O. A. Zubchyk
Chronopolitics as methodology examines the role of the state in the political structure of the political entity in temporal conditions of political and administrative decisions. These issues have been discussed in the context of Chronopolitical study of historical forms of political organization. The study has proved that Chronopolitics functionally and structurally adds the conceptual and categorical apparatus of political sciences, science and public administration.
This article examines how visual methodologies might be incorporated into educational policy studies. By bringing together theoretical perspectives on critical policy studies and visual methodologies, we aim to demonstrate the ways in which the visual can be an important tool to help us interrogate how knowledge is ...
Lourie, Megan; Rata, Elizabeth
The article describes the usefulness of a realist methodology in linking sociological theory to empirically obtained data through the development of a methodological device. Three layers of analysis were integrated: 1. the findings from a case study about Maori language education in New Zealand; 2. the identification and analysis of contradictions…
Linder, Stephen H
Setting funding priorities among research projects for complementary and alternative therapies is especially vulnerable to arbitrary, partisan criteria and opportunistic readings of controversial evidence. This study develops a procedural approach to characterizing, in a transparent and even-handed way, the available evidence on these treatments and demonstrates a simple analytical scheme for prioritizing competing, but typically incommensurable, research projects for public support. A simple five-step scheme for categorizing therapies is developed and justified, based on a taxonomy of the study designs used to generate research evidence. Once identified, candidate therapies are assigned to ordered categories along these design criteria and effectively grouped into equivalence classes by type of evidence. Finally, a partial ordering on the therapies is formed within each class by means of secondary screening criteria. Twenty-five candidate therapies are assigned to equivalence classes. The intent, in effect, is to restrict comparisons to those therapies that fall within a particular class of similar study designs. Within-class orderings avoid the problem of having better-known or better-supported therapies crowd out lesser known ones when it comes to allocating dollars for more research. A set of criteria and procedure for prioritizing spending for further research is demonstrated. Relying on an open, formal procedure for comparing unconventional therapies offers protection against prejudgment in setting funding priorities, especially when weak clinical evidence relates more to a low investment in research than lack of efficacy.
Xiu-xia, Li; Ya, Zheng; Yao-long, Chen; Ke-hu, Yang; Zong-jiu, Zhang
The systematic review has increasingly become a popular tool for researching health policy. However, due to the complexity and diversity in the health policy research, it has also encountered more challenges. We set out the Cochrane reviews on health policy research as a representative to provide the first examination of epidemiological and descriptive characteristics as well as the compliance of methodological quality with the AMSTAR. 99 reviews were included by inclusion criteria, 73% of which were Implementation Strategies, 15% were Financial Arrangements and 12% were Governance Arrangements; involved Public Health (34%), Theoretical Exploration (18%), Hospital Management (17%), Medical Insurance (12%), Pharmaceutical Policy (9%), Community Health (7%) and Rural Health (2%). Only 39% conducted meta-analysis, and 49% reported being updates, and none was rated low methodological quality. Our research reveals that the quantity and quality of the evidence should be improved, especially Financial Arrangements and Governance Arrangements involved Rural Health, Health Care Reform and Health Equity, etc. And the reliability of AMSTAR needs to be tested in larger range in this field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
This paper shows how globalization has given rise to a number of new theoretical and methodological issues for doing education policy analysis linked to globalization's impact within critical social science. Critical policy analysis has always required critical "reflexivity" and awareness of the "positionality" of the policy analyst. However, as…
Lê, Gillian; Mirzoev, Tolib; Orgill, Marsha; Erasmus, Ermin; Lehmann, Uta; Okeyo, Stephen; Goudge, Jane; Maluka, Stephen; Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Aikins, Moses; de Savigny, Don; Tomson, Goran; Gilson, Lucy
The importance of health policy and systems research and analysis (HPSR+A) has been increasingly recognised, but it is still unclear how most effectively to strengthen the capacity of the different organisations involved in this field. Universities are particularly crucial but the expansive literature on capacity development has little to offer the unique needs of HPSR+A activity within universities, and often overlooks the pivotal contribution of capacity assessments to capacity strengthening. The Consortium for Health Policy and Systems Analysis in Africa 2011-2015 designed and implemented a new framework for capacity assessment for HPSR+A within universities. The methodology is reported in detail. Our reflections on developing and conducting the assessment generated four lessons for colleagues in the field. Notably, there are currently no published capacity assessment methodologies for HPSR+A that focus solely on universities - we report a first for the field to initiate the dialogue and exchange of experiences with others. Second, in HPSR+A, the unit of assessment can be a challenge, because HPSR+A groups within universities tend to overlap between academic departments and are embedded in different networks. Third, capacity assessment experience can itself be capacity strengthening, even when taking into account that doing such assessments require capacity. From our experience, we propose that future systematic assessments of HPSR+A capacity need to focus on both capacity assets and needs and assess capacity at individual, organisational, and systems levels, whilst taking into account the networked nature of HPSR+A activity. A genuine partnership process between evaluators and those participating in an assessment can improve the quality of assessment and uptake of results in capacity strengthening.
Holford, John; Larson, Anne; Melo, Susana
In recent years, the “policy trail” has been proposed as a methodology appropriate to the shifting and fluid governance of lifelong learning in the late modern world (Holford et al. 2013, Holford et al. 2013, Cort 2014). The contemporary environment is marked by multi-level governance (global....../national/regional/local), but also by a diversification of types of actor (public/private; for-profit/not-for-profit). Multi-level governance has been particularly marked – and has taken specific forms – in the European context, but it is by no means limited to the EU. The policy trail method aims to capture the increased influence...... of transnational organisations and public-private networks in policymaking. The concept of policy trails sought to theorise how this widened policy space – including new and variously-sited actors – is negotiated and how power is distributed across sites (Holford & McKenzie, 2013). Cort (2014) developed the notion...
This book deals with how students should use of research methods in their university projects. It aims at helping students in developing comprehensive research strategies for their projects. It also provides introduction to issues of philosophy of science as applied in the social sciences....... That is it provides them with a fair understanding of the root assumptions that guide researchers in their investigations and how these assumptions inform their theoretical thinking and choice of methods....
Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.
This article elaborates one approach to conceptualizing and investigating international processes of education policy formation (IPEPF), which are dynamic, multi-level and processual in nature. This contribution is important because, although research is increasingly conducted on phenomena with such characteristics, extended discussions of how…
Explores what it means to do research intended to be relevant for public policy. Argues against perception of policy research as politically neutral technical exercise. Discusses political implications of methodology. Discusses research examples to illustrate point. Discusses implications for how research might be used in political process.…
Despite abundant data and increasing data availability brought by technological advances, there has been very limited education policy studies that have capitalized on big data--characterized by large volume, wide variety, and high velocity. Drawing on the recent progress of using big data in public policy and computational social science…
Duke, Nell K
The definitive reference on literacy research methods, this book serves as a key resource for researchers and as a text in graduate-level courses. Distinguished scholars clearly describe established and emerging methodologies, discuss the types of questions and claims for which each is best suited, identify standards of quality, and present exemplary studies that illustrate the approaches at their best. The book demonstrates how each mode of inquiry can yield unique insights into literacy learning and teaching and how the methods can work together to move the field forward. New to This Editi
Scheurich, James Joseph
Discusses policy archaeology, a radically different approach to policy studies in education drawn from the poststructuralist work of Foucault. Policy archaeology examines the social construction of problems before they become visible, focusing on five social regularities (race, gender, class, governmentality, and professionalization) comprising…
Kramer-Kile, Marnie L
Qualitative nurse researchers are required to make deliberate and sometimes complex methodological decisions about their work. Methodology in qualitative research is a comprehensive approach in which theory (ideas) and method (doing) are brought into close alignment. It can be difficult, at times, to understand the concept of methodology. The purpose of this research column is to: (1) define qualitative methodology; (2) illuminate the relationship between epistemology, ontology and methodology; (3) explicate the connection between theory and method in qualitative research design; and 4) highlight relevant examples of methodological decisions made within cardiovascular nursing research. Although there is no "one set way" to do qualitative research, all qualitative researchers should account for the choices they make throughout the research process and articulate their methodological decision-making along the way.
Haby, Michelle M; Chapman, Evelina; Clark, Rachel; Barreto, Jorge; Reveiz, Ludovic; Lavis, John N
Rapid reviews have the potential to overcome a key barrier to the use of research evidence in decision making, namely that of the lack of timely and relevant research. This rapid review of systematic reviews and primary studies sought to answer the question: What are the best methodologies to enable a rapid review of research evidence for evidence-informed decision making in health policy and practice? This rapid review utilised systematic review methods and was conducted according to a pre-defined protocol including clear inclusion criteria (PROSPERO registration: CRD42015015998). A comprehensive search strategy was used, including published and grey literature, written in English, French, Portuguese or Spanish, from 2004 onwards. Eleven databases and two websites were searched. Two review authors independently applied the eligibility criteria. Data extraction was done by one reviewer and checked by a second. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed independently by two reviewers. A narrative summary of the results is presented. Five systematic reviews and one randomised controlled trial (RCT) that investigated methodologies for rapid reviews met the inclusion criteria. None of the systematic reviews were of sufficient quality to allow firm conclusions to be made. Thus, the findings need to be treated with caution. There is no agreed definition of rapid reviews in the literature and no agreed methodology for conducting rapid reviews. While a wide range of 'shortcuts' are used to make rapid reviews faster than a full systematic review, the included studies found little empirical evidence of their impact on the conclusions of either rapid or systematic reviews. There is some evidence from the included RCT (that had a low risk of bias) that rapid reviews may improve clarity and accessibility of research evidence for decision makers. Greater care needs to be taken in improving the transparency of the methods used in rapid review products. There is
Ørngreen, Rikke; Levinsen, Karin
This paper contributes to knowledge on workshops as a research methodology, and specifically on how such workshops pertain to e-learning. A literature review illustrated that workshops are discussed according to three different perspectives: workshops as a means, workshops as practice, and workshops as a research methodology. Focusing primarily on…
Læssøe, Jeppe; Feinstein, Noah Weeth; Blum, Nicole
This essay examines the relationship between research and policy and, more specifically, how researchers might relate to policy work. Given the current international policy focus on climate change, green growth and sustainability in general, it argues for strengthening and widening policy research...... in the areas of Environmental Education (EE), Education for Sustainable Development and Climate Change Education. It especially makes a case for two kinds of research on EE policy: (1) a multi-sited approach to empirical documentation and theory development which explores the relationships between...
Felt, Emily; Carrasco, José Miguel; Vives-Cases, Carmen
A policy brief is a document that summarizes research to inform policy. In a brief and succinct way, it defines a policy problem, presents a synthesis of relevant evidence, identifies possible courses of action and makes recommendations or key points. The objective of this note is to describe the methodology used to produce a policy brief for communicating public health research. This note is based on the model presented by Eugene Bardach in addition to the authors' own experiences. We describe six steps: 1) identifying the audience; 2) defining the problem; 3) gathering information and evidence; 4) consideration of policy alternatives; 5) projecting results and designing recommendations; and 6) telling the story. We make a case for the use of policy briefs as a part of an overall communications strategy for research that aims to bring together research teams and stakeholders. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Cuervo-Cazurra, Alvaro; Mudambi, Ram; Pedersen, Torben
We review advances in research methodology used in global strategy research and provide suggestions on how researchers can improve their analyses and arguments. Methodological advances in the extraction of information, such as computer-aided text analysis, and in the analysis of datasets......-explained logics and mechanisms so that researchers can provide better and more relevant recommendations to managers designing the global strategies of their organizations....
Rossiter, John R.; Percy, Larry
In this article, highly experienced advertising academics and advertising research consultants John R. Rossiter and Larry Percy present and discuss what they believe to be the seven most important methodological guidelines that need to be implemented to improve the practice of advertising research....... Their focus is on methodology, defined as first choosing a suitable theoretical framework to guide the research study and then identifying the advertising responses that need to be studied. Measurement of those responses is covered elsewhere in this special issue in the article by Bergkvist and Langner. Most...
Cope, Diane G
Through data collection methods using a holistic approach that focuses on variables in a natural setting, qualitative research methods seek to understand participants' perceptions and interpretations. Common qualitative research methods include ethnography, phenomenology, grounded theory, and historic research. Another type of methodology that has a similar qualitative approach is case study research, which seeks to understand a phenomenon or case from multiple perspectives within a given real-world context.
McKenzie, Marcia; Rickinson, Mark; Bengtssen, Stefan
Introduction: This session is a two part symposium on the topic of environment and sustainability in relation to educational policy development, enactment, and analysis. This format is modeled on similar formats used in other international conferences, such as the Association of American...... and methodological approaches to policy and policy research. Some key questions to be addressed include:- What kinds of understandings of policy and policy research are informing work in environmental and sustainability education?- Are there interdisiplinary approaches to policy research that can be useful...... for furthering critical education policy analysis?- What are the relationships between policy development and its enactment or implementation? - To what extent has the environmental education field researched policy development and/or enactment?- What might environmental education research have to offer...
Ørngreen, Rikke; Levinsen, Karin Tweddell
that workshops provide a platform that can aid researchers in identifying and exploring relevant factors in a given domain by providing means for understanding complex work and knowledge processes that are supported by technology (for example, e-learning). The approach supports identifying factors......This paper contributes to knowledge on workshops as a research methodology, and specifically on how such workshops pertain to e-learning. A literature review illustrated that workshops are discussed according to three different perspectives: workshops as a means, workshops as practice......, and workshops as a research methodology. Focusing primarily on the latter, this paper presents five studies on upper secondary and higher education teachers’ professional development and on teaching and learning through video conferencing. Through analysis and discussion of these studies’ findings, we argue...
In this article, I trace the historical groundings of what have become methodological conventions in the use of qualitative approaches to answer questions arising from the applied health disciplines and advocate an alternative logic more strategically grounded in the epistemological orientations of the professional health disciplines. I argue for an increasing emphasis on the modification of conventional qualitative approaches to the particular knowledge demands of the applied practice domain, challenging the merits of what may have become unwarranted attachment to theorizing. Reorienting our methodological toolkits toward the questions arising within an evidence-dominated policy agenda, I encourage my applied health disciplinary colleagues to make themselves useful to that larger project by illuminating that which quantitative research renders invisible, problematizing the assumptions on which it generates conclusions, and filling in the gaps in knowledge needed to make decisions on behalf of people and populations.
Obinger, Herbert; Schmitt, Carina; Starke, Peter
existing theoretical concepts and quantitative and qualitative methodological approaches that enable the analysis of interdependencies between countries. Moreover, we summarize the empirical findings of quantitative and qualitative studies on the diffusion and transfer of social policy, from some...... witnessing a growing interest in questions about interdependencies and policy diffusion between countries. In this article, we provide a structured overview of the state of the art in the policy diffusion and transfer literature that deals specifically with social policy. We present and critically evaluate...... pioneering studies to the latest findings. Against this background we point out what we believe to be promising avenues for future research. We focus on five areas: theoretical work on the mechanisms underlying diffusion and transfer; methodological approaches; the impact of domestic institutions and policy...
This paper introduces feminist methodologies in the context of engineering education research. It builds upon other recent methodology articles in engineering education journals and presents feminist research methodologies as a concrete engineering education setting in which to explore the connections between epistemology, methodology and theory.…
This project aims to better understand the nature of policy research organizations in South Asia. It will do so through a series of studies, analyses and roundtables with leading researchers, and a survey of policy research institutions. The idea is to generate an understanding of the policy research environment with a view to ...
... Explicit, implicit, and pragmatic dimensions of policy-maker's needs and context 31 Constraints on policy-makers 32 Deciphering trade-offs 33 The policy-problem: deciphering uncertainty and the problem of innovation 34 A tool for deciphering policy problems 35 The different components of the policy problem 37 Recommended reading 38 Case studies in...
Barling, Julian; Cloutier, Anika
While employees' mental health is the focus of considerable attention from researchers, the public, and policymakers, leaders' mental health has almost escaped attention. We start by considering several reasons for this, followed by discussions of the effects of leaders' mental health on their own leadership behaviors, the emotional toll of high-quality leadership, and interventions to enhance leaders' mental health. We offer 8 possible directions for future research on leaders' mental health. Finally, we discuss methodological obstacles encountered when investigating leaders' mental health, and policy dilemmas raised by leaders' mental health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
In this intensely powerful and personal new text, Michelle Fine widens the methodological imagination for students, educators, scholars, and researchers interested in crafting research with communities. Fine shares her struggles over the course of 30 years to translate research into policy and practice that can enhance the human condition and…
Weber, Miriam; Driessen, Peter P J; Runhaar, Hens A C
Environmental policy is characterised by complexity, in causes and effects, resulting in various combinations of policy instruments. However, evaluating these policy instrument mixes and assessing their effectiveness is difficult because of a lack of methodological approaches. This paper therefore
Andrey Vladimirovich Shabaga
Full Text Available The article examines the origins and conceptual analysis capabilities of international relations in the framework of a realistic paradigm. We research political conditions and preconditions of the creation of realism’s theory and axiological features of realism’s practice in international relations. We also analyze the basic concepts and schools of realism: Realpolitik, political realism, neorealism, neoclassical realism. It is shown that based on the balance of power in the Realpolitik Prussian and Austrian cases, this understanding of politics within the systematics of the XIX century; the adaptation of the bourgeois liberal and national ideas to the foreign-policy specifics Germany middle of the XIX century. It is shown that political realism is targeting an international actor on the desire to subjugate the greatest possible political space. In the case of political weakness (absolute or relative political realism indicates a way of adapting to circumstances in order to achieve the most desirable of the possible. The article discusses the concept A. Rochau, H. Morgenthau, H. Kissinger, K. Waltz, showing differences and instrumentality realistic theories and concludes that the main provisions of the concept as a whole.
of implications for education policy-making processes and not least it has had an impact on who conducts policy studies and how. This book brings together a variety of contributions which explore recent political economic changes affecting education policy-making processes including the ascension of neo......-liberalism and the transnationalization of education policy-making, as well as the tension between research of policy and research for policy. Working from different perspectives, the authors help to provide a better understanding of these two important sets of issues which the field of education must contend with today....
Beurden, van K. (Karin); Boer, de J. (Johannes); Brinks, G. (Ger); Goering-Zaburnenko, T. (Tatiana); Houten, van Y. (Ynze); Teeuw, W. (Wouter)
In this document, we provide the methodological background for the Safety atWork project. This document combines several project deliverables as defined inthe overall project plan: validation techniques and methods (D5.1.1), performanceindicators for safety at work (D5.1.2), personal protection
Higher education research is a multidisciplinary field, engaging researchers from across the academy who make use of a wide range of methodological approaches. This article examines the relation between discipline and methodology in higher education research, analysing a database of 567 articles published in 15 leading higher education journals…
Jensen, Sophie Danneris; Jensen, Tanja Dall
Within the policy area addressing long-term unemployed individuals with health and social problems in addition to unemployment, we have witnessed three parallel developments over the last decades: The development of active labour market policies (ALMP) extending conditionality and economic...... incentives to the more vulnerable groups of unemployed individuals; of New Public Management (NMP) focused on increasing efficiency and lowering expenditures through performance measurement and standardization of procedures, and; of evidence based policy research (EBPR) that seek to support policy efforts...
Judith A. Holton, Ph.D.
Since its inception over forty years ago, grounded theory has achieved canonical status in the research world (Locke, 2001, p.1). Qualitative researchers, in particular, have embraced grounded theory although often without sufficient scholarship in the methodology (Partington, 2000, p.93; 2002, p.136). The embrace renders many researchers unable to perceive grounded theory as a general methodology and an alternative to the dominant qualitative and quantitative research paradigms. The result i...
Lund, Henrik Hautop
Several sub-disciplines of engineering are driven by the researchers’ aim of providing positive change to the society through their engineering. These researchers are challenged by the traditional research method of experimental research with a waterfall model which demands clearly defined project...... definition and functional requirements, and impose a sequential processes leading to the final system evaluation, which may lead to solutions which work in the lab, but have little impact in the messy real world. Based on two decades research in developing engineering systems with a societal impact (e...
Singh, Sukhpal; Chana, Inderveer; Singh, Maninder
The ultimate goal of scientific research is publication so as to showcase the research outcomes. Scientists, starting as graduate students, are measured primarily not by their dexterity in laboratory manipulations, not by their innate knowledge of either broad or narrow scientific subjects, and certainly not by their wit or charm; they are…
Rawolle, Shaun; Lingard, Bob
Bourdieu did not write anything explicitly about education policy. Despite this neglect, we agree with van Zanten that his theoretical concepts and methodological approaches can contribute to researching and understanding education policy in the context of globalisation and the economising of it. In applying Bourdieu's theory and methodology to…
Bilingualism, commonplace throughout the world, is not well accepted or supported in many parts of the United States. Education policies and practices regarding bilingualism are often based on myths and attitudes rather than facts, despite scientific evidence on both the disadvantages and advantages of bilingualism. Based on a brief overview of…
adults’ life trajectories including ethnic minority and ethnic majority young adults (n= 9) in Denmark; the first wave conducted in the mid-nineties and the second wave 10 years later. In addition, some issues are taken up from a research project about youth intimate partnership formation patterns...
Creswell, John W.; Miller, Gary A.
Doctoral students often select one of four common research methodologies that are popular in the social sciences and education today: positivist; interpretive; ideological; and pragmatic. But choice of methodology also influences the student's choice of course work, membership of dissertation committee, and the form and structure of the…
Andrey Vladimirovich Shabaga
The article examines the origins and conceptual analysis capabilities of international relations in the framework of a realistic paradigm. We research political conditions and preconditions of the creation of realism’s theory and axiological features of realism’s practice in international relations. We also analyze the basic concepts and schools of realism: Realpolitik, political realism, neorealism, neoclassical realism. It is shown that based on the balance of power in the Realpolitik Pruss...
Heffron, Raphael J.
This paper advances the application of the methodology, contrast explanation, to energy policy research. Research in energy policy is complex and often involves inter-disciplinary work, which traditional economic methodologies fail to capture. Consequently, the more encompassing methodology of contrast explanation is assessed and its use in other social science disciplines explored in brief. It is then applied to an energy policy research topic—in this case, nuclear energy policy research in the UK. Contrast explanation facilitates research into policy and decision-making processes in energy studies and offers an alternative to the traditional economic methods used in energy research. Further, contrast explanation is extended by the addition of contested and uncontested hypotheses analyses. This research focuses on the methods employed to deliver the new nuclear programme of the UK government. In order to achieve a sustainable nuclear energy policy three issues are of major importance: (1) law, policy and development; (2) public administration; and (3) project management. Further, the research identifies that policy in the area remains to be resolved, in particular at an institutional and legal level. However, contrary to the literature, in some areas, the research identifies a change of course as the UK concentrates on delivering a long-term policy for the nuclear energy sector and the overall energy sector. - Highlights: ► Energy policy research is interdisciplinary and needs additional methodological approaches. ► New method of contrast explanation advanced for energy policy research. ► This methodology is based on dialectical learning which examines conflict between sources of data. ► Research example used here is of UK nuclear energy policy. ► Major issues in UK nuclear energy policy are planning law, public administration, and project management
Daire, J; Khalil, D
The question of why most health policies do not achieve their intended results continues to receive a considerable attention in the literature. This is in the light of the recognized gap between policy as intent and policy as practice, which calls for substantial research work to understand the factors that improve policy implementation. Although there is substantial work that explains the reasons why policies achieve or fail to achieve their intended outcomes, there are limited case studies that illustrate how to analyze policies from the methodological perspective. In this article, we report and discuss how a mixed qualitative research method was applied for analyzing maternal and child health policies in Malawi. For the purposes of this article, we do not report research findings; instead we focus our dicussion on the methodology of the study and draw lessons for policy analysis research work. We base our disusssion on our experiences from a study in which we analyzed maternal and child health policies in Malawi over the period from 1964 to 2008. Noting the multifaceted nature of maternal and child health policies, we adopted a mixed qualitative research method, whereby a number of data collection methods were employed. This approach allowed for the capturing of different perspectives of maternal and child health policies in Malawi and for strengthening of the weaknesses of each method, especially in terms of data validity. This research suggested that the multidimensional nature of maternal and child health policies, like other health policies, calls for a combination of research designs as well as a variety of methods of data collection and analysis. In addition, we suggest that, as an emerging research field, health policy analysis will benefit more from case study designs because they provide rich experiences in the actual policy context.
This paper describes the potential suitability of case study methodology for inquiry with the homeless population. It references a research study that uses case study research method to build theory. This study's topic is the lived experience of destitute individuals who reside in homeless shelters, and explores the homeless shelter built environment's potential influence on resident satisfaction and recovery. Case study methodology may be appropriate because it explores real-life contextual ...
Gaillet, Lynee Lewis
This article raises multiple issues associated with archival research methodologies and methods. Based on a survey of recent scholarship and interviews with experienced archival researchers, this overview of the current status of archival research both complicates traditional conceptions of archival investigation and encourages scholars to adopt…
Lundahl, Brad W.
To complement traditional learning activities in a masters-level research methodology course, social work students worked on a formal research project which involved: designing the study, constructing measures, selecting a sampling strategy, collecting data, reducing and analyzing data, and finally interpreting and communicating the results. The…
van Hees, V. T.; Thaler-Kall, K.; Wolf, K. H.
Objectives: Raw accelerometry is increasingly being used in physical activity research, but diversity in sensor design, attachment and signal processing challenges the comparability of research results. Therefore, efforts are needed to harmonize the methodology. In this article we reflect on how...
Participatory Action Research (PAR) is a qualitative research methodology option that requires further understanding and consideration. PAR is considered democratic, equitable, liberating, and life-enhancing qualitative inquiry that remains distinct from other qualitative methodologies (Kach & Kralik, 2006). Using PAR, qualitative features of an…
Mar 17, 2014 ... themes: • high impact community based maternal, newborn and ... demonstrate willingness and capacity to expand their work in all the .... interventions. This is the focus of a separate call on Implementation Research. Teams. The Health Policy and Research Organizations call is based on the premise that.
This review of the literature synthesizes methodological recommendations for the use of translators and interpreters in cross-language qualitative research. Cross-language qualitative research involves the use of interpreters and translators to mediate a language barrier between researchers and participants. Qualitative nurse researchers successfully address language barriers between themselves and their participants when they systematically plan for how they will use interpreters and translators throughout the research process. Experienced qualitative researchers recognize that translators can generate qualitative data through translation processes and by participating in data analysis. Failure to address language barriers and the methodological challenges they present threatens the credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability of cross-language qualitative nursing research. Through a synthesis of the cross-language qualitative methods literature, this article reviews the basics of language competence, translator and interpreter qualifications, and roles for each kind of qualitative research approach. Methodological and ethical considerations are also provided. By systematically addressing the methodological challenges cross-language research presents, nurse researchers can produce better evidence for nursing practice and policy making when working across different language groups. Findings from qualitative studies will also accurately represent the experiences of the participants without concern that the meaning was lost in translation.
Job Summary. The Policy Analyst works as a member of the Policy and Planning Group providing information, research analysis and advice on matters of policy and planning. The Policy Analyst works closely with the Director of Policy and Planning and the Senior Policy Analyst to initiate and undertake research and ...
The contents of this book are summary of service business for policy research : conception classification and ways of service business for policy research, propel procedure of service business for policy research on system of committee, management, choice, contract, evaluation and post management, related regulation on service business for policy research : management regulation on service business for policy research, guide of evaluation for service business for policy research, estimation standard of policy research cost, law arrangement of national contract, required document on service business for policy research, and application manual for PRISM.
Lonsdale, Richard C.
Argues that a greatly expanded attention given to futurism in educational institutions and an intensive, systematic use of futures research applied to educational policy making can go a long way toward meeting criticisms that education is backwards looking and resistant to change, and that education tends to develop an in-capacity for future…
Christiansen, Ole B
The aim of this article is to highlight pitfalls in research methodology that may explain why studies in recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) often provide very divergent results. It is hoped that insight into this issue may help clinicians decide which published studies are the most valid. It may help...
The purpose of this article is to describe the methodological issues involved in conducting qualitative research to explore and describe nurses' experience of being directly involved with termination of pregnancies and developing guidelines for support for these nurses. The article points out the sensitivity and responsibility ...
Beach, Robert H.
To be effective, project management requires a heavy dependence on the document, list, and computational capability of a computerized environment. Now that microcomputers are readily available, only the rediscovery of classic project management methodology is required for improved resource allocation in small research projects. This paper provides…
Bedregal, Paula; Besoain, Carolina; Reinoso, Alejandro; Zubarew, Tamara
Health care research requires different methodological approaches such as qualitative and quantitative analyzes to understand the phenomena under study. Qualitative research is usually the least considered. Central elements of the qualitative method are that the object of study is constituted by perceptions, emotions and beliefs, non-random sampling by purpose, circular process of knowledge construction, and methodological rigor throughout the research process, from quality design to the consistency of results. The objective of this work is to contribute to the methodological knowledge about qualitative research in health services, based on the implementation of the study, The transition process from pediatric to adult services: perspectives from adolescents with chronic diseases, caregivers and health professionals. The information gathered through the qualitative methodology facilitated the understanding of critical points, barriers and facilitators of the transition process of adolescents with chronic diseases, considering the perspective of users and the health team. This study allowed the design of a transition services model from pediatric to adult health services based on the needs of adolescents with chronic diseases, their caregivers and the health team.
The emancipatory dimension to higher education represents one of the sector's most compelling characteristics, but it remains important to develop understanding of the sources of determination that shape practice. Drawing on critical realist perspectives, we explore generative mechanisms by which methodology in pedagogic research affects the…
Ben Kei Daniel
Full Text Available The growing volume of data generated by machines, humans, software applications, sensors and networks, together with the associated complexity of the research environment, requires immediate pedagogical innovations in academic programs on research methodology. This article draws insights from a large-scale research project examining current conceptions and practices of academics (n = 144 involved in the teaching of research methods in research-intensive universities in 17 countries. The data was obtained through an online questionnaire. The main findings reveal that a large number of academics involved in the teaching of research methods courses tend to teach the same classes for many years, in the same way, despite the changing nature of data, and complexity of the environment in which research is conducted. Furthermore, those involved in the teaching of research methods courses are predominantly volunteer academics, who tend to view the subject only as an “add-on” to their other teaching duties. It was also noted that universities mainly approach the teaching of research methods courses as a “service” to students and departments, not part of the core curriculum. To deal with the growing changes in data structures, and technology driven research environment, the study recommends institutions to reimage research methodology programs to enable students to develop appropriate competences to deal with the challenges of working with complex and large amounts of data and associated analytics.
Abba, Katherine; Zammit, Rachel; Horton, Siobhan; Lloyd-Williams, Mari
Public health approaches to end of life are a relatively recent development; hence research methodology in this area is also being developed. A workshop for practitioners and researchers describing methodologies used by an end of life public health programme to develop and test interventions and assess the needs and potential for success of further work. During the workshop we will describe the methodologies used in a programme which aimed to reframe death and loss as social event and additionally included participatory approaches and engaging communities. Mixed methods approaches of direct observational methods, longitudinal questionnaire surveys to determine both immediate and sustained effectiveness of interventions and also semi-structured interviews will be described. The workshop will present this work, reflect on other methodologies that could be used; discuss what worked well and not so well, and encourage discussion of other people's research in this area and further development. The importance of retention and follow up of participants will be discussed as will issues regarding qualitative interviewing in this area and further interventions regarding how participants can be encouraged to share their thoughts and ideas re public health and palliative care thereby helping to shape the practical and research agenda. The subject and value of evaluation as opposed to research will also be discussed. At the end of this workshop, researchers and practitioners wishing to evaluate and research their programmes will have gained a better understanding of the theoretical and practical applications of research and evaluation. © 2015, Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Font Fábregas, Joan; Porta, Donatella della; Sintomer, Yves
Participation is a well-established subject in the social sciences. Individual participation, non-governmental organizations, interest groups, and social movements have all been important fields of research for years, at least among sociologists and political scientists. Each of these areas has also developed its own methodological traditions and debates, permitting new researchers entering the field to have a clear idea of the choices offered them if they want to study the identities of part...
Hansen, Tommy Holm; Skytte, Hans
This paper presents a review of studies on retailer buying behaviour with focus on the methodological issues. It is argued that the researcher of retailer buying behaviour is faced with particular challenges regarding the sample frame, defining th of analysis, potentially small populations and lo...... response rates, buying centres and product specific behaviour. At the end, the authors propose a descriptive research design that will try to take account of the mentioned issues....
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government, supports the implementation of IDRC's Strategic Plan, stewards IDRC's evaluation system, leads strategic evaluations, and coordinates annual planning and reporting. While the Policy and Evaluation Division welcomes a range of potential research topics, strong preference will be given to proposals that are ...
Full Text Available This article presents an argument on the application of theoretical and methodological frameworks to the study of identity from an autoethnographic perspective. In order to guide the analysis process, the author employed social constructionism as the main theoretical foundation, whereas thematic analysis and positioning theory were deployed as the methodological frameworks. Further, in the process of using ethnographic methods to study the identity of Russian immigrants to New Zealand, the author found herself also needing to use autoethnography to interrogate and understand her own journey. The insider/outsider position of the author who belongs to the same minority group became the most vital tool in her identity construction. In this regard, it is impossible to engage fully with the autoethnographic research practice without understanding the impact of others on identity construction of self, and a strong theoretical and methodological scholarship can provide a valuable foundation for this process.
Full Text Available This paper describes the potential suitability of case study methodology for inquiry with the homeless population. It references a research study that uses case study research method to build theory. This study's topic is the lived experience of destitute individuals who reside in homeless shelters, and explores the homeless shelter built environment's potential influence on resident satisfaction and recovery. Case study methodology may be appropriate because it explores real-life contextual issues that characterize homelessness and can also accommodate the wide range of homeless person demographics that make this group difficult to study in a generalized fashion. Further, case study method accommodates the need within research in this area to understand individualized treatments as a potential solution for homelessness.
While supply chain management has risen to great prominence in recent year, there are hardly related developments in research methodologies. Yet, as supply chains cover more than one company, one central issue is how to collect and analyse data along the whole or relevant part of the supply chain...... studies or action research. It will be of great interest to researchers in the area of supply chain management and logistics, but also to neighbouring fields, such as network management or global operations.......While supply chain management has risen to great prominence in recent year, there are hardly related developments in research methodologies. Yet, as supply chains cover more than one company, one central issue is how to collect and analyse data along the whole or relevant part of the supply chain....... Within the 36 chapters 70 authors bring together a rich selection of theoretical and practical examples of how research methodologies are applied in supply chain management. The book contains papers on theoretical implications as well as papers on a range of key methods, such as modelling, surveys, case...
Oliver, Kathryn; Aicken, Catherine; Arai, Lisa
Drawing lessons from research can help policy makers make better decisions. If a large and methodologically varied body of research exists, as with childhood obesity, this is challenging. We present new research and policy objectives for child obesity developed by triangulating user involvement data with a mapping study of interventions aimed at…
Introduction: Health Policy and Systems Research and Analysis (HPSR&A) is an applied science that deals with complexity as it tries to provide lessons, tools and methods to understand and improve health systems and health policy. It is defined by the kinds of questions asked rather than a particular methodology.
Urban metabolism analysis has become an important tool for the study of urban ecosystems. The problems of large metabolic throughput, low metabolic efficiency, and disordered metabolic processes are a major cause of unhealthy urban systems. In this paper, I summarize the international research on urban metabolism, and describe the progress that has been made in terms of research methodologies. I also review the methods used in accounting for and evaluating material and energy flows in urban metabolic processes, simulation of these flows using a network model, and practical applications of these methods. Based on this review of the literature, I propose directions for future research, and particularly the need to study the urban carbon metabolism because of the modern context of global climate change. Moreover, I recommend more research on the optimal regulation of urban metabolic systems. Highlights: •Urban metabolic processes can be analyzed by regarding cities as superorganisms. •Urban metabolism methods include accounting, assessment, modeling, and regulation. •Research methodologies have improved greatly since this field began in 1965. •Future research should focus on carbon metabolism and optimal regulation. -- The author reviews research progress in the field of urban metabolism, and based on her literature review, proposes directions for future research
Based on examples from two research projects on preschool teachers' work, the paper will discuss potentials and challenges in methodological triangulation in work life research. Analysis of ethnographic and phenomenological inspired observations of everyday life in day care centers formed the basis...... for individual interviews and informal talks with employees. The interviews and conversations were based on a critical hermeneutic approach. The analysis of observations and interviews constituted a knowledge base as the project went in to the last phase: action research workshops. In the workshops findings from...
Funder, Kamilia S; Steinmetz, Jacob; Rasmussen, Lars S
Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a subtle impairment of memory, concentration, and speed of information processing. It is a frequent complication following surgery and can have a debilitating effect on patients' recovery and future prognosis. Neuropsychological testing is needed...... to reveal postoperative cognitive decline, and questionnaires are not useful for this purpose. There is a profound lack of consensus regarding the research methodology for detection of cognitive deterioration, especially the diagnostic criteria. Issues, such as baseline performance, learning effects...
Funder, Kamilia S; Steinmetz, Jacob; Rasmussen, Lars S
to reveal postoperative cognitive decline, and questionnaires are not useful for this purpose. There is a profound lack of consensus regarding the research methodology for detection of cognitive deterioration, especially the diagnostic criteria. Issues, such as baseline performance, learning effects......Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a subtle impairment of memory, concentration, and speed of information processing. It is a frequent complication following surgery and can have a debilitating effect on patients' recovery and future prognosis. Neuropsychological testing is needed...
Katherine D. Seelman
Full Text Available The importance of public policy as a complementary framework for telehealth, telemedicine, and by association telerehabilitation, has been recognized by a number of experts. The purpose of this paper is to review literature on telerehabilitation (TR policy and research methodology issues in order to report on the current state of the science and make recommendations about future research needs. An extensive literature search was implemented using search terms grouped into main topics of telerehabilitation, policy, population of users, and policy specific issues such as cost and reimbursement. The availability of rigorous and valid evidence-based cost studies emerged as a major challenge to the field. Existing cost studies provided evidence that telehomecare may be a promising application area for TR. Cost studies also indicated that telepsychiatry is a promising telepractice area. The literature did not reference the International Classification on Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF. Rigorous and comprehensive TR assessment and evaluation tools for outcome studies are tantamount to generating confidence among providers, payers, clinicians and end users. In order to evaluate consumer satisfaction and participation, assessment criteria must include medical, functional and quality of life items such as assistive technology and environmental factors. Keywords: Telerehabilitation, Telehomecare, Telepsychiatry, Telepractice
Andrassy, L.; Barath, I.; Dorko, R.
This part of the Annual Report of the Roland Eoetvoes Geophysical Institute (ELGI) of Hungary for 1982, summarizes the well logging instrumental and methodological researches of ELGI. The theoretical neutron diffusion fluxes for black and brown coals of Hungarian mines were calculated. A coal probe was developed and tested in boreholes using computerized data processing and interpretation. An X-ray radiometric method was used for the determination of Cu and Fe contents of minerals. Researches in the field of magnetic susceptibility and induced polarization logging are also summarized. A rapid analyzer for bauxite mining and a photorecorder for petroleum industry were developed by ELGI. (D.Gy.)
Urban metabolism analysis has become an important tool for the study of urban ecosystems. The problems of large metabolic throughput, low metabolic efficiency, and disordered metabolic processes are a major cause of unhealthy urban systems. In this paper, I summarize the international research on urban metabolism, and describe the progress that has been made in terms of research methodologies. I also review the methods used in accounting for and evaluating material and energy flows in urban metabolic processes, simulation of these flows using a network model, and practical applications of these methods. Based on this review of the literature, I propose directions for future research, and particularly the need to study the urban carbon metabolism because of the modern context of global climate change. Moreover, I recommend more research on the optimal regulation of urban metabolic systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Carme Molet Chicot
Full Text Available In this article we will discuss the steps taken in the investigation "Gender policies in the current art of Lleida", a feminist research work carried out in 2008. We will explore the possibilities and difficulties of life stories in a research process on art and feminism, and we will explain how this narrative methodology situated the scenario of investigation in multiple tensions. Aspects such as the uncertainty that caused the feminist conceptual framework; my own personal involvement; and the tension between what is desired to be counted and what is not counted because it is private, secret or because it lies dormant, hindered the process while at the time it enabled its development and results. Thanks to the concept of the paradox of the feminine/feminist subject offered to us by the poststructuralist feminisms, we will decipher the methodological tensions that were at the same time the condition of possibility for the investigation.
In this contribution we discuss the conceptual and methodological challenges with which participation research must deal to achieve long-term success. It is not the aim of this paper to identify solutions to those problems, but rather to facilitate their discussion by enhancing the awareness of the complexity of implementing high-quality participation research.1. It is important that studies on participation research specify which aspects of the concept "participation" are being addressed, in other words, how the term is being interpreted. This would improve interdisciplinary communication beyond one's immediate research field while increasing cumulative knowledge.2. Fully-developed participation research is generally only conceivable when carried out in an interdisciplinary manner. Its current status can be considered a transition between pre-interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary efforts requiring further development. The key factor to the success of any interdisciplinary activity is each researcher's attitude, that is, interdisciplinary projects must be "carried" by the readiness of the entire team to share as well as question their individual knowledge and expertise and to show a willingness to learn from others. The research's prevailing conditions can make this easier when the functioning, communicative relationships among participation researchers are set up to construct and incorporate an acknowledged repertoire of methodology and knowledge and when participation researchers design specific promotion and career structures.3. Another main element of such shared knowledge would be methods and theories addressing the integrated consideration of personal and environmental characteristics. Social-ecological models, especially those used in the preventive sciences and public health field, would provide a good basis for integrating theories. These models aim to define personal factors in conjunction with aspects of the social and attitudinal environment of an
Three generic environmental impact statements (GEISs) on domestic fuels, foreign fuels, and storage charges are being prepared to provide environmental input into decisions on whether, and if so how the 1977 Presidential policy on spent fuel storage should be implmented. This report provides background information for two of these environmental impact statements: Storage of U.S. Spent Power Reactor Fuel and Storage of Foreign Spent Power Reactor Fuel. It includes the analytical methodology used in GEISs to assess the environmental effects and a description of the facilities used in the two GEISs
Three generic environmental impact statements (GEISs) on domestic fuels, foreign fuels, and storage charges are being prepared to provide environmental input into decisions on whether, and if so how the 1977 Presidential policy on spent fuel storage should be implmented. This report provides background information for two of these environmental impact statements: Storage of U.S. Spent Power Reactor Fuel and Storage of Foreign Spent Power Reactor Fuel. It includes the analytical methodology used in GEISs to assess the environmental effects and a description of the facilities used in the two GEISs.
A reflection on whether relevance matters in tourism policy research. A debate among tourism scholars.......A reflection on whether relevance matters in tourism policy research. A debate among tourism scholars....
Rodriguez Cardona, R.; Cobas Aranda, M.
In the context of the management of research projects development it is necessary to have tools to monitor and evaluate progress and the performance of the projects, as well as their results and the impact on society (international agencies of the United Nations and the States 2002 and 2005 Paris Declaration), with the objective of to ensure their contribution to the social and economic development of countries. Many organizations, agencies and Governments apply different methodologies (IDB, World Bank, UNDP, ECLAC, UNESCO; UNICEF, Canada, Japan, other) for these purposes. In the results-based project management system not only paramount is the process or product itself, but also the result or impact of the project (if the program/project produced the effects desired persons, households and institutions and whether those effects are attributable to the intervention of the program / project). The work shows a methodology that allows for a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of impact of research projects and has been result of experience in project management of international collaboration with the International Agency for Atomic Energy (IAEA) and the Cuban Nuclear programme. (author)
Full Text Available Recently, Lean Production (Lean has become a prevailing management concept in Sweden. However, previous research seems to show that the Lean concept and the impact of Lean vary considerably between organizations. This paper illustrates some key methodological issues that need to be considered when researching loosely defined management concepts such as Lean. The paper is based on a review of the literature and five comparative Swedish cases studies. Our study indicates that Lean has changed over time and that operationalization and interpretations of the concept vary considerably. This study concludes that future Lean studies should include a thorough assessment of the Lean interventions, study settings, and in particular non-Lean factors mediating the outcomes of Lean-inspired change programs.
Ulmer, Jasmine B.
This article examines Catherine Malabou's philosophical concept of plasticity as a new materialist methodology. Given that plasticity simultaneously maintains the ability to receive, give, and annihilate form, plasticity and plastic readings offer material-discursive possibilities for educational research. This article begins by discussing the…
Evans-Agnew, Robin A; Johnson, Susan; Liu, Fuqin; Boutain, Doris M
Critical discourse analysis (CDA) is a promising methodology for policy research in nursing. As a critical theoretical methodology, researchers use CDA to analyze social practices and language use in policies to examine whether such policies may promote or impede social transformation. Despite the widespread use of CDA in other disciplines such as education and sociology, nursing policy research employing CDA methodology is sparse. To advance CDA use in nursing science, it is important to outline the overall research strategies and describe the steps of CDA in policy research. This article describes, using exemplar case studies, how nursing and health policy researchers can employ CDA as a methodology. Three case studies are provided to discuss the application of CDA research methodologies in nursing policy research: (a) implementation of preconception care policies in the Zhejiang province of China, (b) formation and enactment of statewide asthma policy in Washington state of the United States, and (c) organizational implementation of employee antibullying policies in hospital systems in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. Each exemplar details how CDA guided the examination of policy within specific contexts and social practices. The variations of the CDA approaches in the three exemplars demonstrated the flexibilities and potentials for conducting policy research grounded in CDA. CDA provides novel insights for nurse researchers examining health policy formation, enactment, and implementation. © The Author(s) 2016.
Laura Ferreira Cortes
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: Presenting theoretical subsidies for the nursing care practice based on the possibility of convergence between research practice and educational practice. Method: The Convergent Healthcare Research was developed from February to August 2015, with an intersectoral working group formed by 32 participants, including health, social services and public safety professionals. Ten group meetings were organized, based on the Problematization Methodology with Maguerez's Arch. Results: The reflection-action movement resulted in the shared (rebuilding of the flowchart of care to women subjected to a situation of violence, as a device for communication between the services. Final considerations: The research practice based on the Problematization Methodology with Maguerez's Arch proved to be useful and viable in qualitative research, which has as purpose the transformation of the reality studied.
Lorenzo, N. de; Borsani, R.C.
Integrated Logistics Support (ILS) is the managerial organisation that co-ordinates the activities of many disciplines to develop the supporting resources (training, staffing, designing aids, equipment removal routes, etc) required by technologically complex systems. The application of an ILS methodology in defence projects is described in several places, but it is infrequently illustrated for other areas; therefore the present paper deals with applying this approach to research reactors under design or already in operation. Although better results are obtained when applied since the very beginning of a project, it can be applied successfully in facilities already in operation to improve their capability in a cost-effective way. In applying this methodology, the key objectives shall be previously identified in order to tailor the whole approach. Generally in high power multipurpose reactors, obtaining maximum profit at the lowest possible cost without reducing the safety levels are key issues, while in others the goal is to minimise drawbacks like spurious shutdowns, low quality experimental results or even to reduce staff dose to ALARA values. These items need to be quantified for establishing a system status base line in order to trace the process evolution. Thereafter, specific logistics analyses should be performed in the different areas composing the system. RAMS (Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Supportability), Manning, Training Needs, Supplying Needs are some examples of these special logistic assessments. The following paragraphs summarise the different areas, encompassed by this ILS methodology. Plant design is influenced focussing the designers? attention on the objectives already identified. Careful design reviews are performed only in an early design stage, being useless a later application. In this paper is presented a methodology including appropriate tools for ensuring the designers abide to ILS issues and key objectives through the
A longtime advocate of advancing health research and policy in Africa, Sewankambo led the effort that established the REACH Policy Initiative, an East African institutional brokerage mechanism linking research to health policy and action. His 25-year contribution to HIV/AIDS and health research in Africa has been ...
Brännmark, Mikael; Langstrand, Jostein; Johansson, Stina
– The findings from the case studies are in line with the existing literature, indicating that Lean has changed over time and that operationalization of the concept varies considerably between work life sectors. The findings demonstrate that approaches related to Lean differ significantly between the studied......Purpose – Lean Production has in Sweden become the dominating ideal for ‘best practice’ in rationalization, organizational development and how to organize the work system. However, research into the effects of Lean for different stakeholders has produced ambiguous results. Furthermore, Lean...... practices seem to overlap with other popular management concepts, such as High Performance Work Systems, World Class Manufacturing and Total Quality Management. This confusion, combined with different methodological and theoretical traditions, has led to much debate and contradictory conclusions regarding...
Mohammed, Shan; Peter, Elizabeth; Gastaldo, Denise; Howell, Doris
Little consideration has been given to how case study might be used in poststructural research to explore power relations that constitute a phenomenon. Many case study scholars, most notably Robert Yin, adopt a postpositivist perspective that assumes the "truth" can be accessed through applying prescriptive and rigid research techniques. Using a discussion of Michel Foucault's key theoretical ideas and the insights gained through a Foucauldian case study of people with advanced cancer who continue to receive curative treatment, the authors argue for the expansion of case study in poststructural inquiry. They propose that the use of poststructuralist case study is valuable because of the flexibility and comprehensiveness of the methodology, which allows for the exploration of a deeper understanding of the broader discourses that shape a phenomenon, as well as how power/knowledge relations shape the behaviours and perceptions of people. They also introduce the reflexive implications of poststructural case study research. Copyright© by Ingram School of Nursing, McGill University.
Yatsun Leonid M.
Full Text Available The materials of the study of management processes in the food service industry based on the criteria of composition of tasks of establishments’ activities, their participation in the integration process of production, sale and organization of food consumption and catering services are outlined. A model of nature-aligned development of the food service industry as a natural and socio-economic system is proposed. Priority directions of the national nutrition policy are determined on the basis of integration of participants in the process of organizing catering. There justified methodological approaches to the formation of a management model for development of enterprises in the food services industry by stages of preparing and making decisions on integration of business entities, including enterprises of the agrarian sector, food industry, trade, restaurant business and households.
Stokvik, Hanne; Adriaenssen, Daniel J; Johannessen, Jon-Arild; Skålsvik, Hugo
Source at http://dx.doi.org/10.21511/ppm.14(2-1).2016.04 The problem studied is related to new venture creation. The question the authors will examine here is: What are the knowledge conditions for new venture creation? The methodology used is conceptual generalization. The purpose of the paper is to bring new understandings to venture creation. In attempting to answer the research question, the authors hope to make a contribution to a policy for supporting entrepreneurship, bot...
This book presents cutting-edge, peer reviewed research on networked learning organized by three themes: policy in networked learning, researching networked learning, and boundaries in networked learning. The "policy in networked learning" section explores networked learning in relation to policy...... networks, spaces of algorithmic governance and more. The "boundaries in networked learning" section investigates frameworks of students' digital literacy practices, among other important frameworks in digital learning. Lastly, the "research in networked learning" section delves into new research methods...
Hare, Kathleen A.; Dubé, Anik; Marshall, Zack; Gahagan, Jacqueline; Harris, Gregory E.; Tucker, Maryanne; Dykeman, Margaret; MacDonald, Jo-Ann
Policy scoping reviews are an effective method for generating evidence-informed policies. However, when applying guiding methodological frameworks to complex policy evidence, numerous, unexpected challenges can emerge. This paper details five challenges experienced and addressed by a policy trainee-led, multi-disciplinary research team, while…
Murtagh, Madeleine J; Minion, Joel T; Turner, Andrew; Wilson, Rebecca C; Blell, Mwenza; Ochieng, Cynthia; Murtagh, Barnaby; Roberts, Stephanie; Butters, Oliver W; Burton, Paul R
Because no single person or group holds knowledge about all aspects of research, mechanisms are needed to support knowledge exchange and engagement. Expertise in the research setting necessarily includes scientific and methodological expertise, but also expertise gained through the experience of participating in research and/or being a recipient of research outcomes (as a patient or member of the public). Engagement is, by its nature, reciprocal and relational: the process of engaging research participants, patients, citizens and others (the many 'publics' of engagement) brings them closer to the research but also brings the research closer to them. When translating research into practice, engaging the public and other stakeholders is explicitly intended to make the outcomes of translation relevant to its constituency of users. In practice, engagement faces numerous challenges and is often time-consuming, expensive and 'thorny' work. We explore the epistemic and ontological considerations and implications of four common critiques of engagement methodologies that contest: representativeness, communication and articulation, impacts and outcome, and democracy. The ECOUTER (Employing COnceptUal schema for policy and Translation Engagement in Research) methodology addresses problems of representation and epistemic foundationalism using a methodology that asks, "How could it be otherwise?" ECOUTER affords the possibility of engagement where spatial and temporal constraints are present, relying on saturation as a method of 'keeping open' the possible considerations that might emerge and including reflexive use of qualitative analytic methods. This paper describes the ECOUTER process, focusing on one worked example and detailing lessons learned from four other pilots. ECOUTER uses mind-mapping techniques to 'open up' engagement, iteratively and organically. ECOUTER aims to balance the breadth, accessibility and user-determination of the scope of engagement. An ECOUTER
Thomas, John W.; Cohen, Marc
Despite over 50 years of research into the states of consciousness induced by various meditation practices, no clear neurophysiological signatures of these states have been found. Much of this failure can be attributed to the narrow range of variables examined in most meditation studies, with the focus being restricted to a search for correlations between neurophysiological measures and particular practices, without documenting the content and context of these practices. We contend that more meaningful results can be obtained by expanding the methodological paradigm to include multiple domains including: the cultural setting (“the place”), the life situation of the meditator (“the person”), details of the particular meditation practice (‘the practice’), and the state of consciousness of the meditator (“the phenomenology”). Inclusion of variables from all these domains will improve the ability to predict the psychophysiological variables (“the psychophysiology”) associated with specific meditation states and thus explore the mysteries of human consciousness. PMID:25071607
Daniel, Ben; Kumar, Vijay; Omar, Noritah
This qualitative inquiry investigates postgraduate students' conceptions of research methodology and how it contributes to their learning. It explores factors likely to motivate student choice of research methodology and challenges in understanding research methods. The research was carried out at research-intensive universities in New Zealand and…
Santos, Denise; Graham, Suzanne; Vanderplank, Robert
This paper explores methodological issues related to research into second language listening strategies. We argue that a number of central questions regarding research methodology in this line of enquiry are underexamined, and we engage in the discussion of three key methodological questions: (1) To what extent is a verbal report a valid and…
Science and policy in health and medicine have interacted in new ways in Britain since 1945. The relationship between research and policy has a history. The changing role of social medicine, the rise of health services research and "customer contractor" policies in government have been important. The relationship between research and policy has been analysed by different schools of thought. This chapter categorises them as several groups: "evidence-based", "journalism", "sociology of scientific knowledge" and "science policy studies". The chapters in the book illuminate aspects of these changing relationships. The role of chronic disease epidemiology, of new networks in public health, of media-focussed activism, and of health technology and its advocates have been more important than political interest.
The Economic Policy Research Centre (EPRC) was established in 1993 as an autonomous not-for-profit policy research institute with support from the Government of Uganda, donor agencies and ... Addressing Africa's unmet need for family planning by intensifying sexual and reproductive and adolescent health research.
This Project memorandum presents a methodology for evaluating railroad research projects. The methodology includes consideration of industry and societal benefits, with special attention given to technical risks, implementation considerations, and po...
Laura Noemi Chaluh
Full Text Available In this work I socialize my experience as researcher in an elementary school in a city in the state of São Paulo during two years. The presence in the school aimed to understand how teachers would re-create the public policy of formation that is established by the Secretary of Education of this City Hall. I participated in two formation groups composed by school teachers from the initial education levels and the management team. I collaborated with the educational work of two teachers in the classroom. The encounter with the school subjects led me to reflect on the meanings of my presence in the school, in particular, from the teachers considerations indicating the importance of dialogue, collaboration and help from the researcher in the school. This work presents theoretical and methodological contributions to understand to what end and why “research in and with the school” and highlights the need for researchers to assume a commitment to teachers, students and school. The work was developed from a qualitative study of socio-historical orientation that, from a dialogical perspective, considers the research as a relationship between subjects and the interaction plays a key role in the formation of subjectivities, allowing teachers and the researcher to create new meaning in the research process.
Sumner, Andy; Crichton, Jo; Theobald, Sally; Zulu, Eliya; Parkhurst, Justin
Assessing the impact that research evidence has on policy is complex. It involves consideration of conceptual issues of what determines research impact and policy change. There are also a range of methodological issues relating to the question of attribution and the counter-factual. The dynamics of SRH, HIV and AIDS, like many policy arenas, are partly generic and partly issue- and context-specific. Against this background, this article reviews some of the main conceptualisations of research impact on policy, including generic determinants of research impact identified across a range of settings, as well as the specificities of SRH in particular. We find that there is scope for greater cross-fertilisation of concepts, models and experiences between public health researchers and political scientists working in international development and research impact evaluation. We identify aspects of the policy landscape and drivers of policy change commonly occurring across multiple sectors and studies to create a framework that researchers can use to examine the influences on research uptake in specific settings, in order to guide attempts to ensure uptake of their findings. This framework has the advantage that distinguishes between pre-existing factors influencing uptake and the ways in which researchers can actively influence the policy landscape and promote research uptake through their policy engagement actions and strategies. We apply this framework to examples from the case study papers in this supplement, with specific discussion about the dynamics of SRH policy processes in resource poor contexts. We conclude by highlighting the need for continued multi-sectoral work on understanding and measuring research uptake and for prospective approaches to receive greater attention from policy analysts.
Full Text Available The aim of the text is to point out the developmental tendencies in the research methodology of special education and rehabilitation worldwide and in our country and to emphasize the importance of methodological training of students in special education and rehabilitation at the Faculty of Philosophy in Skopje.The achieved scientific knowledge through research is the fundamental pre-condition for development of special education and rehabilitation theory and practice. The results of the scientific work sometimes cause small, insignificant changes, but, at times, they make radical changes. Thank to the scientific researches and knowledge, certain prejudices were rejected. For example, in the sixth decade of the last century there was a strong prejudice that mentally retarded children should be segregated from the society as aggressive and unfriendly ones or the deaf children should not learn sign language because they would not be motivated to learn lip-reading and would hardly adapt. Piaget and his colleagues from Geneva institute were the pioneers in researching this field and they imposed their belief that handicapped children were not handicapped in each field and they had potentials that could be developed and improved by systematic and organized work. It is important to initiate further researches in the field of special education and rehabilitation, as well as a critical analysis of realized researches. Further development of the scientific research in special education and rehabilitation should be a base for education policy on people with disabilities and development of institutional and non-institutional treatment of this population.
Bruun, Jesper; Evans, Robert Harry; Dolin, Jens
Education), is to formulate guidelines and recommendations for policy makers, curriculum developers, teacher trainers and other stakeholders in European educational systems. This use of research results is organized through National Stakeholder Panels established to advise and provide professional......Educational researchers often aim for their research to be used to inform and change practice. But experience tells us that it is not easy for research to affect policy. A central goal in the highlevel European research project, ASSISTME (Assess Inquiry in Science, Technology and Mathematics...... are useful to researchers who want to engage with systematic mappings of stakeholders for science educational policy projects....
Cassius Guimarães Chai
Full Text Available Before the health right recognition and expansion brought about by the Federal Constitution of 1988,the impact on public accounts and the need to rationalize the system, now bound to the universalisation matrix, place “planning” as fundamental for the operationalization of actions and services of health accessing. The objective of this article is to carry out an integrative literature review in order to know the factors related to the methodological frameworks, challenges and possibilities for structuring a Municipal Health Plan (Administration. The following databases were searched: Lilacs, Library Digital Thesis and Dissertation (BDTD, in Google Scholar, the Coordination of Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES Thesis Bank. For the composition of the sample, the following descriptors were associated: Health Policy, Decentralization and Municipalization with Health Planning. In addition, papers were selected among dissertations, theses and scientific articles, as well as institutional handbooks of the Ministry of Health-MS Publics of PlanejaSUS, adopting scientific works published between 2005 and 2015 as a time cut. The results found synthesize the scenario of the intersectoral and tripartite arrangement of health management, contributing to a critical and evaluative exercise of experience, challenges and possibility Of advances in the understanding of the importance of SUS municipal planning.
The CCAA program supports participatory action research that informs policy processes with science-based evidence on vulnerability and adaptation. To this end, projects work with policy institutions at the local, national and/or regional levels. These partnerships increase local ownership of the research and make it more ...
van der Westhuizen, Gert J.
The focus of this article is on the role and contribution of policy research in contexts of social transformation. With reference to education transformation policies in post-apartheid South Africa, the argument is developed that research studies vary in their contribution to change, as a function of the paradigmatic assumptions and methodological…
Research and International Trade Policy Negotiations : Knowledge and Power in Latin America. Couverture du livre Research and International Trade Policy Negotiations: Knowledge and Power in Latin America. Directeur(s) : Mercedes Botto. Maison(s) d'édition : Routledge, CRDI. 7 octobre 2009. ISBN : 9780415801911.
A reflection on whether relevance matters in tourism policy research, and if so, to whom/what should it matter......A reflection on whether relevance matters in tourism policy research, and if so, to whom/what should it matter...
Explores implications of paying attention to the body, literally and figuratively, in policy analysis and policy theory. Building from recent critical, feminist, and post-structural work in policy studies, develops what is termed a feminist genealogy to aid in an analysis of policy studies. Provides example of feminist genealogical analysis…
Gutiérrez, Kris D.; Engeström, Yrjö; Sannino, Annalisa
This commentary focuses on the ways the set of articles in this issue, taken together, engage an important and much needed conversation in design-based approaches to inquiry: that is, what does it mean to do work in and with nondominant communities? Drawing on cultural historical activity theory, decolonizing methodologies, and indigenous…
Risk perception is frequently held to be crucial in the understanding and management of risk in policy contexts. The present paper takes as a starting point the notion that risk perception, of the public, of experts and other special groups, is important and hence the question arises how it should be investigated
Kleef, van E.; Trijp, van J.C.M.
Complex societal issues, related to health and sustainability, provide major challenges to scientists, business managers, and policy makers alike. Despite their diversity, these issues have in common that effective solutions to public health (e.g., reducing prevalence of overweight and obesity) and
Networks provide a powerful lens to understand complex relational entanglements that are transforming social, economic and political life. Through a discussion of the various streams of network research in tourism, this paper argues that policy matters run across and throughout these strands....... Rather than arguing for increased interest in tourism policy network research as a separate subfield, the paper argues for deeper theoretical engagement with the policy dimension in tourism network research. Researchers adopting a network ontology could gain considerable insights and open up new lines...
In many research textbooks the distinction between qualitative and quantitative research is inadvertently linked with philosophical perspectives. This in essence creates a mutually exclusive relationship between method and philosophy. Initially researchers are led to believe, from these textbooks, that research is neatly divided into mutually exclusive categories, these being quantitative and qualitative research and ‘never the twain shall meet’. This divide is further strengthened with the i...
This report characterizes certain aspects of the Global Change Research Program of the US Government, and its relevance to the short and medium term needs of policy makers in the public and private sectors. It addresses some of the difficulties inherent in the science and policy interface on the issues of global change. Finally, this report offers some proposals for improving the science for policy process in the context of global environmental change
This report characterizes certain aspects of the Global Change Research Program of the US Government, and its relevance to the short and medium term needs of policy makers in the public and private sectors. It addresses some of the difficulties inherent in the science and policy interface on the issues of global change. Finally, this report offers some proposals for improving the science for policy process in the context of global environmental change.
ARIK, Ferhat; ARIK, Işıl Avşar
This research discusses the historical development of the Grounded Theory Methodology, which is one of the qualitative research method, its transformation over time and how it is used as a methodology in Turkey. The Grounded Theory which was founded by Strauss and Glaser, is a qualitative methodology based on inductive logic to discover theories in contrast with the deductive understanding which is based on testing an existing theory in sociology. It is possible to examine the Grounded Theory...
Chemical and Engineering News, 1982
The president of Stanford University discusses his views on problems facing research universities, including research secrecy, ethics, and economics of proprietary knowledge generated in the university, faculty conflict of interest, place of humanities in a society driven by technology, and decline of government support for academic research.…
Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Sørensen, Ellen Westh
study? What learning and/or changes took place? What challenges/pitfalls had to be overcome? What were the influence/consequences for the involved parts? When to use If you want to implement new services and want to involve staff and others in the process, an AR methodology is very suitable. The basic...... advantages of doing AR-based studies are grounded in their participatory and democratic basis and their starting point in problems experienced in practice. Limitations Some of the limitations in AR-studies are that neither of the participants in a project steering group are the only ones to decide...
Lang, Susan; Baehr, Craig
This article provides an overview of the ways in which data and text mining have potential as research methodologies in composition studies. It introduces data mining in the context of the field of composition studies and discusses ways in which this methodology can complement and extend our existing research practices by blending the best of what…
Ulmer, Jasmine B.
The posthuman turn has radically--and rapidly--shifted what is possible in research methodology. In response, my aim in this conceptual paper is to suggest entry points into posthuman educational research methodology. I outline aspects of posthumanism while recognizing its multiplicity: there are many posthumanisms and each offers different…
Caroline Rodrigues Cardoso
Full Text Available The confluence between quantitative and qualitative research in Sociolinguistics is a methodological Dadaism? The issue here is not epistemology, because I assume that the Sociolinguistics studies the language linked to social. I want to demonstrate that the methodological approach depends on the research question, ie, the subject about which a thesis is developed.
Innovative teaching methods such as collaborative learning, teamwork and mind maps were introduced to teach Computer Science and Statistics courses at tertiary level. This article focuses mainly on the research methods used to research the effectiveness of these teaching methodologies. Soft Systems Methodology ...
The on-going debates and conflicts between defenders of the quantitative research approach and advocates of the qualitative approach to research tends to leave the post graduate students in a dilemma and disillusioned as to which approach to use in their research process. However, the advent of mixed method as the ...
In recent times many educational researchers have moved away from the traditional purist approach of strictly adopting either a qualitative or quantitative approach to conducting research. Instead they have attempted an eclectic mix of both methods in their research inquiry, combining aspects of both the traditions at various stages of their…
Flannelly, Kevin J; Ellison, Christopher G; Strock, Adrienne L
This study examines several methodologic issues in research on religion and health, including the measurement of the concept of religion, research designs, sampling, and statistical controls for assessing the "net" effects of religion on health outcomes. It briefly discusses differences in analytical perspectives that have contributed to the debate about the effects of religion on health. The authors review some of the methodologic problems of past research in this area of study and address what needs to be done to enhance the quality of the research. The authors conclude that the research methodology used in studies of religion and health has improved over time and that it continues to do so.
Oct 7, 2009 ... It will also be useful for decision-makers and policy advisors involved in trade negotiations and the formulation of trade policy. The editor. Mercedes Botto is Senior Researcher at FLACSO, the Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales, in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Related content. Asian outlook: New ...
Struyk, Raymond J.; Damon, Mawadda; Haddaway, Samuel R.
The international community has identified a positive link between good governance and economic development. There is an increasing appreciation of the effective role that local policy research organizations (PROs) can play in providing evidence-based policy recommendations as the basis for sound legislation and in assessing the efficacy of…
The National Academy of Education is described as a loose federation of prominent educational and social science researchers, which has never pretended to be a think tank or a lobbying organization. Its influence is indirectly felt through the prestige and quality research of its members. (MLW)
Focus and Scope. Animal Research International is an online Journal inaugurated in University of Nigeria to meet the growing need for an indigenous and authoritative organ for the dissemination of the results of scientific research into the fauna of Africa and the world at large. Concise contributions on investigations on ...
The paper is structured in three main sections. The first is a general description of educational research in Denmark and the types of quality assessment used. The second is a discussion of a particular instance of quality assessment, the 2004 OECD review of educational research in Denmark and it...
Malti, Tina; Beelmann, Andreas; Noam, Gil G; Sommer, Simon
In this article, we introduce the special issue entitled Innovation and Integrity in Intervention Science. Its focus is on essential problems and prospects for intervention research examining two related topics, i.e., methodological issues and research integrity, and challenges in the transfer of research knowledge into practice and policy. The main aims are to identify how to advance methodology in order to improve research quality, examine scientific integrity in the field of intervention science, and discuss future steps to enhance the transfer of knowledge about evidence-based intervention principles into sustained practice, routine activities, and policy decisions. Themes of the special issue are twofold. The first includes questions about research methodology in intervention science, both in terms of research design and methods, as well as data analyses and the reporting of findings. Second, the issue tackles questions surrounding the types of knowledge translation frameworks that might be beneficial to mobilize the transfer of research-based knowledge into practice and public policies. The issue argues that innovations in methodology and thoughtful approaches to knowledge translation can enable transparency, quality, and sustainability of intervention research.
Richard J. Murnane
Full Text Available This article addresses three topics. The first concerns the reasons that American education, which served the United States so well for the first three-quarters of the twentieth century, is not adequate today, and is especially not successful in providing disadvantaged children with the skills they need to escape poverty. The second concerns lessons from policy analyses about the efficacy of alternative approaches to improving American education, especially the education of its most disadvantaged children. I will make the case that research provides encouraging evidence on several policy approaches. At the same time, the research reveals puzzles that I believe we need to take seriously in thinking about future research to inform the design of the next round of policies. Finally, I suggest some directions for policy research that come from taking seriously puzzles in the evidence.
The objective of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on decision strategy research are (1) to support and advise the Belgian authorities on specific problems concerning existing and potential hazards from exposure to ionising radiation, both in normal and emergency situations; (2) to perform research on relevant topics that might have an important impact on decision making related to nuclear applications, including social and economic sciences. Main achievements in this area in 1999 are described
Maninder Singh Setia
Full Text Available Although quantitative designs are commonly used in clinical research, some studies require qualitative methods. These designs are different from quantitative methods; thus, researchers should be aware of data collection methods and analyses for qualitative research. Qualitative methods are particularly useful to understand patient experiences with the treatment or new methods of management or to explore issues in detail. These methods are useful in social and behavioral research. In qualitative research, often, the main focus is to understand the issue in detail rather than generalizability; thus, the sampling methods commonly used are purposive sampling; quota sampling; and snowball sampling (for hard to reach groups. Data can be collected using in-depth interviews (IDIs or focus group discussions (FGDs. IDI is a one-to-one interview with the participant. FGD is a method of group interview or discussion, in which more than one participant is interviewed at the same time and is usually led by a facilitator. The commonly used methods for data analysis are: thematic analysis; grounded theory analysis; and framework analysis. Qualitative data collection and analysis require special expertise. Hence, if the reader plans to conduct qualitative research, they should team up with a qualitative researcher.
Setia, Maninder Singh
Although quantitative designs are commonly used in clinical research, some studies require qualitative methods. These designs are different from quantitative methods; thus, researchers should be aware of data collection methods and analyses for qualitative research. Qualitative methods are particularly useful to understand patient experiences with the treatment or new methods of management or to explore issues in detail. These methods are useful in social and behavioral research. In qualitative research, often, the main focus is to understand the issue in detail rather than generalizability; thus, the sampling methods commonly used are purposive sampling; quota sampling; and snowball sampling (for hard to reach groups). Data can be collected using in-depth interviews (IDIs) or focus group discussions (FGDs). IDI is a one-to-one interview with the participant. FGD is a method of group interview or discussion, in which more than one participant is interviewed at the same time and is usually led by a facilitator. The commonly used methods for data analysis are: thematic analysis; grounded theory analysis; and framework analysis. Qualitative data collection and analysis require special expertise. Hence, if the reader plans to conduct qualitative research, they should team up with a qualitative researcher.
Williams, Sheneka M.; McDermott, Kathryn A.
For decades, policy makers, advocates, and researchers have been engaged in efforts to make educational opportunity more equal for students from different racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic groups. A great deal of research has been conducted on their efforts; however, there is some disagreement on the extent to which the research has been…
May 2, 2016 ... Some 125 young researchers have received training in research methods, communicating for policy influence, and the economics of communications infrastructure. Researchers from 40 countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America have presented more than 100 papers throughout the project lifecycle. So far ...
McQuay, H. J; Kalso, Eija; Moore, R. Andrew
"Presents invited papers from the 6th IASP Research Symposium, Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses in Pain, held in Spain in September 2006, organized by the International Collaboration on Evidence...
Full Text Available Penelitian bahasa merupakan bidang yang menarik bagi mahasiswa dan pengajar di Fakultas Sastra. Artikel ini mencoba menggambarkan berbagai metodologi riset dalam bidang bahasa dengan cara yang sederhana. Metodologi riset ini mencakup experimental research, quasi experimental research, etnografi, dan studi kasus. Artikel ini juga membahas konsep metode riset kuantitatif dan kualitatif. Masalah validitas dan keabsahan sebuah laporan riset dibahas secara singkat.
Miller, Clayton S; Hebblewhite, Mark; Goodrich, John M; Miquelle, Dale G
Over the past half century, wildlife research has relied on technological advances to gain additional insight into the secretive lives of animals. This revolution started in the 1960s with the development of radio telemetry and continues today with the use of Global Positioning System (GPS)-based research techniques. In the present paper we review the history of radio telemetry from its origins with grizzly bears in Yellowstone to its early applications in tiger research and conservation in Asia. We address the different types of data that are available using radio telemetry as opposed to using other research techniques, such as behavioral observations, camera trapping, DNA analysis and scat analysis. In the late 1990s, the rapid development of GPS collar technology revolutionized wildlife research. This new technology has enabled researchers to dramatically improve their ability to gather data on animal movements and ecology. Despite the ecological and conservation benefits of radio telemetry, there have been few telemetry studies of tigers in the wild, and most have been on the Bengal or Amur subspecies. We close with an assessment of the current tiger conservation efforts using GPS technology and discuss how this new information can help to preserve tigers for future generations. © 2010 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.
Noyes, Jane; Lewis, Mary; Bennett, Virginia; Widdas, David; Brombley, Karen
To report the first large-scale realistic nurse-led implementation, optimization and evaluation of a complex children's continuing-care policy. Health policies are increasingly complex, involve multiple Government departments and frequently fail to translate into better patient outcomes. Realist methods have not yet been adapted for policy implementation. Research methodology - Evaluation using theory-based realist methods for policy implementation. An expert group developed the policy and supporting tools. Implementation and evaluation design integrated diffusion of innovation theory with multiple case study and adapted realist principles. Practitioners in 12 English sites worked with Consultant Nurse implementers to manipulate the programme theory and logic of new decision-support tools and care pathway to optimize local implementation. Methods included key-stakeholder interviews, developing practical diffusion of innovation processes using key-opinion leaders and active facilitation strategies and a mini-community of practice. New and existing processes and outcomes were compared for 137 children during 2007-2008. Realist principles were successfully adapted to a shorter policy implementation and evaluation time frame. Important new implementation success factors included facilitated implementation that enabled 'real-time' manipulation of programme logic and local context to best-fit evolving theories of what worked; using local experiential opinion to change supporting tools to more realistically align with local context and what worked; and having sufficient existing local infrastructure to support implementation. Ten mechanisms explained implementation success and differences in outcomes between new and existing processes. Realistic policy implementation methods have advantages over top-down approaches, especially where clinical expertise is low and unlikely to diffuse innovations 'naturally' without facilitated implementation and local optimization. © 2013
Rhedding-Jones, Jeanette; Bjelkerud, Agnes Westgaard; Giæver, Katrine; Røkholt, Eline Grelland; Holten, Ingeborg Caroline Sæbøe; Lafton, Tove; Moxnes, Anna Rigmor; Pope, Liv Alice
This is an open access article licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License and originally published in Reconceptualizing Educational Research Methodology (RERM). You can access the article on publisher's website by following this link: https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/rerm This chapter exemplifies seven projects and their related research methodologies. It does so to consider how to construct critical research studies without replicating someone else’s researc...
Morville, Anne-Le; Erlandsson, Lena-Karin
Background: There are challenging methodological issues in obtaining valid and reliable results on which to base occupational therapy interventions for ethnic minorities. The aim of this scoping review is to describe the methodological problems within occupational therapy research, when ethnic...... research and interventions, development of methods for the entire research process is needed. It is a costly and time-consuming process, but the results will be valid and reliable, and therefore more applicable in clinical practice...
Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to summarize the existing theoretical and methodological approaches to understanding the essence of the notion ‘rural economics’ and to reason that multifunctionality is a precondition of stable development. The methodology of research is based on a systematic approach, according to which rural economics is considered to be an open type of social and economic system that transforms exogenous and endogenous potential of rural territories into a certain level of rural development. The methodology of rural economic development is based on the following methodological approaches: economic, ecological, social and institutional, each one of which completes the idea of interdependence of rural economics and its territorial basis, i.e. rural area. The subject of study is a scientific-theoretical and applied principles of rural economy development. The results of the study demonstrate that agro-centric model of rural economics, the development of which focuses on formation and support of goods safety, is being displaced by multifunctional model in conditions of strengthening of human-centric priorities of the social development. Contents of this model lies in the perception of the rural economy as a diversified, multifunctional socio-economic system, whose development aimed at the welfare of the rural population. As the goal of rural economies is ensuring high welfare standards of the rural population, providing interconnection problems in the functioning of the system of rural development policy. It’s proved that the sustainable development of the rural economy it provides for the implementation of the set of economic and socially important function that displays the development of socio-economic system beyond the actual production and contributes to its focus on material and non-material welfare of the rural population. Qualitative changes in the properties of the rural economy aiming at self-development and self
This book presents a variety of narratives on key elements of academic work, from data analysis, writing practices and engagement with the field. The authors discuss how elements of academic work and life – usually edited out of traditional research papers – can elicit important analytical insigh...
Shannonhouse, Laura R.; Barden, Sejal M.; McDonald, C. Peeper
Mixed methods research (MMR) is a useful paradigm for group work as it allows exploration of both participant outcomes and "how" or "why" such changes occur. Unfortunately, the group counseling literature is not replete with MMR studies. This article reviews the application of MMR to group contexts and summarizes the corpus of…
Vecchio, Lindsay; Dhillon, Karamjeet K.; Ulmer, Jasmine B.
In the current moment of social, political, economic and environmental disquiet, unprecedented numbers of children have been forced to leave their homes and settle in new communities. As schools worldwide receive increasing numbers of refugee youth, there is a pressing need for thoughtful educational research that inquires into the unique…
Kothari, Cartik R; Payne, Philip R O
In this paper, we present a semantic, metadata based knowledge discovery methodology for identifying teams of researchers from diverse backgrounds who can collaborate on interdisciplinary research projects: projects in areas that have been identified as high-impact areas at The Ohio State University. This methodology involves the semantic annotation of keywords and the postulation of semantic metrics to improve the efficiency of the path exploration algorithm as well as to rank the results. Results indicate that our methodology can discover groups of experts from diverse areas who can collaborate on translational research projects.
Many problems in study designs have affected the validity of scientific researches seriously. We must understand the methodology of research, especially clinical epidemiology and biostatistics, and recognize the urgency in selection and implement of right study design. Thereafter we can promote the research capability and improve the overall quality of scientific researches.
Murray, Christine E.; Graybeal, Jennifer
The authors present a methodological review of empirical program evaluation research in the area of intimate partner violence prevention. The authors adapted and utilized criterion-based rating forms to standardize the evaluation of the methodological strengths and weaknesses of each study. The findings indicate that the limited amount of…
Silva Aycaguer, L C
Several errors that are frequently present in clinical research are listed, discussed and illustrated. A distinction is made between what can be considered an "error" arising from ignorance or neglect, from what stems from a lack of integrity of researchers, although it is recognized and documented that it is not easy to establish when we are in a case and when in another. The work does not intend to make an exhaustive inventory of such problems, but focuses on those that, while frequent, are usually less evident or less marked in the various lists that have been published with this type of problems. It has been a decision to develop in detail the examples that illustrate the problems identified, instead of making a list of errors accompanied by an epidermal description of their characteristics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The EU is the world’s largest trade group, occupying an important position in the world trade in goods and services, especially in the field of service trade. The EU trade in services exports and imports are higher than the United States and Japan, and the EU is the world’s largest capital output and input group, and the world’s largest foreign aid providers. With the deepening of the European integration process, Europe’s position in the world economy and trade is on the rise. Therefore, the EU’s trade policy has increasingly become the focus of attention. From the vertical point of view, research directions can be divided into trade in goods policy, trade in services policy, international direct investment policy, trade-related intellectual property policy four field. In this paper, the four vertical areas are illustrated as the focus of the study.
Coetzee, Tanya; Hoffmann, Willem A; de Roubaix, Malcolm
The amended research ethics policy at a South African University required the ethics review of undergraduate research projects, prompting the need to explore the content and teaching approach of research ethics education in health science undergraduate programs. Two qualitative data collection strategies were used: document analysis (syllabi and study guides) and semi-structured interviews with research methodology coordinators. Five main themes emerged: (a) timing of research ethics courses, (b) research ethics course content, (c) sub-optimal use of creative classroom activities to facilitate research ethics lectures, (d) understanding the need for undergraduate project research ethics review, and (e) research ethics capacity training for research methodology lecturers and undergraduate project supervisors. © The Author(s) 2015.
In recent years a number of researchers within the PER community have started using network analysis as a new methodology to extend our understanding of teaching and learning physics by viewing these as complex systems. In this paper, I give examples of social, cognitive, and action mapping...... of using networks to create insightful maps of learning discussions. To conclude, I argue that conceptual blending is a powerful framework for constructing "mixed methods" methodologies that may integrate diverse theories and other methodologies with network methodologies....
Schlagheck, Ronald; Geveden, Rex (Technical Monitor)
The NASA Microgravity Research Discipline has multiple categories of science payloads that are being planned and currently under development to operate on various ISS on-orbit increments. The current program includes six subdisciplines; Materials Science, Fluids Physics, Combustion Science, Fundamental Physics, Cellular Biology and Macromolecular Biotechnology. All of these experiment payloads will require the astronaut various degrees of crew interaction and science observation. With the current programs planning to build various facility class science racks, the crew will need to be trained on basic core operations as well as science background. In addition, many disciplines will use the Express Rack and the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) to utilize the accommodations provided by these facilities for smaller and less complex type hardware. The Microgravity disciplines will be responsible to have a training program designed to maximize the experiment and hardware throughput as well as being prepared for various contingencies both with anomalies as well as unexpected experiment observations. The crewmembers will need various levels of training from simple tasks as power on and activate to extensive training on hardware mode change out to observing the cell growth of various types of tissue cultures. Sample replacement will be required for furnaces and combustion type modules. The Fundamental Physics program will need crew EVA support to provide module change out of experiment. Training will take place various research centers and hardware development locations. It is expected that onboard training through various methods and video/digital technology as well as limited telecommunication interaction. Since hardware will be designed to operate from a few weeks to multiple research increments, flexibility must be planned in the training approach and procedure skills to optimize the output as well as the equipment maintainability. Early increment lessons learned
Research on policy borrowing is a well-established research area of comparative education. Over the past 20 years or so it gained prominence among globalization scholars. Of great interest is not so much the question of which reforms "travel" internationally, and which ones are homebound, but rather why traveling reforms resonate in a…
Udry, J. Richard
Social scientists are often concerned that research on biological causes of behavior will encourage biologically-based public policy. By simultaneously examining both social and biological causes of behavior, biosocial research models prevent simplistic biological thinking. Concludes that biosocial models clarify ethical problems rather than…
The measurement of corruption is an old challenge of both academics and the policy community, due to the absence of an unanimously agreed upon definition and the widespread (although inaccurate) belief that owing to its informal and hidden nature, corruption is an unobservable phenomenon. The articles in this issue challenge this belief. This is a special issue of the European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research.
Snieškienė, Dalija; Dulinskienė, Inga
This paper reviews developments in social policy and services related to homelessness in Lithuania over the last 20 years. Using the form of a descriptive case study, it provides an overview of how homelessness is conceptualised, the organisation of homelessness services, the development of social policy related to homelessness, and the support services available within the provision and maintenance of housing, as well as a review of relevant research on homelessness in Lithuania. The paper d...
Full Text Available This paper includes a collection of audiovisual material available in the repository of the Interdisciplinary Seminar of Feminist Research Methodology SIMReF (http://www.simref.net.
Linda M. Ferguson
Full Text Available Faculty who engage students as participants in their qualitative research often encounter methodological and ethical problems. Ethical issues arise from the fiduciary relationship between faculty and their students, and violations of that relationship occur when the educator has a dual role as researcher with those students. Methodological issues arise from research designs to address these ethical issues. This conflict is particularly evident in faculty research on pedagogy in their own disciplines, for which students are necessary as participants but are captive in the relationship. In this article, the authors explore the issues of double agency when faculty involve students as participants in their research.
Melbøe, Line; Hansen, Ketil Lenert; Johnsen, Bjørn-Eirik; Fedreheim, Gunn Elin; Dinesen, Tone; Minde, Gunn-Tove; Rustad, Marit
A study of disability among the indigenous Sami people in Norway presented a number of ethical and methodological challenges rarely addressed in the literature. The main study was designed to examine and understand the everyday life, transitions between life stages and democratic participation of Norwegian Sami people experiencing disability. Hence, the purpose of this article is to increase the understanding of possible ethical and methodological issues in research within this field. The article describes and discusses ethical and methodological issues that arose when conducting our study and identifies some strategies for addressing issues like these. The ethical and methodological issues addressed in the article are based on a qualitative study among indigenous Norwegian Sami people experiencing disability. The data in this study were collected through 31 semi-structured in-depth interviews with altogether 24 Sami people experiencing disability and 13 next of kin of Sami people experiencing disability (8 mothers, 2 fathers, 2 sister and 1 guardian). The researchers identified 4 main areas of ethical and methodological issues. We present these issues chronologically as they emerged in the research process: 1) concept of knowledge when designing the study, 2) gaining access, 3) data collection and 4) analysis and accountability. The knowledge generated from this study has the potential to benefit future health research, specifically of Norwegian Sami people experiencing disability, as well as health research concerning indigenous people in general, providing scientific-based insight into important ethical and methodological issues in research with indigenous people experiencing disability.
Anthony, Susan; Jack, Susan
This paper is a report of an integrative review conducted to critically analyse the contemporary use of qualitative case study methodology in nursing research. Increasing complexity in health care and increasing use of case study in nursing research support the need for current examination of this methodology. In 2007, a search for case study research (published 2005-2007) indexed in the CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, Sociological Abstracts and SCOPUS databases was conducted. A sample of 42 case study research papers met the inclusion criteria. Whittemore and Knafl's integrative review method guided the analysis. Confusion exists about the name, nature and use of case study. This methodology, including terminology and concepts, is often invisible in qualitative study titles and abstracts. Case study is an exclusive methodology and an adjunct to exploring particular aspects of phenomena under investigation in larger or mixed-methods studies. A high quality of case study exists in nursing research. Judicious selection and diligent application of literature review methods promote the development of nursing science. Case study is becoming entrenched in the nursing research lexicon as a well-accepted methodology for studying phenomena in health and social care, and its growing use warrants continued appraisal to promote nursing knowledge development. Attention to all case study elements, process and publication is important in promoting authenticity, methodological quality and visibility.
This article presents and illustrates a qualitative research methodology for studies of uptake. It does so by articulating a theoretical framework for qualitative investigations of uptake and detailing a research study designed to invoke and capture students' uptakes in a first-year writing classroom. The research design sought to make uptake…
Davis, Nancy T.; Callihan, Laurie P.
This article examines the multiple methodologies used in educational research and proposes a model that includes all of them as contributing to understanding educational contexts and research from multiple perspectives. The model, based on integral theory (Wilber in a theory of everything. Shambhala, Boston, 2000) values all forms of research as…
Wittenborn, Andrea K; Dolbin-MacNab, Megan L; Keiley, Margaret K
With training that emphasizes relationship systems, marriage and family therapists are uniquely attuned to interpersonal dynamics, interdependence, and the influence of relationships on individuals' perceptions, beliefs, and attitudes. While recent statistical advances have contributed to a proliferation of resources designed to introduce researchers to dyadic data analysis, guidelines related to the methodological aspects of dyadic research design have received less attention. Given the potential advantages of dyadic designs for examining couple and family relational and therapeutic processes, the purpose of this article is to introduce marriage and family therapy researchers to dyadic research methodology. Using examples from our own research, we discuss methodological considerations and lessons learned related to sampling, measurement, data collection, and ethics. Recommendations for future dyadic research are provided. © 2012 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.
Full Text Available This article discusses the benefit of combining a quantitative and qualitative approach in studying social phenomena and illustrates it relative to the experience of individuals struggling with infertility. The combined use of the two methodologies allows capturing a comprehensive, nuanced and expansive picture of infertility, providing information to help bridge the gap between research and practice, and offering implications for policy and further research. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs140185
Telma Cristiane Sasso de Lima
Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1414-49802007000300004 This article concerns bibliographic research in the context of production of knowledge, as a methodological procedure that offers the researcher the possibility of seeking solutions to a research problem. It recognizes the need to present the scientific method chosen by the researcher; to present the forms of construction of the methodological design and the choice of procedures; and demonstrates how the presentation and analysis of the data obtained is configured. It also presents a methodological design of successive approximations, considering that the flexibility in the apprehension of data guarantees the dialectical movement in which the object of study can be constantly revised. That is, it postulates that bibliographic research involves conducting a tireless movement of apprehension of objectives, observance of steps, reading, questioning and critical interlocution with the bibliographic material and this demands epistemological vigilance.
Kotecki, Nuria; Penel, Nicolas; Awada, Ahmad
Despite recent changes in clinical research methodology, many challenges remain in drug development methodology. Advances in molecular biology and cancer treatments have changed the clinical research landscape. Thus, we moved from empirical clinical oncology to molecular and immunological therapeutic approaches. Along with this move, adapted dose-limiting toxicities definitions, endpoints, and dose escalation methods have been proposed. Moreover, the classical frontier between phase I, phase II, and phase III has become unclear in particular for immunological approaches. So, investigators are facing major challenges in drug development methodology. We propose to individualize clinical research using innovative approaches to significantly improve patient outcomes and targeting what is considered unmet need. Integrating high level of translational research and performing well designed biomarker studies with great potential for clinical practice are of utmost importance. This could be performed within new models of clinical research networks and by building a strong collaboration between academic, cooperative groups, on-site investigators, and pharma.
Hadi, Muhammad Abdul; Closs, S José
Introduction Mixed-methods methodology, as the name suggests refers to mixing of elements of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies in a single study. In the past decade, mixed-methods methodology has gained popularity among healthcare researchers as it promises to bring together the strengths of both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Methodology A number of mixed-methods designs are available in the literature and the four most commonly used designs in healthcare research are: the convergent parallel design, the embedded design, the exploratory design, and the explanatory design. Each has its own unique advantages, challenges and procedures and selection of a particular design should be guided by the research question. Guidance on designing, conducting and reporting mixed-methods research is available in the literature, so it is advisable to adhere to this to ensure methodological rigour. When to use it is best suited when the research questions require: triangulating findings from different methodologies to explain a single phenomenon; clarifying the results of one method using another method; informing the design of one method based on the findings of another method, development of a scale/questionnaire and answering different research questions within a single study. Two case studies have been presented to illustrate possible applications of mixed-methods methodology. Limitations Possessing the necessary knowledge and skills to undertake qualitative and quantitative data collection, analysis, interpretation and integration remains the biggest challenge for researchers conducting mixed-methods studies. Sequential study designs are often time consuming, being in two (or more) phases whereas concurrent study designs may require more than one data collector to collect both qualitative and quantitative data at the same time.
Worrall, B B; Chen, D T; Meschia, J F
Stroke is a complex genetic disorder with a variable phenotype. Investigations of heritable factors in complex genetic disorders use pedigree and genetic techniques, which pose different ethical and methodological challenges than those routinely encountered in therapeutic research. Building consensus on acceptable research practices in this field is vital to the success of multicentered collaborations. We review important ethical and methodological concerns related to the collection, storage, and release of pedigree research information. The human studies aspects of pedigree research are complicated methodologically because individuals can be active or passive participants and pedigrees can be proband derived, partially validated, or fully validated. Current research ethics frameworks do not work well outside of a dyadic researcher-subject relationship. Privacy and confidentiality for family members must be considered in pedigree research. Investigators should anticipate potential conflicts of interest among family members when designing a pedigree research protocol. We propose a "proband-initiated contact" methodology in which the proband or the proband's designate allows identification of potential families without breaching the privacy of individuals in the family. In situations in which family history data are collected without direct contact between researchers and individuals in the proband's family, an Institutional Review Board may waive consent by family members after appropriate review of the protocol and application of rules for granting waivers of consent. Certificates of Confidentiality should be considered.
Battini, Daria; Grassi, Andrea; Persona, Alessandro; Sgarbossa, Fabio
Abstract Consignment Stock (CS) is an innovative approach to supply and stock management, based on a strong and continuous collaboration between vendor and buyer to create a ?win-win? situation, where both partners have equal gains. An analytic formulation of CS policy with obsolescence has been proposed in Persona et al. (2005). This article considers new critical factors (present in several industrial environments) providing a logical extension of the above mentioned study. T...
pertain to US space activities. Near the conclu- sion of our meeting, Dr. Johnson, an adjunct professor at George Washington and Georgetown...their professions ’ organizational goals? NSSI’s three-week Space 300 course was designed within contextual constraints, partly due to budgetary... professor at George Washington University’s Space Policy Institute. He is editor and author of multiple books and articles on outer space activities. 4
Bloch, Carter; Sørensen, Mads P; Graversen, Ebbe K; Schneider, Jesper W; Schmidt, Evanthia Kalpazidou; Aagaard, Kaare; Mejlgaard, Niels
This paper discusses the development of a mixed methods approach to analyse research funding. Research policy has taken on an increasingly prominent role in the broader political scene, where research is seen as a critical factor in maintaining and improving growth, welfare and international competitiveness. This has motivated growing emphasis on the impacts of science funding, and how funding can best be designed to promote socio-economic progress. Meeting these demands for impact assessment involves a number of complex issues that are difficult to fully address in a single study or in the design of a single methodology. However, they point to some general principles that can be explored in methodological design. We draw on a recent evaluation of the impacts of research grant funding, discussing both key issues in developing a methodology for the analysis and subsequent results. The case of research grant funding, involving a complex mix of direct and intermediate effects that contribute to the overall impact of funding on research performance, illustrates the value of a mixed methods approach to provide a more robust and complete analysis of policy impacts. Reflections on the strengths and weaknesses of the methodology are used to examine refinements for future work. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Education Partnerships, Inc., 2012
What steps can be taken to assure that High School students have the best attendance possible? It is commonly believed and well supported by research that students who attend school regularly are more successful than those who do not. The challenge for high schools is to design and implement attendance policies and programs that monitor,…
In China and Southeast Asia, the lack of policy or regulation enforcements means that the use of antibiotics is not well-controlled. This research will provide evidence and guidance to develop country-specific and regional strategies to improve the responsible use of antibiotics and to reduce the emergence of resistant ...
This paper investigates how recent changes in the telecommunications industry are likely to affect government research and development policies by analyzing how changes in the market structure--in particular, increased competition in the industry due to domestic deregulation and international competition--change the political economy of government…
Jan 14, 2018 ... What are the opportunities to integrate big data and artificial intelligence into strategy and evaluation for research for development? ... Applications must be submitted via email directly to the Policy and Evaluation Division at firstname.lastname@example.org and may consist only of a resume and cover letter, including an ...
Davidson, Richard J.; Kaszniak, Alfred W.
Both basic science and clinical research on mindfulness, meditation, and related constructs has dramatically increased in recent years. However, interpretation of these research results has been challenging. The present article addresses unique conceptual and methodological problems posed by research in this area. Included among the key topics is the role of first person experience and how it can be best studied; the challenges posed by intervention research designs in which true double-blind...
Beatrice E. Avolio
This article highlights one of the most significant methodological problems of researching women entrepreneurs and understanding the female entrepreneurial experience, which is related to the definition of what is a women entrepreneur. The article outlines the state of research on women entrepreneurs, presents the diverse definitions used in research, conceptualizes the different aspects related to the definition of a woman entrepreneur, and proposes future directions for developing research ...
The Equipment Qualification Research Testing (EQRT) program is an evolutionary outgrowth of the Qualification Testing Evaluation (QTE) program at Sandia. The primary emphasis of the program has been qualification methodology research. The EQRT program offers to the industry a research-oriented perspective on qualification-related component performance, as well as refinements to component testing standards which are based upon actual component testing research
Ibba, Michael; Bentin, Thomas
. Danish science is moderately well funded 1 . We have modern facilities, an excellent level of technical support and a buoyant biotechnology sector 2 . What is sorely lacking is a coherent policy on the funding and nurturing of basic research. Entry-level appointments (assistant professor) have a heavy...... suggest that more critical problems exist that must be addressed immediately to ensure the long-term health of Danish science. Chief among these are a poorly funded and misdirected policy on basic research funding, and conditions of employment that restrict the research opportunities of young scientists...... teaching load and no support for scientific staff. Young scientists cannot improve their situation by writing grant applications, since the funding available to the research councils allows little, if any, support for salary components. Such restrictions are making assistant professorships increasingly...
Academic literacies research has been identified as an emerging but significant field in higher education. This article extends the discussions around methodology in academic literacies research by drawing on the current text and context debates in sociolinguistics and linguistic ethnography. It uses illustrations from a recent academic literacies…
Drawing on extant literature, this methodological study provides a content analysis of research procedures employed in knowledge management (KM) research between 2009 and 2013. A total of 303 articles published in the Journal of Knowledge Management were critically reviewed and subjected to a descriptive content ...
Leventon, Julia; Fleskens, Luuk; Claringbould, Heleen; Schwilch, Gudrun; Hessel, Rudi
In this paper we present a novel methodology for identifying stakeholders for the purpose of engaging with them in transdisciplinary, sustainability research projects. In transdisciplinary research, it is important to identify a range of stakeholders prior to the problem-focussed stages of
A A Onosov
Full Text Available The article describes the experience of designing, testing and implementing the National system of monitoring the quality of meteorological services in Russia. Within the framework of this project a large-scale research program was carried out aimed to develop the conception, methodology, research tools and design of customer assessment of the Roshydromet services.
Venter, I. M.; Blignaut, R. J.; Stoltz, D.
Innovative teaching methods such as collaborative learning, teamwork, and mind maps were introduced to teach computer science and statistics courses at a South African university. Soft systems methodology was adapted and used to manage the research process of evaluating the effectiveness of the teaching methods. This research method provided proof…
Juan Pablo Puentes
Full Text Available In this paper I explain some methodological crosslinks between the decolonial option, subaltern studies and postcolonial studies. In addition, I highlight certains limitations they present in their ethnographic research. Finally, I suggest some guidelines that could help us carry out a research comprising an extended intercultural horizon
Ritter, Sherri E.
The purpose of this study was to understand the methodologies authors in higher education journals used to obtain knowledge in their fields. This study looked at five peer reviewed journals of higher education and analyzed the methods of research employed by the authors to help them answer their respective research questions. The methods of…
The study has revealed major weaknesses in research methodologies in African Librarianship. Among the major shortcomings are researches not being grounded on theory and the findings having no bearing on theory construction. Additionally, operational definitions of underlying concepts or variables are not provided.
Lei, Simon A.
A number of graduate (masters-level) students from a wide variety of academic disciplines have viewed a required introductory research methodology course negatively. These students often do not retain much of the previously learned material, thus limiting their success of subsequent research and statistics courses. The purpose of this article is…
Hartmann, Andreas; Doree, Andries G.; Martin, Ludwig
Construction Management (CM) is an acknowledged field of expertise and profession that requires students to research real world problems. To prepare the students for this task, many CM programs contain a Research Methodology (RM) course. However, after taking part in these courses, many students
The objectives for Spanish electricity sector are to extend the life cycle of NPPs beyond 40 years, maintaining safety and efficiency level, and to monitor and control ageing of important components to guarantee the prolonged lifetime. A plan for plant life management including licensing and regulatory aspects is proposed together with the methodology for achieving the proposed goals. The expected results are: life management integrated system for follow-up and monitoring of degradation and ageing mechanisms of important NPP components; modular system which will enable incorporation of additional components, degradation and/or performances; interrelation and support tool for other needs of NPPs (periodic safety reviews, maintenance, optimization, etc.)
Sallee, Margaret W.; Flood, Julee T.
Too often, researchers get a bad name for engaging in inquiry that is inaccessible to the practitioner and policy communities who could most benefit from it. Although speaking to others in the scholarly community is important, researchers must also be able to translate their results into more accessible language for multiple audiences. This…
The purpose of this paper is to explore methods that could be used in studying buildings of the future. The methodology that the forum will develop will have a number of likely applications, among them: the development of research agendas for new building energy technologies; the development of information and analytical capabilities usable by other IEA annexes to address their technology assessment needs; and the generation of information that can serve as input to global energy models designed to inform energy policy decisions. This paper is divided into two major sections. The first is an overview of existing methods of futures research. Terms and concepts are explained, providing the basis for the second section. The second section proposes a framework and general methodology for studying future buildings. This preliminary, or strawman, methodology is intended to provoke early thinking and discussions on how the research should be approached. 24 refs., 8 figs.
Proctor, Robert W
The Society for Computers in Psychology has been at the forefront of disseminating information about advances in computer technology and their applications for psychologists. Although technological advances, as well as clean research designs, are key contributors to progress in psychological research, the justification of methodological rules for interpreting data and making theory choices is at least as important. Historically, methodological beliefs and practices have been justified through intuition and logic, an approach known as foundationism. However, naturalism, a modern approach in the philosophy of science inspired by the work of Thomas S. Kuhn, indicates that all aspects of scientific practice, including its methodology, should be evaluated empirically. This article examines implications of the naturalistic approach for psychological research methods in general and for the current debate that is often framed as one of qualitative versus quantitative methods.
Entwistle, V; Tritter, J Q; Calnan, M
This paper draws on contributions to and discussions at a recent MRC HSRC-sponsored workshop 'Researching users' experiences of health care: the case of cancer'. We focus on the methodological and ethical challenges that currently face researchers who use self-report methods to investigate experiences of cancer and cancer care. These challenges relate to: the theoretical and conceptual underpinnings of research; participation rates and participant profiles; data collection methods (the retrospective nature of accounts, description and measurement, and data collection as intervention); social desirability considerations; relationship considerations; the experiences of contributing to research; and the synthesis and presentation of findings. We suggest that methodological research to tackle these challenges should be integrated into substantive research projects to promote the development of a strong knowledge base about experiences of cancer and cancer care.
James Scheurich argues that practices of policy--normalized over time through repetition--serve three purposes. They structure social problems for which policy is designed to address; construct certain people, implicitly or explicitly, as problem individuals; and shape policy solutions. Following Foucault, he offers what he calls Policy…
Lystbæk, Christian Tang
Research methodology and theory of science have become important teaching subjects en engineering education as well as in higher education in general. This is rooted in the transition to a knowledge society. Today, it is argued by many that we are well on the way to an era beyond modernity...... and the sort of industrial economy that came with it. Whatever else the new era brings – the globalization of risks, environmental problems, new technologies, etc. – knowledge and the ability to seek, produce, apply and transform knowledge is of huge importance. However, research methodology and theory...
Duan, Naihua; Bhaumik, Dulal K; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Hoagwood, Kimberly
Optimal design has been an under-utilized methodology. However, it has significant real-world applications, particularly in mixed methods implementation research. We review the concept and demonstrate how it can be used to assess the sensitivity of design decisions and balance competing needs. For observational studies, this methodology enables selection of the most informative study units. For experimental studies, it entails selecting and assigning study units to intervention conditions in the most informative manner. We blend optimal design methods with purposeful sampling to show how these two concepts balance competing needs when there are multiple study aims, a common situation in implementation research.
Samantha Cruz Rivera
Full Text Available Increasingly, researchers need to demonstrate the impact of their research to their sponsors, funders, and fellow academics. However, the most appropriate way of measuring the impact of healthcare research is subject to debate. We aimed to identify the existing methodological frameworks used to measure healthcare research impact and to summarise the common themes and metrics in an impact matrix.Two independent investigators systematically searched the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE, the Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL+, the Health Management Information Consortium, and the Journal of Research Evaluation from inception until May 2017 for publications that presented a methodological framework for research impact. We then summarised the common concepts and themes across methodological frameworks and identified the metrics used to evaluate differing forms of impact. Twenty-four unique methodological frameworks were identified, addressing 5 broad categories of impact: (1 'primary research-related impact', (2 'influence on policy making', (3 'health and health systems impact', (4 'health-related and societal impact', and (5 'broader economic impact'. These categories were subdivided into 16 common impact subgroups. Authors of the included publications proposed 80 different metrics aimed at measuring impact in these areas. The main limitation of the study was the potential exclusion of relevant articles, as a consequence of the poor indexing of the databases searched.The measurement of research impact is an essential exercise to help direct the allocation of limited research resources, to maximise research benefit, and to help minimise research waste. This review provides a collective summary of existing methodological frameworks for research impact, which funders may use to inform the measurement of research impact and researchers may use to inform
Cruz Rivera, Samantha; Kyte, Derek G; Aiyegbusi, Olalekan Lee; Keeley, Thomas J; Calvert, Melanie J
Increasingly, researchers need to demonstrate the impact of their research to their sponsors, funders, and fellow academics. However, the most appropriate way of measuring the impact of healthcare research is subject to debate. We aimed to identify the existing methodological frameworks used to measure healthcare research impact and to summarise the common themes and metrics in an impact matrix. Two independent investigators systematically searched the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), the Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL+), the Health Management Information Consortium, and the Journal of Research Evaluation from inception until May 2017 for publications that presented a methodological framework for research impact. We then summarised the common concepts and themes across methodological frameworks and identified the metrics used to evaluate differing forms of impact. Twenty-four unique methodological frameworks were identified, addressing 5 broad categories of impact: (1) 'primary research-related impact', (2) 'influence on policy making', (3) 'health and health systems impact', (4) 'health-related and societal impact', and (5) 'broader economic impact'. These categories were subdivided into 16 common impact subgroups. Authors of the included publications proposed 80 different metrics aimed at measuring impact in these areas. The main limitation of the study was the potential exclusion of relevant articles, as a consequence of the poor indexing of the databases searched. The measurement of research impact is an essential exercise to help direct the allocation of limited research resources, to maximise research benefit, and to help minimise research waste. This review provides a collective summary of existing methodological frameworks for research impact, which funders may use to inform the measurement of research impact and researchers may use to inform study
Dyniewicz, Ana Maria; Rivero de Gutiérrez, Maria Gaby
This article discusses a descriptive-analytic study on research methodology education practices directed at nurse clinicians who work at a university hospital and aimed at acquiring scientific research competencies on the basis of discovery learning, tutorials and humanistic teaching strategies. Study participants were eighty-six nurses, 70 of whom concluded their projects. 28 of these resulted in scientific studies, most of which were experience reports, descriptive and exploratory investigations. According to the nurses, the program allowed them to acquire and apply their research know-how. They pointed out the lack of mastering scientific methodology and the limitations of administrative and work conditions at the institution as the main difficulties. Among the facilitators, they highlighted the importance of research to modify clinical practice, the publication of results and the collaboration for the maintenance of a research center. The study showed the need for a flexible planning of educational activities, permanent guidance and respect for the particularities of each nurse.
Ce financement contribuera à renforcer le rôle de la Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Research Organization (STIPRO) en tant qu'organisme crédible de recherche sur les politiques publiques en Tanzanie, en améliorant sa capacité à fournir des recherches de qualité supérieure, influentes et utiles en matière de ...
de Heer, W.; de Leeuw, E.D.; van der Zouwen, J.
In this paper, we present a historical overview of social surveys and describe the historical development of scientific survey methodology and survey statistics. The origins of survey research can be traced back to the early 19th century and the first scientiflc survey was conducted in England in
Shabani Varaki, Bakhtiar; Floden, Robert E.; Javidi Kalatehjafarabadi, Tahereh
This article focuses on the criticisms of current approaches in educational research methodology. It summarizes rationales for mixed methods and argues that the mixing quantitative paradigm and qualitative paradigm is problematic due to practical and philosophical arguments. It is also indicated that the current rise of mixed methods work has…
This paper argues that despite pressures to conform to the research methodology of the social sciences, African philosophers must diligently work for the preservation of the distinct character of philosophy as a discipline. To do this, they will have to move away from the debate on the existence and nature of African ...
Frans L. Leeuw
Full Text Available The article addresses two questions:1. Can Legal Realism be seen as a scientific research programme enabling growth of knowledge? To answer that question, the author uses Lakatos’s work on the methodology of scientific research programmes as a frame of reference.2. What has been the role of American Legal Realism during the first part of the 20th century in helping to develop and implement the New Deal policy vis-à-vis its scientific work?After outlining some characteristics of American Legal Realism and Lakatos’s concept, the author studies LR from this perspective and concludes that LR can at the maximum be seen as a research programme of a very rudimentary nature with largely only a focus on procedures/methods. Despite this conclusion, LR has been important in stimulating questions in which social science research and law came together. Next, the professor-realist-relationship that helped President Roosevelt to have his New Deal developed and implemented is also discussed. A downside of this ‘professor-realist-advisor-partnership’ may have been that a LR scientific research programme has not been developed. Given the increased visibility of New Legal Realism, the paper finally stresses the relevance of working with scientific research programmes and the importance of being on the alert when linking research to (legal policies.
Clandinin, D Jean; Cave, Marie T; Berendonk, Charlotte
Narrative research, an inclusive term for a range of methodologies, has rapidly become part of medical education scholarship. In this paper we identify narrative inquiry as a particular theoretical and methodological framework within narrative research and outline its characteristics. We briefly summarise how narrative research has been used in studying medical learners' identity making in medical education. We then turn to the uses of narrative inquiry in studying medical learners' professional identity making. With the turn to narrative inquiry, the shift is to thinking with stories instead of about stories. We highlight four challenges in engaging in narrative inquiry in medical education and point toward promising future research and practice possibilities. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.
Research processes and research results both influence policies, but in different ways. The link between research and policy influence is not linear and depends on the openness of policy actors to research. By involving policymakers in the research process, PAR supports their stake in finding solutions, improves the.
This essay was written in response to an invitation by the editors of NSS issued after the author had reviewed the paper entitled 'Methodological challenges of trans-disciplinary research' submitted by Christian Pohl and Gertrude Hirsch-Hadorn (see Pohl and Hirsch Hadorn, 2008). The essay provides an accounting for the transformation in my emotioning as I read the submitted paper by introducing three sets of distinctions: (i) a model of research practice; (ii) an explication of the nature of ...
This report is a policy analysis and set of recommendations regarding open data policies and policies for new, transformative data environments that are being developed as part of the Connected Vehicle research program. It is presented in three secti...
Silva, Maria Augusta; Stubkjær, Erik
to the acceptance of research methodologies needed for cadastral development, and thereby enhance theory in the cadastral domain. The paper reviews nine publica-tions on cadastre and identifies the methodologies used. The review focuses on the institutional, social political and economic aspects of cadastral...... by social, political and economic conditions, as by technology. Since the geodetic survey profession has been the keeper of the cadastre, geodetic surveyors will have to deal ever more with social science matters, a fact that universities will have to consider....
Full Text Available In this paper the authors share their insights on whether it is necessary to articulate a research methodology when reporting on theoretical research. Initially the authors, one being a supervisor and the other, a PhD student and a colleague, were confronted with the question during supervision and writing of a thesis on theoretical research. Reflection on the external examiners’ reports about whether a research methodology for theoretical research is necessary prompted the writing of this paper. In order to answer the question, the characteristics of theoretical research are clarified and contrasting views regarding the necessity or not of including a research methodology section in such a thesis, are examined. The paper also highlights the justification for including a research methodology in a thesis that reports on theoretical research, investigates the soundness of such justification and finally draws conclusions on the matter.
Crowther, Susan; Ironside, Pam; Spence, Deb; Smythe, Liz
Hermeneutic phenomenology, as a methodology, is not fixed. Inherent in its enactment are contested areas of practice such as how interview data are used and reported. Using philosophical notions drawn from hermeneutic phenomenological literature, we argue that working with crafted stories is congruent with the philosophical underpinnings of this methodology. We consider how the practical ontic undertaking of story crafting from verbatim transcripts is integral with the interpretive process. We show how verbatim transcripts can be crafted into stories through examples taken from interview data. Our aim is to open dialogue with other hermeneutic phenomenological researchers and offer alternate possibilities to conventional ways of work with qualitative data. We argue that crafted stories can provide glimpses of phenomena that other forms of data analysis and presentation may leave hidden. We contend that crafted stories are an acceptable and trustworthy methodological device.
Woodard, Fredrick James
Phenomenology and perceptual psychology opens up the essential meanings of hypnosis by presenting a qualitative method as an alternative to the current predominant quantitative method in the study of hypnosis. Scales that measure susceptibility from behavioral and cognitive aspects abound in the hypnosis literature, but understanding the structure of hypnotic experiencing is yet to come. A new qualitative approach to researching hypnotic experiencing by combining aspects of phenomenological research as in work of Giorgi, Moustakas, and Wertz, familiarity with Husserl's philosophy, and a perceptual psychological research method (cf. work by Combs, Richards, & Richards and by Wasicsko). The author utilized this combined methodology to formulate the theory of Perceptually Oriented Hypnosis. This methodology enables the therapist or professional and patient or client to share benefits from the effects of their hypnotic experiencing in its intersubjective sense. This method can be applied in numerous life situations such as teaching and therapy in addition to the experimental situation.
Nordentoft, Helle Merete; Kappel, Nanna
, leaving both professionals and researchers in ethical and moral dilemmas. In this article, we specifically focus on the methodological challenges of obtaining informed consent from drug users and terminally ill cancer patients in our PhD research. The question is how to illuminate the needs and problems......Ethical guidelines for conducting research are embedded in the Helsinki Declaration of 1964. We contend that these abstract and intentionally universal guidelines need to be appropriated for social and healthcare research, in which purpose and methods often deviate from medical research....... The guidelines appear to be instrumental and over-simplistic representations of the often ‘messy’ realities surrounding the research process that is often guided by relational and local negotiations of ethical solutions. Vulnerable participants, for instance, challenge both professional and research ethics...
Linking African Researchers with Adaptation Policy Spaces. Poor understanding of policy processes tends to reduce the value of research results and the ability of researchers to influence policy. One of the main goals of IDRC's Climate Change Adaptation in Africa (CCAA) program is to build the capacity of researchers to ...
How research can better inform policy and how policy can have a better research base are longstanding issues both in educational research and across public policy generally. Drawing on the work of Hannah Arendt, this article argues that progress in increasing the impact of research can be made through a clearer understanding of the nature of…
Pedro Guedes de Carvalho
The aim of this article is to underline the need for researchers from different disciplines to work together while health policies are not a matter for doctors, hospitals and pharmacies only. We need a wider approach to find new, efficient financial solutions for sustainable solutions of the population's need for health. We here present a "industrial diagram" interpreting health related actions, proposing an interdisciplinary approach, finding where the cost is and suggesting more socially efficient and qualified network solutions, where every disciplinary voice is listened to.
Haas, William H., III; Bradley, Don E.; Longino, Charles F., Jr.; Stoller, Eleanor P.; Serow, William J.
Purpose: We examine the methodological and economic policy implications of three operationalizations of retirement migration. Design and Methods: We compared the traditional age-based definition of retirement migration and two retirement-based definitions, based on degree of labor-force participation and retirement income, by using the 2000 U.S.…
Tuohy, Dympna; Cooney, Adeline; Dowling, Maura; Murphy, Kathy; Sixsmith, Jane
To provide an overview of interpretive phenomenology. Phenomenology is a philosophy and a research approach. As a research approach, it is used extensively in nursing and 'interpretive' phenomenology is becoming increasingly popular. Online and manual searches of relevant books and electronic databases were undertaken. Literature review on papers on phenomenology, research and nursing (written in English) was undertaken. A brief outline of the origins of the concept, and the influence of 'descriptive' phenomenology on the development of interpretive phenomenology is provided. Its aim, origins and philosophical basis, including the core concepts of dasein, fore-structure/pre-understanding, world view existential themes and the hermeneutic circle, are described and the influence of these concepts in phenomenological nursing research is illustrated. This paper will assist readers when deciding whether interpretive phenomenology is appropriate for their research projects. This paper adds to the discussion on interpretive phenomenology and helps inform readers of its use as a research methodology.
Full Text Available The processes of incorporation of young migrants have been studied using a range of new approaches. Among them, sports and physical activity have been claimed as a space for social and cultural integration. To date, most research has been based mainly on ethnographic and grassroots perspectives to better understand the experiences of sports practices of migrants and their families. However, fewer contributions have focused on the political discourse on sports as a field of integration. This article explores methodological challenges arosen when choosing sports policies as a field of study. The main methodological challenges considered include the contested conceptualizations of the target population in sports initiatives and the development of comparative selection criteria for different levels of institutional participants. An indepth analysis of these methodological issues can help to reflect on the ideological constructs of sports as a field of integration and highlight the contribution of the political sociological perspective to existing migration studies.
Full Text Available Introduction:The World Wide Web has become the primary instrument used by tourists in order to search for information. As a result, tourism websites pertaining to destinations need to be appealing and must convey their brand image in an appropriate, effective manner. However, there is no methodology in place to assess the quality and communicative effectiveness of destination websites that is scientifically sound and universally accepted. The development of such a methodology is one of the tasks we have proposed within the framework of the research project: “New strategies for advertising and promoting Spanish tourism brands online” (CSO2008-02627, funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation. Method: The project team have developed an interdisciplinary, all-embracing analysis template combining certain automated analyses with other qualitative and quantitative ones. The template comprises a total of 12 subject areas and 154 indicators prepared on the basis of contributions from prominent experts in each of the fields of work. This article sets out the analysis methodology drawn up and possible applications are given. Results: The primary aim of the project is to provide an assessment methodology that would make it possible to optimise destination brand websites, thus providing a tool to support the work of public tourism destination managers.
Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to evaluate of Imre Lakatos' MSRP (Methodology of Scientific Research Programs. Presenting the methodology which is based on Popperian Refutationism, Lakatos intended to overcome Pluralism (, Relativism and Skepticism and distinguishes the best theory (/program in science. The question is that did the lakatos' secondary change in the form and content of MSRP -against some historical facts and criticisms- make some serious deficiencies in his methodology? The answer to this question is positive. One of Lakatos' changes in MSRP is to resort to a new concept of "rationality". Presenting a logical analysis, the paper shows that this change causes MSRP to be unable to distinguish the best program among others. Furthermore he gives a new definition of the term 'methodology'. This definition, in its turn, makes MSRP main task to be inactive.Showing the irreparable harms Lakatos' changes produce in MSRP, the paper shows that these changes not only cannot get rid of the deficiencies therein, but it is also unable to meet lakatos' original purpose for MSRP.
Bak Jørgensen, Martin
Danish integration and immigration policies are among the most restrictive of their kind in Western Europe. More than in many other countries, integration is a highly contested policy domain and a salient policy issue. It is also one of the policy domains most subject to change over the last two ...
Froggatt, Katherine; Hockley, Jo
Action research is beginning to be utilized within palliative care research to address questions concerned with practice and organizational change. An understanding of appropriate evaluation practices is required in order to ensure that high-quality action research is conducted. The aim of this paper is to present an account of participatory action research and illustrate the way in which evaluation approaches are integrated within this methodology. Participatory action research will be described identifying its origins, principles and its relationship with evaluation frameworks. The key features of the evaluation process in regard to participatory research are outlined. Two studies are presented which illustrate the integration of evaluation within a participatory action research framework. The first approach uses a before-after summative evaluation approach in a study undertaken to develop palliative care practice within a UK nursing home context. The evaluation focused upon the impact of the intervention. The second study utilized similar methods and addressed the process of the action research using the Äldreväst Sjuhärad (ÄVS) model to evaluate participation in a peer education programme for advance care planning amongst older adults. These examples of evaluation within action research illustrate how diverse methods can be used. The use of a specific participatory evaluation model ensures the process reflects the underlying participatory principle of action research. Evaluation processes are integral to action research approaches. The specific evaluative methods adopted will reflect the nature and focus of the evaluation being undertaken.
Annette Boaz; Siobhan Fitzpatrick; Ben Shaw
Understanding the impact of research on policy is a vital, and often overlooked, element of policy-making. A systematic literature review was conducted to examine methods for evaluating the impact of research on policy outcomes. The review focused in particular on strategic policy levels (rather than implementation) and waste, environment and pollution policy. The review draws on an international literature, although it is limited to English language publications. The findings identify the di...
... Small Business Innovation Research Program Policy Directive; Small Business Technology Transfer Program Policy Directive; Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small Business Technology... ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Chapter I RIN 3245-AF84 Small Business Innovation Research Program Policy Directive AGENCY...
Sound research, policy influence. TTI is a multi-funder program dedicated to strengthening independent policy research institutions, or think tanks, in developing countries. The program aims to enhance their ability to provide sound research that informs and influences policy. This second TTI phase (2014?2019) will fund 43 ...
CPR is an independent, non-partisan research institute focused on improving policy-making and management, and promoting national development in India. CPR's research covers ... For CPR, this project will help enhance its research quality, organizational performance, and policy engagement. Policy influence in India
CPR is an independent, non-partisan research institute focused on improving policy-making and management, and promoting national development in India. CPR's research covers ... For CPR, this project will help enhance its research quality, organizational performance, and policy engagement. Policy influence in India
Dr Indrajit Goswami
Full Text Available The present article aims to critically observe and interpret the methodological deficiencies as found in randomly selected 14 doctoral theses submitted to two different universities in India. Despite their serious deviation from the expected methodological standards, all those theses were accepted and approved by the universities and scholars concerned conferred with PhD degrees. Undoubtedly, those theses kept in the reference sections at the respective university libraries would potentially misguide and mislead the future researchers. Some of the common technical deficiencies, as have been noticed, include (1 absence of careful thoughts in framing research titles, (ii biased method of data collection, (ii absence of logical explanation in favour of sample size and sample selection process, (iii designing and execution of instrument for data collection, (iv theory formulation in terms of framing of objectives, hypotheses and operational definitions etc. The article attempts to present the critical observations on case-to-case basis so that their conceptual, instrumental and procedural deficiencies and deviations are easily understood by the academicians, researchers and students. The content of this article is divided in to three broad sections. The first section deals with an introduction to quantitative and qualitative research methods and their advantages and limitations. The next section deals with the review of the selected theses followed by conclusion and suggested remedial measures. The objective of this article is purely academic and its scope is limited to enhancement of quality of future research studies in the domains and related fields.
In 1989, the Space Studies Board created the Task Group on Priorities in Space Research to determine whether scientists should take a role in recommending priorities for long-term space research initiatives and, if so, to analyze the priority-setting problem in this context and develop a method by which such priorities could be established. After answering the first question in the affirmative in a previous report, the task group set out to accomplish the second task. The basic assumption in developing a priority-setting process is that a reasoned and structured approach for ordering competing initiatives will yield better results than other ways of proceeding. The task group proceeded from the principle that the central criterion for evaluating a research initiative must be its scientific merit -- the value of the initiative to the proposing discipline and to science generally. The group developed a two-stage methodology for priority setting and constructed a procedure and format to support the methodology. The first of two instruments developed was a standard format for structuring proposals for space research initiatives. The second instrument was a formal, semiquantitative appraisal procedure for evaluating competing proposals. This report makes available complete templates for the methodology, including the advocacy statement and evaluation forms, as well as an 11-step schema for a priority-setting process. From the beginning of its work, the task group was mindful that the issue of priority setting increasingly pervades all of federally supported science and that its work would have implications extending beyond space research. Thus, although the present report makes no recommendations for action by NASA or other government agencies, it provides the results of the task group's work for the use of others who may study priority-setting procedures or take up the challenge of implementing them in the future.
Full Text Available This study examines the application of mixed-method and participatory approaches to conservation and development research. Both approaches were applied in a research project on the relationship between ecosystem governance and the wellbeing of local communities adjacent to a protected area in Laos. By encouraging four of the involved field researchers to reflect upon and expose their practical approaches as scientific experts (in terms of methodologies, objectives, reliability of results and research influence, this article aims to improve our learning from research practice and to promote reflexivity in research. The reflexive study presented here emphasizes the social and political context or real world situation against which research outputs can and should be evaluated, and retrospectively sheds light on the barriers to reach research objectives. In essence, the article addresses the relation between science and policy, and underlines the political undercurrent of conservation and development research in facilitating institutional change. The article outlines the very role of researchers in developing conservation policies, and provides a foundation for institutions and individual researchers to promote critical and constructive self-reflections in scientific practices.
Operations Research emerged as a quantitative approach to problem-solving in World War II. Its founders, who were physicists, mathematicians, and engineers, quickly found peace-time uses for this new field. Moreover, we can say that Operations Research (OR) was born in the same incubator as computer science, and through the years, it has spawned many new disciplines, including systems engineering, health care management, and transportation science. Fundamentally, Operations Research crosses discipline domains to seek solutions on a range of problems and benefits diverse disciplines from finance to bioengineering. Many disciplines routinely use OR methods. Many scientific researchers, engineers, and others will find the methodological presentations in this book useful and helpful in their problem-solving efforts. OR’s strengths are modeling, analysis, and algorithm design. It provides a quantitative foundation for a broad spectrum of problems, from economics to medicine, from environmental control to sports,...
Enrique Uribe-Jongbloed PhD
Full Text Available This article presents a methodological construction for research on small groups of minority media producers, especially those who are involved in multilingual settings. The set of qualitative tools are explained and their advantages and disadvantages explored, based on the literature on the subject. Then, the debate is contrasted with the practical experience of its application with minority language producers, indigenous and ethnic radio broadcasters in Colombia and audiovisual producers in Wales. The reflection upon the results leads to a final discussion that brings the adjustments required to increase the advantages and diminish the disadvantages of the proposed combined three-step methodology of an interview to the double (ITTD, a day of participant observation, and a final lengthier semi-structured interview.
Goldberg, Simon B; Tucker, Raymond P; Greene, Preston A; Simpson, Tracy L; Kearney, David J; Davidson, Richard J
Despite an exponential growth in research on mindfulness-based interventions, the body of scientific evidence supporting these treatments has been criticized for being of poor methodological quality. The current systematic review examined the extent to which mindfulness research demonstrated increased rigor over the past 16 years regarding six methodological features that have been highlighted as areas for improvement. These feature included using active control conditions, larger sample sizes, longer follow-up assessment, treatment fidelity assessment, and reporting of instructor training and intent-to-treat (ITT) analyses. We searched PubMed, PsychInfo, Scopus, and Web of Science in addition to a publically available repository of mindfulness studies. Randomized clinical trials of mindfulness-based interventions for samples with a clinical disorder or elevated symptoms of a clinical disorder listed on the American Psychological Association's list of disorders with recognized evidence-based treatment. Independent raters screened 9,067 titles and abstracts, with 303 full text reviews. Of these, 171 were included, representing 142 non-overlapping samples. Across the 142 studies published between 2000 and 2016, there was no evidence for increases in any study quality indicator, although changes were generally in the direction of improved quality. When restricting the sample to those conducted in Europe and North America (continents with the longest history of scientific research in this area), an increase in reporting of ITT analyses was found. When excluding an early, high-quality study, improvements were seen in sample size, treatment fidelity assessment, and reporting of ITT analyses. Taken together, the findings suggest modest adoption of the recommendations for methodological improvement voiced repeatedly in the literature. Possible explanations for this and implications for interpreting this body of research and conducting future studies are discussed.
Simon B Goldberg
Full Text Available Despite an exponential growth in research on mindfulness-based interventions, the body of scientific evidence supporting these treatments has been criticized for being of poor methodological quality.The current systematic review examined the extent to which mindfulness research demonstrated increased rigor over the past 16 years regarding six methodological features that have been highlighted as areas for improvement. These feature included using active control conditions, larger sample sizes, longer follow-up assessment, treatment fidelity assessment, and reporting of instructor training and intent-to-treat (ITT analyses.We searched PubMed, PsychInfo, Scopus, and Web of Science in addition to a publically available repository of mindfulness studies.Randomized clinical trials of mindfulness-based interventions for samples with a clinical disorder or elevated symptoms of a clinical disorder listed on the American Psychological Association's list of disorders with recognized evidence-based treatment.Independent raters screened 9,067 titles and abstracts, with 303 full text reviews. Of these, 171 were included, representing 142 non-overlapping samples.Across the 142 studies published between 2000 and 2016, there was no evidence for increases in any study quality indicator, although changes were generally in the direction of improved quality. When restricting the sample to those conducted in Europe and North America (continents with the longest history of scientific research in this area, an increase in reporting of ITT analyses was found. When excluding an early, high-quality study, improvements were seen in sample size, treatment fidelity assessment, and reporting of ITT analyses.Taken together, the findings suggest modest adoption of the recommendations for methodological improvement voiced repeatedly in the literature. Possible explanations for this and implications for interpreting this body of research and conducting future studies are
Vladimir I. Zagvyazinsky
Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is the continuation of a cycle of the methodological articles, called to help work of young researchers.The general dissatisfaction with quality and results of research work in an education sphere and pedagogics has been largely caused not only insufficient level of methodological culture of competitors of scientific degrees and researchers-experts, but also their inability to choose a work technology of procedure of research that will be adequate to the purposes, problems and a plan of it. The present article is also devoted to this problem.Methods. The methods of the analysis, synthesis, idealisation, generalisation of author’s experience, a concrete definition and modelling are used.Results and scientific novelty. The general technology of scientific search in an education sphere is presented; the technology is developed on the basis of long-term experience of the Tyumen scientific and pedagogical school, and justified in practice. The author doesn’t take into consideration the rigid technology of algorithmic type which is hardly useful in works of creative character; but in the present case – frame technology that defines the expedient organisation, sequence of stages of work and its corresponding maintenance. The following technology components are described: self-determination of the researcher or research group on the basis of creation and the statement of the developed project of all procedures of search; statement of questions on initial allocation of the problem conducting ideas, a plan-way of its realisation; project performance, its ascertaining and a reformative part, research procedures (the basic stage; summarising, generalisation of the research performed, a writing of the text of report documents, preparation of total publications. Examples of typical errors of the young scientists who do not own the technology of scientific activity are given.Practical significance. Proposed recommendations stated
Educational R & D in Sweden is to a large extent policy-oriented. It has been an integrated part of the Swedish educational reform system and has brought about a dialogue between politicians, administrators and researchers. Several circumstances have contributed to the `Swedish model'. One is the system with government-appointed committees in which researchers often play an active part. Another is that the Swedish educational system is highly centralized, with the National Board of Education (NBE) as the central authority, responsible for primary, secondary and adult education. A third — and a crucial one — is that, since 1962, the NBE has had increasing funds for educational R & D at its disposal. These funds account for the main part of the economic resources for R & D, along with resources allocated to research appointments at research departments of universities. Educational R & D, conducted primarily within the NBE funds, has recently been evaluated by a government-appointed committee. In its evaluations of the impact of educational R & D, the committee distinguished between the effects of R & D and the effect correlates. It concluded that the impact of R & D is more indirect than direct, more long-term than immediate. The effects are also more easily recognized at levels above the actual school situation. This finding could be interpreted as a consequence of the policy-orientation of educational R & D, which at the same time shows the difficulties in reaching the `school level' with research and development results. There are two general trends in Sweden, which will influence both research planning and research use. First, there is a trend towards the decentralization of decision-making and responsibility for the educational system. Secondly, there is a trend towards the `sectionalization' of the R & D system as a whole. This sectionalization will mean that research will to a great extent be planned to meet needs from different parts of society — labour
Sleddens, Ester F. C.; Berge, Jerica; Connell, Lauren; Govig, Bert; Hennessy, Erin; Liggett, Leanne; Mallan, Kimberley; Santa Maria, Diane; Odoms-Young, Angela; St. George, Sara M.
Abstract Researchers over the last decade have documented the association between general parenting style and numerous factors related to childhood obesity (e.g., children's eating behaviors, physical activity, and weight status). Many recent childhood obesity prevention programs are family focused and designed to modify parenting behaviors thought to contribute to childhood obesity risk. This article presents a brief consideration of conceptual, methodological, and translational issues that can inform future research on the role of parenting in childhood obesity. They include: (1) General versus domain specific parenting styles and practices; (2) the role of ethnicity and culture; (3) assessing bidirectional influences; (4) broadening assessments beyond the immediate family; (5) novel approaches to parenting measurement; and (6) designing effective interventions. Numerous directions for future research are offered. PMID:23944927
Parker, P. A.; Johnson, R. T.; Montgomery, D. C.
Development of advanced algorithms for simulating engine flow paths requires the integration of fundamental experiments with the validation of enhanced mathematical models. In this paper, we provide an overview of statistical methods to strategically and efficiently conduct experiments and computational model refinement. Moreover, the integration of experimental and computational research efforts is emphasized. With a statistical engineering perspective, scientific and engineering expertise is combined with statistical sciences to gain deeper insights into experimental phenomenon and code development performance; supporting the overall research objectives. The particular statistical methods discussed are design of experiments, response surface methodology, and uncertainty analysis and planning. Their application is illustrated with a coaxial free jet experiment and a turbulence model refinement investigation. Our goal is to provide an overview, focusing on concepts rather than practice, to demonstrate the benefits of using statistical methods in research and development, thereby encouraging their broader and more systematic application.
Irina A. Shmeleva
Full Text Available The paper examines the methodological principles of the psychological study of ecological consciousness as one of the urgent interdisciplinary problems of XX–XXI century, caused by the aggravation of global ecological problems and the need for the realization of the “sustainable development”ideas. Ecological consciousness is considered as multilayered, dynamic, reflexive element of human consciousness, incorporating multivariate, holistic aspects of interaction of the human being as the H.S. and the Humanity representative with the environment and the Planet. The possibility of the more active introduction of Russian psychology in the process is argued for in connection with the existing conceptual approaches, which compose the methodological basis for ecological consciousness research. Among these approaches are considered: the principles of holistic study of the human being by B. Ananyev, the methodology of system psychological description by V. Gansen and G. Sukhodolsky, the idea of reflexivity of consciousness by S. Rubinstein, the humanitarian- ecological imperative of the development of consciousness by V. Zinchenko, the theory of relations by V. Myasishev, consideration of ecological consciousness as relation to nature by S. Deryabo and V. Yasvin, theories of consciousness by V. Petrenko, V. Allakhverdov and other Russian psychologists. The value component of ecological consciousness is distinguished as the most significant. The possibility of applying the Values’ theory of the by S. Schwartz for studying the ecological values is discussed along with the prognostic potential of the universalism value.
Galina Valentinovna Leonidova
Full Text Available The article considers the theoretical and methodological framework for the research into the population’s intellectual potential. The presented materials show that this category is the subject of interdisciplinary studies, including philosophy, psychology, sociology, pedagogics, economics. One of the important conclusions drawn from the analysis of the essence of intellectual potential is the conclusion that the actual level of intelligence is the result of its development. It means that certain efforts on the part of such social institutions like family, education, government, promote not only the formation of smart people, but also the implementation of their potential intellectual capabilities in the production, creation of cultural values, society management, education, etc. when using this approach, the intellect ceases to be just a research object of related disciplines, but it acquires social dimension and becomes a socio-economic category. The basic theories, concepts and approaches, used in its study, were analyzed. The theory of human capital was given a most thorough consideration, because, according to this theory, the income of a person is earned by knowledge, abilities and skills, i.e. the essence of intellectual properties of an individual. The article provides the author’s definition of the intellectual potential of the population, which brings to the fore the following elements necessary for the understanding of this category: relation to socioeconomic development, factors in the formation of the characteristic, including the need for training (reproduction of intelligent people, the psychological aspect (abilities, the carriers of intellectual potential are not ignored, because it is an attribute of the population. The article identifies methodological approaches to the estimation of the population’s intellectual potential, describes the applied procedures and research methods. The authors propose methodological
Álvaro Morcillo Espina
Full Text Available The sociological interpretation of immigration policyin Spain has gone through several phases as the analysis of political discourses or socio-legal analysis. These interpretation shave not fi nished answering some paradoxes that are observed at the different levels of government: European Union, state and regional level. The debate transnationalism-methodological nationalism provides a conceptual framework of «Weberian ideal types» that allows us a new interpretation of immigration policies in Spain getting encompass and surpass previous interpretations.This theoretical framework, barely used for the Spanish context, sheds light on the power relations between State and the Marketand its influence in shaping immigration policy.
O'Toole, Laurence J.
While policy implementation no longer frames the core question of public management and public policy, some scholars have debated appropriate steps for revitalization. And the practical world stands just as much in need now of valid knowledge about policy implementation as ever. Where has all the
Rhetorical analysis, an approach to critical discourse analysis, is presented as a useful method for critical policy analysis and its effort to understand the role policies play in perpetuating inequality. A rhetorical analysis of Character "Matters!", the character education policy of a school board in Ontario, Canada, provides an…
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RIN 3244-AF61 Small Business Innovation Research Program Policy.... SUMMARY: This document announces a final amendment to the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR... Research Program To: The Directors, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program Subject: Final...
Blewett, Lynn A; Call, Kathleen Thiede; Turner, Joanna; Hest, Robert
Rich federal data resources provide essential data inputs for monitoring the health and health care of the US population and are essential for conducting health services policy research. The six household surveys we document in this article cover a broad array of health topics, including health insurance coverage (American Community Survey, Current Population Survey), health conditions and behaviors (National Health Interview Survey, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System), health care utilization and spending (Medical Expenditure Panel Survey), and longitudinal data on public program participation (SIPP). New federal activities are linking federal surveys with administrative data to reduce duplication and response burden. In the private sector, vendors are aggregating data from medical records and claims to enhance our understanding of treatment, quality, and outcomes of medical care. Federal agencies must continue to innovate to meet the continuous challenges of scarce resources, pressures for more granular data, and new multimode data collection methodologies.
Jia Li Huang
Full Text Available Since the 1990s, many education researchers and policy makers worldwide have reviewed education research to attempt to provide strategies to improve the quality of such research in their countries. Taiwan’s government has launched policies and funded support to set the benchmark for Taiwan’s leading universities in international academic competition. The external environment of global competition based on research policy influences the ecosystem of social science research production. To assure the quality of education policy, peer review from within the education community is one approach to supplementing the government’s governance, including the establishment of research institutes, promotion, rewards, and research value. This study tracked the mode of academic research and provides an overview of the status of academic education research in Taiwan. Because education research is part of the humanities and social sciences fields, this study identified the challenges in educational research by examining the trend of social science research and by analyzing research organizations, policy, and the evaluation of research performance. Due to the environment of education research in Taiwan is not friendly to education researcher to accumulate papers in SSCI or international journal, additional concerns entail how education research communities can develop and agree on its quality.
of Charles Dickens' Oliver Twist, a social representation of the other in Vic- torian England. In fact, as Wehbi, Elin & El-Lahib (2010) argue, despite the international pro- motion of the rights-based agenda, the affected groups being supported by international development discourse tend to be absent or represented with ...
Smith, Juliana; Small, Rosalie
In this paper the authors share their insights on whether it is necessary to articulate a research methodology when reporting on theoretical research. Initially the authors, one being a supervisor and the other, a PhD student and a colleague, were confronted with the question during supervision and writing of a thesis on theoretical research.…
This article examines the ethical dilemmas that are specific to qualitative research methodology. These dilemmas concern the issues of withdrawal from the study, anonymity and confidentiality, which are discussed. Each aspect examines how it was dealt with using the researcher's reflections. The research was positioned within an interpretive…
Jones, Janice K.; Batorowicz, Beata; Ladislas Derr, Robert; Peters, Sarah
In an era of globalisation, positivist research methodologies and voices are privileged and funded over those of qualitative researchers. This has led to narrowing beliefs about what constitutes knowledge, and about the ways in which knowledge is constructed and evaluated, impacting upon the conduct, funding and reporting of arts research, and…
Roberto, Christina A; Brownell, Kelly D
Scientific research often fails to have relevance and impact because scientists do not engage policy makers and influencers in the process of identifying information needs and generating high priority questions. To address this scholarship-policy gap, we have developed a model of Strategic Science. This research approach involves working with policy makers and influencers to craft research questions that will answer important and timely policy-related questions. The goal is to create tighter links between research and policy and ensure findings are communicated efficiently to change agents best positioned to apply the research to policy debates. In this article, we lay out a model for Strategic Science and describe how this approach may help advance policy research and action for eating disorders. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lawrence, Kitty; Rieder, Anita
Experience and investigative studies have shown that inequalities still exist between the sexes as well as in how public health policies and strategies approach the needs of the sexes. Sufficient attention has not been given to gender in public health research. Gender-based differences and similarities need to be promoted, and more structured guidelines are needed to build gender into public health research models. The aim of this review was to investigate and discuss public health research and to answer several related questions on gender biases, ethics and methodologies, and the establishment of guidelines. Using the search terms public health research and gender , or ethics , gender , and public health, a literature search was conducted predominately with, but not limited to, the PubMed database. English- or German-language articles were identified that examined the current status of gender in public health research as well as any relevant ethical guidelines. A review of the current literature showed that much work has been undertaken to promote the inclusion of gender in health research. However, deficiencies in the extent of gender-oriented research have been found in a number of key areas, including ethics committees and public health research methodology. Women were found to be underrepresented in ethics committees, which lack clear guidance, particularly in the European Union, to ensure the inclusion of gender issues in public health research. Data are often not sex disaggregated, and information on gender and social circumstances are frequently lacking. Furthermore, some methodologies, such as those used in the field of occupational health, underestimate men's or women's burden of disease. Recommendations include establishing guidelines for researchers on how to incorporate gender in health research, ensuring that the composition of ethics committees is more representative of society, and recommending that data collection systems or bodies ensure that data
Azevedo, Rosemeiry Capriata de Souza; Ramos, Flavia Regina Souza
This article is based on the historical contextualization about the development of research in nursing, presents the categories/lines of interest that support the human knowledge applied in the Doctorate Thesis in Nursing in Brazil, points out the archeological and genealogical methods proposed by Michel Foucault, and their possibility to make more difficult the day-to-day tasks of the nursing profession Whether in Institutions, Public Policies, Health Reform, and Vocational Training, in the attempt to understand which strategies, challenges, knowledge base, and practices have influenced the building of the subjects.
Black, Stephen; Yasukawa, Keiko
This paper analyses research that has impacted on Australia's most recent national policy document on adult literacy and numeracy, the National Foundation Skills Strategy (NFSS). The paper draws in part on Lingard's 2013 paper, "The impact of research on education policy in an era of evidence-based policy", in which he outlines the…
Davidson, Richard J; Kaszniak, Alfred W
Both basic science and clinical research on mindfulness, meditation, and related constructs have dramatically increased in recent years. However, interpretation of these research results has been challenging. The present article addresses unique conceptual and methodological problems posed by research in this area. Included among the key topics is the role of first-person experience and how it can be best studied, the challenges posed by intervention research designs in which true double-blinding is not possible, the nature of control and comparison conditions for research that includes mindfulness or other meditation-based interventions, issues in the adequate description of mindfulness and related trainings and interventions, the question of how mindfulness can be measured, questions regarding what can and cannot be inferred from self-report measures, and considerations regarding the structure of study design and data analyses. Most of these topics are germane to both basic and clinical research studies and have important bearing on the future scientific understanding of mindfulness and meditation. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Pedro S. A. Wolf
Full Text Available Animal behaviorists have made extensive use of GPS technology since 1991. In contrast, psychological research has made little use of the technology, even though the technology is relatively inexpensive, familiar, and widespread. Hence, its potential for pure and applied psychological research remains untapped. We describe three methods psychologists could apply to individual differences research, clinical research, or spatial use research. In the context of individual differences research, GPS technology permits us to test hypotheses predicting specific relations among patterns of spatial use and individual differences variables. In a clinical context, GPS technology provides outcome measures that may relate to the outcome of interventions designed to treat psychological disorders that, for example, may leave a person homebound (e.g. Agoraphobia, PTSD, TBI. Finally, GPS technology provides natural measures of spatial use. We, for example, used GPS technology to quantify traffic flow and exhibit use at the Arizona Sonora Desert Museum. Interested parties could easily extend this methodology some aspects of urban planning or business usage.DOI: 10.2458/azu_jmmss.v1i1.74
Full Text Available Highlighting the importance of singularity in opposition to a certain totalitarian and omnipotent conception of the universal, the article proposes an approach to the lacanian concept of object little a as articulator of a proper psychoanalytic research methodology. Following the several teachings of method pronounced by Lacan (1962-63/2005 in Anxiety: The Seminar of Jacques Lacan, Book X – precious moment for object little a assumption – we intend to delineate how this concept (that in its core emphasizes the character of non-representability can be the mediator of other objects, in order to provide a modus operandi for the continuous task of finding provisional and singularized representations for the lack set by the irrepresentable of castration, offering methodological possibilities for theoretical and clinical research, in order to situate the cause of desire function of this object as central to knowledge.
Due to the lackness of a research accounting methodology book (accounting research methodology) causing difficulties for college students to understand the steps of research in accounting, so that's the textbook is needed to completing Accounting Research Methodology book that has been exist and aimed to guide students for proposal composing or accounting research report so that it is easier to study by students.This textbook contains of accounting research methodology definition, accounting ...
The project team will set up sub-regional hubs that will: -stimulate research that offers solutions to young people's problems; -create an enabling environment for young policy-oriented researchers to develop and share their research; -provide training and mentorship for young researchers; and -promote informed policies ...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Market research policy... COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING MARKET RESEARCH 810.001 Market research policy. When conducting market research, VA contracting teams shall use the VIP database, at http://www.VetBiz.gov, in addition to other...
The project team will set up sub-regional hubs that will: -stimulate research that offers solutions to young people's problems; -create an enabling environment for young policy-oriented researchers to develop and share their research; -provide training and mentorship for young researchers; and -promote informed policies ...
Laessoe, Jeppe; Feinstein, Noah Weeth; Blum, Nicole
This essay examines the relationship between research and policy and, more specifically, how researchers might relate to policy work. Given the current international policy focus on climate change, green growth and sustainability in general, it argues for strengthening and widening policy research in the areas of Environmental Education (EE),…
Miles, R. F., Jr.
In research and development projects, a commonly occurring management decision is concerned with the optimum allocation of resources to achieve the project goals. Because of resource constraints, management has to make a decision regarding the set of proposed systems or tasks which should be undertaken. SIMRAND (Simulation of Research and Development Projects) is a methodology which was developed for aiding management in this decision. Attention is given to a problem description, aspects of model formulation, the reduction phase of the model solution, the simulation phase, and the evaluation phase. The implementation of the considered approach is illustrated with the aid of an example which involves a simplified network of the type used to determine the price of silicon solar cells.
Licker, R.; Ekwurzel, B.; Goldman, G. T.; DeLonge, M. S.
Many scientists conduct research with direct policy relevance, whether it be producing sea-level projections that are taken-up by local decision-makers, or developing new agricultural technologies. All scientists are affected by policies made by their respective local, regional, and federal governments. For example, budgets affect the grant resources available to conduct research and policies on visas influence the accessibility of new positions for foreign scientists. As a result, many scientists would like to engage with the policy domain, and either bring their science to bear on new policies that are in the works (science-for-policy) or inform policies on the scientific research enterprise (policy-for-science). Some scientists prefer to engage and be neutral to the policy outcome, serving primarily as an information resource. Many may choose to also advocate for a particular outcome based on their expertise and experience. Research shows that policy decisions benefit greatly from the input of scientific experts. We explore the spectrum between informing policies in a "non-prescriptive" manner to working on policies in an advocacy space. We highlight tips for successful engagement along this spectrum. Finally, we review current science-for-policy and policy-for-science issues of relevance to the geophysical sciences.
Full Text Available The article examines the essence, main principles and objectives of the management policy at the enterprise. Author investigates in the position of management accounting in the enterprise management and structures the levels of management of the economic entity. A conceptual framework of management accounting has been developed in the paper, which includes the purpose, content, methods and results of the process of management accounting. On the example of the chemical industry, the international and domestic experience in the development and implementation of management policy within the structure of industrial enterprises were analyzed, as well as the positive and negative aspects of accounting practices were highlighted. Based on the analysis of foreign experience and taking into account the specificity of economic development of Ukraine, the author elaborates on the areas for the methodological approaches to the development of management policy of Ukrainian companies to be improved.
The relationship between research and health policy is discussed from a policy process perspective, describing communication problems in the course of policy formulation, implementation and evaluation. Policy process is often expected by researchers to be rational, having logical sequence of steps and the objective evaluation of alternatives based on scientific knowledge. In fact, policies are often formulated without clear problem identification or based on wrong assumption. The timing of research and policy-making differs. Policy-makers need to respond quickly. Evaluations may be regarded by politicians as embarrassing if they point to a need for significant change. It is not satisfactory to consider only research and policy-making: their relationship is influenced by the media, different interest groups and by the general public. Health policy formulation is embedded in the general policy environment of particular societies. Some countries have a long tradition of consensus-building, while in others health reforms have been formulated and introduced in a centralized way. Traditional bio-medical thinking influences health policy-makers. The importance of social and political acceptability tends to be overlooked. The paper emphasizes that we are experiencing an era of scarcity of resources and growing tension concerning allocation decisions. Existing institutions provide insufficient incentives for policy-makers and researchers to promote public dialogue about such issues. The paper concludes that there is a need for new approaches to policy development and implementation, new structures in policy-making, changes in research financing and co-operation between disciplines and new structures for public participation in policy-making. Research should facilitate more open and democratic dialogue about policy options and the consequences of alternative choices.
Glied, Sherry A; Miller, Erin A
Two prior studies, conducted in 1966 and in 1979, examined the role of economic research in health policy development. Both concluded that health economics had not been an important contributor to policy. Passage of the Affordable Care Act offers an opportunity to reassess this question. We find that the evolution of health economics research has given it an increasingly important role in policy. Research in the field has followed three related paths over the past century-institutionalist research that described problems; theoretical research, which proposed relationships that might extend beyond existing institutions; and empirical assessments of structural parameters identified in the theoretical research. These three strands operating in concert allowed economic research to be used to predict the fiscal and coverage consequences of alternative policy paths. This ability made economic research a powerful policy force. Key conclusions of health economics research are clearly evident in the Affordable Care Act. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available This paper is presented as a tribute to prof. Richard Mattessich. It is written “through the eyes” of a researcher who has worked closely with him over a period of 42 years, starting attending his courses of “Income Determination Theory” and “Research Methodology” at the University of British Columbia in 1975. Among his huge scientific research and publications, I intend to underline these three major contributions: (i Accounting metrics and other mathematical instruments which anticipated computer spreadsheet by 30 years; (ii. The preparation of accountants for information economics by means of analytical methods; and (iii The proposition of the “onion model of reality” to distinguish different Kind of reality. Este trabajo se presenta como un tributo al profesor Richard Mattessich. Está escrito “con los ojos” de un investigador que ha trabajado estrechamente con él durante un período de 42 años, comenzando a asistir a sus cursos de " Income Determination Theory" y "Research Methodology" en la Universidad de British Columbia en 1975. Entre su investigación y publicaciones, más importantes pretendo subrayar estas tres contribuciones principales: (i Accounting metrics and other mathematical instruments which anticipated computer spreadsheet by 30 years; (ii The preparation of accountants for information economics by means of analytical methods; y (iii The proposition of the “onion model of reality” to distinguish different Kind of reality.
Shah Jahan Miah
Full Text Available The knowledge of design science research (DSR can have applications for improving expert systems (ES development research. Although significant progress of utilising DSR has been observed in particular information systems design – such as decision support systems (DSS studies – only rare attempts can be found in the ES design literature. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the use of DSR for ES design. First, we explore the ES development literature to reveal the presence of DSR as a research methodology. For this, we select relevant literature criteria and apply a qualitative content analysis in order to generate themes inductively to match the DSR components. Second, utilising the findings of the comparison, we determine a new DSR approach for designing a specific ES that is guided by another result – the findings of a content analysis of examination scripts in Mathematics. The specific ES artefact for a case demonstration is designed for addressing the requirement of a ‘wicked’ problem in that the key purpose is to assist human assessors when evaluating multi-step question (MSQ solutions. It is anticipated that the proposed design knowledge, in terms of both problem class and functions of ES artefacts, will help ES designers and researchers to address similar issues for designing information system solutions.
James, Jack E
Human cognitive performance is widely perceived to be enhanced by caffeine at usual dietary doses. However, the evidence for and against this belief continues to be vigorously contested. Controversy has centred on caffeine withdrawal and withdrawal reversal as potential sources of experimental confounding. In response, some researchers have enlisted "caffeine-naïve" experimental participants (persons alleged to consume little or no caffeine) assuming that they are not subject to withdrawal. This mini-review examines relevant research to illustrate general methodological challenges that have been the cause of enduring confusion in caffeine research. At issue are the processes of caffeine withdrawal and withdrawal reversal, the definition of caffeine-naïve, the population representativeness of participants deemed to be caffeine-naïve, and confounding due to caffeine tolerance. Attention to these processes is necessary if premature conclusions are to be avoided, and if caffeine's complex effects and the mechanisms responsible for those effects are to be illuminated. Strategies are described for future caffeine research aimed at minimising confounding from withdrawal and withdrawal reversal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cash, Philip; Hicks, Ben; Culley, Steve
Central to improving and maintaining high levels of performance in emerging ethnographic design research is a fundamental requirement to address some of the problems associated with the subject. In particular seven core issues are identified and include the complexity of test development, variabi......Central to improving and maintaining high levels of performance in emerging ethnographic design research is a fundamental requirement to address some of the problems associated with the subject. In particular seven core issues are identified and include the complexity of test development......, variability of methods, resource intensiveness, subjectivity, comparability, common metrics and industrial acceptance. To address these problems this paper describes a structured methodological approach in which three main areas are proposed, the modularisation of the research process, the standardisation...... of the dataset and the stratification of the research context. The paper then examines the fundamental requirements of this scheme and how these relate to a Design Observatory approach. Following this, the proposed solution is related back to the initial problem set and potential issues are discussed. Finally...
Paul, Arthur S.; Gill, Tepper L.; Maclin, Arlene P.
A study of NASA's Systems Management Policy (SMP) concluded that the primary methodology being used by the Mission Operations and Data Systems Directorate and its subordinate, the Networks Division, is very effective. Still some unmet needs were identified. This study involved evaluating methodologies, tools, and techniques with the potential for resolving the previously identified deficiencies. Six preselected methodologies being used by other organizations with similar development problems were studied. The study revealed a wide range of significant differences in structure. Each system had some strengths but none will satisfy all of the needs of the Networks Division. Areas for improvement of the methodology being used by the Networks Division are listed with recommendations for specific action.
There are very few policy research organizations in South Asia outside India. Those that exist are fragile due to little demand for policy research, limited if no funding from local sources, and an often insecure political climate. This grant will strengthen the ability of the seven selected research institutions in Bangladesh, Nepal ...
Ball, Stephen J.
This paper identifies some new research issues and sketches out some new research questions for education policy and leadership researchers as a response to ongoing changes in the landscape of English education policy. Three interrelated issues are considered: leadership, values and interests, and ownership. It argues for the need to ask new…
This paper discusses the significance of international and transnational developments for education policy research, with a focus on the European Union. The rise of policy projects at the EU level since 2000, has altered the relationships between the state, EU institutions and education policy, in terms of the definition of values, purposes, and…
Diem, Sarah; Young, Michelle D.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the use of critical policy analysis (CPA) in the fields of educational leadership and policy. In addition to exploring how CPA compares to traditional research approaches in educational leadership and policy, the authors consider the influence of long-established ways of knowing, why scholars choose…
Dumon, Wilfried; Aldous, Joan
Presents how and why programs embodying family policy in Western Europe and the United States differ. By indicating current changes in these programs and how political decisions affect them, fruitful areas for family policy research are suggested. Family policy meeting needs of pragmatically defined parent-child units will be most successful.…
This report contains information concerning the telecommunications policy, research and development of the following countries: (1) Australia, (2) Argentina, (3) Madagascar, (4) South Africa, (5) Zaire, (6...
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to reveal and discuss the methodological issues related to online qualitative consumer behavior research. A number of methodological issues are examined, related with the online qualitative research on consumer in-store emotional experience implemented by the authors. It is concluded that the Internet is becoming an increasingly attractive environment for consumer behavior research. A large part of scholars use the Internet as a medium for data collection and analysis. At the same time, researchers study the Internet as a source of information about consumer preferences, their virtual communities, prevailing relationships, traditions and attitudes. The Internet is analyzed as a phenomenon in itself, too. In this article, the Internet is analyzed as a tool for communicating with research participants, and collecting, storing and analyzing data. In general, qualitative inquiry is characterized by contextual and naturalistic approach to the study of objects and processes. Therefore, decision to carry out qualitative study in virtual environment must take additional strategic and tactical solutions. Most often, researchers need to decide about the mode of communication that solves time management, spontaneity and security problems. It is also relevant to sampling and its contents. Different solutions from quantitative studies are required in ensuring the ethics and quality of the study. During the analysis of the qualitative data collected through the Internet, mostly in a form of computer communication language (text, specific characteristics, such as backspacing and correction during the communication that impact spontaneity rate, the absence of non-verbal language, etc., are necessary to be taken into accountIt is concluded that all the above-mentioned issues must be addressed individually to the research topic, object, aim, research problem and the specifics of the respondents. When deciding about the method of
Ashwin, Paul; Smith, Karen
In this article we explore the way in which policy texts are positioned in a selection of higher education journal articles. Previous research has suggested that policy implementation studies have taken an uncritical approach to researching policies. Based on an analysis of articles published in higher education and policy journals in 2011, we…
Olga Sergeevna Chikrizova
Full Text Available The article is devoted to methodological aspects of analysis of confrontation between two biggest trends in Islam - Sunnism and Shiism. It’s extremely important to study Sunni-Shiite relations on the modern stage because they reflect geopolitical and geostrategic rivalry in the region and change of interstate alliances’ configuration. After “the Arab spring” in the Middle East some conflicts have flared up (Iraq, Syria, Yemen, and one of the reasons of all the conflicts is a confrontation between Sunnis and Shiites. Moreover, some more hot spots are brewing, in which the representatives of two major trends in Islam will face (Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain. In order to find ways to settle these conflicts we need to learn profoundly the origins, nature and characteristics of Sunni-Shiite relations, and it also determines the relevance of this article’s topic. Using comparative method, historicism, problem-chronological method and quantitative methods of analysis, the author indicates six periods of Sunni-Shiite antagonism, during which the contradictions between two trends had gradually shifted from domestic to international level, and then to global level. Comparing foreign policy practice of Sunni and Shiite states at the present stage, the author proves that nowadays the struggle between Sunnis and Shiites for the implementation of models of the Islamic world’s development takes place. These models are global, they are aimed at the unification of the Islamic world. However they are based on completely different visions of this world’s configuration, particularly in the region of the Middle East.
Lund, Jens Friis; Rutt, Rebecca Leigh; Ribot, Jesse
We identify and describe four strands in the literature on forestry decentralization policies: studies that assess impacts of forestry sector decentralization policies on forests and livelihoods; studies that examine whether forestry decentralization empowers public and democratic local...... institutions; studies focusing on power and the role of elites in forestry decentralization, and; studies that historicize and contextualize forestry decentralization as reflective of broader societal phenomena. We argue that these strands reflect disciplinary differences in values, epistemologies, and methods...... preferences, and that they individually provide only partial representations of forestry decentralization policies. Accordingly, we conclude that a comprehensive understanding of these policies cannot rest solely on any of these strands, but should be informed by all of them....
McGinty, Emma Elizabeth; Webster, Daniel W; Barry, Colleen L
In response to recent mass shootings, policy makers have proposed multiple policies to prevent persons with serious mental illness from having guns. The political debate about these proposals is often uninformed by research. To address this gap, this review article summarizes the research related to gun restriction policies that focus on serious mental illness. Gun restriction policies were identified by researching the THOMAS legislative database, state legislative databases, prior review articles, and the news media. PubMed, PsycINFO, and Web of Science databases were searched for publications between 1970 and 2013 that addressed the relationship between serious mental illness and violence, the effectiveness of gun policies focused on serious mental illness, the potential for such policies to exacerbate negative public attitudes, and the potential for gun restriction policies to deter mental health treatment seeking. Limited research suggests that federal law restricting gun possession by persons with serious mental illness may prevent gun violence from this population. Promotion of policies to prevent persons with serious mental illness from having guns does not seem to exacerbate negative public attitudes toward this group. Little is known about how restricting gun possession among persons with serious mental illness affects suicide risk or mental health treatment seeking. Future studies should examine how gun restriction policies for serious mental illness affect suicide, how such policies are implemented by states, how persons with serious mental illness perceive policies that restrict their possession of guns, and how gun restriction policies influence mental health treatment seeking among persons with serious mental illness.
Kunst, Anton E.
This article briefly assesses the research methods that were applied in the SOPHIE project to evaluate the impact of structural policies on population health and health inequalities. The evaluation of structural policies is one of the key methodological challenges in today's public health. The
Fernando Marinho Mezzadri
Full Text Available This article presents a method of mixed research for the study of Sport public policy in Brazil. To reach the result, the text was divided into two phases. In the first, it presents a conceptual model for the qualitative analysis of Brazilian public policies directed to the sport. This phase will still be divided into two stages. The first is the construction of a theoretical framework for the interpretation of the study on public policies and the other one demonstrates a conceptual methodological contribution based on the sociology of Pierre Bourdieu. In the second phase it is developed an analysis of the quantitative part which aims to interpret the data that were collected in the empirical part of the research. Later, it will be possible to produce a model of assessment, monitoring, and, especially, the improvement of public policies for Brazilian sport.
Farrokhyar, Forough; Amin, Nalin; Dath, Deepak; Bhandari, Mohit; Kelly, Stephan; Kolkin, Ann M; Gill-Pottruff, Catherine; Skot, Martina; Reid, Susan
To evaluate whether implementing the formal Surgical Research Methodology (SRM) Program in the surgical residency curriculum improved research productivity compared with the preceding informal Research Seminar Series (RSS). The SRM Program replaced the RSS in July 2009. In the SRM Program, the curriculum in Year-1 consisted of 12 teaching sessions on the principles of clinical epidemiology and biostatistics, whereas the focus in Year-2 was on the design, conduct, and presentation of a research project. The RSS consisted of 8 research methodology sessions repeated annually for 2 years along with the design, conduct, and presentation of a research project. Research productivity was measured as the number of peer-reviewed publications and the generation of studies with higher levels of evidence. Outcome measures were independently assessed by 2 authors to avoid bias. Student t test and chi-square test were used for the analysis. Frequencies, mean differences with 95% CI, and effect sizes have been reported. In this study, 81 SRM residents were compared with 126 RSS residents. The performance of the SRM residents was superior on all metrics in our evaluation. They were significantly more productive and published more articles than the RSS residents (mean difference = 1.0 [95% CI: 0.5-1.5], p research performance improved 11.0 grades (95% CI: 8.5%-13.5%, p research methodology is crucial to appropriately apply evidence-based findings in clinical practice. The SRM Program has significantly improved the research productivity and performance of the surgical residents from all disciplines. The implementation of a similar research methodology program is highly recommended for the benefit of residents' future careers and ultimately, evidence-based patient care. Copyright © 2014 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: We need a defined population for determining prevalence and incidence of diseases, as well as conducting interventional, cohort and longitudinal studies, calculating correct and timely public health indicators, assessing actual health needs of community, performing educational programs and interventions to promote healthy lifestyle, and enhancing quality of primary health services.The objective of this project was to determine a defined population which is representative of Tehran, the Capital of Iran. This article reports the methodology and establishment of the research network of Tehran defined population.Methods: This project started by selecting two urban health centers from each of the five district health centers affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in 2012. Inside each selected urban health center, one defined population research station was established. Two new centers have been added during 2013 and 2014. For the time being, the number of the covered population of the network has reached 40000 individuals. The most important criterion for the defined population has been to be representative of the population of Tehran. For this, we selected two urban health centers from 12 of 22 municipality districts and from each of the five different socioeconomic of Greater Tehran. Merely 80000 individuals in neighborhoods of each defined population research station were considered as control group of the project.Findings: Totally we selected 12 defined population research stations and their under-covered population developed a defined population which is representative of Tehran population.Conclusion: a population lab is ready now in metropolitan of Tehran.
Becker, T.; Retz, W.; Hofmann, E.; Becker, G.; Teichmann, E.; Gsell, W.
An outline is given of some of the methodological issues discussed in neuroradiological research on psychiatric illnesses. The strengths and shortcomings of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in depicting and quantifying brain structures are described. Temporal lobe anatomy and pathology are easily accessible to MRI, whereas limits on anatomical delineation hamper approaches to frontal lobe study. White matter hyperintense lesions are sensitively depicted by MRI, but specificity is limited. The distinction of vascular and primary degenerative dementia is considerably improved by CT and MRI analysis. Computed tomography (CT) and MRI have enhanced the understanding of treatable organic psychiatric disorders, e.g., normal pressure hydrocephalus. Subcortical and white matter pathology has been replicated in CT and MRI studies of late onset psychiatric disorders, clinical overlap with cerebrovascular disease or neuro degeneration may be of import. Trans cranial sonography findings of brainstem structural change specific to unipolar depression may contribute to the understanding of affective psychoses. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy and functional MRI are likely to stimulate psychiatric research in the future. (author)
Jaeger, Simon de; Eyckmans, Johan
The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the use of statistical techniques to evaluate the effectiveness of voluntary policy instruments for waste management. The voluntary character of these instruments implies that latent characteristics, unobserved by the analyst, might influence the subscription decision and might lead to biased estimates of the effectiveness of the policy instrument if standard techniques are used. We propose an extension of the difference-in-differences (DiD) estimator to evaluate the effectiveness of voluntary policy instruments, which is termed the dynamic difference-in-differences (or DDD) estimator. We illustrate the technique by estimating the effectiveness of voluntary cooperation agreements between the Flemish environmental administration and individual municipalities aimed at curbing residential solid waste. Using a dataset covering all 308 Flemish municipalities for the period 2000-2005, our results indicate that municipalities subscribing to the agreement accomplished less reduction of their waste levels compared to what could be expected on the basis of their own performance prior to subscription and the performance of the non-subscribers. This result might be explained by the rising marginal cost of extra residential solid waste reduction policies. In addition, there are indications that subscribing municipalities refrain from additional reduction efforts once the target waste level of the program is achieved. The more complicated DDD methodology is shown to generate additional insight over the ordinary DiD analysis
Adaptation Finance: Linking Research, Policy, and Business. This project will train up to 36 emerging climate change leaders in the field of adaptation finance, which funds efforts to adapt to climate change impacts. The goal is to bring together participants from research, policy, and private sector backgrounds to equip them ...
5 avr. 2009 ... A major contribution to an understudied, poorly understood, but critical aspect of development. — John Young, Director of Programmes, Research and Policy in Development Group (RAPID), Overseas Development Institute, London. Does research influence public policy and decision-making and, if so, ...
IDRC's Think Tank Initiative is a multi-donor program dedicated to strengthening independent policy research institutions, or "think tanks," in developing countries, thereby enabling them to produce sound research that both informs and influences policy. The Initiative selected the first cohort of 24 grantees in East and West ...
Jeong, Dong Wook; Lee, Ho Jun; Lee, Seung Ho; Wi, Eunjoo
Globalization increasingly calls for comparing educational policies across countries. In this study, we assemble and analyze academic journal publications of the past decade in order to shape education policy research within an Asia-Pacific context. After examining Asia-Pacific research publication data from the Web of Science, we find a few…
This article examines the renewed interest in early childhood education and care in European politics, and the implications for research in changing policy contexts. Based on the policy analysis, it argues for a radical reconceptualisation of how, with and for whom, and to what end we design, conduct and interpret research in early childhood in…
IDRC's Think Tank Initiative is a multi-donor program dedicated to strengthening independent policy research institutions (think tanks) in developing countries, thereby enabling them to produce sound research that both informs and influences policy. The Initiative selected the first cohort of 24 grantees in East and West ...
... wider Central Asian region lack capacity to conduct empirical analysis and create policies based on research evidence. To address government priorities, the region needs quality research driven by local demands and analytical skills that can inform effective development responses through policy. This 39-month project, ...
David O'Brien;Rigas Arvanitis
... agendas but their contributions have received little attention. Abstracts are invited that analyze national or supranational experiences in developing scientific research policy frameworks, designing new or reforming existing institutions, and evaluations of those policies or institutions. 2) Strengthening academic research: In ...
Adaptation Finance: Linking Research, Policy, and Business. This project will train up to 36 emerging climate change leaders in the field of adaptation finance, which funds efforts to adapt to climate change impacts. The goal is to bring together participants from research, policy, and private sector backgrounds to equip them ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Policy is frequently identified in the behavioural nutrition and physical activity research literature as a necessary component of effective research and practice. The purpose of this commentary is to promote a dialogue to contribute towards the further development of conceptual understandings and theories of the relationship between policy practice and behavioural research and how these two activities might work synergistically to improve public health outcomes. Methods Drawing on policy and public health literature, this commentary presents a a conceptual model of the interaction and mediation between nutrition and physical activity-relevant policy and behavioural nutrition and physical activity research, environments, behaviours and public health implications. The selling of food in school canteens in several Australian states is discussed to illustrate components of the relationship and the interactions among its components. Results The model depicts a relationship that is interdependent and cyclic. Policy contributes to the relationship through its role in shaping environmental and personal-cognitive determinants of behaviours and through these determinants it can induce behaviour change. Behavioural research describes behaviours, identifies determinants of behaviour change and therefore helps inform policy development and monitor and evaluate its impact. Conclusion The model has implications for guiding behavioural research and policy practice priorities to promote public health outcomes. In particular, we propose that policy practice and behavioural research activities can be strengthened by applying to each other the theories from the scientific disciplines informing these respective activities. Behavioural science theories can be applied to help understand policy-making and assist with disseminating research into policy and practice. In turn, policy science theories can be applied to support the 'institutionalisation
Zardo, Pauline; Collie, Alex
There are few Australian studies showing how research evidence is used to inform the development of public health policy. International research has shown that compensation for injury rehabilitation can have negative impacts on health outcomes. This study examined transport injury compensation policy in the Australian state of Victoria to: determine type and purpose of reference to information sources; and to identify the extent of reference to academic research evidence in transport related injury rehabilitation compensation policy. Quantitative content analysis of injury rehabilitation compensation policies (N = 128) from the Victorian state government transport accident compensation authority. The most commonly referenced types of information were Internal Policy (median = 6 references per policy), Clinical/Medical (2.5), and Internal Legislation (1). Academic Research Evidence was the least often referenced source of information. The main purpose of reference to information was to support injury treatment and rehabilitation compensation claims decision-making. Transport injury compensation policy development is complex; with multiple sources of information cited including legislation, internal policy, external policy and clinical/medical evidence. There is limited use of academic research evidence in Victorian state government injury treatment and rehabilitation compensation policies. Decisions regarding compensation for injury treatment and rehabilitation services could benefit from greater use of academic research evidence. This study is one of the first to examine the use of research evidence in existing Australian public health policy decision-making using rigorous quantitative methods. It provides a practical example of how use of research evidence in public health policy can be objectively measured.
Aro, Arja R.; Bertram, Maja; Hämäläinen, Riitta-Maija
and the initial results of the first phase of six European countries in a five-year research project (2011-2016), REsearch into POlicy to enhance Physical Activity (REPOPA). REPOPA is programmatic research; it consists of linked studies; the first phase studied the use of evidence in 21 policies in implementation...... project phase showed the lack of explicit evidence use in HEPA policy making. Facilitators and barriers of the evidence use were the availability of institutional resources and support but also networking between researchers and policy makers. REPOPA will increase understanding use of research evidence...... in different contexts; develop guidance and tools and establish sustainable structures such as networks and platforms between academics and policy makers across relevant sectors....
Mitchell, Katherine; Moynihan, Melissa; Pitcher, Claire; Francis, Annabel; English, Abigail; Saewyc, Elizabeth
Research and policies on child and adolescent sexual exploitation frequently focus on the sexual exploitation of girls and fail to recognize the experiences of sexually exploited boys, including their potentially unique health care and social support needs. This oversight limits the ability of health care and social service providers to offer both targeted and evidence informed care to sexually exploited boys. As a first step in a larger grant to understand the experiences of sexually exploited boys and to develop interventions for this specific population, we conducted a systematic review to address the question, "What is the state of the research on sexually exploited boys internationally?" As we undertook this review, we faced a number of significant challenges that made the process more difficult than anticipated. In this paper we discuss four key methodological challenges we encountered: lack of a consistent definition of child and adolescent sexual exploitation, difficulties in differentiating sexual exploitation as a specific concept within child sexual abuse, failure to disaggregate data usefully across multiple variables, and limited epidemiological studies to inform prevalence. We reflect on how these challenges limited our ability to systematically analyze, synthesize, and interpret the available research. We conclude by making recommendations to improve the state of the research regarding sexually exploited boys with the aim of better informing future policy and practice. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
notes: “ few in the leadership had much, if any, even superficial familiarity with either the theory, the practice, the measurement or the development and deployment of such policies. ... Environment Management (VEEM) program, which built on the past experience in a more tightly structured manner. VEEM aimed to enhance ...
National Commission on Research, Washington, DC.
The national need for an ample pool of research scientists is considered. Research in universities and in the federally funded research facilities is described, and the importance of the research these institutions do and the interweaving of research and instruction in universities are noted. Some manpower projections are included and questions…
Paolucci, Catherine; Jennings, Kevin
This article discusses the relationship between policy, research, and program development in mathematics teacher education. In particular, it considers the influences of policy and research along with social, economic, and cultural factors in the conceptualization and development of an undergraduate mathematics teacher education program in…
Full Text Available This paper offers the entire review on the research methodology in natural nutrition of fresh-water fish. The data on fresh-water fish nutrition, particularly on fish of lower economic value, is inadequate. Reviewing the literature on assesment of nutritional parameters, the authors obviously use differenet approaches and methods. This paper is about most frequently used parameteres in qualitative and quantitative analysis. The qualitative analysis of food structure is the overall list of determinable taxa (mostlyu species and genera. The quantitative analysis comprises the assessment of particular nutritional categories by nutritional indices and coefficients. Bio-identification and numeric data processing can have numerous drawbacsk such as effect of regurgitation or the degree of digestion of the prey. The analyses of those effects proceed through statistical data processing in order to include spatial distribution of certain prey categories as well. The importance of this data is to determine the nutritional needs of potential species for culture as well as to come up with new insights on a particular aquatic ecosystem.
Full Text Available Information practically of all the Russian regions economy branches and development by managing subjects is information − communicative the Internet technologies render huge influence on economic attitudes development in the environment of regional business: there are new forms of interaction of managing subjects and change is information − organizational structures of regional business management. Integrated image of the set forth above innovations is the regional network economy representing the interactive environment in which on high speed and with minimal transaction (R.H.Coase’s costs are performed social economic and commodity monetary attitudes between managing subjects of region with use of Internet global network interactive opportunities. The urgency of the regional network economy phenomenon research, first of all, is caused by necessity of a substantiation of regional network economy methodology development and management mechanisms development by its infrastructure with the purpose of regional business efficiency increase. In our opinion, the decision of these problems will be the defining factor of effective economic development maintenance and russian regions economy growth in the near future.
Khodr, Hiba; Uherova Hasbani, Katarina
This paper is an exploratory study on energy policymaking in Lebanon aiming at investigating the contributing factors to the absence of evidence-informed policy by analyzing the relation between energy-related research and policy. It uses a qualitative approach in which two complementary types of data sources are employed. Data was mainly obtained from in-depth semi-structured interviews conducted with 40 key stakeholders. The data was further enhanced by an extensive review of related documents available in the public domain as well as research-related activities. Data were analyzed using iterative thematic content analysis which findings served to illustrate the theoretical perspectives in the relevant prevailing literature on linking policy and research. This paper suggests that the politicization of energy policy, the nature of the generated evidence and the lack of communication of evidence among policy actors as well as the weak and non-institutionalized links between researchers and policymakers have posed as an obstacle to an effective, efficient and evidence-based policy. There is a dearth of academic studies that have investigated this issue from a policy perspective. The analysis lays the foundation for much needed future studies on the country's energy policy by identifying the participants, mapping out the process and providing policy recommendations. - Highlights: • We study energy policymaking in Lebanon. • We analyze the relation between research and policy. • We identify contributing factors to the absence of evidence-informed policy. • The politicization of policy and nature of research have posed as obstacles. • Evidence of non-institutionalized links between researchers and policymakers
Shirley, W.; Cowart, R.; Sedano, R.; Weston, F.; Harrington, C.; Moskovitz, D.
Designing and implementing credit-based pilot programs for distributed resources distribution is a low-cost, low-risk opportunity to find out how these resources can help defer or avoid costly electric power system (utility grid) distribution upgrades. This report describes implementation options for deaveraged distribution credits and distributed resource development zones. Developing workable programs implementing these policies can dramatically increase the deployment of distributed resources in ways that benefit distributed resource vendors, users, and distribution utilities. This report is one in the State Electricity Regulatory Policy and Distributed Resources series developed under contract to NREL (see Annual Technical Status Report of the Regulatory Assistance Project: September 2000-September 2001, NREL/SR-560-32733). Other titles in this series are: (1) Accommodating Distributed Resources in Wholesale Markets, NREL/SR-560-32497; (2) Distributed Resources and Electric System Re liability, NREL/SR-560-32498; (3) Distribution System Cost Methodologies for Distributed Generation, NREL/SR-560-32500; (4) Distribution System Cost Methodologies for Distributed Generation Appendices, NREL/SR-560-32501.
Shirley, W.; Cowart, R.; Sedano, R.; Weston, F.; Harrington, C.; Moskovitz, D.
Designing and implementing credit-based pilot programs for distributed resources distribution is a low-cost, low-risk opportunity to find out how these resources can help defer or avoid costly electric power system (utility grid) distribution upgrades. This report describes implementation options for deaveraged distribution credits and distributed resource development zones. Developing workable programs implementing these policies can dramatically increase the deployment of distributed resources in ways that benefit distributed resource vendors, users, and distribution utilities. This report is one in the State Electricity Regulatory Policy and Distributed Resources series developed under contract to NREL (see Annual Technical Status Report of the Regulatory Assistance Project: September 2000-September 2001, NREL/SR-560-32733). Other titles in this series are: (1) Accommodating Distributed Resources in Wholesale Markets, NREL/SR-560-32497; (2) Distributed Resources and Electric System Re liability, NREL/SR-560-32498; (3) Distribution System Cost Methodologies for Distributed Generation, NREL/SR-560-32500; (4) Distribution System Cost Methodologies for Distributed Generation Appendices, NREL/SR-560-32501.
Rankin, Kristin M; Kroelinger, Charlan D; DeSisto, Carla L; Pliska, Ellen; Akbarali, Sanaa; Mackie, Christine N; Goodman, David A
Purpose Providing long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) in the immediate postpartum period is an evidence-based strategy for expanding women's access to highly effective contraception and for reducing unintended and rapid repeat pregnancy. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the application of implementation science methodology to study the complexities of rolling-out policies that promote immediate postpartum LARC use across states. Description The Immediate Postpartum LARC Learning Community, sponsored by the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO), is made up of multi-disciplinary, multi-agency teams from 13 early-adopting states with Medicaid reimbursement policies promoting immediate postpartum LARC. Partners include federal agencies and maternal and child health organizations. The Learning Community discussed barriers, opportunities, strategies, and promising practices at an in-person meeting. Implementation science theory and methods, including the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), and a recent compilation of implementation strategies, provide useful tools for studying the complexities of implementing immediate postpartum LARC policies in birthing facilities across early adopting states. Assessment To demonstrate the utility of this framework for guiding the expansion of immediate postpartum LARC policies, illustrative examples of barriers and strategies discussed during the in-person ASTHO Learning Community meeting are organized by the five CFIR domains-intervention characteristics, outer setting, inner setting, characteristics of the individuals involved, and process. Conclusion States considering adopting policies can learn from ASTHO's Immediate Postpartum LARC Learning Community. Applying implementation science principles may lead to more effective statewide scale-up of immediate postpartum LARC and other evidence-based strategies to improve women and children's health.
Full Text Available Established in 1995 with the basic philosophy of serving as a bridge between research and practice, the Institute for Transport Policy Studies conducts activities in support of transportation policy research in the public interest. This paper aims to describe the contribution of public interest research to transportation policy as seen in the Institute's activities. Touching first on the context and events leading to its establishment, the paper then describes the Institute's guiding principles, organization and staff and summarizes research and other activities.
Besharov, Douglas J.; Williams, Heidi L.
Innovation inducement prizes have been used for centuries. In the United States, a recent federal policy change—the America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2010—clarified and simplified a path by which all federal agencies can offer innovation inducement prizes, thus intensifying interest in how government agencies can most effectively design and apply such prizes. This paper aims to review and synthesize the academic literature on innovation inducement prizes, to clarify what has been learne...
The ultimate goal of physics education research (PER) is to develop a theoretical framework to understand and improve the learning process. In this journey of discovery, assessment serves as our headlamp and alpenstock. It sometimes detects signals in student mental structures, and sometimes presents the difference between expert understanding and novice understanding. Quantitative assessment is an important area in PER. Developing research-based effective assessment instruments and making meaningful inferences based on these instruments have always been important goals of the PER community. Quantitative studies are often conducted to provide bases for test development and result interpretation. Statistics are frequently used in quantitative studies. The selection of statistical methods and interpretation of the results obtained by these methods shall be connected to the education background. In this connecting process, the issues of educational models are often raised. Many widely used statistical methods do not make assumptions on the mental structure of subjects, nor do they provide explanations tailored to the educational audience. There are also other methods that consider the mental structure and are tailored to provide strong connections between statistics and education. These methods often involve model assumption and parameter estimation, and are complicated mathematically. The dissertation provides a practical view of some advanced quantitative assessment methods. The common feature of these methods is that they all make educational/psychological model assumptions beyond the minimum mathematical model. The purpose of the study is to provide a comparison between these advanced methods and the pure mathematical methods. The comparison is based on the performance of the two types of methods under physics education settings. In particular, the comparison uses both physics content assessments and scientific ability assessments. The dissertation includes three
Laboratory animal models are limited by scientific constraints on human applicability, and increasing regulatory restrictions, driven by social concerns. Reliance on laboratory animals also incurs marked - and in some cases, prohibitive - logistical challenges, within high-throughput chemical testing programmes, such as those currently underway within Europe and the US. However, a range of non-animal methodologies is available within biomedical research and toxicity testing. These include: mechanisms to enhance the sharing and assessment of existing data prior to conducting further studies, and physicochemical evaluation and computerised modelling, including the use of structure-activity relationships and expert systems. Minimally-sentient animals from lower phylogenetic orders or early developmental vertebral stages may be used, as well as microorganisms and higher plants. A variety of tissue cultures, including immortalised cell lines, embryonic and adult stem cells, and organotypic cultures, are also available. In vitro assays utilising bacterial, yeast, protozoal, mammalian or human cell cultures exist for a wide range of toxic and other endpoints. These may be static or perfused, and may be used individually, or combined within test batteries. Human hepatocyte cultures and metabolic activation systems offer potential assessment of metabolite activity and organ-organ interaction. Microarray technology may allow genetic expression profiling, increasing the speed of toxin detection, well prior to more invasive endpoints. Enhanced human clinical trials utilising micro- dosing, staggered dosing, and more representative study populations and durations, as well as surrogate human tissues, advanced imaging modalities and human epidemiological, sociological and psycho- logical studies, may increase our understanding of illness aetiology and pathogenesis, and facilitate the development of safe and effective pharmacologic interventions. Particularly when human tissues
Weiss, M.; Lambert, K. F.; Buonocore, J.; Driscoll, C. T.
The weak link between science and policy jeopardizes the wellbeing of people and the planet. Climate change is a pressing example of this disconnect. Policies are not keeping pace with the best of our knowledge from climate change research. We are working to bridge the science-policy divide and advance climate solutions by focusing on the positive health, ecosystem, and economic benefits of policy action. In 2013, we brought together an interdisciplinary team to estimate the co-benefits of U.S. power plant carbon standards for air quality and health, plus the economic value of the benefits. The results demonstrate that strong carbon standards with flexible compliance options can change the power sector, yielding substantial air quality and health benefits nationwide. The results also show that the economic value of these benefits outweighs the costs nationally and regionally. We advanced the policy applications of this research through a strategic campaign with three key elements: media communication, targeted outreach, and information for policymakers. Our strategy was to build widespread awareness of the research outcomes via media engagement, amplify our message via targeted outreach to citizens groups, and inform policy solutions by sharing research results with decision makers. The research was reported in more than 600 unique news stories in mainstream media outlets and received social media posts by members of Congress and senior White House officials. We amplified the messages via 14 webinars for citizens groups. We also held 16 briefings for policymakers and the public, in addition to meetings with relevant policy staff. Regional, state and federal policy leaders have used the research to understand air quality and health benefits of power plant carbon standards. This model of pairing research with media communication, targeted outreach, and information for policymakers is effective for bridging the gap between climate research and policy, and can be
Riazi, A. Mehdi
Mixed-methods research (MMR), as an inter-discourse (quantitative and qualitative) methodology, can provide applied linguistics researchers the opportunity to draw on and integrate the strengths of the two research methodological approaches in favour of making more rigorous inferences about research problems. In this article, the argument is made…
Institution. Center for Study of Science, Technology and Policy. Pays d' institution. India. Site internet. http://www.cstep.in ... Institution. (Chief, Administrative Services) for and on behalf of Centre for Policy Research Registered Society. Pays d' institution. India. Site internet. http://www.cprindia.org ...
This call for action addresses the high-level benefits of adopting a university-wide policy regarding research data management. It identifies the various university stakeholders and suggests that the library initiate a conversation among them in order to get buy-in for a proactive, rather than reactive, high-level policy for responsible data…
Moseley, Charles; Kleinert, Harold; Sheppard-Jones, Kathleen; Hall, Stephen
The application of scientific data in the development and implementation of sound public policy is a well-established practice, but there appears to be less consensus on the nature of the strategies that can and should be used to incorporate research data into policy decisions. This paper describes the promise and the challenges of using research…
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) tells us that 90 per cent of education reforms are not properly evaluated. So it seems that governments have not lived up to their own ideals of evidence-informed policymaking. "Research and Policy in Education" argues that education policy is as often driven by political…
Drawing from interviews, archival documents and a range of other sources, this article takes stock of key public policy research and analysis organizations in Ethiopia. It sheds light on the significance of professionalization of policy analysis and its contributions to closing the gap between knowledge and policymaking, offers ...
Gordon, Stephen L.
Existing federal government policies and systems to protect against scientific misconduct in government-supported research projects are described, and additional considerations not covered in federal policy are enumerated. Misconduct inquiries and review procedures are outlined. Applicant and institutional responsibility and the role of prevention…
Beland, Daniel; Durandal, Jean-Philippe Viriot
Like in other advanced industrial countries, in France, demographic aging has become a widely debated research and policy topic. This article offers a brief overview of major aging-related trends in France. The article describes France's demographics of aging, explores key policy matters, maps the institutional field of French social gerontology…
Dunlop, John T.
The thesis of this paper is that the bulk of academic research in industrial relations and economics in recent years has had very little impact on either public or private policy decisions. The thesis is illustrated by examining several policy problems, e.g., manpower programs and the relationship between wages and variables such as unemployment…
This article focuses on action research as a research design approach for Masters studies in information science and the various research methods that support and assist the research process. In this case, action research acts as a framework to guide the research and allows integration between theory, research and ...
Sep 7, 2016 ... Deadline: September 7, 2016 Please note that all applications must be submitted online. IDRC is one of the world's leaders in generating new knowledge to meet global challenges. We offer a number of research awards providing a unique opportunity to enhance research skills and gain a fresh ...
One of the dual roles of the African Journal of Biomedical Research is to serve as a conduit for academic and professional media, covering all research findings within ... Editorial Team. Founding Editor. Raphael A. Elegbe, M.D. Managing Editor. Samuel. B. Olaleye. Department of Physiology,. University of Ibadan. Nigeria.
There is increasing dissatisfaction at many levels with existing environmental education curricula in southern Africa. The resulting change and innovation is opening up possibilities for innovative research into the construction, conceptualisation and implementation of the curriculum. However, researching the curriculum ...
7 oct. 2009 ... Le directeur. Mercedes Botto est chercheure principale à la Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales (FLACSO) à Buenos Aires, en Argentine. Related content. Six world-class research teams to investigate overcoming therapeutic resistance in high fatality cancers. The world-class research teams ...
The Journal of Business Research (JBR) is an International journal published by the Institute of Professional Studies in collaboration with relevant ... The Journal of Business Research seeks to promote and disseminate knowledge in the various disciplines of Management, Accounting, Marketing and other related ...
ARP publishes peer review journals containing research reports in several fields. It was conceived to: Provide a medium for the publication of world-class papers, articles and findings. Serve as a portal for knowledge sharing as well as provide communication networks amongst folks, academics and research communities.
The objective of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on decision strategies and policy support is: (1) to investigate the decision making process, with all its relevant dimensions, in the context of radiation protection or other nuclear issues (with particular emphasis on emergency preparedness); (2) to disseminate knowledge on decision making and nuclear emergencies, including the organisation of training courses, the contribution to manuals or guidelines, the participation in working groups or discussion forums; (3) to assist the authorities and the industry on any topic related to radiation protection and to make expertise and infrastructure available; (4) to participate in and contribute to initiatives related to social sciences and their implementation into SCK-CEN; (5) to co-ordinate efforts of SCK-CEN related to medical applications of ionising radiation. Principal achievements in 2001 are described
Al Raee, Mueid; Ritzen, Jo; Crombrugghe, Denis de
This paper examines the relationship between labour productivity growth in non-traditional sectors and "innovation policy" for a cross-section of countries. Innovation policy is characterised by investments in tertiary education and research and development as a percentage of Gross Domestic Product
Lawson, J.M.; Haffner, M.E.A.; Oxley, M.J.
Comparative housing research encompasses a broad range of strategies and foci, which has promoted the exchange of information, catalysed policy development and encouraged theoretical debate. This presentation briefly outlines the different purpose (policy description, evaluation, strategic
Ibba, Michael; Bentin, Thomas
unattractive, with limited long-term prospects. This situation is only alleviated by the benefaction of senior scientists and charitable foundations, and occasional directives in selected areas which allow young scientists to develop independent research. Further obstacles exist in the recruitment process: new......-equipped to adapt to the rapid development of new areas in basic research. The only surprise is that Danish science has remained so competitive for so long. How long this will continue to be the case is unclear when there is little to attract young scientists. Without a competitive basic research component...
Ibba, Michael; Bentin, Thomas
Sir: Recent months have seen a lively, and at times bitter, debate in the Danish media on the future direction of scientific research. Much has been made by the government of the need to shift towards more applied research to maximize the short-term benefits of public investment. However, we would......, the ability to foster novel applied research (so beloved of the present government) will be severely eroded. Similar criticisms have been levelled at Sweden. In its case at least some of these criticisms are now being taken to heart, as can be seen by the establishment of openly competitive, well funded...
Brown, Susan L.
Over the past decade, the linkages between marriage and child well-being have attracted the attention of researchers and policy makers alike. Children's living arrangements have become increasingly diverse and unstable, which raises important questions about how and why family structure and stability are related to child outcomes. This article reviews new research on this topic, emphasizing how it can inform policy debates about the role of marriage in reducing poverty and improving child out...
Full Text Available This paper reports on the ground-breaking research in the study of languages in doctoral education. It argues for democratizing the production and dissemination of original contributions to knowledge through activating and mobilizing multilingual Higher Degree Researchers’ (HDRs capabilities for theorizing through them using their full linguistic repertoire. This paper contributes to this study’s development of post-monolingual research methodology which provides a theoretic-pedagogical framework for multilingual HDRs (a to use their full linguistic repertoire in their research; (b to develop their capabilities for theorizing and (c to construct potentially valuable theoretical tools using metaphors, images, concepts and modes of critique. This paper is based on a longitudinal program of collaborative research whereby monolingual Anglophone and multilingual HDRs jointly developed their capabilities for theorizing through producing Anglo-Chinese analytical tools, and the associated pedagogies for using their languages in doctoral research. This longitudinal research program has been undertaken in the field of doctoral education to further a defining feature of democracy, namely linguistic diversity. This research has been conducted with the aims of promoting the multilingualism of Australian universities and activating linguistic communities of scholars to use their full linguistic repertoire in their research. The main finding arising from this program of research has been the development of post-monolingual research methodology which (a uses the divergences within and between languages to undertake theorizing and (b in co-existence with the tensions posed by monolingualism, especially the insistence on using extant theories available in only one language. Doctoral pedagogies of intellectual/racial equality provide multilingual HDRs with insights into the debates about the geopolitics governing the use of languages in the production and
Research in Hospitality Management is a peer-reviewed journal publishing papers that make an original contribution to the understanding of hospitality and ... resources management, financial management, marketing, strategic management, economics, business forecasting, information technology and development, ...
Focus and Scope. The journal publishes original research articles, reviews, and case reports in health sciences and related disciplines, including medicine, pharmacy, nursing, biotechnology, cell and molecular biology, and related engineering and social science fields.
Hansen, Helle Ploug; Draborg, Eva; Kristensen, Finn Børlum
Health systems are placing more and more emphasis on the design and delivery of services that are focused on the patient, and there is a growing interest in patient involvement in health policy research and health technology assessment (HTA). Furthermore, there is a growing research interest in eliciting patients' views, not only on 'what works' for patients but also on the need for intervention and on factors influencing the implementation of particular health technologies, their appropriateness and acceptability. This article focuses on qualitative research synthesis in eliciting patients' perspectives. Its aim is to bring research closer to policy development and decision making, to facilitate better use of research findings for health and welfare, to generate a body of evidence, and to ensure that effective and appropriate information is used in health policy decision design. A variety of synthesizing approaches in qualitative research are explored, such as meta-synthesis, meta-summary, meta-ethnography, and meta-study, focusing especially on methodology. Meta-synthesis and meta-ethnography are probably the most frequently cited approaches in qualitative research synthesis and have perhaps the most developed methodology. The implications of these various synthesizing approaches in relation to health policy and HTA are discussed, and we suggest that meta-synthesis and meta-summary are particularly useful approaches. They have an explicit focus on 'evidence synthesis', fairly clear methodologies, and they are designed to not only present interpretations of the findings but also integrate research findings. Qualitative research synthesis enables researchers to synthesize findings from multiple qualitative studies on patients' perspectives instead of establishing new, expensive, and perhaps redundant studies that might intrude on the lives of patients. Qualitative research synthesis is highly recommended by decision makers and in health policy research and HTA. In
According to the concept design for the repository of HLW disposal, near field environmental conditions during thermal period are gathered, especially the thermal and radiation conditions. Safety assessment requirements and current methodology problems are analyzed also. Referring to the experimental methodology developed by Sandia National Laboratories, Research methodology and experimental plan are put forward. (author)
AJRH Managing Editor
This paper is about methodological issues in a community-wide study in Nigeria on an infectious disease, namely HIV/AIDS. The study was designed to ascertain the risk .... pooling of theories and methods of diverse disciplines together. As will be shown ..... indigenous African religions. Although Nigeria's urban centres are ...
Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Traulsen, Janine Marie
own research processes, we identified the strengths and weaknesses of multimethod research. We present our research methods and the experiences of pharmaceutical policy changes from two separate evaluation studies, one from Iceland and the other from Denmark. In addition, examples from a third study...
Burns, Matthew K.; Klingbeil, David A.; Ysseldyke, James E.; Petersen-Brown, Shawna
Methodological rigor in intervention research is important for documenting evidence-based practices and has been a recent focus in legislation, including the No Child Left Behind Act. The current study examined the methodological rigor of intervention research in four school psychology journals since the 1960s. Intervention research has increased…
Khalil, Deena; Kier, Meredith
This article is about introducing Critical Race Design (CRD), a research methodology that centers race and equity at the nucleus of educational opportunities by design. First, the authors define design-based implementation research (DBIR; Penuel, Fishman, Cheng, & Sabelli, 2011) as an equity-oriented education research methodology where…
... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Methodology Committee of the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research... responsibility for appointing not more than 15 members to a Methodology Committee of the Patient- Centered Outcomes Research Institute. In addition, the Directors of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality...
Östlund, Ulrika; Kidd, Lisa; Wengström, Yvonne; Rowa-Dewar, Neneh
It has been argued that mixed methods research can be useful in nursing and health science because of the complexity of the phenomena studied. However, the integration of qualitative and quantitative approaches continues to be one of much debate and there is a need for a rigorous framework for designing and interpreting mixed methods research. This paper explores the analytical approaches (i.e. parallel, concurrent or sequential) used in mixed methods studies within healthcare and exemplifies the use of triangulation as a methodological metaphor for drawing inferences from qualitative and quantitative findings originating from such analyses. This review of the literature used systematic principles in searching CINAHL, Medline and PsycINFO for healthcare research studies which employed a mixed methods approach and were published in the English language between January 1999 and September 2009. In total, 168 studies were included in the results. Most studies originated in the United States of America (USA), the United Kingdom (UK) and Canada. The analytic approach most widely used was parallel data analysis. A number of studies used sequential data analysis; far fewer studies employed concurrent data analysis. Very few of these studies clearly articulated the purpose for using a mixed methods design. The use of the methodological metaphor of triangulation on convergent, complementary, and divergent results from mixed methods studies is exemplified and an example of developing theory from such data is provided. A trend for conducting parallel data analysis on quantitative and qualitative data in mixed methods healthcare research has been identified in the studies included in this review. Using triangulation as a methodological metaphor can facilitate the integration of qualitative and quantitative findings, help researchers to clarify their theoretical propositions and the basis of their results. This can offer a better understanding of the links between theory and
Santos, Leonor Maria Pacheco; dos Santos, Sandra Maria Chaves
Recommendations arising from global conferences and summits, expressed the need to formulate and implement public policies to improve household food security. In the context of maximizing benefits given available resources, comprehensive evaluations of the nutrition policies and programs are needed. One obstacle to overcome was a clear definition of terminology; the words efficiency, effectiveness, efficacy and impact, widely used in the context of program evaluation, are sometimes interchanged and there is no consensus about their precise definition. Another approach to health evaluation is based in the paradigm structure-process-outcome. The level structure contemplated the installations, resources, instruments (physical and discursive), as well as the technical bureaucratic organizational structures. Process encompassed the whole set of intervention activities developed, whereas the dimension of outcome comprised the effects of interventions on the health and nutrition of beneficiaries. Each of the three dimensions constitutes a continuum in the evaluation procedure: the structure only fulfills its purposes if the processes are adequate and conversely, processes cannot alone supersede structural limitations. Moreover, all the three dimensions only reach their ultimate objectives through the completion of outcomes. The methodology proposed here has been tested in the case of Bahia, Northeast Brazil, and it was found to be adequate for this type of analysis. We hope this approach of a comprehensive multidimensional evaluation, constitutes an effective contribution for program planners and program managers, in particular with regard to the obstacles detected, some of which can surely be overcome.
: This classroom action research seeks to improve self-regulated learning (SRL) and understanding of research methodology at the graduate school. Nineteen graduate school students were involved. Using project-based learning (PjBL), students were assigned to create online blogs as the main project. The blog was intended for representing their understanding of research methodology by writing review of research articles and submitting a research proposal. The classroom action research was based ...
Hortensia Hernández Fernández
Full Text Available The training and the development of the Human Capital as regards Health and Safety Policy are important challenges that at the present time have the organizations, fundamentally because they are directed to the prevention of work accidents and professional illnesses. This work is a contribution to the methodological proposals to elevate the quality of the training process in the field of Health and Safety Policy for persons attending the activity and that don't have pedagogic formation. For its development theoretical and empiric investigation methods were used, obtaining the elaboration of methodological proposals which is about the main theoretical aspects that facilitate the elaboration of the objectives from the methodological and didactic point of view, the selection of the methods, teaching means and types of evaluations that can be applied during the training process according to the focuses of the formation, professional development and organizational forms to impart the educational actions in the field of Health and Safety Policy.
Suely Aparecida Martin
Full Text Available : This article analyzes the experience of political education of MST, based on research results, held in Paraná. Tries to demonstrate how the different experiences provided by this movement to provide political formation of its members. The text is organized into three parts: the first presents the experience category develop by Edward Palmer Thompson, used as reference for analysis, the second presents a brief history of political formation in the context of MST, and highlights the latest research results. The research were conducted between 2006 and 2008, had a qualitative character. In addition to literature review , there was the reading of documents produced by the movement and interviews with members of the MST.
Wilson, Vicki A.
Qualitative research is research that attempts not only to understand the world, but also to understand it through the eyes of the participants whose world it is. Consequently, qualitative research must occur in a natural setting. The study begins, not with hypotheses to be proved or disproved, but with a flexible plan to explore a phenomenon.…
This project presents a new phase of APEIR research on emerging threats from antimicrobial resistance and wildlife trade. ... activities in the health field, this new phase of work will help APEIR build and support regional capacity to communicate and share knowledge to promptly address emerging infectious disease threats.
Gibson Kabiki, Kilimanjaro Clinical Research Institute. Dr. Gabriel Shirima, Tanzania Veterinary Laboratory Agency. Prof. Dominic Kambarage, Sokoine University of Agriculture. Dr. Said Kapiga, Mwanza Intervention Trial Unit. Prof. Mainen J. Moshi, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences. Prof. Paul Gwakisa ...
7 oct. 2009 ... The editor. Mercedes Botto is Senior Researcher at FLACSO, the Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales, in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Contenus connexes. Politiques d'innovation régionales dans la zone Mercosur - obstacles et possibilités. Cette subvention soutiendra l'exécution d'une étude des ...
Second, to the institutions and organizations—such as the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), the Secretariat for Science, Technology and Productive ..... A fourth challenge in the postreform period is the growing demand for participation in government activities, and for transparency in those activities.
Focus and Scope. Animal production research advances is a peer-review journal established expressly to promote the production of all animal species utilized as food. The journal has an international scope and is intended for professionals in animal production and related sciences. We solicit contributions from animal ...
It aligns with the mission of the Osun State University, which is “to create a unique institution, committed to the pursuit of academic innovation, skills-based training and a tradition of excellence in teaching, research and community service”. The Journal acts as a ... Desk Editor shall carry out further checks on plagiarism. b.
Full Text Available Qualitative research has substantial philosophical dimension difference from quantitative research. Instead of adopting positivism, qualitative research focuses on more interpretivism and Relativism philosophical perspectives. From these two analyzed researches (Local responses to decentralization policy in Indonesia and Two sides of the same coin: Modernity and tradition in Islamic Education in Indonesia, we learn that both of them put their research stance on interpretivism and constructionism, eventhough they use different methodology. This different methodology emerges because of different focus, goals (objectives, and questions of the research. The Two sides of the same coin uses ethnographic method, while The Local responses adopts interview and official document analysis. Because The Two sides of the same coin adopts ethnographic methodology, it takes one Pesantren as its research site and research it as one whole system. Meanwhile, The Local responses takes six secondary school students to be interviewed. Thus, qualitative researches can be vary depending on research goals (objectives, focus, and problems (questions
Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health includes policy, practice and research but to sufficiently connect academic research, practice and public health policy appears to be difficult. Collaboration between policy, practice and research is imperative to obtaining more solid evidence in public health. However, the three domains do not easily work together because they emanate from three more or less independent 'niches'. Work cycles of each niche have the same successive steps: problem recognition, approach formulation, implementation, and evaluation, but are differently worked out. So far, the research has focused on agenda-setting which belongs to the first step, as expressed by Kingdon, and on the use of academic knowledge in policy makers' decision-making processes which belongs to the fourth step, as elaborated by Weiss. In addition, there are more steps in the policy-making process where exchange is needed. Method A qualitative descriptive research was conducted by literature search. We analyzed the four steps of the policy, practice and research work cycles. Next, we interpreted the main conflicting aspects as disconnections for each step. Results There are some conspicuous differences that strengthen the niche character of each domain and hamper integration and collaboration. Disconnections ranged from formulating priorities in problem statements to power roles, appraisal of evidence, work attitudes, work pace, transparency of goals, evaluation and continuation strategies and public accountability. Creating awareness of these disconnections may result in more compatibility between researchers, policy makers and practitioners. Conclusion We provide an analysis that can be used by public health services-related researchers, practitioners and policy makers to be aware of the risk for disconnections. A synthesis of the social, practical and scientific relevance of public health problems should be the starting point for a dialogue that seeks to
Warrell, Jacqueline G.; Jacobsen, Michele
A growing number of education and social science researchers design and conduct online research. In this review, the Internet Research Ethics (IRE) policy gap in Canada is identified along with the range of stakeholders and groups that either have a role or have attempted to play a role in forming better ethics policy. Ethical issues that current…
Carter, Stacy M; Little, Miles
In this article, the authors clarify a framework for qualitative research, in particular for evaluating its quality, founded on epistemology, methodology, and method. They define these elements and discuss their respective contributions and interrelationships. Epistemology determines and is made visible through method, particularly in the participant- researcher relationship, measures of research quality, and form, voice, and representation in analysis and writing. Epistemology guides methodological choices and is axiological. Methodology shapes and is shaped by research objectives, questions, and study design. Methodologies can prescribe choices of method, resonate with particular academic disciplines, and encourage or discourage the use and/or development of theory. Method is constrained by and makes visible methodological and epistemic choices. If we define good quality qualitative research as research that attends to all three elements and demonstrates internal consistency between them, standardized checklists can be transcended and innovation and diversity in qualitative research practice facilitated.
Hecker, Louise; Birla, Ravi K
In this article, we address several tangible and intangible factors, which are difficult to quantify and often overlooked yet are crucial for research success. We discuss three dimensions which encompass: (1) policy, (2) people, and (3) space. Policies, such as rules and regulations, define the culture of any research program/initiative. Governing rules and regulations defined within these policies are dictated by cultural values. Individuals who exhibit strong leadership, promote innovation, and exercise strategic planning often determine the governing policies. People are the most valuable asset available to any institution. Ensuring the professional growth (personal and scientific) and creating an environment which supports collaborative and collegial research through teamwork are factors that are important for individuals. Space, the physical work environment, is the third dimension of our model and is often an underutilized resource. In addition to the physical layout and design of the space, creating a positive work atmosphere which supports research initiatives is equally important and can create valuable momentum to research efforts. Collectively, these three dimensions (policy, people, and space) have a significant impact on the success of any research initiative. The primary objective of this article is to create awareness and emphasize the importance of implementing these variables within research initiatives in academic settings.
This article analyses the history of the European Social Survey (ESS) and its relationship to changes in European research policy, using Bourdieu’s field-analytical approach. It argues that the success of the ESS relied on three interwoven processes that we can understand theoretically in terms...... of the establishment of homological structures and the formation of conjunctural alliances between the field of European social-scientific research and the field of European policy. The three interwoven processes that I depict are: first, the production of a European field of social research, connected to both...... European and national scientific institutions; second, the establishment of European Union (EU) institutions and organisations that were able to identify and link up with social researchers; and third, the formation of conjunctural alliances between the two fields (social science and EU research policy...
Hidalgo, LeighAnna Grace
Augmented Fotonovelas draw upon the aesthetic of traditional fotonovelas, but incorporate new technologies--such as video interviews, interactive mapping, smart phone technology, and Augmented Reality (AR). Augmented Fotonovelas also make the most of the classic form, utilizing photographs, text, and bubble captions. Through this methodology, new and old come together to produce Augmented Scholarship. I define Augmented Scholarship as knowledge production bridging the gap between communities ...
Full Text Available The paper presents the process of transformation of the role of the human factor in the economic system, it shows the importance of entrepreneurship as an intangible resource of post-industrial development. Resource value of entrepreneurship is characterized on the basis of economic analysis of the functional role of entrepreneurship in the system. Showing methodological approaches to the study of entrepreneurship presented in the works of foreign representatives of business theory
Yuan Yujun; Zou Lin; Liu Qun; Wang Yongping
Soft science research is significant and can directly support the decision-making and development. The strategy research, planning research, and policy research each play an important role in soft science research. As the National Strategy of Informatization being implemented and advanced, some progress are made and some special information tools are produced in the process of strengthening the development research with information technologies. At first, the article introduced some cases of information products application, such as the domestic and overseas information products for energy strategy research and planning research and policy research, the governmental management information system for planning and investment, examination and approval and permission system for the planning of the land for construction, China agriculture decision support system and so on, and also gave a brief analysis on the theories and methods, main functions and application status. And then, with a analysis on the features of the works of development planning of China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC) development, this article gave some suggestions on how to strengthen the development of information system for the development planning of the CNNC. (authors)
There has been extensive work in the space of Indigenous epistemological approaches to research. Because Australian Indigenous peoples have been researched significantly, there are guidelines around the ethical and cultural conduct of this type of research. Via investigating the Academy's approach to research in general, we can illuminate the vast…
Full Text Available To enhance research surveying in software methodologies, a model is introduced that can indicate field maturity based on vocabulary and relevant literature. This model is developed by drawing analogies with software methodologies. Two analogies are used: software models and software life cycles or processes. How this model can reduce research surveying problems for researchers is described using extracts from application results as examples. Although the model does support research surveying activities, it cannot choose the subject for the researcher.
efforts to square Forrester’s Malthusian circle appear to exhibit a similar inclination. Hardin’s "Tragedy of the Commons" represents a clearer version...payments, and free world economic integration), and increased U. S. sensitivity to foreign economies.’ Supranational neo - functional technocrats rely...interaction contingency, called by Forrester sectoral inderdependence: non- Malthusian population control policies do not work because they feedback
Farah, Abdulkadir Osman
pathways of creative research. They help us go beyond formalism of method and cultivate new pathways of research in social sciences and humanities, especially in sociology, anthropology, education, art and literature. The volume, second in the trilogy of Creative Research, which follows Pathways......Cultivating Pathways of Creative Research: New Horizons of Transformative Practice and Collaborative Imagination strives to cultivate new pathways of research and engagement in social sciences and humanities where cultivation is linked to cross-fertilization of creative theorizing...
Beltz, Martha A; Sacks, Vanessa H; Moore, Kristin A; Terzian, Mary
Teen childbearing is affected by many individual, family, and community factors; however, another potential influence is state policy. Rigorous studies of the relationship between state policy and teen birth rates are few in number but represent a body of knowledge that can inform policy and practice. This article reviews research assessing associations between state-level policies and teen birth rates, focusing on five policy areas: access to family planning, education, sex education, public assistance, and access to abortion services. Overall, several studies have found that measures related to access to and use of family planning services and contraceptives are related to lower state-level teen birth rates. These include adolescent enrollment in clinics, minors' access to contraception, conscience laws, family planning expenditures, and Medicaid waivers. Other studies, although largely cross-sectional analyses, have concluded that policies and practices to expand or improve public education are also associated with lower teen birth rates. These include expenditures on education, teacher-to-student ratios, and graduation requirements. However, the evidence regarding the role of public assistance, abortion access, and sex education policies in reducing teen birth rates is mixed and inconclusive. These conclusions must be viewed as tentative because of the limited number of rigorous studies that examine the relationship between state policy and teen birth rates over time. Many specific policies have only been analyzed by a single study, and few findings are based on recent data. As such, more research is needed to strengthen our understanding of the role of state policies in teen birth rates. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Exadaktylos, Theofanis; Lynggaard, Kennet
This chapter deals with the pitfalls and pathways of research design aimed at the study of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) and maps out the literature on questions of knowledge ambition, research ontology and epistemology, and choices of approaches to the research object. We include...... of dichotomous trade-offs. The chapter then discusses how individual contributions to this volume deal with research design challenges of the past and present innovative ways of studying the revised ENP....
Baum, Fran; Friel, Sharon
The development and implementation of multisectoral policy to improve health and reduce health inequities has been slow and uneven. Evidence is largely focused on the facts of health inequities rather than understanding the political and policy processes. This 5-year funded programme of research investigates how these processes could function more effectively to improve equitable population health. The programme of work is organised in four work packages using four themes (macroeconomics and infrastructure, land use and urban environments, health systems and racism) related to the structural drivers shaping the distribution of power, money and resources and daily living conditions. Policy case studies will use publicly available documents (policy documents, published evaluations, media coverage) and interviews with informants (policy-makers, former politicians, civil society, private sector) (~25 per case). NVIVO software will be used to analyse the documents to see how 'social and health equity' is included and conceptualised. The interview data will include qualitative descriptive and theory-driven critical discourse analysis. Our quantitative methodological work assessing the impact of public policy on health equity is experimental that is in its infancy but promises to provide the type of evidence demanded by policy-makers. Our programme is recognising the inherently political nature of the uptake, formulation and implementation of policy. The early stages of our work indicate its feasibility. Our work is aided by a Critical Policy Reference Group. Multiple ethics approvals have been obtained with the foundation approval from the Social and Behavioural Ethics Committee, Flinders University (Project No: 6786).The theoretical, methodological and policy engagement processes established will provide improved evidence for policy-makers who wish to reduce health inequities and inform a new generation of policy savvy knowledge on social determinants. © Article author
Werunga, Jane; Reimer-Kirkham, Sheryl; Ewashen, Carol
In this article, critical perspectives including postcolonial feminism, African feminism, and intersectionality are presented as having decolonizing methodological potential whereby the Western narrative surrounding the practice of female genital cutting, particularly in the context of migration, is reexamined. In addition, multiple intersecting influences on affected women's realities are accounted for and a critical consciousness that serves to inform praxis, address social determinants of health, and promote health equity is encouraged. The inclusion of an African feminist perspective, a traditionally marginalized critical perspective, serves to further decolonize some long-held erroneous beliefs about the sexuality, subjectivity, and embodiment of the African woman.
Jetha, Arif; Pransky, Glenn; Hettinger, Lawrence J
Work disability (WD) is characterized by variable and occasionally undesirable outcomes. The underlying determinants of WD outcomes include patterns of dynamic relationships among health, personal, organizational and regulatory factors that have been challenging to characterize, and inadequately represented by contemporary WD models. System dynamics modeling (SDM) methodology applies a sociotechnical systems thinking lens to view WD systems as comprising a range of influential factors linked by feedback relationships. SDM can potentially overcome limitations in contemporary WD models by uncovering causal feedback relationships, and conceptualizing dynamic system behaviors. It employs a collaborative and stakeholder-based model building methodology to create a visual depiction of the system as a whole. SDM can also enable researchers to run dynamic simulations to provide evidence of anticipated or unanticipated outcomes that could result from policy and programmatic intervention. SDM may advance rehabilitation research by providing greater insights into the structure and dynamics of WD systems while helping to understand inherent complexity. Challenges related to data availability, determining validity, and the extensive time and technical skill requirements for model building may limit SDM's use in the field and should be considered. Contemporary work disability (WD) models provide limited insight into complexity associated with WD processes. System dynamics modeling (SDM) has the potential to capture complexity through a stakeholder-based approach that generates a simulation model consisting of multiple feedback loops. SDM may enable WD researchers and practitioners to understand the structure and behavior of the WD system as a whole, and inform development of improved strategies to manage straightforward and complex WD cases.
de Graaff, Erik
In Europe educational research branched off from social sciences during the sixties of the last century. Combining theories and methods from pedagogy, sociology and psychology researchers explored the different fields of education, ranging from kindergarten till higher education including...... engineering. A revival of engineering education research started in the USA around the turn of the century. Building on the concept of ‘scholarship of teaching’, engineers were challenged to investigate their own role as educators. Since these researchers have their academic background mostly in engineering...... and science, they tend to aim for ‘rigorous research’ according to the natural sciences. Worldwide the engineering education community has recognized the need to blend both the social sciences research approach and rigorous research. This paper explores the variation in research methods used by researchers...
African Health Economics and Policy Research Capacity Building and Dissemination. As African countries move toward universal health coverage, it is clear there is a shortage of African experts with applied research skills in health financing such as fiscal space analysis, needs-based resource allocation methods, and ...
From Research to Policy: Linking Climate Change Adaptation to Sustainable Agriculture. Research on climate change and its impact on the ... Outputs. Journal articles. Factors affecting households vulnerability to climate change in Swaziland : a case of Mpolonjeni Area Development Programme (ADP). Download PDF ...
In 2006 the Government of Kenya passed an Act of Parliament making the Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and Analysis (KIPPRA) the government's lead socioeconomic research institute. The Act exerts enormous demands on KIPPRA at a time when it is trying to recover from the senior staff turnover suffered in ...
David N. Bengston
The need for strategic foresight in an increasingly complex and rapidly changing world poses a formidable challenge to environmental planners and policy makers. Th is paper introduces futures research as an under used but fruitful set of approaches to addressing this challenge. Futures research is a transdisciplinary social science that uses a wide range of methods to...
Globalisation includes not only the changes brought about by the opening up of markets and communication technology, but also those set in motion by shifts in policy relating to the responsibilities of government and the role of research and innovation in development. This paper examines the impact of globalisation on education research, policy…
Reginald M.J. Oduor
Research Methodology in Philosophy within an Interdisciplinary and Commercialised African Context 87 .... Second, I examine the distinct research methodologies of philosophy and of the social sciences, with a view to illustrating the need for the two fields of study to .... politics and political psychology, among others. What ...
Langrehr, Kimberly J.; Phillips, Julia C.; Melville, Alexis; Eum, Koun
This article presents a review of 21 years (1990 to 2011) of multidisciplinary research on nontraditional college students that focuses on determinants of nontraditional student status and research methodology. The purpose is to address the methodological hindrances that have contributed to deficit-based views of nontraditional students in…
This article reports on a pilot study to examine undergraduate students' help-seeking behavior when undertaking library research in online courses. A novel methodology incorporating elements of ethnographic research resulted in a small, but rich and detailed, collection of qualitative data. The data suggest that the methodology has promise for…
Design-based implementation research offers the opportunity to rethink the relationships between intervention, research, and situation to better attune research and evaluation to the program development process. Using a heuristic called the intervention development curve, I describe the rough trajectory that programs typically follow as they…
Recommends confronting the problem of validity in intercultural research by adopting research approaches that focus on the problem (for example, ethnopsychoanalysis, intercultural psychology). Briefly reviews the current debate on intercultural-comparative research. Concludes with examples and a discussion of the recent developments in comparative…
Adriana Ferreira Serafim de Oliveira
Full Text Available This article, through the deductive research, discusses the possibility to research in the field of legal sciences through the qualitative methodology used in the researches in Human Sciences. The north for this study was given by the qualitative methodology to the exploration of the content of the bibliography interdisciplinary elected in Law and Education areas, considering the object of the study the connection of the objects of the research in these areas. Education, in Human Sciences, uses this approach to investigate facts through documentary or field research and the same methodology can be applied in the Law area.
de Graaff, Erik
engineering. A revival of engineering education research started in the USA around the turn of the century. Building on the concept of ‘scholarship of teaching’, engineers were challenged to investigate their own role as educators. Since these researchers have their academic background mostly in engineering...... and science, they tend to aim for ‘rigorous research’ according to the natural sciences. Worldwide the engineering education community has recognized the need to blend both the social sciences research approach and rigorous research. This paper explores the variation in research methods used by researchers...... publishing in the European Journal of Engineering Education, aiming to identify a shift in methods used for engineering education research....
Blazeby, Jane; Nasser, Mona; Soares-Weiser, Karla; Sydes, Matthew R.; Zhang, Junhua; Williamson, Paula R
BackgroundMethodological research into the design, conduct, analysis and reporting of trials is essential to optimise the process. UK specialists in the field have established a set of top priorities in aid of this research. These priorities however may not be reflected in the needs of similar research in low to middle income countries (LMICs) with different healthcare provision, resources and research infrastructure. The aim of the study was to identify the top priorities for methodological ...
Zeeland, van Hilde; Ringersma, J.
The current case study describes the development of a Research Data Management policy at Wageningen University & Research, the Netherlands. To develop this policy, an analysis was carried out of existing frameworks and principles on data management (such as the FAIR principles), as well as of
Studies have recognized the failure of the traditional design approach both in practice and in the studio. They showed that design problems today are too complex for the traditional approach to cope with and reflected a new interest in a better quality design services in order to meet the challenges of our time. In the mid-1970s and early 1980s, there has been a significant shift in focus within the field of design research towards the aim of creating a ‘design discipline’. The problem, as will be discussed, is the lack of an integrated theory of design knowledge that can explicitly describe the design process in a coherent way. As a consequence, the traditional approach fails to operate systematically, in a disciplinary manner. Addressing this problem is the primary goal of the research study in the design process currently being conducted in the research-based master studio at Wollega University, Ethiopia. The research study seeks to make a contribution towards a disciplinary approach, through proper understanding the mechanism of knowledge development within design process systems. This is the task of the ‘theory of design knowledge’. In this article the research project is introduced, and a model of the design process-system is developed in the studio as a research plan and a tool of design research at the same time. Based on data drawn from students’ research projects, the theory of design knowledge is developed and empirically verified through the research project.
van den Heuvel, W J; van Santvoort, M M
After an initially slow development gerontological research has undergone a strong expansion in the last 10 to 15 years. The beginning of this development coincided with a growing awareness of an aging population and the start of an independent research policy. In the beginning of the seventies the idea emerged that socially relevant problems can also determine the direction of research. For the development of gerontology this has been important. The science and research policy of particularly the government with regard to gerontology is described. This policy resulted in two stimulation programs. The growth and current state of gerontology are illustrated by results from inventories of research in 1977 and 1985. In comparison with 1977 in 1985 the effort in people-power has almost tripled: 71 person-years in 1977 versus 192 in 1985. Most research is now done in university institutes unlike in 1977. The themes of research of the important centers are mentioned. After shortly considering developments in some other countries, one of the conclusions is that-now the interest in research has grown and research centers are being formed-we should learn from the absence of lasting effects of stimulation programs in other countries and continue our programs to give research a firmer base at the universities.
Philosophical discussion of the general methodology of qualitative research, such as that used in some health research, has been inductivist or relativist to date, ignoring critical rationalism as a philosophical approach with which to discuss the general methodology of qualitative research. This paper presents a discussion of the general methodology of qualitative research from a critical rationalist perspective (inspired by Popper), using as an example mental health research. The widespread endorsement of induction in qualitative research is positivist and is suspect, if not false, particularly in relation to the context of justification (or rather theory testing) as compared to the context of discovery (or rather theory generation). Relativism is riddled with philosophical weaknesses and hence it is suspect if not false too. Theory testing is compatible with qualitative research, contrary to much writing about and in qualitative research, as theory testing involves learning from trial and error, which is part of qualitative research, and which may be the form of learning most conducive to generalization. Generalization involves comparison, which is a fundamental methodological requirement of any type of research (qualitative or other); hence the traditional grounding of quantitative and experimental research in generalization. Comparison--rather than generalization--is necessary for, and hence compatible with, qualitative research; hence, the common opposition to generalization in qualitative research is misdirected, disregarding whether this opposition's claims are true or false. In conclusion, qualitative research, similar to quantitative and experimental research, assumes comparison as a general methodological requirement, which is necessary for health research.
indicators and monitoring systems are increasingly used, but what does the use of indicators mean for policymaking? The article exploits indicator theory and the evaluation research literature to develop an analytical framework so as to study the policy uses of indicators. The paper then provides...... system and partly to the lack of accountability mechanisms. The article concludes that the analytical framework and the concepts derived from evaluation research are useful starting points, but that further research should extend the analysis to other policy contexts (national or local) and broaden...... a tentative analysis of the so-called Transport and Environment Reporting Mechanism (TERM) developed by the European Environment Agency (EEA). The results suggest that a limited direct policy use of TERM occurs while so-called 'symbolic' use is detected. This may partly be due to the short history of the TERM...
Debrand, Thierry; Dourgnon, Paul
The Institut de Recherche et Documentation en Economie de la Santé (IRDES) Workshop on Applied Health Economics and Policy Evaluation aims at disseminating health economic research's newest findings and enhancing the community's capacity to address issues that are relevant to public policy. The 2010 program consisted of 16 articles covering a vast range of topics, such as health insurance, social health inequalities and health services research. While most of the articles embedded theoretical material, all had to include empirical material in order to favor more applied and practical discussions and results. The 2010 workshop is to be the first of a series of annual workshops in Paris gathering together researchers on health economics and policy evaluation. The next workshop is to be held at IRDES in June 2011.
Seagrasses contribute to the maintenance of human wellbeing. However certain aspects of their role as ecosystem service (ES) providers remain understudied. Here, we synthesise the state of seagrass ES (SGES) research and policy implications. Additionally, we recommend ways in which SGES research can be integrated in to policy design, by drawing lessons from the case of Blue Carbon (BC). SGES research suffers from three main biases: a geographical bias, SGES has been restricted to chartered seagrass areas; a type of service research bias, provisioning and regulating services have received extensive attention while cultural services remain understudied; a type of discipline bias, the ecological aspects of SGES have been well documented while economic and social aspects remain in comparison understudied. These are particularly important, as an understanding of the social and economic considerations of the provision of ES is fundamental to facilitate its integration into policy frameworks. Lessons drawn from the operationalization process of BC show the reoccurrence of certain aspects that have enabled the integration of BC into policy. These aspects are grouped under 4 different categories. From the analysis of these elements we draw lessons that could facilitate the operationalization of other ecosystem services and their incorporation into management policy frameworks.
Brueton, Valerie C; Vale, Claire L; Choodari-Oskooei, Babak; Jinks, Rachel; Tierney, Jayne F
Providing evidence of impact highlights the benefits of medical research to society. Such evidence is increasingly requested by research funders and commonly relies on citation analysis. However, other indicators may be more informative. Although frameworks to demonstrate the impact of clinical research have been reported, no complementary framework exists for methodological research. Therefore, we assessed the impact of methodological research projects conducted or completed between 2009 and 2012 at the UK Medical Research Council Clinical Trials Unit Hub for Trials Methodology Research Hub, with a view to developing an appropriate framework. Various approaches to the collection of data on research impact were employed. Citation rates were obtained using Web of Science (http://www.webofknowledge.com/) and analyzed descriptively. Semistructured interviews were conducted to obtain information on the rates of different types of research output that indicated impact for each project. Results were then pooled across all projects. Finally, email queries pertaining to methodology projects were collected retrospectively and their content analyzed. Simple citation analysis established the citation rates per year since publication for 74 methodological publications; however, further detailed analysis revealed more about the potential influence of these citations. Interviews that spanned 20 individual research projects demonstrated a variety of types of impact not otherwise collated, for example, applications and further developments of the research; release of software and provision of guidance materials to facilitate uptake; formation of new collaborations and broad dissemination. Finally, 194 email queries relating to 6 methodological projects were received from 170 individuals across 23 countries. They provided further evidence that the methodologies were impacting on research and research practice, both nationally and internationally. We have used the information
Timmerman, M.C.; Bajema, C.W.
A substantial body of research addressing the issue of sexual harassment in the workplace has been developed over the past decade. In this article, we present the results of our review study of research on sexual harassment in the workplace in 11 Northern and Western European countries and consider
The "bullied" gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, intersex and otherwise Queer (GLBTIQ) student is a fairly recent figure in the sexuality education research literature. GLBTIQ students have previously been problematised by sex education research in a range of different ways and have been the subjects of varying methodological…
This dissertation examined the status of data-based research in applied linguistics through an analysis of published research studies in nine peer-reviewed applied linguistics journals ("Applied Language Learning, The Canadian Modern Language Review / La Revue canadienne des langues vivantes, Current Issues in Language Planning, Dialog on Language…
Rohrmann, Tim; Brody, David
Research that elucidates the complexities of gender balance is itself a controversial field. This article examines challenges and limitations in quantitative as well as qualitative research on gender balance in early childhood education and care (ECEC). Cross country comparisons of male and female participation in the ECEC workforce are often…
Trainor, Audrey A.; Graue, Elizabeth
Despite previous and successful attempts to outline general criteria for rigor, researchers in special education have debated the application of rigor criteria, the significance or importance of small n research, the purpose of interpretivist approaches, and the generalizability of qualitative empirical results. Adding to these complications, the…
The important role of analytical thinking is demonstrated in this article by means of examples of research on student attrition rates. The article shows how various points of departure regarding the aims of a study influence (sometimes unqualified) assumptions of causation. Researchers should distinguish between necessary ...
Sutherland, William J.; Bellingan, Laura; Bellingham, Jim R.; Blackstock, Jason J.; Bloomfield, Robert M.; Bravo, Michael; Cadman, Victoria M.; Cleevely, David D.; Clements, Andy; Cohen, Anthony S.; Cope, David R.; Daemmrich, Arthur A.; Devecchi, Cristina; Anadon, Laura Diaz; Denegri, Simon; Doubleday, Robert; Dusic, Nicholas R.; Evans, Robert J.; Feng, Wai Y.; Godfray, H. Charles J.; Harris, Paul; Hartley, Sue E.; Hester, Alison J.; Holmes, John; Hughes, Alan; Hulme, Mike; Irwin, Colin; Jennings, Richard C.; Kass, Gary S.; Littlejohns, Peter; Marteau, Theresa M.; McKee, Glenn; Millstone, Erik P.; Nuttall, William J.; Owens, Susan; Parker, Miles M.; Pearson, Sarah; Petts, Judith; Ploszek, Richard; Pullin, Andrew S.; Reid, Graeme; Richards, Keith S.; Robinson, John G.; Shaxson, Louise; Sierra, Leonor; Smith, Beck G.; Spiegelhalter, David J.; Stilgoe, Jack; Stirling, Andy; Tyler, Christopher P.; Winickoff, David E.; Zimmern, Ron L.
The need for policy makers to understand science and for scientists to understand policy processes is widely recognised. However, the science-policy relationship is sometimes difficult and occasionally dysfunctional; it is also increasingly visible, because it must deal with contentious issues, or itself becomes a matter of public controversy, or both. We suggest that identifying key unanswered questions on the relationship between science and policy will catalyse and focus research in this field. To identify these questions, a collaborative procedure was employed with 52 participants selected to cover a wide range of experience in both science and policy, including people from government, non-governmental organisations, academia and industry. These participants consulted with colleagues and submitted 239 questions. An initial round of voting was followed by a workshop in which 40 of the most important questions were identified by further discussion and voting. The resulting list includes questions about the effectiveness of science-based decision-making structures; the nature and legitimacy of expertise; the consequences of changes such as increasing transparency; choices among different sources of evidence; the implications of new means of characterising and representing uncertainties; and ways in which policy and political processes affect what counts as authoritative evidence. We expect this exercise to identify important theoretical questions and to help improve the mutual understanding and effectiveness of those working at the interface of science and policy. PMID:22427809
William J Sutherland
Full Text Available The need for policy makers to understand science and for scientists to understand policy processes is widely recognised. However, the science-policy relationship is sometimes difficult and occasionally dysfunctional; it is also increasingly visible, because it must deal with contentious issues, or itself becomes a matter of public controversy, or both. We suggest that identifying key unanswered questions on the relationship between science and policy will catalyse and focus research in this field. To identify these questions, a collaborative procedure was employed with 52 participants selected to cover a wide range of experience in both science and policy, including people from government, non-governmental organisations, academia and industry. These participants consulted with colleagues and submitted 239 questions. An initial round of voting was followed by a workshop in which 40 of the most important questions were identified by further discussion and voting. The resulting list includes questions about the effectiveness of science-based decision-making structures; the nature and legitimacy of expertise; the consequences of changes such as increasing transparency; choices among different sources of evidence; the implications of new means of characterising and representing uncertainties; and ways in which policy and political processes affect what counts as authoritative evidence. We expect this exercise to identify important theoretical questions and to help improve the mutual understanding and effectiveness of those working at the interface of science and policy.
Research has delivered remarkable benefits for cancer patients and their families since James Watson and Francis Crick wrote the now immortal line, 'We wish to propose a structure for the salt of deoxyribonucleic acid' thus setting the molecular foundations for the modern era of cancer control. The pace of technological innovation from fundamental scientific discoveries to the policy impact of huge population studies has been breathtaking. One has only to contrast a paper on the treatment of solid epithelial cancers written by Henri Tagnon and colleagues in 1966 (Eur J Cancer2 51-7) with the myriad of chemotherapeutic approaches at the oncologists disposal today. Inevitably, as the tide of research has risen so it has bought the flotsam and jetsam of regulations and policies. Some have been helpful, many pointless and too many actually harmful. Naturally, some of these regulatory and general policies (by this I mean those concerned with funding, structure and organization) have been specifically targeted at cancer research, e.g. US National Cancer Act 1971, whilst others have been a product of the general regulatory environment with indirect consequences for cancer research, e.g. EU Data Protection Directive 1995. Policy issues thus cover a vast terrain criss-crossed by complex interdependencies between scientific areas, countries S&T policies and socio-political constructs. Unfortunately, there has been little attention paid to the consequences of these policy issues from which the research community has, by and large, been passenger rather than driver.Global investment in cancer research is now at unprecedented levels. The recently published report by the European Cancer Research Managers Forum has found some 14 billion euros being annually spent worldwide on cancer research (this figure includes industry but overall probably underestimates spend by at least one billion ). With the ageing demographics of developed countries and the catch-up effect in
Roessner, J. D.; Posner, D.; Shoemaker, F.; Shama, A.
This paper examines two types of information requirements that appear to be basic to DOE solar-energy-policy decisions: (1) how can the future market success of solar energy technologies be estimated, and (2) what factors influence the adoption of solar energy technologies, and what specific programs could promote solar energy adoption most effectively. This paper assesses the ability of a body of research, referred to here as diffusion research, to supply information that could partially satisfy these requirements. This assessment proceeds, first, by defining in greater detail a series of policy issues that face DOE. These are divided into cost reduction and performance improvement issues which include issues confronting the technology development component of the solar energy program, and barriers and incentives issues which are most relevant to problems of solar energy application. Second, these issues are translated into a series of questions that the diffusion approach can help resolve. Third, various elements within diffusion research are assessed in terms of their abilities to answer policy questions. Finally, the strengths and limitations of current knowledge about the diffusion of innovations are summarized, the applicability of both existing knowledge and the diffusion approach to the identified solar-energy-policy issues are discussed, and ways are suggested in which diffusion approaches can be modified and existing knowledge employed to meet short- and long-term goals of DOE. The inquiry covers the field of classical diffusion research, market research and consumer behavior, communication research, and solar-energy market-penetration modeling.
Full Text Available Abstract A major obstacle to the progress of the Millennium Development Goals has been the inability of health systems in many low- and middle-income countries to effectively implement evidence-informed interventions. This article discusses the relationships between implementation research and knowledge translation and identifies the role of implementation research in the design and execution of evidence-informed policy. After a discussion of the benefits and synergies needed to translate implementation research into action, the article discusses how implementation research can be used along the entire continuum of the use of evidence to inform policy. It provides specific examples of the use of implementation research in national level programmes by looking at the scale up of zinc for the treatment of childhood diarrhoea in Bangladesh and the scaling up of malaria treatment in Burkina Faso. A number of tested strategies to support the transfer of implementation research results into policy-making are provided to help meet the standards that are increasingly expected from evidence-informed policy-making practices.
Full Text Available This article examines some of the tensions in the generation of knowledge about water governance and poverty, and the translation of this knowledge into policy and practice. It draws on the experience of the authors in developing a framework for understanding water governance and poverty, their work on a project in Tanzania and their attempts to engage with policy makers. The authors propose that the negotiation of knowledge is a political process shaped both by power relationships and (often implicit normative values. Such negotiation may be impeded by the contrasting positions of academics as uncertainty creators and policy makers seeking uncertainty reduction. The authors critique instrumental approaches to the generation of knowledge and policy based on the amalgamation of perceived 'success stories' and 'good practice'. They favour instead approaches that attempt to understand water governance arrangements and outcomes for the poor within wider frameworks of negotiations over the allocation of societal resources. This implies the need to rethink the research – policy relationship and to build reflexive knowledge generation into the research-policy interface.
Russell, R L; Orlinsky, D E
This article is a sketch of the historical development of the field of behavioral and non-behavioral therapy research. Four phases are characterized: (1) establishing scientific research (1927-1954), (2) searching for scientific rigor (1955-1969), (3) expansion and organization (1970-1983), and (4) consolidation and reformulation (1984-present). Continuities between and key developments within successive phases are outlined, with emphasis given to methodological innovations. The corroboration of select findings about process and outcome and the development of several critical discourses within the third and fourth phases have implications for the provision of mental health care and for policy discussions.
Yu Sing Ong
Full Text Available This paper examines the different approaches and methods in comparative education research. It begins with a broad overview of the influences of Western philosophies and how Western education researchers approach social situations. Its differences with Chinese philosophies were highlighted with the concept of dao and Confucianism. More than just an epistemological discussion, this paper argues that Western researchers’ biasness towards Asian researchers may be due to their failure or lack of experience in making the connections with Asian social systems. It attempts to provide some plausible explanations of the prevalence of biasness by peer reviewers of Western journals.
Full Text Available Economic policies and decisions on EU association starting with the begginig of 90’s were pseudo-scientific, contradictory, incoherent because those policies have not based themselves on modern and current economic theories elaborated and promoted by the EU. Actuality. The topic is actual from the perspective of the factors’ analysis which were conducting to delay the association process of Moldova to the EU. At the same time, those were increasing instability, disequilibrium in the national economy and raise of social vulnerability and constraint levels which ultimately increased the gap between the national and EU economic development levels. During the period of 2000-2015, the socio-economic policy of the Republic of Moldova is described more as small and fragmented steps on conceiving economic and financial instruments for the integration into the EU which were reflected in the Neighbourhood Partnership and Association Agreement with the EU. These processes conducted for the state incapacity to define its own objectives and social-economic priorities for the association as well as legitimated a continuous stage of transition to the market economy. The scope of the present article is to propose a real change of the development and social-economic association policies for achieving final objective on integration to EU. The proposals would consist in emphasizing and implementation of the EU economic principles reflected in the neoclassic synthesis and neo-conservative theories; the elaboration and implementation of a new Strategy on economic supervision, coordination and anticipation of the economic disequilibrium; achieve economic stability for diminishing the negative effects of the global and regional crisis on national economy and adaptation of the development policies to the national socio-economic conditions. The methods used for the elaboration and achieving the expected results of the study were analysis and synthesis of the
Zuiderwijk-van Eijk, AMG; Jeffery, Keith; Bailo, Daniele; Yin, Y.
Governments and publicly-funded research organisations increasingly make research data available openly. Researchers can use this data in Virtual Research Environments (VREs) to conduct multidisciplinary data-driven research and to obtain new insights potentially for governmental policy-making.
Low, M David; Low, Barbara J; Baumler, Elizabeth R; Huynh, Phuong T
Research on the social determinants of health has demonstrated robust correlations between several social factors, health status, and life expectancy. Some of these factors could be modified through policy intervention. National-level public policies explicitly based on population health research are in various stages of development in many Western countries, but in spite of evident need, seemingly not at all in the United States. Because research shows such a strong association between education and good health, we offer evidence to show that at least two pressing problems in American society, namely the uneven distribution of educational attainment and health disparities linked to socioeconomic position, may be ameliorated through policy initiatives that link quality early childhood care, child development programs, and parental training in a seamless continuum with strengthened K-12 education.
Liu, Jianghong; Ulrich, Connie
Mediation statistical models help clarify the relationship between independent predictor variables and dependent outcomes of interest by assessing the impact of third variables. This type of statistical analysis is applicable for many clinical nursing research questions, yet its use within nursing remains low. Indeed, mediational analyses may help nurse researchers develop more effective and accurate prevention and treatment programs as well as help bridge the gap between scientific knowledge and clinical practice. In addition, this statistical approach allows nurse researchers to ask - and answer - more meaningful and nuanced questions that extend beyond merely determining whether an outcome occurs. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to provide a brief tutorial on the use of mediational analyses in clinical nursing research by briefly introducing the technique and, through selected empirical examples from the nursing literature, demonstrating its applicability in advancing nursing science.
Evaluates the methodology and conclusions reached in the 12 research articles in this issue as they pertain to 3 questions: (1) is homosexuality a choice?; (2) what psychological risks are unique to the mental health and well-being of lesbian and gay youths?; and (3) what are the effects of being raised by homosexual parents? (MDM)
Full Text Available This contribution discusses the integration processes of immigrants and minorities with a recent immigrant background, and the policies related to the process of settlement of these newcomers in European societies at all relevant levels: from the local level of municipalities and cities, to the national level of states, and the international level of the European Union. Within this general approach, however, a strong emphasis is put on the local level, since that is the level where such policies have to be implemented and are primarily felt, both by the immigrants themselves and by those parts of society that are most affected by immigration. To describe the current state of integration research and policies, this paper will explore in the first section the nature of integration processes, their conceptualisation and lessons from empirical studies. The reason for devoting some space to these topics is the assertion that any integration policy should be based on a thorough, scientifically-based knowledge of the processes of integration and exclusion: if a policy wants to steer such a process, it should have a clear idea of what instruments it can use possibly to intervene, in which part of the process, and at what particular moment. Such knowledge is a solid starting point for policy-making, but it is not enough. Processes of policy-making and implementation follow their own set course, which do not necessarily run parallel to the process of integration. That is why, in the following section, the author attempts to explain some of these processes. At the end of this paper he returns to the core questions of immigration and integration policies on the one hand, and the relationship between local, national and international integration policies on the other.
In this paper I review the present condition of the regeneration medicine research using pluripotency and a somatic stem cell, and I describe the subject of the science and technology policy in Japan towards realization of regeneration medicine. The Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) supported research promotion by the prompt action in 2007 when establishment of the iPS cell was reported by Shinya Yamanaka. Although the hospitable support of the Japanese government to an iPS cell is continued still now, there are some problems in respect of the support to other stem cell researches, and industrialization of regeneration medicine. In order to win a place in highly competitive area of investigation, MEXT needs to change policy so that funds may be widely supplied also to stem cell researches other than iPS cell research.
Kroneman, M.W.; Zee, J. van der
Investigating health policy reforms at a national level is a troublesome task, since it is difficult to establish exactly when a certain policy change took place and it is also difficult to determine the content of the reform. In this paper three main causes are distinguished that contribute to the
Matheson, Flora I; Forrester, Pamela; Brazil, Amanda; Doherty, Sherri; Affleck, Lindy
We explored current policies and practices on the use of incentives in research involving adult offenders under correctional supervision in prison and in the community (probation and parole) in Canada. We contacted the correctional departments of each of the Canadian provinces and territories, as well as the federal government department responsible for offenders serving sentences of two years or more. Findings indicated that two departments had formal policy whereas others had unwritten practices, some prohibiting their use and others allowing incentives on a case-by-case basis. Given the differences across jurisdictions, it would be valuable to examine how current incentive policies and practices are implemented to inform national best practices on incentives for offender-based research.
Scientific journals may incur scientific error if articles are tainted by research misconduct. While some journals' ethical policies, especially those on conflicts of interest, have improved over recent years, with some adopting a uniform approach, only around half of biomedical journals, principally those with higher impact factors, currently have formal misconduct policies, mainly for handling allegations. Worryingly, since a response to allegations would reasonably require an a priori definition, far fewer journals have publicly available definitions of misconduct. While some journals and editors' associations have taken significant steps to prevent and detect misconduct and respond to allegations, the content, visibility of and access to these policies varies considerably. In addition, while the lack of misconduct policies may prompt and maintain a de novo approach for journals, potentially causing stress, publication delays and even legal disputes, the lack of uniformity may be a matter of contention for research stakeholders such as editors, authors and their institutions, and publishers. Although each case may need an individual approach, I argue that posting highly visible, readily accessible, comprehensive, consistent misconduct policies could prevent the publication of fraudulent papers, increase the number of retractions of already published papers and, perhaps, reduce research misconduct. Although legally problematic, a concerted approach, with sharing of information between editors, which is clearly explained in journal websites, could also help. Ideally, journals, editors' associations, and publishers should seek consistency and homogenise misconduct policies to maintain public confidence in the integrity of biomedical research publications. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Pena, Elizabeth D.
In cross-cultural child development research there is often a need to translate instruments and instructions to languages other than English. Typically, the translation process focuses on ensuring linguistic equivalence. However, establishment of linguistic equivalence through translation techniques is often not sufficient to guard against…
the full research process from planning up to reporting, whereas the project at the other university focuses mainly on the analysis of data. Conclusion: Recommendations have been made regarding topics which should be covered and teaching methods which should be used at all universities. Doctors should be involved in ...
Despite a long history of interest in North American and Western European literature, researchers in the UK are only now beginning to turn attention to the issue of academic stress in schoolchildren and how it may affect emotional well-being, health and performance on school assessments. Based on the author's experiences of designing an extensive…
Moreover, quantitative research methods were the most common, with survey design being most prevalent. It is subsequently recommended that periodic reviews of SAJAE be conducted, as well as comparative reviews with similar journals. A collaborative approach was suggested. Keywords: Content analysis, primary ...
Deemer, Sandra A.
The author describes an action research project given to masters-level preservice teachers in her educational psychology classes to help them connect the theories they are learning with educational problems they have observed or experienced. Students' responses on a six-item survey indicated that they valued the better understanding of how…
Dadin Kowa community of Gombe State is noted for rice production due to the presence of dams that ensure all year rice production. However, low patronage and high price of local rice in local markets are putting many farmers and women processors out of business. The paper shares results of an action research process ...
Miller, Larry D.
The major goal of graduate education in speech communication is to advance knowledge about human communication through research and by training minds. Graduate education differs from undergraduate education because it emphasizes not only what we know, but how we come to know. Often, however, graduate education is just seen as being an extension of…
Christiansen, Ole B; Nielsen, Henriette Svarre; Kolte, Astrid
of consensus may mainly be because studies in the field of RPL have yielded very heterogeneous results. This heterogeneity, in the authors' belief, is caused by the scientists' lack of appreciation, when they do research, of important epidemiological knowledge about RPL (e.g., about the multifactorial...
Bedoin, D.; Scelles, R.
This study focuses on the qualitative research interview, an essential tool frequently used in the human and social sciences, conducted with children having communication disorders. Two distinct populations are addressed--children with intellectual disability and deaf children without related disabilities--with the aim of identifying the main…
Hacking, Elisabeth Barratt; Barratt, Robert
"Listening to children: environmental perspectives and the school curriculum" (L2C) was a UK research council project based in schools in a socially and economically deprived urban area in England. It focused on 10/12 year old children's experience of their local community and environment, and how they made sense of this in relation both…
Gunn, Wendy; Buch Løgstrup, Louise
Within the design studio, and across multiple field sites, the authors compare involvement of research tools and materials during collaborative processes of designing. Their aim is to trace temporal dimensions (shifts/ movements) of where and when learning takes place along different sites of pra...
Gunn, Wendy; Løgstrup, Louise B.
Within the design studio, and across multiple field sites, the authors compare involvement of research tools and materials during collaborative processes of designing. Their aim is to trace temporal dimensions (shifts/ movements) of where and when learning takes place along different sites of practice. They do so by combining participant…
The successful performance of many interpreting professionals can be acquired with formal instruction without any reference to formal research. Without any theoretical sessions much can be gained from the practiceoriented instruction by experienced interpreters whom one can regard as masters of the craft. However ...
are taught at the majority of universities: study designs in medical research, exploring and presenting data, summarising data, probability, sampling, statistical inference, analysis of cross tabulation and critical reading. At four universities there are practical classes, three of these mainly for computer work. At three universities ...
Kunst, Anton E
This article briefly assesses the research methods that were applied in the SOPHIE project to evaluate the impact of structural policies on population health and health inequalities. The evaluation of structural policies is one of the key methodological challenges in today's public health. The experience in the SOPHIE project was that mixed methods are essential to identify, understand, and predict the health impact of structural policies. On the one hand, quantitative studies that included spatial comparisons or time trend analyses, preferably in a quasi-experimental design, showed that some structural policies were associated with improved population health and smaller health inequalities. On the other hand, qualitative studies, often inspired by realist approaches, were important to understand how these policies could have achieved the observed impact and why they would succeed in some settings but fail in others. This review ends with five recommendations for future studies that aim to evaluate, understand, and predict how health inequalities can be reduced through structural policies.
Jean Williams of De Montfort University delivered the opening plenary, Women and Soccer: Research Agendas and Policy Debates, at The Futures of Women's Soccer Symposium held at Duke University's Forum for Scholars and Publics on April 10, 2015. The paper looked at the history of women's soccer and its contemporary situation in the approach to Women's World Cup in Canada 6 June 2015.
From safety to nutrition, food policy researchers work to improve what we eat. They examine evidence found by experts in food science, consumer behavior, taste perception, nutrition, and many other related fields. Using this information, these scientists help the food industry, government, and public improve the quality, safety, and sustainability…
Brown, Susan L.
Over the past decade, the linkages between marriage and child well-being have attracted the attention of researchers and policy makers alike. Children's living arrangements have become increasingly diverse and unstable, which raises important questions about how and why family structure and stability are related to child outcomes. This article…
Martin, Ben R.; Bell, Martin; Callon, Michel; Grupp, Hariolf; Kodama, Fumio; Kuhlmann, Stefan; Fleming, Lee; von Tunzelmann, Nick; Powell, Walter
Research Policy (RP) continues to grow and flourish. The journal receives increasing numbers of submissions from all round the world, with the growth being particularly rapid outside of North America andWestern Europe. In 2008, the ten issues totalled nearly 2000 pages and included 125 full-length
Hence it is an indispensable source of critical analysis on contemporary national and regional policies and issues that are of interest to researchers, development planners, decision-makers, and academics. Main Disciplines Covered by the EASSRR Anthropology and Sociology Political Science Economics Education ...
Research priority setting for health policy and health systems strengthening in Nigeria: The policymakers and stakeholders perspective and involvement. ... Introduction: Nigeria is one of the low and middle income countries (LMICs) facing severe resource constraint, making it impossible for adequate resources to be ...
Shaping Public Health Education, Research, and Policy in the Arab World. While the Arab World has enjoyed substantial economic progress, there has been little improvement in ensuring equitable access to health care. In most countries, the majority of people have limited access to basic health services. These are ...
This paper deals with the role of researchers in the development of language policies for European minority languages. This question is placed in the context of a long-standing debate in sociology to which several authors have contributed; among them are Max Weber, Howard Becker and Alvin Gouldner. This article also briefly refers to the European…
Wesselink, E.; Boschma, R.A.
This paper offers an overview of the key research projects that have examined the various impacts of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP). The paper focuses on the impact of the ENP on trade, migration, innovation and institutional and cultural diversity, and social capital. The majority of
Lincoln, Yvonna S.; Guba, Egon E.
Research, evaluation, and policy analysis are elements of inquiry whose functions, aims, purposes, intended audiences, and intended outcomes have been confused in the literature discussing how to accomplish them. Using the definition of "disciplined inquiry" provided by Cronbach and Suppes (1969), which defines disciplined inquiry as the…
Rohweder, Catherine L; Laping, Jane L; Diehl, Sandra J; Moore, Alexis A; Isler, Malika Roman; Scott, Jennifer Elissa; Enga, Zoe Kaori; Black, Molly C; Dave, Gaurav; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Melvin, Cathy L
Innovative models to facilitate more rapid uptake of research findings into practice are urgently needed. Community members who engage in research can accelerate this process by acting as adoption agents. We implemented an Evidence Academy conference model bringing together researchers, health care professionals, advocates, and policy makers across North Carolina to discuss high-impact, life-saving study results. The overall goal is to develop dissemination and implementation strategies for translating evidence into practice and policy. Each 1-day, single-theme, regional meeting focuses on a leading community-identified health priority. The model capitalizes on the power of diverse local networks to encourage broad, common awareness of new research findings. Furthermore, it emphasizes critical reflection and active group discussion on how to incorporate new evidence within and across organizations, health care systems, and communities. During the concluding session, participants are asked to articulate action plans relevant to their individual interests, work setting, or area of expertise.
Jawson, Michael D.; Walthall, Charles W.; Shafer, Steven R.; Liebig, Mark; Franzluebbers, Alan J.; Follett, Ronald F.
GRACEnet (Greenhouse gas Reduction through Agricultural Carbon Enhancement network) was conceived to build upon ongoing USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) research to improve soil productivity, while addressing the challenges and opportunities of interest in C sequestration from a climate change perspective. The vision for GRACEnet was and remains: Knowledge and information used to implement scientifically based agricultural management practices from the field to national policy scales on C sequestration, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and environmental benefits. The national focus of GRACEnet uses a standardized approach by ARS laboratories and university and land manager (e.g. farmer and rancher) cooperators to assess C sequestration and GHG emission from different crop and grassland systems. Since 2002, GRACEnet has significantly expanded GHG mitigation science and delivered usable information to agricultural research and policy organizations. Recent developments suggest GRACEnet will have international impact by contributing leadership and technical guidance for the Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases.
Appleton, Jane V; King, Lindy
This paper presents our journey through a contemplation of the philosophical origins of constructivism to consider its role as an active methodology in qualitative research. The first part of the paper summarizes the philosophical background of constructivism and the five principles underpinning this paradigm as described through the works of Guba and Lincoln. The philosophical roots of constructivism are then compared with postpositivism, critical realism and participatory inquiry. The paper moves on to consider their common methodological steps, before examining how the constructivist research strategy is being adopted and adapted within the pragmatics of health service research. Recent studies will be drawn upon to illustrate the use of constructivist methodology. Questions are raised about the role of philosophy and the extent to which it should or does underpin or influence qualitative research strategies. We believe that if researchers gain an understanding of both philosophy and methodology a richer and more robust study is likely to result.
Rodriguez, Maria A.; Niaz, Mansoor
The objectives of this study are: (1) evaluation of the methodology used in recent search for particles with fractional electrical charge (quarks) and its implications for understanding the scientific research methodology of Millikan; (2) evaluation of 43 general physics textbooks and 11 laboratory manuals, with respect to the oil drop experiment,…
Bozalek, Vivienne; Zembylas, Michalinos
Internationally, an interest is emerging in a growing body of work on what has become known as "diffractive methodologies" drawing attention to ontological aspects of research. Diffractive methodologies have largely been developed in response to a dissatisfaction with practices of "reflexivity", which are seen to be grounded in…
This book is an in-depth guide to effective scientific research. Ranging from the philosophical to the practical, it explains at the outset what science can – and can’t – achieve, and discusses its relationship to mathematics and laws. The author then pays extensive attention to the scientific method, including experimental design, verification, uncertainty and statistics. A major aim of the book is to help young scientists reflect upon the deeper aims of their work and make the best use of their talents in contributing to progress. To this end, it also includes sections on planning research, on presenting one’s findings in writing, as well as on ethics and the responsibilities of scientists. .
Wang, Chenggang; Xia, Yin; Shoemaker, Robbin A.; Buccola, Steven T.
The article presents a dynamic model of research investment. This model allows us to examine three important channels through which public investment policy can affect the private sector's research investment, that is, the productivity, replacement, and wage effects. Two alternative empirical approaches are introduced to implement the model. Through a unified examination of the productivity, replacement, and wage effects, the empirical estimation of this model will provide insight into whethe...
LaValley, M.; Starkweather, S.; Bowden, S.
The Arctic is changing rapidly as average temperatures rise. As an Arctic nation, the United States is directly affected by these changes. It is imperative that these changes be understood to make effective policy decisions. Since the research needs of the Arctic are large and wide-ranging, most Federal agencies fund some aspect of Arctic research. As a result, the U.S. government regularly works to coordinate Federal Arctic research in order to reduce duplication of effort and costs, and to enhance the research's system perspective. The government's Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee (IARPC) accomplishes this coordination through its policy-driven five-year Arctic Research Plans and collaboration teams (CTs), which are research topic-oriented teams tasked with implementing the plans. The policies put forth by IARPC thus inform science, however IARPC has been less successful of making these science outcomes part of an iterative decision making process. IARPC's mandate to facilitate coordinated research through information sharing communities can be viewed a prerequisite step in the science-to- decision making process. Research collaborations and the communities of practice facilitated by IARPC allow scientists to connect with a wider community of scientists and stakeholders and, in turn, the larger issues in need of policy solutions. These connections help to create a pathway through which research may increasingly reflect policy goals and inform decisions. IARPC has been growing into a more useful model for the science-to-decision making interface since the publication of its Arctic Research Plan FY2017-2021, and it is useful to evaluate how and why IARPC is progressing in this realm. To understand the challenges facing interagency research collaboration and the progress IARPC has made, the Chukchi Beaufort and Communities CTs, were evaluated as case studies. From the case studies, several recommendations for enhancing collaborations across Federal
The European Parliament sets priorities for future research policy; it supports e.g.: the Europeanization of large-scale research because it shall facilitate the combination of the research and financing potential. It also secures a wide adaptation of the knowledge achieved by the joint financial efforts of all member states. The demander made for a joint research project are: that the next programme for several years of the joint research project may launch its position and special qualification as a safety research centre for industrial activities of high risks (nuclear energy sector, chemistry, biology) and that the joint research project may be organized as independently as possible. Moreover, the European Parliament demands that the member states increase their research budgets to at least 2.5% of the gross national product. (orig./HSCH) [de
Full Text Available Background: This paper presents the objectives, research design, methodology, and primary findings of the Isfahan Comprehensive Elderly Study (ICES. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 603 elderly persons (aged 60 and over were selected by multistage cluster sampling method from Isfahan, Iran, in 2016 comprehensive questionnaires along with a detailed interview were used to collect information on personal, family, socioeconomic, health and social services characteristics, life styles, physical illnesses and chronic diseases, mental, emotional and cognition disorders, quality of life, disabilities, sleep quality, social supports, life satisfaction, self-efficacy, and of participants. Results: The mean ± standard deviation (SD age of participants was 69.66 ± 6.31 years, consisting of 50.75% females. About 23% of elderly persons were at the risk of malnutrition and 4.5% were current smoker. Severe and mild depression were documented in 9.3% and 30.2% among included study subjects, respectively. About half of the participants had hypertension, and 26.8% suffered from cardiovascular disease. The mean ± SD of total score of Geriatric Depression Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, Older People's Quality of Life, Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly and Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index was 8.84 ± 6.79, 14.76 ± 5.92, 133.99 ± 10.55, 142.04 ± 120.53, and 6.17 ± 3.44, respectively. Elderly males had significantly higher life satisfaction and self-efficacy and better cognitive function than females (P < 0.01. Conclusion: The findings of current study provided a comprehensive overview of the current health status and lifestyle of older adults in Isfahan city. The ICES could help policy makers to design appropriate prevention and interventional programs and policies to cover the specific needs of the elderly population.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity is essential for optimal physical and psychological health but substantial declines in children's activity levels have occurred in New Zealand and internationally. Children's independent mobility (i.e., outdoor play and traveling to destinations unsupervised, an integral component of physical activity in childhood, has also declined radically in recent decades. Safety-conscious parenting practices, car reliance and auto-centric urban design have converged to produce children living increasingly sedentary lives. This research investigates how urban neighborhood environments can support or enable or restrict children's independent mobility, thereby influencing physical activity accumulation and participation in daily life. Methods/Design The study is located in six Auckland, New Zealand neighborhoods, diverse in terms of urban design attributes, particularly residential density. Participants comprise 160 children aged 9-11 years and their parents/caregivers. Objective measures (global positioning systems, accelerometers, geographical information systems, observational audits assessed children's independent mobility and physical activity, neighborhood infrastructure, and streetscape attributes. Parent and child neighborhood perceptions and experiences were assessed using qualitative research methods. Discussion This study is one of the first internationally to examine the association of specific urban design attributes with child independent mobility. Using robust, appropriate, and best practice objective measures, this study provides robust epidemiological information regarding the relationships between the built environment and health outcomes for this population.
Zh V Puzanova
Full Text Available The article considers prospects for the new sociological method - vignette method - based mainly on foreign studies that developed, applied and summarized the results of the method application. The authors trace the history of the method in the Western and Russian traditions focusing on the topics of research in different fields, including sensitive issues. The theoretical part of the article is illustrated by the examples of vignettes introduced by different authors, in which the specifics of vignettes design and usage in sociological studies is shown. From the perspective of the analysis of meanings, beliefs, and explanatory schemes the authors demonstrate similarities of the method of vignettes and ethnographic interviews; underline advantages and disadvantages of the method as well as its restrictions; provide the key principles for vignettes design in different types of studies. The article considers two strategies of analysis of vignettes data - qualitative and quantitative - and emphasizes the importance of combinatorial-logic techniques, in particular DSM-method, within quantitative strategy and the principle of ‘deepening’ - within qualitative strategy. The authors provide examples of vignettes developed in their own research to show the capabilities of the method.
Vera A Chmyreva
Full Text Available The article presents the main approaches developed within US scientific and political community concerning the Republic of Turkey and the Middle East region as a whole. These theoretical developments are a long-term conceptual framework of US foreign policy in the Middle East; moreover, the fact of American participation in the processes of political and military transformation of the region, as well as the desire to model the dynamics of these processes, is recognized in modern American historiography. In this context, research of the situation in the region, should be analyzed not through the prism of the theoretical understanding, but be perceived as political technologies designed to ensure the implementation of US foreign policy goals. Therefore the study of American historiography, analysis of new research approaches and methods are of scientific interest, but it must be noted that most research of well-known representatives of American scientific and political community are free from theorizing and methodological analysis, which creates certain difficulties in the study of its methodological framework.
Reblin, Maija; Heyman, Richard E; Ellington, Lee; Baucom, Brian R W; Georgiou, Panayiotis G; Vadaparampil, Susan T
Relationship behaviors contribute to compromised health or resilience. Everyday communication between intimate partners represents the vast majority of their interactions. When intimate partners take on new roles as patients and caregivers, everyday communication takes on a new and important role in managing both the transition and the adaptation to the change in health status. However, everyday communication and its relation to health has been little studied, likely due to barriers in collecting and processing this kind of data. The goal of this paper is to describe deterrents to capturing naturalistic, day-in-the-life communication data and share how technological advances have helped surmount them. We provide examples from a current study and describe how we anticipate technology will further change research capabilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Antonina V. Noskova
Full Text Available The article analyzes some scientific approaches to nutrition research and current nutrition practices for students of two Moscow Universities. The author notes that the necessity for scientific studying of food has been understood at the end of the XIX - the beginning of the XX centuries. In the article the social context of three directions of researches of a nutrition problem is analyzed: natural-scientific, ethnographic and sociological. The answer to a question why the healthy nutrition for modern society is an actual problem is given. It is shown that modern social transformations have changed sociocultural regulation of nutrition consumption. The variety of scientific approaches to food is revealed: a food as a factor of physical health, a food as an ethnocultural tradition, a food as a social habit and marker of the social status of the individual. The special emphasis is made on the European sociology of food. In the last thirty years in this area, some special sociological theories were formed: sociology of nutrition, sociology of food, sociology of menu, etc. Consumer abundance in modern western society changed a view of sociologists on essence and functions of food. New social factors give now more pressure on the nutrition practices. Based on food diaries and essays of 60 Moscow students, the author's project shows and analyzes the current nutrition practices of youth. The analysis of some peculiarities in the youth choice of food is made. The influence of social/dietary/religious norms on food behavior of students is shown. Value of "healthy food" in youth interpretation is shown. In the end of the article, the author notes the dialectics of freedom / social pressure for nutrition practices of modern youth.
... dissemination times to a level that were previously unobtainable. The intent of this paper is to provide a methodology whereby further operations research may be conducted to support a net-centric tool suite that will ultimately benefit today's Army.
The basic purpose [of the conference] was to encourage more roadside surveys by furthering the research methodology and recommendations for conducting roadside surveys developed by a special group of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Deve...
Lysgaard, Jonas Greve; Van Poeck, Katrien
and sustainability issues, they stress, educational researchers should be mindful of the pitfalls of exclusively relying on language, discourse, and notions like social constructivism. ESE scholars therefore argue for moving the field of ESE research beyond the boundaries of the Modern Constitution with its strict...... research literature, we scrutinise all 21 volumes (96 issues) of the journal ‘Environmental Education Research’ (EER) in order to identify research articles addressing ESE policy. A search through the journal website’s search engine using the keyword ‘policy’ results in more than 500 articles. We...
Full Text Available The paper discusses the role of educational research in transforming educational policy and practice. Our aim was to critically illuminate the possibilities, range and limitation soft he evidence-based concept of education reform. This concept implies an intensive re-examination of the epistemology of educational science, with the emphasis on studying the causal and consequential relations in education. It demands methodological rigour in educational research, culminating in the random sample experiment. It is also perceived that there is the problem of systematic dissemination and application of the obtained scientific findings in educational practice. On the other hand, the critics of this concept have observed that it is neo-positivist, mono-methodological, since it favors quantitative research, and as such insufficient for explaining and understanding educational phenomena and the contexts in which educational innovations are studied. At the same time, during the last decade, there has been another reconsideration of the role of scientific in forming of practitioners in their everyday work, as well as of the relation between research and the development of educational policy. Finally, philosophers of education again insist on the moral instead of on instrumental nature of educational practice. Theoretical analysis of the concept of evidence-based transformation of education has been supplemented by an analysis of social and institutional conditions in which the modern science of education develops. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179060: Modeli procenjivanja i strategije unapređivanja kvaliteta obrazovanja u Srbiji
Grant, A; Buteau, M; Richards, Y; Delisle, E; Laplante, P; Niyonsenga, T; Xhignesse, M
A continuing challenge in health informatics and health evaluation is to enable access to the practice of health care so that the determinants of successful care and good health outcomes can be measured, evaluated and analysed. Furthermore the results of the analysis should be available to the health care practitioner or to the patient as might be appropriate, so that he or she can use this information for continual improvement of practice and optimisation of outcomes. In this paper we review two experiences, one in primary care, the FAMUS project, and the other in hospital care, the Autocontrol project. Each project demonstrates an informatics approach for evaluation research in the clinical setting and indicates ways in which useful information can be obtained which with appropriate feed-back and education can be used towards the achievement of better health. Emphasis is given to data collection methods compatible with practice and to high quality information feedback, particularly in the team context, to enable the formulation of strategies for practice improvement.
Murphy, E; King, E A
This paper explores methodological issues and policy implications concerning the implementation of the EU Environmental Noise Directive (END) across Member States. Methodologically, the paper focuses on two key thematic issues relevant to the Directive: (1) calculation methods and (2) mapping methods. For (1), the paper focuses, in particular, on how differing calculation methods influence noise prediction results as well as the value of the EU noise indicator L(den) and its associated implications for comparability of noise data across EU states. With regard to (2), emphasis is placed on identifying the issues affecting strategic noise mapping, estimating population exposure, noise action planning and dissemination of noise mapping results to the general public. The implication of these issues for future environmental noise policy is also examined. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This paper explores methodological issues and policy implications concerning the implementation of the EU Environmental Noise Directive (END) across Member States. Methodologically, the paper focuses on two key thematic issues relevant to the Directive: (1) calculation methods and (2) mapping methods. For (1), the paper focuses, in particular, on how differing calculation methods influence noise prediction results as well as the value of the EU noise indicator L(den) and its associated implications for comparability of noise data across EU states. With regard to (2), emphasis is placed on identifying the issues affecting strategic noise mapping, estimating population exposure, noise action planning and dissemination of noise mapping results to the general public. The implication of these issues for future environmental noise policy is also examined.
Zima Liliana Adela
Full Text Available As difficult as segmenting consumer markets is, it is much simpler and easier than segmenting industrial markets. Often the same industrial products have multiple applications; likewise, several different products can be used in the same application. Customer differ greatly, and it is hard to discern which differences are important and which are trivial for developing a marketing strategy. Making the research at General Motor's Europe I realized that the most industrial marketers use segmentation as a way to explain results rather than as a way to plan. In fact, industrial segmentation can assist companies in several areas like: analysis of the market, selection of key markets and management and marketing. In this study I tried to make a better understanding of the total marketplace, including how and why customers buy and to develop strategies, plans and programs to profitability meet the needs of different market segments and to give the company a distinct competitive advantage. The Marketing Plan is based on an Information System which can be interpretaded in two different ways. In this case its singular form focusing on both formal and informal information system is appropriate. The investigation explains the environment of the European Business Team . The techniques used were: system maps, observations, interviews, questionnaires and company documents. The initial stage of exploring the situation starts usually with a dialog between the potential client - in this particular case the European Business Team – and the analyst. The vague impression is then given that not everything is running as it should be by the client. This was, however, not completely true in my case, as I had to go looking for problems. Preliminary investigations into product communication did show a feeling of unease between the departments. Having expressed the current situation of the European Business Team , I then chose three areas to study further. I had to
Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Frels, Rebecca K.
Because of the mixed research-based nature of literature reviews, it is surprising, then, that insufficient information has been provided as to how reviewers can incorporate mixed research approaches into their literature reviews. Thus, in this article, we provide a mixed methods research approach--Q methodology--for analyzing information…
Sheffield, Jenna Pack; Kimme Hea, Amy C.
While composition studies researchers have examined the ways social media are impacting our lives inside and outside of the classroom, less attention has been given to the ways in which social media--specifically Social Network Sites (SNSs)--may enhance our own research methods and methodologies by helping to combat research participant attrition…
Colantonio, A.; Cott, C.; Marshall, V.; Rudman, D.; Aiken, F.; Hebert, D.; Underhill, S.
Outlines an 11-week graduate course on research methodology in aging and health on these topics: introduction, social gerontology research, design, conceptualization and measurement of health status, conceptualization and measurement of cognitive status, conceptualization and measurement of quality of life, qualitative research, case studies,…
Mayer, Igor; Bekebrede, Geertje; Harteveld, Casper; Warmelink, Harald; Zhou, Qiqi; van Ruijven, Theo; Lo, Julia; Kortmann, Rens; Wenzler, Ivo
The authors present the methodological background to and underlying research design of an ongoing research project on the scientific evaluation of serious games and/or computer-based simulation games (SGs) for advanced learning. The main research questions are: (1) what are the requirements and design principles for a comprehensive social…
Goodyear, Rodney K.; Tracey, Terence J. G.; Claiborn, Charles D.; Lichtenberg, James W.; Wampold, Bruce E.
This article provides an overview of the research approach called concept mapping at conceptual, methodological, and practical levels. The relevance of the approach to counseling psychology research is discussed, and the approach is located conceptually in the realm of qualitative methods available to counseling psychology researchers. To…
Roetzheim, Richard G.; Freund, Karen M.; Corle, Don K.; Murray, David M.; Snyder, Frederick R.; Kronman, Andrea C.; Jean-Pierre, Pascal; Raich, Peter C.; Holden, Alan E. C.; Darnell, Julie S.; Warren-Mears, Victoria; Patierno, Steven; Design, PNRP; Committee, Analysis
Background The Patient Navigation Research Program (PNRP) is a cooperative effort of nine research projects, each employing its own unique study design. To evaluate projects such as PNRP, it is desirable to perform a pooled analysis to increase power relative to the individual projects. There is no agreed upon prospective methodology, however, for analyzing combined data arising from different study designs. Expert opinions were thus solicited from members of the PNRP Design and Analysis Committee Purpose To review possible methodologies for analyzing combined data arising from heterogeneous study designs. Methods The Design and Analysis Committee critically reviewed the pros and cons of five potential methods for analyzing combined PNRP project data. Conclusions were based on simple consensus. The five approaches reviewed included: 1) Analyzing and reporting each project separately, 2) Combining data from all projects and performing an individual-level analysis, 3) Pooling data from projects having similar study designs, 4) Analyzing pooled data using a prospective meta analytic technique, 5) Analyzing pooled data utilizing a novel simulated group randomized design. Results Methodologies varied in their ability to incorporate data from all PNRP projects, to appropriately account for differing study designs, and in their impact from differing project sample sizes. Limitations The conclusions reached were based on expert opinion and not derived from actual analyses performed. Conclusions The ability to analyze pooled data arising from differing study designs may provide pertinent information to inform programmatic, budgetary, and policy perspectives. Multi-site community-based research may not lend itself well to the more stringent explanatory and pragmatic standards of a randomized controlled trial design. Given our growing interest in community-based population research, the challenges inherent in the analysis of heterogeneous study design are likely to become
Grande, David; Gollust, Sarah E; Pany, Maximilian; Seymour, Jane; Goss, Adeline; Kilaru, Austin; Meisel, Zachary
As the United States moves forward with health reform, the communication gap between researchers and policy makers will need to be narrowed to promote policies informed by evidence. Social media represent an expanding channel for communication. Academic journals, public health agencies, and health care organizations are increasingly using social media to communicate health information. For example, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention now regularly tweets to 290,000 followers. We conducted a survey of health policy researchers about using social media and two traditional channels (traditional media and direct outreach) to disseminate research findings to policy makers. Researchers rated the efficacy of the three dissemination methods similarly but rated social media lower than the other two in three domains: researchers' confidence in their ability to use the method, peers' respect for its use, and how it is perceived in academic promotion. Just 14 percent of our participants reported tweeting, and 21 percent reported blogging about their research or related health policy in the past year. Researchers described social media as being incompatible with research, of high risk professionally, of uncertain efficacy, and an unfamiliar technology that they did not know how to use. Researchers will need evidence-based strategies, training, and institutional resources to use social media to communicate evidence. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
will discuss some of the key elements of successful interactions between science and policy, as well as some specifics for the carbon management context. I will draw on case studies of previous monitoring efforts developed for policy and illustrate some of the key elements to be considered as well as lessons learned. The paper will also examine how the carbon context may be different from other contexts we have encountered in the past. Finally, I will conclude with some implications for structuring decision support science policies within the U.S. Global Change Research Program and other related programs.
de Brún, Tomas; O'Reilly-de Brún, Mary; O'Donnell, Catherine A; MacFarlane, Anne
The implementation of research findings is not a straightforward matter. There are substantive and recognised gaps in the process of translating research findings into practice and policy. In order to overcome some of these translational difficulties, a number of strategies have been proposed for researchers. These include greater use of theoretical approaches in research focused on implementation, and use of a wider range of research methods appropriate to policy questions and the wider social context in which they are placed. However, questions remain about how to combine theory and method in implementation research. In this paper, we respond to these proposals. Focussing on a contemporary social theory, Normalisation Process Theory, and a participatory research methodology, Participatory Learning and Action, we discuss the potential of their combined use for implementation research. We note ways in which Normalisation Process Theory and Participatory Learning and Action are congruent and may therefore be used as heuristic devices to explore, better understand and support implementation. We also provide examples of their use in our own research programme about community involvement in primary healthcare. Normalisation Process Theory alone has, to date, offered useful explanations for the success or otherwise of implementation projects post-implementation. We argue that Normalisation Process Theory can also be used to prospectively support implementation journeys. Furthermore, Normalisation Process Theory and Participatory Learning and Action can be used together so that interventions to support implementation work are devised and enacted with the expertise of key stakeholders. We propose that the specific combination of this theory and methodology possesses the potential, because of their combined heuristic force, to offer a more effective means of supporting implementation projects than either one might do on its own, and of providing deeper understandings of
Gonzalez-Block Miguel A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Health policy and systems research (HPSR is an international public good with potential to orient investments and performance at national level. Identifying research trends and priorities at international level is therefore important. This paper offers a conceptual framework and defines the HPSR portfolio as a set of research projects under implementation. The research portfolio is influenced by factors external to the research system as well as internal to it. These last include the capacity of research institutions, the momentum of research programs, funding opportunities and the influence of stakeholder priorities and public opinion. These dimensions can vary in their degree of coordination, leading to a complementary or a fragmented research portfolio. Objective The main objective is to identify the themes currently being pursued in the research portfolio and agendas within developing countries and to quantify their frequency in an effort to identify current research topics and their underlying influences. Methods HPSR topics being pursued by developing country producer institutions and their perceived priorities were identified through a survey between 2000 and 2002. The response to a call for letters of intent issued by the Alliance in 2000 for a broad range of topics was also analyzed. The institutions that were the universe of this study consisted of the 176 institutional partners of the Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research producing research in low and middle income countries outside Europe. HPSR topics as well as the beneficiaries or issues and the health problems addressed were content analyzed. Topics were classified into 19 categories and their frequency analyzed across groups of countries with similar per capita income. Agendas were identified by analyzing the source of funding and of project initiation for projects under implementation. Results The highest ranking topic at the aggregate level is
Moorhead, Laura L; Holzmeyer, Cheryl; Maggio, Lauren A; Steinberg, Ryan M; Willinsky, John
Through funding agency and publisher policies, an increasing proportion of the health sciences literature is being made open access. Such an increase in access raises questions about the awareness and potential utilization of this literature by those working in health fields. A sample of physicians (N=336) and public health non-governmental organization (NGO) staff (N=92) were provided with relatively complete access to the research literature indexed in PubMed, as well as access to the point-of-care service UpToDate, for up to one year, with their usage monitored through the tracking of web-log data. The physicians also participated in a one-month trial of relatively complete or limited access. The study found that participants' research interests were not satisfied by article abstracts alone nor, in the case of the physicians, by a clinical summary service such as UpToDate. On average, a third of the physicians viewed research a little more frequently than once a week, while two-thirds of the public health NGO staff viewed more than three articles a week. Those articles were published since the 2008 adoption of the NIH Public Access Policy, as well as prior to 2008 and during the maximum 12-month embargo period. A portion of the articles in each period was already open access, but complete access encouraged a viewing of more research articles. Those working in health fields will utilize more research in the course of their work as a result of (a) increasing open access to research, (b) improving awareness of and preparation for this access, and (c) adjusting public and open access policies to maximize the extent of potential access, through reduction in embargo periods and access to pre-policy literature.
Sheldon, Michael R
Policy studies are a recent addition to the American Physical Therapy Association's Research Agenda and are critical to our understanding of various federal, state, local, and organizational policies on the provision of physical therapist services across the continuum of care. Policy analyses that help to advance the profession's various policy agendas will require relevant theoretical frameworks to be credible. The purpose of this perspective article is to: (1) demonstrate the use of a policy-making theory as an analytical framework in a policy analysis and (2) discuss how sound policy analysis can assist physical therapists in becoming more effective change agents, policy advocates, and partners with other relevant stakeholder groups. An exploratory study of state agency policy responses to address work-related musculoskeletal disorders is provided as a contemporary example to illustrate key points and to demonstrate the importance of selecting a relevant analytical framework based on the context of the policy issue under investigation. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.
Full Text Available Research in psychopathology may be considered as an intersubjective endeavor mainly concerned with understanding other minds. Thus, the way we conceive of social understanding influences how we do research in psychology in the first place. In this paper, we focus on psychopathology research as a paradigmatic case for this methodological issue, since the relation between the researcher and the object of study is characterized by a major component of otherness.We critically review different methodologies in psychopathology research, highlighting their relation to different social cognition theories (the third-, first- and second-person approaches. Hence we outline the methodological implications arising from each theoretical stance. Firstly, we critically discuss the dominant paradigm in psychopathology research, based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM, American Psychiatric Association, 2013 and on quantitative methodology, as an example of a third person methodology. Secondly, we contrast this mainstream view with phenomenological psychopathology which - by rejecting the reductionist view exclusively focused on behavioural symptoms - takes consciousness as its main object of study: it therefore attempts to grasp patients’ first person experience. But how can we speak about a first person perspective in psychopathology if the problem at stake is the experience of the other? How is it possible to understand the experience from within, if the person who is having this experience is another? By addressing these issues, we critically explore the feasibility and usefulness of a second person methodology in psychopathology research. Notwithstanding the importance of methodological pluralism, we argue that a second person perspective should inform the epistemology and methods of research in psychopathology, as it
Galbusera, Laura; Fellin, Lisa
Research in psychopathology may be considered as an intersubjective endeavor mainly concerned with understanding other minds. Thus, the way we conceive of social understanding influences how we do research in psychology in the first place. In this paper, we focus on psychopathology research as a paradigmatic case for this methodological issue, since the relation between the researcher and the object of study is characterized by a major component of “otherness.” We critically review different methodologies in psychopathology research, highlighting their relation to different social cognition theories (the third-, first-, and second-person approaches). Hence we outline the methodological implications arising from each theoretical stance. Firstly, we critically discuss the dominant paradigm in psychopathology research, based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) and on quantitative methodology, as an example of a third-person methodology. Secondly, we contrast this mainstream view with phenomenological psychopathology which—by rejecting the reductionist view exclusively focused on behavioral symptoms—takes consciousness as its main object of study: it therefore attempts to grasp patients’ first-person experience. But how can we speak about a first-person perspective in psychopathology if the problem at stake is the experience of the other? How is it possible to understand the experience from “within,” if the person who is having this experience is another? By addressing these issues, we critically explore the feasibility and usefulness of a second-person methodology in psychopathology research. Notwithstanding the importance of methodological pluralism, we argue that a second-person perspective should inform the epistemology and methods of research in psychopathology, as it recognizes the fundamental circular and intersubjective construction of knowledge. PMID:25368589
Galbusera, Laura; Fellin, Lisa
Research in psychopathology may be considered as an intersubjective endeavor mainly concerned with understanding other minds. Thus, the way we conceive of social understanding influences how we do research in psychology in the first place. In this paper, we focus on psychopathology research as a paradigmatic case for this methodological issue, since the relation between the researcher and the object of study is characterized by a major component of "otherness." We critically review different methodologies in psychopathology research, highlighting their relation to different social cognition theories (the third-, first-, and second-person approaches). Hence we outline the methodological implications arising from each theoretical stance. Firstly, we critically discuss the dominant paradigm in psychopathology research, based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) and on quantitative methodology, as an example of a third-person methodology. Secondly, we contrast this mainstream view with phenomenological psychopathology which-by rejecting the reductionist view exclusively focused on behavioral symptoms-takes consciousness as its main object of study: it therefore attempts to grasp patients' first-person experience. But how can we speak about a first-person perspective in psychopathology if the problem at stake is the experience of the other? How is it possible to understand the experience from "within," if the person who is having this experience is another? By addressing these issues, we critically explore the feasibility and usefulness of a second-person methodology in psychopathology research. Notwithstanding the importance of methodological pluralism, we argue that a second-person perspective should inform the epistemology and methods of research in psychopathology, as it recognizes the fundamental circular and intersubjective construction of knowledge.
Elizeu Clementino de Souza
Full Text Available This work offers reflections on the (autobiographical research and formation narratives in the educational field, highlighting the way we have been using them to construct research networks and for - mation practices by systematizing questions about the comprehen - sive-interpretative analysis of the narratives, taking as reference theoretical-methodological questions in the field of (auto biogra - phical research. The text is developed from two central ideas which on one hand aims to dialogue about the (autobiographical research domains configuration in the Brazilian contemporary context and, on the other hand, presents questions on sense policies and nar - ratives interpretation in the field of (autobiographical studies. We seek to present the experience from a project centered on written narratives made by teachers on their education process about the affective-sexual diversity and homophobia in everyday school life.
Provides a comprehensive, state-of-the-field analysis of current trends in the research, policy, and practice of science education. It offers valuable insights into why gaps in science achievement among racial, ethnic, cultural, linguistic, and socioeconomic groups persist, and points toward practical means of narrowing or eliminating these gaps. Lee and Buxton examine instructional practices, science-curriculum materials, assessment, teacher education, school organization, and home-school connections.