WorldWideScience

Sample records for policy relevant information

  1. Providing policy-relevant information for greenhouse gas management: Perspectives from science and technology policy research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilling, L.

    2009-12-01

    In the 12 years since the Kyoto Protocol was signed setting forth targets for greenhouse gas emissions from several nations, the number of policies, voluntary programs and commercial enterprises that have developed to manage carbon has grown exponentially. Many of these programs have occurred in a voluntary context, such as carbon trading, carbon offset programs, and climate registries . To date, no single, common system for accrediting, verifying and recording carbon credits has developed. Moreover, as the international community continues to negotiate the dimensions of an international agreement for the post-Kyoto time period, discussions still center on targets for fossil fuel emissions, biospheric carbon protection, and appropriate distribution of the burden of compliance globally. If carbon still remains the currency for discussion in a climate agreement, some type of effective measurement and verification system will be needed to ensure that commitments are being met. While entire volumes over the past decade have been written on what it is possible to observe about the carbon cycle and how to do so-- these tend to describe observations from the perspective of studying the carbon cycle to discover fundamental new knowledge. I will argue, however, that for the application under consideration in this session, i.e. a global greenhouse gas information system, it is essential to bring in the perspective of the policy and regulatory community. The needs of the scientific community for measuring the uncertainties in the global carbon cycle are not necessarily the same as those for the policy community. To ensure that such a system can serve a policy-relevant function, the scientific community must engage with policy makers, entrepreneurs, those who must comply, and others involved in constructing the policy framework. This paper will examine some of the key fundamentals that the policy community may be considering in designing a greenhouse gas monitoring system. I

  2. Structural analysis of health-relevant policy-making information exchange networks in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contandriopoulos, Damien; Benoît, François; Bryant-Lukosius, Denise; Carrier, Annie; Carter, Nancy; Deber, Raisa; Duhoux, Arnaud; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Larouche, Catherine; Leclerc, Bernard-Simon; Levy, Adrian; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Maximova, Katerina; McGrail, Kimberlyn; Nykiforuk, Candace; Roos, Noralou; Schwartz, Robert; Valente, Thomas W; Wong, Sabrina; Lindquist, Evert; Pullen, Carolyn; Lardeux, Anne; Perroux, Melanie

    2017-09-20

    Health systems worldwide struggle to identify, adopt, and implement in a timely and system-wide manner the best-evidence-informed-policy-level practices. Yet, there is still only limited evidence about individual and institutional best practices for fostering the use of scientific evidence in policy-making processes The present project is the first national-level attempt to (1) map and structurally analyze-quantitatively-health-relevant policy-making networks that connect evidence production, synthesis, interpretation, and use; (2) qualitatively investigate the interaction patterns of a subsample of actors with high centrality metrics within these networks to develop an in-depth understanding of evidence circulation processes; and (3) combine these findings in order to assess a policy network's "absorptive capacity" regarding scientific evidence and integrate them into a conceptually sound and empirically grounded framework. The project is divided into two research components. The first component is based on quantitative analysis of ties (relationships) that link nodes (participants) in a network. Network data will be collected through a multi-step snowball sampling strategy. Data will be analyzed structurally using social network mapping and analysis methods. The second component is based on qualitative interviews with a subsample of the Web survey participants having central, bridging, or atypical positions in the network. Interviews will focus on the process through which evidence circulates and enters practice. Results from both components will then be integrated through an assessment of the network's and subnetwork's effectiveness in identifying, capturing, interpreting, sharing, reframing, and recodifying scientific evidence in policy-making processes. Knowledge developed from this project has the potential both to strengthen the scientific understanding of how policy-level knowledge transfer and exchange functions and to provide significantly improved advice

  3. Improving Nigerian health policymakers' capacity to access and utilize policy relevant evidence: outcome of information and communication technology training workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ezeoha, Abel Ebeh; Uro-Chukwu, Henry; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla; Ogbu, Ogbonnaya; Onwe, Friday; Edoga, Chima

    2015-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) tools are known to facilitate communication and processing of information and sharing of knowledge by electronic means. In Nigeria, the lack of adequate capacity on the use of ICT by health sector policymakers constitutes a major impediment to the uptake of research evidence into the policymaking process. The objective of this study was to improve the knowledge and capacity of policymakers to access and utilize policy relevant evidence. A modified "before and after" intervention study design was used in which outcomes were measured on the target participants both before the intervention is implemented and after. A 4-point likert scale according to the degree of adequacy; 1 = grossly inadequate, 4 = very adequate was employed. This study was conducted in Ebonyi State, south-eastern Nigeria and the participants were career health policy makers. A two-day intensive ICT training workshop was organized for policymakers who had 52 participants in attendance. Topics covered included: (i). intersectoral partnership/collaboration; (ii). Engaging ICT in evidence-informed policy making; use of ICT for evidence synthesis; (iv) capacity development on the use of computer, internet and other ICT. The pre-workshop mean of knowledge and capacity for use of ICT ranged from 2.19-3.05, while the post-workshop mean ranged from 2.67-3.67 on 4-point scale. The percentage increase in mean of knowledge and capacity at the end of the workshop ranged from 8.3%-39.1%. Findings of this study suggest that policymakers' ICT competence relevant to evidence-informed policymaking can be enhanced through training workshop.

  4. Improving Nigerian health policymakers’ capacity to access and utilize policy relevant evidence: outcome of information and communication technology training workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ezeoha, Abel Ebeh; Uro-Chukwu, Henry; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla; Ogbu, Ogbonnaya; Onwe, Friday; Edoga, Chima

    2015-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) tools are known to facilitate communication and processing of information and sharing of knowledge by electronic means. In Nigeria, the lack of adequate capacity on the use of ICT by health sector policymakers constitutes a major impediment to the uptake of research evidence into the policymaking process. The objective of this study was to improve the knowledge and capacity of policymakers to access and utilize policy relevant evidence. A modified “before and after” intervention study design was used in which outcomes were measured on the target participants both before the intervention is implemented and after. A 4-point likert scale according to the degree of adequacy; 1 = grossly inadequate, 4 = very adequate was employed. This study was conducted in Ebonyi State, south-eastern Nigeria and the participants were career health policy makers. A two-day intensive ICT training workshop was organized for policymakers who had 52 participants in attendance. Topics covered included: (i). intersectoral partnership/collaboration; (ii). Engaging ICT in evidence-informed policy making; use of ICT for evidence synthesis; (iv) capacity development on the use of computer, internet and other ICT. The pre-workshop mean of knowledge and capacity for use of ICT ranged from 2.19-3.05, while the post-workshop mean ranged from 2.67-3.67 on 4-point scale. The percentage increase in mean of knowledge and capacity at the end of the workshop ranged from 8.3%-39.1%. Findings of this study suggest that policymakers’ ICT competence relevant to evidence-informed policymaking can be enhanced through training workshop. PMID:26448807

  5. Is Information Still Relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The term "information" in information science does not share the characteristics of those of a nomenclature: it does not bear a generally accepted definition and it does not serve as the bases and assumptions for research studies. As the data deluge has arrived, is the concept of information still relevant for information…

  6. Monitoring the Carbon Cycle: Improving Our Ability to Proved Policy Relevant Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhwiler, L.

    2017-12-01

    Humans have altered the energy balance of the climate system mainly by producing and consuming fossil fuels, but also by emissions from food production. Manufacture and use of halocarbons, many of which are also strong greenhouse gases (GHGs) have added to anthropogenic radiative forcing. In response, the global atmosphere has warmed over the last half century at a rate of 0.17°C. The largest contribution to radiative forcing is due to CO2, and at present, about half of all anthropogenic CO2 emissions have been taken up by the oceans and terrestrial biosphere. The size of this "carbon emission discount" may change in the future as more carbon accumulates in the oceans, as human alter landscapes, and as climate changes. Efforts to limit global average temperature increases to 2°C and avoid the most catastrophic consequences of climate change depend on keeping track of both human emissions of greenhouse gases and changes in natural fluxes of carbon and nitrogen that occur in response to human activities and changing climate. Global in situ network observations provide information about changes in global GHG abundances over recent decades, as well as changing distributions between hemispheres. This information gives insight into changes in global and hemispheric sources and sinks of GHGs. It is, however, currently difficult to obtain robust information about regional sources and to discriminate between natural and anthropogenic fluxes. Information about regional sources is needed for GHG policymaking, while discrimination of natural sources is necessary for detection of trends in GHG fluxes and evaluation of coupled carbon cycle climate models. Although column average GHG abundances from space-based remote sensing data could provide considerable constraints on GHG budgets, there are still technical challenges to be overcome. Possible strategies for making progress involve greater increased observational coverage and more international collaboration, as well as

  7. Information Needs/Relevance

    OpenAIRE

    Wildemuth, Barbara M.

    2009-01-01

    A user's interaction with a DL is often initiated as the result of the user experiencing an information need of some kind. Aspects of that experience and how it might affect the user's interactions with the DL are discussed in this module. In addition, users continuously make decisions about and evaluations of the materials retrieved from a DL, relative to their information needs. Relevance judgments, and their relationship to the user's information needs, are discussed in this module. Draft

  8. Informed policies

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    cation technology (ICT) and now. Minister of Science and Technology, was one of the architects of Mozam- bique's ICT policy in 2000 — the first in Africa. Nationwide access to these technologies is one of the pillars of the government's science and technology policy. “We don't believe in politicians, but we believe in politics.

  9. Does relevance matter in academic policy research?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dredge, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    A reflection on whether relevance matters in tourism policy research. A debate among tourism scholars.......A reflection on whether relevance matters in tourism policy research. A debate among tourism scholars....

  10. Explaining citizens’ perceptions of international climate-policy relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleich, Joachim; Faure, Corinne

    2017-01-01

    This paper empirically analyses the antecedents of citizens’ perceptions of the relevance of international climate policy. Its use of representative surveys in the USA, China and Germany controls for different environmental attitudes and socio-economic factors between countries. The findings of the micro-econometric analysis suggest that the perceived relevance of international climate policy is positively affected by its perceived effectiveness, approval of the key topics discussed at international climate conferences, and environmental attitudes, but is not affected by perceived procedural justice. A higher level of perceived trust in international climate policy was positively related to perceived relevance in the USA and in China, but not in Germany. Citizens who felt that they were well informed and that their position was represented at climate summits were more likely to perceive international climate policy as relevant in China in particular. Generally, the results show only weak evidence of socio-demographic effects. - Highlights: • Perceptions of climate-policy relevance increase with perceptions of effectiveness. • In China and the USA, trust increases perceptions of climate-policy relevance. • Environmental attitudes are related to perceptions of climate-policy relevance. • In China, well-informed citizens perceive climate policy as more relevant. • Socio-demographics only weakly affect perceptions of climate-policy relevance.

  11. Does relevance matter in academic policy research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dredge, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    A reflection on whether relevance matters in tourism policy research, and if so, to whom/what should it matter......A reflection on whether relevance matters in tourism policy research, and if so, to whom/what should it matter...

  12. Towards increased policy relevance in energy modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Ramesohl, Stephan; Boyd, Gale

    2003-07-29

    Historically, most energy models were reasonably equipped to assess the impact of a subsidy or change in taxation, but are often insufficient to assess the impact of more innovative policy instruments. We evaluate the models used to assess future energy use, focusing on industrial energy use. We explore approaches to engineering-economic analysis that could help improve the realism and policy relevance of engineering-economic modeling frameworks. We also explore solutions to strengthen the policy usefulness of engineering-economic analysis that can be built from a framework of multi-disciplinary cooperation. We focus on the so-called ''engineering-economic'' (or ''bottom-up'') models, as they include the amount of detail that is commonly needed to model policy scenarios. We identify research priorities for the modeling framework, technology representation in models, policy evaluation and modeling of decision-making behavior.

  13. Greek health professionals’ perceptions of the HPV vaccine, state policy recommendations and their own role with regards to communication of relevant health information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Karamanidou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Every year in Europe 60,000 women develop cervical cancer and 30,000 die from the disease. HPV vaccines are currently believed to constitute an important element of cervical cancer control strategy. Currently in Greece, the HPV vaccine is given on demand after prescription by a healthcare professional. Health care professionals’ role is key as they are in a position to discuss HPV vaccination with parents, adolescents and young women. This study is aiming to explore health care professionals’ perceptions of the HPV vaccine, state policy recommendations and their own role with regards to communication of relevant health information. Methods This was an in-depth, qualitative study, employing a stratified, purposeful sampling. Fifteen face-to-face, semi-structured interviews were conducted with health care professionals from a variety of disciplines: pediatrics, obstetrics and gynecology, infectious diseases, pharmacy, dermatology, general practice. Thematic qualitative analysis was used to analyze participants’ accounts. Results Five major themes were identified: health care professionals’ perceptions towards the HPV vaccine (recognition of importance, concerns about safety, effectiveness and impact of long-term use, animosity between medical specialties (territorial disputes among professional bodies, role advocacy, role limitations, health care professionals’ perceptions of the public’s attitudes (effects of cultural beliefs, health professionals’ attitudes, media and family, the role of the state (health policy issues, lack of guidance, unmet expectations and their own role (provision of health information, sex education. Conclusions Health professionals’ concerns, lack of role definition and uniform information provision have led to territorial disputes among professional bodies and distrust among different medical specialties. Positive and negative judgements deriving from a multitude of sources have

  14. Greek health professionals' perceptions of the HPV vaccine, state policy recommendations and their own role with regards to communication of relevant health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamanidou, Christina; Dimopoulos, Kostas

    2016-06-03

    Every year in Europe 60,000 women develop cervical cancer and 30,000 die from the disease. HPV vaccines are currently believed to constitute an important element of cervical cancer control strategy. Currently in Greece, the HPV vaccine is given on demand after prescription by a healthcare professional. Health care professionals' role is key as they are in a position to discuss HPV vaccination with parents, adolescents and young women. This study is aiming to explore health care professionals' perceptions of the HPV vaccine, state policy recommendations and their own role with regards to communication of relevant health information. This was an in-depth, qualitative study, employing a stratified, purposeful sampling. Fifteen face-to-face, semi-structured interviews were conducted with health care professionals from a variety of disciplines: pediatrics, obstetrics and gynecology, infectious diseases, pharmacy, dermatology, general practice. Thematic qualitative analysis was used to analyze participants' accounts. Five major themes were identified: health care professionals' perceptions towards the HPV vaccine (recognition of importance, concerns about safety, effectiveness and impact of long-term use), animosity between medical specialties (territorial disputes among professional bodies, role advocacy, role limitations), health care professionals' perceptions of the public's attitudes (effects of cultural beliefs, health professionals' attitudes, media and family), the role of the state (health policy issues, lack of guidance, unmet expectations) and their own role (provision of health information, sex education). Health professionals' concerns, lack of role definition and uniform information provision have led to territorial disputes among professional bodies and distrust among different medical specialties. Positive and negative judgements deriving from a multitude of sources have resulted in the confusion of the general public, as manifested by low vaccination

  15. Relevance: An Interdisciplinary and Information Science Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Greisdorf

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Although relevance has represented a key concept in the field of information science for evaluating information retrieval effectiveness, the broader context established by interdisciplinary frameworks could provide greater depth and breadth to on-going research in the field. This work provides an overview of the nature of relevance in the field of information science with a cursory view of how cross-disciplinary approaches to relevance could represent avenues for further investigation into the evaluative characteristics of relevance as a means for enhanced understanding of human information behavior.

  16. The Development of Relevance in Information Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu-hsuan Huang

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to investigate the notion of relevance in information retrieval. It discusses various definitions for relevance from historical viewpoints and the characteristics of relevance judgments. Also, it introduces empirical results of important related researches.[Article content in Chinese

  17. The case for policy-relevant conservation science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, David C

    2015-06-01

    Drawing on the "evidence-based" (Sutherland et al. 2013) versus "evidence-informed" debate (Adams & Sandbrook 2013), which has become prominent in conservation science, I argue that science can be influential if it holds a dual reference (Lentsch & Weingart 2011) that contributes to the needs of policy makers whilst maintaining technical rigor. In line with such a strategy, conservation scientists are increasingly recognizing the usefulness of constructing narratives through which to enhance the influence of their evidence (Leslie et al. 2013; Lawton & Rudd 2014). Yet telling stories alone is rarely enough to influence policy; instead, these narratives must be policy relevant. To ensure that evidence is persuasive alongside other factors in a complex policy-making process, conservation scientists could follow 2 steps: reframe within salient political contexts and engage more productively in boundary work, which is defined as the ways in which scientists "construct, negotiate, and defend the boundary between science and policy" (Owens et al. 2006:640). These will both improve the chances of evidence-informed conservation policy. © 2015 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  18. Building Land Information Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2004-01-01

    of measurement science, spatial information, management, and land management. (2) To establish national professional associations which accommodate a modern interdisciplinary profile. (3) To assess the capacity needs in land administration and to develop the capacity needed at societal, institutional......The paper presents a conceptual understanding in the areas of Cadastre, Land Administration, and Land Management as a basis for building adequate land information policies. To develop this understanding the paper looks at each area as a system or an infrastructure designed for handling specific...... and judicial setting of the individual country. However, in spite of the different origins, the systems seem to merge into a global model serving some basic societal needs. The paper presents an outline of this development towards a global model for sustainable land administration infrastructures...

  19. Has Financial Statement Information become Less Relevant?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thinggaard, Frank; Damkier, Jesper

    ? The sample is based on non-financial companies listed on the Copenhagen Stock Exchange in the period 1984-2002. Our analyses show that all the applied accounting measures are value-relevant as investment strategies based on the information earn positive market-adjusted returns in our sample period......This paper presents insights into the question of whether accounting information based on the EU’s Accounting Directives has become less value-relevant to investors over time. The study is based on a research design first used by Francis and Schipper (1999), where value-relevance is measured...... as the total market-adjusted return that could be earned from investment strategies based on foreknowledge of financial statement information. It answers the question: Are investments based on financial statement information able to capture progressively less information in security returns over time...

  20. Income inequality: Implications and relevant economic policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arestis Philip

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this contribution is to discuss closely the implications of income inequality and the economic policies to tackle it, especially so in view of inequality being one of the main causes of the 2007/2008 international financial crisis and the “great recession” that subsequently emerged. Wealth inequality is also important in this respect, but the focus is on income inequality. Ever since the financial crisis and the subsequent “great recession”, inequality of income, and wealth, has increased and the demand for economic policy initiatives to produce a more equal distribution of income and wealth has become more urgent. Such reduction would help to increase the level of economic activity as has been demonstrated again more recently. A number of economic policy initiatives for this purpose will be the focus of this contribution.

  1. Invalidating Policies using Structural Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammuller, Florian; Probst, Christian W.

    2014-01-01

    by invalidating policies using structural information of the organisational model. Based on this structural information and a description of the organisation’s policies, our approach invalidates the policies and identifies exemplary sequences of actions that lead to a violation of the policy in question. Based...... on these examples, the organisation can identify real attack vectors that might result in an insider attack. This information can be used to refine access control systems or policies. We provide case studies showing how mechanical verification tools, i.e. modelchecking with MCMAS and interactive theorem proving...

  2. Nuclear deception: soviet information policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, E.P.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of the accident at the Chernobyl Unit 4 Reactor on information policies in the USSR is examined. The lack of an agreed-upon information policy and intraparty disagreement over domestic and foreign policy help to explain the delay in disclosure of the accident and conflicting statements concerning long-term health effects. A modest change in policy since Chernobyl has been noted: the willingness of Soviet spokespersons to discuss and debate issues with foreign correspondents, to publish sharply critical letters from citizens and a few foreign officials, and to provide many details about the nature and consequences of the accident

  3. Information Support of Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Melnikova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Informatization and modern information technologies cover the most various areas of social, spiritual and material human life and have become the dominating globalization factor with major impact on world events. Modern international relations present new challenges and threats ofcross-border nature, which fall within the area of information security. This brings issues of informational influence on international policy to the fore. In this context the question of improvement and modernization of policy instruments for more effective use of modern means of implementation of foreign policy priorities, including information support of international activities, achieves fundamental importance. Given the complexity of modern international relations and tasks facing foreign affairs departments, diplomatic success in many cases depends onthe efficiency of information support. The article analyses current objectives and methods of information support of foreign policy in the context of modern Russian legislation. The author examines the approach of the Information and Press Department of the Russian Ministryof Foreign Affairs,a subdivision responsible for information support and international cooperation in the media sphere. The article specifies the key role of new information technologies for informing the audience expeditiously and to the full extent in regard to Russian approaches to the solution of international problems, foreign policy initiatives and actions of the Russian Federation, and for counteracting attempts to discredit Russian foreign policy.

  4. Invalidating Policies using Structural Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammuller, Florian; Probst, Christian W.

    2013-01-01

    Insider threats are a major threat to many organisations. Even worse, insider attacks are usually hard to detect, especially if an attack is based on actions that the attacker has the right to perform. In this paper we present a step towards detecting the risk for this kind of attacks by invalida...... on these examples, the organisation can identify real attack vectors that might result in an insider attack. This information can be used to refine access control system or policies....... by invalidating policies using structural information of the organisational model. Based on this structural information and a description of the organisation's policies, our approach invalidates the policies and identifies exemplary sequences of actions that lead to a violation of the policy in question. Based...

  5. The Dutch sentinel practice network: relevance for public health policy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartelds, A.I.M.; Fracheboud, J.; Zee, J. van der

    1989-01-01

    The Dutch sentinal practice network: relevance for public health policy, considers the now 20-year history of the Continuous Morbidity Registration Sentinel Stations the Netherlands. The book consists of two parts. In the first part general aspects are discussed: the origin of the project at the end

  6. Information systems security policies: a survey in Portuguese public administration

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Isabel Maria; Sá-Soares, Filipe de

    2010-01-01

    Information Systems Security is a relevant factor for present organizations. Among the security measures, policies assume a central role in literature. However, there is a reduced number of empirical studies about the adoption of information systems security policies. This paper contributes to mitigate this flaw by presenting the results of a survey in the adoption of Information System Security Policies in Local Public Administration in Portugal. The results are discussed in light of literat...

  7. The case for policy-relevant conservation science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, David C

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on the “evidence-based” (Sutherland et al. 2013) versus “evidence-informed” debate (Adams & Sandbrook 2013), which has become prominent in conservation science, I argue that science can be influential if it holds a dual reference (Lentsch & Weingart 2011) that contributes to the needs of policy makers whilst maintaining technical rigor. In line with such a strategy, conservation scientists are increasingly recognizing the usefulness of constructing narratives through which to enhance the influence of their evidence (Leslie et al. 2013; Lawton & Rudd 2014). Yet telling stories alone is rarely enough to influence policy; instead, these narratives must be policy relevant. To ensure that evidence is persuasive alongside other factors in a complex policy-making process, conservation scientists could follow 2 steps: reframe within salient political contexts and engage more productively in boundary work, which is defined as the ways in which scientists “construct, negotiate, and defend the boundary between science and policy” (Owens et al. 2006:640). These will both improve the chances of evidence-informed conservation policy. El Caso para la Ciencia de la Conservación con Relevancia Política Resumen A partir del debate “con base en evidencia” (Sutherland et al. 2013) versus “informado con evidencia” (Adams & Sandbrook 2013), debate que se ha vuelto prominente en la ciencia de la conservación, argumento que la ciencia puede ser influyente si mantiene una referencia dual (Lentsch & Weingart 2011) que contribuya a las necesidades de quienes hacen la política a la vez que mantiene un rigor técnico. En línea con dicha estrategia, los científicos de la conservación cada vez reconocen más la utilidad de construir narrativas con las cuales pueden mejorar la influencia de sus evidencias (Leslie et al. 2013; Lawton & Rudd 2014). Sin embargo, sólo contar historias rara vez es suficiente para influir sobre la política; en su lugar, estas

  8. Policy relevance of various proposals for greening GDP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wit, G.

    1996-02-01

    From the study on the title subject it appears that the use of a number of separate physical indicators is valuable for policy making but that it would be helpful for policy to develop (alongside the conventional Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and these environmental indicators) an extra 'green' GDP. The analysis of the various surveyed proposals of greening GDP results into the conclusion that adjustments should be made as follows: (1) adjustment for the net depletion of natural resources according to the net price method, (2) adjustment for the degradation of nature by polluting emissions with the aid of shadow prices derived from politics, and (3) adjustment for certain categories of environmental defensive expenditures. The major reasons for this recommendation are: (1) such a GDP can facilitate government in decisions where trade-offs between production and a clean environment are at stake, (2) the recommended way of valuation minimizes the inherent subjectiveness of valuing nature, (3) the way of valuation of nature is not likely to lead to an overestimation, and (4) at least for the Netherlands the proposal is operational in the near future. In Chapter 2 a set of evaluation criteria is designed. One evaluation criterion is the potential policy relevance of a proposed indicator, i.e. its relevance when the indicator measures exactly what it is intended to measure. In Chapter 3 the potential policy relevance of an adjusted GDP is elaborated. Another evaluation criterion is the scientific validity of a proposed indicator: is the indicator really measuring what it is intended to measure? To judge whether this is the case for the various proposals for adjusting GDP, a theoretical framework that facilitates such a judgement is discussed in Chapter 4. In Chapters 5, 6 and 7 actual evaluation of the various proposals for environmental indicators is carried out. In Chapter 5 proposals regarding the depletion of natural resources are evaluated. (Abstract Truncated)

  9. Assessing The Policy Relevance of Regional Air Quality Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, T.

    This work presents a framework for discussing the policy relevance of models, and regional air quality models in particular. We define four criteria: 1) The scientific status of the model; 2) Its ability to address primary environmental concerns; 3) The position of modeled environmental issues on the political agenda; and 4) The role of scientific input into the policy process. This framework is applied to current work simulating the transport of nitric acid in Asia with the ATMOS-N model, to past studies on air pollution transport in Europe with the EMEP model, and to future applications of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) Models-3. The Lagrangian EMEP model provided critical input to the development of the 1994 Oslo and 1999 Gothenburg Protocols to the Convention on Long-Range Transbound- ary Air Pollution, as well as to the development of EU directives, via its role as a component of the RAINS integrated assessment model. Our work simulating reactive nitrogen in Asia follows the European example in part, with the choice of ATMOS-N, a regional Lagrangian model to calculate source-receptor relationships for the RAINS- Asia integrated assessment model. However, given differences between ATMOS-N and the EMEP model, as well as differences between the scientific and political cli- mates facing Europe ten years ago and Asia today, the role of these two models in the policy process is very different. We characterize the different aspects of policy relevance between these models using our framework, and consider how the current generation US EPA air quality model compares, in light of its Eulerian structure, dif- ferent objectives, and the policy context of the US.

  10. Shifting from policy relevance to policy translation: do housing and neighborhoods affect children's mental health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osypuk, Theresa L

    2015-02-01

    The impact of housing and neighborhood context on children's mental health, as addressed by Flouri et al. (Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol, 2014), is an important, understudied topic in social epidemiology. Although the vast majority of this body of research has been descriptive, generating translational research is essential. This article offers guidance on interpreting evidence from observational studies for translation into policy, related to three policy-relevant elements of housing: receipt of affordable housing subsidies, the target population to which results generalize, and operationalization and modeling of neighborhood context. Policy translation is imperative for understanding which levers outside the health sector can be manipulated to change fundamental causes of mental health related to housing and neighborhood. Shifting from policy relevance to policy translation may be challenging, especially for understanding social causation in observational studies, but it is a necessary shift for improving population health.

  11. Policy relevant results from an expert elicitation on the health risks of phthalates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmer, K.E.; Gutleb, A.C.; Ravnum, S.; Krayer von Krauss, M.; Murk, A.J.; Ropstad, E.; Skaare, J.U.; Eriksen, G.S.; Lyche, J.L.; Koppe, J.G.; Magnanti, B.; Yang, A.; Keune, H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The EU 6th Framework Program (FP)-funded Health and Environment Network (HENVINET) aimed to support informed policy making by facilitating the availability of relevant knowledge on different environmental health issues. An approach was developed by which scientific agreement,

  12. The relevance of libraries and information communicaton ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study also examines the challenges of libraries and ICT in Nigeria. The researcher concludes that the Nigerian government should support and encourage coherent policy framework in education to achieve sustainable national development. The study recommended that government should establish libraries and ICT ...

  13. Staffing Policy for Solving the Information Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Tolstoy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Determining staffing policy implementation of information security tasks is given. The basic requirements that must be taken into account when developing policies are defined. The policy framework is determined and recommendations for the design of such policies are formulated. Requirements for the implementation of the policy are defined.

  14. Partnering Healthy@Work: an Australian university-government partnership facilitating policy-relevant research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Kim; Venn, Alison; Jarman, Lisa; Seal, Judy; Teale, Brook; Scott, Jennifer; Sanderson, Kristy

    2017-12-01

    Research funding is increasingly supporting collaborations between knowledge users and researchers. Partnering Healthy@Work (pH@W), an inaugural recipient of funding through Australia's Partnership for Better Health Grants scheme, was a 5-year partnership between the Menzies Institute for Medical Research, University of Tasmania and the Tasmanian State Service (TSS). The partnerships purpose was to evaluate a comprehensive workplace health promotion programme (Healthy@Work) targeting 30 000 public sector employees; generating new knowledge and influencing workplace health promotion policy and decision-making. This mixed methods study evaluates the partnership between policy-makers and academics and identifies strategies that enabled pH@W to deliver key project outcomes. A pH@W document review was conducted, two partnership assessment tools completed and semi-structured interviews conducted with key policy-makers and academics. Analysis of the partnership assessment tools and interviews found that pH@W had reached a strong level of collaboration. Policy-relevant knowledge was generated about the health of TSS employees and their engagement with workplace health promotion. Knowledge exchange of a conceptual and instrumental nature occurred and was facilitated by the shared grant application, clear governance structures, joint planning, regular information exchange between researchers and policy-makers and research student placements in the TSS. Flexibility and acknowledgement of different priorities and perspectives of partner organizations were identified as critical factors for enabling effective partnership working and research relevance. Academic-policy-maker partnerships can be a powerful mechanism for improving policy relevance of research, but need to incorporate strategies that facilitate regular input from researchers and policy-makers in order to achieve this. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions

  15. Machine learning for relevance of information in crisis response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netten, C.P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Efficient communication during crisis response situations is a major challenge for involved emergency responders. Lack of relevant information or too much irrelevant information hampers the emergency responders’ decision-making process, workflow and situational awareness. Despite efforts to better

  16. A Compositional Relevance Model for Adaptive Information Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathe, Nathalie; Chen, James; Lu, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    There is a growing need for rapid and effective access to information in large electronic documentation systems. Access can be facilitated if information relevant in the current problem solving context can be automatically supplied to the user. This includes information relevant to particular user profiles, tasks being performed, and problems being solved. However most of this knowledge on contextual relevance is not found within the contents of documents, and current hypermedia tools do not provide any easy mechanism to let users add this knowledge to their documents. We propose a compositional relevance network to automatically acquire the context in which previous information was found relevant. The model records information on the relevance of references based on user feedback for specific queries and contexts. It also generalizes such information to derive relevant references for similar queries and contexts. This model lets users filter information by context of relevance, build personalized views of documents over time, and share their views with other users. It also applies to any type of multimedia information. Compared to other approaches, it is less costly and doesn't require any a priori statistical computation, nor an extended training period. It is currently being implemented into the Computer Integrated Documentation system which enables integration of various technical documents in a hypertext framework.

  17. Enriching science, practice, and policy relevant to school psychology around the globe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimerson, Shane R

    2016-03-01

    This editorial provides a brief synthesis of the past, present, and future of School Psychology Quarterly, highlighting important contributions as an international resource to enrich, invigorate, enhance, and advance science, practice, and policy relevant to school psychology around the globe. Information herein highlights (a) the value of high quality and timely reviews, (b) publishing manuscripts that address a breadth of important topics relevant to school psychology, and (c) the structure and contributions of the special topic sections featured in School Psychology Quarterly. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Relevance of information warfare models to critical infrastructure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article illustrates the relevance of information warfare models to critical infrastructure protection. Analogies of information warfare models to those of information security and information systems were used to deconstruct the models into their fundamental components and this will be discussed. The models were applied ...

  19. Credibility of Policy Announcements Under Asymmetric Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Michael

    1999-01-01

    In a simple macro-economic model, where the monetary authorities process superior information about a real shocks, the scope for an active stabilization policy is shown to depend on the credibility of the policy maker. Lack of credibility increases the need for an active stabilization policy...

  20. Do Economic Theories Inform Policy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartalevich, Dzmitry

    Adopting the (institutionalist) premise that ideas and the economic theories within which they are embedded influence policy, the dissertation investigates the influence of the Chicago School of antitrust analysis on the competition policy of the European Union (EU). The dissertation encapsulates...... three articles. The first article employs qualitative content analysis to assess whether and the extent to which the European Commission incorporates Chicago School theory into EU competition policy. It does so on the basis of current Commission Guidelines, Notices, and Block Exemption Regulations...... the Harvard School, the Freiburg School, and considerations for Single Market integration underpin EU merger control, in addition to the influence of the Chicago School. The analysis presented in the articles suggests that the Chicago School has exerted considerable influence over EU competition policy...

  1. An Evaluation of the Relevance of Information and Communication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information is vital to developmental process and the emerging information age brings about challenges that call for a shift in the ways of development. The study intends to assess the relevance of the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) by the development practitioners in their activities. Four research ...

  2. Value Relevance of Accounting Information in the United Arab Emirates

    OpenAIRE

    Khanagha, Jamal Barzegari

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the value relevance of accounting information in per and post-periods of International Financial Reporting Standards implementation using the regression and portfolio approaches for sample of the UAE companies. The results obtained from a combination of regression and portfolio approaches, show accounting information is value relevant in UAE stock market. A comparison of the results for the periods before and after adoption, based on both regression and portfolio approache...

  3. Factors Affecting the Value Relevance of Accounting Information

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud Dehghan Nayeri; Ali Faal Ghayoumi; Mohammad Ali Bidari

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines the factors affecting the value relevance of accounting information for investors in the Tehran Stock Exchange over the period of six years. In this study, the effect of four factors; being profitable or loss generating, company size, earnings stability and company growth on the value relevance of accounting information have been studied. For this purpose Ohlson model and the cumulative regression analysis is used in order to examine the hypotheses and as the basis ...

  4. Disclosure of Non-Financial Information: Relevant to Financial Analysts?

    OpenAIRE

    ORENS, Raf; LYBAERT, Nadine

    2013-01-01

    The decline in the relevance of financial statement information to value firms leads to calls from organizational stakeholders to convey non-financial information in order to be able to judge firms' financial performance and value. This literature review aims to report extant literature findings on the use of corporate non-financial information by sell-side financial analysts, the information intermediaries between corporate management and investors. Prior studies highlight that financial ana...

  5. Towards policy relevant environmental modeling: contextual validity and pragmatic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Scott B.

    2000-01-01

    "What makes for a good model?" In various forms, this question is a question that, undoubtedly, many people, businesses, and institutions ponder with regards to their particular domain of modeling. One particular domain that is wrestling with this question is the multidisciplinary field of environmental modeling. Examples of environmental models range from models of contaminated ground water flow to the economic impact of natural disasters, such as earthquakes. One of the distinguishing claims of the field is the relevancy of environmental modeling to policy and environment-related decision-making in general. A pervasive view by both scientists and decision-makers is that a "good" model is one that is an accurate predictor. Thus, determining whether a model is "accurate" or "correct" is done by comparing model output to empirical observations. The expected outcome of this process, usually referred to as "validation" or "ground truthing," is a stamp on the model in question of "valid" or "not valid" that serves to indicate whether or not the model will be reliable before it is put into service in a decision-making context. In this paper, I begin by elaborating on the prevailing view of model validation and why this view must change. Drawing from concepts coming out of the studies of science and technology, I go on to propose a contextual view of validity that can overcome the problems associated with "ground truthing" models as an indicator of model goodness. The problem of how we talk about and determine model validity has much to do about how we perceive the utility of environmental models. In the remainder of the paper, I argue that we should adopt ideas of pragmatism in judging what makes for a good model and, in turn, developing good models. From such a perspective of model goodness, good environmental models should facilitate communication, convey—not bury or "eliminate"—uncertainties, and, thus, afford the active building of consensus decisions, instead

  6. State Policy Against Information War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Shibaev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The most recent and effective method to resolve aconflict between countries is information war. Information warfare, i.e. propaganda, information sabotage, blackmail, could be more damaging than the effects of the traditional methods of war. The government must be prepared to prevent and counteract the bleeding-edge techniques of warfare that is to work out measures, to oppose enemy’s information weapons , to gain information superiority , to develop a society thatis immune to disinformation, to elaborate a concept of information warfare counteraction.The authors have examined both foreign and Russian sources of law which define the requirements for the government activities to oppose information warfare. They also refer to the opinions of foreign and Russian researchers, politicians and public figures who have commented on the concept and features of such political and legal constructs as information warfare and information weapons. The problem of information warfare must be identified as a profoundly serious and damaging threat. This paper provides the features of information warfare and the methods to resist it as well as the proposals to amend the domestic legislation to create conditions for an accurate understanding of this political and legal phenomenon. In addition, it points out that the amendment of the Information Security Doctrine is not sufficient to counterbalance the threat of information warfare. In a certain document it is necessary to recount all notions, requirements and methods for the government actions aimed to gradually change the situation, particularly, the development of sectoral (information security legislation, specialists training to be able to deal with informational and psychological aggression forming public opinion through the government-run mass media, etc.

  7. Fuzzy Information Retrieval Using Genetic Algorithms and Relevance Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Frederick E.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes an approach that combines concepts from information retrieval, fuzzy set theory, and genetic programing to improve weighted Boolean query formulation via relevance feedback. Highlights include background on information retrieval systems; genetic algorithms; subproblem formulation; and preliminary results based on a testbed. (Contains 12…

  8. Information Sharing and Environmental Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Tsakiris

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on the assumption that in a standard eco-dumping model governments are uncertain about future product demand and allowing governments to obtain information from firms, we examine governments’ and firms’ incentives to share information. We show that when governments regulate polluting firms through emission standards, then governments and firms will reach an agreement concerning information sharing. The opposite holds when governments regulate pollution through emission taxes.

  9. Ecosystem services and economic theory: integration for policy-relevant research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Brendan; Turner, Kerry; Zylstra, Matthew; Brouwer, Roy; de Groot, Rudolf; Farber, Stephen; Ferraro, Paul; Green, Rhys; Hadley, David; Harlow, Julian; Jefferiss, Paul; Kirkby, Chris; Morling, Paul; Mowatt, Shaun; Naidoo, Robin; Paavola, Jouni; Strassburg, Bernardo; Yu, Doug; Balmford, Andrew

    2008-12-01

    It has become essential in policy and decision-making circles to think about the economic benefits (in addition to moral and scientific motivations) humans derive from well-functioning ecosystems. The concept of ecosystem services has been developed to address this link between ecosystems and human welfare. Since policy decisions are often evaluated through cost-benefit assessments, an economic analysis can help make ecosystem service research operational. In this paper we provide some simple economic analyses to discuss key concepts involved in formalizing ecosystem service research. These include the distinction between services and benefits, understanding the importance of marginal ecosystem changes, formalizing the idea of a safe minimum standard for ecosystem service provision, and discussing how to capture the public benefits of ecosystem services. We discuss how the integration of economic concepts and ecosystem services can provide policy and decision makers with a fuller spectrum of information for making conservation-conversion trade-offs. We include the results from a survey of the literature and a questionnaire of researchers regarding how ecosystem service research can be integrated into the policy process. We feel this discussion of economic concepts will be a practical aid for ecosystem service research to become more immediately policy relevant.

  10. Information security policy development for compliance

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Barry L

    2013-01-01

    Although compliance standards can be helpful guides to writing comprehensive security policies, many of the standards state the same requirements in slightly different ways. Information Security Policy Development for Compliance: ISO/IEC 27001, NIST SP 800-53, HIPAA Standard, PCI DSS V2.0, and AUP V5.0 provides a simplified way to write policies that meet the major regulatory requirements, without having to manually look up each and every control. Explaining how to write policy statements that address multiple compliance standards and regulatory requirements, the book will he

  11. Information frictions and monetary policy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějka, Filip

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2012), s. 7-24 ISSN 1802-792X Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : nominal rigidity * information frictions * monetary economics Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.vsfs.cz/periodika/acta-2012-01.pdf

  12. African communalism and public health policies: the relevance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... a better understanding of indigenous conceptions of personhood or human agency as well as existing ethno-medical beliefs and cultural practices. Keywords: African philosophy, ethics, ethno-philosophy, HIV testing, policy development, socio-ethical systems, sub-Saharan Africa African Journal of AIDS Research 2010, ...

  13. Relevance and users' satisfaction with the information resources in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to determine the influence of relevance on users' satisfaction with information resources in university libraries in South -South zone of Nigeria. Survey re search method was adopted for the study. The population of this study consists of 83 library staff and 7426 lecturers in the 11 university libraries ...

  14. Many-to-Many Information Flow Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldan, Paolo; Beggiato, Alessandro; Lluch Lafuente, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    of security levels, thus allowing to capture coordinated flows of information. The flow of information is expressed in terms of causal dependencies and the satisfaction of a policy is defined with respect to an event structure that is assumed to capture the causal structure of system computations. We suggest...

  15. THE RELEVANCE OF ECONOMIC INFORMATION IN ANALYZING THE ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRUTA MIRCEA IOAN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The performance analysis is based on an informational system, which provides financial information in various formatsand with various applicabilities.We intend to formulate a set of important caracteristics of financial information along with identifying a set of relevant financial rates and indicatorsused to appreciate the performance level of a company. Economic performance can be interpreted in different ways at each level of analysis. Generally, it refers to economic growth, increased productivity and profitability. The growth of labor productivity or increased production per worker is a measure of efficient use of resources in value creation.

  16. A content relevance model for social media health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prybutok, Gayle Linda; Koh, Chang; Prybutok, Victor R

    2014-04-01

    Consumer health informatics includes the development and implementation of Internet-based systems to deliver health risk management information and health intervention applications to the public. The application of consumer health informatics to educational and interventional efforts such as smoking reduction and cessation has garnered attention from both consumers and health researchers in recent years. Scientists believe that smoking avoidance or cessation before the age of 30 years can prevent more than 90% of smoking-related cancers and that individuals who stop smoking fare as well in preventing cancer as those who never start. The goal of this study was to determine factors that were most highly correlated with content relevance for health information provided on the Internet for a study group of 18- to 30-year-old college students. Data analysis showed that the opportunity for convenient entertainment, social interaction, health information-seeking behavior, time spent surfing on the Internet, the importance of available activities on the Internet (particularly e-mail), and perceived site relevance for Internet-based sources of health information were significantly correlated with content relevance for 18- to 30-year-old college students, an educated subset of this population segment.

  17. Scientific Communication and its Relevance to Research Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosendaal, Hans E.; Geurts, Petrus A.T.M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper addresses the relation between developments in scientific communication and research. The developments in scientific communication are related to developments brought about by opportunities provided by the development and wide-scale introduction of modern information and communication

  18. Shifting from policy relevance to policy translation: Do housing and neighborhoods affect children’s mental health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osypuk, Theresa L.

    2016-01-01

    The impact of housing and neighborhood context on children’s mental health, as addressed by Flouri and colleagues [1], is an important, understudied topic in social epidemiology. Although the vast majority of this body of research has been descriptive, generating translational research is essential. This article offers guidance on interpreting evidence from observational studies for translation into policy, related to three policy-relevant elements of housing: receipt of affordable housing subsidies, the target population to which results generalize, and operationalization and modeling of neighborhood context. Policy translation is imperative for understanding which levers outside the health sector can be manipulated to change fundamental causes of mental health related to housing and neighborhood. Shifting from policy relevance to policy translation may be challenging, especially for understanding social causation in observational studies, but it’s a necessary shift for improving population health. PMID:25527210

  19. Adolescent Pregnancy: An Inventory of Relevant Federal Programs and Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kristin A.

    This paper provides an overview of Federal programs related to teenage pregnancy. Primary prevention and ameliorative services are explained to assist fund raisers, counselors, and policymakers in developing appropriate programs. Information is given about legislative background, purpose, eligibility, and disbursement. Programs which provide…

  20. Determinants of User Adoption of Policy and Procedure Software: An Examination of Relationships between Task-Specific Computer Self-Efficacy, Perceived Relevance, Perceived Complexity and Predictions of Intent to Use Information Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lori Jill

    2012-01-01

    For nurses or physicians practicing in any healthcare setting today, nothing seems to be as unsettling then change associated with the introduction of new information technology. The need for information technology has created a new host of challenges that do not easily align to clinical practice. In this study, perceptions of usefulness, ease of…

  1. Informing climate policy given incommensurable benefits estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacoby, H.D.

    2003-01-01

    Underlying individual positions in debates over climate policy are assessments of benefit and costs - sometimes explicit, but more often implicit. What should we be willing to pay in the near term to reduce human emissions, given our understanding of the value of climate impacts avoided? What actions are justified now to ease adaptation to change that may come in any event? Such assessments may reflect the viewpoint of one nation, a group like Annex B, or the sum of all nations. They may incorporate uncertainty in different ways, and include different assumptions about future behavior as it influences the marginal benefit of action today. But, however done, any recommendation of a limit on human influence in the long term, or of the level of current effort, implies a weighing-up of the benefits expected, for comparison with the costs to be borne. An ability to communicate about perceived benefits thus is essential for authorities seeking a common response to the threat of human-caused change. They need some shared conception of what is at stake in the choice of one level of effort or another, and a common terminology for incorporating these considerations into international negotiations and domestic decision-making. The frustration of OECD governments with the current state of benefit information is revealed in the ambitious set of objectives set for this benefits project (OECD, 2002). They seek recommendations on how to develop a framework to assess not only the costs but the benefits of climate strategies, to improve the accounting for benefits to facilitate goal-setting for international policies. Besides this focus on global benefits, the OECD also looks for results that are relevant to national policy-making and to the development of adaptation strategies. Particular attention is asked to problems of accounting for non-market benefits, along with the intersection of climate policy with developing country issues. It is appropriate that the OECD seeks a

  2. The Theory of Optimal Taxation: What is the Policy Relevance?

    OpenAIRE

    Birch Sørensen, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The paper discusses the implications of optimal tax theory for the debates on uniform commodity taxation and neutral capital income taxation. While strong administrative and political economy arguments in favor of uniform and neutral taxation remain, recent advances in optimal tax theory suggest that the information needed to implement the differentiated taxation prescribed by optimal tax theory may be easier to obtain than previously believed. The paper also points to the strong similarity b...

  3. A Review of Concepts from Policy Studies Relevant for the Analysis of EFA in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Lall, Marie

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to give an introduction to the central concepts and the literature of Policy Studies in education. The first part of the paper addresses the questions of what policy is. How is it made and why is it relevant? It looks in particular at the role of the state and the Policy cycle framework which is an analytical tool that helps to analyse how policy is made and later implemented. The second part then focuses on the central concepts. The two main paradigms of education policy stud...

  4. Policy-Relevant Nonconvexities in the Production of Multiple Forest Benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen K. Swallow; Peter J. Parks; David N. Wear

    1990-01-01

    This paper challenges common assumptions about convexity in forest rotation models which optimize timber plus nontimber benefits. If a local optimum occurs earlier than the globally optimal age, policy based on marginal incentives may achieve suboptimal results. Policy-relevant nonconvexities are more likely if (i) nontimber benefits dominate for young stands while...

  5. Political economy models and agricultural policy formation : empirical applicability and relevance for the CAP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der F.A.

    1997-01-01

    This study explores the relevance and applicability of political economy models for the explanation of agricultural policies. Part I (chapters 4-7) takes a general perspective and evaluates the empirical applicability of voting models and interest group models to agricultural policy

  6. An integrated assessment of climate change impacts for Athens- relevance to stakeholders and policy makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakopoulos, C.; Hatzaki, M.; Kostopoulou, E.; Varotsos, K.

    2010-09-01

    Analysing climate change and its impact needs a production of relevant elements for policy making that can be very different from the parameters considered by climate experts. In the framework of EU project CIRCE, a more realistic approach to match stakeholders and policy-makers demands is attempted. For this reason, within CIRCE selected case studies have been chosen that will provide assessments that can be integrated in practical decision making. In this work, an integrated assessment of climate change impacts on several sectors for the urban site of Athens in Greece is presented. The Athens urban case study has been chosen since it provides excellent opportunities for using an integrated approach across multiple temporal and spatial scales and sectors. In the spatial dimension, work extends from the inner city boundaries to the surrounding mountains and forests. In the temporal dimension, research ranges from the current observed time period (using available meteorological and sector data) to future time periods using data from several climate change projections. In addition, a multi-sector approach to climate change impacts is adopted. Impacts sectors covered range from direct climate impacts on natural ecosystems (such as flash floods, air pollution and forest fire risk) to indirect impacts resulting from combined climate-social-economic linkages (such as energy demand, tourism and health). Discussion of impact sector risks and adaptation measures are also exploited. Case-study work on impact sector risk to climate change is of particular interest to relevant policy makers and stakeholders, communication with who is ensured through a series of briefing notes and information sheets and through regional workshops.

  7. 78 FR 7784 - Health Information Technology Policy Committee Nomination Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Health Information Technology Policy Committee Nomination Letters.... SUMMARY: The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) established the Health Information Technology Policy Committee (Health IT Policy Committee) and gave the Comptroller General responsibility for...

  8. Relevance of accounting information in BRICS and USA companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Raifur Kos

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The demand for relevant accounting information has been intense by the regulatory bodies in last years, who havesougth to establish standards that make accounting information relevant and can be used safely in the decision-making process, especially considering decisions related to the capital market. Along these lines, James Ohlson proposed company valuation models based on accounting numbers. The objective of this study is to verify the differences in the Relevance of Accounting Information in the capital markets of Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS and the United States of America, based on data available on stock Exchange of these countries, through the Residual Income Valuation (RIV and Abnormal Earnings Growth (AEG models proposed by Ohlson (2005. By means of the Panel Data Regression, it was concluded that the variables of each country show different behavior regarding their influence in the capital market, since besides presenting different coefficients, there was a large variation of R2,being 0.02 in Brazil for the AEG model and 0.79 in China for the RIV model. As regards the verification of which model (RIV or AEG best adapts to the reality of each country, it was observed that in Brazil and South Africa the AEG model presented a greater adjustment, whereas in Russia and China the RIV model was more suitable for both lagged variables in t-1 and non-lagged ones, as it has more expressive R2 and lower value for Akaike's Information Criterion. For the US and India, for non-delayed variables, AEG is the best model for India and RIV for the US. Already with lagged variables, the result is reversed.

  9. Evaluating policy-relevant emission inventories for transportation and electricity (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, T.; Meier, P.; Bickford, E. E.

    2013-12-01

    We explore the challenges and opportunities in evaluating bottom-up emission inventories for transportation and electricity. These anthropogenic emissions respond in complex ways to technology and activity changes. Thus, it is essential that inventories capture historic emissions consistent with observations, as well as future emissions consistent with policy scenarios. For transportation, we focus on freight-related trucking emissions, represented by the Wisconsin Inventory for Freight Emissions (WIFE), developed with activity data from the U.S. Federal Highway Administration Freight Analysis Framework and emission factors from the EPA MOVES model. Because WIFE is linked to commodity flows and roadway speeds, it offers a useful data set to evaluate policy changes such as truck-to-rail modal shifts and alternative fuel choices. However, the value of the inventory in assessing these scenarios depends on its skill in calculating frieght-related emissions. Satellite data of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) from the OMI instrument aboard the NASA Aura satellite is used to evaluate truck and rail NOx emissions, especially on rural highways away from ground-based monitors. For electricity, we use the MyPower electricity dispatch model to calculate emissions and power generation in response to policy and technology changes. These include renewable portfolio standards, conservation, increased natural gas, and response to building demand. To evaluate MyPower, we compare with the Clean Air Markets database, and 2007 calculated daily afternoon emissions with satellite-derived NO2 from OMI. Drawing on the results of these studies, we discuss strategies to meet the information demands of both historically correct air quality inputs and future-relevant policy scenarios.

  10. Information security policy: contributions from internal marketing for its effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Ellwanger

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Protecting sources of information has become a great challenge to the organizations, due to the advance of the information technologies, the integration between them and the constant stream of information that flows through the communication networks. The establishment of an Information Security Policy – PSI may resolve a part of the problems related to security, but it cannot totally solve them, since the human resources present in the internal environment of the organizations may spoil the effectiveness of the PSI. Given the importance of the human aspects in the context of the information security, the present work discusses the use of internal marketing as a management strategy in order to obtain or reestablish the commitment of the users to the principles defined in the PSI, and demonstrates, through an experimental research, the impact of using internal marketing techniques to the effectiveness of that policy. The results of this experiment make quantitatively evident how relevant the use of these techniques may be in order to have the procedures described in the PSI actually carried out by the users, and demonstrates a 402,4% increase in the support to the information security policy, considering the procedures indicated in the PSI that were totally executed.

  11. Collecting Safeguards Relevant Trade Information: The IAEA Procurement Outreach Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schot, P.; El Gebaly, A.; Tarvainen, M.

    2010-01-01

    The increasing awareness of activities of transnational procurement networks to covertly acquire sensitive nuclear related dual use equipment prompted an evolution of safeguards methodologies. One of the responses to this challenge by the Department of Safeguards in the IAEA was to establish the Trade and Technology Unit (TTA) in November 2004 to analyse and report on these covert nuclear related trade activities. To obtain information relevant to this analysis, TTA is engaging States that might be willing to provide this information to the Secretariat on a voluntary basis. This paper will give an overview of current activities, sum up the results achieved and discuss suggestions to further improve this programme made by Member States. (author)

  12. 78 FR 24749 - Health Information Technology Policy Committee Appointment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Health Information Technology Policy Committee Appointment AGENCY... Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) established the Health Information Technology Policy Committee to make recommendations on the implementation of a nationwide health information technology...

  13. 78 FR 42945 - Health Information Technology Policy Committee Vacancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Health Information Technology Policy Committee Vacancy AGENCY... American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) established the Health Information Technology Policy... its 20 members. ARRA requires that one member have expertise in health information privacy and...

  14. Guidelines for Using Movement Science to Inform Biodiversity Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Philip S.; Lentini, Pia E.; Alacs, Erika; Bau, Sana; Buckley, Yvonne M.; Burns, Emma L.; Driscoll, Don A.; Guja, Lydia K.; Kujala, Heini; Lahoz-Monfort, José J.; Mortelliti, Alessio; Nathan, Ran; Rowe, Ross; Smith, Annabel L.

    2015-10-01

    Substantial advances have been made in our understanding of the movement of species, including processes such as dispersal and migration. This knowledge has the potential to improve decisions about biodiversity policy and management, but it can be difficult for decision makers to readily access and integrate the growing body of movement science. This is, in part, due to a lack of synthesis of information that is sufficiently contextualized for a policy audience. Here, we identify key species movement concepts, including mechanisms, types, and moderators of movement, and review their relevance to (1) national biodiversity policies and strategies, (2) reserve planning and management, (3) threatened species protection and recovery, (4) impact and risk assessments, and (5) the prioritization of restoration actions. Based on the review, and considering recent developments in movement ecology, we provide a new framework that draws links between aspects of movement knowledge that are likely the most relevant to each biodiversity policy category. Our framework also shows that there is substantial opportunity for collaboration between researchers and government decision makers in the use of movement science to promote positive biodiversity outcomes.

  15. Guidelines for Using Movement Science to Inform Biodiversity Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Philip S; Lentini, Pia E; Alacs, Erika; Bau, Sana; Buckley, Yvonne M; Burns, Emma L; Driscoll, Don A; Guja, Lydia K; Kujala, Heini; Lahoz-Monfort, José J; Mortelliti, Alessio; Nathan, Ran; Rowe, Ross; Smith, Annabel L

    2015-10-01

    Substantial advances have been made in our understanding of the movement of species, including processes such as dispersal and migration. This knowledge has the potential to improve decisions about biodiversity policy and management, but it can be difficult for decision makers to readily access and integrate the growing body of movement science. This is, in part, due to a lack of synthesis of information that is sufficiently contextualized for a policy audience. Here, we identify key species movement concepts, including mechanisms, types, and moderators of movement, and review their relevance to (1) national biodiversity policies and strategies, (2) reserve planning and management, (3) threatened species protection and recovery, (4) impact and risk assessments, and (5) the prioritization of restoration actions. Based on the review, and considering recent developments in movement ecology, we provide a new framework that draws links between aspects of movement knowledge that are likely the most relevant to each biodiversity policy category. Our framework also shows that there is substantial opportunity for collaboration between researchers and government decision makers in the use of movement science to promote positive biodiversity outcomes.

  16. Resource Efficiency. What does it mean and why is it relevant? Policy Brief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, J.C. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-04-15

    The European Commission has launched a Resource-Efficient Europe as one of its seven flagship initiatives under the Europe 2020 Strategy and has published the document 'Roadmap to a Resource-Efficient Europe'. The Roadmap specifies a proposed pathway to action for a resource efficient Europe. This document sets out to describe the essence of the resource efficiency concept and to sketch the relevance of EU resource efficiency policy for application at EU member state level with special reference to the Netherlands. The following questions will be addressed: What is resource efficiency?; How does it relate to sustainability and environmental footprint?; What is the relevance of EU resource efficiency policy for the member states?; Which aspects of resource efficiency are relevant for the Netherlands?; and To what extent is resource efficiency reflected in current Dutch policies?.

  17. Information systems and information behaviour - sociological bases of information policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bick, W.; Mueller, P.J.

    1979-03-01

    The use of process-produced data is confronted with problems that have their origin in the very nature of administrative data. Administrative data are highly selective. Only specific aspects of reality are relevant for routine processing of cases. For administrative purposes everyday life has to be translated into administrative categories and cases. This process is difficult, problematic in principle, and error prone. The representational quality of process-produced data is therefore often questionable. Only through documentation of the contexts of data production it can be assured that these data do not lead to wrong conclusions. The report analyses the amount and character of existing knowledge necessary to interpreting such data. It provides for a social science source criticism to improve the usefulness of process-produced data. (orig.) [de

  18. Re-thinking the relevance of philosophy of education for educational policy making

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, Morwenna

    2014-01-01

    The overall question addressed in this article is,‘What kind of philosophy of education is relevant to educational policy makers?’ The article focuses on the following four themes: The meanings attached to the term philosophy (of education) by philosophers themselves; the meanings attached to the term philosophy (of education) by policy makers; the difference place and time makes to these meanings; how these different meanings affect the possibility of philosophy (of education) influencing po...

  19. Environmental impacts of products: Policy relevant information and data challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tukker, A.; Eder, P.; Suh, S.

    2006-01-01

    The research and analysis presented in this special issue shows that the same limited number of consumption categories are consistently revealed to be responsible for the largest share of environmental impact: mobility (automobile and air transport), food (meat, poultry, fish, and dairy followed by

  20. Scientific Information Policy Board 90th Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2051371

    2017-01-01

    Gigi Rolandi, sitting in the middle, chairing his last meeting of the Scientific Information Policy Board before his retirement. Rolandi was the chairman of the board from March 2006 until April 2017, a period that has seen lots of dynamics within the field of authoring, publishing and librarianship - both at CERN and beyond. In the first row from left to right: Eckhard Elsen (Director of Research), Jens Vigen (Head Librarian) Gigi Rolandi (SIPB Chair), Anita Hollier (Archivist) and Urs Wiedemann (Theory). In the second row from left to right: Nikos Kasioumis (Invited speaker), Alexander Kohls (Invited speaker), Stella Christodoulaki (Invited speaker), Nick Ellis (Chair CREB), Clara Troncon (ACCU), Annette Holtkamp (Scientific Information Service), Tim Smith (IT) Brigitte Bloch-Devaux (non-LHC experiments), Constantinos Loizides (ALICE), Thierry Stora (Engineering), John Jowett (Beams), Arjan Verweij (Technology), Anne Gentil-Beccot (Scientific Information Service), Fergus Wilson (LHCb), Ludmila Marian (Invit...

  1. The role of migration-specific and migration-relevant policies in migrant decision-making in transit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuschminder - de Guerre, Katie; Koser, Khalid

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the role of migration-specific and migration-relevant policies in migrant decision-making factors for onwards migration or stay in Greece and Turkey. In this paper we distinguish migration-specific policies from migration-relevant policies in transit and destination countries,

  2. Climate policy, asymmetric information and firm survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagem, C.

    2001-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare the effect of different domestic climate policy instruments under asymmetric information when the regulator wants to secure the survival of a specific firm. It is a well-known result from economic theory that emission taxes lead to a cost-effective distribution of abatement across polluters. However, if the regulator wants to ensure the survival of a specific firm, it may need to design policy instruments that reduce the firm's cost of complying with an emission tax regime. The climate policy instruments considered in this paper are tradable emission permits with distribution of free permits, emission taxes in combination with a fixed subsidy, and two types of voluntary agreements. It demonstrates first that if distributing free tradable permits shall have a preventing effect, the allocation of permits has to be made contingent on production. It further shows that a voluntary agreement where a specific abatement target is set by the regulator can prevent a shutdown but leads to lower welfare than the use of emission taxes in combination with a fixed subsidy. And finally it illustrates that a voluntary agreement designed as a menu of abatement contracts increases social welfare compared to an emission tax regime

  3. Re-Thinking the Relevance of Philosophy of Education for Educational Policy Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Morwenna

    2014-01-01

    The overall question addressed in this article is,"What kind of philosophy of education is relevant to educational policy makers?" The article focuses on the following four themes: The meanings attached to the term philosophy (of education) by philosophers themselves; the meanings attached to the term philosophy (of education) by policy…

  4. IMPLICATIONS OF ECONOMIC CRISES ON THE VALUE RELEVANCE OF ACCOUNTING INFORMATION IN BRAZILIAN COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Moraes da Costa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This papers investigates the impact of financial crises occurred in Brazil (1997-1999, 2002 and 2007-2008 on the value relevance of book value and earnings. The final sample comprised 1,904 observations from Brazilian listed companies, from 1997 till 2010. It is an empirical study based on panel data regression. To answer the research question, a dummy was applied for each year of negative macroeconomic shocks and how they affected the relation between market prices and accounting variables. Empirical evidence indicates that financial crises affected the value relevance of book value positively and the value relevance of earnings negatively, similarly to other countries like Thailand and Mexico. Therefore, macroeconomic factors should be taken into consideration when analyzing how accounting information captures the underlying characteristics of a firm. Future research could consider companies from other countries in Latin America and evaluate if the effects are similar or not. This is important because macroeconomic policies implemented to mitigate the effects of a crisis could lead to different impacts on the relevance of accounting information.

  5. National Information Policies: A Review of the Situation in Seventeen Industrialised Countries, with Particular Reference to Scientific and Technical Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Michael W., Comp.

    This report reviews the information policies that are concerned with, or relevant to, the scientific and technical information of 17 industrialized countries: Australia, Austria, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany (Federal Republic), Hungary, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Spain, the United Kingdom, the United…

  6. Innovation in information society policy : Rationale, policy mix and impact in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, M.; Kool, L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore how innovation has become more important in information society policy and what the implications are for policy design, policy coordination and policy evaluation. Design/methodology/approach - Against the background of European information society

  7. Impact of Non Accounting Information on The Value Relevance of Accounting Information: The Case of Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DHIAA SHAMKI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents empirical evidence about the impact of firm’s shareholders number as non accounting information on the value relevance of its earnings and book value of equity as accounting information for Jordanian industrial firms for the period from 1993 to 2002. Employing the return regression analysis and using shareholders number in two proxies namely local and foreign shareholders number, the findings of the study are fourfold. First, Individual earnings are value relevant while book value is irrelevant. Second, combining earnings with book value leads both of them to be irrelevant. Third, extending local shareholders number has significant impact on the value relevance of individual and combined earnings. Forth, extending foreign shareholders number has significant impact on the value relevance of individual book value and combined earnings. Since studies on the value relevance of these variables have neglected Jordan (and the Middle Eastern region, the study is the first especially in Jordan that tries to fill this gap by examiningthe impact of shareholders numbers on the value relevance of earnings and book valueto indicate firm value.

  8. Information Policy in the European Community: Balancing Protection and Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillince, J. A. A.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses European Community policy relating to information technology and the information industry. Topics addressed include the information services industry; transborder information flow, including electronic mail, data owner responsibility, and software piracy; digital data networks; electronic data interchange; telecommunications; information…

  9. Is genetic information relevantly different from other kinds of non-genetic information in the life insurance context?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpas, P J

    2008-07-01

    Within the medical, legal and bioethical literature, there has been an increasing concern that the information derived from genetic tests may be used to unfairly discriminate against individuals seeking various kinds of insurance; particularly health and life insurance. Consumer groups, the general public and those with genetic conditions have also expressed these concerns, specifically in the context of life insurance. While it is true that all insurance companies may have an interest in the information obtained from genetic tests, life insurers potentially have a very strong incentive to (want to) use genetic information to rate applicants, as individuals generally purchase their own cover and may want to take out very large policies. This paper critically focuses on genetic information in the context of life insurance. We consider whether genetic information differs in any relevant way from other kinds of non-genetic information required by and disclosed to life insurance companies by potential clients. We will argue that genetic information should not be treated any differently from other types of health information already collected from those wishing to purchase life insurance cover.

  10. CRIBs (Climate Relevant Innovation-system Builders): a powerful new focus for international climate technology policy

    OpenAIRE

    Ockwell, David; Byrne, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This briefing suggests some key ways in which the UNFCCC architecture could be extended in order to strengthen National Systems of Innovation (NISs) to achieve more transformative rates of climate technology transfer and development via the creation of “Climate Relevant Innovation-system Builders” (CRIBs).\\ud This policy briefing builds on an invited presentation by one of the authors at a workshop on NSIs convened by the Technology Executive Committee (TEC) of the United Nations Framework Co...

  11. Culturally-Relevant Information Literacy: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Information Literacy is a process for finding, using, evaluating and incorporating information into an individuals' knowledge base. This process has been formalized into the "ACRL Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education." The concept of Information Literacy as articulated in the "ACRL Standards" is…

  12. Information security policies and procedures a practitioner's reference

    CERN Document Server

    Peltier, Thomas R

    2004-01-01

    INFORMATION SECURITY POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Introduction Corporate Policies Organizationwide (Tier 1) Policies Organizationwide Policy Document Legal Requirements Duty of Loyalty Duty of Care Other Laws and Regulations Business Requirements Where to Begin? Summary Why Manage This Process as a Project? Introduction First Things First: Identify the Sponsor Defining the Scope of Work Time Management Cost Management Planning for Quality Managing Human Resources Creating a Communications Plan Summary Planning and Preparation Introduction Objectives of Policies, Stand

  13. increased relevance and influence of free prior informed consent

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nature WWF-Peru as Senior Policy Specialist on issues of indigenous peoples in isolation, .... The law and its regulations introduce the principles of interculturality, tradi- tional knowledge, among others to respect, and include, indigenous people's rights and knowledge in the design of REDD+ activities and strategies. Pe-.

  14. A fraud prevention policy: Its relevance and implication at a university of technology in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Rorwana

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Using research grants administrators and their clients (academic researchers as the lens, this paper investigated the relevance and implication of a fraud prevention policy at a University of Technology (UoT in South Africa. The paper adopted a quantitative approach in which closed-ended questions were complemented by open-ended questions in the survey questionnaire in the attempt to capture the perceptions of both research grants administrators and their clients on the relevance and implications of a fraud and irregularity prevention policy. The results indicate that both research grants administrators (71.4 %, and their clients (73% do not know if UoTx has a fraud and irregularity policy. While only 36% of research grants administrators indicated that they would feel safe reporting deceitful activities, a slight majority (59% of the clients reported same. With regards to the steps to follow to report fraudulent activity, it was noted that while all (100% the research grants administrators noted that they were clueless, ironically an overwhelming majority of their clients indicated otherwise. Notwithstanding, both research grants administrators and their clients (93% and 95% respectively concurred that a fraud prevention policy was necessary for UoTx. The implication is that having phenomenal controls that are not effectively publicized, monitored or worse still overridden by someone are useless.

  15. What is preventing relevant understanding of climate science in the public, media, and policy arenas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisman, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    We need to do a critical self examination of why the communication has thus far failed to sufficiently convey relevance in order to provide a basis for public and policy-maker understanding of the science. This session will focus on major impediments to communicating relevance and the foundations of climate science in two target audiences, those that are unsure, and those that have been misled. The question of 'why' is key. Considerations focus on social psychology and confluence effects that improve, or impede, climate communications and achievement of relevant understanding. Key components of human understanding require context in order to be addressed. Understanding these components form the basis for more effective climate communications.

  16. relevance of information warfare models to critical infrastructure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ismith

    not be applicable to every possible scenario; however, the intention is to illustrate their relevance in many .... digital communications system, where the vehicles are analogous to bits or packets, intersections for routers or ..... wireless channel, and negatively impact on the systems that rely on that channel. Electronic warfare.

  17. The Relevance of Information and Communication Technologies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Available evidence shows that information and Communication Technology (ICT) has further transformed information into a global phenomenon. In fact, the knowledge explosion following ubiquitous ICT tools, have equipped information and library science with immediate access to practically limitless resources, as well as ...

  18. INFORMED POLICIES Sound policies foster progress The starting ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-26

    Oct 26, 2010 ... The value of the research IDRC has supported since 1970 is how it improves lives – by changing laws and attitudes, for instance, giving voice to the poor, increasing financial resources, making education more accessible. Sound policies are at the heart of that progress.

  19. 77 FR 27774 - Health Information Technology Policy Committee Vacancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Health Information Technology Policy Committee Vacancy AGENCY... American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) established the Health Information Technology Policy.... ADDRESSES: GAO: [email protected] . GAO: 441 G Street NW., Washington, DC 20548. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  20. Rationales for technology-specific RES support and their relevance for German policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gawel, Erik; Lehmann, Paul; Purkus, Alexandra; Söderholm, Patrik; Witte, Katherina

    2017-01-01

    In order to achieve cost-effective RES-E deployment it is often argued that technology-neutral support schemes for renewables are indispensable. Against this background, RES-E support policies making widely use of technology differentiation in remuneration settings, e.g. across the EU, are frequently criticized from a theoretical point of view. However, in this paper we provide a systematic critique of the technology neutrality concept as a foundation for designing policy support schemes in the RES-E technology field. Specifically, the main objective of the paper is to scrutinize the arguments for technology-neutrality, and discuss three conceptual arguments for why technology-specific support schemes could in fact help minimize the societal costs of reaching future RES-E targets. We also briefly address different political economy concerns, which could constrain the choice of cost-effective policy support schemes, and that have to be taken into account for economic policy advice. For empirical illustration of the key arguments we refer to the case of German RES-E policy-making. The central conclusion from this paper is that technology-specific RES-E support schemes may generate significant economic benefits, particularly if technology markets work imperfectly and in second-best policy settings with additional non-internalized market failures. - Highlights: • Three theoretical cost-effectiveness reasons for technology-specific RES-E support. • German case study to show relevance of theoretical arguments for policy-making. • Political economy constraints to technology-neutral support are demonstrated. • Technology-specific RES-E support may generate significant economic benefits.

  1. European Union (EU Information Security Policies Türkay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Türkay Henkoğlu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of the European economy is strongly related to the use of Information andcommunication technologies (ICT and the transformation process of information society. However, because of the risks of ICT, people are anxious about using technology, which in turn retards the economic growth of countries all around the world. Therefore, especially in the last twenty years, information security issues have begun to gain importance in European Community (EC information policies, and many suggestions have been made related to these issues. The purpose of this study is to examine the main issues in EC information policies, the aims and the effects of these policies, and how they are implemented. The importance and scope of these policies were examined based on the McCumber information security model, which is a comprehensive and multidimensional information security model. In order to draw attention to the importance of information security issues in EC policies, a wide range of information sources are reviewed, including EC directives and agreements related to information security, the EC organizations responsible for making information security policies, and the literature concerning these issues. The findings of the study show that EC information security policies are seen as a vital part of economy and information societypolicies. In addition, the study shows that data protection directives have been updated regularly since 1995, which makes them suitable for the needs of today’s world.

  2. RCRA Programmatic Information Policy and Guidance

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes program policy and guidance documents that are used by the EPA regions, states, tribes and private parties to implement the hazardous waste...

  3. Relevance of PLUREL's results to policies at EU, national, regional and local level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    of natural resources as well as an attractive development in general. Besides these spatial relevant sector policies, the EU enforces legislation which is translated into spatial explicit instruments on sub-regional level. E.g. the Habitat and Birds Directive caused the development of Natura 2000 areas...... different, depending on the viewpoint, e.g. urban or rural and conservation or development. PLUREL is not developing an ideal agenda of sustainability in peri-urban areas, but is providing a broad range of tools allowing end-users to use their own perspective on sustainability. Different agendas can...

  4. How do experts define relevance criteria when initiating Health Impact Assessments of national policies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraemer, Stella Rj; Gulis, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present how the Danish Disease Prevention Committee (DDPC) members and HIA-experts understand when HIA is "relevant", which in this context means when there is "presumed to be a direct and documented effect on the health and morbidity of citizens". Method: DDPC members...... between policy and the related risk factors. Both groups favour the use of scientific evidence according to the traditional biomedical evidence hierarchy but HIA-experts also judge that there is value in using evidence that can be considered weak such as local community knowledge. Conclusions: It is clear...... that the DDPC recommendation gives rise to a discussion on differing perceptions of relevance. The same definition can be used for both direct and indirect effects depending on interpretation. Documented evidence for an effect is desirable in the form provided by the traditional biomedical evidence hierarchy...

  5. Information Flow and Health Policy Literacy: The Role of the Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophya Yumakulov

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available People increasingly can and want to obtain and generate health information themselves. With the increasing do-it-yourself sentiment comes also the desire to be more involved in one’s health care decisions. Patient driven health-care and health research models are emerging; terms such as participatory medicine and quantified-self are visible increasingly. Given the health consumer’s desire to be more involved in health data generation and health care decision making processes the authors submit that it is important to be health policy literate, to understanding how health policies are developed, what themes are discussed among health policy researchers and policy makers, to understand how ones demands would be discussed within health policy discourses. The public increasingly obtains their knowledge through the internet by searching web browsers for keywords. Question is whether the “health consumer” to come has knowledge of key terms defining key health policy discourses which would enable them to perform targeted searches for health policy literature relevant to their situation. The authors found that key health policy terms are virtually absent from printed and online news media which begs the question how the “health consumer” might learn about key health policy terms needed for web based searches that would allow the “health consumer” to access health policy discourses relevant to them.

  6. Policy, Procedures and Standards for Enterprise Information Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    This policy establishes a standard approach for managing information produced by, funded by, or received per regulated reporting and/or federal-wide requirements and subsequently held or cataloged in information management systems by EPA.

  7. Information System Security: Army Web Site Administration, Policies, and Practices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    .... The Policy requires heads of DoD Components to establish a process to identify appropriate information for posting to Web sites and to review all information placed on publicly accessible Web sites...

  8. Workplace Learning - How We Keep Track of Relevant Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bischoff, Kerstin; Herder, Eelco; Nejdl, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    At the workplace, learning is often a by-product of working on complex projects, requiring self-steered, need-driven and goal-oriented retrieval of information just in time from documents or peers. The personal desktop provides one rich source for learning material and for adaptation of learning

  9. System for Selection of Relevant Information for Decision Support

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalina, Jan; Seidl, L.; Zvára, K.; Grünfeldová, H.; Slovák, Dalibor; Zvárová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2013), s. 46-46 ISSN 1805-8698. [EFMI 2013 Special Topic Conference. 17.04.2013-19.04.2013, Prague] Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : decision support system * web-service * information extraction * high-dimension * gene expressions Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  10. Sources of sexual information and its relevance to sexual behavior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Résumé Une étude execute pour identifier les plusieurs sources de l'information sexuelle par les adolescents au Nigéria et leur influence sur leurs conduits sexuelles, en utilisant: a. le rapport sexuel avant le marriage (pré-sexuel avant le marriage) b. l'attente avec le premier rapport sexuel et c. d'être libre de discuter avec.

  11. Revealing Relationships among Relevant Climate Variables with Information Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Kevin H.; Golera, Anthony; Curry, Charles T.; Huyser, Karen A.; Kevin R. Wheeler; Rossow, William B.

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of the NASA Earth-Sun Exploration Technology Office is to understand the observed Earth climate variability, thus enabling the determination and prediction of the climate's response to both natural and human-induced forcing. We are currently developing a suite of computational tools that will allow researchers to calculate, from data, a variety of information-theoretic quantities such as mutual information, which can be used to identify relationships among climate variables, and transfer entropy, which indicates the possibility of causal interactions. Our tools estimate these quantities along with their associated error bars, the latter of which is critical for describing the degree of uncertainty in the estimates. This work is based upon optimal binning techniques that we have developed for piecewise-constant, histogram-style models of the underlying density functions. Two useful side benefits have already been discovered. The first allows a researcher to determine whether there exist sufficient data to estimate the underlying probability density. The second permits one to determine an acceptable degree of round-off when compressing data for efficient transfer and storage. We also demonstrate how mutual information and transfer entropy can be applied so as to allow researchers not only to identify relations among climate variables, but also to characterize and quantify their possible causal interactions.

  12. 77 FR 42339 - Improving Contracting Officers' Access to Relevant Integrity Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... contracting officers' access to relevant information about contractor business ethics in the Federal Awardee... ability to evaluate the business ethics of prospective contractors and protect the Government from...

  13. African communalism and public health policies: the relevance ofindigenous concepts of personal identity to HIV/AIDS policies in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kipton; Gaie, Joseph Br

    2010-09-01

    This article explores the possible relevance of African communalism to HIV/AIDS policies in Botswana and other parts of sub-Saharan Africa. We examine various interpretations of African communalism, which many consider to be the cardinal insight of African thought. We suggest several applications of this indigenous notion of personhood to HIV prevention in general and to routine HIV-testing policies in particular. This analysis demonstrates some of the ethical dilemmas and cultural complexities inherent in designing as well as implementing effective HIV-prevention programmes that strike a conscientious balance between protecting individual freedoms and securing public health. Recovering past traditions (such as African conceptions of personal identity) is valuable not only for the purpose of self-identification but also for helping us meet the challenges and problems of today in Africa. We also suggest that the human-rights-based approach to HIV prevention, which strives to protect individuals, is possibly incompatible with the socio-ethical ideals espoused by African communalism. We conclude that public health programmes in Botswana and other parts of sub-Saharan Africa would be more effective if those who designed and implemented them possessed a better understanding of indigenous conceptions of personhood or human agency as well as existing ethno-medical beliefs and cultural practices.

  14. Systematic literature searching in policy relevant, inter-disciplinary reviews: an example from culture and sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schucan Bird, Karen; Tripney, Janice

    2011-09-01

    Within the systematic review process, the searching phase is critical to the final synthesis product, its use and value. Yet, relatively little is known about the utility of different search strategies for reviews of complex, inter-disciplinary evidence. This article used a recently completed programme of work on cultural and sporting engagement to conduct an empirical evaluation of a comprehensive search strategy. Ten different types of search source were evaluated, according to three dimensions: (i) effectiveness in identifying relevant studies; (ii) efficiency in identifying studies; and (iii) adding value by locating studies that were not identified by any other sources. The study found that general bibliographic databases and specialist databases ranked the highest on all three dimensions. Overall, websites and journals were the next most valuable types of source. For reviewers, these findings highlight that general and specialist databases should remain a core component of the comprehensive search strategy, supplemented with other types of sources that can efficiently identify unique or grey literature. For policy makers and other research commissioners, this study highlights the value of methodological analysis for improving the understanding of, and practice in, policy relevant, inter-disciplinary systematic reviews. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Public sector information access policies in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welle Donker, F.M.

    2010-01-01

    In the digital age geo-information has become embedded in our daily lives, such as navigation systems, community platforms, real estate information and weather forecasts. Everybody uses geo-information for their day-to-day decision making. Therefore, access to geo-information is of vital importance

  16. The Water-Energy-Food Nexus: Advancing Innovative, Policy-Relevant Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crootof, A.; Albrecht, T.; Scott, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    The water-energy-food (WEF) nexus is rapidly expanding in scholarly literature and policy settings as a novel way to address complex Anthropocene challenges. The nexus approach aims to identify tradeoffs and synergies of water, energy, and food systems, internalize social and environmental impacts, and guide development of cross-sectoral policies. However, a primary limitation of the nexus approach is the absence - or gaps and inconsistent use - of adequate methods to advance an innovative and policy-relevant nexus approach. This paper presents an analytical framework to identify robust nexus methods that align with nexus thinking and highlights innovative nexus methods at the frontier. The current state of nexus methods was assessed with a systematic review of 245 journal articles and book chapters. This review revealed (a) use of specific and reproducible methods for nexus assessment is uncommon - less than one-third of the reviewed studies present explicit methods; (b) nexus methods frequently fall short of capturing interactions among water, energy, and food - the very concept they purport to address; (c) assessments strongly favor quantitative approaches - 70% use primarily quantitative tools; (d) use of social science methods is limited (26%); and (e) many nexus methods are confined to disciplinary silos - only about one-quarter combine methods from diverse disciplines and less than one-fifth utilize both quantitative and qualitative approaches. Despite some pitfalls of current nexus methods, there are a host of studies that offer innovative approaches to help quantify nexus linkages and interactions among sectors, conceptualize dynamic feedbacks, and support mixed method approaches to better understand WEF systems. Applying our analytical framework to all 245 studies, we identify, and analyze herein, seventeen studies that implement innovative multi-method and cross-scalar tools to demonstrate promising advances toward improved nexus assessment. This paper

  17. Developing geographic information infrastructure : The role of information policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Loenen, B.

    2006-01-01

    Within information societies, information availability is a key issue affecting societyâs well being. The infrastructure underlying the foundation of the information society may be referred to as the information infrastructure. A geographic information infrastructure (GII) supports the information

  18. Information centres: hyper-qualitative tool of Cogema's communication policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadeyron, P.

    1993-01-01

    The information centres are an indispensable link in the chain of Cogema's communication policy. They enable a complete adaptation to each visitor's different level of understanding and thus improve the quality of the transmission of information to a reduced, but totally sensitive, target. The information centres therefore represent ''quality'' tools which are complementary to other means of communication. Moreover, they emphasize Cogema's resolution to communicate and formalize its communication policy. (author)

  19. Developing decision-relevant data and information systems for California water through listening and collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, R. C.; Bernacchi, L.; Conklin, M. H.; Viers, J. H.; Fogg, G. E.; Fisher, A. T.; Kiparsky, M.

    2017-12-01

    California's historic drought of 2011-2015 provided excellent conditions for researchers to listen to water-management challenges from decision makers, particularly with regard to data and information needs for improved decision making. Through the UC Water Security and Sustainability Research Initiative (http://ucwater.org/) we began a multi-year dialog with water-resources decision makers and state agencies that provide data and technical support for water management. Near-term products of that collaboration will be both a vision for a 21st-century water data and information system, and near-term steps to meet immediate legislative deadlines in a way that is consistent with the longer-term vision. While many university-based water researchers engage with state and local agencies on both science and policy challenges, UC Water's focus was on: i) integrated system management, from headwaters through groundwater and agriculture, and on ii) improved decision making through better water information systems. This focus aligned with the recognition by water leaders that fundamental changes in the way the state manages water were overdue. UC Water is focused on three "I"s: improved water information, empowering Institutions to use and to create new information, and enabling decision makers to make smart investments in both green and grey Infrastructure. Effective communication with water decision makers has led to engagement on high-priority programs where large knowledge gaps remain, including more-widespread groundwater recharge of storm flows, restoration of mountain forests in important source-water areas, governance structures for groundwater sustainability, and filling information gaps by bringing new technology to bear on measurement and data programs. Continuing engagement of UC Water researchers in public dialog around water resources, through opinion pieces, feature articles, blogs, white papers, social media, video clips and a feature documentary film have

  20. Information Constraints and Financial Aid Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Judith Scott-Clayton

    2012-01-01

    One justification for public support of higher education is that prospective students, particularly those from underprivileged groups, lack complete information about the costs and benefits of a college degree. Beyond financial considerations, students may also lack information about what they need to do academically to prepare for and successfully complete college. Yet until recently, college aid programs have typically paid little attention to students' information constraints, and the comp...

  1. Bootstrapped Discovery and Ranking of Relevant Services and Information in Context-aware Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Bhargava

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A context-aware system uses context to provide relevant information and services to the user, where relevancy depends on the user’s situation. This relevant information could include a wide range of heterogeneous content. Many existing context-aware systems determine this information based on pre-defined ontologies or rules. In addition, they rely on users’ context history to filter it. Moreover, they often provide domain-specific information. Such systems are not applicable to a large and varied set of user situations and information needs, and may suffer from cold start for new users. In this paper, we address these limitations and propose a novel, general and flexible approach for bootstrapped discovery and ranking of heterogeneous relevant services and information in context-aware systems. We design and implement four variations of a base algorithm that ranks candidate relevant services, and the information to be retrieved from them, based on the semantic relatedness between the information provided by the services and the user’s situation description. We conduct a live deployment with 14 subjects to evaluate the efficacy of our algorithms. We demonstrate that they have strong positive correlation with human supplied relevance rankings and can be used as an effective means to discover and rank relevant services and information. We also show that our approach is applicable to a wide set of users’ situations and to new users without requiring any user interaction history.

  2. Information resources management for policy formulation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article discusses the findings of a study conducted on the state of information resources management (IRM) in government ministries in Tanzania. The purpose of the study was to investigate and establish the extent to which the information resources management in the ministries reflect and support the process of ...

  3. National platforms for evidence-informed physical activity policy making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rus, Diana; Bozdog, Elena; Loncarevic, Natasa

    Evidence-informed policy making in physical activity calls for inter-sectoral and interdisciplinary collaboration. To facilitate the exchange of knowledge, experiences and ideas across practice, policy and research, as part of the REPOPA Project and dissemination work, it was encouraged...

  4. Features of information policy in the Nordic countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Strunin

    2014-06-01

    A result of research features implementation of information policy in the Nordic countries it is possible to identify common characteristics of all the countries: access to information; create a national information potential; use of information resources in the national interest; create a common health information; promote international cooperation in the field of communication and information; warranty information sovereignty of the state; development of information infrastructure; development of e­government; enhance information literacy; use of ICT in all spheres of society – the economy, education, medicine and so on.

  5. Emergent information technologies and enabling policies for counter-terrorism

    CERN Document Server

    Popp, R

    2006-01-01

    Explores both counter-terrorism and enabling policy dimensions of emerging information technologies in national security After the September 11th attacks, "connecting the dots" has become the watchword for using information and intelligence to protect the United States from future terrorist attacks. Advanced and emerging information technologies offer key assets in confronting a secretive, asymmetric, and networked enemy. Yet, in a free and open society, policies must ensure that these powerful technologies are used responsibly, and that privacy and civil liberties remain protected. Emergent Information Technologies and Enabling Policies for Counter-Terrorism provides a unique, integrated treatment of cutting-edge counter-terrorism technologies and their corresponding policy options. Featuring contributions from nationally recognized authorities and experts, this book brings together a diverse knowledge base for those charged with protecting our nation from terrorist attacks while preserving our civil liberti...

  6. Adoption of an information systems security policy in small and medium sized enterprises.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Maria Lopes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Information Systems Security (ISS is a relevant fact for current organizations. This paper focuses on Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs. This article aims to constitute an empirical study on the applicability of the Action Research (AR method in information systems, more specifically by assessing the adoption of an ISS policy in six SMEs, and identifying the critical success factors in adopting an ISS policy. The research question we intend to answer is to what extent this research method is adequate to reach the proposed goal. The results of the study suggest that AR is a promising means for the evaluation of ISS policies adoption. It can both act as a research method that improves the understanding about the reasons why the policy has been abandoned, and as a change method, assisting practitioners to overcome barriers and suggesting measures to be implemented.

  7. Information Sharing Policies for Coalition Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    Fundamenta Informaticae , 48(2,3):129–163, 2001. 8. R. Chisholm. Contrary-to-duty imperatives and deontic logic. Analysis, 24:33–36, 1963. 9. L. Cholvy...échange d’informations dans une coalition Contexte : coalitions et COP But d’un COP (Common Operational Picture) • représentation unique de la ...situation pour prise de décisions, à partir d’informations sur la situation corrélées, fusionnées puis enrichies Collecte et génération des

  8. Strategic information for industrial policy-making in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonod, P.F.

    1990-05-01

    The practice shows that many crucial decisions for industrialization in developing countries have been taken based on incomplete information. For strategic decisions an incomplete information may have catastrophic consequences. The function of policy-making is defined as the process by which the information generated/or used in a particular context is reevaluated in a different context in order to formulate/or execute a policy of alternative decisions. It follows that the industrial information must be presented in such a manner to allow a reevaluation and alternative decisions. 30 notes

  9. Information communication technology policy and public primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this study was to correlate Information Communication Technology with public primary schools' efficiency in Rwanda. The study employed the descriptive survey and descriptive co-relational design. One hundred and forty-four primary teachers participated in the study. The level of ICT was poor (M ...

  10. Three Essays on Information Security Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yubao

    2011-01-01

    Information security breaches pose a significant and increasing threat to national security and economic well-being. In the Symantec Internet Security Threat Report (2003), companies surveyed experienced an average of about 30 attacks per week. Anecdotal evidence suggests that losses from cyber-attacks can run into millions of dollars. The CSI-FBI…

  11. Use of an integrated Atlas of Mental Health Care for evidence informed policy in Catalonia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, A; Salinas-Perez, J A; Gutierrez-Colosia, M R; Prat-Pubill, B; Serrano-Blanco, A; Molina, C; Jorda, E; Garcia-Alonso, C R; Salvador-Carulla, L

    2015-12-01

    This paper aims to present the Integrated Atlas of Mental Health of Catalonia (2010) focusing on: (a) the importance of using a taxonomy-based coding and standard system of data collection when assessing health services; and (b) its relevance as a tool for evidence-informed policy. This study maps all the care-related services for people with mental disorders available in Catalonia in 2010, using the 'Description and Evaluation of Services and Directories in Europe for long-term care' (DESDE-LTC). The unit of analysis is the Basic Stable Input of Care (BSIC), which is the minimal organisation unit composed by a set of inputs with temporal stability. We presented data on: (a) availability of BSICs and their capacity; (b) the adequacy of the provision of care, taking into account availability and accessibility; (c) the evolution of BSCIs from 2002 to 2010; and (d) the perceived relevance of Atlas of Mental Health as a tool for evidence-informed policy. We identified a total of 639 BSICs. A lack of Health services was detected in highly rural areas, although there was moderate availability of Social Services. Overall, more than 80% of the small mental health areas in Catalonia had an adequate core mental health service. Since 2002 the availability of mental health services has increased. Decision makers found the Atlas a useful and relevant tool for evidence informed policy. Policy makers can use Atlases to detect gaps and inequities in the provision of care for people with mental health needs.

  12. An Integrative Behavioral Model of Information Security Policy Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hoon Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors found the behavioral factors that influence the organization members’ compliance with the information security policy in organizations on the basis of neutralization theory, Theory of planned behavior, and protection motivation theory. Depending on the theory of planned behavior, members’ attitudes towards compliance, as well as normative belief and self-efficacy, were believed to determine the intention to comply with the information security policy. Neutralization theory, a prominent theory in criminology, could be expected to provide the explanation for information system security policy violations. Based on the protection motivation theory, it was inferred that the expected efficacy could have an impact on intentions of compliance. By the above logical reasoning, the integrative behavioral model and eight hypotheses could be derived. Data were collected by conducting a survey; 194 out of 207 questionnaires were available. The test of the causal model was conducted by PLS. The reliability, validity, and model fit were found to be statistically significant. The results of the hypotheses tests showed that seven of the eight hypotheses were acceptable. The theoretical implications of this study are as follows: (1 the study is expected to play a role of the baseline for future research about organization members’ compliance with the information security policy, (2 the study attempted an interdisciplinary approach by combining psychology and information system security research, and (3 the study suggested concrete operational definitions of influencing factors for information security policy compliance through a comprehensive theoretical review. Also, the study has some practical implications. First, it can provide the guideline to support the successful execution of the strategic establishment for the implement of information system security policies in organizations. Second, it proves that the need of education and training

  13. An integrative behavioral model of information security policy compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Hoon; Yang, Kyung Hoon; Park, Sunyoung

    2014-01-01

    The authors found the behavioral factors that influence the organization members' compliance with the information security policy in organizations on the basis of neutralization theory, Theory of planned behavior, and protection motivation theory. Depending on the theory of planned behavior, members' attitudes towards compliance, as well as normative belief and self-efficacy, were believed to determine the intention to comply with the information security policy. Neutralization theory, a prominent theory in criminology, could be expected to provide the explanation for information system security policy violations. Based on the protection motivation theory, it was inferred that the expected efficacy could have an impact on intentions of compliance. By the above logical reasoning, the integrative behavioral model and eight hypotheses could be derived. Data were collected by conducting a survey; 194 out of 207 questionnaires were available. The test of the causal model was conducted by PLS. The reliability, validity, and model fit were found to be statistically significant. The results of the hypotheses tests showed that seven of the eight hypotheses were acceptable. The theoretical implications of this study are as follows: (1) the study is expected to play a role of the baseline for future research about organization members' compliance with the information security policy, (2) the study attempted an interdisciplinary approach by combining psychology and information system security research, and (3) the study suggested concrete operational definitions of influencing factors for information security policy compliance through a comprehensive theoretical review. Also, the study has some practical implications. First, it can provide the guideline to support the successful execution of the strategic establishment for the implement of information system security policies in organizations. Second, it proves that the need of education and training programs suppressing

  14. Monitoring long-term ecological changes through the Ecological Monitoring and Assessment Network: science-based and policy relevant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, H; Brydges, T; Fenech, A; Lumb, A

    2001-01-01

    Ecological monitoring and its associated research programs have often provided answers to various environmental management issues. In the face of changing environmental conditions, ecological monitoring provides decision-makers with reliable information as they grapple with maintaining a sustainable economy and healthy environment. The Ecological Monitoring and Assessment Network (EMAN) is a national ecological monitoring network consisting of (1) about 100 case study sites across the country characterized by long-term multi-disciplinary environmental work conducted by a multitude of agencies (142 partners and counting); (2) a variety of less comprehensive yet more extensive monitoring sites; (3) a network where core monitoring variables of ecosystem change are measured; and (4) geo-referenced environmental observations. Environment Canada is the co-ordinating partner for the network through the EMAN Co-ordinating Office. EMAN's mission is to focus a scientifically-sound, policy-relevant ecosystem monitoring and research network based on (a) stabilizing a network of case-study sites operated by a variety of partners, and (b) developing a number of cooperative dispersed monitoring initiatives in order to deliver unique and needed goods and services. These goods and services include: (1) an efficient and cost-effective early warning system which detects, describes and reports on changes in Canadian ecosystems at a national or ecozone scale; and (2) cross-disciplinary and cross-jurisdictional assessments of ecosystem status, trends and processes. The early warning system and assessments of ecosystem status, trends and processes provide Environment Canada and partner organizations with timely information that facilitates increasingly adaptive policies and priority setting. Canadians are also informed of changes and trends occurring in Canadian ecosystems and, as a result, are better able to make decisions related to conservation and sustainability.

  15. The Economic Value of Personal Information and Policy Implication

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jiin; Nam, Changi; Kim, Seongcheol

    2015-01-01

    Personal information is essential in an information-oriented society for societal development and as a valuable business resource. However, because of poor management and a lack of proper protection, leakage of personal information can take place over time, and the standard for compensation is not well established. In order to establish appropriate policies for its protection, we need to know the economic value of personal information. Using conjoint analysis, we analyze the potential value o...

  16. INFO ANAV, a channel that is consolidated in the communication of information relevant to plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopera Broto, A. J.; Balbas Gomez, S.

    2012-01-01

    This weekly publication intended to make it to all the people who work at the sites of Asco and Vandellos relevant information for security since we are all responsible for the safe and reliable operation of our plants.

  17. Informing versus nudging in environmental policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ölander, Folke; Thøgersen, John

    2014-01-01

    for the desired behaviour. The authors present three studies demonstrating how mental shortcuts, based on subtle cues in the context, unconsciously influence human decision-making, with important consequences for the environment. Two of our own studies illustrate the behavioural impacts of (a) anchoring (the......Information has not been proven a very successful means to promote voluntary behaviour change to protect the environment. On this backcloth, there is currently increasing interest in recommendations from behavioural economics focusing on making the choice architecture more facilitating...

  18. Empoderamiento juvenil y control policial informal

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Gerardo Gabaldón

    2015-01-01

    El artículo discute la aplicación de mecanismos altamentecoactivos de control social informal sobre la población juvenilpercibida como desviada o incluso rebelde, utilizando comomarco referencial la noción de vulnerabilidad vinculada acarencias asociadas a la indefinición de identidades, laatenuación de controles informales benignos, la insuficiencia oineficacia del control social formal, las debilidadessocioeconómicas y la exclusión social. Los datos empíricosprovienen, fundamentalmente, de ...

  19. Fuzzy Mutual Information Based min-Redundancy and Max-Relevance Heterogeneous Feature Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daren Yu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Feature selection is an important preprocessing step in pattern classification and machine learning, and mutual information is widely used to measure relevance between features and decision. However, it is difficult to directly calculate relevance between continuous or fuzzy features using mutual information. In this paper we introduce the fuzzy information entropy and fuzzy mutual information for computing relevance between numerical or fuzzy features and decision. The relationship between fuzzy information entropy and differential entropy is also discussed. Moreover, we combine fuzzy mutual information with qmin-Redundancy-Max-Relevanceq, qMax-Dependencyq and min-Redundancy-Max-Dependencyq algorithms. The performance and stability of the proposed algorithms are tested on benchmark data sets. Experimental results show the proposed algorithms are effective and stable.

  20. Empoderamiento juvenil y control policial informal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gerardo Gabaldón

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo discute la aplicación de mecanismos altamentecoactivos de control social informal sobre la población juvenilpercibida como desviada o incluso rebelde, utilizando comomarco referencial la noción de vulnerabilidad vinculada acarencias asociadas a la indefinición de identidades, laatenuación de controles informales benignos, la insuficiencia oineficacia del control social formal, las debilidadessocioeconómicas y la exclusión social. Los datos empíricosprovienen, fundamentalmente, de estudios y diagnósticosvenezolanos de las últimas dos décadas, contextualizadosdentro de la perspectiva internacional sobre la vulnerabilidadjuvenil. Se sugieren mecanismos para reducir la aplicación de lacoacción informal con base en el empoderamiento juvenilasociado al incremento de la respetabilidad y reconocimientode identidades legítimas, particularmente frente a la policía que,como agencia de control social con amplias facultades deintervención situacional, estaría mayormente propensa a aplicarmedidas informales altamente coactivas para lograr suafirmación frente al desafío y obtener sometimiento.

  1. Evidence Informed Policy Network (EVIPNet) for Better Health ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Research results have no value unless they are made available for due consideration by practitioners and policymakers. Scientific articles are not enough. There is need to package research results for a wider audience and to insure that the flow of information goes both ways, resulting in evidence-informed policy and ...

  2. The relevance of detection and attribution for loss and damage policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, D. A.; Huggel, C.; Auffhammer, M.; Cramer, W.; Eicken, H.; Hansen, G.; Wallimann, I.

    2015-12-01

    The concept of loss and damage (L&D), the residual adverse impacts of climate change beyond what can be addressed by adaptation, has featured as a central component of recent discussions on international climate policy, most notably in negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. However, it remains unclear what sort of scientific evidence will be required to inform L&D activities, including with respect to issues of responsibility, liability, compensation, and financing. Possible types of scientific evidence include simple observation of the occurrence of weather-related disaster, understanding of causation and the role of anthropogenic emissions, and the comparison of understanding of causation versus observations of long-term trends through detection and attribution (D&A) analysis.In this presentation we will discuss these questions in detail and consider the implications. If L&D policy leans towards a compensation rationale, then it will likely require the most comprehensive form of evidence of the role of anthropogenic emissions in observed L&D, in other words D&A analysis. However, this has restrictive requirements, for instance in the retrospective availability of long-term monitoring, that may be prohibitive in many situations. Unfortunately, conditions that lead to a dearth of sustained long-term monitoring often also lead to greater vulnerability and exposure, and are thus exactly the conditions that L&D activities are intended to address. On the other hand, if L&D activities are motivated as a mechanism for supporting adaptation they may not necessarily require D&A evidence, but can nevertheless benefit from the confirmation and calibration that D&A provides. Thus, even if L&D policy is not focused on compensation, building resources and capacity in long-term monitoring and its analysis remains a priority.

  3. Informality as a stepping stone: A search-theoretical assessment of informal sector and government policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semih Tümen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a model of sequential job search to understand the factors determining the effect of tax and enforcement policies on the size (i.e., employment share of informal sector. The focus is on the role of informal sector as a stepping stone to formal jobs. I argue that the stepping-stone role of informal jobs is an important concept determining how strongly government policies affect the size of informal sector. I measure the extent of the stepping-stone role with the intensity of skill accumulation in the informal sector. If informal jobs help workers acquire skills, gain expertise, and build professional networks for boosting the chances to switch to a formal job, then the size of informal sector is less sensitive to government policy. In this case, the option value of a job in informal sector will be high and a worker with an informal job will not rush to switch to a formal job when a policy encouraging formal employment is in effect. If, on the other hand, informal sector does not provide satisfactory training opportunities, then the size of informal sector becomes more sensitive to government policy. Calibrating the model to the Brazilian data, I perform numerical exercises confirming that the effect of government policy on the size of informal sector is a decreasing function of the intensity of skill acquisition in the informal sector.

  4. Information Literacy Policy Development in Canada: Is It Time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara Bradley

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines policy issues related to information literacy in Canada. It provides some background on the information literacy concept, reflecting on popular definitions offered by American, British, and Australian library associations, before advocating for a broader definition that views information literacy as a human right. Information literacy is also considered in relationship to the proliferation of other “literacies,” such as digital, web, media, and information technology, that are the subject of increased advocacy and attention from interest groups and educators. The ongoing need for improved information literacy levels is analyzed not only in the context of inputs (the increasing complexity of the information environment but also in terms of potential personal, social, and economic outcomes that can be realized through widespread information literacy education efforts. The paper argues that information literacy must become a priority not only among academic librarians but also school, public, and special librarians, as well as others outside of the library sector, if significant improvements in information literacy levels are to be realized. Such a coordinated approach can only be achieved in the context of policies that require, and adequately support, widespread efforts at improving information literacy levels. After a review of the ad-hoc state of information literacy education in Canada today, this paper analyzes information literacy-related policy development efforts in Canada to date in the four arenas where one would expect to see such activity: the Government of Canada, provincial governments, library associations, and other stakeholder groups. This article aims to start a wide-reaching discussion about information literacy and associated policy issues in Canada.

  5. Uncertainty as Information: Narrowing the Science-policy Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Bradshaw

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Conflict and indecision are hallmarks of environmental policy formulation. Some argue that the requisite information and certainty fall short of scientific standards for decision making; others argue that science is not the issue and that indecisiveness reflects a lack of political willpower. One of the most difficult aspects of translating science into policy is scientific uncertainty. Whereas scientists are familiar with uncertainty and complexity, the public and policy makers often seek certainty and deterministic solutions. We assert that environmental policy is most effective if scientific uncertainty is incorporated into a rigorous decision-theoretic framework as knowledge, not ignorance. The policies that best utilize scientific findings are defined here as those that accommodate the full scope of scientifically based predictions.

  6. Phase synchronization of delta and theta oscillations increase during the detection of relevant lexical information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, Enzo; Maldonado, Pedro E; Aboitiz, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    During monitoring of the discourse, the detection of the relevance of incoming lexical information could be critical for its incorporation to update mental representations in memory. Because, in these situations, the relevance for lexical information is defined by abstract rules that are maintained in memory, a central aspect to elucidate is how an abstract level of knowledge maintained in mind mediates the detection of the lower-level semantic information. In the present study, we propose that neuronal oscillations participate in the detection of relevant lexical information, based on "kept in mind" rules deriving from more abstract semantic information. We tested our hypothesis using an experimental paradigm that restricted the detection of relevance to inferences based on explicit information, thus controlling for ambiguities derived from implicit aspects. We used a categorization task, in which the semantic relevance was previously defined based on the congruency between a kept in mind category (abstract knowledge), and the lexical semantic information presented. Our results show that during the detection of the relevant lexical information, phase synchronization of neuronal oscillations selectively increases in delta and theta frequency bands during the interval of semantic analysis. These increments occurred irrespective of the semantic category maintained in memory, had a temporal profile specific for each subject, and were mainly induced, as they had no effect on the evoked mean global field power. Also, recruitment of an increased number of pairs of electrodes was a robust observation during the detection of semantic contingent words. These results are consistent with the notion that the detection of relevant lexical information based on a particular semantic rule, could be mediated by increasing the global phase synchronization of neuronal oscillations, which may contribute to the recruitment of an extended number of cortical regions.

  7. Phase synchronization of delta and theta oscillations increase during the detection of relevant lexical information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enzo eBrunetti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available During monitoring of the discourse, the detection of the relevance of incoming lexical information could be critical for its incorporation to update mental representations in memory. Because, in these situations, the relevance for lexical information is defined by abstract rules that are maintained in memory, results critical to understand how an abstract level of knowledge maintained in mind mediates the detection of the lower-level semantic information. In the present study, we propose that neuronal oscillations participate in the detection of relevant lexical information, based on ‘kept in mind’ rules deriving from more abstract semantic information. We tested our hypothesis using an experimental paradigm that restricted the detection of relevance to inferences based on explicit information, thus controlling for ambiguities derived from implicit aspects. We used a categorization task, in which the semantic relevance was previously defined based on the congruency between a kept in mind category (abstract knowledge, and the lexical-semantic information presented. Our results show that during the detection of the relevant lexical information, phase synchronization of neuronal oscillations selectively increases in delta and theta frequency bands during the interval of semantic analysis. These increments were independent of the semantic category maintained in memory, had a temporal profile specific for each subject, and were mainly induced, as they had no effect on the evoked mean global field power. Also, recruitment of an increased number of pairs of electrodes was a robust observation during the detection of semantic contingent words. These results are consistent with the notion that the detection of relevant lexical information based on a particular semantic rule, could be mediated by increasing the global phase synchronization of neuronal oscillations, which may contribute to the recruitment of an extended number of cortical regions.

  8. Types of Lexicographical Information Needs and their Relevance for Information Science

    OpenAIRE

    Bergenholtz, Henning; Agerbo, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    In some situations, you need information in order to solve a problem that has occurred. In information science, user needs are often described through very specific examples rather than through a classification of situation types in which information needs occur. Furthermore, information science often describes general human needs, typically with a reference to Maslow's classification of needs (1954), instead of actual information needs. Lexicography has also focused on information needs, but...

  9. Types of lexicographical information needs and their relevance for information science

    OpenAIRE

    Bergenholtz, Henning; Pedersen, Heidi Agerbo

    2017-01-01

    In some situations, you need information in order to solve a problem that has occurred. In information science, user needs are often described through very specific examples rather than through a classification of situation types in which information needs occur. Furthermore, information science often describes general human needs, typically with a reference to Maslow’s classification of needs (1954), instead of actual information needs. Lexicography has also focused on information needs, but...

  10. Threshold policy for global games with noisy information sharing

    KAUST Repository

    Mahdavifar, Hessam

    2015-12-15

    It is known that global games with noisy sharing of information do not admit a certain type of threshold policies [1]. Motivated by this result, we investigate the existence of threshold-type policies on global games with noisy sharing of information and show that such equilibrium strategies exist and are unique if the sharing of information happens over a sufficiently noisy environment. To show this result, we establish that if a threshold function is an equilibrium strategy, then it will be a solution to a fixed point equation. Then, we show that for a sufficiently noisy environment, the functional fixed point equation leads to a contraction mapping, and hence, its iterations converge to a unique continuous threshold policy.

  11. Dynamics of evidence-informed health policy making in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Zaeem; Hafeez, Assad; Zafar, Shamsa; Ghaffar, Abdul

    2017-12-01

    Incorporating evidence is fundamental to maintaining the general acceptance and efficiency in public policies. In Pakistan, different actors-local and global-strive to facilitate the development of evidence-informed health policies. Effective involvement however, requires knowledge of the country-context, i.e. knowing the intricacies of how policies are formulated in Pakistan. Obtaining this knowledge is one of the key steps to making interventions impactful. We carried out a qualitative study to explore the environment of evidence-informed health policy in Pakistan. The study involved 89 participants and comprised three phases including: (1) literature review followed by a consultative meeting with key informants to explore the broad contours of policy formulation, (2) in-depth interviews with participants belonging to various levels of health system to discuss these contours and (3) a roundtable with experts to share and solidify the findings. Policy development is a slow, non-linear process with variable room for incorporation of evidence. Political actors dominate decisions that impact all aspects of policy, i.e. context, process and content. Research contributions are mostly influenced by the priorities of donor agencies-the usual proponents and sponsors of the generation of evidence. Since the devolution of health system in 2012, Pakistan's provinces continue to follow the same processes as before 2012, with little capacity to generate evidence and incorporate it into health policy. This study highlights the non-systematic, nearly ad hoc way of developing health policy in the country, overly dominated by political actors. Health advocates need to understand the policy process and the actors involved if they are to identify points of impact where their interaction with policy brings the maximum leverage. Moreover, an environment is needed where generation of data gains the importance it deserves and where capacities are enhanced for communicating and

  12. Information-Processing and Perceptions of Control: How Attribution Style Affects Task-Relevant Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeigh, Tony

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of perceived controllability on information processing within Weiner's (1985, 1986) attributional model of learning. Attributional style was used to identify trait patterns of controllability for 37 university students. Task-relevant feedback on an information-processing task was then manipulated to test for…

  13. the effect of current and relevant information sources on the use

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    reported similar findings at Yaba College of. Technology, Lagos. However, in a ... values. In other words, current information sources resulted in the use of the library. Jam (1992) identified lack of relevant information sources to be one of the problems facing library users and has ... Bachelor's degree holders. That those with.

  14. Experiences and attitudes towards evidence-informed policy-making among research and policy stakeholders in the Canadian agri-food public health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, I; Gropp, K; Pintar, K; Waddell, L; Marshall, B; Thomas, K; McEwen, S A; Rajić, A

    2014-12-01

    Policy-makers working at the interface of agri-food and public health often deal with complex and cross-cutting issues that have broad health impacts and socio-economic implications. They have a responsibility to ensure that policy-making based on these issues is accountable and informed by the best available scientific evidence. We conducted a qualitative descriptive study of agri-food public health policy-makers and research and policy analysts in Ontario, Canada, to understand their perspectives on how the policy-making process is currently informed by scientific evidence and how to facilitate this process. Five focus groups of 3-7 participants and five-one-to-one interviews were held in 2012 with participants from federal and provincial government departments and industry organizations in the agri-food public health sector. We conducted a thematic analysis of the focus group and interview transcripts to identify overarching themes. Participants indicated that the following six key principles are necessary to enable and demonstrate evidence-informed policy-making (EIPM) in this sector: (i) establish and clarify the policy objectives and context; (ii) support policy-making with credible scientific evidence from different sources; (iii) integrate scientific evidence with other diverse policy inputs (e.g. economics, local applicability and stakeholder interests); (iv) ensure that scientific evidence is communicated by research and policy stakeholders in relevant and user-friendly formats; (V) create and foster interdisciplinary relationships and networks across research and policy communities; and (VI) enhance organizational capacity and individual skills for EIPM. Ongoing and planned efforts in these areas, a supportive culture, and additional education and training in both research and policy realms are important to facilitate evidence-informed policy-making in this sector. Future research should explore these findings further in other countries and contexts.

  15. How can land-use modelling tools inform bioenergy policies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sarah C.; House, Joanna I.; Diaz-Chavez, Rocio A.; Molnar, Andras; Valin, Hugo; DeLucia, Evan H.

    2011-01-01

    Targets for bioenergy have been set worldwide to mitigate climate change. Although feedstock sources are often ambiguous, pledges in European nations, the United States and Brazil amount to more than 100 Mtoe of biorenewable fuel production by 2020. As a consequence, the biofuel sector is developing rapidly, and it is increasingly important to distinguish bioenergy options that can address energy security and greenhouse gas mitigation from those that cannot. This paper evaluates how bioenergy production affects land-use change (LUC), and to what extent land-use modelling can inform sound decision-making. We identified local and global internalities and externalities of biofuel development scenarios, reviewed relevant data sources and modelling approaches, identified sources of controversy about indirect LUC (iLUC) and then suggested a framework for comprehensive assessments of bioenergy. Ultimately, plant biomass must be managed to produce energy in a way that is consistent with the management of food, feed, fibre, timber and environmental services. Bioenergy production provides opportunities for improved energy security, climate mitigation and rural development, but the environmental and social consequences depend on feedstock choices and geographical location. The most desirable solutions for bioenergy production will include policies that incentivize regionally integrated management of diverse resources with low inputs, high yields, co-products, multiple benefits and minimal risks of iLUC. Many integrated assessment models include energy resources, trade, technological development and regional environmental conditions, but do not account for biodiversity and lack detailed data on the location of degraded and underproductive lands that would be ideal for bioenergy production. Specific practices that would maximize the benefits of bioenergy production regionally need to be identified before a global analysis of bioenergy-related LUC can be accomplished. PMID

  16. Mode 2 and the Tension between Excellence and Utility: The Case of a Policy-Relevant Research Field in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkansta, Carin; Jacob, Merle

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of changing science policy doctrines on the development of an academic field, working life research. Working life research is an interdisciplinary field of study in which researchers and stakeholders collaborated to produce relevant knowledge. The development of the field, we argue, was both facilitated and…

  17. Creation of reliable relevance judgments in information retrieval systems evaluation experimentation through crowdsourcing: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samimi, Parnia; Ravana, Sri Devi

    2014-01-01

    Test collection is used to evaluate the information retrieval systems in laboratory-based evaluation experimentation. In a classic setting, generating relevance judgments involves human assessors and is a costly and time consuming task. Researchers and practitioners are still being challenged in performing reliable and low-cost evaluation of retrieval systems. Crowdsourcing as a novel method of data acquisition is broadly used in many research fields. It has been proven that crowdsourcing is an inexpensive and quick solution as well as a reliable alternative for creating relevance judgments. One of the crowdsourcing applications in IR is to judge relevancy of query document pair. In order to have a successful crowdsourcing experiment, the relevance judgment tasks should be designed precisely to emphasize quality control. This paper is intended to explore different factors that have an influence on the accuracy of relevance judgments accomplished by workers and how to intensify the reliability of judgments in crowdsourcing experiment.

  18. Types of lexicographical information needs and their relevance for information science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning; Pedersen, Heidi Agerbo

    2017-01-01

    In some situations, you need information in order to solve a problem that has occurred. In information science, user needs are often described through very specific examples rather than through a classification of situation types in which information needs occur. Furthermore, information science...... often describes general human needs, typically with a reference to Maslow’s classification of needs (1954), instead of actual information needs. Lexicography has also focused on information needs, but has developed a more abstract classification of types of information needs, though (until more recent...... research into lexicographical functions) with a particular interest in linguistic uncertainties and the lack of knowledge and skills in relation to one or several languages. In this article, we suggest a classification of information needs in which a tripartition has been made according to the different...

  19. Strategizing for Public Policy: The Information Literacy State Proclamation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Sharon A.; Jackman, Lana W.; Prause, Emily

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a project designed to raise the awareness of policymakers about the importance of information literacy to achieve societal goals. Issues benefit from the governmental support, prioritization, mandates, and funding that can result when there is policy behind them. Studies indicate that many people lack the ability to draw on…

  20. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Policy for Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Up till today, eight years after the policy formulation, rural communities in Nigeria are yet to feel the impact of the implementation. Nothing has changed; neither a single infrastructure was deployed to rural communities nor the IT infrastructures. The information, digital and development gap that exists within rural and urban ...

  1. Government Policy in the Formal and Informal Sectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prado, Mauricio

    2011-01-01

    The paper quantitatively investigates, in general equilibrium, the interaction between the firms' choice to operate in the formal or the informal sector and government policy on taxation and enforcement, given a level of regulation. A static version of Ghironi and Melitz's (2005) industry model...

  2. Public-academic partnerships: a rapid small-grant program for policy-relevant research: motivating public-academic partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Carolyn I; Arbuckle, Melissa R; Simpson, Helen B; Herman, Daniel B; Stroup, T Scott; Skrobala, Anne M; Sederer, Lloyd I; Appel, Anita; Essock, Susan M

    2013-02-01

    To help grow a cadre of researchers with the knowledge and skills to pursue topics of great utility to public mental health systems, the director of the Division of Mental Health Services and Policy Research at Columbia University used funding from the New York State Office of Mental Health (OMH) to create a rapid small-grant program called the OMH Policy Scholars Program. This column uses two case examples to describe how this public-academic partnership exposes early-career researchers to the needs and complexities of large public mental health systems while providing them with senior research and policy mentors to help ensure the success of the scholars' projects and oversee their introduction to and work within the public mental health system. This type of collaboration is one model of encouraging early-career psychiatric researchers to pursue policy-relevant research.

  3. Translanguaging in Self-Access Language Advising: Informing Language Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Fujimoto-Adamson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates language advising in a self-access center (SAC with the purpose of informing language policy. This center is located in a new Japanese university and has shifted from an initially teacher-imposed ‘English-only’ language policy into one which encourages “translanguaging” (Blackledge & Creese, 2010, p. 105 between the students’ and center advisors’ (termed as mentors in this center L1 (Japanese and their L2 (English. Data from audio-recordings of interaction with advisors and students and between students themselves, interviews with mentors, and student questionnaires all reveal how translanguaging occurs in practice and how it helps to create a learning space in which the “local, pragmatic coping tactics” (Lin, 2005, p. 46 of code-switching offer a more viable approach for learning than under its initial monolingual policy. Mentor interviews and student questionnaires indicate generally positive attitudes towards translanguaging; however, some students still favor an ‘English-only’ policy. Conclusions reveal that a looser language policy in the center is emerging in which mentors now guide students towards their own individualized language policies. It is argued in this paper that this “code choice” (Levine, 2011 in language use is therefore aligned more closely to the principles of student-direction in self-access use.

  4. Information for mental health systems: an instrument for policy-making and system service quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora, A; Lesage, A; Pathare, S; Levav, I

    2017-08-01

    Information is crucial in mental healthcare, yet it remains undervalued by stakeholders. Its absence undermines rationality in planning, makes it difficult to monitor service quality improvement, impedes accountability and human rights monitoring. For international organizations (e.g., WHO, OECD), information is indispensable for achieving better outcomes in mental health policies, services and programs. This article reviews the importance of developing system level information with reference to inputs, processes and outputs, analyzes available tools for collecting and summarizing information, highlights the various goals of information gathering, discusses implementation issues and charts the way forward. Relevant publications and research were consulted, including WHO studies that purport to promote the use of information systems to upgrade mental health care in high- and low-middle income countries. Studies have shown that once information has been collected by relevant systems and analyzed through indicator schemes, it can be put to many uses. Monitoring mental health services, represents a first step in using information. In addition, studies have noted that information is a prime resource in many other areas such as evaluation of quality of care against evidence based standards of care. Services data may support health services research where it is possible to link mental health data with other health and non-health databases. Information systems are required to carefully monitor involuntary admissions, restrain and seclusion, to reduce human rights violations in care facilities. Information has been also found useful for policy makers, to monitor the implementation of policies, to evaluate their impact, to rationally allocate funding and to create new financing models. Despite its manifold applications, Information systems currently face many problems such as incomplete recording, poor data quality, lack of timely reporting and feedback, and limited

  5. Health policy making under information constraints: an evaluation of the policy responses to the economic crisis in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goranitis, Ilias; Siskou, Olga; Liaropoulos, Lycourgos

    2014-09-01

    Cost consolidation in the highly fragmented and inefficient Greek health care system was necessary. However, policies introduced were partly formed in a context of insufficient information. Expenditure data from a consumption point of view were lacking and the depth of the political and structural problems was of unknown magnitude to the supervisory authorities. Drawing upon relevant literature and evidence from the newly implemented OECD System of Health Accounts, the paper evaluates the health policy responses to the economic crisis in Greece. The discussion and recommendations are also of interest to other countries where data sources are not reliable or decisions are based on preliminary data and projections. Between 2009 and 2012, across-the-board cuts have resulted in a decline in public health expenditure for inpatient care by 8.6%, for pharmaceuticals by 42.3% and for outpatient care by 34.6%. Further cuts are expected from the ongoing reforms but more structural changes are needed. Cost-containment was not well targeted and expenditure cuts were not always addressed to the real reasons of the pre-crisis cost explosion. Policy responses were restricted to quick and easy fiscal adjustment, ignoring the need for substantial structural reforms or individuals' right to access health care irrespective of their financial capacity. Developing appropriate information infrastructure, restructuring and consolidating the hospital sector and moving toward a tax-based national health insurance could offer valuable benefits to the system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fair Information Principles of Brazilian Companies online privacy policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Zeni Marchiori

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to present the Fair Information Principles in the privacy policies of the websites of major Brazilian companies (according to the 2014 Forbes Magazine list. The check and analysis were supported by a checklist compiled from documents issued by the Federal Trade Commission and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and development. The study selected fourteen companies from a universe of twenty-five, considering the immediacy criterion of access to the privacy policy on their websites. The security (safeguards principle is the most widespread foundation at the privacy policies of the companies selected (existing in eight of the fourteen analyzed policies; and the principle of responsibility receives less adhesion due to the fact that it is not covered in any of the examined online privacy policies. The Sabesp Company presents the most complete privacy policy, considering the compliance with the Fair Information Principles when compared to the others perused, while WEG does not present any of the principles identified in the documental survey. As for e-commerce, the number of companies that assume some of the Principles is further reduced. For the selected universe the adherence to the Fair information Principles is still incipient, althought its use is not mandatory. An open discussion of the proposed Brazilian law about personal data protection should play an important role in creating further guidance on the subject. Additional studies in this subject should involve the perception of users, as well as a cutout of companies which target e-commerce, considering that an effective alignment with these principles and other guidelines are required in order to protect the user’s privacy and personal data in the web environment.

  7. The Common Body of Knowledge: A Framework to Promote Relevant Information Security Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth J. Knapp

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes using an established common body of knowledge (CBK as one means of organizing information security literature.  Consistent with calls for more relevant information systems (IS research, this industry-developed framework can motivate future research towards topics that are important to the security practitioner.  In this review, forty-eight articles from ten IS journals from 1995 to 2004 are selected and cross-referenced to the ten domains of the information security CBK.  Further, we distinguish articles as empirical research, frameworks, or tutorials.  Generally, this study identified a need for additional empirical research in every CBK domain including topics related to legal aspects of information security.  Specifically, this study identified a need for additional IS security research relating to applications development, physical security, operations security, and business continuity.  The CBK framework is inherently practitioner oriented and using it will promote relevancy by steering IS research towards topics important to practitioners.  This is important considering the frequent calls by prominent information systems scholars for more relevant research.  Few research frameworks have emerged from the literature that specifically classify the diversity of security threats and range of problems that businesses today face.  With the recent surge of interest in security, the need for a comprehensive framework that also promotes relevant research can be of great value.

  8. Information bias in contingent valuation: effects of personal relevance, quality of information, and motivational orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icek Ajzen; Thomas C. Brown; Lori H. Rosenthal

    1996-01-01

    A laboratory experiment examined the potential for information bias in contingent valuation (CV). Consistent with the view that information about a public or private good can function as a persuasive communication, willingness to pay (WTP) was found to increase with the quality of arguments used to describe the good, especially under conditions of high personal...

  9. The Interface between Research and Policy--A Note with Potential Relevance for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gornitzka, Åse

    2013-01-01

    The nexus between research and policy in higher education as in other sectors of society is multimodal and not adequately captured by the notion of a cultural gap between the world of practice and the world of research. Neither can the relationship be seen as unidirectional. This paper sketches out the range of uses of research in policy-making,…

  10. Policy-Relevant Systematic Reviews to Strengthen Health Systems: Models and Mechanisms to Support Their Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Sandra; Dickson, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    Support for producing systematic reviews about health systems is less well developed than for those about clinical practice. From interviewing policy makers and systematic reviewers we identified institutional mechanisms which bring systematic reviews and policy priorities closer by harnessing organisational and individual motivations, emphasising…

  11. Effect of the Adoption of IFRS on the Information Relevance of Accounting Profits in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Alexandre Costa dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the effect of adopting the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS in Brazil on the information relevance of accounting profits of publicly traded companies. International studies have shown that the adoption of IFRS improves the quality of accounting information compared with domestic accounting standards. Concurrent evidence is sparse in Brazil. Information relevance is understood herein as a multidimensional attribute that is closely related to the quality and usefulness of the information conveyed by accounting profits. The associative capacity and information timeliness of accounting profits in relation to share prices were examined. Furthermore, the level of conditional conservatism present in accounting profits was also analyzed because according to Basu (1997, this aspect is related to timeliness. The study used pooled regressions and panel data models to analyze the quarterly accounting profits of 246 companies between the first quarter of 1999 and the first quarter of 2013, resulting in 9,558 quarter-company observations. The results indicated that the adoption of IFRS in Brazil (1 increased the associative capacity of accounting profits; (2 reduced information timeliness to non-significant levels; and (3 had no effect on conditional conservatism. The joint analysis of the empirical evidence from the present study conclusively precludes stating that the adoption of IFRS in Brazil contributed to an increase the information relevance of accounting profits of publicly traded companies.

  12. The Impact of the Introduction of Web Information Systems (WIS) on Information Policies: An Analysis of the Canadian Federal Government Policies Related to WIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Christine; Bergeron, Pierette

    2002-01-01

    Presents results of an analysis of the Canadian federal government information policies that govern its Web information systems (WIS) that was conducted to better understand how the government has adapted its information policies to the WIS. Discusses results that indicate new policies have been crafted to take into account the WIS context.…

  13. The impact of intangibles on the value relevance of accounting information: Evidence from French companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Kimouche

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper aims to explore whether intangible items that recognised in financial statements are value-relevant to investors in the French context, and whether these items affect the value relevance of accounting information. Design/methodology/approach: Empirical data were collected from a sample of French listed companies, over the nine-year period of 2005 to 2013. Starting of Ohlson’s (1995 model, the correlation analysis and the linear multiple regressions have been applied. Findings: We find that intangibles and traditional accounting measures as a whole are value relevant. However, the amortization and impairment charges of intangibles and cash flows do not affect the market values of French companies, unlike other variables, which affect positively and substantially the market values. Also goodwill and book values are more associated with market values than intangible assets and earnings respectively. Finally, we find that intangibles have improved the value relevance of accounting information. Practical implications: French legislators must give more interest for intangibles, in order to enrich the financial statements content and increasing the pertinence of accounting information. Auditors must give more attention for intangibles’ examination process, in order to certify the amounts related to intangibles in financial statements, and hence enrich their reliability, what provides adequacy guarantees for investors to use them in decision making. Originality/value: The paper used recently available financial data, and proposed an improvement concerning the measure of incremental value relevance of intangibles items.

  14. Perceived Relevance of an Introductory Information Systems Course to Prospective Business Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Govender

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study is designed to examine students’ perceptions of the introductory Information Systems (IS course. It was an exploratory study in which 67 students participated. A quantitative approach was followed making use of questionnaires for the collection of data. Using the theory of reasoned action as a framework, the study explores the factors that influence non-IS major students’ perceived relevance of the IS introductory course. The analysis of collected data included descriptive and inferential statistics. Using multiple regression analysis, the results suggest that overall, the independent variables, relevance of the content, previous IT knowledge, relevance for professional practice, IT preference in courses and peers’ influence may account for 72% of the explanatory power for the dependent variable, perceived relevance of the IS course. In addition, the results have shown some strong predictors (IT preference and peers’ influence that influence students’ perceived relevance of the IS course. Practical work was found to be a strong mediating variable toward positive perceptions of IS. The results of this study suggest that students do indeed perceive the introductory IS course to be relevant and match their professional needs, but more practical work would enhance their learning. Implications for theory and practice are discussed as a result of the behavioural intention to perceive the IS course to be relevant and eventually to recruit more IS students.

  15. Proactive Support of Internet Browsing when Searching for Relevant Health Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rurik, Clas; Zowalla, Richard; Wiesner, Martin; Pfeifer, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Many people use the Internet as one of the primary sources of health information. This is due to the high volume and easy access of freely available information regarding diseases, diagnoses and treatments. However, users may find it difficult to retrieve information which is easily understandable and does not require a deep medical background. In this paper, we present a new kind of Web browser add-on, in order to proactively support users when searching for relevant health information. Our add-on not only visualizes the understandability of displayed medical text but also provides further recommendations of Web pages which hold similar content but are potentially easier to comprehend.

  16. Disseminating relevant health information to underserved audiences: implications of the Digital Divide Pilot Projects*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreps, Gary L.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This paper examines the influence of the digital divide on disparities in health outcomes for vulnerable populations, identifying implications for medical and public libraries. Method: The paper describes the results of the Digital Divide Pilot Projects demonstration research programs funded by the National Cancer Institute to test new strategies for disseminating relevant health information to underserved and at-risk audiences. Results: The Digital Divide Pilot Projects field-tested innovative systemic strategies for helping underserved populations access and utilize relevant health information to make informed health-related decisions about seeking appropriate health care and support, resisting avoidable and significant health risks, and promoting their own health. Implications: The paper builds on the Digital Divide Pilot Projects by identifying implications for developing health communication strategies that libraries can adopt to provide digital health information to vulnerable populations. PMID:16239960

  17. Disseminating relevant health information to underserved audiences: implications of the Digital Divide Pilot Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreps, Gary L

    2005-10-01

    This paper examines the influence of the digital divide on disparities in health outcomes for vulnerable populations, identifying implications for medical and public libraries. The paper describes the results of the Digital Divide Pilot Projects demonstration research programs funded by the National Cancer Institute to test new strategies for disseminating relevant health information to underserved and at-risk audiences. The Digital Divide Pilot Projects field-tested innovative systemic strategies for helping underserved populations access and utilize relevant health information to make informed health-related decisions about seeking appropriate health care and support, resisting avoidable and significant health risks, and promoting their own health. The paper builds on the Digital Divide Pilot Projects by identifying implications for developing health communication strategies that libraries can adopt to provide digital health information to vulnerable populations.

  18. Motivated memory: memory for attitude-relevant information as a function of self-esteem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersema, D.V.; van der Pligt, J.; van Harreveld, F.

    2010-01-01

    In this article we offer a new perspective on the contradictory findings in the literature on memory for attitude-relevant information. We propose that biases in memory are most likely to occur when the attitude involved is connected to personally important values and the self; i.e., if the attitude

  19. the effect of current and relevant information sources on the use of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    teaching, research, conservation, transmission and advancement of knowledge and public service. The tripartite functions of any university is to conserve knowledge, transmit or disseminate knowledge through teaching, conferences ... Jam (1992) identified lack of relevant information sources to be one of the problems.

  20. For a cyberspace information policy: advances, perspectives and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakeline Amparo Villota Enríquez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is to describe and analyze the policies of information in cyberspace, both global and regionally, in different directions: programs, resolutions, and projects from the information sector. Likewise, an overview of the same is presented in the Latin American and Caribbean region. Through documentary analysis of the literature related to the topic, the article is based on a review of literature raised from scientific materials such as: books, thesis papers, dissertations, texts on internet sites and articles, resolutions, projects and decrees dealing with the same topic. As a result, cyberspace is conceptualized and its elements, dimensions, strategies and variations are characterized, by analyzing the information from cyberspace policy, based on the global stage to relate it, finally, to the region of Latin America and the Caribbean, with the idea of better addressing the problems. The cyberspace information policy experience a minor and slow process in the field of cyber war; resulting from the obstacle of international cooperation defined by the disparate ambitions of the State or region.

  1. Relevance of national and local government policy to sustainable community natural resource management in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Musvoto, Constansia D

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Development in South Africa is guided by the principle of sustainability, and this is underpinned by integration, which is the consideration of social, economic and environmental factors in decision making. Policies are in place at national...

  2. The terrestrial carbon cycle on the regional and global scale : modeling, uncertainties and policy relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnen, van J.G.

    2008-01-01

    Contains the chapters: The importance of three centuries of climate and land-use change for the global and regional terrestrial carbon cycle; and The terrestrial C cycle and its role in the climate change policy

  3. A Literature Review of Homelessness and Aging: Suggestions for a Policy and Practice-Relevant Research Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Amanda; Barken, Rachel; Sussman, Tamara; Rothwell, David; Bourgeois-Guérin, Valérie; Lavoie, Jean-Pierre

    2016-03-01

    Homelessness among older people is a growing concern across Canada and is expected to rise with demographic change (Crane & Warnes, 2010; Culhane, Metraux, Byrne, Stino, & Bainbridge, 2013). Yet current knowledge, policies, and practices on homelessness largely focus on younger populations. Likewise, research and policies on aging typically overlook homelessness. Responses to homelessness among older people must address complex needs related to health, income security, and housing. Based on a comprehensive literature review, this article outlines the existing and needed research with regards to homelessness among older people. We clarify the intersections of aging and homelessness; review the relevant statistics, including estimated prevalence; discuss pathways and variations in experience; and identify gaps in knowledge. We conclude with a call for an inclusive research agenda that will help build policies and practices to reduce and ultimately to eliminate homelessness among older people in Canada.

  4. 機構典藏相關政策之探討 A Study on Relevant Policies for Institutional Repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Chun Lo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available 本研究旨在探討制定機構典藏政策的相關議題,藉由文獻探討瞭解國際之研究與發展現況,並透過內容分析法分析國外54所大學所制定之機構典藏政策內容,據以製作問卷,於訪談國內12所大學圖書館同時進行調查,期能瞭解國內大學對典藏政策制定之相關意見,並根據調查與研究結果,對國內未來發展機構典藏及制定政策提出結論與建議。This research aims to investigate the relevant policies for Institutional Repositories (IRs. According to literature review, the international research and development are also investigated. In addition, by utilizing content analysis method, 54 foreign universities are studied for their policies of IRs. Simultaneous questionnaire survey and interview are conducted with 12 university libraries in Taiwan, to better understand the recent development of IRs, and to get some feedback on the policy issues. Finally, according to these results, conclusion and suggestion are made for the future development and relevant policies for IRs.

  5. Indigenous participation in an informal national indigenous health policy network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Mark J; Thomas, David P; Anderson, Ian P; Pattison, Philippa

    2011-08-01

    OBJECTIVE; To determine and describe the features of Indigenous participation in an informal national Indigenous health policy network. A questionnaire was administered during 2003-04. Through a snowball nomination process a total of 227 influential persons were identified. Of these, 173 received surveys of which 44 were returned, a return rate of 25%. These data were analysed to detect the existence of network groups; measure the degree of group interconnectivity; and measure the characteristics of bonds between influential persons. Demographic information was used to characterise the network and its groups. Indigenous people were integral to the network due to their high representation, their distribution throughout the 16 groups, and the interconnections between the groups. The network was demographically diverse and multiple relational variables were needed to characterise it. Indigenous and non-Indigenous people had strong ties in this network. Social network methods made visible an informal network where Indigenous and non-Indigenous people relate in a complex socio-political environment to influence national Indigenous health policy. What is known about the topic? The participation of Indigenous people is acknowledged as important in health, but there is criticism of the lack of real opportunities for Indigenous people to participate in national Indigenous health policy processes.

  6. Turkey in Search of Relevant Foreign Policy Strategy (2002-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urmanov Dayan R.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main idea of this article is to describe the process of Turkish foreign policy evolvement during the rule of Justice and Development party (JDP. From weak economy and unstable political situation in 2001, JDP quickly formulated a new strategy of foreign policy and stabilized economy. In the article the Turkish foreign policy in the 21st century is divided into several stages which respond to different international threats and circumstances. The first stage was a peacekeeping stage when Turkey tried to stabilize the situation near its borders and implement peace initiatives for the purpose to find new markets and allies. As a result, Turkey formulated a new strategy of foreign policy, called “Zero Problems Policy” which aimed to create a ring of friendly countries on the borders. On the second stage, Turkish foreign policy was more active – Turkey tried to balance among regional power centers and confront with one of the most powerful actors – Israel. Confrontation with Tel Aviv was a preface to the third stage, and today under the influence of “Arab Spring” and desire to change its role in international relations, Turkey refused “Zero Problems Policy” strategy and turned to a new aggressive and revanchist idea – neo- Ottomanism. Ankara tries to build a new regional set of rules where Turkey will play a leading role.

  7. Book value, earnings, dividends, and audit quality on the value relevance of accounting information among Nigerian listed firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Yusuf Alkali

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to determine the effect of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS as a new accounting reporting among Nigerian listed firms. This study uses book value, earnings and dividends to fill in the gap using a sample of 126 Nigerian listed firms in the stock market from 2009 to 2013 (pre and Post-IFRS adoption. Data was collected from Thompson Reuters, Bank scope DataStreams and annual reports. The study adopted Ohlson (1995 [Ohlson, J. (1995. Earnings, book-value, and dividends in equity valuation. Contemporary Accounting Research, 11(2, 661–687.] price model that has been frequently used in determining the quality of accounting information studies. The study finds that combined book value, earnings and dividends do not provide statistical significance effects on IFRS after adoption on the quality of accounting information. This could be possible, as dividends do not provide a significant effect in the presence of earnings. Furthermore, the audit big 4 quality provided an effect on the quality of accounting information because of IFRS adoption. Therefore, findings of this study provide additional literature on the decreasing quality of accounting information in an emerging market setting like Nigeria. The study implication is to the policy makers, regulators, and government that accounting information do not provide value relevance among Nigerian listed firms after IFRS adoption.

  8. Towards brain-activity-controlled information retrieval: Decoding image relevance from MEG signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppi, Jukka-Pekka; Kandemir, Melih; Saarinen, Veli-Matti; Hirvenkari, Lotta; Parkkonen, Lauri; Klami, Arto; Hari, Riitta; Kaski, Samuel

    2015-05-15

    We hypothesize that brain activity can be used to control future information retrieval systems. To this end, we conducted a feasibility study on predicting the relevance of visual objects from brain activity. We analyze both magnetoencephalographic (MEG) and gaze signals from nine subjects who were viewing image collages, a subset of which was relevant to a predetermined task. We report three findings: i) the relevance of an image a subject looks at can be decoded from MEG signals with performance significantly better than chance, ii) fusion of gaze-based and MEG-based classifiers significantly improves the prediction performance compared to using either signal alone, and iii) non-linear classification of the MEG signals using Gaussian process classifiers outperforms linear classification. These findings break new ground for building brain-activity-based interactive image retrieval systems, as well as for systems utilizing feedback both from brain activity and eye movements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sexual health-related information delivery - are patient information leaflets still relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Rick; Chung, Charles; Townsend, Amanda; Power, Melissa

    2016-06-01

    Background Patient information leaflets (PILs) are widely utilised within publically funded sexual health clinics to deliver sexual health-related information (SHRI); however, their continued value to clients in the era of social media is unclear. This study aimed to evaluate clients' opinions on three newly developed PILs and examine client views on other forms of SHRI delivery. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was completed by clients attending the Western Sydney Sexual Health Centre (WSSHC) in 2012. High-risk population (HRP) vs non-high-risk population (non-HRP) views on PILs vs alternative methods of SHRI delivery were analysed by using Mann-Whitney U, Wilcoxon, McNemar and χ(2) tests. Over half (210/315; (67%)) of the consecutive clients from a culturally diverse population completed the survey. Sex workers (SW) and young people (YP) were significantly likely to have a high school education than non-HRP (Pmobile phone applications (Pbusiness cards (P<0.001). There was no significant difference in opinion between HRP and non-HRP. This study provides evidence for the ongoing use of PILs to deliver SHRI to clinic attendees, in conjunction with other forms of SHRI delivery such as websites and SHIL. Novel methods may require additional consumer engagement and a greater understanding of specific population's needs.

  10. The policy-relevancy of impact assessment tools: Evaluating nine years of European research funding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Podhora, A.; Helming, K.; Adenauer, L.; Heckelei, T.; Kautto, P.; Reidsma, P.; Rennings, K.; Turnpenny, J.; Jansen, J.M.L.

    2013-01-01

    Since 2002, the European Commission has employed the instrument of ex-ante impact assessments (IA) to help focus its policy-making process on implementing sustainable development. Scientific tools should play an essential role of providing the evidence base to assess the impacts of alternative

  11. Diagnosing and prioritizing uncertainties according to their relevance for policy: The case of transgene silencing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krayer von Krauss, M.P.; Kaiser, M.; Almaas, V.; van der Sluijs, J.P.; Kloprogge, P.

    2008-01-01

    Uncertainty often becomes problematic when science is used to support decision making in the policy process. Scientists can contribute to a more constructive approach to uncertainty by making their uncertainties transparent. In this article, an approach to systematic uncertainty diagnosis is

  12. Ecosystem services and economic theory: Integration for policy-relevant research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fisher, B.; Turner, R.K.; Zylstra, M.; Brouwer, R.; de Groot, R.; Farber, S.; Ferraro, P.; Green, R.; Hadley, D.; Harlow, J.; Jefferiss, P.; Kirkby, C.; Morling, P.; Mowatt, S.; Naidoo, R.; Paavola, J.; Strassburg, B.; Yu, D.; Balmford, A.

    2008-01-01

    It has become essential in policy and decision-making circles to think about the economic benefits (in addition to moral and scientific motivations) humans derive from wellfunctioning ecosystems. The concept of ecosystem services has been developed to address this link between ecosystems and human

  13. Ecosystem services and economic theory: Integration for policy-relevant research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fisher, B.; Turner, K.; Zylstra, M.; Brouwer, R.; Groot, de R.S.; Farber, S.; Ferraro, P.; Green, R.; Hadley, D.; Harlow, J.; Jefferiss, P.; Kirby, C.; Morling, P.; Mowatt, S.; Naidoo, R.; Paavola, J.; Strassburg, B.; Yu, D.; Balmford, A.

    2008-01-01

    It has become essential in policy and decision-making circles to think about the economic benefits (in addition to moral and scientific motivations) humans derive from well-functioning ecosystems. The concept of ecosystem services has been developed to address this link between ecosystems and human

  14. Ministry of health on facebook: an information policy case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Moraes Moreira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The growth of social networks on the internet is visible. Everywhere people use these tools on various places, either via desktop, laptop, tablet or smartphone. In Brazil, the most prominent network in recent years is Facebook, which reached 76 million users in June 2013, an unprecedented number in the country. The growth allowed governments to perceive this virtual space as a potential place to present their work and communicate with society. Objectives: The study goal is to observe how information has been publicized by the Ministry of Health through Facebook since 2010 (year of creation of the page until October 2013, taking as an analytical category the implemented information policy, in order to propose a discussion about democratization of access to health information. Methodology: case study; Non-participant observation, data collection and documental analysis. Results: The main issues addressed by the Ministry of Health on Facebook are organizational actions and government programs instead of posts with guidance for a healthy living style. Also noteworthy is the low interaction of the Ministry page moderators with the users profile. The study showed most of the questions and comments made by the public are not answered by the institutional body. Conclusions: Need of strengthening the mediaton process of the information policies from the Ministry of Health on Facebook.

  15. The state and the development of an information society: Greek policy and experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucas, Dimitris

    2017-09-01

    The paper looks into the dynamics of information society policy and its implementation in the Greek context. It argues that information society development is a contested process, influenced by pre-existing state, economy and society relations. Based on this, it looks into the different aspects of the idiosyncratic path which the evolution of the Greek information society has followed, particularly after 2000. Using Bob Jessop's strategic-relational approach (SRA) to the state as an analytical framework and drawing on a number of in-depth interviews with relevant political actors, it provides insights into policy implementation by examining: the public management of information technology projects, how such projects were received in bureaucratic structures and practices, as well as the relationship between the state and the information and communication technology (ICT) sector in public procurement processes. The emphasis is on the period 2000-2008, during which a major operational programme on the information society in Greece was put into effect. The paper also touches upon the post-2008 experience, suggesting that information society developments might include dynamics operating independently and even in contradiction to the state agenda. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  16. Changing Zaire to Congo: the fate of no-longer relevant mnemonic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Johan; Stiernstedt, Mikael; Öhlund, Maria; Nyberg, Lars

    2014-11-01

    In an ever-changing world there is constant pressure on revising long-term memory, such when people or countries change name. What happens to the old, pre-existing information? One possibility is that old associations gradually are weakened and eventually lost. Alternatively, old and no longer relevant information may still be an integral part of memory traces. To test the hypothesis that old mnemonic information still becomes activated when people correctly retrieve new, currently relevant information, brain activity was measured with fMRI while participants performed a cued-retrieval task. Paired associates (symbol-sound and symbol-face pairs) were first learned during two days. Half of the associations were then updated during the next two days, followed by fMRI scanning on day 5 and also 18 months later. As expected, retrieval reactivated sensory cortex related to the most recently learned association (visual cortex for symbol-face pairs, auditory cortex for symbol-sound pairs). Critically, retrieval also reactivated sensory cortex related to the no-longer relevant associate. Eighteen months later, only non-updated symbol-face associations were intact. Intriguingly, a subset of the updated associations was now treated as though the original association had taken over, in that memory performance was significantly worse than chance and that activity in sensory cortex for the original but not the updated associate correlated (negatively) with performance. Moreover, the degree of "residual" reactivation during day 5 inversely predicted memory performance 18 months later. Thus, updating of long-term memory involves adding new information to already existing networks, in which old information can stay resilient for a long time. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. The Development of Land Information Policies in the Americas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Parker, John R.

    2005-01-01

    of ?The Development of Land Information Policies in the Americas?. FIG was tasked with taking the lead role in planning and arranging the Special Forum. The objective of this inter-regional forum was to establish an awareness of the economic and social value for decision makers, of the importance......As a result of a resolution at the Seventh United Nations Regional Cartographic Conference for the Americas (UNRCCA) held in January 2001 in New York, a Special Forum was hosted by the Government of Mexico through INEGI at their headquarters in Aguascalientes on 26 and 27 October 2004 with a theme...... of developing land policies that effectively and efficiently incorporate appropriate spatial data infrastructures, including an understanding of the value of integrating the land administration/cadastre/land registration function with the topographic mapping function. This paper presents an overview...

  18. Integrating Information and Communication Technology for Health Information System Strengthening: A Policy Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzuki, Nuraidah; Ismail, Saimy; Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Ehsan, Fauziah Z; Chan, Chee-Khoon; Ng, Chiu-Wan

    2015-11-01

    Despite the high costs involved and the lack of definitive evidence of sustained effectiveness, many low- and middle-income countries had begun to strengthen their health information system using information and communication technology in the past few decades. Following this international trend, the Malaysian Ministry of Health had been incorporating Telehealth (National Telehealth initiatives) into national health policies since the 1990s. Employing qualitative approaches, including key informant interviews and document review, this study examines the agenda-setting processes of the Telehealth policy using Kingdon's framework. The findings suggested that Telehealth policies emerged through actions of policy entrepreneurs within the Ministry of Health, who took advantage of several simultaneously occurring opportunities--official recognition of problems within the existing health information system, availability of information and communication technology to strengthen health information system and political interests surrounding the national Multimedia Super Corridor initiative being developed at the time. The last was achieved by the inclusion of Telehealth as a component of the Multimedia Super Corridor. © 2015 APJPH.

  19. Leadership development in the English National Health Service: A counter narrative to inform policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewison, Alistair; Morrell, Kevin

    2014-04-01

    To examine the current approach to leadership development in the English National Health Service (NHS) and consider its implications for nursing. To stimulate debate about the nature of leadership development in a range of health care settings. Good leadership is central to the provision of high quality nursing care. This has focussed attention on the leadership development of nurses and other health care staff. It has been a key policy concern in the English NHS of late and fostered the growth of leadership development programmes founded on competency based approaches. This is a policy review informed by the concept of episteme. Relevant policy documents and related literature. Using Foucault's concept of episteme, leadership development policy is examined in context and a 'counter narrative' developed to demonstrate that current approaches are rooted in competency based accounts which constitute a limited, yet dominant narrative. Leadership takes many forms and varies hugely according to task and context. Acknowledging this in the form of a counter narrative offers a contribution to more constructive policy development in the English NHS and more widely. A more nuanced debate about leadership development and greater diversity in the provision of development programmes and activities is required. Leadership development has been advocated as being crucial to the advancement of nursing. Detailed analysis of its nature and function is essential if it is to meet the needs of nurse leaders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Population policies in Southeast Asia and Australia: the international relevance of domestic affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G W

    1984-01-01

    There are 2 underlying themes to this paper: national perceptions of population circumstances at home and abroad are the crucial determinants of population policies adopted, and the differences in perceptions help explain why national reactions differ to circumtances which appear similar; and population policy, though an internal matter, has international repercussions and thus can become a sensitive issue in international relations. Until recently, ASEAN countries were united with Vietnam on at least 1 issue: attitudes toward the growth and changing distribution of their populations. The objectives were slower growth through lowered fertility, resistance to immigration from abroad except in very special circumstances, resettlement of population to undeveloped areas with potential for agriculture, and slowing the growth of big cities. The Australian situation differed. As a high income nation populated primarily through immigration and set in a region of far more populous and densely settled nations, Australia's policy favored population growth and used an immigration program as a way to realize this end. Yet, even so, population growth in most postwar years was slower than that of all Southeast Asian nations. And, although immigration was encouraged, the resistance to immigration that characterized Southeast Asian countries was shared by Australia with respect to all but North Western Europeans, an "acceptable" category progressively widened by dint of curcumstances to include Eastern Europeans, then Southern Europeans, then certain Middle Eastern peoples, and finally Asians and Latin Americans. Australia shared with Southeast Asian nations the concern with big-city growth and like the Southeast Asian nations searched for appropriate policies to contain this growth and promote that of smaller cities and towns. This search stopped in the 1970s when the report of the National Population showed that accepted projections of the populations of Sydney and Melbourne had

  1. An analysis of forest land use, forest land cover, and change at policy-relevant scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Coulston; Greg Reams; Dave N. Wear; C. Kenneth Brewer

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying the amount of forest and change in the amount of forest are key to ensure that appropriate management practices and policies are in place to maintain the array of ecosystem services provided by forests. There are a range of analytical techniques and data available to estimate these forest parameters, however, not all ‘forest’ is the same and various...

  2. The policy relevance of absolute and relative poverty headcounts: What's in a number?

    OpenAIRE

    Notten, Geranda; de Neubourg, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Financial poverty indicators still play an important role in policymaking and evaluation. Countries such as the USA and the EU member states use one or several ‘official’ poverty indicators on which success of poverty reduction policy is regularly monitored. Whereas the US poverty indicator is based on an absolute concept of poverty, the EU Laeken indicator is based on a relative concept. But the consequences of such a decision are considerable. As absolute and relative poverty indicators ref...

  3. European Lifelong Guidance Policy Network Representatives' Conceptions of the Role of Information and Communication Technologies Related to National Guidance Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettunen, Jaana; Vuorinen, Raimo; Ruusuvirta, Outi

    2016-01-01

    This article reports findings from a phenomenographic investigation into European Lifelong Guidance Policy Network representatives' conceptions of the role of information and communication technologies (ICT) related to national lifelong guidance policies. The role of ICT in relation to national lifelong guidance policies was conceived as (1)…

  4. ERP investigation of attentional disengagement from suicide-relevant information in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Seung Yeon; Jeong, Minkyung; Kim, Hyang Sook; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies suggest the presence of attentional bias towards suicide-relevant information in suicidal individuals. However, the findings are limited by their reliance on behavioral measures. This study investigates the role of difficulty in disengaging attention from suicide-relevant stimuli using the P300 component of event-related potentials (ERPs). Forty-four adults with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) were administered the spatial cueing task using suicide-relevant and negatively-valenced words as cue stimuli. Disengagement difficulty was measured using reaction time and P300 during invalid trials. P300 amplitudes at Pz were higher in suicide-relevant compared to negatively-valenced word condition on invalid trials for participants with low rates of suicidal behavior. However, no such difference was found among participants with high rates of suicidal behavior. P300 amplitudes for suicide-relevant word condition were negatively correlated with "lifetime suicide ideation and attempt" at Pz. No significant results were found for the reaction time data, indicating that the ERP may be more sensitive in capturing the attentional disengagement effect. The groups were divided according to Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R) total score. Neutral stimulus was not included as cue stimuli. Most participants were under medication during the experiment. Our results indicate that patients with MDD and low rates of suicidal behavior show difficulty in disengaging attention from suicide-relevant stimuli. We suggest that suicide-specific disengagement difficulties may be related to recentness of suicide attempt and that acquired capability for suicide may contribute to reduced disengagement difficulties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of self-schema elaboration on affective and cognitive reactions to self-relevant information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, L E; Stahlberg, D; Dauenheimer, D

    2000-02-01

    The basic assumption of the integrative self-schema model (ISSM; L.-E. Petersen, 1994; L.-E. Petersen, D. Stahlberg, & D. Dauenheimer, 1996; D. Stahlberg, L.-E. Petersen, & D. Dauenheimer, 1994, 1999) is that self-schema elaboration (schematic vs. aschematic) affects reactions to self-relevant information. This assumption is based on the idea that schematic dimensions occupy a more central position in the cognitive system than aschematic dimensions. In the first study, this basic prediction could be clearly confirmed: The results showed that schematic dimensions possessed stronger cognitive associations with other self-relevant cognitions as well as a higher resistance to change than aschematic dimensions did. In the second study, the main assumptions of the ISSM concerning the affective and cognitive reactions to self-relevant feedback were tested: The ISSM proposes that, on schematic dimensions, reactions to self-relevant feedback will most likely follow principles of self-consistency theory, whereas on aschematic dimensions positive feedback should elicit the most positive reactions that self-enhancement theory would predict. The experimental results clearly confirmed the hypotheses derived from the ISSM for affective reactions. Cognitive reactions, however, were in line with self-consistency principles and were not modified by the elaboration of the self-schema dimension involved.

  6. Perceived relevance and information needs regarding food topics and preferred information sources among Dutch adults: results of a quantitative consumer study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dillen, van S.M.E.; Hiddink, G.J.; Koelen, M.A.; Graaf, de C.; Woerkum, van C.M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: For more effective nutrition communication, it is crucial to identify sources from which consumers seek information. Our purpose was to assess perceived relevance and information needs regarding food topics, and preferred information sources by means of quantitative consumer research.

  7. Elaboration of a guide including relevant project and logistic information: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Tchaikowisky M. [Faculdade de Tecnologia e Ciencias (FTC), Itabuna, BA (Brazil); Bresci, Claudio T.; Franca, Carlos M.M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    For every mobilization of a new enterprise it is necessary to quickly obtain the greatest amount of relative information in regards to location and availability of infra-structure, logistics, and work site amenities. Among this information are reports elaborated for management of the enterprise, (organizational chart, work schedule, objectives, contacts, etc.) as well as geographic anomalies, social-economic and culture of the area to be developed such as territorial extension, land aspects, local population, roads and amenities (fuel stations ,restaurants and hotels), infra-structure of the cities (health, education, entertainment, housing, transport, etc.) and logistically the distance between cities the estimated travel time, ROW access maps and notable points, among other relevant information. With the idea of making this information available for everyone involved in the enterprise, it was elaborated for GASCAC Spread 2A a rapid guide containing all the information mentioned above and made it available for all the vehicles used to transport employees and visitors to the spread. With this, everyone quickly received the majority of information necessary in one place, in a practical, quick, and precise manner, since the information is always used and controlled by the same person. This study includes the model used in the gas pipeline GASCAC Spread 2A project and the methodology used to draft and update the information. Besides the above, a file in the GIS format was prepared containing all necessary planning, execution and tracking information for enterprise activities, from social communication to the execution of the works previously mentioned. Part of the GIS file information was uploaded to Google Earth so as to disclose the information to a greater group of people, bearing in mind that this program is free of charge and easy to use. (author)

  8. Linking international trademark databases to inform IP research and policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrie, P.

    2016-07-01

    Researchers and policy makers are concerned with many international issues regarding trademarks, such as trademark squatting, cluttering, and dilution. Trademark application data can provide an evidence base to inform government policy regarding these issues, and can also produce quantitative insights into economic trends and brand dynamics. Currently, national trademark databases can provide insight into economic and brand dynamics at the national level, but gaining such insight at an international level is more difficult due to a lack of internationally linked trademark data. We are in the process of building a harmonised international trademark database (the “Patstat of trademarks”), in which equivalent trademarks have been identified across national offices. We have developed a pilot database that incorporates 6.4 million U.S., 1.3 million Australian, and 0.5 million New Zealand trademark applications, spanning over 100 years. The database will be extended to incorporate trademark data from other participating intellectual property (IP) offices as they join the project. Confirmed partners include the United Kingdom, WIPO, and OHIM. We will continue to expand the scope of the project, and intend to include many more IP offices from around the world. In addition to building the pilot database, we have developed a linking algorithm that identifies equivalent trademarks (TMs) across the three jurisdictions. The algorithm can currently be applied to all applications that contain TM text; i.e. around 96% of all applications. In its current state, the algorithm successfully identifies ~ 97% of equivalent TMs that are known to be linked a priori, as they have shared international registration number through the Madrid protocol. When complete, the internationally linked trademark database will be a valuable resource for researchers and policy-makers in fields such as econometrics, intellectual property rights, and brand policy. (Author)

  9. The relevance of a rules-based maize marketing policy: an experimental case study of Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbink, Klaus; Jayne, Thomas S; Moller, Lars C

    2011-01-01

    Strategic interaction between public and private actors is increasingly recognised as an important determinant of agricultural market performance in Africa and elsewhere. Trust and consultation tends to positively affect private activity while uncertainty of government behaviour impedes it. This paper reports on a laboratory experiment based on a stylised model of the Zambian maize market. The experiment facilitates a comparison between discretionary interventionism and a rules-based policy in which the government pre-commits itself to a future course of action. A simple precommitment rule can, in theory, overcome the prevailing strategic dilemma by encouraging private sector participation. Although this result is also borne out in the economic experiment, the improvement in private sector activity is surprisingly small and not statistically significant due to irrationally cautious choices by experimental governments. Encouragingly, a rules-based policy promotes a much more stable market outcome thereby substantially reducing the risk of severe food shortages. These results underscore the importance of predictable and transparent rules for the state's involvement in agricultural markets.

  10. Management for Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreak Suppression: Does Relevant Science Support Current Policy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana L. Six

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While the use of timber harvests is generally accepted as an effective approach to controlling bark beetles during outbreaks, in reality there has been a dearth of monitoring to assess outcomes, and failures are often not reported. Additionally, few studies have focused on how these treatments affect forest structure and function over the long term, or our forests’ ability to adapt to climate change. Despite this, there is a widespread belief in the policy arena that timber harvesting is an effective and necessary tool to address beetle infestations. That belief has led to numerous proposals for, and enactment of, significant changes in federal environmental laws to encourage more timber harvests for beetle control. In this review, we use mountain pine beetle as an exemplar to critically evaluate the state of science behind the use of timber harvest treatments for bark beetle suppression during outbreaks. It is our hope that this review will stimulate research to fill important gaps and to help guide the development of policy and management firmly based in science, and thus, more likely to aid in forest conservation, reduce financial waste, and bolster public trust in public agency decision-making and practice.

  11. Relevant Factors in The Post-Merger Systems Integration and Information Technology in Brazilian Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Ginotti Pires

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the factors present in post-merger integration of Systems and Information Technology (SIT that lead to positive and negative results in mergers and acquisitions (M & A. The research comprised three of the largest acquiring banks in Brazil. We adopted two methods of research, qualitative, to operationalize the theoretical concepts and quantitative, to test the hypotheses. We interviewed six executives of banks that held relevant experience in M & A processes. Subsequently, we applied questionnaires to IT professionals who were involved in the SIT integration processes. The results showed that the quality and expertise of the integration teams and managing the integration were the most relevant factors in the processes, with positive results for increased efficiency and the increased capacity of SIT. Negative results were due to failures in exploiting learning opportunities, the loss of employees and the inexpressive record of integration procedures.

  12. Exponential growth of new chemicals and evolution of information relevant to risk control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binetti, Roberto; Costamagna, Francesca Marina; Marcello, Ida

    2008-01-01

    The number of new chemicals synthesized and marketed increases exponentially. The database CAS REGISTRY at present contains more than 33 million organic and inorganic substances. However, the little information regarding the potential hazard associated with a large amount of chemicals is an old known problem in the European Union and also in the United States. This critical problem may find a solution in the collaboration of the different involved countries and in a planned task setting at international level. Both in the United States (e.g., the "Gore Initiative") and in European Union (the REACH policy) a big effort has been dedicated to this solution, within standardized procedures and an appropriate collaboration.

  13. Dynamic mobility applications policy analysis : policy and institutional issues for enabling advanced traveler information services (EnableATIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This report documents policy considerations for Enabling Advanced Traveler Information Services, or EnableATIS. : EnableATIS is the traveler information element of the Dynamic Mobility Applications program, and it provides a framework to : develop mu...

  14. Energy for climate in Europe. An assessment of energy policies with climate-relevance. The LinkS Project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruud, Audun; Knudsen, Joergen K.; Jacobsen, Gerd B.

    2011-07-01

    The LinkS project aims at providing a better linkage between perspectives and projections for global climate policy development and regional energy systems, by linking relevant modelling tools. The present report provides a specific focus on energy policy measures within the EY with climate relevance. The EU has in recent years aimed at reinforcing the linkage between the climate and energy policies, both at strategic and operational levels. The EU has pledged itself to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions with 8 percent by 2008-12 as compared to the 1990 level, and by 20 percent by 2020 as compared to the as compared to the 2005 level. The EU-27 reduced it GHG emissions with 11,3 percent in 1990-2008. The 2020-target, however, will require stronger efforts and energy is a key sector: The EU has decided that 20 percent of the energy must be renewable, and that the energy usage in 2020 is to be 20 per sent more efficient than in 2005. A number of policy strategies, measures and legislation are formulated to fulfil these targets. In order to highlight the potential of these measures, this report specifically addresses the drivers and limitations given the existing decision-making structures in the EU. The methodology employed is mainly qualitative, based on document analysis and a review of secondary literature. Climate-change mitigation is in principle based on supra-national decision-making, but unanimity among all Eu Member States is still required in critical issues related to the energy sector. In addition, the national follow-up of the targets constitutes a particular challenge. This is here illustrated by the cases of Denmark and Norway. Energy policy is also substantially characterised by several conflicting interests between the Member States, resulting in diverging policy priorities. It is, therefore, an open question whether the EU will succeed in fulfilling its 20/20/20 percent targets by 2020, and will be the actual role of energy within the climate

  15. Energy policy framework developments in industrialised countries. Some observations on the relevancy for China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, J.C.; Boots, M.G.; Van den Heuij, H.J.F.P.; Van der Linden, N.H.; Van Sambeek, E.J.W.; Wals, A.F.

    2001-03-01

    Since more than two decades, the Chinese government is guiding a process of gradually introducing more market-oriented policies. China's imminent accession to the World Trade Organisation has speeded up this process. During the preparation of the 10th Five-Year Development Plan for the energy sector, the question arose as to whether recent developments in the energy sector in the industrialised countries, especially in Europe, may provide useful insights into the future policy options for the Chinese energy sector for further consideration. Therefore, ECN has been requested to provide a broad overview of recent major developments in the energy sectors of industrialised countries based on some specific questions outlined by the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of the State Development Planning Commission (SDPC). This report compiles contributions prepared by ECN - presented at a workshop on 10 November, 2000, in Beijing, hosted by ERI - and provides further references. China's impending accession to the WTO will further highlight the urgency of both long-term cost competitiveness of energy services and energy supply security. Social sustainability raises the issue that with phasing out less competitive or environmentally harmful sources of energy supply, many jobs in the affected energy subsectors -especially in China's coal industry - may hang in the balance. The challenge is how the macroeconomic benefits of rationalising the energy industries can be channelled into boosting alternative economic activities in adversely affected areas and how to raise the qualifications of the labour force that has become idle as a result of the energy supply transition. Environmental sustainability issues relate to ways to internalise local (and regional), and global external environmental costs and benefits into the decision-making processes in China. This might be achieved by market-oriented (pricing) or by command and control instruments (e.g. mandatory energy efficiency and

  16. Meaningful participation for children in the Dutch child protection system: A critical analysis of relevant provisions in policy documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouma, Helen; López López, Mónica; Knorth, Erik J; Grietens, Hans

    2018-05-01

    Policymakers are increasingly focusing on the participation of children in the child protection system (CPS). However, research shows that actual practice still needs to be improved. Embedding children's participation in legislation and policy documents is one important prerequisite for achieving meaningful participation in child protection practice. In this study, the participation of children in the Dutch CPS under the new Youth Act 2015 is critically analyzed. National legislation and policy documents were studied using a model of "meaningful participation" based on article 12 of the UNCRC. Results show that the idea of children's participation is deeply embedded in the current Dutch CPS. However, Dutch policy documents do not fully cover the three dimensions of what is considered to be meaningful participation for children: informing, hearing, and involving. Furthermore, children's participation differs among the organizations included in the child protection chain. A clear overall policy concerning the participation of children in the Dutch CPS is lacking. The conclusions of this critical analysis of policy documents and the framework of meaningful participation presented may provide a basis for the embedding of meaningful participation for children in child protection systems of other countries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Analysis of Russian Federation Foreign Policy in the Field of International Information Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena S. Zinovieva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Information and communication technologies (ICT play an essential role in the improvement of the quality of life, economic and socio-political of individual countries and humanity in general. However, ICT development is fraught with new challenges and threats to international and national security. Interstate rivalry in the information sphere generates conflicts, an extreme form of which is an information war. Since 1998, the Russian initiative supports the international cooperation on information security at the global and regional level as well as within the framework of the bilateral relations. The article analyzes the characteristics of the global information society, which has a decisive influence on the international security in the information age, as well as international cooperation in this field. The analysis of Russian foreign policy initiatives in the field of international information security is also presented. Today more than 130 countries develop cyber capabilities, both defensive and offensive, that pose serious threats to the international stability. It's difficult to trace the source of information attacks and its consequences can be devastating and cause retaliation, including the use of conventional weapons. In this situation Russian approach, advocating for the development of the rules of conduct of States and demilitarization of information space in order to ensure its safety, seems urgent and relevant with the international situation.

  18. Current systematic carbon-cycle observations and the need for implementing a policy-relevant carbon observing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciais, P.; Peregon, A.; Chevallier, F.; Bopp, L.; Breon, F.M.; Broquet, G.; Luyssaert, S.; Moulin, C.; Paris, J.D.; Poulter, B.; Rivier, L.; Wang, R.

    2014-01-01

    A globally integrated carbon observation and analysis system is needed to improve the fundamental understanding of the global carbon cycle, to improve our ability to project future changes, and to verify the effectiveness of policies aiming to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase carbon sequestration. Building an integrated carbon observation system requires transformational advances from the existing sparse, exploratory framework towards a dense, robust, and sustained system in all components: anthropogenic emissions, the atmosphere, the ocean, and the terrestrial biosphere. The paper is addressed to scientists, policy makers, and funding agencies who need to have a global picture of the current state of the (diverse) carbon observations. We identify the current state of carbon observations, and the needs and notional requirements for a global integrated carbon observation system that can be built in the next decade. A key conclusion is the substantial expansion of the ground-based observation networks required to reach the high spatial resolution for CO 2 and CH 4 fluxes, and for carbon stocks for addressing policy-relevant objectives, and attributing flux changes to underlying processes in each region. In order to establish flux and stock diagnostics over areas such as the southern oceans, tropical forests, and the Arctic, in situ observations will have to be complemented with remote-sensing measurements. Remote sensing offers the advantage of dense spatial coverage and frequent revisit. A key challenge is to bring remote-sensing measurements to a level of long-term consistency and accuracy so that they can be efficiently combined in models to reduce uncertainties, in synergy with ground based data. Bringing tight observational constraints on fossil fuel and land use change emissions will be the biggest challenge for deployment of a policy-relevant integrated carbon observation system. This will require in situ and remotely sensed data at much higher

  19. New institutional mechanisms to bridge the information gap between climate science and public policy decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, W.; Gulledge, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    Many decision makers lack actionable scientific information needed to prepare for future challenges associated with climate change. Although the scope and quality of available scientific information has increased dramatically in recent years, this information does not always reach - or is not presented in a form that is useful to - decision makers who need it. The producer (i.e. scientists) community tends to be stovepiped, even though consumers (i.e. decision makers) often need interdisciplinary science and analysis. Consumers, who may also be stovepiped in various agencies or subject areas, may lack familiarity with or access to these separate communities, as well as the tools or time to navigate scientific information and disciplines. Closing the communication gap between these communities could be facilitated by institutionalizing processes designed for this purpose. We recommend a variety of mainstreaming policies within the consumer community, as well as mechanisms to generate a strong demand signal that will resonate more strongly with the producer community. We also recommend institutional reforms and methods of incentivizing policy-oriented scientific analysis within the producer community. Our recommendations focus on improving information flow to national security and foreign policy decision makers, but many are relevant to public policy writ large. Recommendations for Producers 1. The scientific community should formally encourage collaborations between natural and social scientists and reward publications in interdisciplinary outlets Incentives could include research funding and honorary awards recognizing service to public policy. 2. Academic merit review should reward research grants and publications targeted at interdisciplinary and/or policy-oriented audiences. Reforms of merit review may require new policies and engaged institutional leadership. Recommendations for Consumers 1. Congress should amend Title VI of the National Defense Education Act

  20. U.S. International Agricultural Trade Policy: Interests, Institutions and Information in the Corn Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laís Forti Thomaz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze the U.S. international agricultural trade policy by focusing on instruments and institutional arrangements. Policy decision-making is analyzed by means of three variables: 1 how interests are mobilized; 2 how information is disseminated; and 3 how spaces are occupied in deliberation arenas. The study refers to the corn sector and observes how the National Corn Growers Association operated to ensure subsidies and incentives for this supply chain along the elaboration of the 2002 and 2008 Farm Bills, as well as from other laws pertaining to agricultural and energy incentives. This paper provides evidences in favor of four arguments: first, empirical studies on the formulation and implementation of foreign trade policy, especially when it comes to agricultural issues, would greatly benefit with a greater attention on understanding the role domestic actors play in the decision-making processes; second, interest groups play a key role in this decision-making process; third, they provide the rationale for the formulation and implementation of the U.S. international agricultural trade policy; and, fourth, when the economic sector coordinates complex and relevant supply chains in the U.S. economy, it is hardly possible to revert the U.S. protectionist position in the Legislative branch.

  1. Land policy reform in Rwanda: A Catalyst for Land Information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Step in geo-ICT application for data handling was achieved, despite a big gap in technical and skills capabilities. Since new land policy coincided with decentralization policy, we recommend research on parallel implementation of policies with some similar dimensions. Keywords: Land policy reform, organizational change, ...

  2. THE RISE OF FAR RIGHT IN EUROPE: CHALLENGES AND CONSIDERATIONS RELEVANT TO THE EDUCATIONAL POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaggelia KALERANTE

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The political situation formed across Europe on a political level with the rise of far right and the adoption of attitudes and behaviours representative of the broader acceptance of far right ideologies on a social level is the focal point of this paper. This issue should also be a consideration in terms of education so that an educational model reinforcing democracy and humanism is formed. Concentration is placed on the Greek educational policy aiming at suggesting interventions in the curriculum and the educational school reality, too. This is a period when an increasing number of individuals educate themselves for long years. Therefore, formal education encompassing Primary and Secondary education as well as lifelong education should be emphasized. As regards schools, democracy and humanism should be aligned to the school environment and the formulated juvenile culture. As regards lifelong education, the topics and content offered through seminars should be enriched with theoretical principles which are reinforcing to the association of learners with the democratic operation of society.

  3. Autism Spectrum Disorder Updates – Relevant Information for Early Interventionists to Consider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen-Meares, Paula; MacDonald, Megan; McGee, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by deficits in social communication skills as well as repetitive, restricted or stereotyped behaviors (1). Early interventionists are often found at the forefront of assessment, evaluation, and early intervention services for children with ASD. The role of an early intervention specialist may include assessing developmental history, providing group and individual counseling, working in partnership with families on home, school, and community environments, mobilizing school and community resources, and assisting in the development of positive early intervention strategies (2, 3). The commonality among these roles resides in the importance of providing up-to-date, relevant information to families and children. The purpose of this review is to provide pertinent up-to-date knowledge for early interventionists to help inform practice in working with individuals with ASD, including common behavioral models of intervention. PMID:27840812

  4. Geospatial Information Relevant to the Flood Protection Available on The Mainstream Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kliment Tomáš

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Flood protection is one of several disciplines where geospatial data is very important and is a crucial component. Its management, processing and sharing form the foundation for their efficient use; therefore, special attention is required in the development of effective, precise, standardized, and interoperable models for the discovery and publishing of data on the Web. This paper describes the design of a methodology to discover Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC services on the Web and collect descriptive information, i.e., metadata in a geocatalogue. A pilot implementation of the proposed methodology - Geocatalogue of geospatial information provided by OGC services discovered on Google (hereinafter “Geocatalogue” - was used to search for available resources relevant to the area of flood protection. The result is an analysis of the availability of resources discovered through their metadata collected from the OGC services (WMS, WFS, etc. and the resources they provide (WMS layers, WFS objects, etc. within the domain of flood protection.

  5. Autism spectrum disorder updates – relevant information for early interventionists to consider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Allen-Meares

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by deficits in social communication skills as well as repetitive, restricted or stereotyped behaviors (1. Early interventionists are often found at the forefront of assessment, evaluation and early intervention services for children with ASD. The role of an early intervention specialist may include, assessing developmental history, providing group and individual counseling, working in partnership with families on home, school, and community environments, mobilizing school and community resources and assisting in the development of positive early intervention strategies (2, 3. The commonality amongst these roles resides in the importance of providing up-to-date, relevant information to families and children. The purpose of this review is to provide pertinent up-to-date knowledge for early interventionists to help inform practice in working with individuals with ASD, including common behavioral models of intervention.

  6. Seasonal forecasts of impact-relevant climate information indices developed as part of the EUPORIAS project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirig, Christoph; Bhend, Jonas

    2015-04-01

    Climate information indices (CIIs) represent a way to communicate climate conditions to specific sectors and the public. As such, CIIs provide actionable information to stakeholders in an efficient way. Due to their non-linear nature, such CIIs can behave differently than the underlying variables, such as temperature. At the same time, CIIs do not involve impact models with different sources of uncertainties. As part of the EU project EUPORIAS (EUropean Provision Of Regional Impact Assessment on a Seasonal-to-decadal timescale) we have developed examples of seasonal forecasts of CIIs. We present forecasts and analyses of the skill of seasonal forecasts for CIIs that are relevant to a variety of economic sectors and a range of stakeholders: heating and cooling degree days as proxies for energy demand, various precipitation and drought-related measures relevant to agriculture and hydrology, a wild fire index, a climate-driven mortality index and wind-related indices tailored to renewable energy producers. Common to all examples is the finding of limited forecast skill over Europe, highlighting the challenge for providing added-value services to stakeholders operating in Europe. The reasons for the lack of forecast skill vary: often we find little skill in the underlying variable(s) precisely in those areas that are relevant for the CII, in other cases the nature of the CII is particularly demanding for predictions, as seen in the case of counting measures such as frost days or cool nights. On the other hand, several results suggest there may be some predictability in sub-regions for certain indices. Several of the exemplary analyses show potential for skillful forecasts and prospect for improvements by investing in post-processing. Furthermore, those cases for which CII forecasts showed similar skill values as those of the underlying meteorological variables, forecasts of CIIs provide added value from a user perspective.

  7. Historical maintenance relevant information road-map for a self-learning maintenance prediction procedural approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Francisco J.; Reyes, Antonio; Cáceres, Noelia; Romero, Luis M.; Benitez, Francisco G.; Morgado, Joao; Duarte, Emanuel; Martins, Teresa

    2017-09-01

    A large percentage of transport infrastructures are composed of linear assets, such as roads and rail tracks. The large social and economic relevance of these constructions force the stakeholders to ensure a prolonged health/durability. Even though, inevitable malfunctioning, breaking down, and out-of-service periods arise randomly during the life cycle of the infrastructure. Predictive maintenance techniques tend to diminish the appearance of unpredicted failures and the execution of needed corrective interventions, envisaging the adequate interventions to be conducted before failures show up. This communication presents: i) A procedural approach, to be conducted, in order to collect the relevant information regarding the evolving state condition of the assets involved in all maintenance interventions; this reported and stored information constitutes a rich historical data base to train Machine Learning algorithms in order to generate reliable predictions of the interventions to be carried out in further time scenarios. ii) A schematic flow chart of the automatic learning procedure. iii) Self-learning rules from automatic learning from false positive/negatives. The description, testing, automatic learning approach and the outcomes of a pilot case are presented; finally some conclusions are outlined regarding the methodology proposed for improving the self-learning predictive capability.

  8. The Unexpected Negotiator at the Table: How the European Commission’s Expertise Informs Intergovernmental EU Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Hsuan Chou

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available How, if at all, does the Commission’s expertise inform intergovernmental decision-making within the EU? In this article, we aim to capture the relationship between the Commission’s expertise and its influence within intergovernmental policy-areas through a study of Commission influence in two least likely sectors: security and defence policies (military mission Atalanta and EU Maritime Security Strategy and external migration (EU mobility partnerships with third countries. In these cases we observe that the Commission strongly informs policy developments even though it has only limited formal competences. To explore whether and, if so, how this influence is linked to its expertise, we develop and consider two hypotheses: The expert authority hypothesis and the expert arguments hypothesis. To identify possible additional channels of influence, we also consider the relevance of two alternative hypotheses: The strategic coalition hypothesis and the institutional circumvention hypothesis. We find that the Commission’s use of its expertise is indeed key to understanding its de facto influence within policy-areas where its formal competences remain limited. Our findings add to the existing literature by revealing how expertise matters. Specifically, our cases show that the Commission informs intergovernmental decision-making by successfully linking discussions to policy-areas where it holds expert authority. However, the Commission also informs EU policies by circumventing the formal lines of intergovernmental decision-making, and by cooperating with member states that share its preference for further integration.

  9. 28 CFR 20.35 - Criminal Justice Information Services Advisory Policy Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Justice Information Services Advisory Policy Board. (a) There is established a CJIS Advisory Policy Board, the purpose of which is to recommend to the FBI Director general policy with respect to the philosophy... Advisory Policy Board. 20.35 Section 20.35 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE...

  10. Evaluation of relevant information for optimal reflector modeling through data assimilation procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argaud Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to look after the amount of information that is mandatory to get a relevant parameters optimisation by data assimilation for physical models in neutronic diffusion calculations, and to determine what is the best information to reach the optimum of accuracy at the cheapest cost. To evaluate the quality of the optimisation, we study the covariance matrix that represents the accuracy of the optimised parameter. This matrix is a classical output of the data assimilation procedure, and it is the main information about accuracy and sensitivity of the parameter optimal determination. From these studies, we present some results collected from the neutronic simulation of nuclear power plants. On the basis of the configuration studies, it has been shown that with data assimilation we can determine a global strategy to optimise the quality of the result with respect to the amount of information provided. The consequence of this is a cost reduction in terms of measurement and/or computing time with respect to the basic approach.

  11. Empirical models of demand for out-patient physician services and their relevance to the assessment of patient payment policies: a critical review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skriabikova, Olga; Pavlova, Milena; Groot, Wim

    2010-06-01

    This paper reviews the existing empirical micro-level models of demand for out-patient physician services where the size of patient payment is included either directly as an independent variable (when a flat-rate co-payment fee) or indirectly as a level of deductibles and/or co-insurance defined by the insurance coverage. The paper also discusses the relevance of these models for the assessment of patient payment policies. For this purpose, a systematic literature review is carried out. In total, 46 relevant publications were identified. These publications are classified into categories based on their general approach to demand modeling, specifications of data collection, data analysis, and main empirical findings. The analysis indicates a rising research interest in the empirical micro-level models of demand for out-patient physician services that incorporate the size of patient payment. Overall, the size of patient payments, consumer socio-economic and demographic features, and quality of services provided emerge as important determinants of demand for out-patient physician services. However, there is a great variety in the modeling approaches and inconsistencies in the findings regarding the impact of price on demand for out-patient physician services. Hitherto, the empirical research fails to offer policy-makers a clear strategy on how to develop a country-specific model of demand for out-patient physician services suitable for the assessment of patient payment policies in their countries. In particular, theoretically important factors, such as provider behavior, consumer attitudes, experience and culture, and informal patient payments, are not considered. Although we recognize that it is difficult to measure these factors and to incorporate them in the demand models, it is apparent that there is a gap in research for the construction of effective patient payment schemes.

  12. Empirical Models of Demand for Out-Patient Physician Services and Their Relevance to the Assessment of Patient Payment Policies: A Critical Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Skriabikova

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the existing empirical micro-level models of demand for out-patient physician services where the size of patient payment is included either directly as an independent variable (when a flat-rate co-payment fee or indirectly as a level of deductibles and/or co-insurance defined by the insurance coverage. The paper also discusses the relevance of these models for the assessment of patient payment policies. For this purpose, a systematic literature review is carried out. In total, 46 relevant publications were identified. These publications are classified into categories based on their general approach to demand modeling, specifications of data collection, data analysis, and main empirical findings. The analysis indicates a rising research interest in the empirical micro-level models of demand for out-patient physician services that incorporate the size of patient payment. Overall, the size of patient payments, consumer socio-economic and demographic features, and quality of services provided emerge as important determinants of demand for out-patient physician services. However, there is a great variety in the modeling approaches and inconsistencies in the findings regarding the impact of price on demand for out-patient physician services. Hitherto, the empirical research fails to offer policy-makers a clear strategy on how to develop a country-specific model of demand for out-patient physician services suitable for the assessment of patient payment policies in their countries. In particular, theoretically important factors, such as provider behavior, consumer attitudes, experience and culture, and informal patient payments, are not considered. Although we recognize that it is difficult to measure these factors and to incorporate them in the demand models, it is apparent that there is a gap in research for the construction of effective patient payment schemes.

  13. Information Security Policy Modeling for Network Security Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Sergeevich Chernyavskiy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Policy management for network security systems (NSSs is one of the most topical issues of network security management. Incorrect configurations of NSSs lead to system outages and appearance of vulnerabilities. Moreover, policy management process is a time-consuming task, which includes significant amount of manual work. These factors reduce efficiency of NSSs’ utilization. The paper discusses peculiarities of policy management process and existing approaches to policy modeling, presents a model aimed to formalize policies for NSSs independently on NSSs’ platforms and select the most effective NSSs for implementation of the policies.

  14. Articulating a trans-boundary infrastructure supply chain greenhouse gas emission footprint for cities: Mathematical relationships and policy relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez, Abel; Ramaswami, Anu

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares the policy relevance and derives mathematical relationships between three approaches for GHG emissions accounting for cities. The three approaches are: (a) Purely-Geographic Inventory, (b) Trans-boundary Community-Wide Infrastructure Footprint (CIF), and (c) Consumption-Based Footprint (CBF). Mathematical derivations coupled with case study of three US communities (Denver Colorado, Routt Colorado, and Sarasota Florida), shows that no one method provides a larger or more holistic estimate of GHG emissions associated with communities. A net-producing community (Routt) demonstrates higher CIF GHG emissions relative to the CBF, while a net-consuming community (Sarasota) yields the opposite. Trade-balanced communities (Denver) demonstrate similar numerical estimates of CIF and CBF, as predicted by the mathematical equations. Knowledge of community typology is important in understanding trans-boundary GHG emission contributions

  15. Age and self-relevance effects on information search during decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Thomas M; Queen, Tara L; Ennis, Gilda E

    2013-09-01

    We investigated how information search strategies used to support decision making were influenced by self-related implications of the task to the individual. Consistent with the notion of selective engagement, we hypothesized that increased self-relevance would result in more adaptive search behaviors and that this effect would be stronger in older adults than in younger adults. We examined search behaviors in 79 younger and 81 older adults using a process-tracing procedure with 2 different decision tasks. The impact of motivation (i.e., self-related task implications) was examined by manipulating social accountability and the age-related relevance of the task. Although age differences in search strategies were not great, older adults were more likely than younger adults to use simpler strategies in contexts with minimal self-implications. Contrary to expectations, young and old alike were more likely to use noncompensatory than compensatory strategies, even when engaged in systematic search, with education being the most important determinant of search behavior. The results support the notion that older adults are adaptive decision makers and that factors other than age may be more important determinants of performance in situations where knowledge can be used to support performance.

  16. Enhancement of Credibility of Experts via On-demand Provision of Safety-Relevant Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Makoto; Yagi, Ekou; Kitamura, Masaharu

    2003-01-01

    An attempt of a dialog forum between technology experts and local community residents is described in this paper. The forum has been introduced with the aim of reconstructing the trust in nuclear experts badly spoiled by the JCO accident and TEPCO troubles. Particular attention bas been paid to semantic consistency of the information provided by the experts with the actual needs of residents living near nuclear facilities. In other words, the experts are requested to improvise the explanation directly relevant to various concerns of the residents in an on-demand manner. Three types of on-demandness have been identifled as guidelines for improved expert-resident communication: i.e. on-demand information provision (at an appropriate timing, with an appropriate spatial coverage, to fulfill the need of semantic diversity). The dialog forums have been held in two municipalities where nuclear facilities are located. The effectiveness of the dialog forum with on-demand information provision in reconstructing the trust bas been confirmed through the analysis of dialog records

  17. Immunization Information Systems: A Decade of Progress in Law and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Daniel W.; Lowery, N. Elaine; Brand, Bill; Gold, Rebecca; Horlick, Gail

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a study of laws, regulations, and policies governing Immunization Information Systems (IIS, also known as “immunization registries”) in states and selected urban areas of the United States. The study included a search of relevant statutes, administrative codes and published attorney general opinions/findings, an online questionnaire completed by immunization program managers and/or their staff, and follow-up telephone interviews. The legal/regulatory framework for IIS has changed considerably since 2000, largely in ways that improve IIS’ ability to perform their public health functions while continuing to maintain strict confidentiality and privacy controls. Nevertheless, the exchange of immunization data and other health information between care providers and public health and between entities in different jurisdictions remains difficult due in part to ongoing regulatory diversity. To continue to be leaders in health information exchange and facilitate immunization of children and adults, IIS will need to address the challenges presented by the interplay of federal and state legislation, regulations, and policies and continue to move toward standardized data collection and sharing necessary for interoperable systems. PMID:24402434

  18. Assessing Hospital Physicians' Acceptance of Clinical Information Systems: A Review of the Relevant Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Pynoo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In view of the tremendous potential benefits of clinical information systems (CIS for the quality of patient care; it is hard to understand why not every CIS is embraced by its targeted users, the physicians. The aim of this study is to propose a framework for assessing hospital physicians' CIS-acceptance that can serve as a guidance for future research into this area. Hereto, a review of the relevant literature was performed in the ISI Web-of-Science database. Eleven studies were withheld from an initial dataset of 797 articles. Results show that just as in business settings, there are four core groups of variables that influence physicians' acceptance of a CIS: its usefulness and ease of use, social norms, and factors in the working environment that facilitate use of the CIS (such as providing computers/workstations, compatibility between the new and existing system.... We also identified some additional variables as predictors of CIS-acceptance.

  19. Census-derived migration data as a tool for informing malaria elimination policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruktanonchai, Nick W; Bhavnani, Darlene; Sorichetta, Alessandro; Bengtsson, Linus; Carter, Keith H; Córdoba, Roberto C; Le Menach, Arnaud; Lu, Xin; Wetter, Erik; Zu Erbach-Schoenberg, Elisabeth; Tatem, Andrew J

    2016-05-11

    Numerous countries around the world are approaching malaria elimination. Until global eradication is achieved, countries that successfully eliminate the disease will contend with parasite reintroduction through international movement of infected people. Human-mediated parasite mobility is also important within countries near elimination, as it drives parasite flows that affect disease transmission on a subnational scale. Movement patterns exhibited in census-based migration data are compared with patterns exhibited in a mobile phone data set from Haiti to quantify how well migration data predict short-term movement patterns. Because short-term movement data were unavailable for Mesoamerica, a logistic regression model fit to migration data from three countries in Mesoamerica is used to predict flows of infected people between subnational administrative units throughout the region. Population flows predicted using census-based migration data correlated strongly with mobile phone-derived movements when used as a measure of relative connectivity. Relative population flows are therefore predicted using census data across Mesoamerica, informing the areas that are likely exporters and importers of infected people. Relative population flows are used to identify community structure, useful for coordinating interventions and elimination efforts to minimize importation risk. Finally, the ability of census microdata inform future intervention planning is discussed in a country-specific setting using Costa Rica as an example. These results show long-term migration data can effectively predict the relative flows of infected people to direct malaria elimination policy, a particularly relevant result because migration data are generally easier to obtain than short-term movement data such as mobile phone records. Further, predicted relative flows highlight policy-relevant population dynamics, such as major exporters across the region, and Nicaragua and Costa Rica's strong

  20. Assimilation of tourism satellite accounts and applied general equilibrium models to inform tourism policy analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rossouw, Riaan; Saayman, Melville

    2011-01-01

    Historically, tourism policy analysis in South Africa has posed challenges to accurate measurement. The primary reason for this is that tourism is not designated as an 'industry' in standard economic accounts. This paper therefore demonstrates the relevance and need for applied general equilibrium (AGE) models to be completed and extended through an integration with tourism satellite accounts (TSAs) as a tool for policy makers (especially tourism policy makers) in South Africa. The paper sets...

  1. Enhancing Public Access to Relevant and Valued Medical Information: Fresh Directions for RadiologyInfo.org.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Geoffrey D; Krishnaraj, Arun; Mahesh, Mahadevappa; Rajendran, Ramji R; Fishman, Elliot K

    2017-05-01

    RadiologyInfo.org is a public information portal designed to support patient care and broaden public awareness of the essential role radiology plays in overall patient health care. Over the past 14 years, RadiologyInfo.org has evolved considerably to provide access to more than 220 mixed-media descriptions of tests, treatments, and diseases through a spectrum of mobile and desktop platforms, social media, and downloadable documents in both English and Spanish. In 2014, the RSNA-ACR Public Information Website Committee, which stewards RadiologyInfo.org, developed 3- to 5-year strategic and implementation plans for the website. The process was informed by RadiologyInfo.org user surveys, formal stakeholder interviews, focus groups, and usability testing. Metrics were established as key performance indicators to assess progress toward the stated goals of (1) optimizing content to enhance patient-centeredness, (2) enhancing reach and engagement, and (3) maintaining sustainability. Major changes resulting from this process include a complete redesign of the website, the replacement of text-rich PowerPoint presentations with conversational videos, and the development of an affiliate network. Over the past year, visits to RadiologyInfo.org have increased by 60.27% to 1,424,523 in August 2016 from 235 countries and territories. Twenty-two organizations have affiliated with RadiologyInfo.org with new organizations being added on a monthly basis. RadiologyInfo provides a tangible demonstration of how radiologists can engage directly with the global public to educate them on the value of radiology in their health care and to allay concerns and dispel misconceptions. Regular self-assessment and responsive planning will ensure its continued growth and relevance. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The policy relevance of wear emissions from road transport, now and in the future--an international workshop report and consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Gon, Hugo A C Denier; Gerlofs-Nijland, Miriam E; Gehrig, Robert; Gustafsson, Mats; Janssen, Nicole; Harrison, Roy M; Hulskotte, Jan; Johansson, Christer; Jozwicka, Magdalena; Keuken, Menno; Krijgsheld, Klaas; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Riediker, Michael; Cassee, Flemming R

    2013-02-01

    Road transport emissions are a major contributor to ambient particulate matter concentrations and have been associated with adverse health effects. Therefore, these emissions are targeted through increasingly stringent European emission standards. These policies succeed in reducing exhaust emissions, but do not address "nonexhaust" emissions from brake wear, tire wear, road wear and suspension in air of road dust. Is this a problem? To what extent do nonexhaust emissions contribute to ambient concentrations of PM10 or PM2.5? In the near future, wear emissions may dominate the remaining traffic-related PM10 emissions in Europe, mostly due to the steep decrease in PM exhaust emissions. This underlines the need to determine the relevance of the wear emissions as a contribution to the existing ambient PM concentrations, and the need to assess the health risks related to wear particles, which has not yet received much attention. During a workshop in 2011, available knowledge was reported and evaluated so as to draw conclusions on the relevance of traffic-related wear emissions for air quality policy development. On the basis of available evidence, which is briefly presented in this paper it was concluded that nonexhaust emissions and in particular suspension in air of road dust are major contributors to exceedances at street locations of the PM10 air quality standards in various European cities. Furthermore, wear-related PM emissions that contain high concentrations of metals may (despite their limited contribution to the mass of nonexhaust emissions) cause significant health risks for the population, especially those living near intensely trafficked locations. To quantify the existing health risks, targeted research is required on wear emissions, their dispersion in urban areas, population exposure, and its effects on health. Such information will be crucial for environmental policymakers as an input for discussions on the need to develop control strategies. Road

  3. Expanding Protection Motivation Theory: The Role of Individual Experience in Information Security Policy Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutchler, Leigh Ann

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to make contributions to the area of behavioral information security in the field of Information Systems and to assist in the improved development of Information Security Policy instructional programs to increase the policy compliance of individuals. The role of an individual's experience in the context of…

  4. Informal care and the self-management partnership: implications for Australian health policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essue, Beverley M; Jowsey, Tanisha; Jeon, Yun-Hee; Mirzaei, Masoud; Pearce-Brown, Carmen L; Aspin, Clive; Usherwood, Tim P

    2010-11-01

    The Serious and Continuing Illness Policy and Practice Study (SCIPPS) aims to improve the care and support for patients with chronic illness and their family carers. Here we describe the carers' contribution to the self-management partnership and discuss the policy and practice implications that are relevant to improving the support available for informal care in Australia. A secondary analysis of SCIPPS data. Fourteen carers of patients between 45 and 85 years with chronic heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and diabetes were conveniently sampled from western Sydney and the Australian Capital Territory. Semi-structured interviews were conducted. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Key roles that carers perform in the self-management partnership included: home helper; lifestyle coach; advocate; technical care manager; and health information interpreter. Two negative consequences of juggling these roles included: self-neglect and conflict. Rigid eligibility criteria limit carers' access to essential support programs which underestimates and undervalues their contributions to the self-management partnership. Support services should focus on the development of practical skills to perform the caregiving roles. In addition, health professionals require support to work more effectively with carers to minimise the conflict that can overshadow the care and self-management partnership.

  5. Mapping local knowledge of hazards to inform research, practice and policy in the Americas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, Ashley; Eosco, Gina; Norton, Todd; Ruiz, Jorge; Tate, Eric; Weathers, Melinda

    2011-01-01

    Hazards are fundamentally understood and experienced spatially; therefore, it is not surprising that hazards research, management, communication, and policy have relied heavily on spatial representations using geomatics tools such as remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS). As powerful and useful as these tools have been, they tend to privilege the collection and utilization of quantifiable data at the expense of qualitative data (e.g., experiential local knowledge). Local knowledge has been increasingly used both to challenge and to supplement mapping strategies, although less so in the realm of hazards than in other areas such as natural resource management. In this paper, we propose a unique framework for taking these approaches one-step further through the development of a knowledge management system that integrates local knowledge of hazards with spatial visualization tools. First, we discuss relevant literature related to current tools and practices for visualizing hazard information. Next we propose a methodology for mapping mental models of individuals. Finally, we discuss the potential applications of such a framework for hazards research, practice, and policy, as well as discuss the challenges associated with this framework.

  6. Interim policy on establishment and operation of internet open, anonymous information servers and services

    OpenAIRE

    Acting Dean of Computer and Information Services

    1995-01-01

    Purpose. To establish interim NPS general policy regarding establishment and operation of Open, Anonymous Information Servers and Services, such as World Wide Web (http), Gopher, Anonymous FTP, etc...

  7. The Encryption Export Policy Controversy: Searching for Balance in the Information Age

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Marcus S

    2000-01-01

    .... The federal government s encryption export policy highlights a complex information age issue involving seemingly insurmountable conflicts between national security, law enforcement, privacy, and business interests...

  8. Informing the Australian government on AT policies: ARATA's experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Emma L; Walker, Lloyd; Layton, Natasha; Astbrink, Gunela; Summers, Michael; De Jonge, Desleigh

    2015-05-01

    This article describes the development and dissemination of an evidence-based Policy Statement and Background Papers by the Australian Rehabilitation and Assistive Technology Association (ARATA). An experienced project team was engaged to conduct literature reviews and member consultations, develop resources and implement a targeted advocacy strategy that included a policy launch and meetings with government officials. The Policy Statement and Background Papers have enabled ARATA to represent the views of Assistive Technology (AT) Practitioners in consultations around the National Disability Insurance Scheme and other AT-related inquiries. In ARATA's experience, developing a policy statement and disseminating it through a targeted advocacy strategy is an effective way for a not-for-profit professional organisation to influence government policy. AT practitioners must consider political factors in working towards effective policies to support their practice. To be effective at a systemic level, AT practitioners must develop political awareness and an understanding of the drivers of policy. This case study provides a blueprint for AT practitioners and organisations in tackling policy change.

  9. Using Research Evidence to Inform Public Policy Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Charles; Kleinert, Harold; Sheppard-Jones, Kathleen; Hall, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    The application of scientific data in the development and implementation of sound public policy is a well-established practice, but there appears to be less consensus on the nature of the strategies that can and should be used to incorporate research data into policy decisions. This paper describes the promise and the challenges of using research…

  10. Computations Underlying Social Hierarchy Learning: Distinct Neural Mechanisms for Updating and Representing Self-Relevant Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaran, Dharshan; Banino, Andrea; Blundell, Charles; Hassabis, Demis; Dayan, Peter

    2016-12-07

    Knowledge about social hierarchies organizes human behavior, yet we understand little about the underlying computations. Here we show that a Bayesian inference scheme, which tracks the power of individuals, better captures behavioral and neural data compared with a reinforcement learning model inspired by rating systems used in games such as chess. We provide evidence that the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) selectively mediates the updating of knowledge about one's own hierarchy, as opposed to that of another individual, a process that underpinned successful performance and involved functional interactions with the amygdala and hippocampus. In contrast, we observed domain-general coding of rank in the amygdala and hippocampus, even when the task did not require it. Our findings reveal the computations underlying a core aspect of social cognition and provide new evidence that self-relevant information may indeed be afforded a unique representational status in the brain. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The feasibility of measuring and monitoring social determinants of health and the relevance for policy and programme – a qualitative assessment of four countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Blas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since the publication of the reports by the Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH, many research papers have documented inequities, explaining causal pathways in order to inform policy and programmatic decision-making. At the international level, the sustainable development goals (SDGs reflect an attempt to bring together these themes and the complexities involved in defining a comprehensive development framework. However, to date, much less has been done to address the monitoring challenges, that is, how data generation, analysis and use are to become routine tasks. Objective: To test proposed indicators of social determinants of health (SDH, gender, equity, and human rights with respect to their relevance in tracking progress in universal health coverage and population health (level and distribution. Design: In an attempt to explore these monitoring challenges, indicators covering a wide range of social determinants were tested in four country case studies (Bangladesh, Brazil, South Africa, and Vietnam for their technical feasibility, reliability, and validity, and their communicability and usefulness to policy-makers. Twelve thematic domains with 20 core indicators covering different aspects of equity, human rights, gender, and SDH were tested through a review of data sources, descriptive analyses, key informant interviews, and focus group discussions. To test the communicability and usefulness of the domains, domain narratives that explained the causal pathways were presented to policy-makers, managers, the media, and civil society leaders. Results: For most countries, monitoring is possible, as some data were available for most of the core indicators. However, a qualitative assessment showed that technical feasibility, reliability, and validity varied across indicators and countries. Producing understandable and useful information proved challenging, and particularly so in translating indicator definitions and data

  12. The feasibility of measuring and monitoring social determinants of health and the relevance for policy and programme - a qualitative assessment of four countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blas, Erik; Ataguba, John E; Huda, Tanvir M; Bao, Giang Kim; Rasella, Davide; Gerecke, Megan R

    2016-01-01

    Since the publication of the reports by the Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH), many research papers have documented inequities, explaining causal pathways in order to inform policy and programmatic decision-making. At the international level, the sustainable development goals (SDGs) reflect an attempt to bring together these themes and the complexities involved in defining a comprehensive development framework. However, to date, much less has been done to address the monitoring challenges, that is, how data generation, analysis and use are to become routine tasks. To test proposed indicators of social determinants of health (SDH), gender, equity, and human rights with respect to their relevance in tracking progress in universal health coverage and population health (level and distribution). In an attempt to explore these monitoring challenges, indicators covering a wide range of social determinants were tested in four country case studies (Bangladesh, Brazil, South Africa, and Vietnam) for their technical feasibility, reliability, and validity, and their communicability and usefulness to policy-makers. Twelve thematic domains with 20 core indicators covering different aspects of equity, human rights, gender, and SDH were tested through a review of data sources, descriptive analyses, key informant interviews, and focus group discussions. To test the communicability and usefulness of the domains, domain narratives that explained the causal pathways were presented to policy-makers, managers, the media, and civil society leaders. For most countries, monitoring is possible, as some data were available for most of the core indicators. However, a qualitative assessment showed that technical feasibility, reliability, and validity varied across indicators and countries. Producing understandable and useful information proved challenging, and particularly so in translating indicator definitions and data into meaningful lay and managerial narratives, and

  13. Expert versus novice differences in the detection of relevant information during a chess game: Evidence from eye movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather eSheridan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study explored the ability of expert and novice chess players to rapidly distinguish between regions of a chessboard that were relevant to the best move on the board, and regions of the board that were irrelevant. Accordingly, we monitored the eye movements of expert and novice chess players, while they selected white’s best move for a variety of chess problems. To manipulate relevancy, we constructed two different versions of each chess problem in the experiment, and we counterbalanced these versions across participants. These two versions of each problem were identical except that a single piece was changed from a bishop to a knight. This subtle change reversed the relevancy map of the board, such that regions that were relevant in one version of the board were now irrelevant (and vice versa. Using this paradigm, we demonstrated that both the experts and novices spent more time fixating the relevant relative to the irrelevant regions of the board. However, the experts were faster at detecting relevant information than the novices, as shown by the finding that experts (but not novices were able to distinguish between relevant and irrelevant information during the early part of the trial. These findings further demonstrate the domain-related perceptual processing advantage of chess experts, using an experimental paradigm that allowed us to manipulate relevancy under tightly controlled conditions.

  14. Identifying relevant components to include in a parenting intervention for homeless families in transitional housing: Using parent input to inform adaptation efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtrop, Kendal; Chaviano, Casey L; Scott, Jenna C; McNeil Smith, Shardé

    2015-11-01

    Homeless families in transitional housing face a number of distinct challenges, yet there is little research seeking to guide prevention and intervention work with homeless parents. Informed by the tenets of community-based participatory research, the purpose of this study was to identify relevant components to include in a parenting intervention for this population. Data were gathered from 40 homeless parents through semistructured individual interviews and were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The resulting 15 categories suggest several topics, approach considerations, and activities that can inform parenting intervention work with homeless families in transitional housing. Study findings are discussed within the context of intervention fidelity versus adaptation, and implications for practice, research, and policy are suggested. This study provides important insights for informing parenting intervention adaptation and implementation efforts with homeless families in transitional housing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Constructivist learning at the science-policy interface: tsunami science informing disaster policy in West Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughey, J.; Dewi, P. R.; Natawidjaja, D. H.; Sieh, K. E.

    2012-12-01

    Science communication often falls short when it is based on the blank-slate assumption that if we can just get the message right, then the information will be received and understood as intended. In contrast, constructivist learning theory and practice suggest that we all actively construct our knowledge from a variety of information sources and through particular, novel associations with our prior knowledge. This constructed knowledge can be quite different from any of its original sources, such as a particular science communication. Successful communication requires carefully examining how people construct their knowledge of the topic of interest. Examples from our outreach work to connect hazard-science research with disaster-risk reduction practice in West Sumatra illustrate the mismatch between expert and stakeholder/public mental models of the characteristics of tsunamigenic earthquakes. There are incorrect conceptions that seawater always withdraws before a tsunami, and that a tsunami can be produced by an earthquake only if the epicenter is located at the ocean trench. These incorrect conceptions arise from generalizations based on recent, local earthquake experiences, as well as from unintended consequences of science outreach, science education, and, in one case, the way that tsunami modelling is graphically presented in scientific journals. We directly address these incorrect conceptions in our discussions with government officials and others; as a result, the local disaster-management agency has changed its policies to reflect an increased understanding of the hazard. This outreach success would not have been possible without eliciting the prior knowledge of our audiences through dialogue.

  16. The practicalities and pitfalls of establishing a policy-relevant and cost-effective soil biological monitoring scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Jack H; Creamer, Rachel E; Mulder, Christian; Römbke, Jörg; Rutgers, Michiel; Sousa, J Paulo; Stone, Dorothy; Griffiths, Bryan S

    2013-04-01

    A large number of biological indicators have been proposed over the years for assessing soil quality. Although many of those have been applied in monitoring schemes across Europe, no consensus exists on the extent to which these indicators might perform best and how monitoring schemes can be further optimized in terms of scientific and policy relevance. Over the past decade, developments in environmental monitoring and risk assessment converged toward the use of indicators and endpoints that are related to soil functioning and ecosystem services. In view of the proposed European Union (EU) Soil Framework Directive, there is an urgent need to identify and evaluate indicators for soil biodiversity and ecosystem services. The recently started integrated project, Ecological Function and Biodiversity Indicators in European Soils (EcoFINDERS), aims to address this specific issue within the EU Framework Program FP7. Here, we 1) discuss how to use the concept of ecosystem services in soil monitoring, 2) review former and ongoing monitoring schemes, and 3) present an analysis of metadata on biological indicators in some EU member states. Finally, we discuss our experiences in establishing a logical sieve approach to devise a monitoring scheme for a standardized and harmonized application at European scale. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  17. 75 FR 10507 - Information Security Oversight Office; National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office; National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: National Archives and Records... individuals planning to attend must be submitted to the Information Security Oversight Office (ISOO) no later...

  18. 48 CFR 1552.211-79 - Compliance with EPA Policies for Information Resources Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Policies for Information Resources Management. 1552.211-79 Section 1552.211-79 Federal Acquisition... Information Resources Management (OCT 2000) (a) Definition. Information Resources Management (IRM) is defined... includes both information itself, and the management of information and related resources such as personnel...

  19. Journal of Information and Knowledge Management: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management (IIJIKM) is a Journal of Library and Information Science published in Nigeria. IIJIKM is a peer review journal for librarians, information scientists, information specialist, library educators and other related practitioners to report their ...

  20. A District's Use of Data and Research to Inform Policy Formation and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seager, Andrew; Madura, John P.; Cox, Joshua; Carey, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    This descriptive study of a change initiative by the Syracuse (NY) City School District informs the question, "How do school boards and districts better use research and data to inform policy decisions?" Researchers used interviews and artifacts to describe how the district developed and implemented a new discipline policy, the Syracuse…

  1. Political rhetoric from Canada can inform healthy public policy argumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Patrick B; McIntyre, Lynn; Anderson, Laura C; Mah, Catherine L

    2017-10-01

    Household food insecurity (HFI), insufficient income to obtain adequate food, is a growing problem in Canada and other Organisation of economic cooperation and development (OECD) countries. Government political orientations impact health policies and outcomes. We critically examined Canadian political rhetoric around HFI from 1995 to 2012 as a means to support effective healthy public policy argumentation. We analysed a data set comprised of Hansard extracts on HFI from the legislative debates of the Canadian federal and three provincial governments, using thematic coding guided by interpretivist theories of policy. Extracts were examined for content, jurisdiction, the political affiliation of the legislator speaking and governing status. Members of non-governing, or 'opposition' parties, dominated the rhetoric. A central hunger-as-poverty theme was used by legislators across the political spectrum, both in government and in opposition. Legislators differed in terms of policy approach around how income should flow to citizens facing HFI: income intervention on the left, pragmatism in the centre, reliance on markets on the right. This analysis is a case-example from Canada and caution must be exercised in terms of the generalizability of findings across jurisdictions. Despite this limitation, our findings can help healthy public policy advocates in designing and communicating HFI policy interventions in OECD countries with a similar left-right spectrum. First, even with a divisive health policy issue such as actions to address HFI, core themes around poverty are widely understood. Secondly, the non-polarizing centrist, pragmatist, approach may be strategically valuable. Thirdly, it is important to treat the rhetoric of opposition members differently from that of government members. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. An Exponential Increase in Regional Health Information Exchange With Collaborative Policies and Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, N Lance; Lane, Steven; Eisenberg, Mathew; Sharp, Christopher; Palma, Jonathan; Longhurst, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, the ability to securely exchange health information between organization has been limited by technical interoperability, patient identity matching, and variable institutional policies. Here, we examine the regional experience in a national health information exchange network by examining clinical data sharing between eleven Northern California organizations using the same health information exchange (HIE) platform between 2013-2014. We identify key policies and technologies that have led to a dramatic increase in health information exchange.

  3. Analysis of the Relevance of Information Content of the Value Added Statement in the Brazilian Capital Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio André Veras Machado

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The usefulness of financial statements depends, fundamentally, on the degree of relevance of the information they disclose to users. Thus, studies that measure the relevance of accounting information to the users of financial statements are of some importance. One line of research within this subject is in ascertaining the relevance and importance of accounting information for the capital markets: if a particular item of accounting information is minimally reflected in the price of a share, it is because this information has relevance, at least at a certain level of significance, for investors and analysts of the capital markets. This present study aims to analyze the relevance, in the Brazilian capital markets, of the information content of the Value Added Statement (or VAS - referred to in Brazil as the Demonstração do Valor Adicionado, or DVA. It analyzed the ratio between stock price and Wealth created per share (WCPS, using linear regressions, for the period 2005-2011, for non-financial listed companies included in Melhores & Maiores ('Biggest & Best', an annual listing published by Exame Magazine in Brazil. As a secondary objective, this article seeks to establish whether WCPS represents a better indication of a company's result than Net profit per share (in this study, referred to as NPPS. The empirical evidence that was found supports the concept that the VAS has relevant information content, because it shows a capacity to explain a variation in the share price of the companies studied. Additionally, the relationship between WCPS and the stock price was shown to be significant, even after the inclusion of the control variables Stockholders' equity per share (which we abbreviate in this study to SEPS and NPPS. Finally, the evidence found indicates that the market reacts more to WCPS (Wealth created per share than to NPPS. Thus, the results obtained give some indication that, for the Brazilian capital markets, WCPS may be a better proxy

  4. Policy-relevant behaviours predict heavier drinking and mediate the relationship with age, gender and education status: Analysis from the International Alcohol Control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casswell, Sally; Huckle, Taisia; Wall, Martin; Parker, Karl; Chaiyasong, Surasak; Parry, Charles D H; Viet Cuong, Pham; Gray-Phillip, Gaile; Piazza, Marina

    2018-02-21

    To investigate behaviours related to four alcohol policy variables (policy-relevant behaviours) and demographic variables in relation to typical quantities of alcohol consumed on-premise in six International Alcohol Control study countries. General population surveys with drinkers using a comparable survey instrument and data analysed using path analysis in an overall model and for each country. typical quantities per occasion consumed on-premise; gender, age; years of education, prices paid, time of purchase, time to access alcohol and liking for alcohol advertisements. In the overall model younger people, males and those with fewer years of education consumed larger typical quantities. Overall lower prices paid, later time of purchase and liking for alcohol ads predicted consuming larger typical quantities; this was found in the high-income countries, less consistently in the high-middle-income countries and not in the low middle-income country. Three policy-relevant behaviours (prices paid, time of purchase, liking for alcohol ads) mediated the relationships between age, gender, education and consumption in high-income countries. International Alcohol Control survey data showed a relationship between policy-relevant behaviours and typical quantities consumed and support the likely effect of policy change (trading hours, price and restrictions on marketing) on heavier drinking. The path analysis also revealed policy-relevant behaviours were significant mediating variables between the effect of age, gender and educational status on consumption. However, this relationship is clearest in high-income countries. Further research is required to understand better how circumstances in low-middle-income countries impact effects of policies. © 2018 The Authors Drug and Alcohol Review published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  5. Quest to be real, relevant and impactful: Analysing the science-policy divide in the South African water sector

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nienaber, S

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The South African water sector faces challenges that need to be addressed through effective policy development and implementation. Sound evidence, based on researched consideration of issues and solutions, is an important input to policy development...

  6. Cryptography, Information Operations and the Industrial Base: A Policy Dilemma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Horner, Stephen

    1997-01-01

    .... The explosive force of information technology places the Global Information Infrastructure, the worldwide industrial base and the various world governments in both mutually supporting and somewhat adversarial positions...

  7. The challenge of external validity in policy-relevant systematic reviews: a case study from the field of substance misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Mark; Coomber, Ross

    2010-01-01

    To critically evaluate the methods utilized in the conduct of a systematic review in the field of substance misuse. Participant-observation in the review process, semi-structured interviews with review team members and management and structured observation of the process of guidance development. An 'arm's-length' government body. Review team members, management and the committee responsible for producing evidence-based guidance for policy and practice. Data from interviews and (participant-)observation were reflected upon critically in order to increase understanding of the systematic review process. The application of systematic review methods produced an evidence base that did not inform the development of guidance to the extent that it could have done: (i) an emphasis upon internal research validity produced an evidence base with an emphasis on short-term interventions at the level of the individual; (ii) criteria for appraising the external validity of studies were not developed sufficiently; and (iii) the systematic review of evidence and development of guidance are strongly reliant upon the judgement of reviewers and committee members. Prioritizing internal validity in a systematic review risks producing an evidence base that is not informed adequately by the wider determinants of health and which does not give sufficient consideration to external validity. The use of appropriate methods requires that commissioners of systematic reviews are clear at the outset how the review is proposed to be utilized. Review methods such as meta-ethnography and realist synthesis could contribute to making the frameworks within which judgements are made more explicit.

  8. Flexibility and security: an asymmetrical relationship? The uncertain relevance of flexicurity policies for segmented labour markets and residual welfare regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouriki, A.

    2009-01-01

    Against a background of growing international competition and of pervasive uncertainty and fluidity, flexicurity policies are being actively promoted in the EU policy agenda as a useful policy tool to address the needs of business to respond to rapid changes, while providing workers with a safety

  9. A Study of the Effect of Information Security Policies on Information Security Breaches in Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Stanie Adolphus

    2013-01-01

    Many articles within the literature point to the information security policy as one of the most important elements of an effective information security program. Even though this belief is continually referred to in many information security scholarly articles, very few research studies have been performed to corroborate this sentiment. Doherty and…

  10. Enhancing Information Awareness Through Directed Qualification of Semantic Relevancy Scoring Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Directed Qualification of analyticbased relationships by pairing the Prov-O Ontology ( W3C Recommendation) with a relevancy ontology supporting analytics...autonomous Directed Qualification of analytic- based relationships by pairing the Prov-O Ontology ( W3C Recommendation) with a relevancy ontology supporting...property of the foaf ontology are found in the Prov-O W3C Recommendation. The provided set of qualifications are general enough to provide generic use

  11. Policy Issues in Meeting Rice Farmers Agricultural Information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Major constraints include lack of funds to acquire information (54.3%) and language barrier (50.5%). The result of the study also indicates a significant relationship between information type and preferred information package ( X2 = 27.96; p < 0.05), readiness to pay for information package (X2 =67.45;p < 05 ) and constraint ...

  12. Public consultation in public policy information: a state-of-the-art report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, A.B.; McKee, M.; Hansen, R.D.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program is to site, construct and operate nuclear waste repositories at several locations. Recent experience indicates that the public is aware of the problems of nuclear waste disposal, and correspondingly there is public concern about how and where to dispose of nuclear wastes. The selection of sites involves a wide range of considerations including geological, technical and environmental feasibility. In addition to these, it is important that societal acceptance of repository options also be taken into account in moving foward with the NWTS Program. Such an incorporation of social considerations and preferences correspondingly implies the need for public consultation in the site selection process. In exploring the concept and state-or-the-art of public involvement in public policy decision, a number of important questions are relevant: (1) What are the basic objectives of public participation in policy formation and program decisions. (2) Who are the ''publics'' that should be involved and how can they be identified. (3) What information should be communicated between the agency and the publics. (4) What techniques are available to elicit public participation and involvement and what are their capabilities. At the outset, it should be noted that the purpose of this paper in addressing these questions is not to design public participation procedures for the NWTS program. Rather, the above are questions that provide a broad framework for developing an understanding of citizen participation in public policy decisions, such as nuclear waste disposal. In this sense, the following discussion is to provide a context and guidance for approaching the problem of organizing and structuring involvement in the NWTS program. Annotated bibliography of 95 references is included

  13. Public consultation in public policy information: a state-of-the-art report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, A.B.; McKee, M.; Hansen, R.D.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program is to site, construct and operate nuclear waste repositories at several locations. Recent experience indicates that the public is aware of the problems of nuclear waste disposal, and correspondingly there is public concern about how and where to dispose of nuclear wastes. The selection of sites involves a wide range of considerations including geological, technical and environmental feasibility. In addition to these, it is important that societal acceptance of repository options also be taken into account in moving foward with the NWTS Program. Such an incorporation of social considerations and preferences correspondingly implies the need for public consultation in the site selection process. In exploring the concept and state-or-the-art of public involvement in public policy decision, a number of important questions are relevant: (1) What are the basic objectives of public participation in policy formation and program decisions. (2) Who are the ''publics'' that should be involved and how can they be identified. (3) What information should be communicated between the agency and the publics. (4) What techniques are available to elicit public participation and involvement and what are their capabilities. At the outset, it should be noted that the purpose of this paper in addressing these questions is not to design public participation procedures for the NWTS program. Rather, the above are questions that provide a broad framework for developing an understanding of citizen participation in public policy decisions, such as nuclear waste disposal. In this sense, the following discussion is to provide a context and guidance for approaching the problem of organizing and structuring involvement in the NWTS program. Annotated bibliography of 95 references is included.

  14. Internationalisation of information services for publishers' open access policies: the DINI multilingual integration layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholze, Frank

    2008-01-01

    It is essential for the strategy of open access self-archiving that scientific authors are given comprehensive information on publisher copyright policies. DINI, the German Initiative for Networked Information, has developed a German (and potentially multilingual) interface to the English SHERPA/RoMEO service to provide additional information on German publishers' open access policies. As a next step, this interface was enhanced to an integration layer combining different sources on publisher copyright policies. This integration layer can be used in many different contexts. Together with the SHERPA/RoMEO team, DINI aims to build an international support structure for open access information. PMID:18662383

  15. Mathematical modelling informs HIV prevention policy in China ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-27

    Apr 27, 2016 ... IDRC-funded research is using mathematical modelling to influence local and national policies in China to reduce HIV transmission. Treatment as prevention Earlier research conducted under Modelling and controlling infectious diseases project showed that providing antiretroviral therapy (ART) to ...

  16. Informed policies for Europe’s health workforce of tomorrow.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batenburg, R.

    2010-01-01

    Although it is widely acknowledged that health workforce planning is critical for health care systems, it is probably one of the least strategically planned resources. One could argue that there are good reasons for this: demand and supply of the health labour market are in constant flux, and policy

  17. Think Tank Initiative to host African Evidence Informed Policy Forum ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-03-06

    Mar 6, 2018 ... Location: Radisson Blu Hotel. Elgon Road, Upper Hill. Nairobi,. Kenya. There is extensive evidence demonstrating that development research, when done effectively, can improve public policy and accelerate development progress. However, experience also indicates that in many African countries, data, ...

  18. Comparative analysis of information contents relevant to recognition of introns in many species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotoh Osamu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The basic process of RNA splicing is conserved among eukaryotic species. Three signals (5' and 3' splice sites and branch site are commonly used to directly conduct splicing, while other features are also related to the recognition of an intron. Although there is experimental evidence pointing to the significant species specificities in the features of intron recognition, a quantitative evaluation of the divergence of these features among a wide variety of eukaryotes has yet to be conducted. Results To better understand the splicing process from the viewpoints of evolution and information theory, we collected introns from 61 diverse species of eukaryotes and analyzed the properties of the nucleotide sequences relevant to splicing. We found that trees individually constructed from the five features (the three signals, intron length, and nucleotide composition within an intron roughly reflect the phylogenetic relationships among the species but sometimes extensively deviate from the species classification. The degree of topological deviation of each feature tree from the reference trees indicates the lowest discordance for the 5' splicing signal, followed by that for the 3' splicing signal, and a considerably greater discordance for the other three features. We also estimated the relative contributions of the five features to short intron recognition in each species. Again, moderate correlation was observed between the similarities in pattern of short intron recognition and the genealogical relationships among the species. When mammalian introns were categorized into three subtypes according to their terminal dinucleotide sequences, each subtype segregated into a nearly monophyletic group, regardless of the host species, with respect to the 5' and 3' splicing signals. It was also found that GC-AG introns are extraordinarily abundant in some species with high genomic G + C contents, and that the U12-type spliceosome might make a

  19. The Problems in Chinese Government Financial Information Disclosure and Relevant Proposals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Government financial information is an important part of government information, fully reporting the operational efficiency and the place where government puts tax onto. This paper analyses the problems in Chinese government financial information disclosure and the necessity of reform in detail. It also provides several proposals for the improvement of Chinese governmental financial report and financial information disclosure system.

  20. The Problems in Chinese Government Financial Information Disclosure and Relevant Proposals

    OpenAIRE

    Zhe Wang

    2016-01-01

    Government financial information is an important part of government information, fully reporting the operational efficiency and the place where government puts tax onto. This paper analyses the problems in Chinese government financial information disclosure and the necessity of reform in detail. It also provides several proposals for the improvement of Chinese governmental financial report and financial information disclosure system.

  1. Teaching Information Policy in the Digital Age: Issues, Strategies, and Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Paul T.; Gorham, Ursula; Taylor, Natalie Greene; Bertot, John C.

    2015-01-01

    As technology continues to advance at a rapid rate, it is increasingly important to consider how information policies are formulated and the impact that they have on both the public's access to information and the roles of information professionals. As such, current and future information professionals must be adequately prepared through education…

  2. An Object-Oriented Information Model for Policy-based Management of Distributed Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diaz, G.; Gay, V.C.J.; Horlait, E.; Hamza, M.H.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an object-oriented information model to support a policy-based management for distributed multimedia applications. The information base contains application-level information about the users, the applications, and their profile. Our Information model is described in details and

  3. Evidence-informed policy formulation and implementation: a comparative case study of two national policies for improving health and social care in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strehlenert, H; Richter-Sundberg, L; Nyström, M E; Hasson, H

    2015-12-08

    Evidence has come to play a central role in health policymaking. However, policymakers tend to use other types of information besides research evidence. Most prior studies on evidence-informed policy have focused on the policy formulation phase without a systematic analysis of its implementation. It has been suggested that in order to fully understand the policy process, the analysis should include both policy formulation and implementation. The purpose of the study was to explore and compare two policies aiming to improve health and social care in Sweden and to empirically test a new conceptual model for evidence-informed policy formulation and implementation. Two concurrent national policies were studied during the entire policy process using a longitudinal, comparative case study approach. Data was collected through interviews, observations, and documents. A Conceptual Model for Evidence-Informed Policy Formulation and Implementation was developed based on prior frameworks for evidence-informed policymaking and policy dissemination and implementation. The conceptual model was used to organize and analyze the data. The policies differed regarding the use of evidence in the policy formulation and the extent to which the policy formulation and implementation phases overlapped. Similarities between the cases were an emphasis on capacity assessment, modified activities based on the assessment, and a highly active implementation approach relying on networks of stakeholders. The Conceptual Model for Evidence-Informed Policy Formulation and Implementation was empirically useful to organize the data. The policy actors' roles and functions were found to have a great influence on the choices of strategies and collaborators in all policy phases. The Conceptual Model for Evidence-Informed Policy Formulation and Implementation was found to be useful. However, it provided insufficient guidance for analyzing actors involved in the policy process, capacity-building strategies

  4. 78 FR 25521 - Notice for Data and Information Distribution Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... allow external users to connect (physically/logically) to authoritative sources of data/information. FAA... authoritative sources. (e.g. Aircraft Situation Display to Industry (ASDI), National Airspace System Status Information (NASSI)) Authoritative Source: The origin or creation of data or information that is recognized by...

  5. Policy Issues in Meeting Rice Farmers Agricultural Information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madukwe

    The study aimed at assessing rice farmers agricultural information needs ... especially in an information dependent sector like agriculture where there are new and rather complex problems facing farmers every day. The information .... to the fact that e-mail and internet are just beginning to make their make in rural areas.

  6. Relevance between the degree of industrial competition and fair value information: Study on the listed companies in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemin Zhuang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this article is to study whether there exists natural relationship between fair value and corporate external market. A series of special phenomenon in the application of fair value arouses our research interests, which present evidences on how competition affects the correlation of fair value information. Design/methodology/approach: this thesis chooses fair value changes gains and losses and calculate the ratio of DFVPSit as the alternative variable of the fair value. In order to effectively inspect the mutual influence between the degree of industry competition and the value relevance of fair value, and reduce the impact of multi-collinearity, we built a regression model on the hypothesis, which supposes that if other conditions are the same, the fair value information has greater value relevance if the degree of the industry competition is greater. To test the hypothesis, we use the comparison of the DFVPSit coefficient absolute value to judge the value relevance of fair value information, and the greater the absolute value is, the higher relevance between the changes in fair value per share profits and losses with the stock prices. Findings: The higher the degree of competition in the industry is, the more fair value information relevance is. Also, there are evidences representing that fair value information often presents negative correlation with the stock price. Originality/value: The main contribution of the article is to show that not only need we make the formulation and implementation of the high quality of fair value accounting standards to suit for both the national conditions and international practice, but also need we further to improve the company's external governance mechanism to promote fair value’s information correlation.

  7. Finding electronic information for health policy advocacy: a guide to improving search results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsan, Tobie H; Bianchi, Carolanne; White, Pamela; Glessner, Theresa; Mapstone, Pamela L

    2011-12-01

    The success of advanced practice registered nurses' (APRNs') health policy advocacy depends on staying well informed about key issues. Searching for high-quality health policy information, however, can be frustrating and time consuming. Busy clinicians need strategies and tips to reduce information overload and to access synthesized research for evidence-based health policy. This article therefore offers APRNs practical guidelines and resources for searching electronic health policy information. Scholarly databases and Internet sites. Electronic health policy information is generated by a wide variety of public and private organizations and disseminated in hundreds of journals and Web pages. Specialty search tools are needed to retrieve the unindexed gray literature, which includes government documents, agency reports, fact sheets, standards, and statistics not produced by commercial publishers. Further, Internet users need to examine search results with a critical eye for information quality. Expertise in searching electronic health policy information is a prerequisite for developing APRNs' leadership in political arenas to influence health policy and the delivery of healthcare services. ©2011 The Author(s) Journal compilation ©2011 American Academy of Nurse Practitioners.

  8. Relevance of a Particularly Sensitive Sea Area to the Bering Strait Region: a Policy Analysis Using Resilience-Based Governance Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Hillmer-Pegram

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Bering Strait, separating the North American and Asian continents, is a productive social-ecological marine system that is vulnerable to increasing maritime traffic. In other parts of the world, the International Maritime Organization (IMO, an agency of the United Nations, has designated similar marine systems as a Particularly Sensitive Sea Area (PSSA in an effort to protect vulnerable resources from international shipping. We present information about the 14 existing PSSAs around the world and the political process by which designation is achieved. We examine specific characteristics of the Bering Strait system that are relevant to a PSSA application; these include vulnerable resources such as marine mammals and their contribution to the food and cultural security of indigenous communities, threats to these resources from shipping activities, and the viable mitigation options to reduce these threats. We then use five criteria derived from empirical research on resilience-based governance to analyze whether a PSSA designation would promote the resilience of marine mammal populations and indigenous communities to increased maritime activities. Despite the elusiveness of a definitive answer, we conclude that although the designation is not a perfect fit from a theoretical standpoint, it still holds the potential to benefit marine mammals and indigenous communities in terms of resilience. We conclude by identifying critical challenges and trade-offs that practitioners would need to negotiate when attempting to apply theoretical governance principles via real-world policy tools.

  9. 40 CFR 86.1862-04 - Maintenance of records and submittal of information relevant to compliance with fleet average NOX...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of information relevant to compliance with fleet average NOX standards. 86.1862-04 Section 86.1862-04... compliance with fleet average NOX standards. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) The manufacturer producing any... year: (i) Model year; (ii) Applicable fleet average NOX standard: 0.07g/mi for Tier 2 LDV/Ts; 0.30 g/mi...

  10. Understanding and Informing the Policy Environment: State-Level Renewable Fuels Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, E.; Cory, K.; Arent, D.

    2007-01-01

    Renewable fuels standard (RFS) policies are becoming a popular public policy mechanism for developing the market for renewable fuels in the transportation sector. During the past decade, U.S. states and several countries began implementing these more market-based (less command and control) policies to support increased biofuels production and use. This paper presents an overview of current and proposed U.S. state-level policies, as well as selected electric sector policies and international fuel standard policies. Current U.S. state-level renewable fuel policies list drivers including an improved economy and environment, as well as fuel self-sufficiency. Best practices and experience from an evaluation of renewable portfolio standards (RPS) in the United States and international RFS policies can inform U.S. state-level policy by illustrating the importance of policy flexibility, binding targets, effective cost caps, and tradable permits. Understanding and building on the experiences from these previous policies can improve the policy mechanism and further develop a market for renewable fuels to meet the goals of improved economy, environment, and fuel self-sufficiency.

  11. Relevant Repositories of Public Knowledge? Libraries, Museums and Archives in "The Information Age"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usherwood, Bob; Wilson, Kerry; Bryson, Jared

    2005-01-01

    In a project funded by the AHRB, researchers at the University of Sheffield used a combination of quantitative and qualitative research methods to examine the perceived contemporary relevance of archives, libraries and museums. The research sought to discern how far the British people value access to these established repositories of public…

  12. Overview: Using Mode of Action and Life Stage Information to Evaluate the Human Relevance of Animal Toxicity Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seed, Jennifer; Carney, E W.; Corley, Rick A.; Crofton, Kevin M.; DeSesso, John M.; Foster, Paul M.; Kavlock, Robert; Kimmel, Gary; Klaunig, James E.; Meek, M E.; Preston, R J.; Slikker, William; Tabacova, Sonia; Williams, Gary M.; Wiltse, J; Zoeller, R T.; Fenner-Crisp, P; Patton, D E.

    2005-10-01

    A complete mode of action human relevance analysis--as distinct from mode of action (MOA) analysis alone--depends on robust information on the animal MOA, as well as systematic comparison of the animal data with corresponding information from humans. In November 2003, the International Life Sciences Institute's Risk Science Institute (ILSI RSI) published a 2-year study using animal and human MOA information to generate a four-part Human Relevance Framework (HRF) for systematic and transparent analysis of MOA data and information. Based mainly on non-DNA-reactive carcinogens, the HRF features a ''concordance'' analysis of MOA information from both animal and human sources, with a focus on determining the appropriate role for each MOA data set in human risk assessment. With MOA information increasingly available for risk assessment purposes, this article illustrates the further applicability of the HRF for reproductive, developmental, neurologic, and renal endpoints, as well as cancer. Based on qualitative and quantitative MOA considerations, the MOA/human relevance analysis also contributes to identifying data needs and issues essential for the dose-response and exposure assessment steps in the overall risk assessment.

  13. Accomplishing Water Strategy Policies in Hospitals: The Role of Management Information Systems and Managerial Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Naranjo-Gil

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Hospitals are using more sophisticated and comprehensive management information systems to implement multiple strategic policies towards water cost saving and water quality enhancement. However, they do not always achieve the intended strategic goals. This paper analyzes how managerial styles interact with sophisticated management information systems to achieve different water strategic priorities. How proactive vs. reactive managerial styles moderate the effects of management information systems on water cost saving and water quality enhancement is analyzed. Relationships are explored using data collected from 122 general services directors in Spanish public hospitals. The findings show a positive effect of sophisticated management information systems on the achievement of water policies focused on cost saving and quality enhancement. Results also show a different moderated effect of managerial styles; thus, sophisticated management information systems with a proactive managerial style facilitate managers to achieve better water quality policies rather than water cost saving policies.

  14. Discussing dialogue: perspectives on the value of science dialogue events that do not inform policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Sarah Rachael; McCallie, Ellen; Simonsson, Elin

    2009-01-01

    While theoretical work and empirical research have examined science policy-informing "dialogue events," dialogue events that do not seek to inform public policy are under-theorized and under-researched, even though they are common and growing in popularity in the UK. We describe how, from...... a critical perspective, it may initially appear that such events cannot be justified without returning to the deficit model. But with this paper, we seek to open up a discussion about these non policy-informing events by arguing that there are in fact further ways to understand and frame them. We...

  15. International Policy Framework for Protecting Critical Information Infrastructure: A Discussion Paper Outlining Key Policy Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, B.; Goetz, E.; Verhoest, P.; Helmus, S.; Luiijf, H.A.M.; Bruce, R.; Dynes, S.; Brechbuhl, H.

    2005-01-01

    Cyber security is a uniquely challenging policy issue with a wide range of public and private stakeholders within countries and beyond national boundaries. This executive summary and the full discussion paper delineate the need on a high priority basis to address cyber security issues and develop an

  16. Policy implications in developing a land use management information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landini, A. J.

    1975-01-01

    The current land use map for the city of Los Angeles was developed by the guesstimation process and provides single stage information for each level in the critical geographical hierarchy for land use planning management. Processing and incorporation of LANDSAT data in the land use information system requires special funding; however, computergraphic maps are able to provide a viable information system for city planning and management.

  17. How to decide on the scope, priorities and coordination of information society policy? Analytical framework and three case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, M.; Kool, L.; Giessen, A. van der

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: ICT is everywhere, but information society policy cannot address all the sectors and policy issues in which ICT plays a role. This paper's aim is to develop an analytical framework to assist policy makers in deciding on the priorities and coordination of information society policy.

  18. Relevance of electronic health information to doctors in the developing world: results of the Ptolemy Project's Internet-based Health Information Study (IBHIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Kirsteen R; Howard, Andrew; Beveridge, Massey

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the current usage, relevance, and preferences for electronic health information (EHI) in the participant surgeons' clinical, research, and teaching activities. The Internet-Based Health Information Survey (IBHIS) was conducted from August to December 2003. Thirty-seven doctors (primarily practicing in East Africa) participated, all of whom had been using the Ptolemy resources for at least 6 months. Survey questions concerned time spent reading medical literature, preferred information sources, preferred type of publication, relevance, preference for western versus local medical literature, and academic productivity. Among the 75 eligible participants, 37 (48%) responded. From these responses it was found that African surgeons with access to EHI read more than articles than they did before they had such access, and they find that the information obtained is highly relevant to their clinical, teaching, and research activities. They prefer electronic journals to textbooks and are more inclined to change their practice based on information found in western journals than local journals. Ptolemy resources helped the respondents who reported academic work write a total of 33 papers for presentation or publication. Overall, access to EHI enables doctors in Africa to read more, is relevant, and contributes directly to academic productivity; thus Western medical literature is useful in the developing world, and EHI delivery should continue to expand.

  19. Japanese Quality Assurance System Regarding the Provision of Material Accounting Reports and the Safeguards Relevant Information to the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Y.; Namekawa, M.; Kumekawa, H.; Usui, A.; Sano, K.

    2015-01-01

    The provision of the safeguards relevant reports and information in accordance with the comprehensive safeguards agreement (CSA) and the additional protocol (AP) is the basis for the IAEA safeguards. The government of Japan (Japan Safeguards Office, JSGO) has believed that the correct reports contribute to effective and efficient safeguards therefore the domestic quality assurance system for the reporting to the IAEA was already established at the time of the accession of the CSA in 1977. It consists of Code 10 interpretation (including the seminars for operators in Japan), SSAC's checks for syntax error, code and internal consistency (computer based consistency check between facilities) and the discussion with the IAEA on the facilities' measurement system for bulk-handling facilities, which contributes to the more accurate reports from operators. This spirit has been maintained for the entry into force of the AP. For example, questions and amplification from the IAEA will be taken into account the review of the AP declaration before sending to the IAEA and the open source information such as news article and scientific literature in Japanese is collected and translated into English, and the translated information is provided to the IAEA as the supplementary information, which may contribute to broadening the IAEA information source and to their comprehensive evaluation. The other safeguards relevant information, such as the mail-box information for SNRI at LEU fuel fabrication plants, is also checked by the JSGO's QC software before posting. The software was developed by JSGO and it checks data format, batch IDs, birth/death date, shipper/receiver information and material description code. This paper explains the history of the development of the Japanese quality assurance system regarding the reports and the safeguards relevant information to the IAEA. (author)

  20. Human capital information in management reports: An analysis of compliance with the characteristic of the relevance of disclosure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainhoa Saitua

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to assess the compliance with the characteristic of the relevance of disclosure in Management Reports, particularly dealing with Human Capital (HC information.Design/methodology/approach: We codify all instances where narratives of IBEX-35 stock index companies over a five year period in Spain comply with the recommendations for a “high quality” Management Commentary (MC in terms of the relevance characteristic of the information disclosed (IASB, 2005.Findings: The analysis results show that a greater quantity of information about HC in terms of the number of pages devoted is not always indicative of higher quality in terms of relevance if we look for the application of IASB recommendations.Research limitations/implications: Further research could assess compliance with other qualitative characteristics required by other standards or guidances that were internationaly generaly accepted.Practical implications: Among the areas that require improvement in HC disclosures we highlight forward-looking information.Social implications: We propose that an internationally accepted agreement must be struck to unite all the efforts that are being made to improve narrative information in the MC section, and specifically with reference to HC.Originality/value: This work compiles the HC disclosures identified as best practices that may serve as a reference to other companies.

  1. Assessment of efficiency of functioning the infocommunication systems a special purpose in the conditions of violation quality of relevance information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parinov, A. V.; Korotkikh, L. P.; Desyatov, D. B.; Stepanov, L. V.

    2018-03-01

    The uniqueness of information processing mechanisms in special-purpose infocommunication systems and the increased interest of intruders lead to an increase in the relevance of the problems associated with their protection. The paper considers the issues of building risk-models for the violation of the relevance and value of information in infocommunication systems for special purposes. Also, special attention is paid to the connection between the qualities of relevance and the value of information obtained as a result of the operation of infocommunication systems for special purposes. Analytical expressions for the risk and damage function in the time range in special-purpose infocommunication systems are obtained, which can serve as a mathematical basis for risk assessment. Further, an analytical expression is obtained to assess the chance of obtaining up-to-date information in the operation of infocommunication systems up to the time the information quality is violated. An analytical expression for estimating the chance can be used to calculate the effectiveness of a special-purpose infocommunication system.

  2. Key Informant Views of a Free Delivery and Caesarean Policy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    informants who had technical and administrative or political responsibility for the policy at national, regional, district and health post level. These were carried out from November 2006 to January 2007. The evaluation findings emphasise the importance of careful planning and communication before a major national policy is ...

  3. Clinical relevance of informal coercion in psychiatric treatment – a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Hotzy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Although informal coercion is frequently applied in psychiatry its use is discussed controversially. This systematic review aimed to summarize literature on attitudes towards informal coercion, its prevalence and clinical effects.Methods:A systematic search of Pubmed, Embase, PsycINF and Google Scholar was conducted. Publications were included if they reported original data describing patients’ and clinicians’ attitudes towards and prevalence rates or clinical effects of informal coercion.Results:21 publications out of a total of 162 articles met the inclusion criteria. Most publications focused on leverage and inducements rather than persuasion and threat. Prevalence rates of informal coercion were 29 to 59%, comparable on different study sites and in different settings. The majority of mental health professionals as well as one to two thirds of the psychiatric patients had positive attitudes, even if there was personal experience of informal coercion. We found no study evaluating the clinical effect of informal coercion in an experimental study design.Discussion:Cultural and ethical aspects are associated with the attitudes and prevalence rates. The clinical effect of informal coercion remains unclear and further studies are needed to evaluate these interventions and the effect on therapeutic relationship and clinical outcome. It can be hypothesized that informal coercion may lead to better adherence and clinical outcome but also to strains in the therapeutic relationship. It is recommendable to establish structured education about informal coercion and sensitize mental health professionals for its potential for adverse effects in clinical routine practice.

  4. 75 FR 27857 - Meeting of Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... issues, and international market access issues. Members of the public may submit suggestions and comments... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 6973] Meeting of Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy The Department of State's Advisory Committee on International...

  5. 75 FR 881 - Meeting of Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    ... generation communications technology issues, international market access, Internet governance, ICT... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 6846] Meeting of Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy The Department of State's Advisory Committee on International...

  6. Interim Policy to Preserve Separated Personnel’s Electronically Stored Information Subject to Litigation Holds

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Interim Policy is designed to ensure the preservation of electronically stored information (ESI), created or received by EPA employees, contractors or grantees with user and email accounts on EPA networks, who have ended their employment with EPA.

  7. 75 FR 18940 - Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy; Notice of Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... Committee on International Communications and Information Policy; Notice of Committee Renewal The Department of State has renewed the Charter of the Advisory Committee on International Communications and... solely advisory capacity regarding current issues and concerns affecting international communications and...

  8. 77 FR 24758 - Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy; Notice of Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... Committee on International Communications and Information Policy; Notice of Committee Renewal The Department of State renewed the Charter of the Advisory Committee on International Communications and... solely advisory capacity regarding current issues and concerns affecting international communications and...

  9. Information, public policy analysis and sustainable development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    scale secrecy in government business, inadequate incentives to statisticians and grand corruption in many, if not all, public organizations in Nigeria. They promote negative effects, including unreliable data and information, inadequate public ...

  10. Monitoring Information Systems to Enforce Computer Security Policies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Graham, Scott

    1999-01-01

    .... However, too much leeway allows users, without a need to access many of the network functions, the ability to execute functions that might cause harm to the system or provide access to information...

  11. Information security policies for governmental organisations, the minimum criteria

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngobeni, SJ

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent technology advancement has resulted in an era where many organisations become more and more comfortable to use computer systems to process their information. Intruders are making it their mission to break into these computer systems...

  12. A Survey of Data-Base Information Systems Relevant to Navy Requirements Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    Akman Associates, Inc. Applicability of existing Navy information systems and models to Hardman information system development. Silver Spring, MD...Portions of this section has been extracted from documentation prepared by Akman Associates, Inc. (1980). E-4 Table E-1 Sample NAMPS Report

  13. Child injury surveillance capabilities in NSW: informing policy and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Mitchell

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Injury is one of the most common reasons why a child is hospitalised. Information gained from injury surveillance activities provides an estimate of the injury burden, describes injury event circumstances, can be used to monitor injury trends over time, and is used to design and evaluate injury prevention activities. This perspective article provides an overview of child injury surveillance capabilities within New South Wales (NSW, Australia, following a stocktake of population-based injury-related data collections using the Evaluation Framework for Injury Surveillance Systems. Information about childhood injury in NSW is obtained from multiple administrative data collections that were not specifically designed to conduct injury surveillance. Obtaining good information for child injury surveillance in NSW will involve better coordination of information from agencies that record information about childhood injury. Regular reporting about childhood injury to provide a comprehensive profile of injuries of children and young people in the state should be considered, along with the provision and/or linkage of child injury information from multiple data collections. This could support the development of a suite of injury performance indicators to monitor childhood injury reduction strategies across NSW.

  14. From DTCA-PD to patient information to health information: the complex politics and semantics of EU health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Eleanor; Geyer, Robert

    2012-12-01

    Between 2001 and 2011 the pharmaceutical industry, supported by DG Enterprise, was engaged in an ongoing campaign to repeal/amend the European Union (EU) ban on direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs (DTCA-PD). As it became increasingly clear that the ban would not be repealed, DTCA-PD supporters tried to shift the debate away from advertising and towards the provision of 'patient information' and the rights of patients to access such information. Meanwhile, a variety of national and European health organizations, supported by DG SANCO, sought to maintain the ban and oppose the industry-supported 'patient information' campaign. Instead, they promoted a concept of 'health information' that included all aspects of citizens' health, not just pharmaceuticals. This article aims to analyse the transition from DTCA-PD to patient information to health information and examine its implications for EU health policy as a complex policy space. The article examines the emergence and development of EU health policy and the evolution of the DTCA-PD debate through the lens of complexity theory. It analyses the nature of the semantic, political and policy transition and asks why it occurred, what it tells us about EU health policy and future EU health legislation and how it may be understood from a complexity perspective. The article concludes that the complexity framework is ideally suited for the field of public health and, in particular, the DTCA-PD debate. Having successfully shifted the policy-focus of the debate to patients' rights and health information, opponents of the legislation are likely to face their next battle in the realm of cyberspace, where regulatory issues change the nature of advertising. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Perspectives on econometric modelling to inform policy: a UK qualitative case study of minimum unit pricing of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katikireddi, Srinivasa V; Bond, Lyndal; Hilton, Shona

    2014-06-01

    Novel policy interventions may lack evaluation-based evidence. Considerations to introduce minimum unit pricing (MUP) of alcohol in the UK were informed by econometric modelling (the 'Sheffield model'). We aim to investigate policy stakeholders' views of the utility of modelling studies for public health policy. In-depth qualitative interviews with 36 individuals involved in MUP policy debates (purposively sampled to include civil servants, politicians, academics, advocates and industry-related actors) were conducted and thematically analysed. Interviewees felt familiar with modelling studies and often displayed detailed understandings of the Sheffield model. Despite this, many were uneasy about the extent to which the Sheffield model could be relied on for informing policymaking and preferred traditional evaluations. A tension was identified between this preference for post hoc evaluations and a desire for evidence derived from local data, with modelling seen to offer high external validity. MUP critics expressed concern that the Sheffield model did not adequately capture the 'real life' world of the alcohol market, which was conceptualized as a complex and, to some extent, inherently unpredictable system. Communication of modelling results was considered intrinsically difficult but presenting an appropriate picture of the uncertainties inherent in modelling was viewed as desirable. There was general enthusiasm for increased use of econometric modelling to inform future policymaking but an appreciation that such evidence should only form one input into the process. Modelling studies are valued by policymakers as they provide contextually relevant evidence for novel policies, but tensions exist with views of traditional evaluation-based evidence. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  16. Perspectives on econometric modelling to inform policy: a UK qualitative case study of minimum unit pricing of alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Lyndal; Hilton, Shona

    2014-01-01

    Background: Novel policy interventions may lack evaluation-based evidence. Considerations to introduce minimum unit pricing (MUP) of alcohol in the UK were informed by econometric modelling (the ‘Sheffield model’). We aim to investigate policy stakeholders’ views of the utility of modelling studies for public health policy. Methods: In-depth qualitative interviews with 36 individuals involved in MUP policy debates (purposively sampled to include civil servants, politicians, academics, advocates and industry-related actors) were conducted and thematically analysed. Results: Interviewees felt familiar with modelling studies and often displayed detailed understandings of the Sheffield model. Despite this, many were uneasy about the extent to which the Sheffield model could be relied on for informing policymaking and preferred traditional evaluations. A tension was identified between this preference for post hoc evaluations and a desire for evidence derived from local data, with modelling seen to offer high external validity. MUP critics expressed concern that the Sheffield model did not adequately capture the ‘real life’ world of the alcohol market, which was conceptualized as a complex and, to some extent, inherently unpredictable system. Communication of modelling results was considered intrinsically difficult but presenting an appropriate picture of the uncertainties inherent in modelling was viewed as desirable. There was general enthusiasm for increased use of econometric modelling to inform future policymaking but an appreciation that such evidence should only form one input into the process. Conclusion: Modelling studies are valued by policymakers as they provide contextually relevant evidence for novel policies, but tensions exist with views of traditional evaluation-based evidence. PMID:24367068

  17. Manganese--a public health concern: its relevance for occupational health and safety policy and regulation in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanus, M A

    2000-01-01

    Concerns about the effects of low-level manganese exposures on human health arise at a time when South Africa finds itself in competition with newcomers to the market economy, China and the CIS. This case study illustrates how decisions about occupational health and safety and the environment are influenced by incompleteness of scientific knowledge, competing interests, differences over what is fair or just, and the compartmentalization of public policy. In addition, an assessment is made of the ability of the occupational health and safety system in South Africa in its current form to address the challenges posed by manganese-related issues. The importance of tracking developments abroad, strengthening participatory processes, developing national policy, linking economic policy and OHS policy, and establishing appropriate trade agreements is stressed.

  18. Relevance of gender-sensitive policies and general health indicators to compare the status of South Asian women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Roopan; Stewart, Donna E

    2011-01-01

    despite goals for gender equity in South Asia, the relationship between gender-sensitive policies and the empowerment of women is complex and requires an analysis of how policies align with a broad set of social, cultural, political, and economic indicators that relate to women's health. through a review of four documents under the umbrella of the World Health Organization and the United Nations, a list of 17 gender-sensitive policy and 17 general health indicators was generated with a focus on health, education, economic, and political empowerment and violence against women. A series of policy documents and international and national databases that are accessible in the public domain were the major tools used to find supporting documentation to address women's health outcomes in Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. all five South Asian countries had several gender-sensitive policies that were measurable by indicators that contribute to health. Examination of political and economic status, birth sex ratios, human trafficking, illiteracy rates, maternal mortality rates, contraception prevalence, fertility rates, knowledge of HIV/AIDS prevention, access to skilled birth attendants, and microfinance show that large gender inequities still prevail despite the presence of gender-sensitive policies. in many cases, the presence of gender-sensitive policies did not reflect the realization of gender equity over a wide range of indicators. Although the economic, political, social, and cultural climates of the five countries may differ, the integration of women's needs into the formulation, implementation, and monitoring of policies is a universal necessity to achieve positive outcomes. 2011 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Predictive knowledge of stimulus relevance does not influence top-down suppression of irrelevant information in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanto, Theodore P; Hennigan, Kelly; Ostberg, Mattias; Clapp, Wesley C; Gazzaley, Adam

    2010-04-01

    Our ability to focus attention on task-relevant stimuli and ignore irrelevant distractions is reflected by differential enhancement and suppression of neural activity in sensory cortices. Previous research has shown that older adults exhibit a deficit in suppressing task-irrelevant information, the magnitude of which is associated with a decline in working memory performance. However, it remains unclear if a failure to suppress is a reflection of an inability of older adults to rapidly assess the relevance of information upon stimulus presentation when they are not aware of the relevance beforehand. To address this, we recorded the electroencephalogram (EEG) in healthy older participants (aged 60-80 years) while they performed two different versions of a selective face/scene working memory task, both with and without prior knowledge as to when relevant and irrelevant stimuli would appear. Each trial contained two faces and two scenes presented sequentially followed by a 9 sec delay and a probe stimulus. Participants were given the following instructions: remember faces (ignore scenes), remember scenes (ignore faces), remember the xth and yth stimuli (where x and y could be 1st, 2nd, 3rd or 4th), or passively view all stimuli. Working memory performance remained consistent regardless of task instructions. Enhanced neural activity was observed at posterior electrodes to attended stimuli, while neural responses that reflected the suppression of irrelevant stimuli was absent for both tasks. The lack of significant suppression at early stages of visual processing was revealed by P1 amplitude and N1 latency modulation indices. These results reveal that prior knowledge of stimulus relevance does not modify early neural processing during stimulus encoding and does not improve working memory performance in older adults. These results suggest that the inability to suppress irrelevant information early in the visual processing stream by older adults is related to mechanisms

  20. The relevance of cartographic scale in interactive and multimedia cartographic information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjanka Lechthaler

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of new technologies in the processes of gathering, analysing, transforming, visualizing and communicating of space data and geoinformation offers a great challenge for cartography. Cartographic information provision as described in several cartographic models, which is included in cartographic information systems depend on the graphical presentation/visualization at certain scales. That necessitates a need to define the capacity or content borders (geometry and semantic for cognition and communication. However, currently we need and use maps as a vehicle for transportation of spatial and temporal information. Graphic constructions of geoanalogies, linked with interaction, multimedia sequences and animations, support effective geocommunication, bridging the gaps imposed by having to work at pre-defined scales. This paper illustrates two interactive information systems, which were conceptualised and prototyped at the Institute of Cartography and Geomedia Technique, Vienna University of Technology.

  1. Social relevance: toward understanding the impact of the individual in an information cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Robert T.; White, Joshua S.; Fields, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    Information Cascades (IC) through a social network occur due to the decision of users to disseminate content. We define this decision process as User Diffusion (UD). IC models typically describe an information cascade by treating a user as a node within a social graph, where a node's reception of an idea is represented by some activation state. The probability of activation then becomes a function of a node's connectedness to other activated nodes as well as, potentially, the history of activation attempts. We enrich this Coarse-Grained User Diffusion (CGUD) model by applying actor type logics to the nodes of the graph. The resulting Fine-Grained User Diffusion (FGUD) model utilizes prior research in actor typing to generate a predictive model regarding the future influence a user will have on an Information Cascade. Furthermore, we introduce a measure of Information Resonance that is used to aid in predictions regarding user behavior.

  2. Development of a culturally relevant consumer health information website for Harlem, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michelle; Morita, Haruka; Mateo, Katrina F; Nye, Andrea; Hutchinson, Carly; Cohall, Alwyn T

    2014-09-01

    The process of creating a geographically tailored health information website with ongoing feedback from community members is one of inquiry and discovery, frustration and triumph, and development and reevaluation. This article reviews the development and implementation of GetHealthyHarlem.org, a health literacy level-appropriate consumer health information website tailored to consumers in Harlem, New York City. From 2004 to 2009, the Harlem Health Promotion Center, one of 37 Prevention Research Centers in the United States, sought to determine the use and seeking of online health information in Harlem, New York City in order to further explore the possibility of providing online health information to this community. Specifically, this article details how we sought to identify gaps, concerns, and uses of online health information and health care seeking in this local, predominantly racial and ethnic minority population. We review how we identified and addressed the multitude of variables that play a role in determining the degree of success in finding and using online health information, and include discussions about the genesis of the website and our successes and challenges in the development and implementation stages. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  3. Task relevance and recognition of concealed information have different influences on electrodermal activity and event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamer, Matthias; Berti, Stefan

    2010-03-01

    This study aimed at differentiating between memory- and task-related processes and their correlates on the electrodermal and electrocortical level during information concealment. Variations of the Guilty Knowledge Test were implemented in two experiments while we measured skin conductance responses (SCRs) and event-related brain potentials. P300 amplitudes were specifically enhanced for items requiring a deviant behavioral response but they were not sensitive to concealed knowledge. In contrast, N200 amplitudes differed between memorized and irrelevant items in both experiments. SCR measures reflected a combined influence of task relevance and probe recognition, and they provided incremental validity above N200 amplitudes. These results suggest that the P300 mainly reflects task relevance in the given experimental setting whereas the N200 amplitude is sensitive to previously encoded information and potentially linked to response monitoring processes.

  4. [Test Reviews in Child Psychology: Test Users Wish to Obtain Practical Information Relevant to their Respective Field of Work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Gerolf; Irblich, Dieter

    2016-11-01

    Test Reviews in Child Psychology: Test Users Wish to Obtain Practical Information Relevant to their Respective Field of Work This study investigated to what extent diagnosticians use reviews of psychometric tests for children and adolescents, how they evaluate their quality, and what they expect concerning content. Test users (n = 323) from different areas of work (notably social pediatrics, early intervention, special education, speech and language therapy) rated test reviews as one of the most important sources of information. Readers of test reviews value practically oriented descriptions and evaluations of tests that are relevant to their respective field of work. They expect independent reviews that critically discuss opportunities and limits of the tests under scrutiny. The results show that authors of test reviews should not only have a background in test theory but should also be familiar with the practical application of tests in various settings.

  5. Water footprint assessment to inform water management and policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One method to inform decisions with respect to sustainable, efficient and equitable water allocation and use is water footprint assessment (WFA). This paper presents a preliminary WFA of South Africa (SA) based on data for the period 1996–2005. Crop production was found to contribute about 75% of the total water ...

  6. Lagos Journal of Library and Information Science: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Mission Lagos Journal of Library and Information Science aims to be a world class professional and scholarship journal. Vision To serve as a vehicle for the dissemination of research results. To provide a credible platform for scholarly communication. To promote intellectual discourse among library, ...

  7. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 1720 - Policy Guidance; Safety and Soundness Standards for Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... system modifications are consistent with the Enterprise's information security program; v. Dual control... security program; and c. Regularly test the key controls, systems and procedures of the information... appropriate, the information security program in light of any relevant changes in technology, the sensitivity...

  8. Towards a theoretically informed policy against a rakghoul plague outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontopoulos, Dimitrios-Georgios; Kontopoulou, Theano; Ho, Hsi-Cheng; García-Carreras, Bernardo

    2017-12-11

    A long time ago in a galaxy far, far away, the Sith Lord Karness Muur engineered the rakghoul plague, a disease that transformed infected humans into near-mindless predatory rakghouls. At its peak, the disease infected millions of individuals, giving rise to armies of rakghouls on a number of planets. Whether rakghoul populations have persisted until this day is not known, making a rakghoul invasion on Earth not completely improbable. Further, a strategy for defence against an outbreak of the disease on Earth has not yet been proposed. To fill this glaring gap, we developed the first mathematical model of the population dynamics of humans and rakghouls during a rakghoul plague outbreak. Using New South Wales as a model site, we then obtained ensembles of model predictions for the outcome of the rakghoul plague in two different disease control strategy scenarios (population evacuation and military intervention), and in the absence thereof. Finally, based on these predictions, we propose a set of policy guidelines for successfully controlling and eliminating outbreaks of the rakghoul plague in Australian states.

  9. Effects of informed consent for individual genome sequencing on relevant knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaphingst, K A; Facio, F M; Cheng, M-R; Brooks, S; Eidem, H; Linn, A; Biesecker, B B; Biesecker, L G

    2012-11-01

    Increasing availability of individual genomic information suggests that patients will need knowledge about genome sequencing to make informed decisions, but prior research is limited. In this study, we examined genome sequencing knowledge before and after informed consent among 311 participants enrolled in the ClinSeq™ sequencing study. An exploratory factor analysis of knowledge items yielded two factors (sequencing limitations knowledge; sequencing benefits knowledge). In multivariable analysis, high pre-consent sequencing limitations knowledge scores were significantly related to education [odds ratio (OR): 8.7, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.45-31.10 for post-graduate education, and OR: 3.9; 95% CI: 1.05, 14.61 for college degree compared with less than college degree] and race/ethnicity (OR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.09, 5.38 for non-Hispanic Whites compared with other racial/ethnic groups). Mean values increased significantly between pre- and post-consent for the sequencing limitations knowledge subscale (6.9-7.7, p benefits knowledge subscale (7.0-7.5, p < 0.0001); increase in knowledge did not differ by sociodemographic characteristics. This study highlights gaps in genome sequencing knowledge and underscores the need to target educational efforts toward participants with less education or from minority racial/ethnic groups. The informed consent process improved genome sequencing knowledge. Future studies could examine how genome sequencing knowledge influences informed decision making. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Perception and processing of information relevant to critical incidents and emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dombrowsky, W.R.

    1997-01-01

    Based on the results of empirical research, which implemented and evaluated information to the public requested by law (HIO-Paragraph-11a) and based on the general findings of crisis- and risk-communication research, some disturbing elements in the relationship between entrepreneurs, administration and the public will be described in terms of cognitive dissonance, prejudice, fears and false expectations. The empirical example of public information in emergencies will evidence the conflicting views on types, styles, size and profoundity of such information as well as the differences in perception, motivation and interest of all parties involved. Finally, the cultural context of risk perception and of coping capabilities will be interrelated with historical changes of risk-management to prepare for the understanding that risk- and crisis communication has to be more than talking about safety. (orig.) [de

  11. 76 FR 22900 - Request for Information (RFI) To Identify and Obtain Relevant Information From Public or Private...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ...: Foundations and non-profit entities with an interest or responsibilities in biovigilance, in particular those... responsibilities in biovigilance; and, Managing partners or consultancy firms. Information Requested The Assistant...-governmental organizations (NGOs); philanthropic institutions; patient groups; blood bank operators; blood...

  12. The co-production of a "relevant" expertise - administrative and scientific cooperation in the French water policies elaboration and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deroubaix, J. F.

    2007-10-01

    This paper aims at understanding the social and political uses of the principle of integrated management and its possible impacts on the elaboration and implementation processes of public policies in the French water management field. The academic and political innovations developed by scientists and agents of the administration these last 25 years are analysed, using some of the theoretical tools developed by the science studies and public policy analysis. We first focus on the construction of intellectual public policy communities such as the GIP Hydro systems, at the origin of large interdisciplinary research programs in the 1990s. A common cognitive framework is clearly built during this period on the good governance of the aquatic ecosystems and on the corresponding needs and practices of research. The second part of the paper focuses on the possibilities to build political communities and more or less integrated expertises in the decision making processes concerning various issues related to water management. Eutrophication and its inscription on the French political agenda is a very significant case for analysing the difficulty to build such a political community. On the contrary, when there is an opportunity for policy evaluation, which was the case concerning the management of wetlands in France or the implementation of compulsory flows on the French rivers, these communities can emerge. However, the type of integrated expertise and management proposed in these cases of policy evaluations much depends on their methodological choices.

  13. Liquid Spheres on Smartphones: The Personal Information Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Serrano Tellería

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Data collected from the profiles and the digital identities has become a valuable currency for the mobile ecosystem, especially between users and providers. Services that required them are also described as the ground floor in direct linked with the infrastructures and as intermediate layers between networks, platforms and applications. The frontier debate between innovation and protection of privacy is shown off undefined and unstable. Therefore, a comparative analysis between ‘Privacy Terms and Conditions’ as well as the interrelation between operative systems (Apple iOS, Android, Blackberry and Windows Phone, social media platforms (Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter and Google + and applications (Instagram, WhatsApp, Line and Vine have been carried out focusing on Privacy issues. Two main tendencies were appreciated in relation with the two principal operative systems: Apple iOS closed environment and Google Android open source. They reconfigure the functional structure and design of platforms and applications in different ways. The liquid spheres observed varied from the first approach that tried to control every action and personal information from the binomial operative system-device and the second one that allowed the user actions and information to be more susceptible to interact with any kind of applications and platforms while the system is linked to information aggregation services to collect the data. Prominent aspects were the various stages of synchronization between the different levels of personal information (contacts, profile, digital identity and localization. Focusing on the case of Portugal, other complementary conclusions obtained from focus group and surveys showed a strong circumstantial pattern behaviour and a concern about privacy issues taking care of some actions while admitted checking if they had the terms and conditions involved - which are too ambiguous - but not reading them. Described also by other international

  14. Assessing the impact of information and framing on support for climate policy action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatfield-Dodds, Steve

    2007-01-01

    Full text: A significant share of the public appears mislead by the way the economic impacts of emissions reductions are traditionally communicated. This misunderstanding is associated with reduced support for policy action, and risks long term climate impacts that would be avoided if results were communicated properly. Correct this basis appears likely to have a larger effect on attitudes than new research and information on the impacts of climate change. Government action to achieve deep cuts in greenhouse gas emissions - like other major policy changes -depends on public support, which in turn depends on perceptions of policy impacts. This paper reports research exploring the effect of three factors on support for policy action: the way that policy impacts are described; the magnitude of these impacts, and additional information on climate change impacts, provided internally through the surveys and externally through the release of An Inconvenient Truth and media coverage of the Stern Report (2006). The research used split sample phone and internet surveys (n = 4264) conducted in Australia and New Zealand in four waves from April to December 2006. The study gives rise to four major findings: Support for policy action is sensitive to the magnitude of expected economic impacts, with predicted support varying from 27% to 84% across the different levels of policy impact presented; Current approaches to communicating policy impacts are associated with public support for policy action being 8-10% lower than it would be if policy impacts were well communicated. This bias may be corrected by describing policy impacts in terms of changes relative to current levels - stating that incomes continue to rise - as well as describing impacts relative to the base case; The reduction in support associated with these biases is much larger than the increase in support associated with providing credible additional information on the impacts of climate change; Significantly more than

  15. Cognitive enhancement kept within contexts: neuroethics and informed public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shook, John R; Galvagni, Lucia; Giordano, James

    2014-01-01

    Neurothics has far greater responsibilities than merely noting potential human enhancements arriving from novel brain-centered biotechnologies and tracking their implications for ethics and civic life. Neuroethics must utilize the best cognitive and neuroscientific knowledge to shape incisive discussions about what could possibly count as enhancement in the first place, and what should count as genuinely "cognitive" enhancement. Where cognitive processing and the mental life is concerned, the lived context of psychological performance is paramount. Starting with an enhancement to the mental abilities of an individual, only performances on real-world exercises can determine what has actually been cognitively improved. And what can concretely counts as some specific sort of cognitive improvement is largely determined by the classificatory frameworks of cultures, not brain scans or laboratory experiments. Additionally, where the public must ultimately evaluate and judge the worthiness of individual performance enhancements, we mustn't presume that public approval towards enhancers will somehow automatically arrive without due regard to civic ideals such as the common good or social justice. In the absence of any nuanced appreciation for the control which performance contexts and public contexts exert over what "cognitive" enhancements could actually be, enthusiastic promoters of cognitive enhancement can all too easily depict safe and effective brain modifications as surely good for us and for society. These enthusiasts are not unaware of oft-heard observations about serious hurdles for reliable enhancement from neurophysiological modifications. Yet those observations are far more common than penetrating investigations into the implications to those hurdles for a sound public understanding of cognitive enhancement, and a wise policy review over cognitive enhancement. We offer some crucial recommendations for undertaking such investigations, so that cognitive enhancers

  16. Cognitive Enhancement Kept within Contexts: Neuroethics and Informed Public Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John eShook

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Neuroethics has greater responsibilities than merely noting potential human enhancements ascribed to brain science, and tracking their implications for ethics and civic life. Neuroethics must utilize current neuroscientific knowledge to shape incisive discussions about what could count as enhancement in the first place, and what should count as genuinely ‘cognitive’ enhancement. Where cognitive processing and mental life are concerned, the lived context of psychological performance is paramount. Starting with an enhancement to the mental abilities of an individual, only performances on real-world exercises can determine what is actually cognitively improved. And, what concretely counts as some specific sort of cognitive improvement is largely determined by classificatory frameworks of cultures, not brain scans or laboratory experiments. As well, the public must ultimately evaluate and judge the worthiness of individual performance enhancements; we mustn’t presume that public approval towards enhancers will automatically arrive without due regard to civic ideals such as the common good or social justice. In the absence of a nuanced appreciation for the control which performance and public contexts exert over what ‘cognitive’ enhancements could actually be, enthusiastic promoters of cognitive enhancement can too easily depict safe and effective brain modifications as good for society. These enthusiasts are not unaware of hurdles for reliable enhancement through neurophysiological modifications. Yet those observations are far more common than penetrating investigations into the implications of such hurdles for both sound public understanding of cognitive enhancement, and development of policy to guide cognitive enhancement. In this essay, we seek to more accurately define and contextualize cognitive performance enhancement, and offer recommendations to ensure that cognitive enhancers that truly deserve public approval can be better

  17. Sustainable Information in Shoe Purchase Decisions: Relevance of Data Based on Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bélgica Pacheco-Blanco

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to analyse consumers’ attitudes to economic, environmental, and social information on shoe labels, in particular on sustainable consumption, and also to examine the importance of the source of the information. Three steps were followed to develop an appropriate method of extracting, analysing, and interpreting the information contained in the questionnaire used in the survey: an Exploratory Factorial Analysis (EFA to evaluate the reliability and dimensionality of the questionnaire; a Cluster Analysis (CA and an Analysis of Variance (ANOVA to test the ability of the questionnaire to identify different customer categories and the main purchase characteristics included in the questionnaire to characterize each homogeneous group; and a tree classification method using the Chi-Squared Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID to characterize the hypothetical scenario of the purchase selection. The results show that consumers, especially those aged between 21 and 30, are concerned about elements related to economic, environmental, and social dimensions on shoe labels. The most important variable in the purchase process was the presence of Environmental Management Systems (e.g., ISO 14001, EMAS. These results could help to optimize the information on shoe labels and would add value by including variables other than environment and price.

  18. Three subsets of sequence complexity and their relevance to biopolymeric information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevors Jack T

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genetic algorithms instruct sophisticated biological organization. Three qualitative kinds of sequence complexity exist: random (RSC, ordered (OSC, and functional (FSC. FSC alone provides algorithmic instruction. Random and Ordered Sequence Complexities lie at opposite ends of the same bi-directional sequence complexity vector. Randomness in sequence space is defined by a lack of Kolmogorov algorithmic compressibility. A sequence is compressible because it contains redundant order and patterns. Law-like cause-and-effect determinism produces highly compressible order. Such forced ordering precludes both information retention and freedom of selection so critical to algorithmic programming and control. Functional Sequence Complexity requires this added programming dimension of uncoerced selection at successive decision nodes in the string. Shannon information theory measures the relative degrees of RSC and OSC. Shannon information theory cannot measure FSC. FSC is invariably associated with all forms of complex biofunction, including biochemical pathways, cycles, positive and negative feedback regulation, and homeostatic metabolism. The algorithmic programming of FSC, not merely its aperiodicity, accounts for biological organization. No empirical evidence exists of either RSC of OSC ever having produced a single instance of sophisticated biological organization. Organization invariably manifests FSC rather than successive random events (RSC or low-informational self-ordering phenomena (OSC.

  19. THE RELEVANCE OF ACCOUNTING INFORMATION GENERATED BY THE APPLICATION OF IAS 29 RELATED TO SHAREHOLDERS CAPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunget Ovidiu Constantin

    2013-07-01

    The objective of IAS 29 is to establish specific standards for entities reporting in the currency of a hyperinflationary economy, so that the financial information provided is meaningful. Our empirical analysis encompasses a hyperinflationary economy covering a wide variety of hyperinflationary conditions.

  20. Selecting Relevant Information for Medical Decision Support with Application in Cardiology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalina, Jan; Seidl, L.; Grünfeldová, H.; Slovák, Dalibor; Zvárová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 1 (2013), s. 2-6 ISSN 1801-5603 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : decision support system * web -service * information extraction * high dimension * gene expressions Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://www.ejbi.org/img/ejbi/2013/1/Kalina_en.pdf

  1. The Relevance of the Social Information Processing Model for Understanding Relational Aggression in Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Marcelle M.; Finch, Cambra L.; Foster, Sharon L.

    2005-01-01

    Two studies examined whether social information-processing variables predict relational aggression in girls. In Study 1, fourth- through sixth-grade girls reported their intent attributions, social goals, outcome expectancies for relational aggression, and the likelihood that they would choose a relationally aggressive response in response to…

  2. Genomics for public health improvement: relevant international ethical and policy issues around genome-wide association studies and biobanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, T

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies and biobanks are at the forefront of genomics research and possess unprecedented potential to improve public health. However, for public health genomics to ultimately fulfill its potential, technological and scientific advances alone are insufficient. Scientists, ethicists, policy makers, and regulators must work closely together with research participants and communities in order to craft an equitable and just ethical framework, and a sustainable environment for effective policies. Such a framework should be a 'hybrid' form which balances equity and solidarity with entrepreneurship and scientific advances. A good balance between research and policy on one hand, and privacy, protection and trust on the other is the key for public health improvement based on advances in genomics science. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Risk informed decisions and regulations - STUK's policy and current practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julin, A.; Niemalae, I.; Virolainen, R.

    2001-01-01

    Consideration of severe accidents beyond the traditional design basis, including full core melt accidents, has become an important ingredient of regulatory process in Finland. Accordingly, plant-specific level-1 and level-2 PSA studies are a regulatory requirement. These studies are being used in a living fashion both at the utilities and STUK. Plant specific living PSAs have been completed for all operating Finnish plants, including internal initiators, fires, flooding, harsh weather conditions seismic events for operation mode and internal events for low power mode. Many specific applications of the Living PSA have already been introduced but some are still waiting for further development such as Risk Informed ISI, IST and Tech Specs. Examples of safety issues, for which the PSA insights give an improved basis for decisions, are approvals of plant modifications and resolution of testing, inspection and maintenance strategies. PSA insights are also of value in assessing meaningfulness of requirements which are based on traditional engineering judgement but do not form an essential part of defence-in-depth concept. Examples of such requirements are details of safety classification and many Technical Specification requirements. STUK has recently conducted a pilot study on risk-informed ISI. The aim of the study was to explore how the plant specific PSAs could best be used for assessment of the ISI programmes. This paper discusses the findings obtained during the pilot study on risk-informed ISI of pipings. The study produced essential insights of the applied method. Furthermore, the study gave guidance to extract items for further development. Based on these results and overall experience the general suitability of the method for further application is evaluated. (author)

  4. Atlas selection for hippocampus segmentation: Relevance evaluation of three meta-information parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, Vanderson; Klein, Pedro Costa; Franco, Alexandre Rosa; Pinho, Márcio Sarroglia

    2018-04-01

    Current state-of-the-art methods for whole and subfield hippocampus segmentation use pre-segmented templates, also known as atlases, in the pre-processing stages. Typically, the input image is registered to the template, which provides prior information for the segmentation process. Using a single standard atlas increases the difficulty in dealing with individuals who have a brain anatomy that is morphologically different from the atlas, especially in older brains. To increase the segmentation precision in these cases, without any manual intervention, multiple atlases can be used. However, registration to many templates leads to a high computational cost. Researchers have proposed to use an atlas pre-selection technique based on meta-information followed by the selection of an atlas based on image similarity. Unfortunately, this method also presents a high computational cost due to the image-similarity process. Thus, it is desirable to pre-select a smaller number of atlases as long as this does not impact on the segmentation quality. To pick out an atlas that provides the best registration, we evaluate the use of three meta-information parameters (medical condition, age range, and gender) to choose the atlas. In this work, 24 atlases were defined and each is based on the combination of the three meta-information parameters. These atlases were used to segment 352 vol from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database. Hippocampus segmentation with each of these atlases was evaluated and compared to reference segmentations of the hippocampus, which are available from ADNI. The use of atlas selection by meta-information led to a significant gain in the Dice similarity coefficient, which reached 0.68 ± 0.11, compared to 0.62 ± 0.12 when using only the standard MNI152 atlas. Statistical analysis showed that the three meta-information parameters provided a significant improvement in the segmentation accuracy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd

  5. Transportation and information trends in technology and policy

    CERN Document Server

    Piyushimita

    2013-01-01

    Transformations in wireless connectivity and location-aware technologies hold the promise of bringing a sea-change in the way transportation information is generated and used in the future. Sensors in the transportation system, when integrated with those in other sectors (for example, energy, utility and health) have the potential to foster novel new ways of improving livability and sustainability.The end-result of these developments has been somewhat contradictory. Although automation in the transportation environment has become increasingly widespread, the level of involvement and active par

  6. Decentralization Policies for Supply Chain Investments under Asymmetric Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per Joakim; Bogetoft, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Supply chains need specific investments for improved performance in terms of lead-time, cost, and quality. We study the contractual choice of a coordinator to either centralize or delegate the investment decision in a three-stage chain. The analysis derives closed-form results for the economic...... performance of three decentralized contracting schemes under asymmetric information on investment cost, as well as the optimal full revelation results. The results show that the observed practice of tier-1 delegated investments leads to relatively poor performance because of underinvestment. We illustrate...

  7. Challenges to generating evidence-informed policy and the role of systematic reviews and (perceived) conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apollonio, Dorie E; Bero, Lisa A

    2016-01-01

    Multiple efforts to generate evidence-informed policy have attempted to teach policymakers how to understand and apply scientific research findings in their decision-making. These efforts have had limited success, because policymakers generally do not understand scientific methods. We piloted efforts to teach policy intermediaries - specifically consumer advocacy groups - how to understand and apply health research, anticipating that they might offer such evidence to policymakers in more accessible forms. Four workshops focusing on research design and methods were conducted with consumer advocacy groups in 2010. We coded and analyzed participant responses regarding their confidence in interpreting research findings and assessments of research credibility, and the extent to which their knowledge about research findings changed after completing the workshops. Our findings suggest that although participants expressed strong interest in understanding scientific research, their ability to develop confidence about scientific research methods was limited. However, like policymakers, consumer advocacy group members intuited that financial conflicts of interest could compromise scientific findings, although they initially underestimated their effects on research results. After training, consumer advocates also saw the value of using systematic reviews rather than individual studies. Our findings suggest that although advocates may not feel confident in their understanding of scientific research, they found it easier to understand the value of systematic reviews and the risks of conflicts of interest than other statistical concepts and terminology. Focusing on making these types of information available may offer a useful way for policymakers and consumer advocates to interpret the validity of policy-relevant scientific research.

  8. Melanoma screening: Informing public health policy with quantitative modelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Gilmore

    1982 has resulted in greater diagnostic incidence and reduced mortality, but the reduced mortality carried a significant cost per life saved. I implement the model out to 2028 and demonstrate that the enhanced secondary prevention that began in 1982 becomes increasingly cost-effective over the period 2013-2028. On the other hand, I show that reductions in mortality achieved by significantly enhancing secondary prevention beyond 2013 levels are comparable with those achieved by only modest improvements in late-stage disease survival. Given the ballooning costs of increased melanoma surveillance, I suggest the process of public health policy decision-making-particularly with respect to the public funding of melanoma screening and discretionary mole removal-would be better served by incorporating the results of quantitative modelling.

  9. Impact of Asymmetric Carbon Information on Supply Chain Decisions under Low-Carbon Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Through the establishment of the leading manufacturer Stackelberg game model under asymmetric carbon information, this paper investigates the misreporting behaviors of the supply chain members and their influences on supply chain performance. Based on “Benchmarking” allocation mechanism, three policies are considered: carbon emission trading, carbon tax, and a new policy which combined carbon quota and carbon tax mechanism. The results show that, in the three models, the leader in the supply chain, even if he has advantages of carbon information, will not lie about his information. That is because the manufacturer’s misreporting behavior has no effect on supply chain members’ performance. But the retailer will lie about the information when he has carbon information advantage. The high-carbon-emission retailers under the carbon trading policy, all the retailers under the carbon tax policy, and the high-carbon-emission retailers under combined quotas and tax policy would like to understate their carbon emissions. Coordination of revenue sharing contract is studied in supply chain to induce the retailer to declare his real carbon information. Optimal contractual parameters are deduced in the three models, under which the profit of the supply chain can be maximized.

  10. Triplet Excited States as a Source of Relevant (Bio)Chemical Information

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Molero, María Consuelo; Miranda Alonso, Miguel Ángel

    2014-01-01

    The properties of triplet excited states are markedly medium-dependent, which turns this species into valuable tools for investigating the microenvironments existing in protein binding pockets. Monitoring of the triplet excited state behavior of drugs within transport proteins (serum albumins and alpha(1)-acid glycoproteins) by laser flash photolysis constitutes a valuable source of information on the strength of interaction, conformational freedom and protection from oxygen or other external...

  11. Safeguards-relevant information collection from small holders – experiences and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundén, Erika; Dufva, Martina; Dahlberg, Joakim

    2015-01-01

    A number of universities, research institutions, hospitals, and other businesses are in possession of relatively small amounts of nuclear material. In some cases the material is in activities related to the nuclear fuel cycle, but there is also a wide variety of other applications. Regardless of application, material accountancy must be reported to the European Commission (EC) and, in Sweden, to the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM). However, checking the completeness and correctness of the reports from operators with very small amounts of nuclear material can easily be forgotten or viewed as being less important. Starting in the beginning of 2013 SSM increased its effort in this area and began working more actively gathering information and checking its correctness. Informing the operators in possession of nuclear material of the rules and regulations is a major part of this work, as it has been noted that the knowledge level of safeguarding nuclear material in many locations is very low. This paper will give a description of the work being performed by SSM to ensure that information related to the possession of nuclear material are gathered and correctly declared. It will give an overview of the different procedures that are applied to different categories of small holders in Sweden (where the differences are mostly due to historical reasons). It will also entail some of the challenges met along the way; such as explaining to radiographers that for nuclear non-proliferation purposes it is the shielding uranium container which is of interest, not the isotope emitting the radiation. What we have experienced being the major differences between collecting information from small holders as compared to larger nuclear facilities will also be outlined. The paper ends with an outline for future work.

  12. Using climate information for improved health in Africa: relevance, constraints and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Connor

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Good health status is one of the primary aspirations of human social development and, as a consequence, health indicators are key components of the human development indices by which we measure progress toward sustainable development. Certain diseases and ill health are associated with particular environmental and climate conditions. The timeframe of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs demands that the risks to health associated with current climate variability are more fully understood and acted upon to improve the focus of resources in climate sensitive disease control, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, where good epidemiological surveillance data are lacking. In the absence of high-quality epidemiological data on malaria distribution in Africa, climate information has long been used to develop malaria risk maps illustrating the climatic suitability boundaries for endemic transmission. However, experience to date has shown that it is difficult in terms of availability, timing and cost to obtain meteorological observations from national meteorological services in Africa. National health services generally find the costs of purchasing these data prohibitive given their competing demands for resources across the spectrum of health service requirements. Some national health services have tried to overcome this access problem by using proxies derived from satellites, which tend to be available freely, in 'near-real-time' and therefore offer much promise for monitoring applications. This paper discusses the issues related to climate and health, reviews the current use of climate information for malaria endemic and epidemic surveillance, and presents examples of operational use of climate information for malaria control in Africa based on Geographical Information Systems and Remote Sensing.

  13. Relevant Capabilities for Information Management to Achieve Industrie 4.0 Maturity

    OpenAIRE

    Stich , Volker; Schmitz , Sebastian; Zeller , Violett

    2017-01-01

    Part 1: Collaboration in Industry 4.0; International audience; Industrie 4.0 is changing the industrial landscape in an unanticipated way. The vision for manufacturing industries is to transform to an agile company, in order to react on occurring events in real-time and make data based decisions. The realization requires also new capabilities for the information management. To achieve this goal agile companies require taking measured data, analyzing it, deriving knowledge out of this and supp...

  14. Current systematic carbon-cycle observations and the need for implementing a policy-relevant carbon observing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. Ciais; A. J. Dolman; A. Bombelli; R. Duren; A. Peregon; P. J. Rayner; C. Miller; N. Gobron; G. Kinderman; G. Marland; N. Gruber; F. Chevallier; R. J. Andres; G. Balsamo; L. Bopp; F.-M. Bréon; G. Broquet; R. Dargaville; T. J. Battin; A. Borges; H. Bovensmann; M. Buchwitz; J. Butler; J. G. Canadell; R. B. Cook; R. DeFries; R. Engelen; K. R. Gurney; C. Heinze; M. Heimann; A. Held; M. Henry; B. Law; S. Luyssaert; J. Miller; T. Moriyama; C. Moulin; R. B. Myneni; C. Nussli; M. Obersteiner; D. Ojima; Y. Pan; J.-D. Paris; S. L. Piao; B. Poulter; S. Plummer; S. Quegan; P. Raymond; M. Reichstein; L. Rivier; C. Sabine; D. Schimel; O. Tarasova; R. Valentini; R. Wang; G. van der Werf; D. Wickland; M. Williams; C. Zehner

    2014-01-01

    A globally integrated carbon observation and analysis system is needed to improve the fundamental understanding of the global carbon cycle, to improve our ability to project future changes, and to verify the effectiveness of policies aiming to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase carbon sequestration. Building an integrated carbon observation system requires...

  15. Meaningful participation for children in the Dutch child protection system : A critical analysis of relevant provisions in policy documents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Helen; López López, Mónica; Knorth, Erik J.; Grietens, Hans

    2018-01-01

    Policymakers are increasingly focusing on the participation of children in the child protection system (CPS). However, research shows that actual practice still needs to be improved. Embedding children’s participation in legislation and policy documents is one important prerequisite for achieving

  16. A Framework for a Future Swedish Policy for Research and Development in Information Science and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofstrom, Mats; And Others

    Prepared to stimulate discussion on how to design a Swedish policy in information science and technology, this report presents the state-of-the-art of this field as it pertains to the dissemination of scientific information and outlines a program for future research and development. The review portion examines systems for current information…

  17. Respecting Young People's Informal Learning: Circumventing Strategic Policy Evasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Jocey

    2018-01-01

    This paper explores experiences at the interface of research and policy through the lens of informal learning. The paper contends that in order to further social justice it is essential to value the informal learning that takes place outside the confines of educational institutions. However, it also demonstrates the difficulties in getting…

  18. Canada in Context: An Overview of Information Policies in Four Industrialized Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwald, Cheryl Cowan

    1995-01-01

    Provides an overview and comparison of the historical trends in information policy-making and recent proposals for the information infrastructure in the United States, the United Kingdom, France, the European Union, and Canada. The role of the private sector, including transnational corporations, is also considered. (MES)

  19. [Diffusing information to promote population policies based on N'Djamena's Plan of Action].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueye, M

    1990-03-01

    From November 28-30, 1989, the Centre D'Etudes et de Recherche sur la Population pour le Developpement (CERPOD) sponsored the Selingue Retreat (SR), outside of Bamako, Mali to discuss the role of population policy development among the 9 Sahelian countries following the adoption of the N'Djamena Program of Action (PAN) the year before. The key questions discussed were: 1) state of the art regarding implementation of population policy development among Sahelian countries; 2) strategies of technical assistance to support CERPOD for population policy development; 3) organizational matters; and 4) evaluation strategies to evaluate population policy development and CERPOD's programs. The SR recommended that due to the lack of an adequate information base for population policy development that collaboration continue between CERPOD and the Futures Group. The new project will begin with a detailed plan of action for Mali and Guinee-Bissau, followed by Niger and Burkina Faso.

  20. On the relevance of Gibson's affordance concept for geographical information science (GISc).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonietz, David; Timpf, Sabine

    2015-09-01

    J. J. Gibson's concept of affordances has provided a theoretical basis for various studies in geographical information science (GISc). This paper sets out to explain its popularity from a GISc perspective. Based on a short review of previous work, it will be argued that its main contributions to GISc are twofold, including an action-centered view of spatial entities and the notion of agent-environment mutuality. Using the practical example of pedestrian behavior simulation, new potentials for using and extending affordances are discussed.

  1. The societal costs of dementia in Sweden 2012 - relevance and methodological challenges in valuing informal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimo, Anders; Jönsson, Linus; Fratiglioni, Laura; Sandman, Per Olof; Gustavsson, Anders; Sköldunger, Anders; Johansson, Lennarth

    2016-11-18

    In this study, we sought to estimate the societal cost of illness in dementia in Sweden in 2012 using different costing approaches to highlight methodological issues. We conducted a prevalence-based cost-of-illness study with a societal perspective. The societal costs of dementia in Sweden in 2012 were SEK 62.9 billion (approximately €7.2 billion, approximately US$9.0 billion) or SEK 398,000 per person with dementia (approximately €45,000, approximately US$57,000). By far the most important cost item is the cost of institutional care: about 60% of the costs. In the sensitivity analysis, different quantification and costing approaches for informal care resulted in a great variation in the total societal cost, ranging from SEK 60 billion (€6.8 billion, US$8.6 billion) to SEK 124 billion (€14.1 billion, US$17.8 billion). The societal costs of dementia are very high. The cost per person with dementia has decreased somewhat, mainly because of de-institutionalisation. The majority of the costs occur in the social care sector, but the costing of informal care is crucial for the cost estimates.

  2. Chain-computerisation for interorganisational public policy implementation : A new approach to developing non-intrusive information infrastructures that improve public policy implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grijpink, J.H.A.M.

    1999-01-01

    In two articles the author presents some key elements from his recently completed thesis about functional, non-intrusive information infrastructures for interorganisational public policy implementation. The development of these information infrastructures requires a new approach,

  3. Locating relevant patient information in electronic health record data using representations of clinical concepts and database structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xuequn; Cimino, James J

    2014-01-01

    Clinicians and clinical researchers often seek information in electronic health records (EHRs) that are relevant to some concept of interest, such as a disease or finding. The heterogeneous nature of EHRs can complicate retrieval, risking incomplete results. We frame this problem as the presence of two gaps: 1) a gap between clinical concepts and their representations in EHR data and 2) a gap between data representations and their locations within EHR data structures. We bridge these gaps with a knowledge structure that comprises relationships among clinical concepts (including concepts of interest and concepts that may be instantiated in EHR data) and relationships between clinical concepts and the database structures. We make use of available knowledge resources to develop a reproducible, scalable process for creating a knowledge base that can support automated query expansion from a clinical concept to all relevant EHR data.

  4. Informing principal policy reforms in South Africa through data-based evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrielle Wills

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade there has been a notable shift in South African education policy that raises the value of school leadership as a lever for learning improvements. Despite a growing discourse on school leadership, there has been a lack of empirical based evidence on principals to inform, validate or debate the efficacy of proposed policies in raising the calibre of school principals. Drawing on findings from a larger study to understand the labour market for school principals in South Africa...

  5. The qualitative characteristics of financial information, and managers’ accounting decisions:evidence from IFRS policy changes

    OpenAIRE

    Nobes, Christopher; Stadler, Christian

    2015-01-01

    This is the first empirical study that uses publicly available data to provide direct evidence about the role of the qualitative characteristics (QCs) of financial information in managements’ accounting decisions. Based on 40,895 hand-collected IFRS (International Financial Reporting Standards) policy choices on 16 topics made by 514 large firms of 10 jurisdictions in the period 2005–2011, we identify 204 reasons for policy changes. The majority of these refer to QCs from the conceptual frame...

  6. CONTEMPORARY APPROACHES OF COMPANY PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS BASED ON RELEVANT FINANCIAL INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sziki Klara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we chose to present two components of the financial statements: the profit and loss account and the cash flow statement. These summary documents and different indicators calculated based on them allow us to formulate assessments on the performance and profitability on various functions and levels of the company’s activity. This paper aims to support the hypothesis that the accounting information presented in the profit and loss account and in the cash flow statement is an appropriate source for assessing company performance. The purpose of this research is to answer the question linked to the main hypothesis: Is it the profit and loss statement or the cash flow account that reflects better the performance of a business? Based on the literature of specialty studied we tried a conceptual, analytical and practical approach of the term performance, overviewing some terminological acceptations of the term performance as well as the main indicators of performance analysis on the basis of the profit and loss account and of the cash flow statement: aggregated indicators, also known as intermediary balances of administration, economic rate of return, rate of financial profitability, rate of return through cash flows, operating cash flow rate, rate of generating operating cash out of gross operating result. At the same time we had a comparative approach of the profit and loss account and cash flow statement, outlining the main advantages and disadvantages of these documents. In order to demonstrate the above theoretical assessments, we chose to analyze these indicators based on information from the financial statements of SC Sinteza SA, a company in Bihor county, listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange.

  7. Information security in academic libraries: the role of the librarian in planning and introducing institutional policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Soares Lima

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a short discussion about the role of the librarian as a mediator at planning, developing and implementing an Information Security Policy in Academic Libraries, by working together with professionals in the field of Information Technology. It also discusses the main virtual threats and some risks that are prone to infect computers in libraries. Based on the current legislation and on some normative documents about information security, it is confirmed the importance of the librarian take part in the main decision-making related to information security, such as planning a consistent Information Security Policy which be able to see the specific needs of Academic Libraries as institutions prone to cyberattacks. The main topics and guidelines to carry out an Information Security Policy are presented based on the results that were obtained through an action research, by visiting libraries to fill in application forms and to compose reports whose content was analyzed. Finally, the study concludes that Information Security Policy must be validated by managers of sectors or departments which the Academic Library is hierarchically subordinate to.

  8. Implementation of information security policies in public organizations : Top management as a success factor

    OpenAIRE

    Kamariza, Yvette

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate potential success factors related to the implementation of an information security in organizations, with a specific focus on the role of top management in implementing information security policies in organizations. The following are the research questions: What are the factors related to the implementation of an information security in organization according to the literature and what is the organization’s view of these factors? What is the role ...

  9. Triplet excited States as a source of relevant (bio)chemical information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, M Consuelo; Miranda, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    The properties of triplet excited states are markedly medium-dependent, which turns this species into valuable tools for investigating the microenvironments existing in protein binding pockets. Monitoring of the triplet excited state behavior of drugs within transport proteins (serum albumins and α1-acid glycoproteins) by laser flash photolysis constitutes a valuable source of information on the strength of interaction, conformational freedom and protection from oxygen or other external quenchers. With proteins, formation of spatially confined triplet excited states is favored over competitive processes affording ionic species. Remarkably, under aerobic atmosphere, the triplet decay of drug@protein complexes is dramatically longer than in bulk solution. This offers a convenient dynamic range for assignment of different triplet populations or for stereochemical discrimination. In this review, selected examples of the application of the laser flash photolysis technique are described, including drug distribution between the bulk solution and the protein cavities, or between two types of proteins, detection of drug-drug interactions inside proteins, and enzyme-like activity processes mediated by proteins. Finally, protein encapsulation can also modify the photoreactivity of the guest. This is illustrated by presenting an example of retarded photooxidation.

  10. Bengali-English Relevant Cross Lingual Information Access Using Finite Automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Avishek; Bhattacharyya, Swapan; Hazra, Simanta; Mondal, Shatabdi

    2010-10-01

    CLIR techniques searches unrestricted texts and typically extract term and relationships from bilingual electronic dictionaries or bilingual text collections and use them to translate query and/or document representations into a compatible set of representations with a common feature set. In this paper, we focus on dictionary-based approach by using a bilingual data dictionary with a combination to statistics-based methods to avoid the problem of ambiguity also the development of human computer interface aspects of NLP (Natural Language processing) is the approach of this paper. The intelligent web search with regional language like Bengali is depending upon two major aspect that is CLIA (Cross language information access) and NLP. In our previous work with IIT, KGP we already developed content based CLIA where content based searching in trained on Bengali Corpora with the help of Bengali data dictionary. Here we want to introduce intelligent search because to recognize the sense of meaning of a sentence and it has a better real life approach towards human computer interactions.

  11. Post-encoding control of working memory enhances processing of relevant information in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Ryan J; Hampton, Robert R

    2018-06-01

    Working memory is a system by which a limited amount of information can be kept available for processing after the cessation of sensory input. Because working memory resources are limited, it is adaptive to focus processing on the most relevant information. We used a retro-cue paradigm to determine the extent to which monkey working memory possesses control mechanisms that focus processing on the most relevant representations. Monkeys saw a sample array of images, and shortly after the array disappeared, they were visually cued to a location that had been occupied by one of the sample images. The cue indicated which image should be remembered for the upcoming recognition test. By determining whether the monkeys were more accurate and quicker to respond to cued images compared to un-cued images, we tested the hypothesis that monkey working memory focuses processing on relevant information. We found a memory benefit for the cued image in terms of accuracy and retrieval speed with a memory load of two images. With a memory load of three images, we found a benefit in retrieval speed but only after shortening the onset latency of the retro-cue. Our results demonstrate previously unknown flexibility in the cognitive control of memory in monkeys, suggesting that control mechanisms in working memory likely evolved in a common ancestor of humans and monkeys more than 32 million years ago. Future work should be aimed at understanding the interaction between memory load and the ability to control memory resources, and the role of working memory control in generating differences in cognitive capacity among primates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Prospects for new information relevant to radiation protection from studies of experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClellan, R.O.

    1988-01-01

    The theory underlying radiation protection was developed from studies of people, laboratory animals, tissues, cells and macromolecules. Data on people were obtained from opportunistic studies of individuals previously exposed to radiation. Rarely has it been possible to conduct prospective studies of people exposed to known quantities of radiation, which sharply restricts the nature of questions that they can address. In contrast, studies using laboratory animals and simpler biological systems can be designed to address specific questions, using controlled exposure conditions. In-vitro research with macromolecules, cells and tissues leads to understanding normal and disease processes in isolated biological components. Studies of the intact animals provide opportunities to study in vivo interactive mechanisms observed in vitro and their role in development of radiation-induced diseases such as cancer. In the future, studies of intact animals should prove increasingly valuable in linking new knowledge at the subanimal level with the more fragmentary information obtained from direct observations on people. This will provide insight into important issues such as (a) effects of low-level radiation exposures, (b) mechanism of cancer induction at high versus low radiation doses, and (c) influence of factors such as nutrition and exposure to chemicals on radiation-induced cancer. This presentation describes strategies for conducting and integrating results of research using macromolecules, cells, tissues, laboratory animals and people to improve our understanding of radiation-induced cancer. It will also emphasize the problems encountered in studies at all levels of biological organization when the disease is observed in low excess incidence long after exposure to the toxicant

  13. A study on the relevance and influence of the existing regulation and risk informed/performance based regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, B. J.; Koh, Y. J.; Kim, H. S.; Koh, S. H.; Kang, D. H.; Kang, T. W. [Cheju National Univ., Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    The goal of this study is to estimate the Relevance and Influence of the Existing Regulation and the RI-PBR to the institutionalization of the regulatory system. This study reviews the current regulatory system and the status of the RI-PBR implementation of the US NRC and Korea based upon SECY Papers, Risk Informed Regulation Implementation Plan (RIRIP) of the US NRC and other domestic studies. Also the recent trends of the individual technologies regarding the RI-PBR and RIA are summarized.

  14. Where are the food deserts? An evaluation of policy-relevant measures of community food access in South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liese, Angela D; Hibbert, James D; Ma, Xiaoguang; Bell, Bethany A; Battersby, Sarah E

    Several recent United States (US) policies target spatial access to healthier food retailers. We evaluated two measures of community food access developed by two different agencies, using a 2009 food environment validation study in South Carolina as a reference. While the US Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service's (USDA ERS) measure designated 22.5% of census tracts as food deserts, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) measure designated 29.0% as non-healthier retail tracts; 71% of tracts were designated consistently between USDA ERS and CDC. Our findings suggest a need for greater harmonization of these measures of community food access.

  15. The Peruvian Congress: Public Policies and Informal Influence over the Bureaucracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Patriau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Peruvian Constitution grants presidents the power to participate in the policy making process. At the same time, the Peruvian Congress is considered to lack the technical and professional ability to fully participate in such a process. However, such analysis neglects the influence that the Congress can exert through informal politics. Based on 31 interviews with legislators, political authorities, officials and experts in public administration this paper shows that the Peruvian legislature participates in the policy making process albeit through informal channels of influence over the bureaucracy.

  16. Heterogeneity among informal microenterprises in Mexico: empirical evidence and some policy implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Rivera Huerta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Unlike traditional theories of development, new schools of thinking consider nonfarm informal micro-enterprises as a dynamic sector. Nevertheless, social researchers from both streams recognize the necessity of policies to formalize and increase the productivity of such kind of enterprises. Using Mexican data from 2008 and cluster analysis techniques, this work proposes that informal micro-enterprises constitute a very heterogeneous group and that such heterogeneity deserves a diversified strategy of development: while some entrepreneurs would benefit from productivity policies, some others would require an assistance approach.

  17. Systems Thinking and Simulation Modeling to Inform Childhood Obesity Policy and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Kenneth E; Kibbe, Debra L; Ferencik, Rachel; Soderquist, Chris; Phillips, Mary Ann; Vall, Emily Anne; Minyard, Karen J

    In 2007, 31.7% of Georgia adolescents in grades 9-12 were overweight or obese. Understanding the impact of policies and interventions on obesity prevalence among young people can help determine statewide public health and policy strategies. This article describes a systems model, originally launched in 2008 and updated in 2014, that simulates the impact of policy interventions on the prevalence of childhood obesity in Georgia through 2034. In 2008, using information from peer-reviewed reports and quantitative estimates by experts in childhood obesity, physical activity, nutrition, and health economics and policy, a group of legislators, legislative staff members, and experts trained in systems thinking and system dynamics modeling constructed a model simulating the impact of policy interventions on the prevalence of childhood obesity in Georgia through 2034. Use of the 2008 model contributed to passage of a bill requiring annual fitness testing of schoolchildren and stricter enforcement of physical education requirements. We updated the model in 2014. With no policy change, the updated model projects that the prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents aged ≤18 in Georgia would hold at 18% from 2014 through 2034. Mandating daily school physical education (which would reduce prevalence to 12%) and integrating moderate to vigorous physical activity into elementary classrooms (which would reduce prevalence to 10%) would have the largest projected impact. Enacting all policies simultaneously would lower the prevalence of childhood obesity from 18% to 3%. Systems thinking, especially with simulation models, facilitates understanding of complex health policy problems. Using a simulation model to educate legislators, educators, and health experts about the policies that have the greatest short- and long-term impact should encourage strategic investment in low-cost, high-return policies.

  18. HIV policy implementation in two health and demographic surveillance sites in Uganda: findings from a national policy review, health facility surveys and key informant interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRobie, Ellen; Wringe, Alison; Nakiyingi-Miiro, Jessica; Kiweewa, Francis; Lutalo, Tom; Nakigozi, Gertrude; Todd, Jim; Eaton, Jeffrey William; Zaba, Basia; Church, Kathryn

    2017-04-05

    Successful HIV testing, care and treatment policy implementation is essential for realising the reductions in morbidity and mortality those policies are designed to target. While adoption of new HIV policies is rapid, less is known about the facility-level implementation of new policies and the factors influencing this. We assessed implementation of national policies about HIV testing, treatment and retention at health facilities serving two health and demographic surveillance sites (HDSS) (10 in Kyamulibwa, 14 in Rakai). Ugandan Ministry of Health HIV policy documents were reviewed in 2013, and pre-determined indicators were extracted relating to the content and nature of guidance on HIV service provision. Facility-level policy implementation was assessed via a structured questionnaire administered to in-charge staff from each health facility. Implementation of policies was classified as wide (≥75% facilities), partial (26-74% facilities) or minimal (≤25% facilities). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with key informants (policy-makers, implementers, researchers) to identify factors influencing implementation; data were analysed using the Framework Method of thematic analysis. Most policies were widely implemented in both HDSS (free testing, free antiretroviral treatment (ART), WHO first-line regimen as standard, Option B+). Both had notable implementation gaps for policies relating to retention on treatment (availability of nutritional supplements, support groups or isoniazid preventive therapy). Rakai implemented more policies relating to provision of antiretroviral treatment than Kyamulibwa and performed better on quality of care indicators, such as frequency of stock-outs. Factors facilitating implementation were donor investment and support, strong scientific evidence, low policy complexity, phased implementation and effective planning. Limited human resources, infrastructure and health management information systems were perceived as major

  19. Enhancing the Capacity of Policy-Makers to Develop Evidence-Informed Policy Brief on Infectious Diseases of Poverty in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chigozie Jesse Uneke

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The lack of effective use of research evidence in policy-making is a major challenge in most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. There is need to package research data into effective policy tools that will help policy-makers to make evidence-informed policy regarding infectious diseases of poverty (IDP. The objective of this study was to assess the usefulness of training workshops and mentoring to enhance the capacity of Nigerian health policy-makers to develop evidence-informed policy brief on the control of IDP. Methods A modified “before and after” intervention study design was used in which outcomes were measured on the target participants both before the intervention is implemented and after. A 4-point Likert scale according to the degree of adequacy; 1 = “grossly inadequate,” 4 = “very adequate” was employed. The main parameter measured was participants’ perceptions of their own knowledge/understanding. This study was conducted at subnational level and the participants were the career health policy-makers drawn from Ebonyi State in the South-Eastern Nigeria. A oneday evidence-to-policy workshop was organized to enhance the participants’ capacity to develop evidence-informed policy brief on IDP in Ebonyi State. Topics covered included collaborative initiative; preparation and use of policy briefs; policy dialogue; ethics in health policy-making; and health policy and politics. Results The preworkshop mean of knowledge and capacity ranged from 2.49-3.03, while the postworkshop mean ranged from 3.42–3.78 on 4-point scale. The percentage increase in mean of knowledge and capacity at the end of the workshop ranged from 20.10%–45%. Participants were divided into 3 IDP mentorship groups (malaria, schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis [LF] and were mentored to identify potential policy options/recommendations for control of the diseases for the policy briefs. These policy options were subjected to research

  20. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 57; US Scientific and Technical Information Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1996-01-01

    In fiscal year 1994, the United States government spent about $68 billion for science and technology. Although there is general agreement among policy makers that the results of this expenditure can be used to enhance technological innovation and improve economic competitiveness, there is no coherent scientific and technical information (STI) policy. The absence of a cohesive policy and STI policy framework means that the transfer and utilization of STI goes uncoordinated. This chapter examines the U.S. government's role in funding science and technology, reviews Federal STI activities and involvement in the transfer and use of STI resulting from federally-funded science and technology, presents issues surrounding the use of federally-funded STI, and offers recommendations for improving the transfer and use of STI.

  1. Information visualisation for science and policy: engaging users and avoiding bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerny, Greg J; Chen, Min; Freeman, Robin; Gavaghan, David; Meyer, Miriah; Rowland, Francis; Spiegelhalter, David J; Stefaner, Moritz; Tessarolo, Geizi; Hortal, Joaquin

    2014-03-01

    Visualisations and graphics are fundamental to studying complex subject matter. However, beyond acknowledging this value, scientists and science-policy programmes rarely consider how visualisations can enable discovery, create engaging and robust reporting, or support online resources. Producing accessible and unbiased visualisations from complicated, uncertain data requires expertise and knowledge from science, policy, computing, and design. However, visualisation is rarely found in our scientific training, organisations, or collaborations. As new policy programmes develop [e.g., the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES)], we need information visualisation to permeate increasingly both the work of scientists and science policy. The alternative is increased potential for missed discoveries, miscommunications, and, at worst, creating a bias towards the research that is easiest to display. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Basic Science and Public Policy: Informed Regulation for Nicotine and Tobacco Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Christie D; Gipson, Cassandra D; Kleykamp, Bethea A; Rupprecht, Laura E; Harrell, Paul T; Rees, Vaughan W; Gould, Thomas J; Oliver, Jason; Bagdas, Deniz; Damaj, M Imad; Schmidt, Heath D; Duncan, Alexander; De Biasi, Mariella

    2017-08-03

    Scientific discoveries over the past few decades have provided significant insight into the abuse liability and negative health consequences associated with tobacco and nicotine-containing products. While many of these advances have led to the development of policies and laws that regulate access to and formulations of these products, further research is critical to guide future regulatory efforts, especially as novel nicotine-containing products are introduced and selectively marketed to vulnerable populations. In this narrative review, we provide an overview of the scientific findings that have impacted regulatory policy and discuss considerations for further translation of science into policy decisions. We propose that open, bidirectional communication between scientists and policy makers is essential to develop transformative preventive- and intervention-focused policies and programs to reduce appeal, abuse liability, and toxicity of the products. Through these types of interactions, collaborative efforts to inform and modify policy have the potential to significantly decrease the use of tobacco and alternative nicotine products and thus enhance health outcomes for individuals. This work addresses current topics in the nicotine and tobacco research field to emphasize the importance of basic science research and provide examples of how it can be utilized to inform public policy. In addition to relaying current thoughts on the topic from experts in the field, the article encourages continued efforts and communication between basic scientists and policy officials. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. The challenge of bridging the gap between researchers and policy makers: experiences of a Health Policy Research Group in engaging policy makers to support evidence informed policy making in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Onwujekwe, Obinna; Mbachu, Chinyere; Okwuosa, Chinenye; Etiaba, Enyi; Nyström, Monica E; Gilson, Lucy

    2016-11-04

    Getting research into policy and practice (GRIPP) is a process of going from research evidence to decisions and action. To integrate research findings into the policy making process and to communicate research findings to policymakers is a key challenge world-wide. This paper reports the experiences of a research group in a Nigerian university when seeking to 'do' GRIPP, and the important features and challenges of this process within the African context. In-depth interviews were conducted with nine purposively selected policy makers in various organizations and six researchers from the universities and research institute in a Nigerian who had been involved in 15 selected joint studies/projects with Health Policy Research Group (HPRG). The interviews explored their understanding and experience of the methods and processes used by the HPRG to generate research questions and research results; their involvement in the process and whether the methods were perceived as effective in relation to influencing policy and practice and factors that influenced the uptake of research results. The results are represented in a model with the four GRIPP strategies found: i) stakeholders' request for evidence to support the use of certain strategies or to scale up health interventions; ii) policymakers and stakeholders seeking evidence from researchers; iii) involving stakeholders in designing research objectives and throughout the research process; and iv) facilitating policy maker-researcher engagement in finding best ways of using research findings to influence policy and practice and to actively disseminate research findings to relevant stakeholders and policymakers. The challenges to research utilization in health policy found were to address the capacity of policy makers to demand and to uptake research, the communication gap between researchers, donors and policymakers, the management of the political process of GRIPP, the lack of willingness of some policy makers to use

  4. Consumer information or direct product experience? Alternative information policies and their effects on consumer acceptance of GM foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim

    The early and mid-1990s saw a heated public debate about the introduction of GM foods in Europe. The question about the "right way" of communicating risks and benefits to consumers was especially cumbersome, and normative positions (rather than empirical consumer research) determined the approach...... that was finally adopted. In the late 1990s, transparency and the precautionary principle became official standards to which consumer policy in the European Union had to conform. There seems to be shared expectation now among stakeholders that this policy will restore consumers' trust in the European food system....... Scholderer et al. (1999) investigated the assumptions on which this consensus was based. A majority of the stakeholder representatives they interviewed believed that negative consumer attitudes resulted from a lack of information. Lack of information was thought to cause uncertainty about risks and benefits...

  5. Waste management and proliferation: an assessment of technologies and policies relevant to nuclear power. Final report, June 1975--March 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, M.K.; Anderson, R.N.; Selvaduray, G.; Gangwer, T.; Braun, C.; Goellner, D.; Malone, R.; Sevian, W.A.; Lester, R.

    1977-01-01

    Some of the long-term hazards from radioactive waste management and the problems in safeguarding plutonium in a world moving toward a plutonium economy are presented. To ameliorate these problems, several alternative fuel cycle options are presented: homogeneous reactor, denatured thorium, open, tandem, accelerator-regenerative, co-processing, plutonium, spiking, and partitioning. An assessment is made of a variety of separation technologies applied to these options, including a review of 32 different reprocessing methods. The effects of these options on both U.S. and transnational policies regarding waste management and proliferation are examined. This study addresses the transnational environmental policy issues created by a worldwide nuclear industry and suggests the need for two international organizations: one to manage spent fuel and the breeder fuel cycle; the second to protect the global environment. Two photochemical schemes for improving existing reprocessing technology by reducing wastes and materials unaccounted for (MUF) are presented. The applicability of this technology, along with column chromatography, Talspeak, and other separation methods, is examined relative to various waste management alternatives including the partitioning and transmutation option. A computer model to determine the effectiveness of transmutation as a function of separation efficiency has been developed and employed. To estimate health impacts from various fuel cycle options, the Brookhaven energy system network simulator has been integrated with an atmospheric dispersion and pathway analysis model. Using revised 222 Rn emission data, it is estimated from the linear hypothesis that the number of excess cancers is slightly less for the open than for the closed cycle. More importantly, the number of excess cancers induced by mill and mine tailings is from one to two times that caused by the rest of the entire fuel cycle

  6. Why relevance theory is relevant for lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothma, Theo; Tarp, Sven

    2014-01-01

    This article starts by providing a brief summary of relevance theory in information science in relation to the function theory of lexicography, explaining the different types of relevance, viz. objective system relevance and the subjective types of relevance, i.e. topical, cognitive, situational...... dictionary project, identifying new tasks and responsibilities of the modern lexicographer. The article furthermore discusses how relevance theory impacts on teaching dictionary culture and reference skills. By integrating insights from lexicography and information science, the article contributes to new...

  7. Perceived Relevance of Educative Information on Public (Skin) Health: Results of a Representative, Population-Based Telephone Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluza, Daniela; Schwab, Markus; Simic, Stana; Cervinka, Renate; Moshammer, Hanns

    2015-01-01

    Individual skin health attitudes are influenced by various factors, including public education campaigns, mass media, family, and friends. Evidence-based, educative information materials assist communication and decision-making in doctor-patient interactions. The present study aims at assessing the prevailing use of skin health information material and sources and their impact on skin health knowledge, motives to tan, and sun protection. We conducted a questionnaire survey among a representative sample of Austrian residents. Print media and television were perceived as the two most relevant sources for skin health information, whereas the source physician was ranked third. Picking the information source physician increased participants’ skin health knowledge (p = 0.025) and sun-protective behavior (p < 0.001). The study results highlight the demand for targeted health messages to attain lifestyle changes towards photo-protective habits. Providing resources that encourage pro-active counseling in every-day doctor-patient communication could increase skin health knowledge and sun-protective behavior, and thus, curb the rise in skin cancer incidence rates. PMID:26569274

  8. Extraction of Pluvial Flood Relevant Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI by Deep Learning from User Generated Texts and Photos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Feng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, pluvial floods caused by extreme rainfall events have occurred frequently. Especially in urban areas, they lead to serious damages and endanger the citizens’ safety. Therefore, real-time information about such events is desirable. With the increasing popularity of social media platforms, such as Twitter or Instagram, information provided by voluntary users becomes a valuable source for emergency response. Many applications have been built for disaster detection and flood mapping using crowdsourcing. Most of the applications so far have merely used keyword filtering or classical language processing methods to identify disaster relevant documents based on user generated texts. As the reliability of social media information is often under criticism, the precision of information retrieval plays a significant role for further analyses. Thus, in this paper, high quality eyewitnesses of rainfall and flooding events are retrieved from social media by applying deep learning approaches on user generated texts and photos. Subsequently, events are detected through spatiotemporal clustering and visualized together with these high quality eyewitnesses in a web map application. Analyses and case studies are conducted during flooding events in Paris, London and Berlin.

  9. Recontextualizing Information and Communication Technologies: The Discourse of Educational Policies in Brazil (1995-2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Raquel Goulart

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines how Information and Communication Technologies (henceforth ICT) have been recontextualized in Brazilian educational policies, between 1995 and 2007, from a discourse analytical perspective, focusing on the dialectic relations between structures and strategies, especially as far as teacher education is concerned. It is divided…

  10. Information Warfare: Legal, Regulatory, Policy and Organizational Considerations for Assurance. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-07-04

    2-19 2-2-1 State Com puter Crim e Statutes ....................................................................... 2-44...2-2-2 Com puter Crim e Jurisdiction .......................................................................... 2-45 2-4-1 Information Warfare Policy...infrastructures from physical and cyber threats. * Propose statutory and regulatory changes. The Infrastructure Protection Task Force (IPTF): * Increase

  11. Information and Communication Technologies in International Education: A Canadian Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucoin, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    The rhetoric surrounding the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in international education speaks of providing education access for all. However, an examination of actual policies reveals an emphasis not on creating an educated population, but on improving economic opportunities using discourses such as globalization,…

  12. 75 FR 12496 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; DOC National Environmental Policy Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ...; DOC National Environmental Policy Act Environmental Questionnaire and Checklist AGENCY: Office of the...., Washington, DC 20230 (or via the Internet at [email protected]doc.gov ). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Requests for... Constitution Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20230 (or via the Internet at [email protected]doc.gov ). SUPPLEMENTARY...

  13. 75 FR 56540 - Office of Governmentwide Policy: Submission for OMB Review; Information Collection, Real Property...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... a standard format for reporting real property status under financial assistance awards. This rule... information, the standard reporting form will replace any agency unique forms currently in use. Background The... Report, Standard Form (SF- XXXX) AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide Policy, General Services Administration...

  14. 78 FR 64389 - Policy To Encourage Trial Disclosure Programs; Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ...: For additional information about the Policy, contact Will Wade-Gery, Division of Research, Markets and... ``facilitate access and innovation'' in the ``markets for consumer financial products and services.'' In line.... The Bureau also recognizes that in-market testing, involving companies and consumers in real world...

  15. Long-Range Goals in International Telecommunications and Information: An Outline for United States Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation.

    This report presents a comprehensive delineation of the principal issues in the field of international telecommunications and information, as well as an overview of United States policy in this area. The first part discusses international trends in protectionism and the politicization of international forums; it also outlines United States goals,…

  16. Examining the Feasibility and Impact of a Graduate Public Administration Course in Evidence-Informed Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouimet, Mathieu; Lapointe, Luc; Léon, Grégory

    2015-01-01

    A pilot controlled before-and-after design was used to assess the impact of a new master-level course in evidence-informed policy making on students' basic knowledge in evidence-based practice. The primary outcome variable was the mean percentage of pre-post improvement on the knowledge test. In the treatment group, the mean percentage of pre-post…

  17. Lending policies of informal, formal and semiformal lenders - Evidence from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, Thi Thu Tra; Lensink, Robert

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares lending policies of formal, informal and semiformal lenders with respect to household lending in Vietnam. The analysis suggests that the probability of using formal or semiformal credit increases if borrowers provide collateral, a guarantor and/or borrow for business-related

  18. Lending Policies of Informal, Formal, and Semi-formal Lenders: Evidence from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, B.W.; Pham, T.T.T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares lending policies of formal, informal and semiformal lenders with respect to household lending in Vietnam. The analysis suggests that the probability of using formal or semiformal credit increases if borrowers provide collateral, a guarantor and/or borrow for business-related

  19. Demographic Information Sources and Utilization as Determinants of Educational Policy Making in South Western Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbadamosi, Belau Olatunde

    2013-01-01

    The paper examines demographic information sources and utilization as determinants of educational policy making in South West Nigeria. Using validated and structured questionnaire, the study population of 398 officers in the ministries of education in the affected states were enumerated. The study establishes population census, vital registration,…

  20. Readability, relevance and quality of the information in Spanish on the Web for patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Ortiz, Jose Dionisio; Valdivia-Nuno, Jose de Jesus; Ramirez-Gomez, Andrea; Garagarza-Mariscal, Heber; Gallegos-Rios, Carlos; Flores-Hernandez, Gabriel; Hernandez-Sanchez, Luis; Brambila-Barba, Victor; Castaneda-Sanchez, Jose Juan; Barajas-Ochoa, Zalathiel; Suarez-Rico, Angel; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Jorge Manuel; Ramos-Remus, Cesar

    Education is a major health determinant and one of the main independent outcome predictors in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The use of the Internet by patients has grown exponentially in the last decade. To assess the characteristics, legibility and quality of the information available in Spanish in the Internet regarding to rheumatoid arthritis. The search was performed in Google using the phrase rheumatoid arthritis. Information from the first 30 pages was evaluated according to a pre-established format (relevance, scope, authorship, type of publication and financial objective). The quality and legibility of the pages were assessed using two validated tools, DISCERN and INFLESZ respectively. Data extraction was performed by senior medical students and evaluation was achieved by consensus. The Google search returned 323 hits but only 63% were considered relevant; 80% of them were information sites (71% discussed exclusively RA, 44% conventional treatment and 12% alternative therapies) and 12.5% had a primary financial interest. 60% of the sites were created by nonprofit organizations and 15% by medical associations. Web sites posted by medical institutions from the United States of America were better positioned in Spanish (Arthritis Foundation 4th position and American College of Rheumatology 10th position) than web sites posted by Spanish speaking countries. There is a risk of disinformation for patients with RA that use the Internet. We identified a window of opportunity for rheumatology medical institutions from Spanish-speaking countries to have a more prominent societal involvement in the education of their patients with RA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  1. Local is not always better: the impact of climate information on values, behavior and policy support

    OpenAIRE

    Schoenefeld, Jonas J.; McCauley, Michelle R.

    2016-01-01

    In the current research, we experimentally examined the effect of providing local or global information about the impacts of climate change on individuals’ perceived importance of climate change and on their willingness to take action to address it, including policy support. We examined these relationships in the context of individuals’ general value orientations. Our findings, from 99 US residents, suggest that different kinds of climate information (local, global, or none) interact with val...

  2. HEALTH INSURANCE INFORMATION-SEEKING BEHAVIORS AMONG INTERNET USERS: AN EXPLORATORY ANALYSIS TO INFORM POLICIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlyana, Erlyana; Acosta-Deprez, Veronica; O'Lawrence, Henry; Sinay, Tony; Ramirez, Jeremy; Jacot, Emmanuel C; Shim, Kyuyoung

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore characteristics of Internet users who seek health insurance information online, as well as factors affecting their behaviors in seeking health insurance information. Secondary data analysis was conducted using data from the 2012 Pew Internet Health Tracking Survey. Of 2,305 Internet user adults, only 29% were seeking health insurance information online. Bivariate analyses were conducted to test differences in characteristics of those who seek health insurance information online and those who do not. A logistic regression model was used to determine significant predictors of health insurance information-seeking behavior online. Findings suggested that factors such as being a single parent, having a high school education or less, and being uninsured were significant and those individuals were less likely to seek health insurance information online. Being a family caregiver of an adult and those who bought private health insurance or were entitled to Medicare were more likely to seek health insurance information online than non-caregivers and the uninsured. The findings suggested the need to provide quality health insurance information online is critical for both the insured and uninsured population.

  3. What defines 'enough' information? How policy workers make judgements and decisions during information seeking: preliminary results from an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Berryman

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Reports findings from research in progress investigating judgment and decision making during information seeking in the workplace, in particular, the assessment of enough information. Characteristics of this judgment and the role of context in shaping it are framed against theories of human judgment and decision making. Method. Thirty-three semi-structured interviews were conducted with public sector policy workers in Australia. Two interviews were carried out, the first with individual participants and the second, a joint interview with two participants. Interviews were taped and transcribed and inductive data analysis carried out. Findings. Findings discussed in this paper focus on contextual factors that frame policy workers' judgment and decision making while information seeking, factors including ill-structured problems, shifting goals, time stress and action-feedback loops. Also revealed was the importance of developing a framework, against which the judgment of enough information can be made, and the fluid and iterative nature of these judgments. Conclusion. The contextual factors reported show similarities with those identified by naturalistic decision making researchers, suggesting this new field of decision theory has much to offer researchers into information seeking in context.

  4. Research translation to inform national health policies: learning from multiple perspectives in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glass Nancy

    2011-03-01

    . Conclusions This study shows that effective translation of PMTCT and SMC research results demanded a “360 degree” approach to assembling additional evidence to inform the implementation feasibility for these two HIV prevention interventions. MakCHS and similar institutions should prioritize implementation research to guide the policy processes about the feasibility of implementing new and effective innovations (e.g. PMTCT or SMC at a large scale in contexts that may be different from the research environments.

  5. Networked Authoritarianism and the Geopolitics of Information: Understanding Russian Internet Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Maréchal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the aftermath of the 2016 U.S. election, researchers, policymakers and the general public are grappling with the notion that the 45th president of the United States may very well owe his electoral victory to a sophisticated propaganda effort masterminded by the Kremlin. This article synthesizes existing research on Russia’s domestic information controls, its internet policy at the global level (notably via internet governance processes, and the country’s resurgence as a major geopolitical player to argue that policymakers as well as the general public should consider these themes holistically, particularly as they formulate responses to what many see as the Russian threat to Western liberal democracy. Russia may have lost the Cold War, but it is now waging information warfare against the liberal democracies of Europe and North America in a sophisticated bid to win the next round. Russia does not view internet governance, cybersecurity, and media policy as separate domains. Rather, all the areas covered by those disciplines fall under “information security” for Russian foreign policy. The paper begins by tracing the history of information controls within what is now the Russian Federation before discussing the role of information and internet policy in Russian foreign policy, drawing connections between the Russian government’s control and manipulation of information—including its internet policy—in the domestic and international arenas. Next, it discusses the spread of networked authoritarianism and suggests that a “geopolitics of information” will become increasingly necessary in the coming years. Just as networked authoritarianism establishes strategic infrastructures to control the message domestically and intervene in global media systems, liberal democracies need to rethink media and communication infrastructures to ensure they foster pluralist, rights-respecting societies that are resilient to authoritarianism and

  6. Informing principal policy reforms in South Africa through data-based evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle Wills

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade there has been a notable shift in South African education policy that raises the value of school leadership as a lever for learning improvements. Despite a growing discourse on school leadership, there has been a lack of empirical based evidence on principals to inform, validate or debate the efficacy of proposed policies in raising the calibre of school principals. Drawing on findings from a larger study to understand the labour market for school principals in South Africa, this paper highlights four overarching characteristics of this market with implications for informing principal policy reforms. The paper notes that improving the design and implementation of policies guiding the appointment process for principals is a matter of urgency. A substantial and increasing number of principal replacements are taking place across South African schools given a rising age profile of school principals. In a context of low levels of principal mobility and high tenure, the leadership trajectory of the average school is established for nearly a decade with each principal replacement. Evidence-based policy making has a strong role to play in getting this right.

  7. Overview of Green Building Material (GBM Policies and Guidelines with Relevance to Indoor Air Quality Management in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tien Tsai

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to offer a preliminary overview of Taiwan’s success in green building material (GBM efforts through legal systems and promotion measures, which are relevant to the contribution to indoor air quality (IAQ due to sustainability and health issues. In the first part of the paper, the IAQ regulations are summarized to highlight the second nation (i.e., Taiwan around the world in IAQ management by the law. In addition, the permissible exposure limits (PEL in Taiwan for airborne hazardous substances were first promulgated in 1974 to deal with occupational health issues in the workplace environment. In the second part of the paper, the developing status of the GBM in Taiwan is analyzed to unravel its connection with the Indoor Air Quality Management Act (IAQMA, promulgated on 23 November 2011. By the end of September 2017, a total of 645 GBM labels have been conferred, covering over 5000 green products. Due to the effectiveness of source control, the healthy GBM occupies most of the market, accounting for about 75%. The IAQMA, which took force in November 2012, is expected to significantly increase the use of healthy GBM in new building construction and remodeling, especially in low formaldehyde (HCHO/volatile organic compound (VOC-emitting products.

  8. 77 FR 70181 - Request for Information on Adopting Smoke-Free Policies in Public Housing Agencies (PHAs) and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... Adopting Smoke-Free Policies in Public Housing Agencies (PHAs) and Multifamily Housing: Reopening of Public... smoke-free policies for both public housing and multifamily housing. HUD was seeking information from... implementing smoke-free policies for both public housing and multifamily housing. In the October 4, 2012 notice...

  9. Transforming healthcare with information technology in Japan: a review of policy, people, and progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Chon; Nishihara, Eitaro; Akiyama, Miki

    2011-03-01

    Healthcare reform as part of the economic recovery plan in Japan is placing emphasis on the use of healthcare information technology (HIT). This research mainly focuses on the HIT efforts in Japan with reference to the US for context. The purpose is to: (a) provide detail on governmental policy impacting promotion of HIT adoption to provide services to the people of Japan, (b) describe the outcomes of past and present policy impacting progress based on a case study of HIT use in the Kyoto Yamashina area, and (c) discuss issues for refinement of current policy. The method is case study, and data collection techniques include: (a) interviews of people involved in policy making for HIT in Japan (Japanese healthcare professionals, government officials, and academics involved in HIT research in Japan) and use in the medical community of HIT in the Kyoto Yamashina area, (b) archived document analysis of reports regarding government policy for HIT policy and user assessment for HIT mainly in the case study site, and (c) the literature review about HIT progression and effectiveness assessments to explore and describe issues concerning the transformation with HIT in Japan. This study reveals the aspects of governmental policy that have been effective in promoting successful HIT initiatives as well as some that have been detriments in Japan to help solve pressing social issues regarding healthcare delivery. For example, Japan has stipulated some standardized protocols and formats for HIT but does not mandate exactly how to engage in inter-organizational or intra-organizational health information exchange. This provides some desired autonomy for healthcare organizations and or governments in medical communities and allows for more advanced organizations to leverage current resources while providing a basis for lesser equipped organizations to use in planning the initiative. The insights gained from the Kyoto Yamashina area initiative reflect the success of past governmental

  10. [Mood-congruent effect in self-relevant information processing: a study using an autobiographical memory recall task].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, M

    2000-10-01

    The pattern of the mood-congruent effect in an autobiographical memory recall task was investigated. Each subject was randomly assigned to one of three experimental conditions: positive mood, negative mood (induced with music), and control groups (no specific mood). Subjects were then presented with a word at a time from a list of trait words, which were pleasant or unpleasant. They decided whether they could recall any of their autobiographical memories related to the word, and responded with "yes" or "no" buttons as rapidly and accurately as possible. After the task, they were given five minutes for an incidental free recall test. Results indicated that the mood-congruent effect was found regardless of whether there was an autobiographical memory related to the word or not in both positive and negative mood states. The effect of moods on self-relevant information processing was discussed.

  11. Beyond the security paradox: Ten criteria for a socially informed security policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavone, Vincenzo; Ball, Kirstie; Degli Esposti, Sara; Dibb, Sally; Santiago-Gómez, Elvira

    2017-04-01

    This article investigates the normative and procedural criteria adopted by European citizens to assess the acceptability of surveillance-oriented security technologies. It draws on qualitative data gathered at 12 citizen summits in nine European countries. The analysis identifies 10 criteria, generated by citizens themselves, for a socially informed security policy. These criteria not only reveal the conditions, purposes and operation rules that would make current European security policies and technologies more consistent with citizens' priorities. They also cast light on an interesting paradox: although people feel safe in their daily lives, they believe security could, and should, be improved.

  12. Base Stock Policy in a Join-Type Production Line with Advanced Demand Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraiwa, Mikihiko; Tsubouchi, Satoshi; Nakade, Koichi

    Production control such as the base stock policy, the kanban policy and the constant work-in-process policy in a serial production line has been studied by many researchers. Production lines, however, usually have fork-type, join-type or network-type figures. In addition, in most previous studies on production control, a finished product is required at the same time as arrival of demand at the system. Demand information is, however, informed before due date in practice. In this paper a join-type (assembly) production line under base stock control with advanced demand information in discrete time is analyzed. The recursive equations for the work-in-process are derived. The heuristic algorithm for finding appropriate base stock levels of all machines at short time is proposed and the effect of advanced demand information is examined by simulation with the proposed algorithm. It is shown that the inventory cost can decreases with little backlogs by using the appropriate amount of demand information and setting appropriate base stock levels.

  13. Numeracy and the Persuasive Effect of Policy Information and Party Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mérola, Vittorio; Hitt, Matthew P.

    2016-01-01

    Numeric political appeals represent a prevalent but overlooked domain of public opinion research. When can quantitative information change political attitudes, and is this change trumped by partisan effects? We analyze how numeracy—or individual differences in citizens’ ability to process and apply numeric policy information—moderates the effectiveness of numeric political appeals on a moderately salient policy issue. Results show that those low in numeracy exhibit a strong party-cue effect, treating numeric information in a superficial and heuristic fashion. Conversely, those high in numeracy are persuaded by numeric information, even when it is sponsored by the opposing party, overcoming the party-cue effect. Our results make clear that overlooking numeric ability when analyzing quantitative political appeals can mask significant persuasion effects, and we build on recent work advancing the understanding of individual differences in public opinion. PMID:27274578

  14. Conveying campus sexual misconduct policy information to college and university students: Results from a 7-campus study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, S J; Edwards, K M; Banyard, V L; Stapleton, J G; Demers, J M; Moynihan, M M

    2016-01-01

    To examine the efficacy of different methods (ie, in-class policy reading; in-class policy reading and discussion; no reading or discussion) to deliver campus sexual misconduct policy information to students on 7 campuses. A total of 1,195 participants at 7 colleges and universities participated in the study from August to October 2014. Participants were randomly assigned at the class level and completed pretest and posttest surveys assessing knowledge of campus policy and resources and confidence to seek help for sexual assault. Students exposed to a larger dosage of material (in-class policy reading plus discussion) showed greater positive changes in attitudes and knowledge than students who did not receive information or were only read the policy. However, on some indices, students who were only read the policy showed positive outcomes compared with students receiving no intervention. Colleges and universities must use engaging methods to disseminate campus sexual misconduct policies to students.

  15. [eHealth in Peru: implementation of policies to strengthen health information systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curioso, Walter H

    2014-01-01

    Health information systems play a key role in enabling high quality, complete health information to be available in a timely fashion for operational and strategic decision-making that makes it possible to save lives and improve the health and quality of life of the population. In many countries, health information systems are weak, incomplete, and fragmented. However, there is broad consensus in the literature of the need to strengthen health information systems in countries around the world. The objective of this paper is to present the essential components of the conceptual framework to strengthen health information systems in Peru. It describes the principal actions and strategies of the Ministry of Health of Peru during the process of strengthening health information systems. These systems make it possible to orient policies for appropriate decision-making in public health.

  16. How Qualitative Research Informs Clinical and Policy Decision Making in Transplantation: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Allison; Morton, Rachael L; Webster, Angela C

    2016-09-01

    Patient-centered care is no longer just a buzzword. It is now widely touted as a cornerstone in delivering quality care across all fields of medicine. However, patient-centered strategies and interventions necessitate evidence about patients' decision-making processes, values, priorities, and needs. Qualitative research is particularly well suited to understanding the experience and perspective of patients, donors, clinicians, and policy makers on a wide range of transplantation-related topics including organ donation and allocation, adherence to prescribed therapy, pretransplant and posttransplant care, implementation of clinical guidelines, and doctor-patient communication. In transplantation, evidence derived from qualitative research has been integrated into strategies for shared decision-making, patient educational resources, process evaluations of trials, clinical guidelines, and policies. The aim of this article is to outline key concepts and methods used in qualitative research, guide the appraisal of qualitative studies, and assist clinicians to understand how qualitative research may inform their practice and policy.

  17. Comparison of three methods for ascertainment of contact information relevant to respiratory pathogen transmission in encounter networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Paula M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mathematical models of infection that consider targeted interventions are exquisitely dependent on the assumed mixing patterns of the population. We report on a pilot study designed to assess three different methods (one retrospective, two prospective for obtaining contact data relevant to the determination of these mixing patterns. Methods 65 adults were asked to record their social encounters in each location visited during 6 study days using a novel method whereby a change in physical location of the study participant triggered data entry. Using a cross-over design, all participants recorded encounters on 3 days in a paper diary and 3 days using an electronic recording device (PDA. Participants were randomised to first prospective recording method. Results Both methods captured more contacts than a pre-study questionnaire, but ascertainment using the paper diary was superior to the PDA (mean difference: 4.52 (95% CI 0.28, 8.77. Paper diaries were found more acceptable to the participants compared with the PDA. Statistical analysis confirms that our results are broadly consistent with those reported from large-scale European based surveys. An association between household size (trend 0.14, 95% CI (0.06, 0.22, P P Conclusions The study's location-based reporting design allows greater scope compared to other methods for examining differences in the characteristics of encounters over a range of environments. Improved parameterisation of dynamic transmission models gained from work of this type will aid in the development of more robust decision support tools to assist health policy makers and planners.

  18. DETERMINATION OF THE RELEVANCE OF INVESTING IN THE MANAGEMENT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES BY SMALL JITOMATE PRODUCERS, APPLYING GAME THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Claudia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The leading national states in the tomato market are mainly Sinaloa and Jalisco. They determine the amount of production will sell in the country meanwhile smallholders depend about that decision to calculate the quantity of tomato they be able to place into local supply markets. Large producers invest in other aspects, such as in Information Technology Management (ITM, in order to obtain international and updated information they need for their strategic decision-making, as well as to establish effective communication with other producers, with suppliers and with customers. The question posed in the present investigation is: Will the lack of investment in ITM be a factor that affects the competitiveness of smallholders? This article has the objective to estimate the relevance of investing in the ITM, in order to increase the production through the application of the Cournot and Branding model; for two players who decide to sell simultaneously, resulting in two models: The first one, where the player 1 it will be a big producer who decides to invest in ITM to increase its market, while player 2 is a smallholder who does not have the capacity to invest in ITM. In the second resulting model, both players are big producers, who decide to invest in ITM to increase their market. In both models, we would be expected that the player who sells the most, whoever invests in ITM; however, as will be observed in the conclusions, investing in ITM is not always the solution to sell more.

  19. Two-qubit correlations revisited: average mutual information, relevant (and useful) observables and an application to remote state preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorda, Paolo; Allegra, Michele

    2017-07-01

    Understanding how correlations can be used for quantum communication protocols is a central goal of quantum information science. While many authors have linked the global measures of correlations such as entanglement or discord to the performance of specific protocols, in general the latter may require only correlations between specific observables. In this work, we first introduce a general measure of correlations for two-qubit states, based on the classical mutual information between local observables. Our measure depends on the state’s purity and the symmetry in the correlation distribution, according to which we provide a classification of maximally mixed marginal states (MMMS). We discuss the complementarity relation between correlations and coherence. By focusing on a simple yet paradigmatic example, i.e. the remote state preparation protocol, we introduce a method to systematically define the proper protocol-tailored measures of the correlations. The method is based on the identification of those correlations that are relevant (useful) for the protocol. On the one hand, the approach allows the role of the symmetry of the correlation distribution to be discussed in determining the efficiency of the protocol, both for MMMS and general two-qubit quantum states, and on the other hand, it allows an optimized protocol for non-MMMS to be devised, which is more efficient with respect to the standard one. Overall, our findings clarify how the key resources in simple communication protocols are the purity of the state used and the symmetry of the correlation distribution.

  20. A study on the relevance and influence of the existing regulation and risk informed/performance based regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, B. J.; Kang, J. M.; Kim, H. S.; Koh, S. H.; Kang, D. H.; Park, C. H. [Cheju Univ., Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-02-15

    The goal of this study is to estimate the relevance and Influence of the Existing Regulation and the RI-PBR to the institutionalization of the regulatory system. This study reviews the current regulatory system and the status of the RI-PBR implementation of the US NRC and Korea based upon SECY Papers, Risk Informed Regulation Implementation Plan (RIRIP) of the US NRC and other domestic studies. In order to investigate the perceptions, knowledge level, ground for the regulatory change, a survey was performed to Korean nuclear utilities, researchers and regulators on the perception on the RIR. The questionnaire was composed of 50 questions regarding personal details on work experience, level of education and specific field of work ; level of knowledge on the risk informed performance based regulation (RI-PBR); the perception of the current regulation, the effectiveness, level of procedure, flexibility, dependency on the regulator and personal view, and the perception of the RI-PBR such as flexibility of regulation, introduction time and the effect of RI-PBR, safety improvement, public perception, parts of the existing regulatory system that should be changed, etc. 515 answered from all sectors of the nuclear field; utilities, engineering companies, research institutes, and regulatory bodies.

  1. Vulnerability and policy relevance to drought in the semi-arid tropics of Asia – A retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen P. Singh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Of all the natural hazards, drought affects the maximum number of people globally causing devastating impacts. It is a reality that drought results in sets of socio-economic impacts starting with crop-yield failure, unemployment, erosion of assets, income decrease, poor nutrition and decreasing risk absorptive capacity, thereby increasing the vulnerability of the community. This paper gives a brief of the existing approaches that focus on vulnerability and impact assessment aid to characterize and identify regions, sectors and communities which are at risk for drought currently and in the future. It also discusses the limitation, constraints and pre-requisites in these approaches and highlights the importance of micro-level information to have a more realistic understanding of impact and vulnerability through illustration, with reference to the recent study conducted by the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT. This exercise will provide a guiding framework for devising action plans to improve adaptive capacity among vulnerable populations.

  2. The Relevance of the Informational Content of Book-Tax Differences for Predicting Future Income: Evidence from Latin American Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Vieira Cunha Marques

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate whether the different types of book-tax differences are useful for predicting the future income of publicly traded companies in five Latin American countries. This is possible since these differences convey information about transitory components of income, which can be used by investors for predicting future income. However, little is known about the relationship between tax variables and companies' future results. The sample analyzed here is composed of 580 publicly traded companies from five Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, and Peru with information available in the Economatica(r database covering 2002 to 2013. In terms of methodology, regressions are employed in order to find a connection between the different types (total, permanent, temporary, and the negative and positive variations of book-tax differences and companies' current and future earnings per share, as well as some control variables suggested by previous literature. The model's coefficients were estimated through panel data techniques: fixed effects. The results obtained suggest that the information gathered in the different types of book-tax differences (total, permanent, temporary, positive and negative variations is relevant in predicting future income. Total, permanent and temporary differences contribute to the uncertainty in future income prediction, given that results are more transitory and less persistent in years with higher book-tax differences. Positive and negative variations, on the other hand, attribute higher income in coming years to greater variations in book-tax differences, representing increased timeliness of results and a reduction in off balance sheet funding for the publicly traded companies from these countries.

  3. Case study of information product for strategy research, planning research, and policy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Yujun; Zou Lin; Liu Qun; Wang Yongping

    2010-01-01

    Soft science research is significant and can directly support the decision-making and development. The strategy research, planning research, and policy research each play an important role in soft science research. As the National Strategy of Informatization being implemented and advanced, some progress are made and some special information tools are produced in the process of strengthening the development research with information technologies. At first, the article introduced some cases of information products application, such as the domestic and overseas information products for energy strategy research and planning research and policy research, the governmental management information system for planning and investment, examination and approval and permission system for the planning of the land for construction, China agriculture decision support system and so on, and also gave a brief analysis on the theories and methods, main functions and application status. And then, with a analysis on the features of the works of development planning of China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC) development, this article gave some suggestions on how to strengthen the development of information system for the development planning of the CNNC. (authors)

  4. A new public policy to ensure access to scientific information resources: the case of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Soledad Bravo-Marchant

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The design and implementation of public policies to grant access to scientific information is now a marked trend among numerous countries of Latin America. The creation of specific instruments, the allocation of an ongoing budget and the accumulation of experience in negotiation and contracting of national licences have all been clear signs of the achievements resulting from recent initiatives in these countries. This article reviews the experience of the Consorcio para el Acceso a la Información Cientifíca Electrónica (CINCEL Corporation, a Chilean consortium created in 2002, the public policy that made it possible and the evaluation experience of its main programme, the Electronic Library of Scientific Information (BEIC.

  5. Identifying (Quasi) Equally Informative Subsets in Feature Selection Problems for Classification: A Max-Relevance Min-Redundancy Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaya, Gulsah; Galelli, Stefano; Ahipasaoglu, Selin Damla; Taormina, Riccardo

    2016-06-01

    An emerging trend in feature selection is the development of two-objective algorithms that analyze the tradeoff between the number of features and the classification performance of the model built with these features. Since these two objectives are conflicting, a typical result stands in a set of Pareto-efficient subsets, each having a different cardinality and a corresponding discriminating power. However, this approach overlooks the fact that, for a given cardinality, there can be several subsets with similar information content. The study reported here addresses this problem, and introduces a novel multiobjective feature selection approach conceived to identify: 1) a subset that maximizes the performance of a given classifier and 2) a set of subsets that are quasi equally informative, i.e., have almost same classification performance, to the performance maximizing subset. The approach consists of a wrapper [Wrapper for Quasi Equally Informative Subset Selection (W-QEISS)] built on the formulation of a four-objective optimization problem, which is aimed at maximizing the accuracy of a classifier, minimizing the number of features, and optimizing two entropy-based measures of relevance and redundancy. This allows conducting the search in a larger space, thus enabling the wrapper to generate a large number of Pareto-efficient solutions. The algorithm is compared against the mRMR algorithm, a two-objective wrapper and a computationally efficient filter [Filter for Quasi Equally Informative Subset Selection (F-QEISS)] on 24 University of California, Irvine, (UCI) datasets including both binary and multiclass classification. Experimental results show that W-QEISS has the capability of evolving a rich and diverse set of Pareto-efficient solutions, and that their availability helps in: 1) studying the tradeoff between multiple measures of classification performance and 2) understanding the relative importance of each feature. The quasi equally informative subsets are

  6. [An overview of the definition and implementation of the Brazilian National Policy on Health Data and Information Technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Ricardo Bezerra; Kerr-Pinheiro, Marta Macedo; Guimarães, Eliete Albano de Azevedo; Miranda, Richardson Machado

    2015-05-01

    The This qualitative study aimed to analyze the development and implementation of the Brazilian National Policy on Health Data and Information Technology (NPIIH). We analyzed documents and applied an online questionnaire to the experts involved in developing the policy. The data were submitted to content analysis using the categorical thematic modality. The PNIIS is the target of debate and proposals at various levels. Provisions have appeared in parallel to regulate measures on health data and information technology. Community participation in developing this policy and the convergence of laws, standards, resolutions, and policy-making levels in a common and broadly acknowledged and enforced policy are challenges, in addition to linking the public and private sectors. The study concludes that the National Policy on Health Data and Information Technology is making gradual progress, predominantly in theoretical debates, revisions, and updates. There are numerous challenges for its implementation and a prevailing need for legitimation.

  7. Informal public transport driver behaviour and regulatory policy linkage: An expose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smart Dumba

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Literature on the negative socio-economic and environmental externalities generated by informal public transport (IPT in developing countries is vast, vibrant and growing fast. These externalities include but are not limited to noise, air and land pollution, accidents and, more importantly, a source of congestion (human and vehicular because of poor driver behaviour. In this article, the research does not seek to reinstate these, but rather, it argues that poor driver behaviour is a dependent variable to some regulatory policy stimuli. Yet, an extensive literature survey has shown that the driver behaviour and urban transport regulation linkage remain little explored. Objective: The purpose of this article was to unpack the relationship between informal public transport driver behaviour and the prevailing regulatory framework. Method: Based on a case study of Harare, Zimbabwe, the researcher adopted a mixed-methods paradigm and interrogated the prevailing urban public transport regulatory regimes and applied professional judgement, oral interviews backed by some quantitative data and relate these to obtaining IPT driver behavioural characteristics. Results: Poor driver behaviour exhibited by IPT were generated, exacerbated and or eased by the prevailing regulatory policy. This is well depicted through an IPT driver behaviour and regulation loop reinforcing diagram. Conclusion: Following this argument, the article cautions policy makers and urban managers alike that direct approaches and interventions when trying to regulate IPT poor driver behaviour and its secondary negative effects will be futile as long as the regulatory policy remains the same. Failure to recognise and connect the dots between IPT driver behaviour and policy partly explains why globally, the IPT sector has proved difficult in prohibiting, restructuring or even formalising it.

  8. Informal public transport driver behaviour and regulatory policy linkage: An expose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smart Dumba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Literature on the negative socio-economic and environmental externalities generated by informal public transport (IPT in developing countries is vast, vibrant and growing fast. These externalities include but are not limited to noise, air and land pollution, accidents and, more importantly, a source of congestion (human and vehicular because of poor driver behaviour. In this article, the research does not seek to reinstate these, but rather, it argues that poor driver behaviour is a dependent variable to some regulatory policy stimuli. Yet, an extensive literature survey has shown that the driver behaviour and urban transport regulation linkage remain little explored.Objective: The purpose of this article was to unpack the relationship between informal public transport driver behaviour and the prevailing regulatory framework.Method: Based on a case study of Harare, Zimbabwe, the researcher adopted a mixed-methods paradigm and interrogated the prevailing urban public transport regulatory regimes and applied professional judgement, oral interviews backed by some quantitative data and relate these to obtaining IPT driver behavioural characteristics.Results: Poor driver behaviour exhibited by IPT were generated, exacerbated and or eased by the prevailing regulatory policy. This is well depicted through an IPT driver behaviour and regulation loop reinforcing diagram.Conclusion: Following this argument, the article cautions policy makers and urban managers alike that direct approaches and interventions when trying to regulate IPT poor driver behaviour and its secondary negative effects will be futile as long as the regulatory policy remains the same. Failure to recognise and connect the dots between IPT driver behaviour and policy partly explains why globally, the IPT sector has proved difficult in prohibiting, restructuring or even formalising it.

  9. Bilgi Politikalari Açısından Kapitalist Ekonomik Sistemde Bilgi Toplumu Olgusu / Information Policies of Information Societies in the Realm of Capitalistic Type of Economic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay Fenerci

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Information society which is a contemporary fact, represents a new economic, social and political era where information and information technologies are primary instruments of production. Actually this fact flourishes and disseminates in the capitalist system. Both capitalist system and information society offer oppurtunities and consist challenges especially for developing countries. In order to get benefit from oppurtunities and reduce risks, the information policies should be formulated rationally. However the information policies should not be asserted only as a problem of implementing infrastructure.

  10. Development of new non-invasive tests for colorectal cancer screening: the relevance of information on adenoma detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Ulrike; Knudsen, Amy B; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Kuntz, Karen M

    2015-06-15

    Researchers are actively pursuing the development of a new non-invasive test (NIT) for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening as an alternative to fecal occult blood tests (FOBTs). The majority of pilot studies focus on the detection of invasive CRC rather than precursor lesions (i.e., adenomas). We aimed to explore the relevance of adenoma detection for the viability of an NIT for CRC screening by considering a hypothetical test that does not detect adenomas beyond chance. We used the Simulation Model of Colorectal Cancer (SimCRC) to estimate the effectiveness of CRC screening and the lifetime costs (payers' perspective) for a cohort of US 50-years-old persons to whom CRC screening is offered from age 50-75. We compared annual screening with guaiac and immunochemical FOBTs (with sensitivities up to 70 and 24% for CRC and adenomas, respectively) to annual screening with a hypothetical NIT (sensitivity of 90% for CRC, no detection of adenomas beyond chance, specificity and cost similar to FOBTs). Screening with the NIT was not more effective, but was 29-44% more costly than screening with FOBTs. The findings were robust to varying the screening interval, the NIT's sensitivity for CRC, adherence rates favoring the NIT, and the NIT's unit cost. A comparative modelling approach using a model that assumes a shorter adenoma dwell time (MISCAN-COLON) confirmed the superiority of the immunochemical FOBT over an NIT with no ability to detect adenomas. Information on adenoma detection is crucial to determine whether a new NIT is a viable alternative to FOBTs for CRC screening. Current evidence thus lacks an important piece of information to identify marker candidates that hold real promise and deserve further (large-scale) evaluation. © 2014 UICC.

  11. Using machine learning techniques and genomic/proteomic information from known databases for defining relevant features for PPI classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquiza, J M; Rojas, I; Pomares, H; Herrera, J; Florido, J P; Valenzuela, O; Cepero, M

    2012-06-01

    In modern proteomics, prediction of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) is a key research line, as these interactions take part in most essential biological processes. In this paper, a new approach is proposed to PPI data classification based on the extraction of genomic and proteomic information from well-known databases and the incorporation of semantic measures. This approach is carried out through the application of data mining techniques and provides very accurate models with high levels of sensitivity and specificity in the classification of PPIs. The well-known support vector machine paradigm is used to learn the models, which will also return a new confidence score which may help expert researchers to filter out and validate new external PPIs. One of the most-widely analyzed organisms, yeast, will be studied. We processed a very high-confidence dataset by extracting up to 26 specific features obtained from the chosen databases, half of them calculated using two new similarity measures proposed in this paper. Then, by applying a filter-wrapper algorithm for feature selection, we obtained a final set composed of the eight most relevant features for predicting PPIs, which was validated by a ROC analysis. The prediction capability of the support vector machine model using these eight features was tested through the evaluation of the predictions obtained in a set of external experimental, computational, and literature-collected datasets. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The role of information and communication policies in the governance of the healthcare sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barileé B. Baridam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Information and communication technology (ICT is today an indispensable tool in the development of countries and economies, driving growth in many other sectors, including the health sector. The effective governance of the health sector demands enabling ICT policies. Healthcare is a key area in the development and growth of nations. A country that neglects this sector will definitely witness a decline in socio-economic development. Application of ICT in this sector is non-negotiable and an imperative. However, with diversities in policy ICT’s impact is not felt in many communities, and linking ICT and other business strategies is a big challenge. Availability of resources upon which ICT itself thrives is another factor limiting its impact upon the lives of the populations of most developing nations. Cultural diversity and technology problems seem to stand prominent among challenges impeding the impact of ICT on developing nations. Against this backdrop, this paper takes a critical look at the implementation and efficiency of ICT in healthcare delivery within the Nigerian context. The purpose is to assist those bodies responsible for ICT policy and implementation to enable the benefits of ICT to trickle through to the populace. We are also of the opinion that the adequate implementation of ICT policy in the health sector in the most populous black nation (Nigeria will go a long way to influence its implementation in neighbouring nations

  13. Information sources for obesity prevention policy research: a review of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanneke, Rosie; Young, Sabrina K

    2017-08-08

    Systematic identification of evidence in health policy can be time-consuming and challenging. This study examines three questions pertaining to systematic reviews on obesity prevention policy, in order to identify the most efficient search methods: (1) What percentage of the primary studies selected for inclusion in the reviews originated in scholarly as opposed to gray literature? (2) How much of the primary scholarly literature in this topic area is indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE? (3) Which databases index the greatest number of primary studies not indexed in PubMed, and are these databases searched consistently across systematic reviews? We identified systematic reviews on obesity prevention policy and explored their search methods and citations. We determined the percentage of scholarly vs. gray literature cited, the most frequently cited journals, and whether each primary study was indexed in PubMed. We searched 21 databases for all primary study articles not indexed in PubMed to determine which database(s) indexed the highest number of these relevant articles. In total, 21 systematic reviews were identified. Ten of the 21 systematic reviews reported searching gray literature, and 12 reviews ultimately included gray literature in their analyses. Scholarly articles accounted for 577 of the 649 total primary study papers. Of these, 495 (76%) were indexed in PubMed. Google Scholar retrieved the highest number of the remaining 82 non-PubMed scholarly articles, followed by Scopus and EconLit. The Journal of the American Dietetic Association was the most-cited journal. Researchers can maximize search efficiency by searching a small yet targeted selection of both scholarly and gray literature resources. A highly sensitive search of PubMed and those databases that index the greatest number of relevant articles not indexed in PubMed, namely multidisciplinary and economics databases, could save considerable time and effort. When combined with a gray literature search and

  14. Consumer access to health information on the internet: health policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, W Guy; Scott, Helen M; Auld, Terry S

    2005-06-28

    internet health information (greater than the average general practitioner fee) and the fact that some of the information found may be unreliable or even unsafe a valuable public health policy initiative would be to provide an improved New Zealand health information website containing information on how to evaluate data sourced from the world-wide-web and links to a range of useful and trustworthy health information sites.

  15. Managing misaligned paternity findings in research including sickle cell disease screening in Kenya: 'consulting communities' to inform policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Vicki; Kombe, Francis; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Molyneux, Sassy; Parker, Michael

    2013-11-01

    The management of misaligned paternity findings raises important controversy worldwide. It has mainly, however, been discussed in the context of high-income countries. Genetic and genomics research, with the potential to show misaligned paternity, are becoming increasingly common in Africa. During a genomics study in Kenya, a dilemma arose over testing and sharing information on paternal sickle cell disease status. This dilemma may be paradigmatic of challenges in sharing misaligned paternity findings in many research and health care settings. Using a deliberative approach to community consultation to inform research practice, we explored residents' views on paternal testing and sharing misaligned paternity information. Between December 2009 and November 2010, 63 residents in Kilifi County were engaged in informed deliberative small group discussions, structured to support normative reflection within the groups, with purposive selection to explore diversity. Analysis was based on a modified framework analysis approach, drawing on relevant social science and bioethics literature. The methods generated in-depth individual and group reflection on morally important issues and uncovered wide diversity in views and values. Fundamental and conflicting values emerged around the importance of family interests and openness, underpinned by disagreement on the moral implications of marital infidelity and withholding truth. Wider consideration of ethical issues emerging in these debates supports locally-held reasoning that paternal sickle cell testing should not be undertaken in this context, in contrast to views that testing should be done with or without the disclosure of misaligned paternity information. The findings highlight the importance of facilitating wider testing of family members of affected children, contingent on the development and implementation of national policies for the management of this inherited disorder. Their richness also illustrates the potential for

  16. Information Acquisition and Excessive Risk: Impact of Policy Rate and Market Volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volha Audzei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Excessive risk-taking of financial agents drew a lot of attention in the aftermath of the financial crisis. Low interest rates and subdued market volatility during the Great Moderation are sometimes blamed for stimulating risk-taking and leading to the recent financial crisis. In recent years, with many central banks around the world conducting the policy of low interest rates and mitigating market risks, it has been debatable whether this policy contributes to the building up of another credit boom. This paper addresses this issue by focusing on information acquisition by the financial agents. We build a theoretical model which captures excessive risk taking in response to changes in policy rate and market volatility. This excessive risk takes the form of an increased risk appetite of the agents, but also of decreased incentives to acquire information about risky assets. As a result, with market risk being reduced, agents tend to acquire more risk in their portfolios then they would with the higher market risk. The same forces increase portfolio risk when the safe interest rate is falling. The robustness of the results is considered with different learning rules.

  17. The influence of formal and informal policies and practices on health care innovation implementation: A mixed-methods analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMartino, Lisa D; Birken, Sarah A; Hanson, Laura C; Trogdon, Justin G; Clary, Alecia S; Weinberger, Morris; Reeder-Hayes, Katherine; Weiner, Bryan J

    2018-03-12

    The implementation science literature has contributed important insights regarding the influence of formal policies and practices on health care innovation implementation, whereas informal implementation policies and practices have garnered little attention. The broader literature suggests that informal implementation policies and practices could also influence innovation use. We used the Organizational Theory of Innovation Implementation to further understand the role of formal and informal implementation policies and practices as determinants of implementation effectiveness. We examined their role within the context of initiatives to increase palliative care consultation in inpatient oncology. We used a case study design in two organizational settings within one academic medical center: medical and gynecologic oncology. We completed semistructured interviews with medical (n = 12) and gynecologic (n = 10) oncology clinicians using questions based on organizational theory. Quantitative data assessed implementation effectiveness, defined as aggregated palliative care consult rates within oncology services from 2010 to 2016. Four palliative care clinicians were interviewed to gain additional implementation context insights. Medical oncology employed multiple formal policies and practices including training and clinician prompting to support palliative care consultation and a top-down approach, yet most clinicians were unaware of the policies and practices, contributing to a weak implementation climate. In contrast, gynecologic oncology employed one formal policy (written guideline of criteria for initiating a consult) but also relied on informal policies and practices, such as spontaneous feedback and communication; they adopted a bottom-up approach, contributing to broader clinician awareness and strong implementation climate. Both services exhibited variable, increasing consult rates over time. Informal policies and practices may compensate or substitute for formal

  18. An evaluation of the quality of evidence available to inform current bone conducting hearing device national policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandavia, R; Carter, A W; Haram, N; Mossialos, E; Schilder, A G M

    2017-10-01

    In 2016, NHS England published the commissioning policy on Bone Conducting Hearing Devices (BCHDs). This policy was informed by updated evidence on the clinical and cost-effectiveness of BCHDs as well as by the 2013 Bone Anchored Hearing Aid (BAHA) policy. Commissioning policies set the criteria for service delivery and therefore have a major impact on the care received by patients. It is important that stakeholders have a good appreciation of the available evidence informing policy, as this will promote engagement both with the policy and with future research leading on from the policy. In this article, we provide stakeholders with a transparent and pragmatic assessment of the quality of the body of evidence available to inform current BCHD national policy. (i) A systematic review of the literature on BCHDs published since the development of the 2013 policy was performed in September 2016, adhering to PRISMA recommendations. The search terms used were as follows bone conduction; bone conducting; bone anchor; BAHA; Bone Anchored Hearing Aid; Bone Conducting Hearing Device; BCHD; Bone Conducting Hearing Implant; BCHI; Sophono; Bonebridge; Soundbite; Ponto; Hearing aid; implant; device; hearing device. Publications that could inform current BCHD policy were included. The quality of included articles was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. (ii) The quality of evidence referenced by the 2013 BAHA policy was assessed using the GRADE system. (i) Of the 2576 publications on BCHDs identified by the systematic search, 39 met the inclusion criteria for further analysis. Using the GRADE criteria, the quality of evidence was classified as of 'very low quality'. (ii) The 2013 BAHA policy was informed by 14 references. The GRADE system classifies the quality of evidence that informed the policy as of 'very low quality'. The GRADE system defines the body of evidence available to inform current national BCHD policy

  19. Informing Ex Ante Event Studies with Macro-Econometric Evidence on the Structural and Policy Impacts of Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassios, Jason; Giesecke, James A

    2018-04-01

    Economic consequence analysis is one of many inputs to terrorism contingency planning. Computable general equilibrium (CGE) models are being used more frequently in these analyses, in part because of their capacity to accommodate high levels of event-specific detail. In modeling the potential economic effects of a hypothetical terrorist event, two broad sets of shocks are required: (1) physical impacts on observable variables (e.g., asset damage); (2) behavioral impacts on unobservable variables (e.g., investor uncertainty). Assembling shocks describing the physical impacts of a terrorist incident is relatively straightforward, since estimates are either readily available or plausibly inferred. However, assembling shocks describing behavioral impacts is more difficult. Values for behavioral variables (e.g., required rates of return) are typically inferred or estimated by indirect means. Generally, this has been achieved via reference to extraneous literature or ex ante surveys. This article explores a new method. We elucidate the magnitude of CGE-relevant structural shifts implicit in econometric evidence on terrorist incidents, with a view to informing future ex ante event assessments. Ex post econometric studies of terrorism by Blomberg et al. yield macro econometric equations that describe the response of observable economic variables (e.g., GDP growth) to terrorist incidents. We use these equations to determine estimates for relevant (unobservable) structural and policy variables impacted by terrorist incidents, using a CGE model of the United States. This allows us to: (i) compare values for these shifts with input assumptions in earlier ex ante CGE studies; and (ii) discuss how future ex ante studies can be informed by our analysis. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  20. Top 40 priorities for science to inform conservation and management policy in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleishman, Erica; Blockstein, David E.; Hall, John A.; Mascia, Michael B.; Rudd, Murray A.; Scott, J. Michael; Sutherland, William J.; Bartuska, Ann M.; Brown, A. Gordon; Christen, Catherine A.; Clement, Joel P.; DellaSala, Dominick; Duke, Clifford D.; Fiske, Shirley J.; Gosnell, Hannah; Haney, J. Christopher; Hutchins, Michael; Klein, Mary L.; Marqusee, Jeffrey; Noon, Barry R.; Nordgren, John R.; Orbuch, Paul M.; Powell, Jimmie; Quarles, Steven P.; Saterson, Kathryn A.; Stein, Bruce A.; Webster, Michael S.; Vedder, Amy

    2011-01-01

    To maximize the utility of research to decisionmaking, especially given limited financial resources, scientists must set priorities for their efforts. We present a list of the top 40 high-priority, multidisciplinary research questions directed toward informing some of the most important current and future decisions about management of species, communities, and ecological processes in the United States. The questions were generated by an open, inclusive process that included personal interviews with decisionmakers, broad solicitation of research needs from scientists and policymakers, and an intensive workshop that included scientifically oriented individuals responsible for managing and developing policy related to natural resources. The process differed from previous efforts to set priorities for conservation research in its focus on the engagement of decisionmakers in addition to researchers. The research priorities emphasized the importance of addressing societal context and exploration of trade-offs among alternative policies and actions, as well as more traditional questions related to ecological processes and functions.

  1. Applying Science: Opportunities to Inform Disease Management Policy with Cooperative Research within a One Health Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Jason K; Kracalik, Ian T; Fair, Jeanne Marie

    2015-01-01

    The ongoing Ebola outbreak in West Africa and the current saiga antelope die off in Kazakhstan each represent very real and difficult to manage public or veterinary health crises. They also illustrate the importance of stable and funded surveillance and sound policy for intervention or disease control. While these two events highlight extreme cases of infectious disease (Ebola) or (possible) environmental exposure (saiga), diseases such as anthrax, brucellosis, tularemia, and plague are all zoonoses that pose risks and present surveillance challenges at the wildlife-livestock-human interfaces. These four diseases are also considered important actors in the threat of biological terror activities and have a long history as legacy biowarfare pathogens. This paper reviews recent studies done cooperatively between American and institutions within nations of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) focused on spatiotemporal, epidemiological, and ecological patterns of these four zoonoses. We examine recent studies and discuss the possible ways in which techniques, including ecological niche modeling, disease risk modeling, and spatiotemporal cluster analysis, can inform disease surveillance, control efforts, and impact policy. Our focus is to posit ways to apply science to disease management policy and actual management or mitigation practices. Across these examples, we illustrate the value of cooperative studies that bring together modern geospatial and epidemiological analyses to improve our understanding of the distribution of pathogens and diseases in livestock, wildlife, and humans. For example, ecological niche modeling can provide national level maps of pathogen distributions for surveillance planning, while space-time models can identify the timing and location of significant outbreak events for defining active control strategies. We advocate for the need to bring the results and the researchers from cooperative studies into the meeting rooms where policy is negotiated and

  2. Tracking Invasive Alien Species (TrIAS: Building a data-driven framework to inform policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Vanderhoeven

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Imagine a future where dynamically, from year to year, we can track the progression of alien species (AS, identify emerging problem species, assess their current and future risk and timely inform policy in a seamless data-driven workflow. One that is built on open science and open data infrastructures. By using international biodiversity standards and facilities, we would ensure interoperability, repeatability and sustainability. This would make the process adaptable to future requirements in an evolving AS policy landscape both locally and internationally. In recent years, Belgium has developed decision support tools to inform invasive alien species (IAS policy, including information systems, early warning initiatives and risk assessment protocols. However, the current workflows from biodiversity observations to IAS science and policy are slow, not easily repeatable, and their scope is often taxonomically, spatially and temporally limited. This is mainly caused by the diversity of actors involved and the closed, fragmented nature of the sources of these biodiversity data, which leads to considerable knowledge gaps for IAS research and policy. We will leverage expertise and knowledge from nine former and current BELSPO projects and initiatives: Alien Alert, Invaxen, Diars, INPLANBEL, Alien Impact, Ensis, CORDEX.be, Speedy and the Belgian Biodiversity Platform. The project will be built on two components: 1 The establishment of a data mobilization framework for AS data from diverse data sources and 2 the development of data-driven procedures for risk evaluation based on risk modelling, risk mapping and risk assessment. We will use facilities from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF, standards from the Biodiversity Information Standards organization (TDWG and expertise from Lifewatch to create and facilitate a systematic workflow. Alien species data will be gathered from a large set of regional, national and international

  3. Technology and Policy Challenges in the Adoption and Operation of Health Information Exchange Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hyerim; Yoo, Sooyoung; Heo, Eun-Young; Hwang, Hee; Kim, Jeong-Whun

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to identify problems and issues that arise with the implementation of online health information exchange (HIE) systems in a medical environment and to identify solutions to facilitate the successful operation of future HIE systems in primary care clinics and hospitals. In this study, the issues that arose during the establishment and operation of an HIE system in a hospital were identified so that they could be addressed to enable the successful establishment and operation of a standard-based HIE system. After the issues were identified, they were reviewed and categorized by a group of experts that included medical information system experts, doctors, medical information standard experts, and HIE researchers. Then, solutions for the identified problems were derived based on the system development, operation, and improvement carried out during this work. Twenty-one issues were identified during the implementation and operation of an online HIE system. These issues were then divided into four categories: system architecture and standards, documents and data items, consent of HIE, and usability. We offer technical and policy recommendations for various stakeholders based on the experiences of operating and improving the online HIE system in the medical field. The issues and solutions identified in this study regarding the implementation and operate of an online HIE system can provide valuable insight for planners to enable them to successfully design and operate such systems at a national level in the future. In addition, policy support from governments is needed.

  4. Science, information, technology, and the changing character of public policy in non-point source pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, John L.; Corwin, Dennis L.

    Information technologies are already delivering important new capabilities for scientists working on non-point source (NPS) pollution in the vadose zone, and more are expected. This paper focuses on the special contributions of modeling and network communications for enhancing the effectiveness of scientists in the realm of policy debates regarding NPS pollution mitigation and abatement. The discussion examines a fundamental shift from a strict regulatory strategy of pollution control characterized by a bureaucratic/technical alliance during the period through the 1970's and early 1980's, to a more recently evolving paradigm of pluralistic environmental management. The role of science and scientists in this shift is explored, with special attention to the challenges facing scientists working in NPS pollution in the vadose zone. These scientists labor under a special handicap in the evolving model because their scientific tools are often times incapable of linking NPS pollution with individuals responsible for causing it. Information can facilitate the effectiveness of these scientists in policy debates, but not under the usual assumptions in which scientific truth prevails. Instead, information technology's key role is in helping scientists shape the evolving discussion of trade-offs and in bringing citizens and policymakers closer to the routine work of scientists.

  5. Informal Payments in the Health Care System - Research, Media and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Răzvan Cherecheş

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Informal payments in the health system refer to any payment made outside the legal funding framework. The existence of the phenomenon in Central and Eastern European countries relates to the characteristics of the health systems in the communist period. The analysis is based on three types of data: a set of data gathered from literature review; a second set of data gathered from online media; and a third set of data collected from legislative and public policy. The analysis was pursued using the key words such as informal payment, under-the-table payment, out-of-pocket payment, envelope payment, healthcare corruption, under-the-counter payment. As reflected in the media reports and even publicly recognized by the officials of the Ministry of Health, informal payments are a serious problem of the Romanian healthcare system. Nevertheless, the studies pursued by local researchers are inconsistent with the actual magnitude of the problem. Besides that, there is a serious gap between the findings in this area and the policies intended to reduce the phenomenon.

  6. Current References and Information Services for Policy Decision-Making in State and Local Government Labor Relations: A Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labor Management Services Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Div. of Public Employee Labor Relations.

    Designed to document problems and issues concerning public employee labor relations, this bibliography should identify information useful in the development of equitable labor relations policies. The 550 listings are arranged into sections on: (1) Background References, Current Assessments and Policy Alternatives in Public Sector Labor Relations,…

  7. Effect of Tobacco Control Policies on Information Seeking for Smoking Cessation in the Netherlands: A Google Trends Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troelstra, Sigrid A.; Bosdriesz, Jizzo R.; de Boer, Michiel R.; Kunst, Anton E.

    2016-01-01

    Background The impact of tobacco control policies on measures of smoking cessation behaviour has often been studied, yet there is little information on their precise magnitude and duration. This study aims to measure the magnitude and timing of the impact of Dutch tobacco control policies on the

  8. Effect of Tobacco Control Policies on Information Seeking for Smoking Cessation in the Netherlands : A Google Trends Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troelstra, Sigrid A; Bosdriesz, Jizzo R; de Boer, Michiel R; Kunst, Anton E

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The impact of tobacco control policies on measures of smoking cessation behaviour has often been studied, yet there is little information on their precise magnitude and duration. This study aims to measure the magnitude and timing of the impact of Dutch tobacco control policies on the

  9. News Coverage and Access to Contextual Policy Information in the Case of Recreational Water Rights in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Deserai Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Local news media help shape the agendas from which new policies emerge. Furthermore, local media help determine public understanding of complex issues. Media should inform citizens and policymakers on important policy issues. This study uses a content analysis of 11 newspapers to understand the manner in which reporters covered a specific…

  10. Information and communication technology (ICT) and eHealth policy in Latin America and the Caribbean: a review of national policies and assessment of socioeconomic context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Marroquin, Maria Carolina; Deber, Raisa; Jadad, Alejandro R

    2014-01-01

    To examine the availability of national information and communication technology (ICT) or eHealth policies produced by countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), and to determine the influence of a country's socioeconomic context on the existence of these policies. Documents describing a national ICT or eHealth policy in any of the 33 countries belonging to the LAC region as listed by the United Nations were identified from three data sources: academic databases; the Google search engine; and government agencies and representatives. The relationship between the existence of a policy and national socioeconomic indicators was also investigated. There has been some progress in the establishment of ICT and eHealth policies in the LAC region. The most useful methods for identifying the policies were 1) use of the Google search engine and 2) contact with Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) country representatives. The countries that have developed a national ICT policy seem to be more likely to have a national eHealth policy in place. There was no statistical significant association between the existence of a policy and a country's socioeconomic context. Governments need to make stronger efforts to raise awareness about existing and planned ICT and eHealth policies, not only to facilitate ease of use and communication with their stakeholders, but also to promote collaborative international efforts. In addition, a better understanding of the effect of economic variables on the role that ICTs play in health sector reform efforts will help shape the vision of what can be achieved.

  11. Analyzing Market Economies from the Perspective of Information Production, Policy, and Self-Organized Equilibrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C-Rene DOMINIQUE

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A modern market economy is an exceedingly complex, infinite-dimensional, stochastic dynamical system. The failure of mainstream economists to characterize its dynamics may well be due to its intractability. This paper argues that the characterization of its dynamics becomes almost trivial when it is analyzed from the perspective of information production. Whether its Jacobian matrix is specifiable or not, a Lyapunov spectrum can be constructed from which the potential Kolmogorov-Sinai or Shannon entropy can be assessed. However, a self-organized equilibrium must first obtain, and for that a suitable policy must be operational.

  12. Are Foreign IT Workers Cheaper? U.S. Visa Policies and Compensation of Information Technology Professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Sunil Mithas; Henry C. Lucas, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    The use of H-1B and other work visas to hire foreign information technology (IT) professionals in the United States has attracted significant controversy and policy debates. On one hand, hiring high-skill foreign IT professionals on work visas can be advantageous for U.S. firms and the overall economy. On the other hand, high-skill immigration can adversely impact the wages of foreign and American IT professionals. This study uses data on skills and compensation of more than 50,000 IT profess...

  13. Ethically informed pragmatic conditions for organ donation after cardiocirculatory death: could they assist in policy development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    The modern practice of organ donation after cardiocirculatory death (DCD) emerged in the 1990s as a response to the alarmingly wide gap between the number of transplantable organs available through organ donation after neurological death and the urgent organ transplantation needs of persons in end-organ failure. Various important ethical dimensions of DCD have been considered and debated by prominent organ donation/transplantation theorists and clinicians. In this article, consideration of some of these ethical elements provides a foundation for a proposed set of ethically informed, pragmatic conditions that could assist in the development of health policies to guide the practice of organ donation after cardiocirculatory death.

  14. Web based concept project for information and communication of monitoring policy and techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, D. S.; Sordi, G. M. A. A., E-mail: info@uniprorad.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares / CNEN, Av. Lineu Prestes 2242, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is growing in Brazil and worldwide. The servers processing power added to the technology of relational databases allow to integrate information from different sources, enabling complex queries with reduced response time. We believe that the use of information technology for the radiological protection programs for human activities shall help greatly the radioactive facility that requires such use. Therefore, this project aims the informatization of the monitoring policy and techniques in Portuguese, providing Brazilian radioactive facilities a complete repository for research, consultation and information in a quick, integrated and efficient way. In order to meet national and international standards, the development of this project includes concepts, definitions and theory about monitoring procedures in order to interrelate information, currently scattered in several publications and documents, in a consistent and appropriate manner. The Web platform tools and functionalities were developed according to our target public needs, regarding new possibilities of media, like mobile access, feeds of content and information sharing. Moreover, taking into account this is a pioneer project with the prospect of long-term use, our challenge involves the combination of multiple computer technologies that allows a robust, effective, and flexible system, which can be easily adapted according to future technological innovations. This pioneer project shell help greatly both radioactive facilities and researchers, and it is our target to make it an international reference for Portuguese Spoken countries. (Author)

  15. Web based concept project for information and communication of monitoring policy and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, D. S.; Sordi, G. M. A. A.

    2014-08-01

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is growing in Brazil and worldwide. The servers processing power added to the technology of relational databases allow to integrate information from different sources, enabling complex queries with reduced response time. We believe that the use of information technology for the radiological protection programs for human activities shall help greatly the radioactive facility that requires such use. Therefore, this project aims the informatization of the monitoring policy and techniques in Portuguese, providing Brazilian radioactive facilities a complete repository for research, consultation and information in a quick, integrated and efficient way. In order to meet national and international standards, the development of this project includes concepts, definitions and theory about monitoring procedures in order to interrelate information, currently scattered in several publications and documents, in a consistent and appropriate manner. The Web platform tools and functionalities were developed according to our target public needs, regarding new possibilities of media, like mobile access, feeds of content and information sharing. Moreover, taking into account this is a pioneer project with the prospect of long-term use, our challenge involves the combination of multiple computer technologies that allows a robust, effective, and flexible system, which can be easily adapted according to future technological innovations. This pioneer project shell help greatly both radioactive facilities and researchers, and it is our target to make it an international reference for Portuguese Spoken countries. (Author)

  16. The Contributions of Regional Knowledge Networks Researching Environmental Changes in Latin America and Africa: a Synthesis of what they can do and why they can be policy relevant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myanna Lahsen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We provide a synthesis of what regional scientific research networks in less developed regions of the world can do and why they might be relevant for societal decisions and practice. We do so through a focus on three regional science network initiatives that aim to enhance understanding of the multiscalar dynamics of global environmental change (GEC regionally and globally, namely the Southern Africa Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000, the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA, and the Inter-American Institute for Global Change (IAI. With a view to aiding future efforts at regional research network formation, we assess whether and how these three networks enhanced regional science, and the extent to which they sought and managed to bridge the science-policy gap that challenges GEC science as a whole. Identifying key decisions and attributes bearing on their successes, the analysis attends specifically to how the three networks sought to build capacity, how differences and similarities between them affected their level of autonomy from governments, and how this and other factors influenced their functioning and achievements.

  17. Gender, citizenship and dementia care: a scoping review of studies to inform policy and future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Ruth; Gjernes, Trude; Lotherington, Ann-Therese; Obstefelder, Aud

    2018-01-01

    Gender is a neglected dimension in public discourse related to people with dementia. Those living with this condition are typically portrayed in policies and strategies in gender neutral terms as 'people with dementia' and 'family carers' as if gender does not matter, when clearly it does. The purpose of this scoping review was to take stock of knowledge about gender differences in relation to dementia care to inform policy and future research. The work is grounded in a feminist perspective to citizenship, as this provide a lens with which to expose and examine gendered assumptions within dementia studies. A search of four databases, including CINAHL, Web of Science, Medline and Cochrane was conducted using systematic techniques between May and July 2014. A repeat search was conducted in February 2015. We found a significant amount of valuable research concerned with gender differences in relation to dementia care published from 1990 to 2014; the majority of which lacks a feminist citizenship perspective. Moreover, a disproportionate number of studies focused solely on caregivers rather than citizens with dementia. As such, questions about gender equality are not being raised and the voices of men and women with dementia are silent. Thus we argue for increased gender-sensitivity in policy making and recommend that social scientists inject a feminist citizenship perspective into their work. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Leveraging school-based research to inform bullying prevention and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espelage, Dorothy L

    2016-11-01

    School-based bullying and other forms of school violence have been the topic of over 40 years of research in the U.S. and internationally. Within the last 2 decades, research has increasingly informed bullying prevention, policy, and legislative efforts. The purpose of this article is to highlight several critical research areas on bullying and other forms of school violence that have shaped prevention efforts and policy over the last 2 decades. As the recipient of the 2016 Award for Distinguished Contributions to Research in Public Policy , the discussion here will focus largely on research findings from The Espelage Lab and collaborators, but these studies and findings will be situated in the larger literature. Topics covered include conceptualization of bullying from a social-ecological framework, developmental considerations of bullying and associated forms of aggression, identification of populations at heightened risk for bullying, and efficacy of bullying prevention programs. Recommendations are provided for the next generation of scholars, practitioners, and policymakers focused on bullying prevention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Son preference and sex-selective abortion in China: informing policy options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chi; Wang, Xiao Lei; Zhou, Xu Dong; Hesketh, Therese

    2012-06-01

    There is growing evidence in China that son preference is on the decline, but the sex ratio at birth is still the highest in the world at around 120 male births to 100 females. The aim of the study was to explore attitudes towards gender preference among people of reproductive age, to determine the reasons why the sex ratio is persistently high, and to inform policy options. We conducted in-depth interviews with 212 individuals who aged from 18 to 39 in rural and urban areas of three provinces: Yunnan, Guizhou and Zhejiang. We show that while son preference has weakened considerably, it has not disappeared. The sex ratio remains high, because of this small minority of individuals, who still choose sex-selective abortion to ensure male offsprings. Intensive local policy interventions have been successful in reducing the sex ratio in some areas and these should be disseminated widely. In addition, the law forbidding sex selection should be actively enforced, and the One Child Policy should be relaxed in some areas, to reduce the disproportionately high sex ratio in the second order births.

  20. Designing Observation and Modeling Systems to Inform Decisions and Policies on Freshwater Objectives in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baisden, W. T.; Ellis, T.; Rissman, C.; Moore, C.; Matthews, A.

    2016-12-01

    Declines in New Zealand's freshwater quality have led to legislation - the 2014 National Policy Statement on Freshwater Management (NPS-FM) - which requires regional governments to set "objectives" and design policies accordingly. In most regions, increases in freshwater contaminants are derived largely from intensifying agriculture and come as nitrogen, phosphorous or sediment, or a combination thereof. Here, the development and application of N and O isotopes as natural tracers for nitrate is examined as a case study, in the context of a wider hierarchy of observations such as N concentrations, flow and broader hydrochemistry used for NPS-FM implementation. The analysis of N and O isotopes in nitrate provides specific information on sources and removal processes that cannot be obtained by other measurements. Yet, despite considerable development of the technical methodology and environment-specific interpretation, application of measurements has faced barriers. Many may be typical of science in a small advanced nation with a population of 4.5 million, but others are unique due to New Zealand's limited rural population base and large diversity in physical geography, as well as a unique economic reliance on highly productive pastoral agricultural systems. Seventeen different regional governments are empowered to regulate in ways consistent with local consultation and democracy within their catchment boundaries, but with limited resources to align highly technical observational data to policies and decisions, as well as supporting models. The resulting gaps in communication and technical capability combine with a diversity of approaches to pose both challenges and opportunities for development and application of hierarchical observation systems. Success appears to lie in ensuring decision frameworks can be `mapped', so that different frameworks can be compared, and the benefits of sophisticated observations understood directly in relation to influence on regional

  1. Information and Communication Technologies in International Education: A Canadian Policy Analysi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C. Aucoin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The rhetoric surrounding the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs in international education speaks of providing education access for all. However, an examination of actual policies reveals an emphasis not on creating an educated population, but on improving economic opportunities using discourses such as globalization, knowledge economy, and knowledge society. This emphasis creates an imbalance in opportunities for using ICTs in education and presents challenges for international educators. This paper discusses the Canadian International Development Agency’s report, CIDA’s Strategy on Knowledge for Development through Information and Communication Technologies, as an example of how rhetoric does not always meet reality. The paper concludes with four simple recommendations for good ICT practice in developing contexts.

  2. SDP Policy Iteration-Based Energy Management Strategy Using Traffic Information for Commuter Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Jiao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates an energy management method using traffic information for commuter hybrid electric vehicles. A control strategy based on stochastic dynamic programming (SDP is developed, which minimizes on average the equivalent fuel consumption, while satisfying the battery charge-sustaining constraints and the overall vehicle power demand for drivability. First, according to the sample information of the traffic speed profiles, the regular route is divided into several segments and the statistic characteristics in the different segments are constructed from gathered data on the averaged vehicle speeds. And then, the energy management problem is formulated as a stochastic nonlinear and constrained optimal control problem and a modified policy iteration algorithm is utilized to generate a time-invariant state-dependent power split strategy. Finally, simulation results over some driving cycles are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed energy management strategy.

  3. Indirect effect of management support on users' compliance behaviour towards information security policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humaidi, Norshima; Balakrishnan, Vimala

    2018-01-01

    Health information systems are innovative products designed to improve the delivery of effective healthcare, but they are also vulnerable to breaches of information security, including unauthorised access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification or destruction, and duplication of passwords. Greater openness and multi-connectedness between heterogeneous stakeholders within health networks increase the security risk. The focus of this research was on the indirect effects of management support (MS) on user compliance behaviour (UCB) towards information security policies (ISPs) among health professionals in selected Malaysian public hospitals. The aim was to identify significant factors and provide a clearer understanding of the nature of compliance behaviour in the health sector environment. Using a survey design and stratified random sampling method, self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 454 healthcare professionals in three hospitals. Drawing on theories of planned behaviour, perceived behavioural control (self-efficacy (SE) and MS components) and the trust factor, an information system security policies compliance model was developed to test three related constructs (MS, SE and perceived trust (PT)) and their relationship to UCB towards ISPs. Results showed a 52.8% variation in UCB through significant factors. Partial least squares structural equation modelling demonstrated that all factors were significant and that MS had an indirect effect on UCB through both PT and SE among respondents to this study. The research model based on the theory of planned behaviour in combination with other human and organisational factors has made a useful contribution towards explaining compliance behaviour in relation to organisational ISPs, with trust being the most significant factor. In adopting a multidimensional approach to management-user interactions via multidisciplinary concepts and theories to evaluate the association between the integrated management

  4. Exploring the information and communication technology competence and confidence of nursing students and their perception of its relevance to clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levett-Jones, Tracy; Kenny, Raelene; Van der Riet, Pamela; Hazelton, Michael; Kable, Ashley; Bourgeois, Sharon; Luxford, Yoni

    2009-08-01

    This paper profiles a study that explored nursing students' information and communication technology competence and confidence. It presents selected findings that focus on students' attitudes towards information and communication technology as an educational methodology and their perceptions of its relevance to clinical practice. Information and communication technology is integral to contemporary nursing practice. Development of these skills is important to ensure that graduates are 'work ready' and adequately prepared to practice in increasingly technological healthcare environments. This was a mixed methods study. Students (n=971) from three Australian universities were surveyed using an instrument designed specifically for the study, and 24 students participated in focus groups. The focus group data revealed that a number of students were resistant to the use of information and communication technology as an educational methodology and lacked the requisite skills and confidence to engage successfully with this educational approach. Survey results indicated that 26 per cent of students were unsure about the relevance of information and communication technology to clinical practice and only 50 per cent felt 'very confident' using a computer. While the importance of information and communication technology to student's learning and to their preparedness for practice has been established, it is evident that students' motivation is influenced by their level of confidence and competence, and their understanding of the relevance of information and communication technology to their future careers.

  5. Domestic Violence and Welfare Policy: Research Findings That Can Inform Policies on Marriage and Child Well-Being. Research Forum on Children, Families, and the New Federalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Sharmila

    Asserting that the welfare reform proposals of the mid-1990s drew attention to the problem of domestic violence among individuals receiving public assistance who are among the poorest of the poor, this report examines what is known from past research on domestic violence that may inform policies related to marriage and child well-being. In…

  6. Realizing Relevance: The Influence of Domain-Specific Information on Generation of New Knowledge Through Integration in 4- to 8-Year-Old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Patricia J; Larkina, Marina

    2017-01-01

    In accumulating knowledge, direct modes of learning are complemented by productive processes, including self-generation based on integration of separate episodes. Effects of the number of potentially relevant episodes on integration were examined in 4- to 8-year-olds (N = 121; racially/ethnically heterogeneous sample, English speakers, from large metropolitan area). Information was presented along with unrelated or related episodes; the latter challenged children to identify the relevant subset of episodes for integration. In Experiment 1, 4- and 6-year-olds integrated in the unrelated context. Six-year-olds also succeeded in the related context in forced-choice testing. In Experiment 2, 8-year-olds succeeded in open-ended and forced-choice testing. Results illustrate a developmental progression in productive extension of knowledge due in part to age-related increases in identification of relevant information. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  7. A Draft Conceptual Framework of Relevant Theories to Inform Future Rigorous Research on Student Service-Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Meredith A.

    2014-01-01

    While the quality and quantity of research on service-learning has increased considerably over the past 20 years, researchers as well as governmental and funding agencies have called for more rigor in service-learning research. One key variable in improving rigor is using relevant existing theories to improve the research. The purpose of this…

  8. The Relevance Voxel Machine (RVoxM): A Self-Tuning Bayesian Model for Informative Image-Based Prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabuncu, Mert R.; Van Leemput, Koen

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the relevance voxel machine (RVoxM), a dedicated Bayesian model for making predictions based on medical imaging data. In contrast to the generic machine learning algorithms that have often been used for this purpose, the method is designed to utilize a small number of spatiall...

  9. Framework for Informed Policy Making Using Data from National Environmental Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, B.; Taylor, J. R.; Poinsatte, J.

    2012-12-01

    Large-scale environmental changes pose challenges that straddle environmental, economic, and social boundaries. As we design and implement climate adaptation strategies at the Federal, state, local, and tribal levels, accessible and usable data are essential for implementing actions that are informed by the best available information. Data-intensive science has been heralded as an enabler for scientific breakthroughs powered by advanced computing capabilities and interoperable data systems. Those same capabilities can be applied to data and information systems that facilitate the transformation of data into highly processed products. At the interface of scientifically informed public policy and data intensive science lies the potential for producers of credible, integrated, multi-scalar environmental data like the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) and its partners to capitalize on data and informatics interoperability initiatives that enable the integration of environmental data from across credible data sources. NSF's large-scale environmental observatories such as NEON and the Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI) are designed to provide high-quality, long-term environmental data for research. These data are also meant to be repurposed for operational needs that like risk management, vulnerability assessments, resource management, and others. The proposed USDA Agriculture Research Service (ARS) Long Term Agro-ecosystem Research (LTAR) network is another example of such an environmental observatory that will produce credible data for environmental / agricultural forecasting and informing policy. To facilitate data fusion across observatories, there is a growing call for observation systems to more closely coordinate and standardize how variables are measured. Together with observation standards, cyberinfrastructure standards enable the proliferation of an ecosystem of applications that utilize diverse, high-quality, credible data. Interoperability

  10. Learning and Relevance in Information Retrieval: A Study in the Application of Exploration and User Knowledge to Enhance Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Harvey

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the impact of exploration and learning upon eDiscovery information retrieval; it is written in three parts. Part I contains foundational concepts and background on the topics of information retrieval and eDiscovery. This part informs the reader about the research frameworks, methodologies, data collection, and…

  11. Modeling and Recognizing Policy Conflicts with Resource Access Requests on Protected Health Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raik Kuhlisch

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses potential clashes between different types of security policies that regulate resource access requests on clinical patient data in hospitals by employees. Attribute-based Access Control (ABAC is proposed as a proper means for such regulation. A proper representation of ABAC policies must include a handling of policy attributes among different policy types. In this article, we propose a semantic policy model with predefined policy conflict categories. A conformance verification function detects erroneous, clashing or mutually susceptible rules early during the policy planning phase. The model and conflicts are used in a conceptual application environment and evaluated in a technical experiment during an interoperability test event.

  12. Process Coordination & Policy Officer | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    When a policy requires updating, the applicable level of management will provide the incumbent with operational and other relevant information; the incumbent will provide Division management with information on current trends and the results of research. Together they will develop the parameters for the policy work that ...

  13. Exchange of information between nuclear safety authorities: Policy of the French regulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asty, Michel

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The decree setting up the Nuclear Safety Authority in 1973 entrusted it with international assignments whose objectives are still valid: - develop exchanges of information with foreign counterparts on regulatory systems and practices, on problems encountered in the nuclear safety field and on provisions made, with a view to enhancing its approach, and - becoming better acquainted with the actual operating practice of these Safety Authorities from which lessons could be learned for its own working procedures; - improving its position in the technical discussions with the French operators, since its arguments would be strengthened by practical knowledge of conditions abroad; - make known and explain the French approach and practices in the nuclear safety field and provide information on measures taken to deal with the problems encountered. This approach has several objectives: - promote the circulation of information on French positions on certain issues, such as very low level waste, for instance; - assist some countries wishing to create or modify their Nuclear Safety Authority, such as countries of the former USSR, the Central and Eastern European countries, and emerging countries on other continents; - help, when requested, foreign Safety Authorities required to issue permits for nuclear equipment of French origin; - provide the countries concerned with all relevant information on French nuclear installations located near their frontiers. Examples are given on the way the French Nuclear Safety Authority implements these objectives. (author)

  14. A difficult balancing act: policy actors' perspectives on using economic evaluation to inform health-care coverage decisions under the Universal Health Insurance Coverage scheme in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teerawattananon, Yot; Russell, Steve

    2008-03-01

    In Thailand, policymakers have come under increasing pressure to use economic evaluation to inform health-care resource allocation decisions, especially after the introduction of the Universal Health Insurance Coverage (UC) scheme. This article presents qualitative findings from research that assessed a range of policymakers' perspectives on the acceptability of using economic evaluation for the development of health-care benefit packages in Thailand. The policy analysis examined their opinions about existing decision-making processes for including health interventions in the UC benefit package, their understanding of health economic evaluation, and their attitudes, acceptance, and values relating to the use of the method. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 36 policy actors who play a major role or have some input into health resource allocation decisions within the Thai health-care system. These included 14 senior policymakers at the national level, 5 hospital directors, 10 health professionals, and 7 academics. Policy actors thought that economic evaluation information was relevant for decision-making because of the increasing need for rationing and more transparent criteria for making UC coverage decisions. Nevertheless, they raised several difficulties with using economic evaluation that would pose barriers to its introduction, including distrust in the method, conflicting philosophical positions and priorities compared to that of "health maximization," organizational allegiances, existing decision-making procedures that would be hard to change, and concerns about political pressure and acceptability.

  15. Capital Account Policy in South Korea: The Informal Residues of the Developmental State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf J. Leiteritz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the political dynamics of capital account policy in South Korea. The first part is devoted to the historical evolution of capital account policy from the 1960s to the present day. It highlights the path of substantial financial opening that began in the early 1990s with two distinct waves of capital account liberalization before and after the Asian financial crisis of 1997-1998. The second part of the paper aims to detect the political origins of why capital account liberalization has not been complete and sustained. It locates them at the level of domestic informal institutions: first, the ideational legacy of the previous developmental state model – economic nationalism – that was predicated upon substantial barriers to international capital movements. Second, the political power of the export-oriented sector, namely of large conglomerates, that prefer exchange-rate stability and thus restrictions on capital inflows. This paper offers a heuristic argument based on a single case study which needs to be subjected to further empirical testing.

  16. Health at the center of health systems reform: how philosophy can inform policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturmberg, Joachim P; Martin, Carmel M; Moes, Mark M

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary views hold that health and disease can be defined as objective states and thus should determine the design and delivery of health services. Yet health concepts are elusive and contestable. Health is neither an individual construction, a reflection of societal expectations, nor only the absence of pathologies. Based on philosophical and sociological theory, empirical evidence, and clinical experience, we argue that health has simultaneously objective and subjective features that converge into a dynamic complex-adaptive health model. Health (or its dysfunction, illness) is a dynamic state representing complex patterns of adaptation to body, mind, social, and environmental challenges, resulting in bodily homeostasis and personal internal coherence. The "balance of health" model-emergent, self-organizing, dynamic, and adaptive-underpins the very essence of medicine. This model should be the foundation for health systems design and also should inform therapeutic approaches, policy decision-making, and the development of emerging health service models. A complex adaptive health system focused on achieving the best possible "personal" health outcomes must provide the broad policy frameworks and resources required to implement people-centered health care. People-centered health systems are emergent in nature, resulting in locally different but mutually compatible solutions across the whole health system.

  17. Molecular Phenotyping Combines Molecular Information, Biological Relevance, and Patient Data to Improve Productivity of Early Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drawnel, Faye Marie; Zhang, Jitao David; Küng, Erich; Aoyama, Natsuyo; Benmansour, Fethallah; Araujo Del Rosario, Andrea; Jensen Zoffmann, Sannah; Delobel, Frédéric; Prummer, Michael; Weibel, Franziska; Carlson, Coby; Anson, Blake; Iacone, Roberto; Certa, Ulrich; Singer, Thomas; Ebeling, Martin; Prunotto, Marco

    2017-05-18

    Today, novel therapeutics are identified in an environment which is intrinsically different from the clinical context in which they are ultimately evaluated. Using molecular phenotyping and an in vitro model of diabetic cardiomyopathy, we show that by quantifying pathway reporter gene expression, molecular phenotyping can cluster compounds based on pathway profiles and dissect associations between pathway activities and disease phenotypes simultaneously. Molecular phenotyping was applicable to compounds with a range of binding specificities and triaged false positives derived from high-content screening assays. The technique identified a class of calcium-signaling modulators that can reverse disease-regulated pathways and phenotypes, which was validated by structurally distinct compounds of relevant classes. Our results advocate for application of molecular phenotyping in early drug discovery, promoting biological relevance as a key selection criterion early in the drug development cascade. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Extending coverage to informal sector populations in Kenya: design preferences and implications for financing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okungu, Vincent; Chuma, Jane; Mulupi, Stephen; McIntyre, Diane

    2018-01-09

    Universal health coverage (UHC) is important in terms of improving access to quality health care while protecting households from the risk of catastrophic health spending and impoverishment. However, progress to UHC has been hampered by the measures to increase mandatory prepaid funds especially in low- and middle-income countries where there are large populations in the informal sector. Important considerations in expanding coverage to the informal sector should include an exploration of the type of prepayment system that is acceptable to the informal sector and the features of such a design that would encourage prepayment for health care among this population group. The objective of the study was to document the views of informal sector workers regarding different prepayment mechanisms, and critically analyze key design features of a future health system and the policy implications of financing UHC in Kenya. This was part of larger study which involved a mixed-methods approach. The following tools were used to collect data from informal sector workers: focus group discussions [N = 16 (rural = 7; urban = 9)], individual in-depth interviews [N = 26 (rural = 14; urban = 12)] and a questionnaire survey [N = 455(rural = 129; urban = 326)]. Thematic approach was used to analyze qualitative data while Stata v.11 involving mainly descriptive analysis was used in quantitative data. The tools mentioned were used to collect data to meet various objectives of a larger study and what is presented here constitutes a small section of the data generated by these tools. The findings show that informal sector workers in rural and urban areas prefer different prepayment systems for financing UHC. Preference for a non-contributory system of financing UHC was particularly strong in the urban study site (58%). Over 70% in the rural area preferred a contributory mechanism in financing UHC. The main concern for informal sector workers regardless of

  19. 41 CFR 105-64.106 - What is GSA's policy on information accuracy in a system of records?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... information accuracy in a system of records? 105-64.106 Section 105-64.106 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION... Responsibilities § 105-64.106 What is GSA's policy on information accuracy in a system of records? System managers...

  20. 41 CFR 105-64.102 - What is GSA's policy on disclosure of information in a system of records?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... disclosure of information in a system of records? 105-64.102 Section 105-64.102 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION... Responsibilities § 105-64.102 What is GSA's policy on disclosure of information in a system of records? No...

  1. Economic considerations and health in all policies initiatives: evidence from interviews with key informants in Sweden, Quebec and South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Andrew D; Molnar, Agnes; Shankardass, Ketan; O'Campo, Patricia J; Bayoumi, Ahmed M

    2015-02-18

    Health in All Policies (HiAP) is a form of intersectoral action that aims to include the promotion of health in government initiatives across sectors. To date, there has been little study of economic considerations within the implementation of HiAP. As part of an ongoing program of research on the implementation of HiAP around the world, we examined how economic considerations influence the implementation of HiAP. By economic considerations we mean the cost and financial gain (or loss) of implementing a HiAP process or structure within government, or the cost and financial gain (or loss) of the policies that emerge from such a HiAP process or structure. We examined three jurisdictions: Sweden, Quebec and South Australia. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 12 to 14 key informants in each jurisdiction. Two investigators separately coded transcripts to identify relevant statements. Initial readings of transcripts led to the development of a coding framework for statements related to economic considerations. First, economic evaluations of HiAP are viewed as important for prompting HiAP and many forms of economic evaluation were considered. However, economic evaluations were often absent, informal, or incomplete. Second, funding for HiAP initiatives is important, but is less important than a high-level commitment to intersectoral collaboration. Furthermore, having multiple sources of funding of HiAP can be beneficial, if it increases participation across government, but can also be disadvantageous, if it exposes underlying tensions. Third, HiAP can also highlight the challenge of achieving both economic and social objectives. Our results are useful for elaborating propositions for use in realist multiple explanatory case studies. First, we propose that economic considerations are currently used primarily as a method by health sectors to promote and legitimize HiAP to non-health sectors with the goal of securing resources for HiAP. Second

  2. Contentious terrain in EU information society policies: Media pluralism and freedom of expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyase Christensen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In an EU context, the benefits attributed to new communication technologies are many: the creation of employment and economic growth; the enrichment of cultural/political dialogue and civic engagement; and, the permeation of a sense of European identity across the region. However, in the face of an increased emphasis on economic competitiveness both globally and at the EU policy level, there exists an unmistakable convergent approach to audiovisual/communications, cultural and competition policies. Parallel to this is an upsurge of concern—voiced by, for example, the European Parliament—over media pluralism and freedom of expression. Although the virtues of safeguarding “media pluralism” and “freedom of speech” in a healthy democracy are axiomatic, in the face of current dynamics, their meaning is widely contested. The purpose of this article is to offer an analysis of recent EU Information Society (IS policies in relation to media pluralism and freedom of speech. Mediepluralisme og ytringsfrihed: Et omstridt felt inden for EU-informationssamfundspolitikker I en EU-kontekst er der mange fordele, som tilskrives nye kommunikationsteknologier: Skabelsen af beskæftigelse og økonomisk vækst; berigelsen af kulturel/politisk dialog og borgerengagement; og udbredelsen af en fornemmelse af europæisk identitet på tværs af regionerne. Men i lyset af en øget vægtning af økonomisk konkurrence, såvel globalt som i relation til EU's politikker, eksisterer der en umiskendelig sammensat tilgang til politikker for audiovisuel kommunikation, kultur og konkurrence. Parallelt med dette findes en pludselig stigning i interessen omkring mediepluralisme og ytringsfrihed. Skønt værdien af at beskytte ”mediepluralisme” og ”ytringsfrihed” i lyset af aktuelle dynamikker er aksiomatisk i et sundt demokrati, udfordres betydningen af dette i udstrakt grad. Formålet med denne artikel er at give en analyse af nyere EU

  3. Contentious terrain in EU information society policies: Media pluralism and freedom of expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyase Christensen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In an EU context, the benefits attributed to new communication technologies are many: the creation of employment and economic growth; the enrichment of cultural/political dialogue and civic engagement; and, the permeation of a sense of European identity across the region. However, in the face of an increased emphasis on economic competitiveness both globally and at the EU policy level, there exists an unmistakable convergent approach to audiovisual/communications, cultural and competition policies. Parallel to this is an upsurge of concern—voiced by, for example, the European Parliament—over media pluralism and freedom of expression. Although the virtues of safeguarding “media pluralism” and “freedom of speech” in a healthy democracy are axiomatic, in the face of current dynamics, their meaning is widely contested. The purpose of this article is to offer an analysis of recent EU Information Society (IS policies in relation to media pluralism and freedom of speech. Mediepluralisme og ytringsfrihed: Et omstridt felt inden for EU-informationssamfundspolitikker I en EU-kontekst er der mange fordele, som tilskrives nye kommunikationsteknologier: Skabelsen af beskæftigelse og økonomisk vækst; berigelsen af kulturel/politisk dialog og borgerengagement; og udbredelsen af en fornemmelse af europæisk identitet på tværs af regionerne. Men i lyset af en øget vægtning af økonomisk konkurrence, såvel globalt som i relation til EU's politikker, eksisterer der en umiskendelig sammensat tilgang til politikker for audiovisuel kommunikation, kultur og konkurrence. Parallelt med dette findes en pludselig stigning i interessen omkring mediepluralisme og ytringsfrihed. Skønt værdien af at beskytte ”mediepluralisme” og ”ytringsfrihed” i lyset af aktuelle dynamikker er aksiomatisk i et sundt demokrati, udfordres betydningen af dette i udstrakt grad. Formålet med denne artikel er at give en analyse af nyere EU

  4. Keeping climate research relevant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, E.S.; Lave, L.B.; Morgan, M.G.

    1992-01-01

    Recent post-mortems of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) confirmed what Congress and other key parties to the acid rain debate already knew: that the 10-year, half-billion-dollar interagency program to guide US policy on acid rain control proved largely irrelevant to the effort to forge the new Clean Air Act last fall. Although NAPAP won praise for its scientific accomplishments, the program failed in its primary mission - to provide policy-relevant information in a timely manner. Now, government attempts to deal with the more difficult and far-reaching environmental issues associated with global warming appear to be headed down the same ill-fated path. Global climate change has become the most important environmental issue on the world agenda. The potentially enormous human and ecological implications of global warming - rising sea levels, altered precipitation patterns, and damage to natural ecosystems - have generated concern. But the equally large uncertainties about the timing and magnitude of possible effects, coupled with questions about the costs and impacts of possible abatement measures, have thus far kept policymakers from agreeing on what to do

  5. A novel approach to implementing digital policy management as an enabler for a dynamic secure information sharing in a cloud environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farroha, Bassam S.; Essman, Kristine R.; Farroha, Deborah L.; Cohen, Andy

    2011-06-01

    relevant ESM enterprise services as they impact the ability to share and protect enterprise information. Central to this is the ability to adopt and manage digital policies within the enterprise environment. It describes the management functions that have to be supported, and the challenges that have to be addressed to ensure an effective implementation. Since the adoption of cloud services is becoming an important consideration for the evolution of enterprise architectures, the paper also explores the implications of shifting from traditional to virtual enterprise environments.

  6. The use of discrete choice experiments to inform health workforce policy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandeville, Kate L; Lagarde, Mylene; Hanson, Kara

    2014-09-01

    Discrete choice experiments have become a popular study design to study the labour market preferences of health workers. Discrete choice experiments in health, however, have been criticised for lagging behind best practice and there are specific methodological considerations for those focused on job choices. We performed a systematic review of the application of discrete choice experiments to inform health workforce policy. We searched for discrete choice experiments that examined the labour market preferences of health workers, including doctors, nurses, allied health professionals, mid-level and community health workers. We searched Medline, Embase, Global Health, other databases and grey literature repositories with no limits on date or language and contacted 44 experts. Features of choice task and experimental design, conduct and analysis of included studies were assessed against best practice. An assessment of validity was undertaken for all studies, with a comparison of results from those with low risk of bias and a similar objective and context. Twenty-seven studies were included, with over half set in low- and middle-income countries. There were more studies published in the last four years than the previous ten years. Doctors or medical students were the most studied cadre. Studies frequently pooled results from heterogeneous subgroups or extrapolated these results to the general population. Only one third of studies included an opt-out option, despite all health workers having the option to exit the labour market. Just five studies combined results with cost data to assess the cost effectiveness of various policy options. Comparison of results from similar studies broadly showed the importance of bonus payments and postgraduate training opportunities and the unpopularity of time commitments for the uptake of rural posts. This is the first systematic review of discrete choice experiments in human resources for health. We identified specific issues relating

  7. Deep learning relevance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger; Petersen, Casper

    2016-01-01

    train a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) on existing relevant information to that query. We then use the RNN to "deep learn" a single, synthetic, and we assume, relevant document for that query. We design a crowdsourcing experiment to assess how relevant the "deep learned" document is, compared...

  8. Comparing the Influence of Title and URL in Information Retrieval Relevance in Search Engines Results between Human Science and Agriculture Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Allami

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available When the World Wide Web provides suitable methods for producing and publishing information to scientists, the Web has become a mediator to publishing information. This environment has been formed billions of web pages that each of them has a special title, special content, special address and special purpose. Search engines provide a variety of facilities limit search results to raise the possibility of relevance in the retrieval results. One of these facilities is the limitation of the keywords and search terms to the title or URL. It can increase the possibility of results relevance significantly. Search engines claim what are limited to title and URL is most relevant. This research tried to compare the results relevant between results limited in title and URL in agricultural and Humanities areas from their users sights also it notice to Comparison of the presence of keywords in the title and URL between two areas and the relationship between search query numbers and matching keywords in title and their URLs. For this purpose, the number of 30 students in each area whom were in MA process and in doing their thesis was chosen. There was a significant relevant of the results that they limited their information needs to title and URL. There was significantly relevance in URL results in agricultural area, but there was not any significant difference between title and URL results in the humanities. For comparing the number of keywords in title and URL in two areas, 30 keywords in each area were chosen. There was not any significantly difference between the number of keywords in the title and URL of websites in two areas. To show relationship between number of search keyword and the matching of title and URL 45 keywords in each area were chosen. They were divided to three parts (one keyword, two keywords and three keywords. It was determined that if search keyword was less, the amount of matching between title and URL was more and if the matching

  9. Evidence & Gap Maps: A tool for promoting evidence informed policy and strategic research agendas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snilstveit, Birte; Vojtkova, Martina; Bhavsar, Ami; Stevenson, Jennifer; Gaarder, Marie

    2016-11-01

    A range of organizations are engaged in the production of evidence on the effects of health, social, and economic development programs on human welfare outcomes. However, evidence is often scattered around different databases, web sites, and the gray literature and is often presented in inaccessible formats. Lack of overview of the evidence in a specific field can be a barrier to the use of existing research and prevent efficient use of limited resources for new research. Evidence & Gap Maps (EGMs) aim to address these issues and complement existing synthesis and mapping approaches. EGMs are a new addition to the tools available to support evidence-informed policymaking. To provide an accessible resource for researchers, commissioners, and decision makers, EGMs provide thematic collections of evidence structured around a framework which schematically represents the types of interventions and outcomes of relevance to a particular sector. By mapping the existing evidence using this framework, EGMs provide a visual overview of what we know and do not know about the effects of different programs. They make existing evidence available, and by providing links to user-friendly summaries of relevant studies, EGMs can facilitate the use of existing evidence for decision making. They identify key "gaps" where little or no evidence from impact evaluations and systematic reviews is available and can be a valuable resource to inform a strategic approach to building the evidence base in a particular sector. The article will introduce readers to the concept and methods of EGMs and present a demonstration of the EGM tool using existing examples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Strategy of the Romanian Public Information Policy in the Nuclear Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiopol, Mihaela; Manole, Felicia; Paunescu, Aurelia; Petran, Catalina; Chiper, Livia

    1998-01-01

    In the framework the Romania's nuclear power program the first Romanian NPP has been built at Cernavoda and the Unit 1, based on a CANDU type reactor, was commissioned on December 2, 1996. The start of the entire nuclear program in Romania, some 20 years ago, was a high level government decision with no public hearing or acceptance, either, but obviously based on economic and political considerations. After 1990 favorable and unfavorable articles in the mass media, most of them lacking of technical background, had led to distorted and false perception of information. The strategy of public information policy in the nuclear field should be guided by the following facts: a) the public perception of the nuclear energy problems in general, and of nuclear power, in particular, is deeply deformed by the ignorance in the domain; b) first of all the public fears for its health menaced by radiation and radioactive wastes; c) the public due not know the actual dimension and potential of the Romanian industry in this field, the qualitative progress brought about by the implementation of the nuclear program in the Romania's economy; d) the public vulnerability when exposed to the mass media which, owing to its rush towards sensational or due to the lack of knowledge in the field, rather often have launched simple, unfounded speculations. The paper presents the basic principles which are underlying the public information program and lists suggestions for the future activity concerning: A - the educational programs addressed to young people; B - development of computer-assisted educational programs; C - the relationship with mass media; D - accomplishing an adequate information through publications; E - organizing and/or participating in exhibitions displaying nuclear power development; F - advertising actions related to promotion of Unit 2 - 5 project at Cernavoda NPP

  11. Informing body checking policy in youth ice hockey in Canada: a discussion meeting with researchers and community stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Carly D; Meeuwisse, Willem H; Emery, Carolyn A

    2014-11-05

    Body checking is a significant risk factor for injury, including concussion, in youth ice hockey. Recent evidence regarding injury rates in youth leagues prompted USA Hockey to institute a national policy change in 2011 that increased the age of body checking introduction from 11-12 years old (Pee Wee) to 13-14 years old (Bantam). Body checking policy was more controversial in Canada, and research evidence alone was insufficient to drive change. The purpose of this paper is to provide an example of one of the knowledge exchange processes that occurred between researchers and community stakeholders, leading up to a national policy change in 2013. There were 28 stakeholder attendees, representing the research community, youth hockey organizations, and child health advocacy groups. A one-day meeting held in Whistler, British Columbia, in April 2013. Researchers and stakeholders presented current perspectives on evidence and policy change, and discussion focused on an a priori set of questions designed to elicit facilitators and barriers to policy change. Three major factors that can drive policy change in the sport safety context were identified: the need for decision-making leadership, the importance of knowledge translation, and the role of sport culture as a barrier to change. There is a critical need for researcher and stakeholder partnership in facilitating ongoing policy discussion and informing evidence-based policy change in sport and recreation injury prevention.

  12. Computer-assisted diagnosis of mammographic masses using an information-theoretic image retrieval scheme with BIRADs-based relevance feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourassi, Georgia D.; Floyd, Carey E., Jr.

    2004-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop and evaluate a content-based image retrieval (CBIR) approach for computer-assisted diagnosis of masses detected in screening mammograms. The system follows an information theoretic retrieval scheme with a BIRADS-based relevance feedback (RF) algorithm. Initially, a knowledge databank of 365 mammographic regions of interest (ROIs) was created. They were all 512x512 pixel ROIs extracted from DDSM mammograms digitized using the Lumisys digitizer. The ROIs were extracted around the known locations of the annotated masses. Specifically, there were 177 ROIs depicting a biopsy-proven malignant mass and 188 ROIs with a benign mass. Subsequently, the CBIR algorithm was implemented using mutual information (MI) as the similarity metric for image retrieval. The CBIR algorithm formed the basis of a knowledge-based CAD system. Given a databank of mammographic masses with known pathology, a query mass was evaluated. Based on their information content, all similar masses in the databank were retrieved. A relevance feedback algorithm based on BIRADS findings was implemented to determine the relevance factor of the retrieved masses. Finally, a decision index was calculated using the query's k best matches. The decision index effectively combined the similarity metric of the retrieved cases and their relevance factor into a prediction regarding the malignancy status of the mass depicted in the query ROI. ROC analysis was to evaluate diagnostic performance. Performance improved dramatically with the incorporation of the relevance feedback algorithm. Overall, the CAD system achieved ROC area index AZ= 0.86+/-0.02 for the diagnosis of masses in screening mammograms.

  13. How relevant are Schiller’s concerns about commodification of information and class inequality in today’s world?

    OpenAIRE

    Faludi, Orsolya

    2010-01-01

    In his book, ‘Information Inequality’ (1996) Herbert Schiller argues that, by the mid-1990s, information had become another commodity of the newly global political system of market capitalism and this development was instrumental in widening the gap between the poorest and the best off in American society. This paper reviews Schiller’s claims and examines its bearing on society in the decade and half since the publication of his book.

  14. The relevance of financial information and contents of the new audit report for lending decisions of commercial banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Trpeska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research study examines the importance of financial information and information contained in the ISA’s New Audit Report effective from 2016 for lenders as capital providers. We base our findings on a survey conducted in September of 2016 with corporate loan officers for medium-large corporate clients in Macedonia. The results show that the annual report of the company, except for the management report and notes to the financial statements, has consistently high importance and usability for respondents’ decision making. Various accounting ratios related to liquidity, financial stability and profitability of the company are considered very important and regularly used in credit analysis. However, respondents were not consistent in their shared perceptions regarding high importance of projected profits and historical information on operating cash flows. All loan officers gave high importance to the information found in existent auditor’s report format regardless of the form of expressed opinion. Also, information on key audit matters, additional information on going concern and related auditor’s judgement, procedures related to fraud risk were considered of high importance. Lenders rated as less important the disclosure of the name of engagement partner, auditor’s statement on independence and compliance with ethical requirements and the level of materiality used in the audit.

  15. [NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 18:] Scientific and Technical Information (STI) policy and the competitive position of the US aerospace industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernon, Peter; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1992-01-01

    With its contribution to trade, its coupling with national security, and its symbolism of U.S. technological strength, the U.S. aerospace industry holds a unique position in the Nation's industrial structure. Federal science and technology policy and Federal scientific and technical information (STI) policy loom important as strategic contributions to the U.S. aerospace industry's leading competitive position. However, three fundamental policy problems exist. First, the United States lacks a coherent STI policy and a unified approach to the development of such a policy. Second, policymakers fail to understand the relationship of STI to science and technology policy. Third, STI is treated as a part of general information policy, without any recognition of its uniqueness. This paper provides an overview of the Federal information policy structure as it relates to STI and frames the policy issues that require resolution.

  16. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 18: Scientific and Technical Information (STI) policy and the competitive position of the US aerospace industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernon, Peter; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1992-01-01

    With its contribution to trade, its coupling with national security, and its symbolism of U.S. technological strength, the U.S. aerospace industry holds a unique position in the Nation's industrial structure. Federal science and technology policy and Federal scientific and technical information (STI) policy loom important as strategic contributions to the U.S. aerospace industry's leading competitive position. However, three fundamental policy problems exist. First, the United States lacks a coherent STI policy and a unified approach to the development of such a policy. Second, policymakers fail to understand the relationship of STI to science and technology policy. Third, STI is treated as a part of general information policy, without any recognition of its uniqueness. This paper provides an overview of the Federal information policy structure as it relates to STI and frames the policy issues that require resolution.

  17. The Criteria People Use in Relevance Decisions on Health Information: An Analysis of User Eye Movements When Browsing a Health Discussion Forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pian, Wenjing; Khoo, Christopher Sg; Chang, Yun-Ke

    2016-06-20

    People are increasingly accessing health-related social media sites, such as health discussion forums, to post and read user-generated health information. It is important to know what criteria people use when deciding the relevance of information found on health social media websites, in different situations. The study attempted to identify the relevance criteria that people use when browsing a health discussion forum, in 3 types of use contexts: when seeking information for their own health issue, when seeking for other people's health issue, and when browsing without a particular health issue in mind. A total of 58 study participants were self-assigned to 1 of the 3 use contexts or information needs and were asked to browse a health discussion forum, HealthBoards.com. In the analysis, browsing a discussion forum was divided into 2 stages: scanning a set of post surrogates (mainly post titles) in the summary result screen and reading a detailed post content (including comments by other users). An eye tracker system was used to capture participants' eye movement behavior and the text they skim over and focus (ie, fixate) on during browsing. By analyzing the text that people's eyes fixated on, the types of health information used in the relevance judgment were determined. Post-experiment interviews elicited participants' comments on the relevance of the information and criteria used. It was found that participants seeking health information for their own health issue focused significantly more on the poster's symptoms, personal history of the disease, and description of the disease (P=.01, .001, and .02). Participants seeking for other people's health issue focused significantly more on cause of disease, disease terminology, and description of treatments and procedures (P=.01, .01, and .02). In contrast, participants browsing with no particular issue in mind focused significantly more on general health topics, hot topics, and rare health issues (P=.01, .01, and .01

  18. 76 FR 26235 - EPAAR Clause for Compliance with EPA Policies for Information Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... Protection Agency (EPA) amends the EPA Acquisition Regulation (EPAAR) to update policy, procedures, and... under this contract in accordance with the IRM policies, standards, and procedures set forth on the... Agency's IRM policies, standards, and procedures. (c) Section 508 Requirements. Contract deliverables are...

  19. A National Scale Sustainable Agriculture Matrix of Indicators to Inform Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, E. A.; Zhang, X.

    2017-12-01

    sustainability of agriculture production, which is at the center of Water-Energy-Food nexus, but also provide timely information to help guide evolving national policies regarding agriculture, trade, environment, and national security.

  20. Estimating the fitness cost and benefit of cefixime resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae to inform prescription policy: A modelling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilith K Whittles

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Gonorrhoea is one of the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infections in England. Over 41,000 cases were recorded in 2015, more than half of which occurred in men who have sex with men (MSM. As the bacterium has developed resistance to each first-line antibiotic in turn, we need an improved understanding of fitness benefits and costs of antibiotic resistance to inform control policy and planning. Cefixime was recommended as a single-dose treatment for gonorrhoea from 2005 to 2010, during which time resistance increased, and subsequently declined.We developed a stochastic compartmental model representing the natural history and transmission of cefixime-sensitive and cefixime-resistant strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in MSM in England, which was applied to data on diagnoses and prescriptions between 2008 and 2015. We estimated that asymptomatic carriers play a crucial role in overall transmission dynamics, with 37% (95% credible interval CrI 24%-52% of infections remaining asymptomatic and untreated, accounting for 89% (95% CrI 82%-93% of onward transmission. The fitness cost of cefixime resistance in the absence of cefixime usage was estimated to be such that the number of secondary infections caused by resistant strains is only about half as much as for the susceptible strains, which is insufficient to maintain persistence. However, we estimated that treatment of cefixime-resistant strains with cefixime was unsuccessful in 83% (95% CrI 53%-99% of cases, representing a fitness benefit of resistance. This benefit was large enough to counterbalance the fitness cost when 31% (95% CrI 26%-36% of cases were treated with cefixime, and when more than 55% (95% CrI 44%-66% of cases were treated with cefixime, the resistant strain had a net fitness advantage over the susceptible strain. Limitations include sparse data leading to large intervals on key model parameters and necessary assumptions in the modelling of a complex epidemiological process