overview of what SEERG is and what it does for DOE

  10. PASSCLAIM - Synthesis and review of existing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, David P; Affertsholt, Tage; Asp, Nils-Georg; Bruce, Ake; Grossklaus, Rolf; Howlett, John; Pannemans, Daphne; Ross, Richard; Verhagen, Hans; Viechtbauer, Volker

    2003-03-01

    Several approaches to the use of health claims on foods have been made around the world, and the common theme is that any health claim will require scientific validation and substantiation. There is also broad consensus that any regulatory framework should protect the consumer, promote fair trade and encourage innovation in the food industry.This paper is based on a critical evaluation of existing international approaches to the scientific substantiation of health claims, with a view to identifying common new ideas, definitions, best practice and a methodology to underpin current and future developments. There is a clear need to have uniform understanding, terminology and description of types of nutrition and health claims. Two broad categories were defined: Nutrition Claims, i. e. what the product contains, and Health Claims, i. e. relating to health, well-being and/or performance, including well-established nutrient function claims, enhanced function claims and disease risk reduction claims. Such health claims relate to what the food or food components does or do. The categories of health claims are closely and progressively related and are, in practice, part of a continuum. Provision is also made for "generic" or well-established, generally accepted claims and for "innovative" or "product-specific" claims. Special attention was paid to reflect the health-promoting properties of a food or food component in such a way as to facilitate the making of risk reduction claims outside the medical scope of the term prevention. The paper sets out basic principles and guidelines for communication of health claims and principles of nutritional safety. The main body of the work examines the process for the assessment of scientific support for health claims on food and emphasises an evidence-based approach consisting of: Identification of all relevant studies exploring the collection of evidence, data searches, the nature of the scientific evidence, sources of scientific data

  11. Review: how do hospital organizational structure and processes affect quality of care?: a critical review of research methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearld, Larry R; Alexander, Jeffrey A; Fraser, Irene; Jiang, H Joanna

    2008-06-01

    Interest in organizational contributions to the delivery of care has risen significantly in recent years. A challenge facing researchers, practitioners, and policy makers is identifying ways to improve care by improving the organizations that provide this care, given the complexity of health care organizations and the role organizations play in influencing systems of care. This article reviews the literature on the relationship between the structural characteristics and organizational processes of hospitals and quality of care. The review uses Donabedian's structure-process-outcome and level of analysis frameworks to organize the literature. The results of this review indicate that a preponderance of studies are conducted at the hospital level of analysis and are predominantly focused on the organizational structure-quality outcome relationship. The article concludes with recommendations of how health services researchers can expand their research to enhance one's understanding of the relationship between organizational characteristics and quality of care.

  12. Modular Chemical Process Intensification: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Ha; Park, Lydia K; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas

    2017-06-07

    Modular chemical process intensification can dramatically improve energy and process efficiencies of chemical processes through enhanced mass and heat transfer, application of external force fields, enhanced driving forces, and combinations of different unit operations, such as reaction and separation, in single-process equipment. These dramatic improvements lead to several benefits such as compactness or small footprint, energy and cost savings, enhanced safety, less waste production, and higher product quality. Because of these benefits, process intensification can play a major role in industrial and manufacturing sectors, including chemical, pulp and paper, energy, critical materials, and water treatment, among others. This article provides an overview of process intensification, including definitions, principles, tools, and possible applications, with the objective to contribute to the future development and potential applications of modular chemical process intensification in industrial and manufacturing sectors. Drivers and barriers contributing to the advancement of process intensification technologies are discussed.

  13. Energy policies of IEA countries: Belgium 2005 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Belgium continues to make measured progress in its energy policy, particularly with respect to electricity market liberalisation. The country has improved the independent functioning of the electricity market. An electricity exchange will begin operation shortly. However, to enable Belgian customers to fully benefit from energy market liberalisation, more work needs to be done. In 2003, Belgium decided to phase out nuclear power between 2015 and 2025. As nuclear energy supplies about 55% of the country's electricity, this will be a significant challenge. The federal government should conduct more comprehensive long-term studies on the nuclear energy phase-out and its effects on energy security, environmental protection and economic growth. Belgium's natural gas and electricity markets are highly concentrated. Companies owned by the international power group Suez SA dominate at all levels. Belgium has made some efforts to unbundle these industries and reduce their market dominance, but much more must be done to encourage new entry, increase competition and bring real economic benefits to Belgian customers. 50 refs., 40 tabs., 3 annexes.

  14. Vietnam's energy sector: A review of current energy policies and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tien Minh Do; Sharma, Deepak

    2011-01-01

    Since the introduction of market-oriented economy in 1986, Vietnam has made noticeable socio-economic progress. In this progress, the energy sector has played a vital role. This role is likely to deepen in the years to come as Vietnam strives to achieve even higher levels in economic progress. Such deepening in the role of energy, this paper argues, will heighten concerns about the security of energy supply, and economic, environmental, social and political consequences. In order to address these issues, Vietnam has over the last decade, developed a suite of energy policies. A deeper review of these policies suggests that they are typified by economic-growth orientation, exclusive focus on a single-sector or single issue, and largely neglect the significance of cross-sectoral and cross-thematic issues arising from the interdependencies between energy, economy, and the polity at large. The existing energy policy settings are, therefore, unlikely to be able to provide a satisfactory redress to the challenges noted above. This paper provides an overview of the current energy policies with a view to identify areas where further policy effort is needed in order to facilitate a sustainable development of the Vietnamese energy sector. - Highlights: → Identifying challenges faced by the Vietnamese energy sector. → Analyzing limitations of the existing energy policy settings (policies, strategies and institutions) in addressing these challenges. → Developing recommendations on improving the existing energy policy settings to provide a satisfactory redress for the challenges noted above.

  15. Vietnam's energy sector: A review of current energy policies and strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tien Minh Do, E-mail: tmdo@eng.uts.edu.au [Hanoi University of Science and Technology (HUST), 1 Dai Co Viet Street, Hai Ba Trung District, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Sharma, Deepak [University of Technology, Sydney (UTS), Broadway, Ultimo, NSW 2007 (Australia)

    2011-10-15

    Since the introduction of market-oriented economy in 1986, Vietnam has made noticeable socio-economic progress. In this progress, the energy sector has played a vital role. This role is likely to deepen in the years to come as Vietnam strives to achieve even higher levels in economic progress. Such deepening in the role of energy, this paper argues, will heighten concerns about the security of energy supply, and economic, environmental, social and political consequences. In order to address these issues, Vietnam has over the last decade, developed a suite of energy policies. A deeper review of these policies suggests that they are typified by economic-growth orientation, exclusive focus on a single-sector or single issue, and largely neglect the significance of cross-sectoral and cross-thematic issues arising from the interdependencies between energy, economy, and the polity at large. The existing energy policy settings are, therefore, unlikely to be able to provide a satisfactory redress to the challenges noted above. This paper provides an overview of the current energy policies with a view to identify areas where further policy effort is needed in order to facilitate a sustainable development of the Vietnamese energy sector. - Highlights: > Identifying challenges faced by the Vietnamese energy sector. > Analyzing limitations of the existing energy policy settings (policies, strategies and institutions) in addressing these challenges. > Developing recommendations on improving the existing energy policy settings to provide a satisfactory redress for the challenges noted above.

  16. Exploring maintenance policy selection using the Analytic Hierarchy Process; An application for naval ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goossens, Adriaan J.M.; Basten, Rob J.I.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate maintenance policy selection (MPS) through the use of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). A maintenance policy is a policy that dictates which parameter triggers a maintenance action. In practice, selecting the right maintenance policy appears to be a difficult decision. We investigate MPS for naval ships, but our results have wider applicability. For our study we cooperate with the owner and operator of the ships, as well as with a shipbuilder and an original equipment manufacturer of naval ships. We apply a structured five step approach to obtain the relevant criteria that may make one policy preferable over another. The criteria are drawn from both literature and a series of interviews at several navy related companies and are structured into a hierarchy of criteria usable with the AHP. Additionally, we organize three workshops at the three different companies to test the AHP-based MPS approach in practice. We conclude that the AHP is well suited for maintenance policy selection in this broad setting, and that it provides a structured and detailed approach for MPS. Adding to that, it facilitates discussions during and after the sessions, creating a better understanding of the policy selection process. - Highlights: • We use the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) for maintenance policy selection (MPS). • Using both interviews and case studies from the literature, we construct a hierarchy. • In sessions at 3 companies, we find that 1 hierarchy can be used for multiple assets. • The AHP creates a better understanding of the maintenance policy selection process. • Our work is on naval ships, but our approach and findings have wider applicability

  17. Multiphysics modelling of manufacturing processes: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbari, Masoud; Baran, Ismet; Mohanty, Sankhya

    2018-01-01

    Numerical modelling is increasingly supporting the analysis and optimization of manufacturing processes in the production industry. Even if being mostly applied to multistep processes, single process steps may be so complex by nature that the needed models to describe them must include multiphysics...... the diversity in the field of modelling of manufacturing processes as regards process, materials, generic disciplines as well as length scales: (1) modelling of tape casting for thin ceramic layers, (2) modelling the flow of polymers in extrusion, (3) modelling the deformation process of flexible stamps...... for nanoimprint lithography, (4) modelling manufacturing of composite parts and (5) modelling the selective laser melting process. For all five examples, the emphasis is on modelling results as well as describing the models in brief mathematical details. Alongside with relevant references to the original work...

  18. State technical review of the HLNW program and the peer review process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    Millions of dollars are being spent on state governments' review of the Department of Energy (DOE) high level waste (HLW) repository program. A significant portion of the review efforts focus on technical issues surrounding the development and installment of HLW disposal technologies. Some view the states' technical review efforts as part of a peer review process. However, this interpretation reveals a misunderstanding of the concept of peer review and the purposes of state technical review

  19. Examining Marketing Journals' Publication Process and Reviewer Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Vicky L.; Reisenwitz, Timothy H.; Schibrowsky, John A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines reviewer practices at 11 marketing journals. The results for the top three journals are compared to eight comparable journals that are typically considered to be non-top-tier journals. The results suggest that the reviewers and the review processes at the top journals differ significantly from those of the non-top-tier…

  20. A Review of Industrial Policy, Transportation Policy, and the Evolution of Autocracy in America

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, Ford Mazda

    1991-01-01

    Due to an apparent technological foul-up, the fol­ lowing article arivedr via the BPI's fax machine on September 1 1, 1991. Dated 11 September, 2042, it was clearly intended for con­ sideration by another generation of editors. We were unable to send it back to its proper time, nor did we succeed in contacting the author (who may not yet be born). Though we are unable to confirm the absolute veracity ofthe facts and conclusions presented in this brief review, we have elected to print it as su...

  1. Review of wind power tariff policies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Zheng; Wang, Jianhui; Byrne, John; Kurdgelashvili, Lado

    2013-01-01

    In the past 20 years, China has paid significant attention to wind power. Onshore wind power in China has experienced tremendous growth since 2005, and offshore wind power development has been on-going since 2009. In 2010, with a total installed wind power capacity of 41.8 GW, China surpassed the U.S. as the country with the biggest wind power capacity in the world. By comparing the wind power situations of three typical countries, Germany, Spain, and Denmark, this paper provides a comprehensive evaluation and insights into the prospects of China’s wind power development. The analysis is carried out in four aspects including technology, wind resources, administration and time/space frame. We conclude that both German and Spanish have been growing rapidly in onshore capacity since policy improvements were made. In Denmark, large financial subsidies flow to foreign markets with power exports, creating inverse cost-benefit ratios. Incentives are in place for German and Danish offshore wind power, while China will have to remove institutional barriers to enable a leap in wind power development. In China, cross-subsidies are provided from thermal power (coal-fired power generation) in order to limit thermal power while encouraging wind power. However, the mass installation of wind power capacity completely relies on power subsidies. Furthermore, our study illustrates that capacity growth should not be the only consideration for wind power development. It is more important to do a comprehensive evaluation of multi-sectorial efforts in order to achieve long-term development. - Highlights: ► Key components to exam China’s wind power. ► Evaluation of Europe could be helpful. ► China has to remove institutional barrier.

  2. Restaurant Menu Labeling Policy: Review of Evidence and Controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanEpps, Eric M.; Roberto, Christina A.; Park, Sara; Economos, Christina D.; Bleich, Sara N.

    2016-01-01

    In response to high rates of obesity in the USA, several American cities, counties, and states have passed laws requiring restaurant chains to post labels identifying the energy content of items on menus, and nationwide implementation of menu labeling is expected in late 2016. In this review, we identify and summarize the results of 16 studies that have assessed the impact of real-world numeric calorie posting. We also discuss several controversies surrounding the US Food and Drug Administration's implementation of federally mandated menu labeling. Overall, the evidence regarding menu labeling is mixed, showing that labels may reduce the energy content of food purchased in some contexts, but have little effect in other contexts. However, more data on a range of ong-term consumption habits and restaurant responses is needed to fully understand the impact menu labeling laws will have on the US population's diet. PMID:26877095

  3. Information Technology in New Zealand: Review of Emerging Social Trends, Current Issues, and Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Erturk, Emre; Fail, Derwyn

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the general state of information technology in New Zealand society, current issues, and policies. It is a qualitative study that reviews recent scholarly articles, periodicals, and surveys in order to create an understanding of some of the information technology issues and trends in New Zealand. After reviewing previous research, it assesses the potential existence and nature of a 'digital divide' in New Zealand society whilst also evaluating possible strategic responses ...

  4. Article Review on World Bank Report, Optimal Design for a Minimum Wage Policy in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Nurrachmi, Rininta; Mad-Ahin, Ashanee; Waeowanjit, Phimpaporn; Kareemarif Arif, Naz Abdul

    2012-01-01

    There are many pros and cons with the implementation of minimum wage in Malaysia, since it is the first time. This article review is to analyze the World Bank report on Malaysian minimum wage policy that will be implemented in 2013. There are strength and weakness on the report. Moreover the review will also be analyzed from Islamic perspective since majority population in Malaysia is Muslim.

  5. Marketing Academics' Perceptions of the Peer Review Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Charles D.; Hair, Joe F.; Hermanson, Dana R.; Crittenden, Victoria L.

    2012-01-01

    Publication in refereed journals is critical to career success for most marketing faculty members, and the peer review process is the gatekeeper for a refereed journal. The study reported here examines marketing academics' perceptions of this peer review process. Based on responses from 653 marketing academics, we find favorable overall…

  6. 8 CFR 287.10 - Expedited internal review process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... jurisdiction regarding criminal violations of law. [68 FR 35281, June 13, 2003] ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expedited internal review process. 287.10... OFFICERS; POWERS AND DUTIES § 287.10 Expedited internal review process. (a) Violations of standards for...

  7. On the development and use of farm models for policy impact assessment in the European Union – A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, Pytrik; Janssen, Sander; Jansen, Jacques; Ittersum, van Martin K.

    2018-01-01

    Farm models are potentially relevant tools for policy impact assessment. Governments and international organizations use impact assessment (IA) as an ex-ante policy process and procedure to evaluate impacts of policy options as part of the introduction of new policies. IA is increasingly used. This

  8. Environmental and Sustainability Education Policy Research: A Systematic Review of Methodological and Thematic Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikens, Kathleen; McKenzie, Marcia; Vaughter, Philip

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a systematic literature review of policy research in the area of environmental and sustainability education. We analyzed 215 research articles, spanning four decades and representing 71 countries, and which engaged a range of methodologies. Our analysis combines quantification of geographic and methodological trends with…

  9. 75 FR 26757 - National Toxicology Program (NTP); Office of Liaison, Policy and Review; Meeting of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Toxicology Program (NTP); Office of Liaison, Policy and Review; Meeting of the Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods... Director, National Toxicology Program. [FR Doc. 2010-11318 Filed 5-11-10; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4140-01-P ...

  10. Science Education and Test-Based Accountability: Reviewing Their Relationship and Exploring Implications for Future Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kevin J. B.

    2012-01-01

    Assuming that quality science education plays a role in economic growth within a country, it becomes important to understand how education policy might influence science education teaching and learning. This integrative research review draws on Cooper's methodology (Cooper, 1982; Cooper & Hedges, 2009) to synthesize empirical findings on the…

  11. Children and Environment: A UNICEF Strategy for Sustainable Development. A UNICEF Policy Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    This policy review discusses the impact of environmental degradation on the health and well-being of children and women. It analyzes ways in which environmental threats such as deforestation, atmospheric pollution, and global warming add to the environment of ill health, malnutrition and ignorance to perpetuate the cycle of poverty. The review…

  12. Human Trafficking in Ethiopia: A Scoping Review to Identify Gaps in Service Delivery, Research, and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Dana C; Choi, Kristen R; Munro-Kramer, Michelle L; Lori, Jody R

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this review is to integrate evidence on human trafficking in Ethiopia and identify gaps and recommendations for service delivery, research and training, and policy. A scoping literature review approach was used to systematically search nursing, medical, psychological, law, and international databases and synthesize information on a complex, understudied topic. The search yielded 826 articles, and 39 met the predetermined criteria for inclusion in the review. Trafficking in Ethiopia has occurred internally and externally in the form of adult and child labor and sex trafficking. There were also some reports of organ trafficking and other closely related human rights violations, such as child marriage, child soldiering, and exploitative intercountry adoption. Risk factors for trafficking included push factors (poverty, political instability, economic problems, and gender discrimination) and pull factors (demand for cheap labor). Trafficking was associated with poor health and economic outcomes for victims. Key recommendations for service delivery, research and training, and policy are identified, including establishing comprehensive services for survivor rehabilitation and reintegration, conducting quantitative health outcomes research, and reforming policy around migration and trafficking. Implementing the recommendations identified by this review will allow policy makers, researchers, and practitioners to take meaningful steps toward confronting human trafficking in Ethiopia.

  13. Australian Higher Education Policy and Inclusion of People with Disabilities: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Written from the perspective of a disability practitioner and equity manager working in the Australian tertiary education sector for over twenty-five years, this paper reviews some of the significant social, equity, and education policy developments and associated legislation, which have influenced the inclusion of people with disabilities in…

  14. Seasonal influenza vaccine policy, use and effectiveness in the tropics and subtropics: a systematic literature review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirve, S.; Lambach, P.; Paget, J.; Vandemaele, K.; Fitzner, J.; Zhang, W.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The evidence needed for tropical countries to take informed decisions on influenza vaccination is scarce. This paper reviews policy, availability, use and effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccine in tropical and subtropical countries. Method: Global health databases were searched in three

  15. 78 FR 63276 - Interim Policy, FAA Review of Solar Energy System Projects on Federally Obligated Airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... the orientation and tilt of the solar energy panels, reflectance, environment, and ocular factors are... energy systems on the airport must attach the SGHAT report, outlining solar panel glare and ocular impact... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Interim Policy, FAA Review of Solar...

  16. Seasonal influenza vaccine policy, use and effectiveness in the tropics and subtropics - a systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirve, S.; Lambach, P.; Paget, J.; Vandemaele, K.; Fitzner, J.; Zhang, W.

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The evidence needed for tropical countries to take informed decisions on influenza vaccination is scarce. This article reviews policy, availability, use and effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccine in tropical and subtropical countries. METHOD: Global health databases were searched in three

  17. ANSTO`s radioactive waste management policy. Preliminary environmental review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levins, D.M.; Airey, P.; Breadner, B.; Bull, P.; Camilleri, A.; Dimitrovski, L.; Gorman, T.; Harries, J.; Innes, R.; Jarquin, E.; Jay, G.; Ridal, A.; Smith, A.

    1996-05-01

    For over forty years, radioactive wastes have been generated by ANSTO (and its predecessor, the AAEC) from the operation of nuclear facilities, the production of radioisotopes for medical and industrial use, and from various research activities. the quantities and activities of radioactive waste currently at Lucas Heights are very small compared to many other nuclear facilities overseas, especially those in countries with nuclear power program. Nevertheless, in the absence of a repository for nuclear wastes in Australia and guidelines for waste conditioning, the waste inventory has been growing steadily. This report reviews the status of radioactive waste management at ANSTO, including spent fuel management, treatment of effluents and environmental monitoring. It gives details of: relevant legislative, regulatory and related requirements; sources and types of radioactive waste generated at ANSTO; waste quantities and activities (both cumulative and annual arisings); existing practices and procedures for waste management and environmental monitoring; recommended broad strategies for dealing with radioactive waste management issues. Detailed proposals on how the recommendations should be implemented is the subject of a companion internal document, the Radioactive Waste Management Action Plan 1996-2000 which provides details of the tasks to be undertaken, milestones and resource requirements. 44 refs., 2 tabs., 18 figs.

  18. ANSTO's radioactive waste management policy. Preliminary environmental review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levins, D.M.; Airey, P.; Breadner, B.; Bull, P.; Camilleri, A.; Dimitrovski, L.; Gorman, T.; Harries, J.; Innes, R.; Jarquin, E.; Jay, G.; Ridal, A.; Smith, A.

    1996-05-01

    For over forty years, radioactive wastes have been generated by ANSTO (and its predecessor, the AAEC) from the operation of nuclear facilities, the production of radioisotopes for medical and industrial use, and from various research activities. the quantities and activities of radioactive waste currently at Lucas Heights are very small compared to many other nuclear facilities overseas, especially those in countries with nuclear power program. Nevertheless, in the absence of a repository for nuclear wastes in Australia and guidelines for waste conditioning, the waste inventory has been growing steadily. This report reviews the status of radioactive waste management at ANSTO, including spent fuel management, treatment of effluents and environmental monitoring. It gives details of: relevant legislative, regulatory and related requirements; sources and types of radioactive waste generated at ANSTO; waste quantities and activities (both cumulative and annual arisings); existing practices and procedures for waste management and environmental monitoring; recommended broad strategies for dealing with radioactive waste management issues. Detailed proposals on how the recommendations should be implemented is the subject of a companion internal document, the Radioactive Waste Management Action Plan 1996-2000 which provides details of the tasks to be undertaken, milestones and resource requirements. 44 refs., 2 tabs., 18 figs

  19. Workplace health understandings and processes in small businesses: a systematic review of the qualitative literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEachen, Ellen; Kosny, Agnieszka; Scott-Dixon, Krista; Facey, Marcia; Chambers, Lori; Breslin, Curtis; Kyle, Natasha; Irvin, Emma; Mahood, Quenby

    2010-06-01

    Small businesses (SBs) play an important role in global economies, employ half of all workers, and pose distinct workplace health problems. This systematic review of qualitative peer-reviewed literature was carried out to identify and synthesize research findings about how SB workplace parties understand and enact processes related to occupational health and safety (OHS). The review was conducted as part of a larger mixed-method review and in consultation with stakeholders. A comprehensive literature search identified 5067 studies. After screening for relevance, 20 qualitative articles were identified. Quality assessment led to 14 articles of sufficient quality to be included in the meta-ethnographic findings synthesis. This review finds that SBs have distinctive social relations of work, apprehensions of workplace risk, and legislative requirements. Eight themes were identified that consolidate knowledge on how SB workplace parties understand OHS hazards, how they manage risk and health problems, and how broader structures, policies and systems shape the practice of workplace health in SBs. The themes contribute to 'layers of evidence' that address SB work and health phenomena at the micro (e.g. employer or worker behavior), meso (e.g. organizational dynamics) and macro (e.g. state policy) levels. This synthesis details the unique qualities and conditions of SBs that merit particular attention from planners and occupational health policy makers. In particular, the informal workplace social relations can limit workers' and employers' apprehension of risk, and policy and complex contractual conditions in which SBs are often engaged (such as chains of subcontracting) can complicate occupational health responsibilities. This review questions the utility of SB exemptions from OHS regulations and suggests a legislative focus on the particular needs of SBs. It considers ways that workers might activate their own workplace health concerns, and suggests that more

  20. The emergence and workings of a process view in public education policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk Pors, Justine; Ratner, Helene Gad

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a study of Danish primary education policy with the purpose of exploring what is put at stake when contemporary management discourses describe the object of management as fluid and emergent processes rather than as entities, persons and things. The article examines how...... such a process view of organisation allows policy makers to imagine innovative change, but also how a process view interacts in particular ways with financial pressures and become entangled to increased performance measurements. We conclude that in this particular case, a conception of the object of management...

  1. HARMONIZATION OF TAX POLICIES: REVIEWING MACEDONIA AND CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasho Kozuharov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The tax harmonization is a complex issue in the process of European integration. The tax harmonization is a process of convergence of the tax system based on mutual set of rules and, in general, it means existence of identical or similar tax rates for the tax payers in European Union, i.e. Euro zone. In case there are identical tax rates, then we are talking about a, so called, total explicit tax harmonization, whereas, if there are similar tax rates, we are talking about partial explicit tax harmonization, which refers to determination of the highest and the lowest tax rates. Thus, countries can determine the tax rates of certain taxes. The total harmonization, besides tax rates harmonization, means structural harmonization or harmonization of the tax structure. The harmonization of direct taxes mainly relies on the following main objectives: avoiding tax evasion and elimination of double taxation. The harmonization of regulations and directives in the field of indirect taxes is necessary in terms of establishing a single market, or removal of barriers to the free movement of goods, people, services and capital.

  2. Policy responses to problematic video game use: A systematic review of current measures and future possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Király, Orsolya; Griffiths, Mark D; King, Daniel L; Lee, Hae-Kook; Lee, Seung-Yup; Bányai, Fanni; Zsila, Ágnes; Takacs, Zsofia K; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2017-09-01

    Background and aims Empirical research into problematic video game playing suggests that overuse might cause functional and psychological impairments for a minority of gamers. Therefore, the need for regulation in the case of video games (whether governmental or self-imposed) has arisen but has only been implemented in a few countries around the world, and predominantly in Asia. This paper provides a systematic review of current and potential policies addressing problematic gaming. Methods After conducting a systematic search in the areas of prevention, treatment, and policy measures relating to problematic Internet and video game use, papers were selected that targeted problematic gaming policies (N = 12; six in English and six in Korean). These papers served as the basis of this review. Results Policies were classified into three major groups: (i) policy measures limiting availability of video games (e.g., shutdown policy, fatigue system, and parental controls), (ii) measures aiming to reduce risk and harm (e.g., warning messages), and (iii) measures taken to provide help services for gamers. Beyond the attempt to classify the current and potential policy measures, the authors also tried to evaluate their efficiency theoretically and (if data were available) empirically. Discussion and conclusions Overall, it appears that although several steps have been taken to address problematic video game playing, most of these steps were not as effective as expected, or had not been evaluated empirically for efficacy. The reason for this may lie in the fact that the policies outlined only addressed or influenced specific aspects of the problem instead of using a more integrative approach.

  3. Intrapartum Antibiotic Chemoprophylaxis Policies for the Prevention of Group B Streptococcal Disease Worldwide: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Doare, Kirsty; O'Driscoll, Megan; Turner, Kim; Seedat, Farah; Russell, Neal J; Seale, Anna C; Heath, Paul T; Lawn, Joy E; Baker, Carol J; Bartlett, Linda; Cutland, Clare; Gravett, Michael G; Ip, Margaret; Madhi, Shabir A; Rubens, Craig E; Saha, Samir K; Schrag, Stephanie; Sobanjo-Ter Meulen, Ajoke; Vekemans, Johan; Kampmann, Beate

    2017-11-06

    Intrapartum antibiotic chemoprophylaxis (IAP) prevents most early-onset group B streptococcal (GBS) disease. However, there is no description of how IAP is used around the world. This article is the sixth in a series estimating the burden of GBS disease. Here we aimed to review GBS screening policies and IAP implementation worldwide. We identified data through (1) systematic literature reviews (PubMed/Medline, Embase, Literature in the Health Sciences in Latin America and the Caribbean [LILACS], World Health Organization library database [WHOLIS], and Scopus) and unpublished data from professional societies and (2) an online survey and searches of policies from medical societies and professionals. We included data on whether an IAP policy was in use, and if so whether it was based on microbiological or clinical risk factors and how these were applied, as well as the estimated coverage (percentage of women receiving IAP where indicated). We received policy information from 95 of 195 (49%) countries. Of these, 60 of 95 (63%) had an IAP policy; 35 of 60 (58%) used microbiological screening, 25 of 60 (42%) used clinical risk factors. Two of 15 (13%) low-income, 4 of 16 (25%) lower-middle-income, 14 of 20 (70%) upper-middle-income, and 40 of 44 (91%) high-income countries had any IAP policy. The remaining 35 of 95 (37%) had no national policy (25/33 from low-income and lower-middle-income countries). Coverage varied considerably; for microbiological screening, median coverage was 80% (range, 20%-95%); for clinical risk factor-based screening, coverage was 29% (range, 10%-50%). Although there were differences in the microbiological screening methods employed, the individual clinical risk factors used were similar. There is considerable heterogeneity in IAP screening policies and coverage worldwide. Alternative global strategies, such as maternal vaccination, are needed to enhance the scope of global prevention of GBS disease. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford

  4. The Decision to Form the Kangan Committee--A Case Study in the Educational Policy Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, John

    1983-01-01

    The postsecondary education policymaking process in Australia, rather than being goal-oriented and rational, is a series of adjustments to existing policy dictated by political expediency, often over many years and changes of government and leading to decisions reflecting unstable origins. This committee's broad influences illustrate this process.…

  5. Renewable energy support policy in Spain : An analysis of the decision-making process (1994-2014)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leston, D.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the decision-making process behind the RE support policy will be explored in order to answer the following research questions: “why has the policy-making process been revised so many times?” and “how can such a drastic change on the RE support policy be explained?” The answer is found

  6. Do Latin American scientific journals follow dual-use review policies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valles, Edith Gladys; Bernacchi, Adriana Silvina

    2014-01-01

    During the past decade, a number of journals have implemented dual-use policies in order to analyze whether the papers submitted for publication could raise concern because of the potential for misuse of their content. In this context, an analysis was performed on Latin American scientific journals to examine whether they apply formal written dual-use review policies and whether they inform their authors and reviewers about potentially sensitive issues in this area, as other international journals do. Peer-reviewed life sciences journals indexed in Latindex from Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, and Chile were analyzed. The Guide for Authors and the Instructions to Referees of 216 journals included in the Latindex catalogue (which means that they meet the best quality standards of the Latindex system) were screened for biosecurity-related information using the keywords biosecurity, biological weapons, and dual-use research of concern. Results showed that the screened publications had a total lack of dual-use review policies, even though some of them pointed out ethical behaviors to be followed related to authorship, plagiarism, simultaneous submission, research results misappropriation, ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects, guiding principles for the care and use of animals in research, research standard violations, and reviewer bias, among others.

  7. In-Depth Review of Energy Efficiency Policies and Programmes of Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Energy Charter Protocol on Energy Efficiency and Related Environmental Aspects (PEEREA) is a legally binding instrument that was signed together with the Energy Charter Treaty in December 1994 by the same fifty-one states that signed the Treaty itself. It requires its Signatories to formulate energy efficiency strategies and policy aims, to establish appropriate regulatory frameworks, and to develop specific programmes for the promotion of efficient energy usage and the reduction of harmful environmental practices in the energy sector. Implementation of PEEREA is kept under review and discussion by the Energy Charter Working Group on Energy Efficiency and Related Environmental Aspects. A key feature of the Working Group's activities is the development of a series of in depth reviews of individual states' energy efficiency policies and programmes. Recommendations to the authorities of the states concerned resulting from these in depth reviews are presented to the Energy Charter Conference for discussion and endorsement. This report concerns Denmark

  8. In-Depth Review of Energy Efficiency Policies and Programmes of Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Energy Charter Protocol on Energy Efficiency and Related Environmental Aspects (PEEREA) is a legally binding instrument that was signed together with the Energy Charter Treaty in December 1994 by the same fifty-one states that signed the Treaty itself. It requires its Signatories to formulate energy efficiency strategies and policy aims, to establish appropriate regulatory frameworks, and to develop specific programmes for the promotion of efficient energy usage and the reduction of harmful environmental practices in the energy sector. Implementation of PEEREA is kept under review and discussion by the Energy Charter Working Group on Energy Efficiency and Related Environmental Aspects. A key feature of the Working Group's activities is the development of a series of in depth reviews of individual states' energy efficiency policies and programmes. Recommendations to the authorities of the states concerned resulting from these in depth reviews are presented to the Energy Charter Conference for discussion and endorsement. This report concerns Sweden

  9. Improving the reviewing process in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grossman, G. D.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available I discuss current issues in reviewing and editorial practices in ecology and evolutionary biology and suggest possible solutions for current problems. The reviewing crisis is unlikely to change unless steps are taken by journals to provide greater inclusiveness and incentives to reviewers. In addition, both journals and institutions should reduce their emphasis on publication numbers (least publishable units and impact factors and focus instead on article synthesis and quality which will require longer publications. Academic and research institutions should consider reviewing manuscripts and editorial positions an important part of a researcher’s professional activities and reward them accordingly. Rewarding reviewers either monetarily or via other incentives such as free journal subscriptions may encourage participation in the reviewing process for both profit and non–profit journals. Reviewer performance will likely be improved by measures that increase inclusiveness, such as sending reviews and decision letters to reviewers. Journals may be able to evaluate the efficacy of their reviewing process by comparing citations of rejected but subsequently published papers with those published within the journal at similar times. Finally, constructive reviews: 1 identify important shortcomings and suggest solutions when possible, 2 distinguish trivial from non–trivial problems, and 3 include editor’s evaluations of the reviews including identification of trivial versus substantive comments (i.e., those that must be addressed.

  10. Processes of local alcohol policy-making in England: Does the theory of policy transfer provide useful insights into public health decision-making?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavens, Lucy; Holmes, John; Buykx, Penny; de Vocht, Frank; Egan, Matt; Grace, Daniel; Lock, Karen; Mooney, John D; Brennan, Alan

    2017-06-13

    Recent years have seen a rise in new and innovative policies to reduce alcohol consumption and related harm in England, which can be implemented by local, as opposed to national, policy-makers. The aim of this paper is to explore the processes that underpin the adoption of these alcohol policies within local authorities. In particular, it aims to assess whether the concept of policy transfer (i.e. a process through which knowledge about policies in one place is used in the development of policies in another time or place) provides a useful model for understanding local alcohol policy-making. Qualitative data generated through in-depth interviews and focus groups from five case study sites across England were used to explore stakeholder experiences of alcohol policy transfer between local authorities. The purposive sample of policy actors included representatives from the police, trading standards, public health, licensing, and commissioning. Thematic analysis was used inductively to identify key features in the data. Themes from the policy transfer literature identified in the data were: policy copying, emulating, hybridization, and inspiration. Participants described a multitude of ways in which learning was shared between places, ranging from formal academic evaluation to opportunistic conversations in informal settings. Participants also described facilitators and constraints to policy transfer, such as the historical policy context and the local cultural, economic, and bureaucratic context, which influenced whether or not a policy that was perceived to work in one place might be transferred successfully to another context. Theories of policy transfer provide a promising framework for characterising processes of local alcohol policy-making in England, extending beyond debates regarding evidence-informed policy to account for a much wider range of considerations. Applying a policy transfer lens enables us to move beyond simple (but still important) questions of

  11. Role of centralized review processes for making reimbursement decisions on new health technologies in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafinski, Tania; Menon, Devidas; Davis, Caroline; McCabe, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare centralized reimbursement/coverage decision-making processes for health technologies in 23 European countries, according to: mandate, authority, structure, and policy options; mechanisms for identifying, selecting, and evaluating technologies; clinical and economic evidence expectations; committee composition, procedures, and factors considered; available conditional reimbursement options for promising new technologies; and the manufacturers' roles in the process. A comprehensive review of publicly available information from peer-reviewed literature (using a variety of bibliographic databases) and gray literature (eg, working papers, committee reports, presentations, and government documents) was conducted. Policy experts in each of the 23 countries were also contacted. All information collected was reviewed by two independent researchers. Most European countries have established centralized reimbursement systems for making decisions on health technologies. However, the scope of technologies considered, as well as processes for identifying, selecting, and reviewing them varies. All systems include an assessment of clinical evidence, compiled in accordance with their own guidelines or internationally recognized published ones. In addition, most systems require an economic evaluation. The quality of such information is typically assessed by content and methodological experts. Committees responsible for formulating recommendations or decisions are multidisciplinary. While criteria used by committees appear transparent, how they are operationalized during deliberations remains unclear. Increasingly, reimbursement systems are expressing interest in and/or implementing reimbursement policy options that extend beyond the traditional "yes," "no," or "yes with restrictions" options. Such options typically require greater involvement of manufacturers which, to date, has been limited. Centralized reimbursement systems have become an

  12. A review of illicit psychoactive drug use in elective surgery patients: Detection, effects, and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaggi, Gennaro; Spagnolo, Antonio G; Elander, Anna

    2017-12-01

    Limited information is present in literature regarding detection of illicit drug users visiting physicians when planning elective surgery; also, there is no update manuscript that is illustrating the effects of illicit drugs use that require reconstructive surgery interventions. Aims of this manuscript are: 1) to summarize existing knowledge, and give surgeons information how to detect patients who might possible use illicit drugs; 2) to review the effects of illicit drug use that specifically require reconstructive surgery interventions; 3) to assess on existing policies on asymptomatic illicit drug users when planning elective surgery. Studies were identified by searching systematically in the electronic databases PubMed, Medline, The Cochrane Library and SveMed+. Because of the nature of research questions to be investigated (drug policy and surgery), a "systematic review" was not possible. In spite of some existing policies to detect illicit drug use in specific situations such as workplaces or acute trauma patients, there is a lack of data and lack of information, and subsequently no policy has ever been made, for detection and management of illicit drug use asymptomatic patients requesting or referred for plastic surgery interventions. This manuscript poses questions for further ethical evaluations and future policy. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Overview of systematic reviews on the health-related effects of government tobacco control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Steven J; Tan, Charlie

    2015-08-05

    Government interventions are critical to addressing the global tobacco epidemic, a major public health problem that continues to deepen. We systematically synthesize research evidence on the effectiveness of government tobacco control policies promoted by the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), supporting the implementation of this international treaty on the tenth anniversary of it entering into force. An overview of systematic reviews was prepared through systematic searches of five electronic databases, published up to March 2014. Additional reviews were retrieved from monthly updates until August 2014, consultations with tobacco control experts and a targeted search for reviews on mass media interventions. Reviews were assessed according to predefined inclusion criteria, and ratings of methodological quality were either extracted from source databases or independently scored. Of 612 reviews retrieved, 45 reviews met the inclusion criteria and 14 more were identified from monthly updates, expert consultations and a targeted search, resulting in 59 included reviews summarizing over 1150 primary studies. The 38 strong and moderate quality reviews published since 2000 were prioritized in the qualitative synthesis. Protecting people from tobacco smoke was the most strongly supported government intervention, with smoke-free policies associated with decreased smoking behaviour, secondhand smoke exposure and adverse health outcomes. Raising taxes on tobacco products also consistently demonstrated reductions in smoking behaviour. Tobacco product packaging interventions and anti-tobacco mass media campaigns may decrease smoking behaviour, with the latter likely an important part of larger multicomponent programs. Financial interventions for smoking cessation are most effective when targeted at smokers to reduce the cost of cessation products, but incentivizing quitting may be effective as well. Although the findings for bans on tobacco advertising were

  14. The reporting characteristics and methodological quality of Cochrane reviews about health policy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiu-xia, Li; Ya, Zheng; Yao-long, Chen; Ke-hu, Yang; Zong-jiu, Zhang

    2015-04-01

    The systematic review has increasingly become a popular tool for researching health policy. However, due to the complexity and diversity in the health policy research, it has also encountered more challenges. We set out the Cochrane reviews on health policy research as a representative to provide the first examination of epidemiological and descriptive characteristics as well as the compliance of methodological quality with the AMSTAR. 99 reviews were included by inclusion criteria, 73% of which were Implementation Strategies, 15% were Financial Arrangements and 12% were Governance Arrangements; involved Public Health (34%), Theoretical Exploration (18%), Hospital Management (17%), Medical Insurance (12%), Pharmaceutical Policy (9%), Community Health (7%) and Rural Health (2%). Only 39% conducted meta-analysis, and 49% reported being updates, and none was rated low methodological quality. Our research reveals that the quantity and quality of the evidence should be improved, especially Financial Arrangements and Governance Arrangements involved Rural Health, Health Care Reform and Health Equity, etc. And the reliability of AMSTAR needs to be tested in larger range in this field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Can nutrition be promoted through agriculture-led food price policies? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangour, Alan D; Hawkesworth, Sophie; Shankar, Bhavani; Watson, Louise; Srinivasan, C S; Morgan, Emily H; Haddad, Lawrence; Waage, Jeff

    2013-06-25

    To systematically review the available evidence on whether national or international agricultural policies that directly affect the price of food influence the prevalence rates of undernutrition or nutrition-related chronic disease in children and adults. Systematic review. Global. We systematically searched five databases for published literature (MEDLINE, EconLit, Agricola, AgEcon Search, Scopus) and systematically browsed other databases and relevant organisational websites for unpublished literature. Reference lists of included publications were hand-searched for additional relevant studies. We included studies that evaluated or simulated the effects of national or international food-price-related agricultural policies on nutrition outcomes reporting data collected after 1990 and published in English. Prevalence rates of undernutrition (measured with anthropometry or clinical deficiencies) and overnutrition (obesity and nutrition-related chronic diseases including cancer, heart disease and diabetes). We identified a total of four relevant reports; two ex post evaluations and two ex ante simulations. A study from India reported on the undernutrition rates in children, and the other three studies from Egypt, the Netherlands and the USA reported on the nutrition-related chronic disease outcomes in adults. Two of the studies assessed the impact of policies that subsidised the price of agricultural outputs and two focused on public food distribution policies. The limited evidence base provided some support for the notion that agricultural policies that change the prices of foods at a national level can have an effect on population-level nutrition and health outcomes. A systematic review of the available literature suggests that there is a paucity of robust direct evidence on the impact of agricultural price policies on nutrition and health.

  16. Will European agricultural policy for school fruit and vegetables improve public health? A review of school fruit and vegetable programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sa, Joia; Lock, Karen

    2008-12-01

    For the first time, public health, particularly obesity, is being seen as a driver of EU agricultural policy. In 2007, European Ministers of Agriculture were asked to back new proposals for school fruit and vegetable programmes as part of agricultural reforms. In 2008, the European Commission conducted an impact assessment to assess the potential impact of this new proposal on health, agricultural markets, social equality and regional cohesion. A systematic review of the effectiveness of interventions to promote fruit and/or vegetable consumption in children in schools, to inform the EC policy development process. School schemes are effective at increasing both intake and knowledge. Of the 30 studies included, 70% increased fruits and vegetables (FV) intake, with none decreasing intake. Twenty-three studies had follow-up periods >1 year and provide some evidence that FV schemes can have long-term impacts on consumption. Only one study led to both increased fruit and vegetable intake and reduction in weight. One study showed that school fruit and vegetable schemes can also help to reduce inequalities in diet. Effective school programmes have used a range of approaches and been organized in ways which vary nationally depending on differences in food supply chain and education systems. EU agriculture policy for school fruits and vegetables schemes should be an effective approach with both public health and agricultural benefits. Aiming to increase FV intake amongst a new generation of consumers, it will support a range of EU policies including obesity and health inequalities.

  17. THE EASTERN PARTNERSHIP AS PART OF THE EU FOREIGN POLICY: A REVIEW OF THEORETICAL APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei SCRINIC

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Eastern Partnership (2009 as a component part of the European Neighbourhood Policy is a tool that aims at the economic integration and political cooperation of the countries that are included in this project by signing association and free trade agreements with the European Union (EU. The recent events in Ukraine have revealed the possibility of these countries to become EU member states depending on the progress made, which is confirmed by many European experts. However, there are big differences among the Eastern Partnership countries on their way to EU integration on the background of the strong pressure from Russia, aimed to suppress any pro-European manifestations of such countries. Despite the sharpening of geopolitical challenges, the EU continues to use the traditional ways of enlargement and deepening of cooperation processes with the Eastern Neighbourhood. This paper aims at reviewing the theoretical approaches through which the EU, as a normative power, exerts major influence on the Eastern Partnership (EaP countries by extending the neofunctional practices, intergovernmental cooperation and the constructivist model. However, in view of reaching the soft power objectives, we aim at transforming and strengthening the EU positions in the context of amplified economic and political-ideological problems at regional level.

  18. Low activity resin processing and disposal options review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, F.

    1996-01-01

    New processing options for low activity resin processing and disposal are available. This presentation reviews the economics and technical requirements associated with the following low activity resin processing options. (1) Bulk release resin. (2) Direct disposal. (3) Decontamination and bulk release of cleaned resin. New processing and disposal options have been developed during 1995. Commercial experience with each of these options will be reviewed and the economics associated with the processing method described in detail. Technical requirements for each option will be identified specifying the activity limits and operational requirements for implementation

  19. Participatory approaches to environmental policy-making. The European Commission Climate Policy Process as a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Hove, S.

    2000-01-01

    The paper investigates the relevance of participatory approaches to environmental policy-making when sustainable development is taken as the encompassing normative basis for environmental governance. In the first section, we illustrate the frequent references to participatory approaches in environmental decision-making. We then look at environmental issue attributes as determinants of the problem-solving requirements for environmental decision-making. We conclude the section by investigating whether and how participatory approaches could answer some of these requirements. In the second section, an illustration is proposed with the presentation of a participatory process that took place in 1997, during the last phase of the international negotiations that led to the Kyoto Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, and in 1998 in the preparation of the post-Kyoto phase. The process, organised by the European Commission, consisted of a series of workshops whose objective was to furnish timely inputs responding to the European Commission's information needs for climate policy formation in the pre- and post-Kyoto periods. This was to be achieved through the establishment of interfaces between: (1) the research community; (2) the EC Climate negotiation team and through it the EU Member States representatives; (3) other Commission interests (the 'inside stakeholders'); (4) a range of 'outside' stakeholders including industry, finance and commerce, employment, environment, consumer and citizen interests. We reflect on the participatory nature of the process and show how the process met some of the decision-making requirements identified in the first section. 27 refs

  20. The emergence and workings of a process view in public education policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk Pors, Justine; Ratner, Helene Gad

    2017-01-01

    such a process view of organisation allows policy makers to imagine innovative change, but also how a process view interacts in particular ways with financial pressures and become entangled to increased performance measurements. We conclude that in this particular case, a conception of the object of management...... as processes is utilised to stabilise a belief that undoing organisational structures and categories offer an almost limitless resource for a simultaneous improvement of performance and reduction of expenses....

  1. Nuclear fuel waste management and disposal concept: Report. Federal environmental assessment review process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Canadian concept for disposing CANDU reactor waste or high-level nuclear wastes from reprocessing involves underground disposal in sealed containers emplaced in buffer-filled and sealed vaults 500--1,000 meters below ground, in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. This document presents the report of a panel whose mandate was to review this concept (rather than a specific disposal project at a specific site) along with a broad range of related policy issues, and to conduct that review in five provinces (including reviews with First Nations groups). It first outlines the review process and then describes the nature of the problem of nuclear waste management. It then presents an overview of the concept being reviewed, its implementation stages, performance assessment analyses performed on the concept, and implications of a facility based on that concept (health, environmental, social, transportation, economic). The fourth section examines the criteria by which the safety and acceptability of the concept should be evaluated. This is followed by a safety and acceptability evaluation from both technical and social perspectives. Section six proposes future steps for building and determining acceptability of the concept, including an Aboriginal participation process, creation of a Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Agency, and a public participation process. The final section discusses some issues outside the panel's mandate, such as energy policy and renewable energy sources. Appendices include a chronology of panel activities, a review of radiation hazards, comparison between nuclear waste management and the management of other wastes, a review of other countries' approaches to long-term management of nuclear fuel wastes, and details of a siting process proposed by the panel

  2. Review of the french Chemex process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dujardin, T.; Lonchampt, G.

    1990-01-01

    The french Chemex process for uranium enrichment is found upon chemical exchange between valences 3 and 4 of uranium and operated with countercurrent liquid-liquid extraction with double reflux. The main problems encountered in developing this process were to achieve electrochemical reduction on mercury cathode, master phases stability and increase performances of pulsed columns with perforated plates. The main results obtained are: - a volumic efficiency over 300 SWU/yr.m 3 in the isotopic cascade - an energy consumption of 375 KWh-el/SWU with 40% in low grade thermal form. A 500 000 SWU/year plant design, dedicated to reprocessed uranium, is presented, leading to a SWU cost of 900 FF/SWU. A ten times larger plant, (5 MSWU/yr), for natural uranium, give a production cost of 650 FF/SWU

  3. Cost-effectiveness of tobacco control policies and programmes targeting adolescents: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leão, Teresa; Kunst, Anton E; Perelman, Julian

    2018-02-01

    Consistent evidence shows the importance of preventing smoking at young ages, when health behaviours are formed, with long-term consequences on health and survival. Although tobacco control policies and programmes targeting adolescents are widely promoted, the cost-effectiveness of such interventions has not been systematically documented. We performed a systematic review on the cost-effectiveness of policies and programmes preventing tobacco consumption targeting adolescents. We systematically reviewed literature on the (i) cost and effectiveness of (ii) prevention policies targeting (iii) smoking by (iv) adolescents. PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane, CEA-TUFTS, Health Economic Evaluations, Wiley Online Library, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination Database, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence and Google Scholar databases were used, and Google search engine was used for other grey literature review. We obtained 793 full-text papers and 19 grey literature documents, from which 16 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Of these, only one was published in the last 5 years, and 15 were performed in high-income countries. Eight analyzed the cost-effectiveness of school-based programmes, five focused on media campaigns and three on legal bans. Policies and programmes were found to be cost-effective in all studies, and both effective and cost-saving in about half of the studies. Evidence is scarce and relatively obsolete, and rarely focused on the evaluation of legal bans. Moreover, no comparisons have been made between different interventions or across different contexts and implementation levels. However, all studies conclude that smoking prevention policies and programmes amongst adolescents are greatly worth their costs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  4. Improving the implementation of health workforce policies through governance: a review of case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieleman, Marjolein; Shaw, Daniel Mp; Zwanikken, Prisca

    2011-04-12

    Responsible governance is crucial to national development and a catalyst for achieving the Millennium Development Goals. To date, governance seems to have been a neglected issue in the field of human resources for health (HRH), which could be an important reason why HRH policy formulation and implementation is often poor. This article aims to describe how governance issues have influenced HRH policy development and to identify governance strategies that have been used, successfully or not, to improve HRH policy implementation in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). We performed a descriptive literature review of HRH case studies which describe or evaluate a governance-related intervention at country or district level in LMIC. In order to systematically address the term 'governance' a framework was developed and governance aspects were regrouped into four dimensions: 'performance', 'equity and equality', 'partnership and participation' and 'oversight'. In total 16 case studies were included in the review and most of the selected studies covered several governance dimensions. The dimension 'performance' covered several elements at the core of governance of HRH, decentralization being particularly prominent. Although improved equity and/or equality was, in a number of interventions, a goal, inclusiveness in policy development and fairness and transparency in policy implementation did often not seem adequate to guarantee the corresponding desirable health workforce scenario. Forms of partnership and participation described in the case studies are numerous and offer different lessons. Strikingly, in none of the articles was 'partnerships' a core focus. A common theme in the dimension of 'oversight' is local-level corruption, affecting, amongst other things, accountability and local-level trust in governance, and its cultural guises. Experiences with accountability mechanisms for HRH policy development and implementation were lacking. This review shows that the term

  5. Critique of accommodating central bank policies and the 'expropriation of the saver' - A review

    OpenAIRE

    Bindseil, Ulrich; Domnick, Clemens; Zeuner, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    In parts of the German media, with the support of a number of German economists, the ECB’s low nominal interest rate policy is criticised as unnecessary, ineffective and as expropriating the German saver. This paper provides a review of the relevant arguments. It is recalled that returns on savings are anchored to the real rate of return on capital. Good monetary policy tries to avoid being a source of disturbance in itself, and may be able to smooth the effects of temporary external shocks, ...

  6. Influence of school competitive food and beverage policies on obesity, consumption, and availability: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chriqui, Jamie F; Pickel, Margaret; Story, Mary

    2014-03-01

    The US Department of Agriculture recently issued an interim final rule governing the sale of foods and beverages sold outside of the school meal programs ("competitive foods and beverages" [CF&Bs]). To examine the potential influence that the federal rule may have based on peer-reviewed published studies examining the relationship between state laws and/or school district policies and student body mass index (BMI) and weight outcomes, consumption, and availability of CF&Bs. Keyword searches of peer-reviewed literature published between January 2005 and March 2013 were conducted using multiple databases. Titles and abstracts for 1160 nonduplicate articles were reviewed, with a full review conducted on 64 of those articles to determine their relevancy. Qualitative studies, studies of self-reported policies, or studies examining broad policies without a specific CF&B element were excluded. Twenty-four studies were selected for inclusion. Studies focused on state laws (n = 14), district policies (n = 8), or both (n = 2), with the majority of studies (n = 18) examining foods and beverages (as opposed to food-only or beverage-only policies). Sixteen studies examined prepolicy/postpolicy changes, and 8 studies examined postpolicy changes. Study designs were cross-sectional (n = 20), longitudinal (n = 3), or a combination (n = 1). Outcomes examined included change in BMI, weight, probability of overweight or obesity (n = 4), consumption (n = 10), and availability (n = 13); 3 studies examined more than 1 outcome. The majority of studies primarily reported results in the expected direction (n = 15), with the remaining studies (n = 9) reporting primarily mixed or nonsignificant results. In most cases, CF&B policies are associated with changes in consumption and/or availability in the expected direction; however, caution should be exercised, given that nearly all were cross-sectional. The influence of such policies on overall

  7. Review of segmentation process in consumer markets

    OpenAIRE

    Veronika Jadczaková

    2013-01-01

    Although there has been a considerable debate on market segmentation over five decades, attention was merely devoted to single stages of the segmentation process. In doing so, stages as segmentation base selection or segments profiling have been heavily covered in the extant literature, whereas stages as implementation of the marketing strategy or market definition were of a comparably lower interest. Capitalizing on this shortcoming, this paper strives to close the gap and provide each step...

  8. Review of segmentation process in consumer markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Jadczaková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there has been a considerable debate on market segmentation over five decades, attention was merely devoted to single stages of the segmentation process. In doing so, stages as segmentation base selection or segments profiling have been heavily covered in the extant literature, whereas stages as implementation of the marketing strategy or market definition were of a comparably lower interest. Capitalizing on this shortcoming, this paper strives to close the gap and provide each step of the segmentation process with equal treatment. Hence, the objective of this paper is two-fold. First, a snapshot of the segmentation process in a step-by-step fashion will be provided. Second, each step (where possible will be evaluated on chosen criteria by means of description, comparison, analysis and synthesis of 32 academic papers and 13 commercial typology systems. Ultimately, the segmentation stages will be discussed with empirical findings prevalent in the segmentation studies and last but not least suggestions calling for further investigation will be presented. This seven-step-framework may assist when segmenting in practice allowing for more confidential targeting which in turn might prepare grounds for creating of a differential advantage.

  9. Developing New Mexico Health Care Policy: An application of the Vital Issues Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engi, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Icerman, L. [Icerman & Associates, Santa Fe, NM (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The Vital Issues Process, developed by the Sandia National Laboratories Strategic Technologies Department, was utilized by the Health Care Task Force Advisory Group to apply structure to their policy deliberations. By convening three expert panels, an overarching goal for the New Mexico health care system, seven desired outcomes, nine policy options, and 17 action items were developed for the New Mexico health care system. Three broadly stated evaluation criteria were articulated and used to produce relative rankings of the desired outcomes and policy options for preventive care and information systems. Reports summarizing the policy deliberations were submitted for consideration by the Health Care Task Force, a Joint Interim Committee of the New Mexico Legislature, charged with facilitating the development and implementation of a comprehensive health care delivery system for New Mexico. The Task Force reported its findings and recommendations to the Second Session of the 41st New Mexico State Legislature in January 1994.

  10. A review on the beneficial aspects of food processing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Fogliano, V.; Pellegrini, N.; Stanton, C.; Scholz, G.; Lalljie, S.P.D.; Somoza, V.; Knorr, D.; Rao Jasti, P.; Eisenbrand, G.

    2010-01-01

    The manuscript reviews beneficial aspects of food processing with main focus on cooking/heat treatment, including other food-processing techniques (e.g. fermentation). Benefits of thermal processing include inactivation of food-borne pathogens, natural toxins or other detrimental constituents,

  11. Role of centralized review processes for making reimbursement decisions on new health technologies in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stafinski T

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Tania Stafinski1, Devidas Menon2, Caroline Davis1, Christopher McCabe31Health Technology and Policy Unit, 2Health Policy and Management, School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada; 3Academic Unit of Health Economics, Leeds Institute for Health Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, UKBackground: The purpose of this study was to compare centralized reimbursement/coverage decision-making processes for health technologies in 23 European countries, according to: mandate, authority, structure, and policy options; mechanisms for identifying, selecting, and evaluating technologies; clinical and economic evidence expectations; committee composition, procedures, and factors considered; available conditional reimbursement options for promising new technologies; and the manufacturers' roles in the process.Methods: A comprehensive review of publicly available information from peer-reviewed literature (using a variety of bibliographic databases and gray literature (eg, working papers, committee reports, presentations, and government documents was conducted. Policy experts in each of the 23 countries were also contacted. All information collected was reviewed by two independent researchers.Results: Most European countries have established centralized reimbursement systems for making decisions on health technologies. However, the scope of technologies considered, as well as processes for identifying, selecting, and reviewing them varies. All systems include an assessment of clinical evidence, compiled in accordance with their own guidelines or internationally recognized published ones. In addition, most systems require an economic evaluation. The quality of such information is typically assessed by content and methodological experts. Committees responsible for formulating recommendations or decisions are multidisciplinary. While criteria used by committees appear transparent, how they are operationalized during deliberations

  12. A Review of the Turnaround in Iranian Foreign Policy during President Hassan Rohani's Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Haghgoo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The transition of power in the Islamic Republic of Iran is not only a change of guards in the different political and executive institutions during each electoral cycle but it also radically redefines the fundamental aspects of self-identity and the very definition of national interests and priorities and even how they should be defined. Upon the assumption of power by President Hassan Rohani in Iran, foreign policy of the government of the Islamic Republic of Iran has been exposed to tremendous developments. Prevalence of conservatism over revolutionary mindset, nationalism over trans-nationalism, and structuralism over agent-oriented trends are considered as the three main pillars of these developments. In Rohani’s administration there is no longer any trace of the revolutionary behavior of Ahmadinejad’s era. This turnaround in the Islamic Republic of Iran’s foreign policy is not a new phenomenon. We have witnessed such a shift in Iranian foreign policy after the end of the 8-year war with Iraq, albeit with different dimensions. An assessment of this issue would greatly enhance our understanding of the country’s foreign policy. Accordingly, assessment of the real roots of these foreign policy shifts is the main objective of the present article. Evidently, the shift in foreign policy, more than anything else can be attributed to changes in the definition of the concept of national interests, and how each administration defines such national and transnational interests. Any shift or transformation in this concept, as the guiding principal of foreign policy, creates a context for the shift in the national priorities, orientations, and strategies in its interaction with its external environment. By highlighting the three concepts of “circulation of elites”, “perception towards national identity”, and “structural developments”, the present article endeavors to review the causes of differing understandings of the concept of

  13. Review: Familiarity to Vision Rehabilitation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Sadegh-Pour

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering the numbers of low vision patients who have been visited and treated in eye clinics, sometimes there is no exact treatment to increase their visual acuity. Therefore, the necessity to pay attention to vision rehabilitation for them is strongly felt. The aims of this essay are to define vision rehabilitation and its process in relevant centers (called Low Vision Clinic.The statistic of low vision people is reported and the method of collecting data is described. Standard definition, causes of low vision and related diseases (congenital, heredity, acquired… are explained. In addition, low vision aids and role of test and prescription are discussed. Sometimes ophthalmologists and optometrists can not exactly cure patient to raise their V.A because there is no treatment or drug or ordinary glasses. In these cases the clients should refer to low vision clinic and visit low vision specialist on vision rehabilitation process. After primary evaluation they are tested completely and at the end are prescribed proper low vision aid and also provided with advice in relation to career, education role and training techniques especially in children. At the last part of present dissertation, some examples are provided to show effectiveness of vision rehabilitation and low vision aid among the clients in different countries.

  14. Off-Policy Reinforcement Learning: Optimal Operational Control for Two-Time-Scale Industrial Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinna; Kiumarsi, Bahare; Chai, Tianyou; Lewis, Frank L; Fan, Jialu

    2017-12-01

    Industrial flow lines are composed of unit processes operating on a fast time scale and performance measurements known as operational indices measured at a slower time scale. This paper presents a model-free optimal solution to a class of two time-scale industrial processes using off-policy reinforcement learning (RL). First, the lower-layer unit process control loop with a fast sampling period and the upper-layer operational index dynamics at a slow time scale are modeled. Second, a general optimal operational control problem is formulated to optimally prescribe the set-points for the unit industrial process. Then, a zero-sum game off-policy RL algorithm is developed to find the optimal set-points by using data measured in real-time. Finally, a simulation experiment is employed for an industrial flotation process to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. Quality Assurance for Distance Education: A Faculty Peer Review Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Kathryn R.; Batzer, Lyn; Bennington, Elaine

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the need for quality assurance in distance education; describes evaluation criteria; and reports how Ivy Tech State College (Indiana) created a peer review process as a formative evaluation tool to assure the quality of its distance education courses. Explains roles of the participants and evaluation of the peer review prototype. (LRW)

  16. Pharmacoeconomic evaluation in Ireland: A review of the process

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tilson, Lesley

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this review is to describe the pharmacoeconomic assessment process in Ireland and to provide examples of recent appraisals and the subsequent impact on pricing and reimbursement decisions.\\r\

  17. The application of system dynamics modelling to environmental health decision-making and policy - a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Danielle J; Smith, Carl; Jagals, Paul

    2018-03-27

    Policy and decision-making processes are routinely challenged by the complex and dynamic nature of environmental health problems. System dynamics modelling has demonstrated considerable value across a number of different fields to help decision-makers understand and predict the dynamic behaviour of complex systems in support the development of effective policy actions. In this scoping review we investigate if, and in what contexts, system dynamics modelling is being used to inform policy or decision-making processes related to environmental health. Four electronic databases and the grey literature were systematically searched to identify studies that intersect the areas environmental health, system dynamics modelling, and decision-making. Studies identified in the initial screening were further screened for their contextual, methodological and application-related relevancy. Studies deemed 'relevant' or 'highly relevant' according to all three criteria were included in this review. Key themes related to the rationale, impact and limitation of using system dynamics in the context of environmental health decision-making and policy were analysed. We identified a limited number of relevant studies (n = 15), two-thirds of which were conducted between 2011 and 2016. The majority of applications occurred in non-health related sectors (n = 9) including transportation, public utilities, water, housing, food, agriculture, and urban and regional planning. Applications were primarily targeted at micro-level (local, community or grassroots) decision-making processes (n = 9), with macro-level (national or international) decision-making to a lesser degree. There was significant heterogeneity in the stated rationales for using system dynamics and the intended impact of the system dynamics model on decision-making processes. A series of user-related, technical and application-related limitations and challenges were identified. None of the reported limitations or challenges

  18. The United States spent fuel acceptance policy - A year in review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huizenga, David G.

    1997-01-01

    Through the combined efforts of the United States and many other nations participating in the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program, much progress has been made toward reducing the amount of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in international commerce. A little more than a year ago, the U.S. Department of Energy adopted a new 1 0-year policy to accept research reactor spent nuclear fuel into the United States from other nations. The policy supports U.S. nuclear weapons nonproliferation objectives and demonstrates the continued commitment of the U.S. to the RERTR program. This paper is a review of the past year's activities and addresses the progress made since the policy was implemented

  19. Policy and Programs for Cycling in the City of Zagreb – A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Pilko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Studying cycling traffic issues in a beginner city – City of Zagreb, stems from unclear development policy, an increase in cycling volume, a large number of traffic accidents, an inadequate infrastructure and legislation, a small number of high quality studies and published papers, and the question, did current cycling policy and programs advance cycling? A comprehensive search of available literature, including data from the Zagreb Traffic Department, was made. These data do not adequately address the direction of causality, such as whether current cycling policy and programs advance cycling or whether cycling demand led to increased levels of cycling. This review paper suggests that, it is not yet possible to evaluate which pro-bicycle packages are the most effective and, development of cycling traffic requires a coordinated holistic planning strategy. Results could serve as a beacon light for similarly sized beginner cities, especially those who are located in South-eastern and Eastern Europe.

  20. A review of processes important in the floodplain setting

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart, M.E.; Lapworth, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    This report reviews the physical and geochemical processes reported in the literature and likely to be operating in the floodplain setting. The review supports a study of the Port Meadow, located within the floodplain of the River Thames to the northwest of the city of Oxford, an area affected by urban pollution. It focuses on floodplains but includes both material for the hyporheic zone and also generally for riparian zones. It describes the processes, generically covers case ...

  1. When reviews attack: ethics, free speech, and the peer review process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjistavropoulos, T; Bieling, P J

    2000-08-01

    The peer review process, whether formally applied in publication and grant review, or informally, such as exchange of ideas in scientific and professional newsgroups, has sparked controversy. Writers in this area agree that scholarly reviews that are inappropriate in tone are not uncommon. Indeed, commentators have suggested rules and guidelines that can be used to improve the review process and to make reviewers more accountable. In this paper, we examine the relevance and impact of ethical codes on the conduct of peer review. It is our contention that the peer review process can be improved, not by a new set of rules but through closer attention to the ethical principles to which we, as psychologists, already subscribe.

  2. Political and institutional influences on the use of evidence in public health policy. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liverani, Marco; Hawkins, Benjamin; Parkhurst, Justin O

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing recognition that the development of evidence-informed health policy is not only a technical problem of knowledge exchange or translation, but also a political challenge. Yet, while political scientists have long considered the nature of political systems, the role of institutional structures, and the political contestation of policy issues as central to understanding policy decisions, these issues remain largely unexplored by scholars of evidence-informed policy making. We conducted a systematic review of empirical studies that examined the influence of key features of political systems and institutional mechanisms on evidence use, and contextual factors that may contribute to the politicisation of health evidence. Eligible studies were identified through searches of seven health and social sciences databases, websites of relevant organisations, the British Library database, and manual searches of academic journals. Relevant findings were extracted using a uniform data extraction tool and synthesised by narrative review. 56 studies were selected for inclusion. Relevant political and institutional aspects affecting the use of health evidence included the level of state centralisation and democratisation, the influence of external donors and organisations, the organisation and function of bureaucracies, and the framing of evidence in relation to social norms and values. However, our understanding of such influences remains piecemeal given the limited number of empirical analyses on this subject, the paucity of comparative works, and the limited consideration of political and institutional theory in these studies. This review highlights the need for a more explicit engagement with the political and institutional factors affecting the use of health evidence in decision-making. A more nuanced understanding of evidence use in health policy making requires both additional empirical studies of evidence use, and an engagement with theories and approaches

  3. Politics, policies and processes: a multidisciplinary and multimethods research programme on policies on the social determinants of health inequity in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Fran; Friel, Sharon

    2017-12-21

    The development and implementation of multisectoral policy to improve health and reduce health inequities has been slow and uneven. Evidence is largely focused on the facts of health inequities rather than understanding the political and policy processes. This 5-year funded programme of research investigates how these processes could function more effectively to improve equitable population health. The programme of work is organised in four work packages using four themes (macroeconomics and infrastructure, land use and urban environments, health systems and racism) related to the structural drivers shaping the distribution of power, money and resources and daily living conditions. Policy case studies will use publicly available documents (policy documents, published evaluations, media coverage) and interviews with informants (policy-makers, former politicians, civil society, private sector) (~25 per case). NVIVO software will be used to analyse the documents to see how 'social and health equity' is included and conceptualised. The interview data will include qualitative descriptive and theory-driven critical discourse analysis. Our quantitative methodological work assessing the impact of public policy on health equity is experimental that is in its infancy but promises to provide the type of evidence demanded by policy-makers. Our programme is recognising the inherently political nature of the uptake, formulation and implementation of policy. The early stages of our work indicate its feasibility. Our work is aided by a Critical Policy Reference Group. Multiple ethics approvals have been obtained with the foundation approval from the Social and Behavioural Ethics Committee, Flinders University (Project No: 6786).The theoretical, methodological and policy engagement processes established will provide improved evidence for policy-makers who wish to reduce health inequities and inform a new generation of policy savvy knowledge on social determinants. © Article author

  4. Review of energy policy. Vol. 1. A discussion paper; Vol. 2. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    Following the accident at the Chernobyl reactor in April 1986, the 1986 Annual Delegate Conference of the Institution of Professional Civil Servants set up a Working Party to review the Institution's energy policy, including safety and environmental factors. The review is presented in two volumes as the basis for discussion by the members. Volume I is the main report. Section A, the introduction, includes a summary of the detailed conclusions and recommendations of the Working Party. Section B (chapters 4-12) concerns all aspects of nuclear power including fuel reprocessing and waste management. Section C (chapters 13-16) considers the alternatives to nuclear power and Section D (chapters 17-24) looks at the economic and social aspects of energy policy. The appendices, which contain the detailed technical and source information used by the Working Party in reaching its conclusions, are printed separately in Volume II.

  5. Review of policies adopted in 34 Countries to improve diet and physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ceccarelli

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Today, obesity can be considered in most OECD and EU countries as an unprecedented public health challenge which has been underestimated, poorly assessed and not fully accepted as a strategic governmental problem with substantial economic implications.
    The aim of this paper is to provide a review of the major policy statements on diet and physical activity adopted in 34 OECD and other EU countries until 2008, and to point out similarities and differences between country approaches and factors that may explain them.


    Methods: Information about policies and interventions was mainly retrieved from official sources such as the WHO Regional Office for Europe nutrition policy database, and websites of Health Ministries and national public health institutions.


    Results: The review pointed out that almost all WHO and OECD Member States have government-approved policies on nutrition and food safety. Although countries have large data and documents on overweight and obesity, they do not seem to rely on them to define clear strategies and plans for action which, as a result, are often vague and unspecific.

    Conclusions: In order to reverse the obesity trend down to decent levels and to reach the lower socio-economic groups, concerted, multisectorial, long-term actions are needed in combination with a much larger political determination.

  6. The Experiences in Processing Policies and Contracts by Adult ESL Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiog, Evalyn B.

    2017-01-01

    The present study describes the experiences of adult English as a Second Language (ESL) readers in processing legal texts prior to entering a financial agreement. A preliminary survey was conducted to determine the commonly read policies and contracts of adult ESL reader-consumers, which revealed those of banks and life-insurance companies; hence,…

  7. Simulating stakeholder support in a policy process: An application to river management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkering, Pieter; Rotmans, Jan; Krywkow, Jorg; van der Veen, A.

    2005-01-01

    The authors present an agent-based model representing a policy process among stakeholders of river management. For evaluating the different river management alternatives, the agent-based model is coupled to an integrated river model that describes the impacts of river management, such as flood risk,

  8. Tracing the Policy Mediation Process in the Implementation of a Change in the Life Sciences Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh-Pillay, Asheena; Alant, Busisiwe

    2015-01-01

    This paper accounts for the enacted realities of curriculum reform in South Africa, in particular the mediation of curriculum change. Curriculum implementation is viewed as a complex networked process of transforming or mediating policy into classroom practice. The fact that curriculum implementation is seen as problematic requires attention for…

  9. Researching International Processes of Education Policy Formation: Conceptual and Methodological Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This article elaborates one approach to conceptualizing and investigating international processes of education policy formation (IPEPF), which are dynamic, multi-level and processual in nature. This contribution is important because, although research is increasingly conducted on phenomena with such characteristics, extended discussions of how…

  10. Exploring National Environmental Policy Act processes across federal land management agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc J. Stern; Michael J. Mortimer

    2009-01-01

    Broad discretion is granted at all levels throughout federal land management agencies regarding compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). We explored the diversity of procedures employed in NEPA processes across four agencies, the USDA Forest Service, The USDI National Park Service and Bureau of Land Management, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers...

  11. Discounted semi-Markov decision processes : linear programming and policy iteration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessels, J.; van Nunen, J.A.E.E.

    1975-01-01

    For semi-Markov decision processes with discounted rewards we derive the well known results regarding the structure of optimal strategies (nonrandomized, stationary Markov strategies) and the standard algorithms (linear programming, policy iteration). Our analysis is completely based on a primal

  12. Discounted semi-Markov decision processes : linear programming and policy iteration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessels, J.; van Nunen, J.A.E.E.

    1974-01-01

    For semi-Markov decision processes with discounted rewards we derive the well known results regarding the structure of optimal strategies (nonrandomized, stationary Markov strategies) and the standard algorithms (linear programming, policy iteration). Our analysis is completely based on a primal

  13. The Relevance of Theories of the Policy Process to Educational Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    Two case studies of educational decision making are used to test the utility of some current theories of the policy-formation process; a framework for the application of these theories is proposed; and the merits of applying existing theories before seeking new paradigms are stressed. (MSE)

  14. Policies lost in translation? Unravelling water reform processes in African waterscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemerink-Seyoum, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1980s a major change took place in public policies for water resources management. The role of governments shifted under this reform process from an emphasis on investment in the development, operation and maintenance of water infrastructure to a focus on managing water resources systems

  15. How Qualitative Research Informs Clinical and Policy Decision Making in Transplantation: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Allison; Morton, Rachael L; Webster, Angela C

    2016-09-01

    Patient-centered care is no longer just a buzzword. It is now widely touted as a cornerstone in delivering quality care across all fields of medicine. However, patient-centered strategies and interventions necessitate evidence about patients' decision-making processes, values, priorities, and needs. Qualitative research is particularly well suited to understanding the experience and perspective of patients, donors, clinicians, and policy makers on a wide range of transplantation-related topics including organ donation and allocation, adherence to prescribed therapy, pretransplant and posttransplant care, implementation of clinical guidelines, and doctor-patient communication. In transplantation, evidence derived from qualitative research has been integrated into strategies for shared decision-making, patient educational resources, process evaluations of trials, clinical guidelines, and policies. The aim of this article is to outline key concepts and methods used in qualitative research, guide the appraisal of qualitative studies, and assist clinicians to understand how qualitative research may inform their practice and policy.

  16. On applications of excess level processes to (N,D-policy bulk queueing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jewgeni H. Dshalalow

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with queueing systems in which N- and D-policies are combined into one. This means that an idle or vacationing server will resume his service if the queueing or workload process crosses some specified fixed level N or D, respectively. For the proposed (N,D-policy we study the queueing processes in models with and without server vacations, with compound Poisson input, and with generally distributed service and vacation periods. The analysis of the models is essentially based on fluctuation techniques for two-dimensional marked counting processes newly developed by the author. The results enable us to arrive at stationary distributions for the embedded and continuous time parameter queueing processes in closed analytic forms, enhancing the well-known Kendall formulas and their modifications.

  17. A Critical Review on Interest Rate as a Tool of Monetary Policy

    OpenAIRE

    diyah putriani; pras towo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This research is aimed to critically review the relationship between interest rate and economic downturnMethods: Meta-analysis.Results: The existing monetary policy will always create higher inflation rate overtime triggering economic crisis in the long run. This is not merely about how the monetary authority strictly manages the supply and demand for money in the economy.Conclusion:This paper concludes that interest rate give negative contribution to the economic growth.

  18. Small Business and Defense Acquisitions: A Review of Policies and Current Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Office of Management and Budget xviii Small Business and Defense Acquisitions: A Review of Policies and Current Practices PSC Product and Service Code...themselves as minority-owned, women-owned, veteran- owned, or small disadvantaged businesses . The resulting database gives sourcing managers a tool for...REPORT DATE 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Small Business and Defense Acquisitions: A

  19. A Critical Review on Interest Rate as a Tool of Monetary Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    diyah putriani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This research is aimed to critically review the relationship between interest rate and economic downturnMethods: Meta-analysis.Results: The existing monetary policy will always create higher inflation rate overtime triggering economic crisis in the long run. This is not merely about how the monetary authority strictly manages the supply and demand for money in the economy.Conclusion:This paper concludes that interest rate give negative contribution to the economic growth.

  20. Editorial policies and background in editing Macedonian Medical Review and BANTAO journal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasovski, Goce

    2014-01-01

    Even in as small a country as R. Macedonia with limited resources allocated for science, there are many journals trying to establish good editorial practices and policies in publishing the scientific work achieved. Among the currently existing medical journals Macedonian Medical Review (MMR), ISSN 0025-1097, deserves to be elaborated as the oldest journal with continuous publication since its first appearance as the journal of the Macedonian Medical Association (MMA). Since its first issue, published in 1946, there has been an opus of some 4500 peer-reviewed published papers in more than 210 issues and some 80 supplements from various congresses and meetings. In this regard, great respect should be paid not only to the editorial boards, but also to the collaborators who have contributed to its successful continuity in all previous years. In line with the needs for further development of the journal and possibilities for access to world databases, the Editorial Board of MMR has made every effort to improve and modernize its work as well as the technical quality of the journal. Hence, MMA has signed a contract with De Gruyter Open as leading publisher of Open Access academic content for further improvement and promotion of the journal and facilitation of the Medline application, so we do hope for the further success of the journal. BANTAO Journal is published on behalf of the Balkan Cities Association of Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation and Artificial Organs (BANTAO), ISSN 1312-2517. The first issue was published in 2003, ten years after BANTAO was born. Its appearance was an extremely important event in the existence of BANTAO. The first official editor of the journal was Dimitar Nenov, Varna (2003-2005), followed by Ali Basci (Izmir, Turkey) and Goce Spasovski (Skopje, Macedonia) as editor-in-chief since 2009. Over the years, the Journal has been included in the EBSCO, DOAJ and SCOPUS/SCIMAGO databases. The journal is published biannually. Until now, 345

  1. A Review of Electric Vehicle Lifecycle Emissions and Policy Recommendations to Increase EV Penetration in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachana Vidhi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicles reduce pollution only if a high percentage of the electricity mix comes from renewable sources and if the battery manufacturing takes place at a site far from the vehicle use region. Industries developed due to increased electric vehicle adoption may also cause additional air pollution. The Indian government has committed to solving New Delhi’s air pollution issues through an ambitious policy of switching 100% of the light duty consumer vehicles to electric vehicles by 2030. This policy is based on vehicle grid interaction and relies on shared mobility through the electric vehicle fleet. There are several human behavioral changes necessary to achieve 100% adoption of electric vehicles. This paper reviews different steps in the lifecycle of an electric vehicle (EV, their impact on environmental emissions, and recommends policies suitable for different socio-economic group that are relevant to the Indian market. To reduce air pollution through adoption of electric vehicles, the Indian government needs to adopt policies that increase sale of electric vehicles, increase percentage of renewable energy in the electricity mix, and prevent air pollution caused from battery manufacturing. The recommended policies can be customized for any market globally for reducing air pollution through increased adoption of electric vehicles.

  2. A review and assessment of energy policy in the Middle East and North Africa region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, Steven

    2017-01-01

    The energy landscape of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region has undergone a significant transformation in recent years as a result of intersecting technological, economic and political trends, both regional and international. The evolving dynamics of international energy markets, increased diversification of energy sources, global concerns for climate change, and regional conflict are among the leading factors impacting the evolution of MENA energy policy. This paper provides an assessment and outlook for energy policy in the MENA region within the context of the myriad factors impacting policy design and implementation. A review and analysis of the social, political and economic factors that are impacting regional energy policy is provided and followed by analysis of regional energy policy with consideration of hydrocarbon exploration and production, regional energy trade, demand management and clean energy production. The findings show that the MENA region is in the midst of an energy transition that has uncertain outcomes but will undoubtedly have long lasting impacts on the global energy system. - Highlights: • The MENA region is undergoing an energy transition shaped by political, social and economic dynamics. • Political, economic and social turmoil will constrain energy systems developments in many MENA countries. • MENA countries that can evolve their energy systems are prioritizing energy security and energy cost minimization. • Energy demand management, sustainable energy supply and regional cooperation are essential to achieving energy priorities.

  3. Review of policies and guidelines concerning adults' alcohol consumption and promotion in Australian government schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Bernadette M; Buykx, Penelope; Munro, Geoff; Hausdorf, Katrin; Wiggers, John

    2014-08-01

    Schools are recognised as important settings for promoting student and community wellbeing through education, policies and the modelling of behaviour. Recently, there has been controversy regarding the promotion and use of alcohol by adults at school events. The aim of this study was to examine the policy approach of all Australian jurisdictions to the possession and use of alcohol, by adults, at government school events when students are present. A desktop review of Australian governments' alcohol in schools policy/guidelines documents was undertaken. Results Eighteen documents across eight jurisdictions were retrieved. There were inconsistencies between jurisdictions and lack of policy clarity regarding the promotion and/or use of alcohol by adults at events organised by schools for recreation, celebration and fundraising purposes. Clarity is needed about the role of alcohol in Australian schools, particularly in relation to its use of alcohol when there is a duty of care to children. The possession and/or use of alcohol by adults at school events may contribute to the pervasive role of drinking in Australian social life. SO WHAT? Clear and evidence-based guidelines are needed to inform school policies across all jurisdictions as to whether, when and under which circumstances it is appropriate for schools to promote and/or supply alcohol. This would also strengthen the ability of school principals and communities to make appropriate evidence-based decisions that focus on the interests of children.

  4. National policies on the management of latent tuberculosis infection: review of 98 countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagger, Ann; Reiter-karam, Silke; Getahun, Haileyesus

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objective To review policies on management of latent tuberculosis infection in countries with low and high burdens of tuberculosis. Methods We divided countries reporting data to the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Tuberculosis Programme into low and high tuberculosis burden, based on WHO criteria. We identified national policy documents on management of latent tuberculosis through online searches, government websites, WHO country offices and personal communication with programme managers. We made a descriptive analysis with a focus on policy gaps and deviations from WHO policy recommendations. Findings We obtained documents from 68 of 113 low-burden countries and 30 of 35 countries with the highest burdens of tuberculosis or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated tuberculosis. Screening and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection in people living with HIV was recommended in guidelines of 29 (96.7%) high-burden and 54 (79.7%) low-burden countries. Screening for children aged countries. In most high-burden countries the recommendation was symptom screening alone before treatment, whereas in all low-burden countries it was testing before treatment. Some low-burden countries’ policies did not comply with WHO recommendations: nine (13.2%) recommended tuberculosis preventive treatment for travellers to high-burden countries and 10 (14.7%) for patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Conclusion Lack of solid evidence on certain aspects of management of latent tuberculosis infection results in national policies which vary considerably. This highlights a need to advance research and develop clear, implementable and evidence-based WHO policies. PMID:29531416

  5. Improvement of Inventory Control Using Continuous Review Policy in A Local Hospital at Bandung City, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fina Hafnika

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This research was aimed to analyze the excess inventories issue in pharmacy and medical equipment unit at a local hospital in Bandung which affected the service level of the hospital. As one of the busy hospital in Java, proven by the higher amount of the patient/year than in other average Java typical hospital, the hospital needs to concern about the pharmaceutical and medical equipment inventories in order to fulfill patients’ needs and in the same time keeping the inventory level under control. Therefore, an inventory control evaluation was conducted to determine the appropriate number of inventories and time of order to avoid the excessive goods in central warehouse of the hospital. By using probabilistic inventory model and continuous review policy, the pharmaceutical inventory in the hospital was calculated to compare the ideal and actual amount of the average inventory level (AIL. ABC (Always, Better, Control classification also classified in this research to identify the proper item which potentially can be reduced from the inventory. From the analysis, we have discovered that the hospital potentially able to reduce almost Rp 830 million or 57% from the overstock inventory level by using continuous review policy as the basis of inventory control calculation system. Keywords: Continuous review policy, inventory control, EOQ, ROP, AIL

  6. A Global Review of Sustainable Construction Project Financing: Policies, Practices, and Research Efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Shan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increasing investment in sustainable development over the past decade, a systematic review of sustainable construction project financing is lacking. The objectives of this paper are to conduct a systematic review to examine the policies, practices, and research efforts in the area of sustainable construction project financing, and to explore the potential opportunities for the future research. To achieve these goals, this paper first reviewed the sustainable construction project financing practices implemented by four representative developed economies including the United Kingdom, the United States, Singapore, and Australia. Then, this paper reviewed the efforts and initiatives launched by three international organizations including the United Nations, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, and International Finance Corporation. After that, this paper reviewed the research efforts of sustainable construction project financing published in peer-review journals and books. This paper identified four major research themes within this area, which are the review of financial stakeholders and market of sustainable construction, benefits and barriers to sustainable construction project financing, financial vehicles for sustainable construction projects, innovative models and mechanisms for sustainable construction project financing. Additionally, this paper revealed five directions for the future research of sustainable construction project financing, which are the identification of financial issues in sustainable construction projects, the investigation of financial vehicles for sustainable construction projects in terms of their strengths, limitations, and performances, the examination of critical drivers for implementing sustainable construction project financing, the development of a knowledge-based decision support system for implementing sustainable construction financing, and the development of best practices for

  7. Transforming healthcare with information technology in Japan: a review of policy, people, and progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Chon; Nishihara, Eitaro; Akiyama, Miki

    2011-03-01

    Healthcare reform as part of the economic recovery plan in Japan is placing emphasis on the use of healthcare information technology (HIT). This research mainly focuses on the HIT efforts in Japan with reference to the US for context. The purpose is to: (a) provide detail on governmental policy impacting promotion of HIT adoption to provide services to the people of Japan, (b) describe the outcomes of past and present policy impacting progress based on a case study of HIT use in the Kyoto Yamashina area, and (c) discuss issues for refinement of current policy. The method is case study, and data collection techniques include: (a) interviews of people involved in policy making for HIT in Japan (Japanese healthcare professionals, government officials, and academics involved in HIT research in Japan) and use in the medical community of HIT in the Kyoto Yamashina area, (b) archived document analysis of reports regarding government policy for HIT policy and user assessment for HIT mainly in the case study site, and (c) the literature review about HIT progression and effectiveness assessments to explore and describe issues concerning the transformation with HIT in Japan. This study reveals the aspects of governmental policy that have been effective in promoting successful HIT initiatives as well as some that have been detriments in Japan to help solve pressing social issues regarding healthcare delivery. For example, Japan has stipulated some standardized protocols and formats for HIT but does not mandate exactly how to engage in inter-organizational or intra-organizational health information exchange. This provides some desired autonomy for healthcare organizations and or governments in medical communities and allows for more advanced organizations to leverage current resources while providing a basis for lesser equipped organizations to use in planning the initiative. The insights gained from the Kyoto Yamashina area initiative reflect the success of past governmental

  8. A Comprehensive Approach in Recruitment and Employment Policies for Faculty Members: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleiman Ahmady

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Experts in the field of human resource management have always emphasized on human work force as the most important strategic factor and the organization's most valuable asset and believe that effective management of human resources is the key to organizational success. Recruitment and selection are one of the aspects of human resource management that are of great importance and adopting appropriate policies in this area could provide the appropriate use of human resources. In universities and higher education institutions, faculty members are one of the major capitals and development and application of appropriate policies play a major role in their success. This study is based on critical review where relevant search terms were used to collect the studies using extensive and structured search of the databases. One hundred fifty titles were retrieved. Then, with purposive sampling, texts screening was conducted in three stages: A primary screening or title screening on the grounds that are associated with managing recruiting faculty members, B secondary screening performed based on study summary and introduction texts, and C tertiary screening: the texts were briefly studied and the texts were prioritized based on conceptual richness and related to contextual studies and irrelevant articles were excluded. Complete and in-depth study of the richest papers began. Forty-five articles and text were examined. The results suggest that in most universities management of recruiting faculty members is decentralized and based on the department. Findings show that policies such as reducing the use of tenure track, the long-term contracts, limiting the tenure to faculty of science, limiting tenure to higher levels of associate professor and design the diverse career paths and different forms of employment are of the policies that can be considered by university managers. The findings also suggest that universities can use flexible policies, such as

  9. Stakeholder Engagement Opportunities in Systematic Reviews: Knowledge Transfer for Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keown, Kiera; Van Eerd, Dwayne; Irvin, Emma

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge transfer and exchange is the process of increasing the awareness and use of research evidence in policy or practice decision making by nonresearch audiences or stakeholders. One way to accomplish this end is through ongoing interaction between researchers and interested nonresearch audiences, which provides an opportunity for the two…

  10. Modelling of additive manufacturing processes: a review and classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavropoulos, Panagiotis; Foteinopoulos, Panagis

    2018-03-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is a very promising technology; however, there are a number of open issues related to the different AM processes. The literature on modelling the existing AM processes is reviewed and classified. A categorization of the different AM processes in process groups, according to the process mechanism, has been conducted and the most important issues are stated. Suggestions are made as to which approach is more appropriate according to the key performance indicator desired to be modelled and a discussion is included as to the way that future modelling work can better contribute to improving today's AM process understanding.

  11. [The role of the state and society relationship in the foreign policy making process : arvustus] / Hiski Haukkala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Haukkala, Hiski

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Maria Groeneveld. The role of the state and society relationship in the foreign policy making process. Tartu : Tartu University Press, 2012. ( Dissertationes rerum politicarum Universitatis Tartuensis ; 7)

  12. How far is mixed methods research in the field of health policy and systems in Africa? A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Allegri, M; Sieleunou, I; Abiiro, G A; Ridde, V

    2018-04-01

    Both the academic and the policy community are calling for wider application of mixed methods research, suggesting that combined use of quantitative and qualitative methods is most suitable to assess and understand the complexities of health interventions. In spite of recent growth in mixed methods studies, limited efforts have been directed towards appraising and synthetizing to what extent and how mixed methods have been applied specifically to Health Policy and Systems Research (HPSR) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We aimed at filling this gap in knowledge, by exploring the scope and quality of mixed methods research in the African context. We conducted a scoping review applying the framework developed by Arksey and O'Malley and modified by Levac et al. to identify and extract data from relevant studies published between 1950 and 2013. We limited our search to peer-reviewed HPSR publications in English, which combined at least one qualitative and one quantitative method and focused on Africa. Among the 105 studies that were retained for data extraction, over 60% were published after 2010. Nearly 50% of all studies addressed topics relevant to Health Systems, while Health Policy and Health Outcomes studies accounted respectively for 40% and 10% of all publications. The quality of the application of mixed methods varied greatly across studies, with a relatively small proportion of studies stating clearly defined research questions and differentiating quantitative and qualitative elements, including sample sizes and analytical approaches. The methodological weaknesses observed could be linked to the paucity of specific training opportunities available to people interested in applying mixed methods to HPSR in LMICs as well as to the limitations on word limit, scope and peer-review processes at the journals levels. Increasing training opportunities and enhancing journal flexibility may result in more and better quality mixed methods publications.

  13. Central Processing Dysfunctions in Children: A Review of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalfant, James C.; Scheffelin, Margaret A.

    Research on central processing dysfunctions in children is reviewed in three major areas. The first, dysfunctions in the analysis of sensory information, includes auditory, visual, and haptic processing. The second, dysfunction in the synthesis of sensory information, covers multiple stimulus integration and short-term memory. The third area of…

  14. Legitimation problems of participatory processes in technology assessment and technology policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saretzki, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    Since James Carroll (1971) made a strong case for "participatory technology", scientists, engineers, policy-makers and the public at large have seen quite a number of different approaches to design and implement participatory processes in technology assessment and technology policy. As these participatory experiments and practices spread over the last two decades, one could easily get the impression that participation turned from a theoretical normative claim to a working practice that goes without saying. Looking beyond the well-known forerunners and considering the ambivalent experiences that have been made under different conditions in various places, however, the "if" and "how" of participation are still contested issues when questions of technology are on the agenda. Legitimation problems indicate that attempts to justify participation in a given case have not been entirely successful in the eyes of relevant groups among the sponsors, participants, organizers or observers. Legitimation problems of participatory processes in technology assessment and technology policy vary considerably, and they do so not only with the two domains and the ways of their interrelation or the specific features of the participatory processes. If we ask whether or not participation is seen as problematic in technology assessment and technology policy-making and in what sense it is being evaluated as problematic, then we find that the answer depends also on the approaches and criteria that have been used to legitimize or delegitimize the call for a specific design of participation.

  15. Multi-Level Policy Dialogues, Processes, and Actions: Challenges and Opportunities for National REDD+ Safeguards Measurement, Reporting, and Verification (MRV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Jagger

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available REDD+ social safeguards have gained increasing attention in numerous forums. This paper reviews the evolution of multi-level policy dialogues, processes, and actions related to REDD+ social safeguards (e.g., Cancun Safeguards 1–5 among policy makers, civil society organizations, and within the media in Brazil, Indonesia and Tanzania, three countries with well advanced REDD+ programs. We find that progress on core aspects of social safeguards is uneven across the three countries. Brazil is by far the most advanced having drafted a REDD+ social safeguards policy. Both Brazil and Indonesia have benefited from progress made by strong sub-national entities in the operationalization of REDD+ safeguards including free prior and informed consent (FPIC, participation, and benefit sharing. Tanzania has weakly articulated how social safeguards will be operationalized and has a more top-down approach. We conclude that in all three countries, measuring, reporting and verifying progress on social safeguards is likely to be a complex issue. Stakeholders with vested interests in REDD+ social safeguards operate in polycentric rather than nested systems, suggesting that aggregation of information from local to national-scale will be a challenge. However, polycentric systems are also likely to support more transparent and comprehensive safeguards systems. Clear direction from the international community and financing for REDD+ safeguard MRV is essential if REDD+ social safeguards are to be meaningfully integrated into forest-based climate mitigation strategies.

  16. Beyond Synthesis: Augmenting Systematic Review Procedures with Practical Principles to Optimise Impact and Uptake in Educational Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Chris; Taylor, Celia; Buckley, Sharon; Hean, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Whilst systematic reviews, meta-analyses and other forms of synthesis are considered amongst the most valuable forms of research evidence, their limited impact on educational policy and practice has been criticised. In this article, we analyse why systematic reviews do not benefit users of evidence more consistently and suggest how review teams…

  17. Conflict of Interest and Disclosure Policies in Psychiatry and Medicine: A Comparative Study of Peer-Reviewed Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Gauri; Henderson, Schuyler; Walter, Garry; Martin, Andres

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors reviewed and characterized conflict of interest (COI) and disclosure policies published in peer-reviewed psychiatric and nonpsychiatric journals. Methods: The authors examined peer-reviewed publications in the psychiatric (N=20) and nonpsychiatric (N=20) literature. Using qualitative and quantitative approaches, they…

  18. Why Public Comments Matter: The Case of the National Institutes of Health Policy on Single Institutional Review Board Review of Multicenter Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervin, Ann-Margret; Taylor, Holly A; Ehrhardt, Stephan; Meinert, Curtis L

    2018-03-06

    In 2014, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) requested public comments on a draft policy requiring NIH-funded, U.S.-based investigators to use a single institutional review board (sIRB) for ethical review of multicenter studies. The authors conducted a directed content analysis and qualitative summary of the comments and discuss how they shaped the final policy. Two reviewers independently assessed support for the policy from a review of comments responding to the draft policy in 2016. A reviewer conducted an open text review to identify prespecified and additional comment themes. A second researcher reviewed 20% of the comments; discrepancies were resolved through discussion. The NIH received 167 comments: 65% (108/167) supportive of the policy, 23% (38/167) not supportive, and 12% (21/167) not indicating support. Clarifications or changes to the policy were suggested in 102/167 comments (61%). Criteria for selecting sIRBs were addressed in 32/102 comments (31%). Also addressed were IRB responsibilities (39/102; 38%), cost (27/102; 26%), the role of local IRBs (14/102; 14%), and allowable policy exceptions (19/102; 19%). The NIH further clarified or provided additional guidance for selection criteria, IRB responsibilities, and cost in the final policy (June 2016). Local IRB reviews and exemptions guidance were unchanged. In this case study, public comments were effective in shaping policy as the NIH modified provisions or planned supplemental guidance in response to comments. Yet critical knowledge gaps remain and empirical data are necessary. The NIH is considering mechanisms to support the establishment of best practices for sIRB implementation.

  19. An Adaptable System to Support Provenance Management for the Public Policy-Making Process in Smart Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barkha Javed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Government policies aim to address public issues and problems and therefore play a pivotal role in people’s lives. The creation of public policies, however, is complex given the perspective of large and diverse stakeholders’ involvement, considerable human participation, lengthy processes, complex task specification and the non-deterministic nature of the process. The inherent complexities of the policy process impart challenges for designing a computing system that assists in supporting and automating the business process pertaining to policy setup, which also raises concerns for setting up a tracking service in the policy-making environment. A tracking service informs how decisions have been taken during policy creation and can provide useful and intrinsic information regarding the policy process. At present, there exists no computing system that assists in tracking the complete process that has been employed for policy creation. To design such a system, it is important to consider the policy environment challenges; for this a novel network and goal based approach has been framed and is covered in detail in this paper. Furthermore, smart governance objectives that include stakeholders’ participation and citizens’ involvement have been considered. Thus, the proposed approach has been devised by considering smart governance principles and the knowledge environment of policy making where tasks are largely dependent on policy makers’ decisions and on individual policy objectives. Our approach reckons the human dimension for deciding and defining autonomous process activities at run time. Furthermore, with the network-based approach, so-called provenance data tracking is employed which enables the capture of policy process.

  20. Moral Judgment as Information Processing: An Integrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve eGuglielmo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews dominant models of moral judgment, organizing them within an overarching framework of information processing. This framework poses two fundamental questions: (1 What input information guides moral judgments?; and (2 What psychological processes generate these judgments? Information Models address the first question, identifying critical information elements (including causality, intentionality, and mental states that shape moral judgments. A subclass of Biased Information Models holds that perceptions of these information elements are themselves driven by prior moral judgments. Processing Models address the second question, and existing models have focused on the relative contribution of intuitive versus deliberative processes. This review organizes existing moral judgment models within this framework, critically evaluates them on empirical and theoretical grounds, outlines a general integrative model grounded in information processing, and offers conceptual and methodological suggestions for future research. The information processing perspective provides a useful theoretical framework for organizing extant and future work in the rapidly growing field of moral judgment.

  1. A review of HIV testing and counseling policies and practices in the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermez, Joumana; Petrak, Jenny; Karkouri, Mehdi; Riedner, Gabriele

    2010-07-01

    To review HIV testing and counseling policies and practices in the World Health Organization's (WHO) Eastern Mediterranean Region. We reviewed gray and published literature on HIV testing policies and practices in the 22 countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region, including surveillance, monitoring and evaluation reports. Missing or unclear information was clarified by telephone interviews of key informants. Field observations were conducted in four countries. Of reported diagnostic HIV tests conducted in the Eastern Mediterranean Region from 1995 to 2008, 59.3% were carried out on migrant workers. Only 4.0% were carried out on key populations at higher risk for HIV and 8.1% were conducted in sexually transmitted infection, tuberculosis and antenatal care services. The largest proportions of HIV-positive cases identified were among key populations at higher risk (23.4%) and in sexually transmitted infection, tuberculosis and antenatal care services (17.5%). Mandatory testing was the most common approach to identifying HIV-positive cases, yet most policy documents reviewed identified voluntary counseling and testing as a key intervention for prevention, care and treatment. Provider initiated testing and counseling was rarely considered. HIV testing strategies are cumbersome, as they require central laboratory-based Enzyme Linked Immuno-Sorbant Assay (ELISA) and/or Western Blot confirmation in most countries presenting barriers to receiving results. Although policies in the Eastern Mediterranean Region include a mix of mandatory and voluntary HIV testing, mandatory testing predominates, especially for migrant and foreign workers and key populations at higher risk of HIV. There is a paucity of programs providing voluntary testing. Strategies to enhance access to true voluntary HIV testing and counseling services are urgently needed, particularly targeting key populations at higher risk.

  2. Availability of caregiver-friendly workplace policies (CFWPs): an international scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireson, Rachelle; Sethi, Bharati; Williams, Allison

    2018-01-01

    Little research has been done to summarise: what is currently available to caregiver-employees (CEs), what types of employers are offering caregiver-friendly workplace policies (CFWPs), and the characteristics of employers offering CFWPs. The purpose of this scoping review was to explore the availability of CFWPs within workplaces on an international scale while being observant of how gender is implicated in care-giving. This paper followed the Arksey & O'Malley (2005) methodology for conducting scoping reviews. The authors applied an iterative method of determining study search strings, study inclusion and data extraction, and qualitative thematic analysis of the search results. Searches were performed in both the academic and grey literature, published between 1994 and 2014. A total of 701 articles were found. Seventy (n = 70) articles met all inclusion criteria and were included in this review. Four main qualitative themes were identified: (i) Diversity and Inclusiveness, (ii) Motivation, (iii) Accessibility, and (iv) Workplace Culture. Policy recommendations are discussed. This scoping review narrows the gap in the literature with respect to determining: (i) the workplaces which offer CFWPs, (ii) the sectors of the labour force shown to be supportive and (iii) the most frequently offered CFWPs. © 2016 The Authors. Health and Social Care in the Community Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Equity impact of interventions and policies to reduce smoking in youth: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tamara; Platt, Stephen; Amos, Amanda

    2014-11-01

    A systematic review to assess the equity impact of interventions/policies on youth smoking. Biosis, Cinahl, Cochrane Library, Conference Proceedings Citation Index, Embase, Eric, Medline, Psycinfo, Science Citation Index Expanded, Social Sciences Citation Index and tobacco control experts. Published January 1995 to October 2013. Primary studies of interventions/policies reporting smoking-related outcomes in youth (11-25 years) of lower compared to higher socioeconomic status (SES). References were screened and independently checked. Studies were quality assessed; characteristics and outcomes were extracted. A narrative synthesis by intervention/policy type. Equity impact was assessed as: positive (reduced inequity), neutral (no difference by SES), negative (increased inequity), mixed (equity impact varied) or unclear.Thirty-eight studies of 40 interventions/policies were included: smokefree (12); price/tax (7); mass media campaigns (1); advertising controls (4); access controls (5); school-based programmes (5); multiple policies (3), individual-level cessation support (2), individual-level support for smokefree homes (1). The distribution of equity effects was: 7 positive, 16 neutral, 12 negative, 4 mixed, 1 unclear. All 7 positive equity studies were US-based: price/tax (4), age-of-sales laws (2) and text-messaging cessation support (1). A British school-based intervention (A Stop Smoking in Schools Trial (ASSIST)) showed mixed equity effects (neutral and positive). Most neutral equity studies benefited all SES groups. Very few studies have assessed the equity impact of tobacco control interventions/policies on young people. Price/tax increases had the most consistent positive equity impact. There is a need to strengthen the evidence base for the equity impact of youth tobacco control interventions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Information processing speed in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpinen, R; Saunamäki, T; Jehkonen, M

    2014-04-01

    To provide a comprehensive review of studies on information processing speed in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) as compared to healthy controls and normative data, and to determine whether continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment improves information processing speed. A systematic review was performed on studies drawn from Medline and PsycINFO (January 1990-December 2011) and identified from lists of references in these studies. After inclusion criteria, 159 articles were left for abstract review, and after exclusion criteria 44 articles were fully reviewed. The number of patients in the studies reviewed ranged from 10 to 157 and the study samples consisted mainly of men. Half of the studies reported that patients with OSAS showed reduced information processing speed when compared to healthy controls. Reduced information processing speed was seen more often (75%) when compared to norm-referenced data. Psychomotor speed seemed to be particularly liable to change. CPAP treatment improved processing speed, but the improvement was marginal when compared to placebo or conservative treatment. Patients with OSAS are affected by reduced information processing speed, which may persist despite CPAP treatment. Information processing is usually assessed as part of other cognitive functioning, not as a cognitive domain per se. However, it is important to take account of information processing speed when assessing other aspects of cognitive functioning. This will make it possible to determine whether cognitive decline in patients with OSAS is based on lower-level or higher-level cognitive processes or both. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The Peer Review Process: An Expanded Role for Repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Richardson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Peer review has been regarded as a cornerstone of scientific research for a considerable time. Journals seeking to attract high quality scholarship rely on peer review to maintain their credentials in the publishing industry. However, over a period of time—and especially given the advent of the Internet—complaints have arisen from authors, reviewers and even editors as to the efficacy of the system. The authors outline a range of models which have evolved that either complement or replace evaluation processes which characterise traditional peer review. Research data is presented in the context of quality assessment. The authors introduce several approaches which are utilising repositories to support the process. Consideration is given as to how this might change the current institutional repository environment.

  6. What did the Go4Health policy research project contribute to the policy discourse on the sustainable development goals? A reflexive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te, Vannarath; Floden, Nadia; Hussain, Sameera; Brolan, Claire E; Hill, Peter S

    2018-05-16

    In 2012, the European Commission funded Go4Health-Goals and Governance for Global Health, a consortium of 13 academic research and human rights institutions from both Global North and South-to track the evolution of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and provide ongoing policy advice. This paper reviews the research outputs published between 2012 and 2016, analyzing the thematic content of the publications, and the influence on global health and development discourse through citation metrics. Analysis of the 54 published papers showed 6 dominant themes related to the SDGs: the formulation process for the SDG health goal; the right to health; Universal Health Coverage; voices of marginalized peoples; global health governance; and the integration of health across the other SDGs. The papers combined advocacy---particularly for the right to health and its potential embodiment in Universal Health Coverage-with qualitative research and analysis of policy and stakeholders. Go4Health's publications on the right to health, global health governance and the voices of marginalized peoples in relation to the SDGs represented a substantial proportion of papers published for these topics. Go4Health analysis of the right to health clarified its elements and their application to Universal Health Coverage, global health governance, financing the SDGs and access to medicines. Qualitative research identified correspondence between perceptions of marginalized peoples and right to health principles, and reluctance among multilateral organizations to explicitly represent the right to health in the goals, despite their acknowledgement of their importance. Citation metrics analysis confirmed an average of 5.5 citations per paper, with a field-weighted citation impact of 2.24 for the 43 peer reviewed publications. Citations in the academic literature and UN policy documents confirmed the impact of Go4Health on the global discourse around the SDGs, but within the Go4Health consortium

  7. Policy Dialogue and Engagement between Non-Governmental Organizations and Government: A Survey of Processes and Instruments of Canadian Policy Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Mitchell Evans

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Various analysts have raised concerns respecting declining research, evaluation and analytical capacities within public services. Typically, the decline is attributed to reforms associated with neoliberal restructuring of the state and its concomitant managerial expression in New Public Management (NPM.  This has given rise to a conceptual shift now commonly captured as a movement from ‘government’ to ‘governance’. Policy advising from a new governance perspective entails an image of a more distributed policy advisory system where a plurality of actors, including non-state actors, engages with government in deliberating policy interventions to address collective problems.The original research presented here suggests that those responsible for policy work across four policy communities in the three Canadian provinces surveyed differ in terms of their capacities, depth of commitment to a specific policy file/field, roles and functions, as well as perceptions of the policy work that they undertake. Over the past several years, a number of primarily quantitative analyses examining the processes, tools and perspectives of Canadian federal and provincial government policy analysts have been published.  Consequently, a significant knowledge-base has been acquired respecting what government policy analysts do and their attitudes toward their work but very little is known about external interactions with non-governmental organizations (NGOs.

  8. Mathematical Model of (R,Q Inventory Policy under Limited Storage Space for Continuous and Periodic Review Policies with Backlog and Lost Sales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanokwan Singha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper involves developing new mathematical expressions to find reorder point and order quantity for inventory management policies that explicitly consider storage space capacity. Both continuous and periodic reviews, as well as backlogged and lost demand during stockout, are considered. With storage space capacity, when on-hand inventory exceeds the capacity, the over-ordering cost of storage at an external warehouse is charged on a per-unit-period basis. The objective is to minimize the total cost, consisting of ordering, shortage, holding, and over-ordering costs. Demand and lead time are stochastic and discrete in nature. Demand during varying lead time is modeled using an empirical distribution so that the findings are not subject to assumptions of demand and lead time probability distributions. Due to the complexity of the developed mathematical expressions, the problems are solved using an iterative method. The method is tested with problem instances that use real data from industry. Optimal solutions of the problem instance are determined by performing exhaustive search. The proposed method can effectively find optimal solutions for continuous review policies and near optimal solutions for periodic review policies. Fundamental insights about the inventory policies are reported from a comparison between continuous review and periodic review solutions, as well as a comparison between backlog and lost sales cases.

  9. Federal policies to promote the widespread utilization of photovoltaic systems. Supplement: review and critique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.L.

    1980-04-15

    This document is intended as a supplement to the two-volume report entitled Federal Policies to Promote the Widespread Utilization of Photovoltaic Systems that was submitted to Congress by the Department of Energy in February and April of 1980. This supplement contains review comments prepared by knowledgeable experts who reviewed early drafts of the Congressional report. Responses to the review comments by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, preparer of the Congressional report, are also included in this supplement. The Congressional report, mandated in the Solar Photovoltaic Energy Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1978 (P.L. 95-590), discusses various issues related to promoting the deployment of photovoltaic systems through the Federal Photovoltaic Program. Various program strategies and funding levels are examined.

  10. Impact of policy and built environment changes on obesity-related outcomes: a systematic review of naturally occurring experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayne, S L; Auchincloss, A H; Michael, Y L

    2015-05-01

    Policies and changes to the built environment are promising targets for obesity prevention efforts and can be evaluated as 'natural'- or 'quasi'-experiments. This systematic review examined the use of natural- or quasi-experiments to evaluate the efficacy of policy and built environment changes on obesity-related outcomes (body mass index, diet or physical activity). PubMed (Medline) was searched for studies published 2005-2013; 1,175 abstracts and 115 papers were reviewed. Of the 37 studies included, 18 studies evaluated impacts on nutrition/diet, 17 on physical activity and 3 on body mass index. Nutrition-related studies found greater effects because of bans/restrictions on unhealthy foods, mandates offering healthier foods, and altering purchase/payment rules on foods purchased using low-income food vouchers compared with other interventions (menu labelling, new supermarkets). Physical activity-related studies generally found stronger impacts when the intervention involved improvements to active transportation infrastructure, longer follow-up time or measured process outcomes (e.g., cycling rather than total physical activity), compared with other studies. Only three studies directly assessed body mass index or weight, and only one (installing light-rail system) observed a significant effect. Studies varied widely in the strength of their design and studies with weaker designs were more likely to report associations in the positive direction. © 2015 World Obesity.

  11. Taking Action Against Ocean Acidification: A Review of Management and Policy Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billé, Raphaël; Kelly, Ryan; Biastoch, Arne; Harrould-Kolieb, Ellycia; Herr, Dorothée; Joos, Fortunat; Kroeker, Kristy; Laffoley, Dan; Oschlies, Andreas; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre

    2013-10-01

    Ocean acidification has emerged over the last two decades as one of the largest threats to marine organisms and ecosystems. However, most research efforts on ocean acidification have so far neglected management and related policy issues to focus instead on understanding its ecological and biogeochemical implications. This shortfall is addressed here with a systematic, international and critical review of management and policy options. In particular, we investigate the assumption that fighting acidification is mainly, but not only, about reducing CO2 emissions, and explore the leeway that this emerging problem may open in old environmental issues. We review nine types of management responses, initially grouped under four categories: preventing ocean acidification; strengthening ecosystem resilience; adapting human activities; and repairing damages. Connecting and comparing options leads to classifying them, in a qualitative way, according to their potential and feasibility. While reducing CO2 emissions is confirmed as the key action that must be taken against acidification, some of the other options appear to have the potential to buy time, e.g. by relieving the pressure of other stressors, and help marine life face unavoidable acidification. Although the existing legal basis to take action shows few gaps, policy challenges are significant: tackling them will mean succeeding in various areas of environmental management where we failed to a large extent so far.

  12. Taking action against ocean acidification: a review of management and policy options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billé, Raphaël; Kelly, Ryan; Biastoch, Arne; Harrould-Kolieb, Ellycia; Herr, Dorothée; Joos, Fortunat; Kroeker, Kristy; Laffoley, Dan; Oschlies, Andreas; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre

    2013-10-01

    Ocean acidification has emerged over the last two decades as one of the largest threats to marine organisms and ecosystems. However, most research efforts on ocean acidification have so far neglected management and related policy issues to focus instead on understanding its ecological and biogeochemical implications. This shortfall is addressed here with a systematic, international and critical review of management and policy options. In particular, we investigate the assumption that fighting acidification is mainly, but not only, about reducing CO2 emissions, and explore the leeway that this emerging problem may open in old environmental issues. We review nine types of management responses, initially grouped under four categories: preventing ocean acidification; strengthening ecosystem resilience; adapting human activities; and repairing damages. Connecting and comparing options leads to classifying them, in a qualitative way, according to their potential and feasibility. While reducing CO2 emissions is confirmed as the key action that must be taken against acidification, some of the other options appear to have the potential to buy time, e.g. by relieving the pressure of other stressors, and help marine life face unavoidable acidification. Although the existing legal basis to take action shows few gaps, policy challenges are significant: tackling them will mean succeeding in various areas of environmental management where we failed to a large extent so far.

  13. Progress in ZEBs—A review of definitions, policies and construction activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panagiotidou, Maria; Fuller, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review three interlinked aspects of Zero Energy (or Emissions) Buildings (ZEB): definitions, government policies and construction activity. It is critical to understand the current status of these three aspects in order to advance the ZEB concept. In broad terms, a ZEB can be described as a residential or commercial building with greatly reduced energy needs and/or carbon emissions, achieved through efficiency gains, such that the balance of energy needs can be supplied by renewable energy. The paper explores how leading countries have defined and are implementing the concept of ZEBs. Although the term ZEB can be used for both commercial and residential buildings, the paper is limited to the latter since this sector produces the greatest amount of emissions. Case studies are used to illustrate the current level of understanding in various countries. The paper concludes that although the term ZEB has been used for some time, there is still no globally-agreed definition or pathway to it. In addition, construction progress is still limited to demonstration projects located in or driven by countries which have already established ZEB policies or a tradition in low energy buildings. -- Highlights: •Not enough ZEBs globally and activity levels are too slow. •No evidence of consensus emerging over ZEB definition. •Countries that have ZEB policies are encountering resistance from building industry. •ZEB definitions and policies focus only on operational energy use

  14. Review of hookah tobacco smoking among college students: policy implications and research recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathuru, Irene M; Tarter, Ralph E; Klein-Fedyshin, Michele

    2015-01-01

    About 30% of college students have smoked hookah tobacco. Although most students perceive this product to be innocuous and non-addictive, hookah tobacco increases the risk for disease and nicotine dependence. Currently, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not regulate the manufacture, distribution, or sale of hookah tobacco. Empirical literature pertaining to hookah tobacco smoking is reviewed with a focus on the implications for regulatory policy. PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases were searched to locate articles published in English. The literature search combined several key words including "hookahs", "college", "advertising", "health effects", and "health policy". Smoking hookah tobacco may play a role in the initiation of smoking among tobacco-naïve college students and may portend persistent smoking among those who have smoked cigarettes. College students are typically nondaily, social smokers. They do not perceive that their heightened risk for tobacco diseases and nicotine dependence relates to their smoking behavior. However, few public health messages target college-age adults to counter media messages that endorse hookah tobacco smoking. Given that the FDA is not authorized to ban specific tobacco products, policy actions should focus on the development of effective risk communication strategies that target college-age adults and on limiting the accessibility of hookah tobacco products to these adults. Accordingly, a research agenda that would inform these policy actions is proposed.

  15. What is a pilot or feasibility study? A review of current practice and editorial policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper Cindy L

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2004, a review of pilot studies published in seven major medical journals during 2000-01 recommended that the statistical analysis of such studies should be either mainly descriptive or focus on sample size estimation, while results from hypothesis testing must be interpreted with caution. We revisited these journals to see whether the subsequent recommendations have changed the practice of reporting pilot studies. We also conducted a survey to identify the methodological components in registered research studies which are described as 'pilot' or 'feasibility' studies. We extended this survey to grant-awarding bodies and editors of medical journals to discover their policies regarding the function and reporting of pilot studies. Methods Papers from 2007-08 in seven medical journals were screened to retrieve published pilot studies. Reports of registered and completed studies on the UK Clinical Research Network (UKCRN Portfolio database were retrieved and scrutinized. Guidance on the conduct and reporting of pilot studies was retrieved from the websites of three grant giving bodies and seven journal editors were canvassed. Results 54 pilot or feasibility studies published in 2007-8 were found, of which 26 (48% were pilot studies of interventions and the remainder feasibility studies. The majority incorporated hypothesis-testing (81%, a control arm (69% and a randomization procedure (62%. Most (81% pointed towards the need for further research. Only 8 out of 90 pilot studies identified by the earlier review led to subsequent main studies. Twelve studies which were interventional pilot/feasibility studies and which included testing of some component of the research process were identified through the UKCRN Portfolio database. There was no clear distinction in use of the terms 'pilot' and 'feasibility'. Five journal editors replied to our entreaty. In general they were loathe to publish studies described as 'pilot'. Conclusion

  16. Review: Miller, Michelle Ann (2009, Rebellion and Reform in Indonesia – Jakarta’s Security and Autonomy Policies in Aceh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Missbach

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of the monograph: Miller, Michelle Ann, Rebellion and Reform in Indonesia – Jakarta’s Security and Autonomy Policies in Aceh, London/ New York: Routledge, 2009, ISBN 13: 978-0-415-45467-4, 240 pages.

  17. Book Review of 'The Metropolitan Revolution, How Cities and Metros are fixing our Broken Policies and Fragile Economy'

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzpatrick, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Book Reviews for Architecture Ireland of 'The Metropolitan Revolution, How Cities and Metros are fixing our Broken Policies and Fragile Economy', by Bruce Katz and Jennifer Bradley, Published by Brookings Institution Press, 288 pages.

  18. Policies for Resource Efficient and Effective Solutions : A review of concepts, current policy landscape and future policy considerations for the transition to a Circular Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Milios, Leonidas

    2016-01-01

    This report presents basic concepts around resources, resource efficiency and the Circular Economy. The limitations and the opportunities within the Circular Economy are identified and clearly presented. The current policy landscape in the EU as well as in Sweden is thoroughly analysed and a set of policy areas with a significant untapped potential for resource efficiency is identified. The policy areas which have been underutilised so far include policies for re-use, repair and remanufacturi...

  19. Literature review for oxalate oxidation processes and plutonium oxalate solubility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, C. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-01

    A literature review of oxalate oxidation processes finds that manganese(II)-catalyzed nitric acid oxidation of oxalate in precipitate filtrate is a viable and well-documented process. The process has been operated on the large scale at Savannah River in the past, including oxidation of 20 tons of oxalic acid in F-Canyon. Research data under a variety of conditions show the process to be robust. This process is recommended for oxalate destruction in H-Canyon in the upcoming program to produce feed for the MOX facility. Prevention of plutonium oxalate precipitation in filtrate can be achieved by concentrated nitric acid/ferric nitrate sequestration of oxalate. Organic complexants do not appear practical to sequester plutonium. Testing is proposed to confirm the literature and calculation findings of this review at projected operating conditions for the upcoming campaign.

  20. 75 FR 29996 - Review of MMS NEPA Policies, Practices, and Procedures for OCS Oil and Gas Exploration and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) policies, practices, and procedures for the Minerals Management Service (MMS... applies NEPA in its management of Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas exploration and development and make recommendations for revisions. The scope of the review is intended to be holistic, i.e. from leasing decisions to...

  1. 'Korenizatsiia' and its Discontents: Ukraine and the Soviet Nationality Policies during the 1920s: A Review Essay

    OpenAIRE

    VUSHKO, Iryna

    2009-01-01

    This essay reviews the recent literature on the nationalities policy in Soviet Ukraine during the 1920s. It brings together different Western (English and German) and native (Ukrainian and Russian) historical narratives, all produced after 2001. Different approaches to the Soviet nationalities policy, as this essay demonstrates, reveal broader methodological differences between historians working within distinct historiographical traditions. Despite the increasing contacts between...

  2. A review on the susceptor assisted microwave processing of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Madhuchhanda; Basak, Tanmay

    2016-01-01

    Microwave processing has received significant attention based on the energy efficient volumetric processing. The internal heat generation during the microwave heating unleashes the heat transfer limitations of the conventional furnaces and thus, the microwave processing can be performed at much faster rates than the conventional furnaces. Susceptors further accelerate the microwave processing via providing a two-way heating with reduced heat losses from the surface of the material. In addition, the rapid initial heating via susceptors becomes the key factor to execute the energy efficient microwave processing for the poorly microwave absorbing materials. These characteristics have been massively exploited for various applications (material processing, synthesis and waste treatments) over the last few decades and this review evaluates those processing characteristics with an emphasis on the energy efficiency. Till date, the advancement of the susceptor assisted microwave processing is primarily based on the experimental trials and this review brings together various case studies so that the readers can have a clear idea about the current status in each field of applications. This can be of immense help not only to select the appropriate susceptor, but also to select the future research direction for the advancement of the energy efficient processing. - Highlights: • Susceptor assisted hybrid microwave processing has been reviewed. • Energy efficiency of the hybrid heating has been analyzed for various applications. • The applications include material processing, synthesis and waste treatment. • The role of susceptors on the energy efficient material processing is highlighted. • The enhancement of the processing via the susceptors has been reported.

  3. Process monitoring for reprocessing plant safeguards: a summary review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, H.T.; Ehinger, M.H.; Wachter, J.W.; Hebble, T.L.

    1986-10-01

    Process monitoring is a term typically associated with a detailed look at plant operating data to determine plant status. Process monitoring has been generally associated with operational control of plant processes. Recently, process monitoring has been given new attention for a possible role in international safeguards. International Safeguards Project Office (ISPO) Task C.59 has the goal to identify specific roles for process monitoring in international safeguards. As the preliminary effort associated with this task, a review of previous efforts in process monitoring for safeguards was conducted. Previous efforts mentioned concepts and a few specific applications. None were comprehensive in addressing all aspects of a process monitoring application for safeguards. This report summarizes the basic elements that must be developed in a comprehensive process monitoring application for safeguards. It then summarizes the significant efforts that have been documented in the literature with respect to the basic elements that were addressed

  4. A Review Of The United States Government’s Status Quo North Korean Foreign Policy Approach And Reasons For Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY A REVIEW OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT’S STATUS QUO NORTH KOREAN FOREIGN POLICY APPROACH AND REASONS FOR...administration DPRK policy review . Initially the Obama administration also sought negotiations through Six-party offering official US aid. In his... movies and sports, as well as being educated in Switzerland. Mr. Kim invited Dennis Rodman to visit his country, who has made several trips.44 Former

  5. Role of Evidence in Maternal Health Policy Processes in Vietnam, India and China: Findings from the HEPVIC Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzoev, Tolib; Green, Andrew; Gerein, Nancy; Pearson, Stephen; Bird, Philippa; Ha, Bui Thi Thu; Ramani, Karaikurichi; Qian, Xu; Yang, Xiaoguang; Mukhopadhyay, Maitrayee; Soors, Werner

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the role of evidence in maternal health policy processes in Vietnam, India and China. Both formal and informal types of evidence were used; and differences were found between the stages of policy processes. Evidence used mostly covered easily quantifiable issues and clearly identifiable technical solutions. Different policy…

  6. Participation, public policy-making, and legitimacy in the EU Voluntary Partnership Agreement process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wodschow, Astrid; Nathan, Iben; Cerutti, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses how participatory policy-making processes such as the Voluntary Partnership Agreement (VPA) negotiations are and should be organised to foster political legitimacy and support. The VPAs are bilateral agreements between the European Union (EU) and timber producing countries....... VPAs constitute a cornerstone in EU's Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT) programme, the most important tool for the EU to address illegal logging problems. The EU requires that national VPA negotiations include participation by the relevant stakeholders. Based on primary data, we...... compare the VPA negotiations in Cameroon (2006–2009) with three different ‘ideal’ models of participatory policy-making: the rationalist, the communicative incremental and the mixed model, which we expect have different implications for legitimacy. We conclude that the Cameroonian process is closest...

  7. Role of the national energy system modelling in the process of the policy development

    OpenAIRE

    Merse Stane; Urbancic Andreja; Sucic Boris; Pusnik Matevz

    2012-01-01

    Strategic planning and decision making, nonetheless making energy policies and strategies, is very extensive process and has to follow multiple and often contradictory objectives. During the preparation of the new Slovenian Energy Programme proposal, complete update of the technology and sector oriented bottom up model of Reference Energy and Environmental System of Slovenia (REES-SLO) has been done. During the redevelopment of the REES-SLO model trade-off between the simulation and opt...

  8. Embracing the Complexity of Policy Processes in Sanitation: Insights from India

    OpenAIRE

    Hueso, Andrés; Boni Aristizábal, Alejandra; Fernández-Baldor, Álvaro

    2018-01-01

    [EN] Different stakeholders tried participatory approaches to boost progress in rural sanitation in India. The policy processes around these experiences, despite shaping their outcomes, remain a knowledge gap this paper addresses. Evidence show that the interests of the actors involved resulted in the national campaign being construction-focused. Therefore, participatory approaches could only be successfully introduced through networks with political champions at their centre. Moreover, polit...

  9. Review on biofuel oil and gas production processes from microalgae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, Sarmidi

    2009-01-01

    Microalgae, as biomass, are a potential source of renewable energy, and they can be converted into energy such as biofuel oil and gas. This paper presents a brief review on the main conversion processes of microalgae becoming energy. Since microalgae have high water content, not all biomass energy conversion processes can be applied. By using thermochemical processes, oil and gas can be produced, and by using biochemical processes, ethanol and biodiesel can be produced. The properties of the microalgae product are almost similar to those of offish and vegetable oils, and therefore, it can be considered as a substitute of fossil oil.

  10. Peer review in design: Understanding the impact of collaboration on the review process and student perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandala, Mahender Arjun

    A cornerstone of design and design education is frequent situated feedback. With increasing class sizes, and shrinking financial and human resources, providing rich feedback to students becomes increasingly difficult. In the field of writing, web-based peer review--the process of utilizing equal status learners within a class to provide feedback to each other on their work using networked computing systems--has been shown to be a reliable and valid source of feedback in addition to improving student learning. Designers communicate in myriad ways, using the many languages of design and combining visual and descriptive information. This complex discourse of design intent makes peer reviews by design students ambiguous and often not helpful to the receivers of this feedback. Furthermore, engaging students in the review process itself is often difficult. Teams can complement individual diversity and may assist novice designers collectively resolve complex task. However, teams often incur production losses and may be impacted by individual biases. In the current work, we look at utilizing a collaborative team of reviewers, working collectively and synchronously, in generating web based peer reviews in a sophomore engineering design class. Students participated in a cross-over design, conducting peer reviews as individuals and collaborative teams in parallel sequences. Raters coded the feedback generated on the basis of their appropriateness and accuracy. Self-report surveys and passive observation of teams conducting reviews captured student opinion on the process, its value, and the contrasting experience they had conducting team and individual reviews. We found team reviews generated better quality feedback in comparison to individual reviews. Furthermore, students preferred conducting reviews in teams, finding the process 'fun' and engaging. We observed several learning benefits of using collaboration in reviewing including improved understanding of the assessment

  11. Approximation of the energy acquis communautaire. Review of energy markets and policies of seven accession countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Oostvoorn, F.; Voogt, M.H.; Uyterlinde, M.A.; Van Wees, M.T.

    1999-12-01

    This report is a compilation of the country reviews conducted by ECN in the framework of the Phare Multi-country programme project 'Approximation of CEEC to EU legislation'. The project was conducted and co-ordinated by DEM (Denmark), with contributions of ERM (UK) and ECN. The project's main objective was to assist the CEECs to approximate their energy legislation with EU energy legislation. A secondary objective was to review the current situation of the energy markets and policies in the thirteen CEECs with respect to their progress in approximation towards the EU energy acquis and policy practices. For this second objective ECN assessed the current situation in seven countries, on the basis of a survey organised by the project co-ordinator DEM and filled in by the counterparts in the seven CEECs. Those seven countries are: the Czech Republic, the Slovak Republic, Hungary, Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania, and Poland. These country reviews, which were sent to DEM for inclusion in their final report, are compiled here. In addition, ECN drafted an introduction and formulated a few final comments

  12. Dutch climate and energy policy. Analysis of policy reviews 1989-2012; Het Nederlandse Klimaat- en Energiebeleid. Analyse van beleidsevaluaties 1989-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, J.; Blom, M.J.; De Bruyn, S.M.; Nelissen, D.; Aarnink, S.J.; De Buck, A.; Bennink, D. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Oosterhuis, F.H.; Kuik, O.J. [Instituut voor Milieuvraagstukken IVM, Vrije Universiteit VU, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-11-15

    The Dutch government has had climate policy in place since 1989. Since 1999 that policy has been intensified with a view to meeting Kyoto commitments for the period 2008-2012. The Dutch Parliament requested a review of the costs and effects of the measures implemented in the context of Dutch climate and energy policy, based on the available review studies, with led to the commissioning of the present report [Dutch] De Nederlandse overheid voert sinds 1989 klimaatbeleid. Vanaf 1999 is het beleid geïntensiveerd met het oog op het halen van de Kyoto-doelstelling in de periode 2008-2012. De Tweede Kamer wil een overzicht hebben van de kosten en effecten van beleidsinstrumenten van het Nederlandse klimaat- en energiebeleid, op basis van bestaande evaluatiestudies en heeft daarom deze studie laten uitvoeren.

  13. A Review on Parametric Analysis of Magnetic Abrasive Machining Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattri, Krishna; Choudhary, Gulshan; Bhuyan, B. K.; Selokar, Ashish

    2018-03-01

    The magnetic abrasive machining (MAM) process is a highly developed unconventional machining process. It is frequently used in manufacturing industries for nanometer range surface finishing of workpiece with the help of Magnetic abrasive particles (MAPs) and magnetic force applied in the machining zone. It is precise and faster than conventional methods and able to produce defect free finished components. This paper provides a comprehensive review on the recent advancement of MAM process carried out by different researcher till date. The effect of different input parameters such as rotational speed of electromagnet, voltage, magnetic flux density, abrasive particles size and working gap on the performances of Material Removal Rate (MRR) and surface roughness (Ra) have been discussed. On the basis of review, it is observed that the rotational speed of electromagnet, voltage and mesh size of abrasive particles have significant impact on MAM process.

  14. Can policy ameliorate socioeconomic inequities in obesity and obesity-related behaviours? A systematic review of the impact of universal policies on adults and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olstad, D L; Teychenne, M; Minaker, L M; Taber, D R; Raine, K D; Nykiforuk, C I J; Ball, K

    2016-12-01

    This systematic review examined the impact of universal policies on socioeconomic inequities in obesity, dietary and physical activity behaviours among adults and children. PRISMA-Equity guidelines were followed. Database searches spanned from 2004 to August 2015. Eligible studies assessed the impact of universal policies on anthropometric, dietary or physical activity-related outcomes in adults or children according to socioeconomic position. Thirty-six studies were included. Policies were classified as agentic, agento-structural or structural, and their impact on inequities was rated as positive, neutral, negative or mixed according to the dominant associations observed. Most policies had neutral impacts on obesity-related inequities regardless of whether they were agentic (60% neutral), agento-structural (68% neutral) or structural (67% neutral). The proportion of positive impacts was similar across policy types (10% agentic, 18% agento-structural and 11% structural), with some differences for negative impacts (30% agentic, 14% agento-structural and 22% structural). The majority of associations remained neutral when stratified by participant population, implementation level and socioeconomic position measures and by anthropometric and behavioural outcomes. Fiscal measures had consistently neutral or positive impacts on inequities. Findings suggest an important role for policy in addressing obesity in an equitable manner and strengthen the case for implementing a broad complement of policies spanning the agency-structure continuum. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  15. Sub-national entities’ participation in Brazil’s foreign policy and in regional integration processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deisy Ventura

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on how sub-national entities’ gradual participation in Brazilian foreign policy has come about, with reference to a decentralised scenario of the decision-making process in Itamaraty, where the ministries and presidential organs have a voice on many strategic themes, mainly concerning development. The article examines the insertion of sub-national entities into the decision-making process in the Southern Common Market (Mercosur, and concludes that in spite of the incipient participation, relevant contributions to the process of regional integration have arisen. Regarding the hypothesis that the participation of the federative entities in the decision-making process generates local and regional development, we argue that this is an alternative to increasing state efficiency. In conclusion, and despite the incipient institutionalisation that does not guarantee their vote in the decision-making process, at least their voice is heard.

  16. Family eating out-of-home: a review of nutrition and health policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuffin, L E; Wallace, J M W; McCrorie, T A; Price, R K; Pourshahidi, L K; Livingstone, M B E

    2013-02-01

    Childhood obesity is a growing problem worldwide. In recent years, out-of-home (OH) eating has been highlighted as one of the many factors contributing to the obesogenic environment. This review seeks to identify a range of existing guidelines for the provision of healthy food options for families who eat OH frequently. Nationally available nutrition policies were identified using targeted and untargeted searches of the internet to identify established strategies for providing food for children in the family eating out sector in America (US), Australia, Canada and the WHO's European Region (EUR). These were categorised on the basis of eleven pre-defined criteria including: family eating out sector included as stakeholder; inclusion of children's food OH; cost strategies for healthier food choices; provision of nutrition information for customers; nutrition training of catering staff; and monitoring and evaluation structures. Fifty-five policies were reviewed, of which 71% addressed children's food served OH, but principally only for food available in schools. Two voluntary programmes, from Colorado and Slovenia, were identified as possible best practice models as they met a majority of the evaluation criteria. The most frequently used strategy by policies to promote healthier eating OH was the provision of nutrition information on menus, while monitoring and evaluation plans were poorly incorporated into any OH strategies, thus raising issues about their effectiveness. This review has identified a range of initiatives that could be employed to make healthier eating OH more accessible for families. However, to establish best practice guidelines for healthier OH food choices further investigations are required.

  17. Domestic policy 1982-1986 - a performance review. Innenpolitische Leistungsbilanz 1982-1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    The report reviews the achievements of domestic policy of the last four years, i.e. work performed by the various departments of the German Federal Ministry of the Interior. The activities are widespread, including besides the traditional ones such as public safety, civil defence and disaster control, some new services in the field of pollution control, reactor safety, and many others. The common goal is to maintain peace and public safety, to ensure freedom and the natural bases of existence, and to thus create the basic conditions for public well-being and pursuit of happiness for every citizen. (orig./HSCH).

  18. Early infant male circumcision: Systematic review, risk-benefit analysis, and progress in policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Brian J; Kennedy, Sean E; Wodak, Alex D; Mindel, Adrian; Golovsky, David; Schrieber, Leslie; Lumbers, Eugenie R; Handelsman, David J; Ziegler, John B

    2017-02-08

    To determine whether recent evidence-based United States policies on male circumcision (MC) apply to comparable Anglophone countries, Australia and New Zealand. Articles in 2005 through 2015 were retrieved from PubMed using the keyword "circumcision" together with 36 relevant subtopics. A further PubMed search was performed for articles published in 2016. Searches of the EMBASE and Cochrane databases did not yield additional citable articles. Articles were assessed for quality and those rated 2+ and above according to the Scottish Intercollegiate Grading System were studied further. The most relevant and representative of the topic were included. Bibliographies were examined to retrieve further key references. Randomized controlled trials, recent high quality systematic reviews or meta-analyses (level 1++ or 1+ evidence) were prioritized for inclusion. A risk-benefit analysis of articles rated for quality was performed. For efficiency and reliability, recent randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, high quality systematic reviews and large well-designed studies were used if available. Internet searches were conducted for other relevant information, including policies and Australian data on claims under Medicare for MC. Evidence-based policy statements by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) support infant and later age male circumcision (MC) as a desirable public health measure. Our systematic review of relevant literature over the past decade yielded 140 journal articles that met our inclusion criteria. Together, these showed that early infant MC confers immediate and lifelong benefits by protecting against urinary tract infections having potential adverse long-term renal effects, phimosis that causes difficult and painful erections and "ballooning" during urination, inflammatory skin conditions, inferior penile hygiene, candidiasis, various sexually transmissible infections in both sexes, genital

  19. Policy development and challenges of global mental health: a systematic review of published studies of national-level mental health policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Yu, Yu; Yang, Mei; Chen, Lizhang; Xiao, Shuiyuan

    2018-05-18

    Mental health policy can be an essential and powerful tool to improve a population's mental health. However, around one third of countries do not possess a mental health policy, and there are large disparities in population coverage rates between high- and low-income countries. The goal of this study is to identify the transition and implementation challenges of mental health policies in both high-income countries (HICs) as well as middle- and low-income countries (MLICs). PubMed, Cochrane Library and Campbell Library were searched from inception to 31 December 2017, for studies on implemented mental health policies at the national level. Abstracts and the main texts of papers were double screened, and extracted data were analysed through thematic synthesis. A total of 93 papers were included in this study, covering 24 HICs, 28 MLICs and 5 regions. Studies on mental health policies, especially those of MLICs, kept increasing, but MLICs were still underrepresented in terms of publication quantity and study frequency. Based on the included studies, nine policy domains were summarized: service organizing, service provision, service quality, human resources, legislation and human rights, advocacy, administration, surveillance and research, and financing and budgeting. HICs incrementally enriched their policy content in all domains over centuries of development; following HICs' experience, mental health policies in MLICs have boomed since the 1990s and quickly extended to all domains. Implementation problems in HICs were mainly related to service organizing and service provision; for MLICs, more severe implementation problems converged on financing and budgeting, administration and human resources. Mental health policy developments in both HICs and MLICs present a process of diversification and enrichment. In terms of implementation, MLICs are faced with more and greater challenges than HICs, especially in funding, human resources and administration. Therefore, future

  20. Optimal dividend policies with transaction costs for a class of jump-diffusion processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunting, Martin; Paulsen, Jostein

    2013-01-01

    his paper addresses the problem of finding an optimal dividend policy for a class of jump-diffusion processes. The jump component is a compound Poisson process with negative jumps, and the drift and diffusion components are assumed to satisfy some regularity and growth restrictions. Each dividend...... payment is changed by a fixed and a proportional cost, meaning that if ξ is paid out by the company, the shareholders receive kξ−K, where k and K are positive. The aim is to maximize expected discounted dividends until ruin. It is proved that when the jumps belong to a certain class of light...