WorldWideScience

Sample records for policy reform torney-purta

  1. Reforming Social Policy: Changing Perspectives on Sustainable ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Reforming Social Policy presents an overview of social policy reforms currently ... It shows how some experimental approaches to reform have worked in different ... and students in development studies and social sciences; policymakers and ...

  2. Reforming Romanian energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, S.

    1993-01-01

    Success in reforming energy sector depends on the implementation of the programme of economic reform agreed in February 1993. The difficulty of the negotiations between the International Monetary Fund and the Romanian government reflects the wider difficulties faced by the economy as a whole. They can be blamed in part on the legacy of uneconomic and inflexible industrial development and in part on opposition from interest groups which stand to lose from reform. Nonetheless, in spite of hesitant approach, the government does appear committed to the economic reform necessary to establish a market-oriented economy. But as the danger of a financial crisis engendered by the inadequately supported short-term borrowing of foreign exchange becomes urgent, the question is whether economic reform can be now implemented fast enough to protect economic enterprises and saving from a debt crisis. The scope for further delay in implementing the 1993 economic reform programme is fast disappearing. Procrastination should not be allowed to threaten the success of the reforms achieved in the energy and other sectors of the economy. 8 refs., 2 figs

  3. Forest policy reform in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Bauch; E. Sills; L.C. Rodriguez Estraviz; K. McGinley; F. Cubbage

    2009-01-01

    Rapid deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, caused by economic, social, and policy factors, has focused global and national attention on protecting this valuable forest resource. In response, Brazil reformed its federal forest laws in 2006, creating new regulatory, development, and incentive policy instruments and institutions. Federal forestry responsibilities are...

  4. Health Reform Requires Policy Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Gerlier Forest

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Among the many reasons that may limit the adoption of promising reform ideas, policy capacity is the least recognized. The concept itself is not widely understood. Although policy capacity is concerned with the gathering of information and the formulation of options for public action in the initial phases of policy consultation and development, it also touches on all stages of the policy process, from the strategic identification of a problem to the actual development of the policy, its formal adoption, its implementation, and even further, its evaluation and continuation or modification. Expertise in the form of policy advice is already widely available in and to public administrations, to well-established professional organizations like medical societies and, of course, to large private-sector organizations with commercial or financial interests in the health sector. We need more health actors to join the fray and move from their traditional position of advocacy to a fuller commitment to the development of policy capacity, with all that it entails in terms of leadership and social responsibility

  5. 76 FR 42625 - International Settlements Policy Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ...] International Settlements Policy Reform AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Federal Communications Commission proposes to remove the International Settlements... proposes to remove the International Settlements Policy (ISP) from all U.S. international routes except...

  6. Reforming Social Policy: Changing Perspectives on Sustainable ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Reforming Social Policy: Changing Perspectives on Sustainable Human Development. Book cover Reforming Social Policy: Changing Perspectives on Sustainable Human Development. Directeur(s):. Daniel Morales-Gómez, Necla Tschirgi, and Jennifer L. Moher. Maison(s) d'édition: IDRC. 1 janvier 1999. ISBN :.

  7. Policy Reform Impact on Food Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Celikkol, Pinar; Dunn, James W.; Stefanou, Spiro E.

    2003-01-01

    The impact of agricultural policies and their reform is of major concern when addressing issues of growth, innovation and consolidation in the food manufacturing sector. Growth is one of the forces fueling the globalization of food manufacturing activities. Market- and policy-driven forces present a myriad of opportunities to influence growth and reorientation of patterns at the nexus where food manufacturing links the food system. The productivity and international competitiveness of the foo...

  8. Korea's Post-Crisis Monetary Policy Reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Donghyun Park; Junggun Oh

    2005-01-01

    Korea's financial crisis of 1997–1998 was brought about by the unsustainable combination of large capital inflows and an inefficient financial system. The Bank of Korea contributed to the crisis primarily through its failures as the regulator of the financial system rather than as the conductor of monetary policy. Our paper explores the role of the two major monetary policy reforms Korea has implemented in response to the crisis — the establishment of a new financial regulator and the adoptio...

  9. Validity Theory: Reform Policies, Accountability Testing, and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalhoub-Deville, Micheline

    2016-01-01

    Educational policies such as Race to the Top in the USA affirm a central role for testing systems in government-driven reform efforts. Such reform policies are often referred to as the global education reform movement (GERM). Changes observed with the GERM style of testing demand socially engaged validity theories that include consequential…

  10. SOCIAL POLICIES AND STRUCTURAL REFORMS IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferran Brunet Cid

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the social and structural policies in contemporary Europe. The presentation is organized in four sections. First, we discuss the emerging Europe, the new unity based on democracy and the market economy, the special European Union formula, and comparisons with America. Second, we analyze the dynamics of the European economy, the convergence process, the gaps between United States in productivity and standard of living, competitiveness issues, and the emergence of a new European economy and new European policy mix.Third, we consider European social conditions, the stationary and aging population, Europe’s low employment rate and permanently high unemployment. European economic growth could draw on two major sources: the labor reserves and reforms in factor, product and service markets. In a monetary union, advanced industrial relations should promote labor mobility and salary flexibility. The social security systems permit the redistribution and cohesion which defines the European model.Fourth, for the new Europe, the structural reform strategy is the way forward for the challenge of European economic policy and social policy: more and better jobs thanks to sustainable growth in a dynamic and competitive knowledge-based economy, favoring greater social cohesion.

  11. Trade Policy Reform and the Missing Revenue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Thomas Channing; Tarp, Finn

    2008-01-01

    into a computable general equilibrium model of an African economy (Mozambique) to study the implications of trade policy reform. Model simulations indicate that lowering tariff rates and reducing duty-free importation in a manner that maintains official revenue benefit nearly everyone. The main exception is those......In many African countries, large discrepancies exist between revenues implied by published tariff rates multiplied by estimated import volumes and actual receipts. We develop a stylised trade model where average and marginal tariff rates diverge and incorporate insights from this model...

  12. Policy Capacity for Health Reform: Necessary but Insufficient: Comment on "Health Reform Requires Policy Capacity".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Owen

    2015-09-04

    Forest and colleagues have persuasively made the case that policy capacity is a fundamental prerequisite to health reform. They offer a comprehensive life-cycle definition of policy capacity and stress that it involves much more than problem identification and option development. I would like to offer a Canadian perspective. If we define health reform as re-orienting the health system from acute care to prevention and chronic disease management the consensus is that Canada has been unsuccessful in achieving a major transformation of our 14 health systems (one for each province and territory plus the federal government). I argue that 3 additional things are essential to build health policy capacity in a healthcare federation such as Canada: (a) A means of "policy governance" that would promote an approach to cooperative federalism in the health arena; (b) The ability to overcome the "policy inertia" resulting from how Canadian Medicare was implemented and subsequently interpreted; and (c) The ability to entertain a long-range thinking and planning horizon. My assessment indicates that Canada falls short on each of these items, and the prospects for achieving them are not bright. However, hope springs eternal and it will be interesting to see if the July, 2015 report of the Advisory Panel on Healthcare Innovation manages to galvanize national attention and stimulate concerted action. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  13. Land policy reform in Rwanda: A Catalyst for Land Information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Step in geo-ICT application for data handling was achieved, despite a big gap in technical and skills capabilities. Since new land policy coincided with decentralization policy, we recommend research on parallel implementation of policies with some similar dimensions. Keywords: Land policy reform, organizational change, ...

  14. Energy policies in the European Union. Germany's ecological tax reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welfens, P.J.J.; Jungmittag, A.; Meyer, B.; Jasinski, P.

    2001-01-01

    The chapters discuss the following aspects: 1. Energy policy as a strategic element of economic policy in dynamic open economies. 2. Phasing out nuclear energy and core elements of sustainable energy strategy. 3. Ecological tax reform: Theory, modified double dividend and international aspects. 4. The policy framework in Europe and Germany. 5. Optimal ecological tax reform: Options and recommendations for an EU-action plan. 6. Conclusions. (orig./CB)

  15. Reforms in the Policy of English Language Teaching in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Radzuwan A. B.; Abdul Rahman, Shireena Basree; Yunus, Kamariah

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews reforms related to English language teaching in the Malaysian education system. It begins by tracing the history of Malaysia as a former British colony which has had significant influences on the status of English in the country. Then, it reviews the key educational reforms which have mainly centred on language policy, thus…

  16. Credible Immigration Policy Reform: A Response to Briggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrenius, Pia M.; Zavodny, Madeline

    2012-01-01

    The authors agree with Vernon M. Briggs, Jr., that U.S. immigration policy has had unexpected consequences. The 1965 immigration reforms led to unanticipated chain migration from developing countries whereas the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act failed to slow unauthorized immigration. The result is a large foreign-born population with…

  17. Three decades of policy layering and politically sustainable reform in the European Union's agricultural policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Swinbank, Alan

    2016-01-01

    The study of policy reform has tended to focus on single-stage reforms taking place over a relatively short period. Recent research has drawn attention to gradual policy changes unfolding over extended periods. One strategy of gradual change is layering, in which new policy dimensions...

  18. Indirect Monetary Policy Reforms and Output Growth in Nigeria: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BRRE). The efforts in repositioning these banks through the current banking reforms (recapitalization and consolidation) the paper notes are a right step in the right direction. Keywords: Indirect monetary policy, Granger – causality, output growth

  19. Malaysian water sector reform : policy and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, C.T.

    2012-01-01

    One of the measures that can help developing countries in meeting Target 10 of the Millennium Development Goals – halving the number of people without access to water and adequate sanitation by 2015 – is through a water sector reform. In this research the Malaysian water sector reform is

  20. European Union dairy policy reform: impact and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongeneel, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) reforms have affected dairy policy, including the milk quota system, and increased the market orientation of the sector. A modelling exercise, using the European Dairy Industry Model (EDIM), simulates an initial sharp decline in the EU milk price in response

  1. Policy conflicts : Market-oriented reform in health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolfsma, W.A.; Mcmaster, R.

    From an institutionalist perspective, we identify five sources of policy conflict. Each may explain why policies intended to obtain particular goals for an institutionalized practice may have unintended consequences. We illustrate by analyzing attempts at introducing market-oriented reform in health

  2. Policy Capacity Meets Politics; Comment on “Health Reform Requires Policy Capacity”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Fafard

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult to disagree with the general argument that successful health reform requires a significant degree of policy capacity or that all players in the policy game need to move beyond self-interested advocacy. However, an overly broad definition of policy capacity is a problem. More important perhaps, health reform inevitably requires not just policy capacity but political leadership and compromise.

  3. Policy Capacity Meets Politics: Comment on "Health Reform Requires Policy Capacity".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fafard, Patrick

    2015-07-22

    It is difficult to disagree with the general argument that successful health reform requires a significant degree of policy capacity or that all players in the policy game need to move beyond self-interested advocacy. However, an overly broad definition of policy capacity is a problem. More important perhaps, health reform inevitably requires not just policy capacity but political leadership and compromise. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  4. NAFTA and Mexico's Tax Policy Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Martinez-Vazquez; Duanje Chen

    2001-01-01

    The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) has had a significant effect on Mexico’s economy and institutions. The ongoing consideration of tax reform in Mexico requires an evaluation of the role of NAFTA in Mexico’s economy, including its tax structure; it also requires an assessment of the impact of the Mexico’s tax system on the trade and capital flows between Mexico and its NAFTA partners, the United States and Canada. Clearly, no good tax reform in Mexico can ignore the role of NAFTA...

  5. What shapes output of policy reform?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kirsten

    This thesis deals with the factors shaping forest policy output during the stages implementation and bases its main message on empirical findings from the forestry sector in Ghana. Policy and institutional factors are important underlying causes for deforestation, especially in the tropics. Fores...

  6. Reviewing and reforming policy in health enterprise information security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sostrom, Kristen; Collmann, Jeff R.

    2001-08-01

    Health information management policies usually address the use of paper records with little or no mention of electronic health records. Information Technology (IT) policies often ignore the health care business needs and operational use of the information stored in its systems. Representatives from the Telemedicine & Advanced Technology Research Center, TRICARE and Offices of the Surgeon General of each Military Service, collectively referred to as the Policies, Procedures and Practices Work Group (P3WG), examined military policies and regulations relating to computer-based information systems and medical records management. Using a system of templates and matrices created for the purpose, P3WG identified gaps and discrepancies in DoD and service compliance with the proposed Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Security Standard. P3WG represents an unprecedented attempt to coordinate policy review and revision across all military health services and the Office of Health Affairs. This method of policy reform can identify where changes need to be made to integrate health management policy and IT policy in to an organizational policy that will enable compliance with HIPAA standards. The process models how large enterprises may coordinate policy revision and reform across broad organizational and work domains.

  7. Expressions of agency within complex policy structures: science teachers' experiences of education policy reforms in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Jim; Lidar, Malena; Lundqvist, Eva; Östman, Leif

    2018-03-01

    We explore the experiences of school science teachers as they enact three linked national curriculum and assessment policy reforms in Sweden. Our goal is to understand teachers' differing responses to these reforms. A sample of 13 teachers engaged in 2 interviews over a 6-9-month period. Interviews included exploration of professional background and school context, perceptions of the aims of the policy reforms and experiences of working with these reforms in the classroom. Analysis was guided by an individual-oriented sociocultural perspective on professional agency. Here teaching is conceptualised as an ongoing interplay between teachers' knowledge, skills and personal goals, and the characteristics of the social, institutional and policy settings in which they work. Our analysis shows that navigating the ensuing continuities and contradictions results in many different expressions of teacher agency, e.g. loss of autonomy and trust, pushing back, subversion, transfer of authority, and creative tensions. Typically, an individual teacher's enactment of these reforms involved several of these expressions of agency. We demonstrate that the sociocultural perspective provides insights into teachers' responses to education policy reform likely to be missed by studies that focus largely on individual teacher knowledge/beliefs about reform or skills in 'implementing' reform practices.

  8. New Directions in Education? A Critique of Contemporary Policy Reforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skourdoumbis, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    This paper draws on facets of Foucault's theoretical resources to critique current education policy reform from within the Australian State of Victoria, namely the Department of Education and Early Childhood Development's (DEECD) discussion paper "New directions for school leadership and the teaching profession." Implicit in the reform…

  9. Enlargement of the European Union and agricultural policy reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Maria Skovager; Lind, Kim Martin Hjorth; Zobbe, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    A connection exists between enlargement of the European Union and reforms of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). Based upon rational choice theory, we examine whether the member states’ CAP positions are related to structures in their agricultural sectors. The overall hypothesis...

  10. Agrarian Reform Policies and Development in the Arab Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baali, Fuad

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze and evaluate the nature, scope, and implications of the rural development in the Arab countries of the Middle East and North Africa. The first section of the paper deals with the forces that have caused changes in agrarian reform policies as they affected rural development in these countries. Specifically…

  11. Policy work as a reform project

    OpenAIRE

    Hal K. Colebatch

    2008-01-01

    One aspect of the modernization of liberal government in the late 20th century was an increased attention to policy, both as a concept for interrogating government, and as the basis for organizing work within government, leading to the development of ‘policy analysis’ as a decision tool. This paper reviews the development of specialised forms of ‘policy work’ in liberal western political systems in order to establish what can be learned by other sorts of polity, and in particular, the tran...

  12. Reproductive Health Policies in Peru: Social Reforms and Citizenship Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Rousseau

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the case of reproductive health policy-making in Peru in the context of recent social policy reforms. Health-sector reforms have only partially redressed Peruvian women’s unequal access to family planning, reproductive rights and maternal care. The main sources of inequalities are related to the segmented character of the health-care system, with the highest burden placed on the public sector. The majority of women from popular classes, who are not protected by an insurance plan, are dependent upon what and how public services are provided. Simultaneously, the continuing role of conservative sectors in public debates about reproductive health policy has a strong impact on public family planning services and other reproductive rights.

  13. Renewable energy policy and electricity market reforms in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherni, Judith A.; Kentish, Joanna

    2007-01-01

    The article examines the potential effectiveness of the renewable energy policy in China and its regulatory Law framework. It frames the option of renewable energy technology within the background of the long-lasting electricity problems that China has faced including serious supply shortages, reliance on coal, and severe environmental contamination. Its dual administrative and ownership system based on state and privately owned industry is discussed together with the market reform measures adopted in the sector. Current renewable energy policy is analysed, and the scope of the 2005 Renewable Energy Promotion Law is investigated. This is conducted within the context of the electricity sector reform that China adopted, and its effects upon the prospects of encouraging as well as expanding the development of renewable energy. This study draws upon primary information collected from interviews with stakeholders on the policy adequacy, and identifies three main types of shortcomings that have interfered with a more successful expansion of renewable energy in China. (author)

  14. Reforming primary healthcare: from public policy to organizational change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Frédéric; Denis, Jean-Louis; Lamothe, Lise; Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique; D'amour, Danielle; Goudreau, Johanne

    2015-01-01

    Governments everywhere are implementing reform to improve primary care. However, the existence of a high degree of professional autonomy makes large-scale change difficult to achieve. The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the change dynamics and the involvement of professionals in a primary healthcare reform initiative carried out in the Canadian province of Quebec. An empirical approach was used to investigate change processes from the inception of a public policy to the execution of changes in professional practices. The data were analysed from a multi-level, combined contextualist-processual perspective. Results are based on a longitudinal multiple-case study of five family medicine groups, which was informed by over 100 interviews, questionnaires, and documentary analysis. The results illustrate the multiple processes observed with the introduction of planned large-scale change in primary care services. The analysis of change content revealed that similar post-change states concealed variations between groups in the scale of their respective changes. The analysis also demonstrated more precisely how change evolved through the introduction of "intermediate change" and how cycles of prescribed and emergent mechanisms distinctively drove change process and change content, from the emergence of the public policy to the change in primary care service delivery. This research was conducted among a limited number of early policy adopters. However, given the international interest in turning to the medical profession to improve primary care, the results offer avenues for both policy development and implementation. The findings offer practical insights for those studying and managing large-scale transformations. They provide a better understanding of how deliberate reforms coexist with professional autonomy through an intertwining of change content and processes. This research is one of few studies to examine a primary care reform from emergence to implementation

  15. Policy alternatives in reforming energy utilities in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriele, Alberto

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the policy alternatives faced by developing countries in their endeavor to preserve and develop their electricity and gas systems, two service-oriented industries which--along with oil--provide the bulk of energy supply both in developed and in developing countries. Even in very poor countries, industrially generated energy is indispensable for carrying out most economic activities. Therefore, governments traditionally recognize that the supply of gas and electricity entails a fundamental public service dimension. The Introduction presents the case for reforming of energy utilities, discusses in general terms the pros and cons of privatization, and attempts to locate the reforms in a broader historical framework in which developing countries' governments faced characterized by increasing financial hardship. Section 2 constitutes the core of the paper. It reviews the main features of gas and power sector reforms in the developing world and analyzes specifically the cases of five semi-industrialized countries in Latin America and Asia. Section 3 (Concluding remarks) briefly evaluates the country experiences reviewed above and indicates a few policy lessons which can be learnt from them. The main conclusion is that, in a long-run development perspective, full-scale privatization of gas and power sectors in developing countries entails significant risks, and therefore a flexible policy approach is preferable to a rigid commitment to extensive liberalization

  16. Polarization and Policy Reform : Anti-Corruption Policymaking in Sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torenvlied, René; Klein Haarhuis, Carolien M.

    2008-01-01

    The ability of political systems to adopt policy reforms contributes to their internal stability. This article analyses 29 anti-corruption reforms in seven sub-Saharan countries. It seeks to explain the level of adopted reform in these countries from conflicts of interests between policy actors. Two

  17. The politics of health sector reform in developing countries: three cases of pharmaceutical policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, M R

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the political dynamics of health sector reform in poor countries, through a comparative study of pharmaceutical policy reform in Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, and the Philippines. The paper first reviews five reasons why policy reform is political. It then presents three political economic models of the policy reform process: the political will, political factions, and political survival models. Next, the paper describes the three cases of national pharmaceutical policy reform, and identifies common conditions that made these reforms politically feasible. The paper's analysis suggests that health sector reform is feasible at certain definable, and perhaps predictable, political moments, especially in the early periods of new regimes. The most important and manipulable political factors are: political timing, which provides opportunities for policy entrepreneurs to introduce their ideas into public debate, and political management of group competition, which allows leaders to control the political effects of distributional consequences and protect the regime's stability. A strong and narrow political coalition improves the capacity of political leaders to resist the pressures of concentrated economic costs (both inside and outside national boundaries). The paper argues that for reform to succeed, policy-makers need effective methods to analyze relevant political conditions and shape key political factors in favor of policy reform. The method of Political Mapping is briefly introduced as a technique that can help policy-makers in analyzing and managing the political dimensions of policy reform and in improving the political feasibility of reform.

  18. Energy sector reforms status of Danish energy policy - 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gullev, L.

    2000-01-01

    The new millennium brings change and new ways of thinking to the energy sector. Today the sector faces new challenges which it must deal with at a time where increasing market liberalisation and increasing internalisation is creating completely new frameworks for the sector. The Danish tradition of progressive energy policy action plans is the best possible basis on which to build. The target remains set. Energy policy must create the framework for structuring future energy systems so as to ensure that they are sustainable. Over many years there have been numerous initiatives to transfer consumption to cleaner energy sources, which has now led to a steady reduction in CO 2 emissions. The government places great importance on a continuation of this current development, both short term and long term. The adoption of the Electricity Reform in spring 1999 was an important step in the right direction. The government can, with great satisfaction, conclude that an agreement has now been made with most of the Parliament regarding a Gas reform, modernisation of the heat Supply Act and a new Energy Saving Act. In addition to this, the agreement also includes a follow up to the Electricity Reform concerning utilisation of biomass, offshore wind turbines, harmonisation of costs for priority electricity production, private generator's payment to priority electricity and the establishment of a market for electricity based on renewable. (author)

  19. Policy Capacity for Health Reform: Necessary but Insufficient; Comment on “Health Reform Requires Policy Capacity”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen Adams

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest and colleagues have persuasively made the case that policy capacity is a fundamental prerequisite to health reform. They offer a comprehensive life-cycle definition of policy capacity and stress that it involves much more than problem identification and option development. I would like to offer a Canadian perspective. If we define health reform as re-orienting the health system from acute care to prevention and chronic disease management the consensus is that Canada has been unsuccessful in achieving a major transformation of our 14 health systems (one for each province and territory plus the federal government. I argue that 3 additional things are essential to build health policy capacity in a healthcare federation such as Canada: (a A means of “policy governance” that would promote an approach to cooperative federalism in the health arena; (b The ability to overcome the ”policy inertia” resulting from how Canadian Medicare was implemented and subsequently interpreted; and (c The ability to entertain a long-range thinking and planning horizon. My assessment indicates that Canada falls short on each of these items, and the prospects for achieving them are not bright. However, hope springs eternal and it will be interesting to see if the July, 2015 report of the Advisory Panel on Healthcare Innovation manages to galvanize national attention and stimulate concerted action.

  20. Sustainable Administrative Reform Movements Policy in Joko Widodo's Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogi Suprayogi Sugandi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Joko Widodo (Jokowi is a leader that is widely expected to transform Indonesia into a better country. Hopes and wishes were rising when he was elected as the president of Indonesia. This paper will describe various innovations undertaken before and after his presidential inauguration as well as the assorted innovations made in reforming the administration of his cabinet. As the president of Indonesia, Joko Widodo is required to realize the aspirations of the people in freeing the government from corruption, collusion, and nepotism. The management of ministerial and non-ministerial institutions becomes the very first crucial issue undertaken by Joko Widodo. This led to a polemic in regards to reducing or increasing the number of institutions, as the Jokowi administration actually increased the amount. In Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono's administration, several policies were made systematically and based on legislations that had been approved by the lagislature. Joko Widodo's administration in more partial in nature. The administrative reform program that is highly anticipated is the continuation of the Public Service Act. This law is a step forward from the administrative reform program that aims at the creation of good governance. Changes is career path, salary system, pension and benefits for civil servants, performance-based staffing are various efforts of sustainability carried out by Joko Widodo's administration.

  1. 78 FR 17300 - Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... and II Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles and... Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles and Administrative Requirements (Including...

  2. Why do policies change? Institutions, interests, ideas and networks in three cases of policy reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Jessica C; Abelson, Julia; Kouyaté, Bocar; Lavis, John N; Walt, Gill

    2016-11-01

    Policy researchers have used various categories of variables to explain why policies change, including those related to institutions, interests and ideas. Recent research has paid growing attention to the role of policy networks-the actors involved in policy-making, their relationships with each other, and the structure formed by those relationships-in policy reform across settings and issues; however, this literature has largely ignored the theoretical integration of networks with other policy theories, including the '3Is' of institutions, interests and ideas. This article proposes a conceptual framework integrating these variables and tests it on three cases of policy change in Burkina Faso, addressing the need for theoretical integration with networks as well as the broader aim of theory-driven health policy analysis research in low- and middle-income countries. We use historical process tracing, a type of comparative case study, to interpret and compare documents and in-depth interview data within and between cases. We found that while network changes were indeed associated with policy reform, this relationship was mediated by one or more of institutions, interests and ideas. In a context of high donor dependency, new donor rules affected the composition and structure of actors in the networks, which enabled the entry and dissemination of new ideas and shifts in the overall balance of interest power ultimately leading to policy change. The case of strategic networking occurred in only one case, by civil society actors, suggesting that network change is rarely the spark that initiates the process towards policy change. This analysis highlights the important role of changes in institutions and ideas to drive policymaking, but hints that network change is a necessary intermediate step in these processes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. All rights reserved. For

  3. Perceived Threat Associated with Police Officers and Black Men Predicts Support for Policing Policy Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Louise Skinner

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Racial disparities in policing and recent high-profile incidents resulting in the deaths of Black men have ignited a national debate on policing policies. Given evidence that both police officers and Black men may be associated with threat, we examined the impact of perceived threat on support for reformed policing policies. Across three studies we found correlational evidence that perceiving police officers as threatening predicts increased support for reformed policing practices (e.g., limiting the use of lethal force and matching police force demographics to those of the community. In contrast, perceiving Black men as threatening predicted reduced support for policing policy reform. Perceived threat also predicted willingness to sign a petition calling for police reform. Experimental evidence indicated that priming participants to associate Black men with threat could also reduce support for policing policy reform, and this effect was moderated by internal motivation to respond without prejudice. Priming participants to associate police officers with threat did not increase support for policing policy reform. Results indicate that resistance to policing policy reform is associated with perceiving Black men as threatening. Moreover, findings suggest that publicizing racially charged police encounters, which may conjure associations between Black men and threat, could reduce support for policing policy reform.

  4. The duopoly policy in the Brazilian model of telecommunications reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Mattos

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the important characteristics of the Brazilian Model of Telecommunications Reform (BMTR was the adoption of a duopoly policy, constraining the entry of new players in the wire segment in the transitional phase until free competition in 2002. This policy was also used in the reform experience of the United Kingdom in telecommunications in the 80's. The theoretical explanations behind this kind of policy are not strong enough to justify the duopoly policy in telecommunications. The most plausible idea rests on the prominent role conferred to privatization revenues in the design of the reform as a means of helping the efforts to consolidate price stabilization in the country. We introduce a model with the trade-offs between competition, duplication of fixed costs and privatization revenues. Despite the importance of fixed costs in the objective function of the regulator, we show that the privatization revenue target is the aspect, which justifies the imposition of entry constraints. The British experience shows that the sacrifice of this kind of policy regarding efficiency in the long run can be substantial.Uma das características mais importantes do Modelo Brasileiro de Reforma das Telecomunicações foi a adoção de uma política de duopólio, restringindo a entrada de novas empresas no segmento de telefonia fixa durante a fase de transição até a livre concorrência a ser adotada a partir de 2002. Essa política foi também utilizada na experiência de reforma das telecomunicações ocorrida no Reino Unido na década de 80. As explicações teóricas para justificar a adoção deste tipo de política não são satisfatórias o suficiente para justificar a política de duopólio como prescrição de política nas telecomunicações. A idéia mais plausível se baseia no papel proeminente conferido às receitas de privatização no desenho da reforma como forma de auxiliar os esforços de consolidação da estabilização de preços no

  5. STRATEGIC DIRECTIONS FOR REFORMING FISCAL POLICY OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тymoshenko A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is about the current direction of the transformation of the Ukrainian fiscal policy. The analysis of tax revenues to the State Budget and expenditures from it was carried out. Negative trends in the implementation of fiscal policy have been identified. A mechanism for implementing the fiscal policy is proposed. The main strategic directions of reforming fiscal policy have been identified. It is substantiated that in order to achieve an effective fiscal policy at the macro level it is necessary to create conditions for optimal filling of the state budget and contain inflationary processes. At the meso level it is necessary to ensure the fulfillment of tasks that promote economic growth in the regions and at the micro level ̶ to identify and implement measures to enhance the development of business structures through improvement of the investment climate. It is argued that for this purpose it is important to develop and implement an effective fiscal policy of Ukraine strategy that should include the following smart directions in the field of fiscal policy: improving the combination of fiscal and budgetary spheres in regulation, planning, management with the goal of achieving the maximum results of increasing the welfare of the population; determination of effective communication chains between business centers and the state fiscal service in the course of tax administration, the formation of an objective tax control system. It is pointed that the implementation of the fiscal mechanism combines the fiscal and budgetary mechanisms and includes the mobilization of financial resources from tax payments, as well as their distribution and effective use. It is noted that the instruments of the fiscal mechanism are means for influencing the formation of the optimal amount of financial resources for their further use, in turn, each instrument within the fiscal mechanism has its own functional load. So, expanding the functional boundaries of

  6. Mexico's "ley de narcomenudeo" drug policy reform and the international drug control regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Werb, Daniel; Beletsky, Leo; Rangel, Gudelia; Arredondo, Jaime; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2014-11-14

    It has been over half a century since the landmark Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs was adopted, for the first time unifying international drug policy under a single treaty aimed at limiting use, manufacture, trade, possession, and trafficking of opiates, cannabis, and other narcotics. Since then, other international drug policy measures have been adopted, largely emphasizing enforcement-based approaches to reducing drug supply and use. Recently, in response to concerns that the historic focus on criminalization and enforcement has had limited effectiveness, international drug policies have begun to undergo a paradigm shift as countries seek to enact their own reforms to partially depenalize or deregulate personal drug use and possession. This includes Mexico, which in 2009 enacted national drug policy reform partially decriminalizing possession of small quantities of narcotics for personal consumption while also requiring drug treatment for repeat offenders. As countries move forward with their own reform models, critical assessment of their legal compatibility and effectiveness is necessary. In this commentary we conduct a critical assessment of the compatibility of Mexico's reform policy to the international drug policy regime and describe its role in the current evolving drug policy environment. We argue that Mexico's reform is consistent with flexibilities allowed under international drug treaty instruments and related commentaries. We also advocate that drug policy reforms and future governance efforts should be based on empirical evidence, emphasize harm reduction practices, and integrate evidence-based evaluation and implementation of drug reform measures.

  7. Can conditional health policies be justified? A policy analysis of the new NHS dental contract reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverty, Louise; Harris, Rebecca

    2018-06-01

    Conditional policies, which emphasise personal responsibility, are becoming increasingly common in healthcare. Although used widely internationally, they are relatively new within the UK health system where there have been concerns about whether they can be justified. New NHS dental contracts include the introduction of a conditional component that restricts certain patients from accessing a full range of treatment until they have complied with preventative action. A policy analysis of published documents on the NHS dental contract reforms from 2009 to 2016 was conducted to consider how conditionality is justified and whether its execution is likely to cause distributional effects. Contractualist, paternalistic and mutualist arguments that reflect notions of responsibility and obligation are used as justification within policy. Underlying these arguments is an emphasis on preserving the finite resources of a strained NHS. We argue that the proposed conditional component may differentially affect disadvantaged patients, who do not necessarily have access to the resources needed to meet the behavioural requirements. As such, the conditional component of the NHS dental contract reform has the potential to exacerbate oral health inequalities. Conditional health policies may challenge core NHS principles and, as is the case with any conditional policy, should be carefully considered to ensure they do not exacerbate health inequities. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Optimising Russian natural gas - reform and climate policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-18

    The world's largest gas producer and exporter, Russia has an enormous energy saving potential. At least 30 billion cubic meters, a fifth of Russian exports to European OECD countries, could be saved every year by enhanced technology or energy efficiency. As the era of cheap gas in Russia comes to an end, this potential saving is increasingly important for Russians and importing countries. And, as domestic gas prices increase, efficiency investments will become increasingly economic - not to mention the incentive for Gazprom to enhance its efficiency against a backdrop of high European gas prices. The book analyzes and estimates the potential savings and the associated reductions in greenhouse gas emissions in the oil extraction (flaring), gas transmission, and distribution sectors. Achieving these savings will require linking long-standing energy efficiency goals with energy sector reforms, as well as climate policy objectives. The book also describes Russia's emerging climate policy and institutional framework, including work still ahead before the country is eligible for the Kyoto Protocol's flexibility mechanisms and can attract financing for greenhouse gas reductions. Stressed is the need for Russia to tap the full potential of energy savings and greenhouse gas emission reductions through a more competitive environment in the gas sector to attract timely investments.

  9. Higher Education Policy Reform in Ethiopia: The Representation of the Problem of Gender Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molla, Tebeje

    2013-01-01

    The higher education (HE) subsystem in Ethiopia has passed through a series of policy reforms in the last 10 years. Key reform areas ranged from improving quality and relevance of programmes to promoting equality in access to and success in HE. Despite the effort underway, gender inequality has remained a critical challenge in the subsystem. This…

  10. Comparative analysis of aging policy reforms in Argentina, Chile, Costa Rica, and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Esteban; Berho, Maureen; Roqué, Mónica; Amaro, Juan Sebastián; Morales, Fernando; Rivera, Emiliana; Gutiérrez Robledo, Luis Miguel F; López, Elizabeth Caro; Canals, Bernardita; Kornfeld, Rosa

    2018-04-16

    This investigation uses case studies and comparative analysis to review and analyze aging policy in Argentina, Chile, Costa Rica, and Mexico, and uncovers similarities and relevant trends in the substance of historical and current aging policy across countries. Initial charity-based approaches to poverty and illness have been gradually replaced by a rights-based approach considering broader notions of well-being, and recent reforms emphasize the need for national, intersectoral, evidence-based policy. The results of this study have implications for understanding aging policy in Latin America from a welfare regime and policymakers' perspective, identifying priorities for intervention, and informing policy reforms in developing countries worldwide.

  11. Another countryside? Policy options for land and agrarian reform in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abel

    The focus on South Africa's land and agrarian policies is relevant at a time ... be coordinated at various policy levels, including macroeconomic policy, trade policy, agricultural policy and local economic development and planning for land.

  12. Electoral reform and public policy outcomes in Thailand: the politics of the 30-Baht health scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selway, Joel Sawat

    2011-01-01

    How do changes in electoral rules affect the nature of public policy outcomes? The current evidence supporting institutional theories that answer this question stems almost entirely from quantitative cross-country studies, the data of which contain very little within-unit variation. Indeed, while there are many country-level accounts of how changes in electoral rules affect such phenomena as the number of parties or voter turnout, there are few studies of how electoral reform affects public policy outcomes. This article contributes to this latter endeavor by providing a detailed analysis of electoral reform and the public policy process in Thailand through an examination of the 1997 electoral reforms. Specifically, the author examines four aspects of policy-making: policy formulation, policy platforms, policy content, and policy outcomes. The article finds that candidates in the pre-1997 era campaigned on broad, generic platforms; parties had no independent means of technical policy expertise; the government targeted health resources to narrow geographic areas; and health was underprovided in Thai society. Conversely, candidates in the post-1997 era relied more on a strong, detailed national health policy; parties created mechanisms to formulate health policy independently; the government allocated health resources broadly to the entire nation through the introduction of a universal health care system, and health outcomes improved. The author attributes these changes in the policy process to the 1997 electoral reform, which increased both constituency breadth (the proportion of the population to which politicians were accountable) and majoritarianism.

  13. Upholding the Malay Language and Strengthening the English Language Policy: An Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamat, Hamidah; Umar, Nur Farita Mustapa; Mahmood, Muhammad Ilyas

    2014-01-01

    Today's global economy and dependency on technology has led to educational reforms in Malaysia, which includes language policies; namely the Upholding the Malay Language, and Strengthening the English Language ("MBMMBI") policy. This policy underpins the project presented and discussed in this paper; on the development of a bilingual…

  14. Redesigning and reforming European regional policy : The reasons, the logic and the outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCann, P.; Ortega-Argilés, R.

    This article discusses the reforms to European Union (EU) regional development policy, or more precisely EU Cohesion Policy, which have been taking place over recent years. Following a discussion of the evolution of the policy, the changes in the rationale, the logic, the architecture, and the

  15. From policy to practice: education reform in Mozambique and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Mozambican government has introduced reforms of basic education, notably the introduction of interdisciplinarity, learner-centredness and new teaching pedagogies. This is a case study of how these curriculum reforms have been implemented at Marrere Teachers' Training College. We conducted interviews with ...

  16. Uganda tax policy reforms: A case study of Uganda revenue authority URA

    OpenAIRE

    Kato, Simon Kagambirwe

    2014-01-01

    In this study I examined the implementation of tax policy reforms at Uganda Revenue Authority. In particular, I examined the impact of the tax policy reforms implemented since the restructuring of Uganda Revenue Authority in 2005. Although Uganda's taxation system is a vital area of study, it has not gotten enough attention from researchers. This is because, in the Ugandan and generally African developing countries context, taxation involves vital and, to a large ex...

  17. Deciding Who Decides Questions at the Intersection of School Finance Reform Litigation and Standards-Based Accountability Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Superfine, Benjamin Michael

    2009-01-01

    Courts hearing school finance reform cases have recently begun to consider several issues related to standards-based accountability policies. This convergence of school finance reform litigation and standards-based accountability policies represents a chance for the courts to reallocate decision-making authority for each type of reform across the…

  18. International trade and carbon emissions: The role of Chinese institutional and policy reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Fredrik N G

    2018-01-01

    The carbon dioxide embodied in Chinese exports to developed countries increased rapidly from 1995 to 2008. We test the extent to which institutional reforms in China can explain this increase. We focus on five areas of reforms: trade liberalization, environmental institutions, legal and property rights, institutional risk and exchange rate policy. Our results show that trade liberalization, weak environmental institutions, exchange rate policy, and legal and property rights affect emissions. Our results also indicate that the lack of reform in the utilities sector is an important factor in the rapid increase in embodied emissions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Educational research in Sweden: Reform strategies and research policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marklund, Inger

    1981-06-01

    Educational R & D in Sweden is to a large extent policy-oriented. It has been an integrated part of the Swedish educational reform system and has brought about a dialogue between politicians, administrators and researchers. Several circumstances have contributed to the `Swedish model'. One is the system with government-appointed committees in which researchers often play an active part. Another is that the Swedish educational system is highly centralized, with the National Board of Education (NBE) as the central authority, responsible for primary, secondary and adult education. A third — and a crucial one — is that, since 1962, the NBE has had increasing funds for educational R & D at its disposal. These funds account for the main part of the economic resources for R & D, along with resources allocated to research appointments at research departments of universities. Educational R & D, conducted primarily within the NBE funds, has recently been evaluated by a government-appointed committee. In its evaluations of the impact of educational R & D, the committee distinguished between the effects of R & D and the effect correlates. It concluded that the impact of R & D is more indirect than direct, more long-term than immediate. The effects are also more easily recognized at levels above the actual school situation. This finding could be interpreted as a consequence of the policy-orientation of educational R & D, which at the same time shows the difficulties in reaching the `school level' with research and development results. There are two general trends in Sweden, which will influence both research planning and research use. First, there is a trend towards the decentralization of decision-making and responsibility for the educational system. Secondly, there is a trend towards the `sectionalization' of the R & D system as a whole. This sectionalization will mean that research will to a great extent be planned to meet needs from different parts of society — labour

  20. Reform of irrigation management and investment policy in African development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KW Easter

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the reform of water and irrigation management in Africa and compares it with similar reforms in Asia.  Several things are evident from the review.  First, Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA is at an earlier stage of irrigation development and reform than Asia.  Second, the articulated need for reform is much stronger in Asia than it is in SSA.  Third, the productivity of small-scale irrigated farms is significantly lower in SSA compared to Asia.  Thus any irrigation investment strategy in SSA should be different from Asia and focus on increasing small-farm productivity as well as small-scale irrigation projects.  Finally, all direct government irrigation investments should be done jointly with decisions regarding the type of project management.

  1. Institutional stakeholder perceptions of barriers to addiction treatment under Mexico's drug policy reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werb, Dan; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Meza, Emilo; Rangel Gomez, Maria Gudelia; Palinkas, Lawrence; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Beletsky, Leo

    2017-05-01

    Mexico has experienced disproportionate drug-related harms given its role as a production and transit zone for illegal drugs destined primarily for the USA. In response, in 2009, the Mexican federal government passed legislation mandating pre-arrest diversion of drug-dependent individuals towards addiction treatment. However, this federal law was not specific about how the scale-up of the addiction treatment sector was to be operationalised. We therefore conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with key 'interactors' in fields affected by the federal legislation, including participants from the law enforcement, public health, addiction treatment, and governmental administration sectors. Among 19 participants from the municipal, state and federal levels were interviewed and multiple barriers to policy reform were identified. First, there is a lack of institutional expertise to implement the reform. Second, the operationalisation of the reform was not accompanied by a coordinated action plan. Third, the law is an unfunded mandate. Institutional barriers are likely hampering the implementation of Mexico's policy reform. Addressing the concerns expressed by interactors through the scale-up of services, the provision of increased training and education programmes for stakeholders and a coordinated action plan to operationalise the policy reform are likely needed to improve the policy reform process.

  2. Big Business as a Policy Innovator in State School Reform: A Minnesota Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, Tim L.; Clugston, Richard M., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The Minnesota Business Partnership (MBP) was studied as a policy innovator in state school reform (for kindergarten through grade 12) in relation to agenda setting, alternative formulation, and authoritative enactment. Focus is on the MBP's policy-making involvement during the 1985 state legislative session. Overall, the MBP's influence was…

  3. Compensation Reform and Design Preferences of Teacher Incentive Fund Grantees. Policy Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyburn, Sara; Lewis, Jessica; Ritter, Gary

    2010-01-01

    In U.S. K-12 public education, incentive pay for educators remains firmly fixed as a high-interest policy topic and has recently become a popular reform initiative in many school systems. The Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF), created in 2006 by the U.S. Department of Education, is at the forefront of this policy movement and has provided hundreds of…

  4. Whose Quality? The (Mis)Uses of Quality Reform in Early Childhood and Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunkin, Elise

    2018-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of an in-depth genealogical study of the discourse of quality in Australian Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) policy. Quality reform has become the foremost global policy agenda for ECEC due to assumptions about the economic potentials of quality services. In Australia, the recent National Quality…

  5. Translating Globalization and Democratization into Local Policy: Educational Reform in Hong Kong and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Wing-Wah

    2004-11-01

    The past two decades have witnessed three important international trends: an increase in the number of democratic states; economic globalization; and educational reforms in light of the challenges of the new millennium. A great deal of research has addressed educational change in relation to either globalization or democratization, but little has been said about the complex interactions among all three processes. In view of recent educational reforms in Hong Kong and Taiwan, the present contribution examines the local nature of education policy in a globalized age. It challenges those globalization theories which minimize the role of the state and exaggerate the power of globalization over local factors. In particular, it explores how the governments of these two Chinese societies have employed democratization to generate and legitimate reform proposals and have used economic globalization to justify educational reforms. The study concludes by discussing the complex interrelations of these processes, including tensions between global and local concerns in educational reform.

  6. An analysis of policy levers used to implement mental health reform in Australia 1992-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Francesca C; Meurk, Carla S; Head, Brian W; Hall, Wayne D; Carstensen, Georgia; Harris, Meredith G; Whiteford, Harvey A

    2015-10-24

    Over the past two decades, mental health reform in Australia has received unprecedented government attention. This study explored how five policy levers (organisation, regulation, community education, finance and payment) were used by the Australian Federal Government to implement mental health reforms. Australian Government publications, including the four mental health plans (published in 1992, 1998, 2003 and 2008) were analysed according to policy levers used to drive reform across five priority areas: [1] human rights and community attitudes; [2] responding to community need; [3] service structures; [4] service quality and effectiveness; and [5] resources and service access. Policy levers were applied in varying ways; with two or three levers often concurrently used to implement a single initiative or strategy. For example, changes to service structures were achieved using various combinations of all five levers. Attempts to improve service quality and effectiveness were instead made through a single lever-regulation. The use of some levers changed over time, including a move away from prescriptive, legislative use of regulation, towards a greater focus on monitoring service standards and consumer outcomes. Patterns in the application of policy levers across the National Mental Health Strategy, as identified in this analysis, represent a novel way of conceptualising the history of mental health reform in Australia. An improved understanding of the strategic targeting and appropriate utilisation of policy levers may assist in the delivery and evaluation of evidence-based mental health reform in the future.

  7. The Fiscal and Macroeconomic Impacts of Reforming Energy Subsidy Policy in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Nora Yusma Bte Mohamed Yusoff; Hussain Ali Bekhet

    2017-01-01

    The rationalization of a gradual subsidies reforms plan has been set out by the Malaysian government to achieve the high-income nation target. This paper attempts to analyze the impacts of energy subsidy reform policy on fiscal deficit and macroeconomics variables in Malaysia. The Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) Model is employed. Three simulations based on different groups of scenarios have been developed. Importantly, the overall results indicate that removal of fuel subsidy has signif...

  8. Impact of structural reforms on planning systems and policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galland, Daniel; Enemark, Stig

    2013-01-01

    spatial development processes. The reasoning behind this argument stems from the case of Denmark, where a structural reform that changed the country’s geographies of inter-governmental arrangements significantly transformed the configuration and functioning of the national spatial planning system. Once...... concerning how the scope of Danish spatial planning has been reoriented over time in light of three interrelated strands of understanding....

  9. Policy entrepreneurship in the development of public sector strategy: the case of London health reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oborn, Eivor; Barrett, Michael; Exworthy, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The development of health policy is recognized as complex; however, there has been little development of the role of agency in this process. Kingdon developed the concept of policy entrepreneur (PE) within his ‘windows’ model. He argued inter-related ‘policy streams' must coincide for important issues to become addressed. The conjoining of these streams may be aided by a policy entrepreneur. We contribute by clarifying the role of the policy entrepreneur and highlighting the translational processes of key actors in creating and aligning policy windows. We analyse the work in London of Professor Sir Ara Darzi as a policy entrepreneur. An important aspect of Darzi's approach was to align a number of important institutional networks to conjoin related problems. Our findings highlight how a policy entrepreneur not only opens policy windows but also yokes together a network to make policy agendas happen. Our contribution reveals the role of clinical leadership in health reform.

  10. Challenges and policy implications of gas reform in Italy and Ukraine: Evidence from a benchmarking analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharuk, Anatoliy G.; Storto, Corrado lo

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a cross-country benchmarking study of natural gas distribution to final consumers and compares two samples of companies in Italy and Ukraine. A 2-stage DEA procedure calculating efficiency of gas providers and identifying critical context factors and policy issues that affect it is implemented. Both countries are low performing in terms of operators’ technical and scale efficiency and there is room to design more efficient market configurations. Some issues need attention to develop an effective gas market policy: a) search for efficiency requires accurate investigation of its main drivers that depend on context factors; b) while greater efficiency is necessary to reduce cost and increase service quality, at different stages of progress of the reform process other goals may be more important; c) gas industry reform process should be planned adopting a systemic perspective as its development does not remain confined to the sector, but implies changes in the whole country economy, particularly when the gas market is of primary relevance to the economy; d) a more comprehensive package of reforms may be necessary to make gas market reform successful; e) even though the gas market reform is an economic process, it has unavoidably social and political implications. - Highlights: • Benchmarking of natural gas distribution industry in Italy and Ukraine is performed. • Average industry inefficiency is about 27% and decreasing returns to scale are dominant. • Gas industry reform process should be planned adopting a systemic perspective. • Gas reform needs a more comprehensive package of reforms and/or supporting legislation to be successful. • Gas industry reform has social and political implications.

  11. Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-24

    control number. 1. REPORT DATE 24 MAR 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Bahrain: Reform...agreement ( FTA ); legislation implementing it was signed January 11, 2006 (P.L. 109-169). The unrest has further strained, although not crippled...Bahrain implement the U.S.-Bahrain FTA . In May 2006 Bahrain revoked the visa for the resident program director of the National Democratic Institute

  12. Pharmaceutical policy reform in Canada: lessons from history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothe, Katherine

    2018-07-01

    Canada is the only country with a broad public health system that does not include universal, nationwide coverage for pharmaceuticals. This omission causes real hardship to those Canadians who are not well-served by the existing patchwork of limited provincial plans and private insurance. It also represents significant forgone benefits in terms of governments' ability to negotiate drug prices, make expensive new drugs available to patients on an equitable basis, and provide integrated health services regardless of therapy type or location. This paper examines Canada's historical failure to adopt universal pharmaceutical insurance on a national basis, with particular emphasis on the role of public and elite ideas about its supposed lack of affordability. This legacy provides novel lessons about the barriers to reform and potential methods for overcoming them. The paper argues that reform is most likely to be successful if it explicitly addresses entrenched ideas about pharmacare's affordability and its place in the health system. Reform is also more likely to achieve universal coverage if it is radical, addressing various components of an effective pharmaceutical program simultaneously. In this case, an incremental approach is likely to fail because it will not allow governments to contain costs and realize the social benefits that come along with a universal program, and because it means forgoing the current promising conditions for achieving real change.

  13. Early Educational Provision--Emphasised in Education Policy Reforms in Norway? An Analysis of Education Policy Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnsrud, Halvor; Nilsen, Sven

    2014-01-01

    The article analyses how the intentions of early provision in Norwegian schools have been expressed in the education policy reforms in Norway from the 1970s to the present day. The first area deals with the intentions that most explicitly cover early provision; prevention, early detection and intervention. The second area of analysis relates to…

  14. Evidence-based health policy: three generations of reform in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenk, Julio; Sepúlveda, Jaime; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; Knaul, Felicia

    2003-11-15

    The Mexican health system has evolved through three generations of reform. The creation of the Ministry of Health and the main social security agency in 1943 marked the first generation of health reforms. In the late 1970s, a second generation of reforms was launched around the primary health-care model. Third-generation reforms favour systemic changes to reorganise the system through the horizontal integration of basic functions-stewardship, financing, and provision. The stability of leadership in the health sector is emphasised as a key element that allowed for reform during the past 60 years. Furthermore, there has been a transition in the second generation of reforms to a model that is increasingly based on evidence; this has been intensified and extended in the third generation of reforms. We also examine policy developments that will provide social protection in health for all. These developments could be of interest for countries seeking to provide their citizens with universal access to health care that incorporates equity, quality, and financial protection.

  15. Energy subsidies: lessons learned in assessing their impact and designing policy reforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moltke, A. von; McKee, C.; Morgan, T.

    2004-02-01

    This book, which is based on the work carried out by the International Energy Agency and UNEP, explores the potential impacts of energy subsidies and provides guidelines for policy makers on how to implement reform of energy subsides. The background on energy subsidies is traced and an analytical framework is presented covering defining and measuring energy subsidies, the size of the subsidies, and analysis of the impact of subsidies and their reform. Energy subsidies in OECD countries, Czech and Slovak Republics, Russia, India, Indonesia, Korea, Iran and Senegal are examined along with the impact of removing energy subsidies in Chile, the findings of country case studies, and the design and implementation of energy subsidies reforms. Methodological approaches to analysing the economic, environmental and social effects of energy subsidy reform are considered in the Annex

  16. The Mexican electricity sector: Policy analysis and reform (1992–2009)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramírez-Camperos, Adriana María; Rodríguez-Padilla, Víctor; Guido-Aldana, Pedro Antonio

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses the cause–effect relation of the structural reform in the Mexican electricity sector, called the Public Electricity Service Act, from 1992 to 2009. One of the main arguments of the reform is to attract private investment in order to reduce the financial load of the government in infrastructure for the development of the National Electric Power System by means of six modalities (Power Self-Supply, Cogeneration, Small Power Production, Independent Power Production, Power Export and Power Import). The article presents the global context of reforms adopted in 1990. The major policies and events are presented in chronological order (before and after reform). In addition, it analyses the new institutional framework, the evolution of modalities, technologies of electricity generation and tariffs. The main conclusion is that the result of reform could be considered a partial progress. The Independent Power Production modality shows greater participation, while Power Self-Supply and Cogeneration are lower. The subsidy policy is maintained. Progress is needed in policies and strengthening, and also in updating regulatory and normative frameworks

  17. Reductions in abortion-related mortality following policy reform: evidence from Romania, South Africa and Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benson Janie

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Unsafe abortion is a significant contributor to worldwide maternal mortality; however, abortion law and policy liberalization could lead to drops in unsafe abortion and related deaths. This review provides an analysis of changes in abortion mortality in three countries where significant policy reform and related service delivery occurred. Drawing on peer-reviewed literature, population data and grey literature on programs and policies, this paper demonstrates the policy and program changes that led to declines in abortion-related mortality in Romania, South Africa and Bangladesh. In all three countries, abortion policy liberalization was followed by implementation of safe abortion services and other reproductive health interventions. South Africa and Bangladesh trained mid-level providers to offer safe abortion and menstrual regulation services, respectively, Romania improved contraceptive policies and services, and Bangladesh made advances in emergency obstetric care and family planning. The findings point to the importance of multi-faceted and complementary reproductive health reforms in successful implementation of abortion policy reform.

  18. Economics and Health Reform: Academic Research and Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glied, Sherry A; Miller, Erin A

    2015-08-01

    Two prior studies, conducted in 1966 and in 1979, examined the role of economic research in health policy development. Both concluded that health economics had not been an important contributor to policy. Passage of the Affordable Care Act offers an opportunity to reassess this question. We find that the evolution of health economics research has given it an increasingly important role in policy. Research in the field has followed three related paths over the past century-institutionalist research that described problems; theoretical research, which proposed relationships that might extend beyond existing institutions; and empirical assessments of structural parameters identified in the theoretical research. These three strands operating in concert allowed economic research to be used to predict the fiscal and coverage consequences of alternative policy paths. This ability made economic research a powerful policy force. Key conclusions of health economics research are clearly evident in the Affordable Care Act. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Effects of EU dairy policy reform for Dutch dairy farming : a primal approach using GMM estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooms, D.L.; Peerlings, J.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper estimates a production function for milk using a generalised method of moments estimator to avoid the endogeneity problem. Using the first-order conditions for profit maximisation, the economic effects for individual Dutch dairy farms of the 2003 EU dairy policy reform are analysed. With

  20. Tensions between Teaching Sexuality Education and Neoliberal Policy Reform in Quebec's Professional Competencies for Beginning Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Dan; McGray. Robert

    2015-01-01

    This research draws into question the effects that neoliberal policy reforms--with an emphasis on individual and measurable "competencies"--has on new teachers teaching sexuality education in Quebec. While we examine professional competencies that teachers can use to define their mandate for teaching sexuality education as a beginning…

  1. Why Are Studies of Neighborhoods and Communities Central to Education Policy and Reform?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopson, Rodney

    2014-01-01

    To understand the long shadow of education policy and reform in the United States, especially in the urban core, requires a full and elaborate understanding of the neighborhoods and communities that have transformed in the last 20 or 30 years. Studying classrooms and educational spaces without concomitant understanding of the dynamics and facets…

  2. Policy reforms, rice production and sustainable land use in China: A macro-micro analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerink, N.; Qu, F.; Kuiper, M.H.; Shi Xiaoping, X.; Tan Shuhao,

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a macro¿micro analysis of the impact of policy reforms in China on agricultural production, input use and soil quality change for a major rice-producing area, namely Jiangxi province. This is done in three steps. First, a quantitative assessment is made of the impact of market

  3. Policies lost in translation? Unravelling water reform processes in African waterscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemerink-Seyoum, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1980s a major change took place in public policies for water resources management. The role of governments shifted under this reform process from an emphasis on investment in the development, operation and maintenance of water infrastructure to a focus on managing water resources systems

  4. Market Accountability in Schools: Policy Reforms in England, Germany, France and Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, Paola

    2012-01-01

    This article concentrates on the policy reforms of schools in England, Germany, France and Italy, from 1988 to 2009, with a focus on the introduction of market accountability. Pressing demands for organisational change in schools, shaped by the objectives of "efficiency" and competition, which were introduced in England in the 1980s,…

  5. Vehicles of Logics: The Role of Policy Documents and Instructional Materials in Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woulfin, Sarah L.

    2016-01-01

    To understand the complexities of education policy implementation, it is necessary to consider how artifacts associated with reform are imbued with ideas, meanings, and values. This empirical paper draws on neo-institutional theory to reveal how artifacts carried particular logics (D'Adderio in "J Inst Econ" 7(2):197-230, 2011; Feldman…

  6. 77 FR 17360 - Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles And...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... II Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles And...; cost principles and administrative requirements (including Single Audit Act). The original comment...-idx?c=ecfr&tpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title02/2cfrv1_02.tpl . The Cost Principles for Hospitals are in the...

  7. 77 FR 11778 - Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... and II Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles and... available on OMB's Web site at http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/circulars_default/ . The Cost Principles for... E (Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and...

  8. 78 FR 7282 - Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... II Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles and... further review, the Cost Principles for Hospitals at 45 CFR Part 74, Appendix E. The proposal consolidates... instructed the OMB Director to ``review and where appropriate revise guidance concerning cost principles...

  9. Policy risk in action: pension reforms and social security wealth in Hungary, Czech Republic, and Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dušek, Libor; Kopecsni, J.

    -, 9/2008 (2008), s. 1-34 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/05/0711 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : pension reforms * social security * policy risk Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://ies.fsv.cuni.cz/default/file/download/id/8361

  10. Bearing the Cost: An Examination of the Gendered Impacts of Water Policy Reform in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Simona

    2008-01-01

    Water insecurity is one of the most pressing issues currently faced by Malawi. The consequences of these issues are borne significantly by women, who are most directly involved with water provision and use, particularly at the household level. Since the mid-1990s, Malawi has undertaken a process of water policy reform. Reflective of international…

  11. Synthesis of Evidence for Tobacco Taxation Policy Reform in West ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Existing evidence shows that tobacco taxation policies, when they make tobacco ... annual conference of McGill's Institute for the Study of International Development. ... In this ROSSA bulletin: Meet Kathryn Toure, the new regional director of ...

  12. Personal and political histories in the designing of health reform policy in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Alissa

    2017-03-01

    While health policies are a major focus in disciplines such as public health and public policy, there is a dearth of work on the histories, social contexts, and personalities behind the development of these policies. This article takes an anthropological approach to the study of a health policy's origins, based on ethnographic research conducted in Bolivia between 2010 and 2012. Bolivia began a process of health care reform in 2006, following the election of Evo Morales Ayma, the country's first indigenous president, and leader of the Movement Toward Socialism (Movimiento al Socialism). Brought into power through the momentum of indigenous social movements, the MAS government platform addressed racism, colonialism, and human rights in a number of major reforms, with a focus on cultural identity and indigeneity. One of the MAS's projects was the design of a new national health policy in 2008 called The Family Community Intercultural Health Policy (Salud Familiar Comunitaria Intercultural). This policy aimed to address major health inequities through primary care in a country that is over 60% indigenous. Methods used were interviews with Bolivian policymakers and other stakeholders, participant observation at health policy conferences and in rural community health programs that served as models for aspects of the policy, and document analysis to identify core premises and ideological areas. I argue that health policies are historical both in their relationship to national contexts and events on a timeline, but also because of the ways they intertwine with participants' personal histories, theoretical frameworks, and reflections on national historical events. By studying the Bolivian policymaking process, and particularly those who helped design the policy, it is possible to understand how and why particular progressive ideas were able to translate into policy. More broadly, this work also suggests how a uniquely anthropological approach to the study of health policy

  13. Ethical and Human Rights Foundations of Health Policy: Lessons from Comprehensive Reform in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenk, Julio; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio

    2015-12-10

    This paper discusses the use of an explicit ethical and human rights framework to guide a reform intended to provide universal and comprehensive social protection in health for all Mexicans, independently of their socio-economic status or labor market condition. This reform was designed, implemented, and evaluated by making use of what Michael Reich has identified as the three pillars of public policy: technical, political, and ethical. The use of evidence and political strategies in the design and negotiation of the Mexican health reform is briefly discussed in the first part of this paper. The second part examines the ethical component of the reform, including the guiding concept and values, as well as the specific entitlements that gave operational meaning to the right to health care that was enshrined in Mexico's 1983 Constitution. The impact of this rights-based health reform, measured through an external evaluation, is discussed in the final section. The main message of this paper is that a clear ethical framework, combined with technical excellence and political skill, can deliver major policy results. Copyright © 2015 Frenk and Gómez-Dantés. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  14. Qualitative analysis of the dynamics of policy design and implementation in hospital funding reform.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen S Palmer

    Full Text Available As in many health care systems, some Canadian jurisdictions have begun shifting away from global hospital budgets. Payment for episodes of care has begun to be implemented. Starting in 2012, the Province of Ontario implemented hospital funding reforms comprising three elements: Global Budgets; Health Based Allocation Method (HBAM; and Quality-Based Procedures (QBP. This evaluation focuses on implementation of QBPs, a procedure/diagnosis-specific funding approach involving a pre-set price per episode of care coupled with best practice clinical pathways. We examined whether or not there was consensus in understanding of the program theory underpinning QBPs and how this may have influenced full and effective implementation of this innovative funding model.We undertook a formative evaluation of QBP implementation. We used an embedded case study method and in-depth, one-on-one, semi-structured, telephone interviews with key informants at three levels of the health care system: Designers (those who designed the QBP policy; Adoption Supporters (organizations and individuals supporting adoption of QBPs; and Hospital Implementers (those responsible for QBP implementation in hospitals. Thematic analysis involved an inductive approach, incorporating Framework analysis to generate descriptive and explanatory themes that emerged from the data.Five main findings emerged from our research: (1 Unbeknownst to most key informants, there was neither consistency nor clarity over time among QBP designers in their understanding of the original goal(s for hospital funding reform; (2 Prior to implementation, the intended hospital funding mechanism transitioned from ABF to QBPs, but most key informants were either unaware of the transition or believe it was intentional; (3 Perception of the primary goal(s of the policy reform continues to vary within and across all levels of key informants; (4 Four years into implementation, the QBP funding mechanism remains

  15. Qualitative analysis of the dynamics of policy design and implementation in hospital funding reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Karen S; Brown, Adalsteinn D; Evans, Jenna M; Marani, Husayn; Russell, Kirstie K; Martin, Danielle; Ivers, Noah M

    2018-01-01

    As in many health care systems, some Canadian jurisdictions have begun shifting away from global hospital budgets. Payment for episodes of care has begun to be implemented. Starting in 2012, the Province of Ontario implemented hospital funding reforms comprising three elements: Global Budgets; Health Based Allocation Method (HBAM); and Quality-Based Procedures (QBP). This evaluation focuses on implementation of QBPs, a procedure/diagnosis-specific funding approach involving a pre-set price per episode of care coupled with best practice clinical pathways. We examined whether or not there was consensus in understanding of the program theory underpinning QBPs and how this may have influenced full and effective implementation of this innovative funding model. We undertook a formative evaluation of QBP implementation. We used an embedded case study method and in-depth, one-on-one, semi-structured, telephone interviews with key informants at three levels of the health care system: Designers (those who designed the QBP policy); Adoption Supporters (organizations and individuals supporting adoption of QBPs); and Hospital Implementers (those responsible for QBP implementation in hospitals). Thematic analysis involved an inductive approach, incorporating Framework analysis to generate descriptive and explanatory themes that emerged from the data. Five main findings emerged from our research: (1) Unbeknownst to most key informants, there was neither consistency nor clarity over time among QBP designers in their understanding of the original goal(s) for hospital funding reform; (2) Prior to implementation, the intended hospital funding mechanism transitioned from ABF to QBPs, but most key informants were either unaware of the transition or believe it was intentional; (3) Perception of the primary goal(s) of the policy reform continues to vary within and across all levels of key informants; (4) Four years into implementation, the QBP funding mechanism remains misunderstood; and

  16. On the choice of farm management practices after the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy in 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Erwin; Sinabell, Franz

    2007-02-01

    The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) was fundamentally reformed in 2003. From 2005, farmers will receive decoupled income support payments instead of production premiums if basic standards for environment, food safety, animal health and welfare are met. Farmers are likely to adjust production and management practices to the new policy framework. We describe how this reform fits into the EU strategy of making agricultural production more environmentally friendly by concentrating on the financial aspects of the reforms. Using an agricultural sector model for Austria, we show that the reform will further decrease agricultural outputs, reduce farm inputs, lessen nitrogen surpluses and make environmentally friendly management practices more attractive for farmers.

  17. Making the link: climate policy and the reform of the UK construction industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorrell, Steve

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores the barriers to energy efficiency in the construction of non-domestic buildings in the UK. The source of the barriers is argued to lie in the organisation of the construction industry, including the linear design process, the reliance on cost-based competitive tendering and the incentives placed upon different actors. The consequences include oversizing of equipment, reduced quality, neglect of whole life costs and lack of integrated design. Each of these problems can usefully be interpreted using concepts from the new institutional economics. While the barriers are well known to construction industry specialists, they are relatively neglected in the academic literature on energy policy. Furthermore, conventional policy measures such as building regulations leave these barriers largely untouched. The UK construction industry is currently undergoing a series of reforms which aim to change the relationship between different actors and to achieve improvements in product quality and productivity. While these reforms have the potential to address many of the barriers, the reform agenda makes practically no reference to sustainability. This paper argues that climate policy objectives must be integrated into the reform agenda if the UK is to begin the transition to a low carbon built environment

  18. Interest Groups' Influence over Drug Pricing Policy Reform in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Woojin

    2005-01-01

    In 1999, the Korean government made a drug pricing policy reform to improve the efficiency and transparency of the drug distribution system. Yet, its policy formation process was far from being rational. Facing harsh resistance from various interest groups, the government changed its details into something different from what was initially investigated and planned. So far, little evidence supports any improvement in Korea's drug distribution system. Instead, the new drug pricing policy has deteriorated Korea's national health insurance budget, indicating a heavier economic burden for the general public. From Korea's experience, we may draw some lessons for the future development of a better health care system. As a society becomes more pluralistic, the government should come out of authoritarianism and thoroughly prepare in advance for resistance to reform, by making greater efforts to persuade strong interest groups while informing the general public of potential benefits of the reform. Additionally, facing developing civic groups, the government should listen but not rely too much on them at the final stage of the policy formation. Many of the civic groups lack expertise to evaluate the details of policy and tend to act in a somewhat emotional way. PMID:15988802

  19. Interest groups' influence over drug pricing policy reform in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Woo Jin; Kim, Han Joong

    2005-06-30

    In 1999, the Korean government made a drug pricing policy reform to improve the efficiency and transparency of the drug distribution system. Yet, its policy formation process was far from being rational. Facing harsh resistance from various interest groups, the government changed its details into something different from what was initially investigated and planned. So far, little evidence supports any improvement in Korea's drug distribution system. Instead, the new drug pricing policy has deteriorated Korea's national health insurance budget, indicating a heavier economic burden for the general public. From Korea's experience, we may draw some lessons for the future development of a better health care system. As a society becomes more pluralistic, the government should come out of authoritarianism and thoroughly prepare in advance for resistance to reform, by making greater efforts to persuade strong interest groups while informing the general public of potential benefits of the reform. Additionally, facing developing civic groups, the government should listen but not rely too much on them at the final stage of the policy formation. Many of the civic groups lack expertise to evaluate the details of policy and tend to act in a somewhat emotional way.

  20. Brokering Knowledge Mobilization Networks: Policy Reforms, Partnerships, and Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng-A-Fook, Nicholas; Kane, Ruth G.; Butler, Jesse K.; Glithero, Lisa; Forte, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Educational researchers and policy-makers are now expected by funding agencies and their institutions to innovate the multi-directional ways in which our production of knowledge can impact the classrooms of teachers (practitioners), while also integrating their experiential knowledge into the landscape of our research. In this article, we draw on…

  1. Policy entrepreneurship in the reform of pediatric dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, Burton L; Maas, William R

    2017-06-30

    In a recently published IJHPR article, Cohen and Horev ask whether an individual who holds rightful governmental power is able to effectively "challenge the equilibrium" in ways that might "clash with the goals" of an influential group". This question is raised within the context of a shift in governmental policy that imposed the potential for cost management by HMOs acting as financial intermediaries for pediatric dental care in an effort to provide Israeli children better access to affordable dental care. The influential group referred to consists of Israel's private dentists and the individual seeking to challenge the equilibrium was an Israeli Minister of Health whom the authors consider to be a policy entrepreneur.The Israeli health care system is similar to that of the United States in that private benefit plans and self-pay financing dominate in dental care. This is in contrast to the substantial role of government in the financing and regulation of medical care in both countries (with Israel having universal coverage financed by government and the US having government financing the care of the elderly and the poor as well as providing subsidies through the tax system for the care of most other Americans).Efforts to expand governmental involvement in dental care in both countries have either been opposed by organized dentistry or have suffered from ineffective advocacy for increased public investment in dental care.In the U.S., philanthropic foundations have acted as or have supported health policy entrepreneurs. The recent movement to introduce the dental therapist, a type of allied dental professional trained to provide a narrow set of commonly-needed procedures, to the U.S. is discussed as an example of a successful challenge to the equilibrium by groups supported by these foundations. This is a somewhat different, and complementary, model of policy entrepreneurship from the individual policy entrepreneur highlighted in the Cohen-Horev paper.The political

  2. Nursing education reform in South Africa--lessons from a policy analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaauw, Duane; Ditlopo, Prudence; Rispel, Laetitia C

    2014-01-01

    Nursing education reform is identified as an important strategy for enhancing health workforce performance, and thereby improving the functioning of health systems. Globally, a predominant trend in such reform is towards greater professionalisation and university-based education. Related nursing education reform in South Africa culminated in a new Framework for Nursing Qualifications in 2013. We undertook a policy analysis study of the development of the new Nursing Qualifications Framework in South Africa. We used a policy analysis framework derived from Walt and Gilson that interrogated the context, content, actors, and processes of policy development and implementation. Following informed consent, in-depth interviews were conducted with 28 key informants from national and provincial government; the South African Nursing Council; the national nursing association; nursing academics, managers, and educators; and other nursing organisations. The interviews were complemented with a review of relevant legislation and policy documents. Documents and interview transcripts were coded thematically using Atlas-ti software. The revision of nursing qualifications was part of the post-apartheid transformation of nursing, but was also influenced by changes in the education sector. The policy process took more than 10 years to complete and the final Regulations were promulgated in 2013. The two most important changes are the requirement for a baccalaureate degree to qualify as a professional nurse and abolishing the enrolled nurse with 2 years training in favour of a staff nurse with a 3-year college diploma. Respondents criticised slow progress, weak governance by the Nursing Council and the Department of Health, limited planning for implementation, and the inappropriateness of the proposals for South Africa. The study found significant weaknesses in the policy capacity of the main institutions responsible for the leadership and governance of nursing in South Africa, which

  3. Nursing education reform in South Africa – lessons from a policy analysis study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duane Blaauw

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nursing education reform is identified as an important strategy for enhancing health workforce performance, and thereby improving the functioning of health systems. Globally, a predominant trend in such reform is towards greater professionalisation and university-based education. Related nursing education reform in South Africa culminated in a new Framework for Nursing Qualifications in 2013. Objective: We undertook a policy analysis study of the development of the new Nursing Qualifications Framework in South Africa. Design: We used a policy analysis framework derived from Walt and Gilson that interrogated the context, content, actors, and processes of policy development and implementation. Following informed consent, in-depth interviews were conducted with 28 key informants from national and provincial government; the South African Nursing Council; the national nursing association; nursing academics, managers, and educators; and other nursing organisations. The interviews were complemented with a review of relevant legislation and policy documents. Documents and interview transcripts were coded thematically using Atlas-ti software. Results: The revision of nursing qualifications was part of the post-apartheid transformation of nursing, but was also influenced by changes in the education sector. The policy process took more than 10 years to complete and the final Regulations were promulgated in 2013. The two most important changes are the requirement for a baccalaureate degree to qualify as a professional nurse and abolishing the enrolled nurse with 2 years training in favour of a staff nurse with a 3-year college diploma. Respondents criticised slow progress, weak governance by the Nursing Council and the Department of Health, limited planning for implementation, and the inappropriateness of the proposals for South Africa. Conclusions: The study found significant weaknesses in the policy capacity of the main institutions

  4. COMMON AGRICULTURAL POLICY FROM HEALTH CHECK DECISIONS TO THE POST-2013 REFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niculescu Oana Marilena

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposed for being presented belongs to the field research International Affairs and European Integration. The paper entitled Common Agricultural Policy from Health Check decisions to the post-2013 reform aims to analyze the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP from the Health Check adoption in November 2008 to a new reform post-2013. The objectives of the paper are the presentation of the Health Check with its advantages and disadvantages as well as the analysis of the opportunity of a new European policy and its reforming having in view that the analysis of Health Check condition was considered a compromise. The paper is related to the internal and international research consisting in several books, studies, documents that analyze the particularities of the most debated, controversial and reformed EU policy. A personal study is represented by the first report within the PhD paper called The reform of CAP and its implications for Romanias agriculture(coordinator prof. Gheorghe Hurduzeu PhD, Academy of Economic Studies Bucharest, Faculty of International Business, research studies in the period 2009-2012. The research methodology used consists in collecting and analysis data from national and international publications, their validation, followed by a dissemination of the results in order to express a personal opinion regarding CAP and its reform. The results of the research consist in proving the opportunity of a new reform due to the fact that Health Check belongs already to the past. The paper belongs to the field research mentioned, in the attempt to prove the opportunity of building a new EU agricultural policy. The challenges CAP is facing are: food safety, environmental and climate changes, territorial balance as well as new challenges-improving sustainable management of natural resources, maintaining competitiveness in the context of globalization growth, strengthening EU cohesion in rural areas, increasing the support of CAP for

  5. Teacher education policies, practices, and reform in Scotland: Implications in the Indian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar Misra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available India, a country of 1.27 billion, nowadays needs reforms, improvements, and new approaches in teacher education to cater to the demands of changing economy and society. This call to improve teacher education becomes more significant considering the fact that 50% of India’s current population is below the age of 25 and over 65% below 35. There are two ways to proceed in this direction. First, making an internal review and assessment of present scenario of teacher education and suggesting need-based measures. The second one is to learn from those countries that have recently reviewed their teacher education systems and are continuously working for the betterment of teacher education. Following second approach, present paper analyzes teacher education policies, practices, and reform in Scotland, argues that concerns and commitments to reform teacher education in India and Scotland are similar, and suggests implications of Scottish experiences in the Indian context.

  6. Five un-easy pieces of pharmaceutical policy reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodwin, Marc A

    2013-01-01

    Improper dependencies slant policy over a drug's life span, biasing the development of new drugs, the testing and marketing approval for new drugs, and the monitoring of patient safety after drugs are marketed. This article examines five ways in which the public improperly depends on pharmaceutical firms that compromise the integrity of pharmaceutical policy. Today the public relies on pharmaceutical firms: (1) to set priorities on drug research and development; (2) to conduct clinical trials to test whether drugs are safe and effective; (3) to decide what clinical trial data to disclose to the public; (4) to monitor post marketing drug safety; (5) to supply product information to physicians and to finance continuing medical education and other professional activities. The article suggests options to overcome each of these dependencies. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  7. Property rights and hierarchies of power: a critical evaluation of land-reform policy in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André van der Walt

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The programme of land reform laws introduced in South Africa since 1991 is often seen and discussed as nothing more than a highly technical, black-letter aspect of South African law. In this article, the author directs attention to the policies that underly the land reform laws, and discusses the transformative potential and effect of land reform laws in view of these policies. The main question is whether the land reform programme has succeeded in breaking away from or undermining the hierarchies of power that were inherent in traditional common-law property relationships and, particularly, in the politically sanctioned and statutorily entrenched system of apartheid land law. Through the analysis of the most important land reform laws the author concludes that the land reform programme is only partially successful in this regard, since many of the new laws still uphold or entrench the underlying hierarchies o f power that characterised apartheid land law.

  8. Should the EU climate policy framework be reformed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David ELLISON

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Though to-date the European Union (EU has played the most significant leadership role in international negotiations to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, the emission-reducing performance of individual EU Member states has for many been less than stellar. Several EU15 Member states continue to raise rather than lower emissions. Analysing the most successful policy instruments, this paper argues EU policy efforts could benefit from three important innovations. The following strategies – the adoption of an EU-wide FIT (feed-in tariff, an EU-wide carbon tax and more flexibility in the trading of carbon credits – could significantly improve emission reductions, their relative cost-efficiency and spread burden-sharing more evenly across technologies and Member states. This raises important questions, both about the effectiveness of EU and Kyoto-style commitments, as well as the EU Emission Trading Scheme (ETS. The commitment strategy, and in particular the EU ETS mechanism, have had the smallest impact on emission reductions. The proposed set of strategies could make a far greater contribution to future EU efforts and potentially lock in the impressive progress already made. Such a policy shift, if successful, would also greatly enhance the EU’s already significant credibility and bargaining power in international climate negotiations.

  9. The policy and politics of the 2015 long-term care reform in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maarse, J A M Hans; Jeurissen, P P Patrick

    2016-03-01

    As of 2015 a major reform in LTC is taking place in the Netherlands. An important objective of the reform is to reign in expenditure growth to safeguard the fiscal sustainability of LTC. Other objectives are to improve the quality of LTC by making it more client-tailored. The reform consists of four interrelated pillars: a normative reorientation, a shift from residential to non-residential care, decentralization of non-residential care and expenditure cuts. The article gives a brief overview of these pillars and their underlying assumptions. Furthermore, attention is paid to the political decision-making process and the politics of implementation and evaluation. Perceptions of the effects of the reform so far widely differ: positive views alternate with critical views. Though the reform is radical in various aspects, LTC care will remain a largely publicly funded provision. A statutory health insurance scheme will remain in place to cover residential care. The role of municipalities in publicly funded non-residential care is significantly upgraded. The final section contains a few policy lessons. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Use of a policy debate to teach residents about health care reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Vu Q C; Hirsch, Mark A

    2011-09-01

    Resident education involves didactics and pedagogic strategies using a variety of tools and technologies in order to improve critical thinking skills. Debating is used in educational settings to improve critical thinking skills, but there have been no reports of its use in residency education. The present paper describes the use of debate to teach resident physicians about health care reform. We aimed to describe the method of using a debate in graduate medical education. Second-year through fourth-year physical medicine and rehabilitation residents participated in a moderated policy debate in which they deliberated whether the United States has one of the "best health care system(s) in the world." Following the debate, the participants completed an unvalidated open-ended questionnaire about health care reform. Although residents expressed initial concerns about participating in a public debate on health care reform, all faculty and residents expressed that the debate was robust, animated, and enjoyed by all. Components of holding a successful debate on health care reform were noted to be: (1) getting "buy-in" from the resident physicians; (2) preparing the debate; and (3) follow-up. The debate facilitated the study of a large, complex topic like health care reform. It created an active learning process. It encouraged learners to keenly attend to an opposing perspective while enthusiastically defending their position. We conclude that the use of debates as a teaching tool in resident education is valuable and should be explored further.

  11. Policy Reform with Marijuana Use: Weighing Risks and Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkemdirim Okere, Arinze

    2018-03-01

    With the current legalization of medical marijuana and the possibility of recreational use being permitted in some states, the health care benefits associated with the use of marijuana is questionable. States that are on the path of legalizing marijuana, should recognize that as there are perceived positive benefits, there are also many evidence-based negative health consequences which may result in negative economic and societal consequences. As more data on health outcomes regarding the use of marijuana continue to emerge, policies directed toward legalizing marijuana, whether medical or recreational, should consider protecting the society from both harm and societal cost.

  12. The project organization as a policy tool in implementing welfare reforms in the public sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Christian; Johansson, Staffan; Löfström, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    Organizational design is considered in policy literature as a forceful policy tool to put policy to action. However, previous research has not analyzed the project organization as a specific form of organizational design and, hence, has not given much attention to such organizations as a strategic choice when selecting policy tools. The purpose of the article is to investigate the project as a policy tool; how do such temporary organizations function as a specific form of organization when public policy is implemented? The article is based on a framework of policy implementation and is illustrated with two welfare reforms in the Swedish public sector, which were organized and implemented as project organizations. The case studies and the analysis show that it is crucial that a project organization fits into the overall governance structure when used as a policy tool. If not, the project will remain encapsulated and will not have sufficient impact on the permanent organizational structure. The concept of encapsulation indicates a need to protect the project from a potential hostile environment. The implication of this is that organizational design as a policy tool is a matter that deserves more attention in the strategic discussion on implementing public policies and on the suitability of using certain policy tools. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Translating the human right to water and sanitation into public policy reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Kayser, Georgia Lyn; Kestenbaum, Jocelyn Getgen; Amjad, Urooj Quezon; Dalcanale, Fernanda; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-12-01

    The development of a human right to water and sanitation under international law has created an imperative to implement human rights in water and sanitation policy. Through forty-three interviews with informants in international institutions, national governments, and non-governmental organizations, this research examines interpretations of this new human right in global governance, national policy, and local practice. Exploring obstacles to the implementation of rights-based water and sanitation policy, the authors analyze the limitations of translating international human rights into local water and sanitation practice, concluding that system operators, utilities, and management boards remain largely unaffected by the changing public policy landscape for human rights realization. To understand the relevance of human rights standards to water and sanitation practitioners, this article frames a research agenda to ensure that human rights aspirations lead to public policy reforms and public health outcomes.

  14. Do American and Korean Education Systems Converge? Tracking School Reform Policies and Outcomes in Korea and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaekyung; Park, Daekwon

    2014-01-01

    This study examines key school reform policies and outcomes of the USA and Korea over the past three decades from comparative perspectives. Since the two nations' unique educational problems brought divergent educational reform paths--standardization versus differentiation, high-stakes testing versus individualized assessment, and centralization…

  15. Reforming minute reserve policy in Germany. A step towards efficient markets?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rammerstorfer, Margarethe; Wagner, Christian

    2009-01-01

    The present paper provides an empirical assessment of the effects associated with the reorganization of minute reserve markets in Germany. As the aim of the regulator is to assure a competitive market with transparent pricing, we analyze whether the recent policy reform has had an impact on the dynamics of minute reserve prices. Our results show that the level and volatility of positive and negative minute reserve prices decreased substantially. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the degree of integration between reserve and spot markets has increased. Overall, prices reacted to the policy change in a manner that is in line with the regulator's objective. The reform can thus be viewed as a step towards an efficient reserve market. (author)

  16. The Study of Human Resource Competency Development Policy in Tourism Sector of Bureaucracy Reformation Era

    OpenAIRE

    Wiryanto, Wisber

    2018-01-01

    The development of the tourism sector ought to be supported by the competent Human Resources (SDM). Human resources of tourism that include human resources apparatus, industrial human resources, and the tourism community until now still facing difficulties of competency gaps and capability certification. Concerning this issue, there will be conducted a research of human resource competency development policy in tourism sector of bureaucratic reformation era. The goal of this research is to ex...

  17. COMMENTARY: GLOBALIZATION, HEALTH SECTOR REFORM, AND THE HUMAN RIGHT TO HEALTH: IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE HEALTH POLICY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuftan, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The author here distills his long-time personal experience with the deleterious effects of globalization on health and on the health sector reforms embarked on in many of the more than 50 countries where he has worked in the last 25 years. He highlights the role that the "human right to health" framework can and should play in countering globalization's negative effects on health and in shaping future health policy. This is a testimonial article.

  18. Policy risk in action: pension reforms and social security wealth in Hungary, Czech Republic, and Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dušek, Libor; Kopecsni, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 58, 7-8 (2008), s. 329-358 ISSN 0015-1920 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : pension reforms * social security * policy risk Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.275, year: 2008 http://journal.fsv.cuni.cz/storage/1137_dusek-kopecsni_-_329-358-opravené.pdf

  19. Cotton Trade Liberalizations and Domestic Agricultural Policy Reforms: A Partial Equilibrium Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Suwen; Fadiga, Mohamadou L.; Mohanty, Samarendu; Welch, Mark

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzed the effects of trade liberalizing reforms in the world cotton market using a partial equilibrium model. The simulation results indicated that a removal of domestic subsidies and border tariffs for cotton would increase the amount of world cotton trade by an average of 4% in the next five years and world cotton prices by an average of 12% over the same time horizon. The findings indicated that under the liberalization policy, the United States would lose part of its export ...

  20. Review: Miller, Michelle Ann (2009, Rebellion and Reform in Indonesia – Jakarta’s Security and Autonomy Policies in Aceh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Missbach

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of the monograph: Miller, Michelle Ann, Rebellion and Reform in Indonesia – Jakarta’s Security and Autonomy Policies in Aceh, London/ New York: Routledge, 2009, ISBN 13: 978-0-415-45467-4, 240 pages.

  1. Smallholder Livelihood Adaptation in the Context of Neoliberal Policy Reforms: A Case of Maize Farmers in Southern Veracruz, Mexico.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewald, S.F.; Berg, van den M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Governments around the world have embraced trade liberalisation as a means of enhancing efficiency to realise economic growth and alleviate poverty. Likewise, the Mexican government implemented neoliberal policy reforms, the NAFTA in particular, to stimulate sustainable development. Using the

  2. Impact of the joint-stock reform of commercial banks on the effectiveness of monetary policy in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Xianming

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, the Chinese government has conducted the joint-stock reform of state-owned commercial banks. The joint-stock reform improves the marketization level of the ownership structure of commercial banks and consequently leads to impacts on the effectiveness of monetary policy. This paper first presents the impacting mechanisms of the joint-stock reform of commercial banks on the effectiveness of monetary policy and then constructs an empirical model to test those impacts. The empirical results show that the increasing degree of joint-stock reform of commercial banks enhances the effectiveness of expansionary monetary policy but weakens the effectiveness of contractionary monetary policy in China.

  3. Do different welfare states engender different policy preferences?: opinions on pension reforms in Eastern and Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velladics, K.; Henkens, C.J.I.M.; van Dalen, H.P.

    2006-01-01

    This article examines whether the different welfare states of the European Union member states engender different policy preferences and attitudes among the population. More specifically, it investigates variations in attitudes towards population ageing and pension reforms, and variations in

  4. Strengthening the Profession? A Comparison of Recent Reforms in the UK and the USA. ACER Policy Briefs. Issue 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingvarson, Lawrence

    2002-01-01

    Educational policy makers in many countries recognize the need to focus their policies more directly on factors affecting the quality of teachers. Common to these policies are attempts to reform teachers' pay systems and career paths to place greater value on teachers' work and give stronger incentives for professional development. Investing in…

  5. Why Do Policy-Makers Adopt Global Education Policies? Toward a Research Framework on the Varying Role of Ideas in Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verger, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Globalization is profoundly altering the education policy landscape. It introduces new problems in education agendas, compresses time and space in policy processes, and revitalizes the role of a range of supra-national players in educational reform. This deterritorialization of the education policy process has important theoretical and…

  6. On the Choice of Farm Management Practices after the Reform of the Common Agricultural Policy in 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, Erwin; Sinabell, Franz

    2004-01-01

    The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) was fundamentally reformed in 2003. From 2005 on, farmers will receive decoupled income support payments instead of production premiums if basic standards for environment, food safety, animal health and welfare are met. Farmers will likely adjust production and management practices to the new policy framework. We describe how this reform fits into the EU strategy of making agricultural production more environmentally friendly by concentrating on financial ...

  7. Curriculum Policy Implementation: How Schools Respond to Government's "Soft" Policy in the Curriculum Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jacqueline K. S.

    2012-01-01

    "Soft" policy has newly emerged as a policy implementation concept in relation to governance. Non-binding in character, "soft" policy is designed for multi-level systems of governance in which there is relative autonomy at different levels of collective decision-making. "Soft" policy has gained attention since the…

  8. Implementing plant clinics in the maelstrom of policy reform in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Solveig; Matsiko, F.B.; Kjær, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    government commitment and a growing demand for this new type of farmer service, effective implementation of plant clinics turned out to be a challenge.We examine how agricultural policies and institutional setups, and their political context, influenced the implementation of plant clinics from 2010 to 2011...... services. Implementation of plant clinics was further affected by a new district reform and the national elections taking place during the study period. The dual purpose of the plant clinics created uncertainty about their organisational belonging. They fell through the cracks of extension and disease...... the policy and institutional frameworks in which plant clinics operate, but also the effects of political imperatives and donors on policy implementation. This study provides a basis for institutional and policy analysis related to the implementation of plant clinics elsewhere....

  9. What is the appropriate counterfactual when estimating effects of multilateral trade policy reform?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Kym; Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Nelgen, Signe

    2016-01-01

    the counterfactual price distortions in 2030 are shown to be much larger in the case where agricultural protection grows endogenously than in the case assuming no policy changes over the projection period. This suggests the traditional way of estimating effects of a multilateral agricultural trade agreement may...... of the DDA’s possible effects thus requires first modelling the world economy to 2030 and, in that process, projecting what trade-related policies might be by then without a DDA. Typically, modelers assume the counterfactual policy regime to be a ‘business-as-usual’ projection assuming the status quo. Yet we...... by projecting the world economy to 2030 using the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) model with those two alternative policy regimes and then simulating a move to global free trade (the maximum benefit from a multilateral trade reform) in each of those two cases. The welfare effects of removing...

  10. Economic reform in Vietnam - the role of foreign direct investment and trade policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, D.L.

    1998-11-01

    Vietnam was one of the five poorest countries in the world in the 1980's. Since then, Vietnam has adopted a market economic policy, and she has made substantial economic progress. In the last 10 years Meanwhile Vietnam's per capita income has increased by 3 times, the volume of export doubled very two years, and the inflation rate was reduced to 4.5 % in 1997 from 775 % in 1986. The GDP also has increased, the exchange rate with the US$ was stabilized and foreign direct investment (FDI) and trade has increased. There was about US$35 billion were invested by the foreign investors between 1987 to the middle of June 1998. However, the current crisis in the economies of Southeast Asian countries has put pressure on Vietnam to rethink seriously her future reform program with respect to stabilization and sustainable current economic policies. Since FDI is an imperative for the development of a country like Vietnam, it is necessary to use this capital very careful for her economy. Thus, the main objective of this dissertation is to study the role of FDI in the development of Vietnam. To examine this objective, various investigations were made, especially focusing on development dimensions such as reforming state enterprises, foreign trade policy, foreign investment and so on. Therefore, in the future, FDI and privatization policies should be strengthened to maintain and create an international market. Moreover, there are some major reforms required to transform the state sector into a private sector with appropriate policy measures, such as improving management of financial companies, developing the agricultural sector and minimizing bureaucracy and red tapism of the government. This dissertation provides a set of recommendations how to strengthen Vietnams economic and market situation in the 21st century. (author)

  11. Farmers' preferences for water policy reforms: Results from a survey in Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W.; Bjornlund, H.; Klein, K.

    2012-12-01

    Facing increasingly urgent stress on global water scarcity, many reforms have been launched in countries around the world. As the biggest group of natural resource managers, farmers' behaviour is drawing increasingly wide attention. Satisfying new demands for water will depend on farmers' support since, generally, water will need to be transferred from farmers who have historically secure rights. Although water pricing reform is widely considered to lead to water conservation, the uncertainty of its potential impacts hinders the process of reform. This farmer-level empirical research explores farmers' possible responses to introduction of reforms in water pricing. A survey was conducted of about 300 farm households that use water for irrigating crops in Southern Alberta, an area that is facing water shortages and has had to stop issuing new water licences. By using structural equation modelling, the strength and direction of direct and indirect relationships between external, internal and behavioural variables as proposed in general attitude theory have been estimated. Farming as a family engagement, family members' and family unit's characteristics doubtlessly affect farming practice and farm decisions. Farmers' behaviour was explored under the family and farm context. In developing and testing conceptual models that integrate socio-demographic, psychological, farming context and social milieu factors, we may develop a deeper understanding of farmers' behaviour. The findings and recommendations will be beneficial for environmental practitioners and policy makers.

  12. A synthesis of welfare reform policy and its impact on substance users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Isaac D; Atkinson, John S

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of welfare reform and its impact on the substance-abusing recipient. The data for this paper were derived from sources including the US Department of Health and Human Services and the National Institute on Drug Abuse. The number of individuals on public assistance has decreased in the years following implementation of welfare reform legislation. Factors relevant to transitioning welfare recipients into the workplace, such as transportation and childcare, have special ramifications for the drug-using population. Additionally, these individuals require treatment for their addictions in order to become employable. The issue of concern is that recipients may be deterred from seeking benefits by various provisions of welfare reform legislation and turn instead to other sources (including illicit activities) for sustenance. Welfare caseloads have been dropping over the past two years. However, the number of substance abusers continues to rise. It is not known in what ways welfare reform will affect substance abusers who are welfare recipients. Important policy issues arise from this nexus; it is argued that these issues will require careful investigation.

  13. Between Accommodating and Activating: Framing Policy Reforms in Response to Workforce Aging across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon, Anne C; Vliegenthart, Rens; van Selm, Martine

    2017-07-01

    In the past decade, European governments have implemented activating policy reforms to maximize older workers' employment and employability, representing a paradigmatic change in approaches to work and retirement. This study isolates the factors that explain the relative success and failure of competitive frames that are either in favor of or against activating policies in European news coverage, by applying time-series analysis (ordinary least squares with panel-corrected standard errors) to monthly aggregated news coverage in the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Denmark, and Spain over the timespan 2006-2013. The results show that pro-activating and counteractivating frames generally coincide in competitive framing environments. The pro-activating frame proliferated in times of high employment protection, whereas the counteractivating frame prevailed stronger in conservative compared with progressive newspapers, and gained momentum during the aftermath of the financial crisis and in times governments on the economic left were in power. The study advances knowledge of competitive issue framing by demonstrating how the economic, policy, and political context matters for the emergence and evolvement of competing frames. In addition, the findings contribute to the understanding of the factors that contribute to news representations that promote active aging in European news, which may foster support for policy reforms that sustain older workers' employability.

  14. Outcomes of the Two 1990s Family Policy Reforms at the Turn of the 2000s in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Haataja

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Finnish family policy faced two rather different reform waves in the 1990s. They were justi? ed by saving public spending but relied on different social policy philosophies. The article assesses the impact of the reforms on public spending and poverty rates at the turn of the 2000s. The method is based on tax-bene? t models and representative micro data, i.e. on static microsimulation. The results suggest that the increased poverty is due more to changes in the socioeconomic structure than changes in the levels of family policy bene? ts, even though the biggest cutbacks in the reforms focused on families with small children and single parents. The reforms also had an impact on gender relations by offering more incentives to reinforce than alleviate the traditional division of child care and paid work between the parents. That in part may have affected the mothers labor market position and increased income differences between families.

  15. EU rural policy reform (1997-1999): between politics and policy learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Jonny Trapp

    2006-01-01

    EU rural development policy is gaining in relative significance as the "second pillar" of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). Its substance - objectives and instruments - is still under development. This article explores the contribution of so-called "policy learning" by the European Commission...

  16. Applying policy network theory to policy-making in China: the case of urban health insurance reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Haitao; de Jong, Martin; Koppenjan, Joop

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we explore whether policy network theory can be applied in the People's Republic of China (PRC). We carried out a literature review of how this approach has already been dealt with in the Chinese policy sciences thus far. We then present the key concepts and research approach in policy networks theory in the Western literature and try these on a Chinese case to see the fit. We follow this with a description and analysis of the policy-making process regarding the health insurance reform in China from 1998 until the present. Based on this case study, we argue that this body of theory is useful to describe and explain policy-making processes in the Chinese context. However, limitations in the generic model appear in capturing the fundamentally different political and administrative systems, crucially different cultural values in the applicability of some research methods common in Western countries. Finally, we address which political and cultural aspects turn out to be different in the PRC and how they affect methodological and practical problems that PRC researchers will encounter when studying decision-making processes.

  17. The European Common Agricultural Policy on fruits and vegetables: exploring potential health gain from reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerman, J Lennert; Barendregt, Jan J; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2006-02-01

    Consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. The European Union Common Agricultural Policy keeps prices high by limiting the availability of fruits and vegetables. This policy is at odds with public health interests. We assess the potential health gain for the Dutch population of discontinuing EU withdrawal support for fruits and vegetables. The maximum effect of the reform was estimated by assuming that a quantity equivalent to the amount of produce withdrawn in recent years would be brought onto the market. For the calculation of the effect of consumption change on health we constructed a multi-state life table model in which consumption of fruits and vegetables is linked to ischaemic heart disease, stroke, and cancer of the oesophagus, stomach, colorectum, lung and breast. Uncertainty is quantified using Monte Carlo simulation. The reform would maximally increase the average consumption of fruits and vegetables by 1.80% (95% uncertainty interval 1.12-2.73), with an ensuing increase in life expectancy of 3.8 (2.2-5.9) days for men and 2.6 (1.5-4.2) days for women. The reform is also likely to decrease socio-economic inequalities in health. Ending EU withdrawal support for fruits and vegetables could result in a modest health gain for the Dutch population, though uncertainty in the estimates is high. A more comprehensive examination of the health effects of the EU agricultural policy could help to ensure health is duly considered in decision-making.

  18. Dental healthcare reforms in Germany and Japan: A comparison of statutory health insurance policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayumi Nomura

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to compare statutory health insurance policy during the dental healthcare reforms in Germany and Japan. Germany and Japan have categorized their statutory health insurance systems. People in both countries have been provided with a wide coverage of dental treatment and prosthetics. To compare the trends of the indicators of oral healthcare systems over time, it has been suggested that the strategic allocation of dental expenditure is more important than the amount of expense. German dental healthcare policy has shifted under political and socio-economic pressures towards a cost-effective model. In contrast, Japanese healthcare reforms have focused on keeping the basic statutory health insurance scheme, whereby individuals share more of the cost of statutory health insurance. As a result, Germany has succeeded in dramatically decreasing the prevalence of dental caries among children. On comparing the dental conditions of both countries, the rate of decline in replacement of missing teeth among adults and the elderly in Germany and Japan has been interpreted as indicating the price-conscious demands of prosthetics. The difference in the decline of DMFT in 12-year-olds in Germany and Japan could be described as being due to the dental health insurance policy being shifted from treatment-oriented to preventive-oriented in Germany. These findings suggest that social health insurance provides people with equal opportunity for dental services, and healthcare reforms have improved people's oral health. A mixed coverage of social health insurance coverage for dental care should be reconsidered in Japan.

  19. Tax reforms in EU Member States - Tax policy challenges for economic growth and fiscal sustainability – 2012 Report

    OpenAIRE

    European Commission

    2012-01-01

    The 2012 edition of the report ‘Tax reforms in EU Member States’ intends to contribute to the tax policy debate in the EU. Following the successful 2011 edition, the report consists of two parts: i) a short analysis of tax revenue data and an overview of recent tax reforms in Member States, and ii) a discussion of selected up-to-date tax policy topics in the form of two analytical chapters. The first analytical chapter focuses on the economic implications and policy challenges of the EU VAT s...

  20. Is it necessary to reform the policy of compensation in morocco ?

    OpenAIRE

    Tarbalouti, Mr

    2014-01-01

    Faut-il réformer la caisse de compensation au Maroc? Par Essaid Tarbalouti Version, Mars 2014 The debate on the efficiency of the subsidy of the prices of foodstuffs granted by the policy of compensation and his reform are deeply livened up between the government and the opposition in terms of its cost and its ineffectiveness. This debate concentrate on the social earnings to replace this mechanism of assistant by the granting of a minimum income to the poor people. We demonstrate that this m...

  1. The OECD and Educational Policy Reform: International Surveys, Governance, and Policy Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volante, Louis; Fazio, Xavier; Ritzen, Jo

    2017-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) has increasingly influenced the nature and scope of education policies in primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors around the world. Policy suggestions in these sectors primarily stem from the results of their various international surveys such as the…

  2. Hospital Capacity, Waiting Times and Sick Leave Duration - an Empirical Analysis of a Norwegian Health Policy Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Aakvik, Arild; Holmås, Tor Helge; Kjerstad, Egil

    2012-01-01

    A health policy reform aiming to reduce hospital waiting times and sickness absences, the Faster Return to Work (FRW) scheme, is evaluated by creating treatment and control groups to facilitate causal interpretations of the empirical results. We use a unique dataset on individuals where we match hospital data with social security data and socio-economic characteristics. The main idea behind the reform is that long waiting times for hospital treatment lead to unnecessarily long periods of sick...

  3. Viewpoint: methanol poisoning outbreak in Libya: a need for policy reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleb, Ziyad Ben; Bahelah, Raed

    2014-11-01

    We address the controversies surrounding a 2013 outbreak of methanol poisoning in Tripoli, Libya. We critically examine and systematically analyze the outbreak to highlight the lessons learned from this disaster and how to act properly to prevent similar outbreaks in future. Many health problems have been directly attributed to drinking alcohol; the type and quality of alcohol determines the detrimental effects. An unregulated and flourishing black market in alcohol is among the factors behind the Libyan tragedy, where approximately 90 deaths and about 1000 hospital admissions were reported. We reviewed gaps in local and regional alcohol policy, and highlighted the issue of illegally produced and home-made alcohol. Collaboration between countries in the region plus critical health and policy reforms in Libya, with emphasis on public health preparedness, can dramatically decrease morbidity and mortality associated with such outbreaks.

  4. The regulatory reform in the European Union environmental policy: A first appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveque, Francois

    1996-01-01

    This paper is aimed to outline the expected outcome of the regulatory reform which is occurring in the European Union environmental policy: it intends to point out the new institutional procedures for rulemaking introduced by the Maastricht Treaty and the fifth Programme of Action, which would result in the use of market-based instruments and voluntary approaches oppositely to traditional command and control mechanisms. The paper consists of three sections: while the first one is plainly introductory, the following two sections represent a survey on eight recent pieces of European Union legislation, chiefly directives, showing the systematic decrease in the environmental objectives due to the presence of industrial interest groups, and the new problems affecting public intervention caused by the development of the above mentioned voluntary approaches. Moreover, the former provides an analytical model of a firm's involvement in the policy process, the latter an analytical apparatus on the very nature and failures of self-and co-regulation

  5. Medical society engagement in contentious policy reform: the Ethiopian Society for Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ESOG) and Ethiopia's 2005 reform of its Penal Code on abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, Sarah Jane

    2018-05-01

    Unsafe abortion is one of the three leading causes of maternal mortality in low-income countries; however, few countries have reformed their laws to permit safer, legal abortion, and professional medical associations have not tended to spearhead this type of reform. Support from a professional association typically carries more weight than does that from an individual medical professional. However, theory predicts and the empirical record largely reveals that medical associations shy from engagement in conflictual policymaking such as on abortion, except when professional autonomy or income is at stake. Using interviews with 10 obstetrician-gynaecologists and 44 other leaders familiar with Ethiopia's reproductive health policy context, as well as other primary and secondary sources, this research examines why, counter to theoretical expectations from the sociology of medical professions literature and experience elsewhere, the Ethiopian Society of Obstetricians & Gynecologists (ESOG) actively supported reform of national law on abortion. ESOG leadership participation was motivated by both individual and ESOG's organizational commitments to reducing maternal mortality and also by professional training and work experience. Further, typical constraints on medical society involvement in policymaking were relaxed or removed, including those related to ESOG's organizational structure and history, and to political environment. Findings do not contradict theory positing medical society avoidance of socially conflictual health policymaking, but rather identify how the expected restrictions were less present in Ethiopia, facilitating medical society participation. Results can inform efforts to encourage medical society participation in policy reform to improve women's health elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa.

  6. Informing principal policy reforms in South Africa through data-based evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle Wills

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade there has been a notable shift in South African education policy that raises the value of school leadership as a lever for learning improvements. Despite a growing discourse on school leadership, there has been a lack of empirical based evidence on principals to inform, validate or debate the efficacy of proposed policies in raising the calibre of school principals. Drawing on findings from a larger study to understand the labour market for school principals in South Africa, this paper highlights four overarching characteristics of this market with implications for informing principal policy reforms. The paper notes that improving the design and implementation of policies guiding the appointment process for principals is a matter of urgency. A substantial and increasing number of principal replacements are taking place across South African schools given a rising age profile of school principals. In a context of low levels of principal mobility and high tenure, the leadership trajectory of the average school is established for nearly a decade with each principal replacement. Evidence-based policy making has a strong role to play in getting this right.

  7. Petro-state constraints on health policy: guidelines for workable reform in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Antonio J

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews the performance of the Venezuelan health care sector and suggests guidelines for workable health policy under difficult conditions. Two special circumstances constrain policy options. First, Venezuelans share a traditional value, solidarity, which includes a strong desire for equity. Reforms must comply with this norm to succeed. Second, foreign sales of state-controlled oil constitute the bulk of the government budget and the gross domestic product (GDP). Petroleum market fluctuations expose the country to extreme economic cycles. In response, policy making and stakeholders adopt a rentier attitude, focusing on preserving or enlarging entitlements to government oil monies. The side effects of this largesse include poor productivity, a weak private sector, a widespread sense of entitlement without accountability, and a crippled state which controls most of the available resources yet is unable to effectively tax, regulate, steer the economy, or pursue long-term policies. The health care sector shares these problems. As a result, Venezuela's health systems are fragmented, poorly coordinated, excessively centralized, inequitable, and ineffective. Policies to improve public health and public and private medical care must take into account these constraints.

  8. Identifying Effective Policy and Technologic Reforms for Sustainable Groundwater Management in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, K.; Zekri, S.; Karimi, A.

    2014-12-01

    Oman has gone through three decades of efforts aimed at addressing groundwater over-pumping and the consequent seawater intrusion. Example of measures adopted by the government since the 1990's include a vast subsidy program of irrigation modernization, a freeze on drilling new wells, delimitation of several no-drill zones, a crop substitution program, re-use of treated wastewater and construction of recharge dams. With no major success through these measures, the government laid the ground for water quotas by creating a new regulation in 1995. Nevertheless, groundwater quotas have not been enforced to date due to the high implementation and monitoring costs of traditional flow meters. This presentation discusses how sustainable groundwater management can be secured in Oman using a suit of policy and technologic reforms at a reasonable economic, political and practical cost. Data collected from farms with smart meters and low-cost wireless smart irrigation systems have been used to propose sustainable groundwater withdrawal strategies for Oman using a detailed hydro-economic model that couples a MODFLOW-SEAWAT model of the coastal aquifers with a dynamic profit maximization model. The hydro-economic optimization model was flexible to be run both as a social planner model to maximize the social welfare in the region, and as an agent-based model to capture the behavior of farmers interested in maximizing their profits independently. This flexibility helped capturing the trade-off between the optimality of the social planner solution developed at the system's level and its practicality (stability) with respect to the concerns and behaviors of the profit-maximizing farmers. The idetified promising policy and technolgical reforms for Oman include strict enforcement of groundwater quotas, smart metering, changing crop mixes, improving irrigation technologies, and revising geographical distribution of the farming activities. The presentation will discuss how different

  9. The financial crisis and recent family policy reforms in Finland, Germany and the United Kingdom : Is there a connection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Nygård

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The turmoil created by the financial crisis and economic recession in Europe has served as an impetus for austerity measures in many countries. In this article, we ask whether these crises have also triggered reforms in family policy, and we focus on three European welfare states – Finland, Germany and the United Kingdom – countries that are often considered members of different family policy regimes. The article addresses two main research questions. The first one relates to the number, direction and magnitude of family policy reforms in these three countries since the beginning of the financial crisis in 2008/2009, while in the second we discuss whether the reforms observed during this period can be seen as being related to the financial crisis and its later repercussions on the Euro-zone area, or if there are other explanations.

  10. Measuring improvement in knowledge of drug policy reforms following a police education program in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, J; Strathdee, S A; Cepeda, J; Abramovitz, D; Artamonova, I; Clairgue, E; Bustamante, E; Mittal, M L; Rocha, T; Bañuelos, A; Olivarria, H O; Morales, M; Rangel, G; Magis, C; Beletsky, L

    2017-11-08

    Mexico's 2009 "narcomenudeo reform" decriminalized small amounts of drugs, shifting some drug law enforcement to the states and mandating drug treatment diversion instead of incarceration. Data from Tijuana suggested limited implementation of this harm reduction-oriented policy. We studied whether a police education program (PEP) improved officers' drug and syringe policy knowledge, and aimed to identify participant characteristics associated with improvement of drug policy knowledge. Pre- and post-training surveys were self-administered by municipal police officers to measure legal knowledge. Training impact was assessed through matched paired nominal data using McNemar's tests. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify predictors of improved legal knowledge, as measured by officers' ability to identify conceptual legal provisions related to syringe possession and thresholds of drugs covered under the reform. Of 1750 respondents comparing pre- versus post training, officers reported significant improvement (p < 0.001) in their technical understanding of syringe possession (56 to 91%) and drug amounts decriminalized, including marijuana (9 to 52%), heroin (8 to 71%), and methamphetamine (7 to 70%). The training was associated with even greater success in improving conceptual legal knowledge for syringe possession (67 to 96%) (p < 0.001), marijuana (16 to 91%), heroin (11 to 91%), and methamphetamine (11 to 89%). In multivariable modeling, those with at least a high school education were more likely to exhibit improvement of conceptual legal knowledge of syringe possession (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.6, 95% CI 1.4-3.2) and decriminalization for heroin (aOR 2.7, 95% CI 1.3-4.3), methamphetamine (aOR 2.2, 95% CI 1.4-3.2), and marijuana (aOR 2.5, 95% CI 1.6-4). Drug policy reform is often necessary, but not sufficient to achieve public health goals because of gaps in translating formal laws to policing practice. To close such gaps, PEP initiatives

  11. High performance work systems: the gap between policy and practice in health care reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggat, Sandra G; Bartram, Timothy; Stanton, Pauline

    2011-01-01

    Studies of high-performing organisations have consistently reported a positive relationship between high performance work systems (HPWS) and performance outcomes. Although many of these studies have been conducted in manufacturing, similar findings of a positive correlation between aspects of HPWS and improved care delivery and patient outcomes have been reported in international health care studies. The purpose of this paper is to bring together the results from a series of studies conducted within Australian health care organisations. First, the authors seek to demonstrate the link found between high performance work systems and organisational performance, including the perceived quality of patient care. Second, the paper aims to show that the hospitals studied do not have the necessary aspects of HPWS in place and that there has been little consideration of HPWS in health system reform. The paper draws on a series of correlation studies using survey data from hospitals in Australia, supplemented by qualitative data collection and analysis. To demonstrate the link between HPWS and perceived quality of care delivery the authors conducted regression analysis with tests of mediation and moderation to analyse survey responses of 201 nurses in a large regional Australian health service and explored HRM and HPWS in detail in three casestudy organisations. To achieve the second aim, the authors surveyed human resource and other senior managers in all Victorian health sector organisations and reviewed policy documents related to health system reform planned for Australia. The findings suggest that there is a relationship between HPWS and the perceived quality of care that is mediated by human resource management (HRM) outcomes, such as psychological empowerment. It is also found that health care organisations in Australia generally do not have the necessary aspects of HPWS in place, creating a policy and practice gap. Although the chief executive officers of health

  12. POLICY DEVELOPMENT TRAINING AND EDUCATION RESOURCES TO REFORM THE LOCAL GOVERNMENT DISTRICT OF MAKASSAR SIDENRENG RAPPANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsuddin Maldun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to know and study the strategy of resource development policy reform of local government district of Makassar Sidenreng Rappang. The research method used is descriptive qualitative study type, while the phenomenological approach is used. This is intended to give description in a systematic, factual and actual response object is examined. Results of the research implementation of education and training is not conducted in a planned and timely to get quality apparatus of the abilities, knowledge, skills, expertise, and job skills, as well as a good mental attitude, and optimal performance. Whereas in the era of regional autonomy, it takes the resources of local government apparatus that is intelligent and responsive to the needs of an increasingly complex society services. 

  13. Reform of the EU's climate policy. Small step or big hit?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, Matthias; Peichert, Patrick; Perner, Jens; Riechmann, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Emissions trading listed as a flexible mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol is regarded as a market economy way in climate protection. Since 2005 the European Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) is the central climate policy instrument for reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases, in particular for carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). For years, however, the CO 2 price is too low to direct the politically and socially targeted technical innovations in the electricity sector and the industry. The article analyses the temporary and structural causes of this problem, highlights the EU's reform efforts and points to areas of activity, the basis of which the EU ETS may act in the future as a central instrument for climate protection in the European Union. [de

  14. Chinese Foreign Policy in a Global Perspective: A Responsible Reformer "Striving For Achievement"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Weissmann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During the last four decades, China has moved from being an isolated country separated from the international community to having become one of the world’s major powers. It is vital to understand what is guiding Chinese foreign policy, why this is so, and not least what kind of power China is and will be in the future. This article analyses the vital elements and thinking that guides Chinese foreign policy, its priorities and decision making process. It is found that China's foreign policy is embedded in domestic issues. The foremost foreign policy objective is domestic political stability, which in turn is a necessity for the survival of one-party rule. Both are dependent on a combination of two key factors: continuing domestic economic growth and nationalism. The foreign policy is also closely linked to the Chinese self-perception, both its self-superiority/self-inferiority dualism and its multitude of confusing (overlapping identities about what China is and should be. A key turning year is 2008 when the "global" financial crisis severely affected the United States and Europe at a time of Chinese economic success, which gave China confidence to pursue a more active and aggressive/assertive stance on the international stage. It is concluded that China under Xi Jinping will not be a status que power accepting the world as it is, but nor are we to expect China to become a revisionist power aiming to remodel the global order. China is what can best be described as a responsible reformer "striving for achievements".

  15. Sponsors of Policy: A Network Analysis of Wealthy Elites, Their Affiliated Philanthropies, and Charter School Reform in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Wayne; Ferrare, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Charter school policy has evolved into a major component of the current education reform movement in the United States. As of 2012, all but nine U.S. states allowed charter schools, and in one of those nine, Washington State, charter school legislation was passed by popular vote in November 2012. There is a substantial, if…

  16. Past/Forward Policy-Making: Transforming Chinese Engineering Education since the Reform and Opening-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qin; Jesiek, Brent K.; Gong, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Although engineering education has played important roles in China's growing power and influence on the world stage, engineering education policy since the Reform and Opening-up in the late 1970s has not been well documented in current English-language scholarship. Informed by historical and sociological studies of education, engineering and…

  17. Can the world cut poverty in half ? how policy reform and effective aid can meet international development goals

    OpenAIRE

    Collier, Paul; Dollar, David

    2000-01-01

    More effective development aid could greatly improve poverty reduction in the areas where poverty reduction is expected to lag: Sub-Saharan Africa, Eastern Europe, and Central Asia. Even more potent would be significant policy reform in the countries themselves. The authors develop a model of efficient aid in which the total volume of aid is endogenous. In particular, aid flows respond to ...

  18. Telecom Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telecom Reform: Principles, Policies and Regulatory Practices, provides a comprehensive and definitive review and assessment of the unfolding telecom reform process, and its implications for information society development. It is an invaluable resource and authoritative reference on telecom reform...... and information infrastructure issues - for people in government, academia, industry and the consulting community. This book addresses the process of policy and regulatory reform in telecom that is now in its formative stage. It draws on detailed knowledge of industry development and regulatory experience......, as well as expertise in the new technologies, industries, economics, policy development, and law to present and critique the principles, policies and regulatory practices associated with telecom reform. Twenty six international experts address thirty two topics that are essential to successful telecom...

  19. Measuring improvement in knowledge of drug policy reforms following a police education program in Tijuana, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Arredondo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mexico’s 2009 “narcomenudeo reform” decriminalized small amounts of drugs, shifting some drug law enforcement to the states and mandating drug treatment diversion instead of incarceration. Data from Tijuana suggested limited implementation of this harm reduction-oriented policy. We studied whether a police education program (PEP improved officers’ drug and syringe policy knowledge, and aimed to identify participant characteristics associated with improvement of drug policy knowledge. Methods Pre- and post-training surveys were self-administered by municipal police officers to measure legal knowledge. Training impact was assessed through matched paired nominal data using McNemar’s tests. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify predictors of improved legal knowledge, as measured by officers’ ability to identify conceptual legal provisions related to syringe possession and thresholds of drugs covered under the reform. Results Of 1750 respondents comparing pre- versus post training, officers reported significant improvement (p < 0.001 in their technical understanding of syringe possession (56 to 91% and drug amounts decriminalized, including marijuana (9 to 52%, heroin (8 to 71%, and methamphetamine (7 to 70%. The training was associated with even greater success in improving conceptual legal knowledge for syringe possession (67 to 96% (p < 0.001, marijuana (16 to 91%, heroin (11 to 91%, and methamphetamine (11 to 89%. In multivariable modeling, those with at least a high school education were more likely to exhibit improvement of conceptual legal knowledge of syringe possession (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.6, 95% CI 1.4–3.2 and decriminalization for heroin (aOR 2.7, 95% CI 1.3–4.3, methamphetamine (aOR 2.2, 95% CI 1.4–3.2, and marijuana (aOR 2.5, 95% CI 1.6–4. Conclusions Drug policy reform is often necessary, but not sufficient to achieve public health goals because of gaps in translating

  20. Review: ICCS International Civics and Citizenship Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Toots

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In November 2010 the largest international study ever conducted on civic education in secondary schools has been released in Brussels. The study was performed under the auspices of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA, an independent consortium that brings together educational researchers and policy makers in 62 countries around the world. The IEA is probably more widely known in connection of large-scale comparative studies on educational assessment in math and science (TIMSS and in reading (PIRLS. Yet, the association has longstanding and impressive expertise also in civic education. The first study in this area has been carried out already in 1971 (Torney et al., 1975, the second – so called CIVED in 1999 (Torney-Purta et al., 2001 and now, ten years later, 38 counties around the world participated in the third study – the IEA International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS. The study tested in 2008–2009 over 140,000 lower secondary students, over 62,000 teachers and headmasters from 5,300 schools in order to analyse how young people are prepared to undertake their roles as citizens.

  1. Problem Drug Use, Marijuana, and European Projects: How Epidemiology Helped Czech Policy Reformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Morávek

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available I examine the transfer of the Problem Drug Use (PDU concept into Czech scientific discourse through European institutions’ projects, and view PDU’s utilization by Czech researchers in relation to marijuana decriminalization efforts.PDU is defined as intravenous and/or long-term and regular use of opiates, cocaine, or amphetamines. Out of a vast array of illicit drug use patterns, this concept isolates a relatively small population with the riskiest use patterns to become the focus of public policies. A series of European Union and Council of Europe projects in 1990’s helped bring PDU into European research mainstream. The new common standard, promoted by the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, was utilized by Czech authors in a 2001 policy analysis entitled “Impact Analysis Project of the New Drug Legislation in the Czech Republic” (PAD. PDU played a crucial role in PAD’s drug problem modeling, focusing on a “hard core” of opiate and methamphetamine users, while diverting attention from a large group of cannabis users.By using the new European methodological standard, PAD’s authors constructed marijuana as a non-problem. This helped drug policy reformers in the Czech Government legitimize their focus on “harder” drugs, and subsequently propose more lenient sanctions for the possession and cultivation of marijuana. I argue that continued ignorance of marijuana problems might jeopardize the tolerant expert-driven drug policy in the Czech Republic. Measurement of problem cannabis use should be introduced.

  2. Policy trends and reforms in the German DRG-based hospital payment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein-Hitpaß, Uwe; Scheller-Kreinsen, David

    2015-03-01

    A central structural point in all DRG-based hospital payment systems is the conversion of relative weights into actual payments. In this context policy makers need to address (amongst other things) (a) how the price level of DRG-payments from one period to the following period is changed and (b) whether and how hospital payments based on DRGs are to be differentiated beyond patient characteristics, e.g. by organizational, regional or state-level factors. Both policy problems can be and in international comparison often are empirically addressed. In Germany relative weights are derived from a highly sophisticated empirical cost calculation, whereas the annual changes of DRG-based payments (base rates) as well as the differentiation of DRG-based hospital payments beyond patient characteristics are not empirically addressed. Rather a complex set of regulations and quasi-market negotiations are applied. There were over the last decade also timid attempts to foster the use of empirical data to address these points. However, these reforms failed to increase the fairness, transparency and rationality of the mechanism to convert relative weights into actual DRG-based hospital payments. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Steepest Ascent Tariff Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan

    2014-01-01

    . In undertaking this task, and by focusing on tariff reforms, we introduce the concept of a steepest ascent policy reform, which is a locally optimal reform in the sense that it achieves the highest marginal gain in utility of any feasible local reform. We argue that this reform presents itself as a natural......The policy reform literature is primarily concerned with the construction of reforms that yield welfare gains. By contrast, this paper’s contribution is to develop a theoretical concept for which the focus is upon the sizes of welfare gains accruing from policy reforms rather than upon their signs...... benchmark for the evaluation of the welfare effectiveness of other popular tariff reforms such as the proportional tariff reduction and the concertina rules, since it provides the maximal welfare gain of all possible local reforms. We derive properties of the steepest ascent tariff reform, construct...

  4. The Fiscal Stimuli for the Implementing Ukraine’s Energy Policy and Reforming Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Synyutka Nataliya G.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to revise the issue of the State regulation of the macroeconomic processes associated with the economic, energy, fiscal, and educational reforms that are being carried out in Ukraine. In order to implement the State energy policy, fiscal approaches have been emphasized. The use of the fiscal stimulus of «carbon tax» can be seen as an effective measure for implementation of the existing State energy strategy. A review of introduction of such a tax in the developed countries confirms the expediency of applying fiscal mechanism in order to encourage investment in energy-efficient technologies. Prospects for introduction of this tax in Ukraine were considered. To this end, actual CO2 emissions have been generalized and prediction calculations for the energy sector have been accomplished. The calculated estimates of possible tax revenues have been provided. For further studies on the outlined topic, there is an impelling need to detalize the financial statistics of the ecologic tax revenues in terms of sources.

  5. Welfare reform and women's health: review of the literature and implications for state policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Campo, P; Rojas-Smith, L

    1998-01-01

    In August 1996, the Personal Responsibility Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (P.L. 104-193) was signed into law, ending a 60-year federal entitlement guaranteeing families some basic level of assistance during periods of economic hardship. Several components of this new legislation have the potential to impact upon the health and well-being of women and children. We summarize studies examining the relationship between welfare participation and physical and mental well-being of women and what is known about the effects of poverty on health; the patterns of employment among welfare participants and the health consequences of low-wage work on women; domestic violence among welfare recipients; the potential health consequences of the provisions of the new Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) program for women's and adolescent health; and the consequences of the new TANF provisions for the health and well-being of immigrant women. We discuss the implications for policy makers in monitoring and minimizing the negative impact of welfare reforms on women's health and well-being.

  6. Science as an early driver of policy: child labor reform in the early Progressive Era, 1870-1900.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Frederica

    2014-10-01

    Scientific evidence is an increasingly important driver of social and environmental policy concerning child health. This trend began earlier than generally recognized. The child labor reform movement of the Gilded Age and early Progressive Era reflected not only moral and economic forces but also the dramatic advances during the later decades of the 19th century in scientific knowledge concerning children's biological and psychological vulnerability to environmental and psychosocial stressors. The growing importance of scientific information in shaping policy concerning children's health between 1870 and 1900 is illustrated by the events leading up to and following the New York State Child Labor Law of 1886. Child labor reform during this period was a critical step in the development of a science-based as well as a value-driven movement to protect children's environmental health and well-being that continues today.

  7. Science as an Early Driver of Policy: Child Labor Reform in the Early Progressive Era, 1870–1900

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Scientific evidence is an increasingly important driver of social and environmental policy concerning child health. This trend began earlier than generally recognized. The child labor reform movement of the Gilded Age and early Progressive Era reflected not only moral and economic forces but also the dramatic advances during the later decades of the 19th century in scientific knowledge concerning children’s biological and psychological vulnerability to environmental and psychosocial stressors. The growing importance of scientific information in shaping policy concerning children’s health between 1870 and 1900 is illustrated by the events leading up to and following the New York State Child Labor Law of 1886. Child labor reform during this period was a critical step in the development of a science-based as well as a value-driven movement to protect children’s environmental health and well-being that continues today. PMID:25121809

  8. Education Policy Reform in Sri Lanka: The Double-Edged Sword of Political Will

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Angela W.

    2011-01-01

    In 1997, the Government of Sri Lanka launched a comprehensive set of education reforms designed to promote equitable access to basic education and improvements in learning outcomes. The package of reforms arose as a political response to widespread youth unrest in the late 1980s and attracted considerable "political will", a vague but…

  9. Irrational Exuberance for Market-Based Reform: How Federal Turnaround Policies Thwart Democratic Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Tina; Renée, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Background: In 2009, the Obama Administration announced its intention to rapidly "turn around" 5,000 of the nation's lowest-performing schools. To do so, it relied on the School Improvement Grant (SIG) program to provide temporary funding for states and schools, and to mandate drastic, school-level reforms. Most of these reforms require…

  10. Compact reformer for the solid polymer fuel cell policy and best

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goulding, P.S.; Deegan, M.; Gough, A. [Newcastle University (United Kingdom)

    1998-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study investigating the feasibility of the Compact Reformer concept, and examining its design and manufacture. The development and testing of a hybrid reformer and thin coat catalyst systems are described, and details of the modeling of the reactor, and the optimisation and costing of the solid polymer fuel cell are given. (UK)

  11. The Use (and Misuse) of PISA in Guiding Policy Reform: The Case of Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Álvaro; Jerrim, John

    2016-01-01

    In 2013 Spain introduced a series of educational reforms explicitly inspired by the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012 results. These reforms were mainly implemented in secondary education--based upon the assumption that this is where Spain's educational problems lie. This paper questions this assumption by attempting to…

  12. Exploiting Policy Obscurity for Legalising Water Grabbing in the Era of Economic Reform: The Case of Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subodh Wagle

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the last two decades, economic reform in India is exerting pressure on limited land and water resources. This article argues that sectoral reforms underway in different areas such as water, electricity, and the export sector are giving rise to a new form of water grabbing in the state of Maharashtra, India. This water grabbing is legitimised by the use, application and redefinition of reform instruments such as the sectoral policy statements and laws. Maharashtra, like many other Indian states, has been a theatre for the play of power among different interest groups over control and access to water resources developed through state funding. Dams were built at the cost of depriving the upland riparian communities of their land, water and other resources. The water provided by the dams – which strengthened the political power of the leaders representing the irrigated plains – is now at the core of a shift in regional power equations. Based on case studies of three dams the paper presents these contemporary developments around water allocation and re-appropriation. These developments pertain to the shift from the erstwhile focus on securing water for irrigation to the new focus of securing water to facilitate international and domestic private investments. The paper concludes by arguing that the state is able to legitimise this form of water grabbing due the emergence of a new and grand political coalition and nexus that has emerged at the behest of the ongoing economic reforms.

  13. Point Climat no. 22 'Reform of the Common Agricultural Policy is laying the initial foundations for a European agricultural climate policy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foucherot, Claudine; Bellassen, Valentin

    2012-01-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Climate Briefs' presents, in a few pages, hot topics in climate change policy. This issue addresses the following points: The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) has had a very small climate component since 1992. The recent inclusion of green payments and the climate risk management tools proposed for the CAP for the period beyond 2013 illustrate the European Commission's willingness to expand this climate component. Furthermore, there is little mention of the agricultural sector in the tools rolled out by the European climate policy, particularly those derived from the 2009 'Climate and Energy' Package. Therefore, even if this autumn's parliamentary debate results in the reform proposals being diluted, the post-2013 CAP could nevertheless become a principal tool for a common EU climate policy in the agricultural sector

  14. Towards a Theory of the Reform of the Common Agricultural Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian Kay

    2000-01-01

    This paper sets up two competing frameworks to assess the evidence of the CAP reforms of the 1980s and 1990s. The two frameworks differ in the degree of prominence given to interest groups in affecting CAP decisions. The paper concludes that the most important mechanism behind CAP reforms is the interaction of EU institutions and member state governments. Interest groups, at national or EU-level, have limited influence on the reform process. The paper does not claim to have developed a new th...

  15. Reform of investment policy in the function of sustainable development with special emphasis on investment in information technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragičević-Radičević Tatjana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Global economy still records a decline in FDI. The main causes are increased economic instability and geopolitical risks. Given the continued negative trend, it is clear that it is necessary to reform the investment policies at the national, regional, bilateral, multilateral and international level, to ensure sustainable economic development. Key elements of the reforms are: to provide instruments to reduce risks, create mechanisms of responsible investment, improve the structural coherence and promote regional investments. Refer to the current dates of the sectors investments (according to the report of UNCTAD from 2015th shows that the services sector recorded double growth compared to the investment in the manufacturing sector in 2012. Also, if we take into consideration the fact that investment in IT sector investment involves three aspects: transactional (minimizing costs, strategic (innovation technologies, achieving competitiveness and information (improving access to information and communications, it may be assumed that the reforms in the investment policies should be directly correlated with investments in information technology.

  16. What lessons have been learned in reforming the Renewables Obligation? An analysis of internal and external failures in UK renewable energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Geoffrey; Dow, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Despite operating a delivery programme for RES-E since 1990, UK targets and policy goals have not been achieved. In response, the Government reformed the RO. This article re-examines UK renewable energy policy by analysing the internal and external failures of the various mechanisms to determine if Government has learnt from previous experience in reforming the RO. Government did not learn from their own actions during the NFFO/RO transition, evidenced by high-levels of similarity in internal/external failures. The reformed-RO is expected to significantly increase deployment, has provided a 'renewables package' by comprehensively addressing both internal/external failures but major internal failures (price/financial risk) still remain, resulting in contiguous failures over two decades and two mechanism changes (NFFO, RO, RO/reformed-RO). Success will again be heavily dependent on a select few technologies and new/untested measures to combat external failures. Mechanism-extension to 2037 is probably the single most important factor underlying potential deployment increases. However, introducing a FIT-like system via the sheer number of 'bolt-on' reforms to counter policy failures indicates loss of direction and clarity. Overall, although Government appears to have learnt some of its lessons from the past two-decades, significant doubt remains whether renewable energy policy objectives will be met via the latest mechanism change. - Research highlights: → Review of UK renewable energy policy learning behaviour via the 2009 Renewable Obligation reform. → Applies key lessons and analysis of NFFO/RO, RO reform and possible FIT schemes. → Finds UK Government has learnt some lessons from the past but some failures remain contiguous over two decades. → In contrast to previous changes, 2009 reform provided a comprehensive reform package. → Significant doubt remains whether objectives will be met via latest mechanism change.

  17. [PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION OF PERSONNEL POLICY IN REFORMING OF UKRAINIAN HEALTH CARE SYSTEM USING THE EXAMPLE OF DERMATOVENEREOLOGICAL SERVICE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolenko, V V; Dykun, O P; Isayenko, R M; Remennyk, O I; Avramenko, T P; Stepanenko, V I; Petrova, K I; Volosovets, O P; Lazoryshynets, V V

    2014-01-01

    The health care system, its modernization and optimization are among the most important functions of the modern Ukrainian state. The main goal of the reforms in the field of healthcare is to improve the health of the population, equal and fair access for all to health services of adequate quality. Important place in the health sector reform belongs to optimizing the structure and function of dermatovenereological service. The aim of this work is to address the issue of human resources management of dermatovenereological services during health sector reform in Ukraine, taking into account the real possibility of disengagement dermatovenereological providing care between providers of primary medical care level (general practitioners) and providers of secondary (specialized) and tertiary (high-specialized) medical care (dermatovenerologists and pediatrician dermatovenerologists), and coordinating interaction between these levels. During research has been found, that the major problems of human resources of dermatovenereological service are insufficient staffing and provision of health-care providers;,growth in the number of health workers of retirement age; sectoral and regional disparity of staffing; the problem of improving the skills of medical personnel; regulatory support personnel policy areas and create incentives for staff motivation; problems of rational use of human resources for health care; problems of personnel training for dermatovenereological service. Currently reforming health sector should primarily serve the needs of the population in a fairly effective medical care at all levels, to ensure that there must be sufficient qualitatively trained and motivated health workers. To achieve this goal directed overall work of the Ministry of Health of Uktaine, the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, medical universities, regional health authorities, professional medical associations. Therefore Ukrainian dermatovenereological care, in particular

  18. Soil fertility decline and economic policy reform in Sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerink, N.B.M.

    2005-01-01

    Two decades of economic reforms in Africa have not resulted in the anticipated growth in per capita agricultural production. Declining output-fertiliser price ratios, particularly for food crops, contributed to soil fertility depletion and agricultural stagnation. Current prices of agricultural

  19. Estimating the Effect of Student Aid on College Enrollment: Evidence from a Government Grant Policy Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Sørensen, Torben; Taber, Christopher

    In this paper, we investigate the responsiveness of the demand for college to changes in student aid arising from a Danish reform. We separately identify the effect of aid from that of other observed and unobserved variables such as parental income. We exploit the combination of a kinked aid sche...

  20. Success for All and Comprehensive School Reform: Evidence-Based Policies for Urban Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Robert E.; Madden, Nancy A.

    This paper discusses comprehensive school reform (CSR), which accepts the importance of standards and accountability but adds to these strategies for introducing innovations in curriculum, instruction, school organization, governance, parent interactions, and other core features of practice. The paper reviews research on the nature and quality of…

  1. Making Sense of Policy Implementation Process in Pakistan: The Case of Hospital Autonomy Reforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saeed, Aamir

    2012-01-01

    Hospital Autonomy Reforms were initiated in the 90s by the Government in the 17 teaching hospitals of the Province of Punjab, Pakistan with the claimed objectives of bringing efficiency and better services to the patients. A host of administrative, structural and financial changes were introduced in

  2. Teacher Education Policies, Practices, and Reform in Scotland: Implications in the Indian Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Pradeep Kumar

    2015-01-01

    India, a country of 1.27 billion, nowadays needs reforms, improvements, and new approaches in teacher education to cater to the demands of changing economy and society. This call to improve teacher education becomes more significant considering the fact that 50% of India's current population is below the age of 25 and over 65% below 35. There are…

  3. A Legal Guide to State Pension Reform. Education Sector Policy Briefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herriot-Hatfield, Jennie; Monahan, Amy; Rosenberg, Sarah; Tucker, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Just 18 minutes before the midnight signing deadline on May 15, 2010, Minnesota state legislators breathed a sigh of relief. Their bipartisan pension reform legislation, which passed both chambers by large margins and aimed to help shore up a potentially failing pension system, had just escaped a veto threat. Under pressure from his Republican…

  4. School Stakeholders' Experience with Navigating ICT Policy Reforms in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Vicente Chua, Jr.; Kheng, Catherine Chua Siew

    2015-01-01

    Using qualitative research inquiry methods, this inquiry attempts to explore how school stakeholders cope with incessant and seemingly endless transformations in schools. The central phenomenon to be studied focuses on how school stakeholders "make sense" of educational reform. In order to do this, an exploratory case study of two target…

  5. Health Reform for Communities: Financing Substance Abuse Services. Recommendations from a Join Together Policy Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    Substance abuse treatment has been demonstrated to be effective in reducing not only substance use, but also the economic, health, and social costs associated with substance abuse. This document examines how health care reform can preserve and enhance community substance abuse services. The cost effectiveness of funding substance abuse prevention…

  6. Allocation Anatomy: How District Policies That Deploy Resources Can Support (or Undermine) District Reform Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roza, Marguerite

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to explore the effects of micro-budgeting decisions and show how they might support or hamper district reform strategies. The study draws on public and private sector resource allocation literature to identify key elements of resource allocation decisions. These elements are used to highlight different allocation…

  7. Mental health policy and development in Egypt - integrating mental health into health sector reforms 2001-9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siekkonen Inkeri

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following a situation appraisal in 2001, a six year mental health reform programme (Egymen 2002-7 was initiated by an Egyptian-Finnish bilateral aid project at the request of a former Egyptian minister of health, and the work was incorporated directly into the Ministry of Health and Population from 2007 onwards. This paper describes the aims, methodology and implementation of the mental health reforms and mental health policy in Egypt 2002-2009. Methods A multi-faceted and comprehensive programme which combined situation appraisal to inform planning; establishment of a health sector system for coordination, supervision and training of each level (national, governorate, district and primary care; development workshops; production of toolkits, development of guidelines and standards; encouragement of intersectoral liaison at each level; integration of mental health into health management systems; and dedicated efforts to improve forensic services, rehabilitation services, and child psychiatry services. Results The project has achieved detailed situation appraisal, epidemiological needs assessment, inclusion of mental health into the health sector reform plans, and into the National Package of Essential Health Interventions, mental health masterplan (policy guidelines to accompany the general health policy, updated Egyptian mental health legislation, Code of Practice, adaptation of the WHO primary care guidelines, primary care training, construction of a quality system of roles and responsibilities, availability of medicines at primary care level, public education about mental health, and a research programme to inform future developments. Intersectoral liaison with education, social welfare, police and prisons at national level is underway, but has not yet been established for governorate and district levels, nor mental health training for police, prison staff and teachers. Conclusions The bilateral collaboration programme

  8. Interactions of selected policy-stakeholder groups implementing middle school science standards-based systemic reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydston, Theodore Lewis, III

    1999-12-01

    This research is an interpretive inquiry into the views and interactions of stakeholders in a district office of a large school system responsible for implementing science systemic reform. Three major sources of data were used in this research: surveys, stakeholder interviews, and autobiographical reflection on experiences as part of the reform initiative. This is an emergent research that is evident in the shift in the focus of research questions and their supporting assumptions during the research. The literature review describes standards-based reform, arguments about reform, and the major dimensions of reform research. The results of the survey of stakeholders revealed that the views among the stakeholder groups followed the system hierarchy and could be separated into two large groups; staff responsible for implementing the reform initiative and the other stakeholder groups. Each of these groups was composed of identifiable subgroups. The interviews with stakeholders revealed how their different attitudes, values, and beliefs frame the context of stakeholder interactions. An over reliance on an authoritarian view of decision-making leaves many stakeholders feeling disempowered and critical of others. This atmosphere promotes blaming, which inhibits collegial interaction. Work experiences in the district office revealed how stakeholders' unaddressed assumptions, attitudes, and beliefs promote fragmentation and competition rather than cooperation. Hidden assumptions about management by control and mandate, competition, and teaching and learning appear to restrain the interactions of stakeholders. Support of the National Science Education Standards was identified as a unifying view among the stakeholders, yet the professional development program focused on content and pedagogical knowledge without addressing stakeholder concerns and beliefs about the intended constructivist framework of the program. Stakeholders' attitudes about the issue of equity demonstrated

  9. Understanding the United States and Brazil's response to obesity: institutional conversion, policy reform, and the lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Eduardo J

    2015-06-10

    In the United States (US) and Brazil, obesity has emerged as a health epidemic. This article is driven by the following research questions: how did the US and Brazil's federal institutions respond to obesity? And how did these responses affect policy implementation? The aim of this article is therefore to conduct a comparative case study analysis of how these nations' institutions responded in order to determine the key lessons learned. This study uses primary and secondary qualitative data to substantiate causal arguments and factual claims. Brazil shows that converting preexisting federal agencies working in primary healthcare to emphasize the provision of obesity prevention services can facilitate policy implementation, especially in rural areas. Brazil also reveals the importance of targeting federal grant support to the highest obesity prevalence areas and imposing grant conditionalities, while illustrating how the incorporation of social health movements into the bureaucracy facilitates the early adoption of nutrition and obesity policies. None of these reforms were pursued in the US. Brazil's government has engaged in innovative institutional conversion processes aiding its ability to sustain its centralized influence when implementing obesity policy. The US government's adoption of Brazil's institutional innovations may help to strengthen its policy response.

  10. Water Policy Reforms in South Korea: A Historical Review and Ongoing Challenges for Sustainable Water Governance and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ik-Chang Choi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to provide an opinion on the state-of-the-art of changes and reforms of water policies in South Korea, as well as the challenges along with their implications for sustainable water governance and management. In parallel with change in water resource characteristics generated by physical, environmental and socio-economic challenges such as: (1 uncertainties about climate change (flooding and drought including seasonal and regional variation in precipitation; (2 significant increase in water use caused by rapid urbanization and population growth in industrialized urban areas; (3 inadequate water pricing mechanism which covers only around 80% of the production cost and makes it harder to maintain water systems; and (4 recursive water quality degradation and conflicts over water rights between regions resulting from non-point source pollution in highland versus lowland areas, Korean water policies have been developed through diverse reforms over 100 years. Nevertheless, new challenges for sustainable water management are continuously emerging. To meet those challenges we provide two ideas: (i provider-gets-principle (payment for ecosystem services of cost-benefit sharing among stakeholders who benefit from water use; and (ii water pricing applying full-cost pricing-principle internalizing environmental externalities caused by the intensive water use. Funds secured from the application of those methods would facilitate: (1 support for upstream (rural low income householders suffering from economic restrictions; (2 improvement in water facilities; and (3 efficient water use and demand management in South Korea’s water sectors. We expect that this paper can examine the lessons relevant to challenges that South Korea faces and offer some implications on the formulation of new integration and further reforms of the institutions, laws and organizations responsible for managing water resources in South Korea.

  11. REFORM OF REGULATORY POLICY IN THE FIELD OF SUPERVISION OF AUDIT ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Kantsir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Reforming the regulatory system and supervision of audit activity in Ukraine is a basic condition for Ukraine’s accession to the European Community, and the introduction of international standards in the field of audit and supervision of audit activity and quality assurance of audit services should be correlated with the standards of European and world audit practice. The dominant factor in the effective functioning of independent control is the choice of a model of supervision of the mechanism for its implementation; effectiveness of the system of monitoring the quality of audit services; effectiveness of legal and regulatory framework of audit activity. The regulation of audit activity is to coordinate direct and indirect actions aimed at the subject of audit activity with the purpose of ensuring the quality of audit services and minimizing the level of audit risk. The purpose of the research is: analysis of the basic models of regulation of audit activity aimed at improving the legal regulation of economic relations in general and subjects of audit activity in particular. Determination of expediency of implementation of public oversight as monitoring of the process of implementation of audit activity in the context of granting the right to conduct audit activities to individuals, implementation of standards of professional ethics and quality control of audit services, permanence of education and imposing sanctions for non-compliance by auditors with the requirements of the current legislation. Method (methodology. In the process of research, general scientific and special methods of scientific knowledge are used: abstract-logical (in the disclosure of theoretical and methodological foundations of public oversight; synthesis and system analysis (substantiation of the essential characteristics of the system of public oversight; system analysis and theoretical generalization (definition of institutional prerequisites for the introduction of

  12. Reform of the EU's climate policy. Small step or big hit?; Reform der EU-Klimapolitik. Kleiner Schritt oder grosser Wurf?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, Matthias; Peichert, Patrick; Perner, Jens; Riechmann, Christoph [Frontier Economics Ltd., Koeln (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    Emissions trading listed as a flexible mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol is regarded as a market economy way in climate protection. Since 2005 the European Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) is the central climate policy instrument for reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases, in particular for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). For years, however, the CO{sub 2} price is too low to direct the politically and socially targeted technical innovations in the electricity sector and the industry. The article analyses the temporary and structural causes of this problem, highlights the EU's reform efforts and points to areas of activity, the basis of which the EU ETS may act in the future as a central instrument for climate protection in the European Union. [German] Der im Kyoto-Protokoll als flexibler Mechanismus aufgefuehrte Emissionshandel gilt als marktwirtschaftlicher Weg in den Klimaschutz. Das Europaeische Emissionshandelssystem (EU ETS) ist seit 2005 das zentrale klimapolitische Instrument zur Senkung des Ausstosses von Treibhausgasen, insbesondere fuer Kohlenstoffdioxid (CO{sub 2}). Seit Jahren ist der CO{sub 2}-Preis jedoch zu gering, um die politisch und gesellschaftlich angestrebten technischen Innovationen im Stromsektor und der Industrie zu lenken. Der Artikel untersucht die temporaeren und strukturellen Ursachen dieses Problems, beleuchtet die Reformbestrebungen der EU und zeigt Handlungsfelder auf, anhand derer das EU ETS auch in Zukunft als zentrales Instrument fuer Klimaschutz in der Europaeischen Union fungieren kann.

  13. The 2011 Estonian High School Language Reform in the Context of Critical Language Policy and Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerrett, Delaney Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to situate Estonian language use and policy within the emerging field of critical language policy and planning (CLPP) by investigating the discourses that frame linguistic behaviour. This done by way of an analysis of a series of interviews carried out with key actors in language policy in Estonia. The discourses framing language…

  14. World bank's role in the electric power sector: Policies for effective institutional, regulatory, and financial reform. World Bank policy paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The policy paper is based on the World Bank Industry and Energy Department's ongoing policy and research work, which (1) examines experiences of industrial countries and the Bank's borrowers in developing their power sectors, (2) analyzes issues facing these sectors, and (3) describes options for dealing with these issues in developing countries. The paper is supported by a large body of research

  15. Policy Brief: Petroleum product pricing reforms in India. Are we on the right track?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Pravin Kumar; Soni, Anmol

    2013-03-15

    The path to petroleum product pricing reforms in India has been full of undulations. Even though Administered Pricing Mechanism (APM) was dismantled during 1 April 1998 to 31 March 2002, the government continued to regulate the prices of petrol, diesel, Public distribution System (PDS) kerosene, and domestic LPG, except for over a year, when oil marketing companies (OMCs) revised the consumer prices of petrol and diesel in line with the international prices. In June 2010, petrol pricing was deregulated, but government control continued to an extent. This control of petroleum product prices has not only severely affected the fiscal balance of the economy, but has also adversely impacted the oil companies (both upstream and downstream), eventually affecting the overall development of the sector. In fact, the impact of petroleum product subsidies has compelled the government to announce certain reforms in the past few months.

  16. Science education reform in Confucian learning cultures: teachers' perspectives on policy and practice in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying-Syuan; Asghar, Anila

    2018-03-01

    This empirical study investigates secondary science teachers' perspectives on science education reform in Taiwan and reflects how these teachers have been negotiating constructivist and learner-centered pedagogical approaches in contemporary science education. It also explores the challenges that teachers encounter while shifting their pedagogical focus from traditional approaches to teaching science to an active engagement in students' learning. Multiple sources of qualitative data were obtained, including individual interviews with science teachers and teachers' reflective journals about Confucianism in relation to their educational philosophies. Thematic analysis and constant comparative method were used to analyze the data. The findings revealed that Confucian traditions play a significant role in shaping educational practices in Taiwan and profoundly influence teachers' epistemological beliefs and their actual classroom practice. Indeed, science teachers' perspectives on Confucian learning traditions played a key role in supporting or obstructing their pedagogical commitments to inquiry-based and learner-centered approaches. This study draws on the literature concerning teachers' professional struggles and identity construction during educational reform. Specifically, we explore the ways in which teachers respond to educational changes and negotiate their professional identities. We employed various theories of identity construction to understand teachers' struggles and challenges while wrestling with competing traditional and reform-based pedagogical approaches. Attending to these struggles and the ways in which they inform the development of a teacher's professional identity is vital for sustaining current and future educational reform in Taiwan as well as in other Eastern cultures. These findings have important implications for teachers' professional development programs in East Asian cultures.

  17. The Role of the Unit of Analysis in Tax Policy Reform Evaluations

    OpenAIRE

    John Creedy; Rosanna Scutella

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the implications, for overall social welfare and inequality comparisons, of using different definitions of the unit of analysis - the income recipient - in computing summary measures. Comparisons are made using the Melbourne Institute Tax and Transfer Simulator (MITTS), a simulation model of the Australian direct tax and benefit system, of the effects of flattening the marginal tax rate structure. The reform was found to reduce inequality in all cases. However, it was not ...

  18. Reimbursement-Based Economics--What Is It and How Can We Use It to Inform Drug Policy Reform?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Doug; Lee, Karen M; Mamdani, Muhammad; Sabarre, Kelley-Anne; Tingley, Kylie

    2015-01-01

    In Ontario, approximately $3.8 billion is spent annually on publicly funded drug programs. The annual growth in Ontario Public Drug Program (OPDP) expenditure has been limited to 1.2% over the course of 3 years. Concurrently, the Ontario Drug Policy Research Network (ODPRN) was appointed to conduct drug class review research relating to formulary modernization within the OPDP. Drug class reviews by ODPRN incorporate a novel methodological technique called reimbursement-based economics, which focuses on reimbursement strategies and may be particularly relevant for policy-makers. To describe the reimbursement-based economics approach. Reimbursement-based economics aims to identify the optimal reimbursement strategy for drug classes by incorporating a review of economic literature, comprehensive budget impact analyses, and consideration of cost-effectiveness. This 3-step approach is novel in its focus on the economic impact of alternate reimbursement strategies rather than individual therapies. The methods involved within the reimbursement-based approach are detailed. To facilitate the description, summary methods and findings from a recent application to formulary modernization with respect to the drug class tryptamine-based selective serotonin receptor agonists (triptans) used to treat migraine headaches are presented. The application of reimbursement-based economics in drug policy reforms allows policy-makers to consider the cost-effectiveness and budget impact of different reimbursement strategies allowing consideration of the trade-off between potential cost savings vs increased access to cost-effective treatments. © 2015 American Headache Society.

  19. Dewey and Italian School Policy: Proposals for Reform by Scuola e Città (1950–1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mariuzzo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the role of Ernesto Codignola’s «Florence School of Pedagogy» in the renewal of Italian democratic and secular education after World War II, particularly its commitment to the diffusion of John Dewey’s educational thinking across Italy, previously dominated by the influence of traditional neo-idealism. Through a systematic analysis of the journal Scuola e Città, the group’s mouthpiece, the paper highlights the importance of Dewey’s ideas in the elaboration of educational policy proposals and potential legislative measures for school reform. It analyses the extent to which the «Deweyan laboratory» in Florence contributed to the emergence and foundation of the positions held by one of its exponents, Ernesto Codignola’s son Tristano – the Italian Socialist Party’s Education minister, in the parliamentary debate of the Sixties. The paper focuses on three main themes: (i assessment of the government’s primary school curricula, drawn up in the mid-fifties, characterized by an overhaul of the existing educational practices, which Scuola e città authors considered to be insufficient and contradictory; (ii universal access to a junior secondary education along the lines of the comprehensive school model to guide the active stimulation of students’ abilities and interests; and (iii school administration reform in response to the persistence of pre-war centralism and the authoritarian character of traditional Italian pedagogy.

  20. Reliable in their failure: an analysis of healthcare reform policies in public systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contandriopoulos, Damien; Brousselle, Astrid

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, we analyze recommendations of past governmental commissions and their implementation in Quebec as a case to discuss the obstacles that litter the road to healthcare system reform. Our analysis shows that the obstacles to tackling the healthcare system's main problems may have less to do with programmatic (what to do) than with political and governance (how to do it) questions. We then draw on neo-institutional theory to discuss the causes and effects of this situation. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. "Old, Borrowed, and Renewed": A Review of Early Childhood Education Policy in Post-Reform Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Octarra, Harla Sara; Hendriati, Agustina

    2018-01-01

    Early childhood education (ECE) is not new in Indonesia. However, in the past decade, it has received more attention, as shown by the growing number of ECE centres in both urban and rural areas. This growth is accompanied by policy development that corresponds to the global agenda of ECE. Policy development is inevitably linked with the support of…

  2. Balancing Tensions in Educational Policy Reforms: Large-Scale Implementation of Assessment for Learning in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfenbeck, Therese N.; Flórez Petour, María Teresa; Tolo, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates how different stakeholders in Norway experienced a government-initiated, large-scale policy implementation programme on "Assessment for Learning" ("AfL"). Data were collected through 58 interviews with stakeholders in charge of the policy; Ministers of Education and members of the Directorate of…

  3. Social Security reform: evaluating current proposals. Latest results of the EBRI-SSASIM2 policy simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, C; VanDerhei, J; Salisbury, D L

    1999-06-01

    The present Social Security program has been shown to be financially unsustainable in the future without modification to the current program. The purpose of this Issue Brief, EBRI's fourth in a series on Social Security reform, is threefold: to illustrate new features of the EBRI-SSASIM2 policy simulation model not available in earlier EBRI publications, to expand quantitative analysis to specific proposals, and to evaluate the uncertainty involved in proposals that rely on equity investment. This analysis compares the Gregg/Breaux-Kolbe/Stenholm (GB-KS) and Moynihan/Kerrey proposals with three generic or "traditional" reforms: increasing taxes, reducing benefits, and/or increasing the retirement age. Both proposals would create individual accounts by "carving out" funds from current Social Security payroll taxes. This analysis also examines other proposed changes that would "add on" to existing Social Security funds through the use of general revenue transfers and/or investment in the equities market. President Clinton has proposed a general revenue transfer and the collective investment of some of the OASDI trust fund assets in equities. Reps. Archer and Shaw have proposed a general revenue tax credit to establish individual accounts that would be invested partially in the equities markets. When comparing Social Security reform proposals that would specifically alter benefit levels, the Moynihan/Kerrey bill compares quite favorably with the other proposals in both benefit levels and payback ratios, when individuals elect to use the individual account option. In contrast, the GB-KS bills do not compare quite as favorably for their benefit levels, but do compare favorably in terms of payback ratios. An important comparison in these bills is the administrative costs of managing the individual accounts, since benefits can be lowered by up to 23 percent when going from the assumed low to high administrative costs. Moreover, allowing individuals to decide whether to

  4. ETF Yearbook 2012: Evaluation and Monitoring of Vocational Education and Training Systems and the Role of Evidence-Based Policy in Their Reforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    European Training Foundation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The "ETF Yearbook 2012" continues the tradition of highlighting a thematic field of particular importance to the work of the European Training Foundation (ETF). The theme of this yearbook is evaluation and monitoring of vocational education and training (VET) systems and the role of evidence-based policy in VET reforms in ETF partner…

  5. Music plus Music Integration: A Model for Music Education Policy Reform That Reflects the Evolution and Success of Arts Integration Practices in 21st Century American Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scripp, Lawrence; Gilbert, Josh

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the special case of integrative teaching and learning in music as a model for 21st century music education policy reform based on the principles that have evolved out of arts integration research and practices over the past century and informed by the recent rising tide of evidence of music's impact on brain capacity and…

  6. Water Governance Decentralisation and River Basin Management Reforms in Hierarchical Systems: Do They Work for Water Treatment Policy in Mexico’s Tlaxcala Atoyac Sub-Basin?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casiano Flores, Cesar Augusto; Vikolainen, Vera; Bressers, Johannes T.A.

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, policy reforms, new instruments development, and economic resources investment have taken place in water sanitation in Mexico; however, the intended goals have not been accomplished. The percentage of treated wastewater as intended in the last two federal water plans has not

  7. Influence of macro-economic growth, CAP reforms and biofuel policy on the Polish agri-food sector in 2007–2020

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabeau, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the possible development scenario of the Polish agricultural sector till 2020. It also assesses the impact of macroeconomic growth, CAP reforms and worldwide policies towards the agriculture on this development. The scenario is build using an extended version of the Global Trade

  8. "Decentralised" Neoliberalism and/or "Masked" Re-Centralisation? The Policy to Practice Trajectory of Maltese School Reform through the Lens of Neoliberalism and Foucault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mifsud, Denise

    2016-01-01

    The politics of the later part of the twentieth century have been marked by the emergence of neoliberalism, which has consequently impregnated the global policy climate with neoliberal technologies of government. It is within this political scenario of hegemonic neoliberal discourse that I explore one aspect of school reform in Malta--contrived…

  9. Social limitations to livelihood adaptation : responses of maize-farming smallholder households to neoliberal policy reforms in Morelos, Southern Veracruz, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewald, S.F.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis describes the adaptation of smallholders to market changes shaped by neoliberal policy reforms in the Mexican maize sector. Contrary to expectations about smallholder responses to a liberalised maize market, in the study area maize still is the main source of income. Farmers did not

  10. Against the odds: the OMC as a selective amplifier for reforming Belgian pension policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanhercke, B.

    2009-01-01

    Tackling pensions' problems means engaging with what Pierson (2001) has called 'immovable objects'. Additionally, the EU competence for drafting specific legislation in this area remains unfulfilled potential, while EU legislation in other policy areas creates indirect pressures on national pension

  11. Informing principal policy reforms in South Africa through data-based evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrielle Wills

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade there has been a notable shift in South African education policy that raises the value of school leadership as a lever for learning improvements. Despite a growing discourse on school leadership, there has been a lack of empirical based evidence on principals to inform, validate or debate the efficacy of proposed policies in raising the calibre of school principals. Drawing on findings from a larger study to understand the labour market for school principals in South Africa...

  12. The impact of maternal employment on children's adiposity: Evidence from China's labor policy reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Young; Wang, Qing

    2017-12-01

    China has experienced a rapid growth in childhood adiposity in recent years. Although a large number of studies examine the effect of maternal employment on children's adiposity in developed countries, only a few studies investigate the issue in developing countries. Moreover, existing studies tend to suffer from a potential endogeneity issue. We provide new evidence on the causal effect of maternal employment on children's adiposity in China. We employ a difference-in-difference strategy that takes advantage of China's 1995 legislative change to labor regulations, which reduced the number of workdays from 6 to 5 days per week. Using longitudinal data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS), we compare children whose mothers are wage-earning employees to those whose mothers are self-employed because the reform only affected the former. Although maternal employment and childhood obesity in China exhibits the same positive association as in the United States, our difference-in-difference estimates present a different picture. We find that a reduction in the maternal labor supply led to children's weight gain. Further investigation reveals that the effect was stronger among children who were male, younger, in urban areas, and from households with low socioeconomic status. Our evidence suggests that a change in maternal behaviors was likely responsible for children's weight gain. In particular, a greater proportion of treatment group mothers cooked and also devoted more time to cooking after the reform, which led to an increased caloric intake by their children. Such weight gain was beneficial for children who were previously underweight but harmful to those who became overweight. The finding implies that additional maternal time at home likely has a different effect in China compared to the United States. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. INDONESIAN FOOD POLICY: THE PROGRAMS FOR STRENGTHENING FOOD SELF-SUFFICIENCY IN REFORMATION ERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamrussamad

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The 2012 decree #18, the policy on food states that objective of food implementation is to meet basic human needs and provide fair, equitable, and sustainable benefits based on food sovereignty, food self-sufficiency, and national food security. Food sovereignty, independence and security are fundamental and supports implementation of policies related to food implementation in Indonesia. The 2012 decree #18 stated that food implementation aims to improve ability to produce food independently, provide a variety of food and meet the requirements of security, quality, and nutrition for public consumption.

  14. The Radical Reform of Administrative Policies in New South Wales School Education: Practical and Theoretical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, R. J. S.

    The government of New South Wales (Australia) is attempting to enhance the quality of public education by radically altering management structures and practices. Despite some popular objections, political intervention was mandated and warranted due to excessive centralization in administrative policy making, curriculum development, and resource…

  15. A programme evaluation of pre-primary education reform, and policy, in Plateau State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaye Fadimatu Hamza

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Contextualisation This paper presents a brief overview of the educational system in Nigeria with an emphasis on the pre-primary education level. It addresses the international literature on early childhood pedagogy and assesses to what extent pre-primary education policy in Nigeria is inspired by this literature. The paper will pay special attention to the shortcomings and obstacles encountered in trying to implement the pre-primary education policy of Plateau State in Nigeria Abstract: The current study is an evaluation of the pre-primary education policy in Plateau State in Nigeria. It was inspired by my own experience as a school teacher/principal who has seen the effects on primary schools and the results of a lack of government investment in the sector, itself leading to a proliferation of ‘private owners’. Because of these circumstances the implementation of central policy is highly dependent on the varying understanding of these owners. The study will employ both qualitative and quantitative techniques in data collection through the use of questionnaire, interviews, classroom observation and use of documents. The data will be analysed both quantitatively and qualitatively. The results will hopefully be used, not only to add to existing literature, but also to improve the system serving as a basis for further research in the area.

  16. The Ghosts of Higher Education Reform: On the Organisational Processes Surrounding Policy Borrowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brøgger, Katja

    2014-01-01

    The Bologna Process is one of the most extensive examples of policy borrowing processes. Based on qualitative data, this article argues in favour of studying part of this process as "global smallness", centring on the organisational effects of the implementation of a globalised curriculum. Through Derrida's notion on hauntology,…

  17. Reflection on the Education Policy Orientation in Post-May 31 Reform in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chong Jae; Kim, Yong

    2016-01-01

    For the last 70 years, since the establishment of the Republic of Korea, Korean education has achieved universal expansion of educational opportunity from elementary to secondary to higher education. Planning, centralized policy making, top-down implementation, and administrative control had been the standards of the first few decades of Korean…

  18. Managing the Dynamics of the Bologna Reforms: How Institutional Actors Re-Construct the Policy Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Amélia; Neave, Guy

    2015-01-01

    How do the constituencies in higher education re-interpret Bologna's function with regard to the European Higher Education Area? This research examines how institutional actors re-construct the policy framework in the light of their own institutional agendas. Drawing on empirical data from a survey of academics, students and administrative and…

  19. Education Policy as an Act of White Supremacy: Whiteness, Critical Race Theory and Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillborn, David

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents an empirical analysis of education policy in England that is informed by recent developments in US critical theory. In particular, I draw on 'whiteness studies' and the application of critical race theory (CRT). These perspectives offer a new and radical way of conceptualizing the role of racism in education. Although the US…

  20. Rhode Island Pension Reform: Implications and Opportunities for Education. Education Sector Policy Briefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herriot-Hatfield, Jennie; Monahan, Amy; Rosenberg, Sarah; Tucker, Bill

    2011-01-01

    On August 24, 2010, the state of Rhode Island received some outstanding news. Its yearlong, bipartisan effort to develop new policies to spur educational improvement was about to pay off. The state, along with eight others and the District of Columbia, was named a winner of the U.S. Department of Education's Race to the Top grant competition. The…

  1. A Cognitive Perspective on Policy Implementation : Reform Beliefs, Sensemaking, and Social Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siciliano, Michael D.; Moolenaar, Nienke M.; Daly, Alan J.; Liou, Yi Hwa

    2017-01-01

    Utilizing a cognitive perspective, this article examines the social processes through which teachers come to understand the Common Core State Standards. The authors begin by identifying three beliefs that have important implications for policy implementation: self-efficacy, resource adequacy, and

  2. The Impact of 2002 National Teacher Contract Policy Reform on Teacher Absenteeism in Lahore, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Masooma

    2010-01-01

    Teacher absenteeism is a persistent problem in Pakistani government schools. Under a new policy, teachers hired in Pakistani schools after 2002 are hired on fixed term contracts that are renewed, in part, based on low absenteeism. This study uses qualitative analysis techniques to assess the impact of contractual hiring on teacher absenteeism…

  3. Social limitations of maize farmers' adaptation to neoliberal policy reform in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewald, S.F.; Niehof, A.

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights the interfaces between micro-level livelihoods, social networks, and macroeconomic trends and policies. Specifically, it analyzes the role of farmer groups in livelihood adaptation of smallholder maize producers in southern Mexico. We show how neoliberal market changes have

  4. Feature article coverage of Australian out-of-home care: portrayals and policy reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCosker, Laura; Lonne, Bob; Gillespie, Kerri; Marston, Greg

    2014-05-01

    This article examines the issues that are typically identified in feature articles written about out-of-home care and how those issues are constructed and portrayed. It also considers the potential impact of the coverage upon the policy debates and outcomes that were occurring at the time. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  5. Policy Patrons: Philanthropy, Education Reform, and the Politics of Influence. Educational Innovations Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins-Stange, Megan E.

    2016-01-01

    "Policy Patrons" offers a rare behind-the-scenes view of decision making inside four influential education philanthropies: the Ford Foundation, the W. K. Kellogg Foundation, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and the Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation. The outcome is an intriguing, thought-provoking look at the impact of current…

  6. Education Policy and "Friedmanomics": Free Market Ideology and Its Impact on School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiala, Thomas J.; Owens, Deborah Duncan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of neoliberal ideology, and in particular, the economic and social theories of Milton Friedman on education policy. The paper takes a critical theoretical approach in that ultimately the paper is an ideological critique of conservative thought and action that impacts twenty-first century education…

  7. Renewable energy for rural development in Ethiopia: the case for new energy policies and institutional reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolde-Ghiorgis, W. [Addis Ababa Univ., Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)

    2002-09-01

    This article argues the case for introducing new energy policies in Ethiopia that will ensure energy initiatives for rural development meet the desired expectations. A review of the rural energy sector in Ethiopia is presented. Rural communities have for centuries relied solely on traditional biomass energy sources, human and animal power. In addition, sample findings show that the basic stock of traditional biomass energy resources is dwindling fast for two reasons: one, due to rapid population growth; and two, due to the absence of energy substitutes for traditional energy sources. Renewable energy technologies and other modern energy technologies are almost non-existent. In terms of budgetary allocation, rural energy development has not received a fair share of public investment in comparison to education, rural road construction and health. A key policy recommendation made in this article is the need for commitment from concerned authorities to the use of renewables for spurring rural development. This could be done through increasing the budget allocation to rural energy, which is currently negligible. Other policy recommendations include the modification of existing institutional frameworks for rural energy delivery, and the design and implementation of appropriate rural energy initiatives suitable for productive activities and sustainable development. (Author)

  8. Evaluation of policy options to reform the EU Emissions Trading System. Effects on carbon price, emissions and the economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdonk, M.; Brink, C.; Vollebergh, H.; Roelfsema, M.

    2013-04-15

    The EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) is a key instrument of EU climate policy, providing a clear reduction pathway for CO2 emissions. The current carbon price (of about 3 euros per tonne of CO2, April 2013) is much lower than previously expected (which was around 30 euros) and is likely to remain low for a long time. This fuels doubts about whether the ETS will remain a key policy instrument in the long term. Such doubts also increase investment uncertainty, which is likely to have a negative impact on further investments in low-carbon technologies needed for a low-carbon economy in 2050. In November 2012, the European Commission put forward six options for a more structural reform of the EU ETS. The proposed options vary from reducing the cap and expanding the ETS to include other sectors, to strengthening the ETS by measures directly affecting allowance prices. The Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment (IenM) asked the PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency to assess the impact of these options. Four categories of options for reforming the ETS were evaluated: (1) reducing the supply of emission allowances; (2) expanding the ETS by including other sectors; (3) a minimum price for auctioned allowances; and (4) combining ETS with a carbon tax. Recently, the European Parliament voted against the European Commission's proposal to temporarily set aside emission allowances. In an earlier assessment of this proposal, PBL concluded that the impact of this backloading proposal on CO2 prices is likely to be limited, because the total amount of allowances up to 2020 would remain unchanged. All options analysed would reduce emissions and cause the emission price to increase. A minimum price on carbon, however, would provide the best opportunity to make the ETS more robust against unforeseen events, such as a further deterioration of the economy. Such a minimum price would result in more emission reductions if abatement proves to be cheaper

  9. Agricultural water policy reforms in China: a representative look at Zhangye City, Gansu Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Tomohiro; Kharrazi, Ali; Li, Jia; Avtar, Ram

    2017-12-07

    Water resources are essential for agricultural production in the grain-producing region of China, and water shortage could significantly affect the production and international trade of agricultural products. China is placing effort in new policies to effectively respond to changes in water resources due to changes in land use/land cover as well as climatic variations. This research investigates the changes in land, water, and the awareness of farmer vis-à-vis the implementation of water-saving policies in Zhangye City, an experimental site for pilot programs of water resources management in China. This research indicates that the water saved through water-saving programs and changes in cropping structure (2.2 × 10 8  m 3  a -1 ) is perhaps lower than the newly increased water withdrawal through corporate-led land reclamation (3.7 × 10 8  m 3  a -1 ). Most critically, the groundwater withdrawal has increased. In addition, our survey suggests that local government is facing a dilemma of water conservation and agricultural development. Therefore, the enforcement of the ban on farmland reclamation and irrigation water quotas in our study area is revealed to be relatively loose. In this vein, the engagement of local stakeholders in water governance is essential for the future sustainable management of water resources.

  10. Health at the center of health systems reform: how philosophy can inform policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturmberg, Joachim P; Martin, Carmel M; Moes, Mark M

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary views hold that health and disease can be defined as objective states and thus should determine the design and delivery of health services. Yet health concepts are elusive and contestable. Health is neither an individual construction, a reflection of societal expectations, nor only the absence of pathologies. Based on philosophical and sociological theory, empirical evidence, and clinical experience, we argue that health has simultaneously objective and subjective features that converge into a dynamic complex-adaptive health model. Health (or its dysfunction, illness) is a dynamic state representing complex patterns of adaptation to body, mind, social, and environmental challenges, resulting in bodily homeostasis and personal internal coherence. The "balance of health" model-emergent, self-organizing, dynamic, and adaptive-underpins the very essence of medicine. This model should be the foundation for health systems design and also should inform therapeutic approaches, policy decision-making, and the development of emerging health service models. A complex adaptive health system focused on achieving the best possible "personal" health outcomes must provide the broad policy frameworks and resources required to implement people-centered health care. People-centered health systems are emergent in nature, resulting in locally different but mutually compatible solutions across the whole health system.

  11. Risk adjustment policy options for casemix funding: international lessons in financing reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antioch, Kathryn M; Ellis, Randall P; Gillett, Steve; Borovnicar, Daniel; Marshall, Ric P

    2007-09-01

    This paper explores modified hospital casemix payment formulae that would refine the diagnosis-related group (DRG) system in Victoria, Australia, which already makes adjustments for teaching, severity and demographics. We estimate alternative casemix funding methods using multiple regressions for individual hospital episodes from 2001 to 2003 on 70 high-deficit DRGs, focussing on teaching hospitals where the largest deficits have occurred. Our casemix variables are diagnosis- and procedure-based severity markers, counts of diagnoses and procedures, disease types, complexity, day outliers, emergency admission and "transfers in." The results are presented for four policy options that vary according to whether all of the dollars or only some are reallocated, whether all or some hospitals are used and whether the alternatives augment or replace existing payments. While our approach identifies variables that help explain patient cost variations, hospital-level simulations suggest that the approaches explored would only reduce teaching hospital underpayment by about 10%. The implications of various policy options are discussed.

  12. The Effect of the Common Agricultural Policy Reform by 2013 on Direct Payments in Relation to Animal Welfare in the European Union - Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Angelovič

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The primary role of agriculture is to provide food and the European Union should be able to contribute to rising world food demand. The Common Agriculture Policy covers the wide variety of measures used to support and protect the European Union farmers. The most important measure within the Common Agriculture Policy is direct payments paid directly to farmers to protect their income. The Common Agriculture Policy is due to be reformed by 2013. The main object of the Common Agriculture Policy, which is a provision of safe, healthy choice of food at transparent and affordable prices, will remain unchanged, but further changes of the Common Agriculture Policy are necessary to respond to the new challenges such as animal welfare, global food security, natural resources such as water, air, biodiversity and soil, climate changes, increasing globalization and rising price volatility.

  13. BUSINESSMEN AND EDUCATIONAL POLICY: HOW THE PROCLAIMED RIGHT TO QUALITY EDUCATION IS DENIED IN PRACTICE BY BUSINESS REFORMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos de Freitas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite that businessmen were always trying to interfere with the educational process from the times of theory of human capital, what can be happening of new that is motivating an increased interest of the business community through education? Is it possible that changes in the socio-economic development process of countries or their own crises of capital, are mobilizing the businessmen? We think so. The current interest of businessmen has specific aspects that deserve to be examined. It is not recommended that we believe that “history is repeating itself”. This linearity of analysis disarm us for the local confrontations of contradictions placed by this new escalation of capital on education. The educational policy of the reformers is produced to articulate the need to qualify for the new forms of organization of productive work, at the same time that it preserves and amplifies the classical social functions of the school: exclusion and subordination. At stake is the political and ideological control of the school, at a time when some greater degree of access to knowledge is required by new forms of organization of productive work, new consumption demands of the capitalist system and new political pressures for social mobility through the education.

  14. Steepest Ascent Tariff Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    2006-01-01

    a theoretical concept where the focus is upon the size of welfare gains accruing from tariff reforms rather than simply with the direction of welfare effects that has been the concern of theliterature.JEL code: F15.Keywords: Steepest ascent tariff reforms; piecemeal tariff policy; welfare; market access; small......This paper introduces the concept of a steepest ascent tariff reform for a small open economy. By construction, it is locally optimal in that it yields the highest gain in utility of any feasible tariff reform vector of the same length. Accordingly, it provides a convenient benchmark...... for the evaluation of the welfare effectiveness of other well known tariff reform rules, as e.g. the proportional and the concertina rules. We develop the properties of this tariff reform, characterize the sources of the potential welfare gains from tariff reform, use it to establish conditions under which some...

  15. Human resource for health reform in peri-urban areas: a cross-sectional study of the impact of policy interventions on healthcare workers in Epworth, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taderera, Bernard Hope; Hendricks, Stephen James Heinrich; Pillay, Yogan

    2017-12-16

    The need to understand how healthcare worker reform policy interventions impact health personnel in peri-urban areas is important as it also contributes towards setting of priorities in pursuing the universal health coverage goal of health sector reform. This study explored the impact of post 2008 human resource for health reform policy interventions on healthcare workers in Epworth, a peri-urban community in Harare, Zimbabwe, and the implications towards health sector reform policy in peri-urban areas. The study design was exploratory and cross-sectional and involved the use of qualitative and quantitative methods in data collection, presentation, and analysis. A qualitative study in which data were collected through a documentary search, five key informant interviews, seven in-depth interviews, and five focus group discussions was carried out first. This was followed by a quantitative study in which data were collected through a documentary search and 87 semi-structured sample interviews with healthcare workers. Qualitative data were analyzed thematically whilst descriptive statistics were used to examine quantitative data. All data were integrated during analysis to ensure comprehensive, reliable, and valid analysis of the dataset. Three main factors were identified to help interpret findings. The first main factor consisted policy result areas that impacted most successfully on healthcare workers. These included the deployment of community health workers with the highest correlation of 0.83. Policy result areas in the second main factor included financial incentives with a correlation of 0.79, training and development (0.77), deployment (0.77), and non-financial incentives (0.75). The third factor consisted policy result areas that had the lowest satisfaction amongst healthcare workers in Epworth. These included safety (0.72), equipment and tools of trade (0.72), health welfare (0.65), and salaries (0.55). The deployment of community health volunteers impacted

  16. Policy Reforms, Trojan Horses, and Imaginary Friends: The Role of External Stakeholders in Internal Quality Assurance Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Maria João; Teixeira, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    The governance of higher education has been changing across Europe, most notably in response to the reform agenda that has been pervading many higher education systems. This wave of reforms has given enhanced visibility to external stakeholders, which has been often received with contrasting views. Some regarded it as a factor that would undermine…

  17. A Causal Mechanism of Policy Innovation: The Reform of Colombia’s Oil-Rents Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayron Paz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes policy innovation in Colombia, through the adoption of a new centralized oil-rent management system in 2011, after 20 years of decentralized policies. Using a policy-design framework, we identify a causal mechanism linking the opening of a policy window to policy change as a combination of the emergence of a new policy network, the adoption of a new policy paradigm and the selection of a new instruments mix. Drawing on Bayesian statistics, the 11 tests conducted on the causal mechanism show the importance of State resources of information, authority, treasury and organization to assess the outcome of policy change.

  18. Policy and Practice Model of Public-Private Partnership in Public Hospitals during the New Medical Reform Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ju-Yang; Long, Ru-Yin; Yan, Hai; Yang, Qing; Yang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Since the beginning of the new health care reform in 2009, the state has illustrated the top design and health care improvement strategy of "encouraging social capital to participate in the reform of public hospitals", in accordance with the program's general objective. All areas have been explored on this matter and the results obtained are very interesting, not to mention the acquisition of significant experience. At present, the existing business models in China are mainly the following: Rebuild-Operate-Transfer (ROT), franchise business model, Build-Own-Operate-Transfer (BOOT) model, mixed ownership model and business insurance model. This paper introduces a variety of alternative models, and provides a simple analysis of the advantages and disadvantages. Moreover, for the reform of public hospitals, the government shares should go into franchise mode or mixed ownership, and all property rights should be transferred to the government to ensure the conservation and proliferation of state-owned assets.

  19. Public Pension Reform and Teacher Turnover: Evidence from Washington State. CEDR Policy Brief. WP #2015-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, Dan; Grout, Cyrus; Holden, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Traditional defined benefit (DB) pension systems in many states face large funding shortfalls. Movement toward defined contribution (DC) pension structures may reduce the likelihood of future shortfalls, but there is concern that such reforms may have the undesirable effect of increasing employee turnover. In studying patterns of employee turnover…

  20. The Impact of Welfare Reform on Academic Outcomes: Does Parental Work Boost Grades? Institute for Policy Research Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Amber Stitziel, Lewis, Dan A.

    The 1996 welfare reform act forced many poor parents into the labor market, with little understanding of how the parents' workforce participation would affect family life in general and their children in particular. In this paper, researchers examine the relationship between parental workforce participation, welfare receipt, and children's…

  1. Science Education Reform in Confucian Learning Cultures: Teachers' Perspectives on Policy and Practice in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying-Syuan; Asghar, Anila

    2018-01-01

    This empirical study investigates secondary science teachers' perspectives on science education reform in Taiwan and reflects how these teachers have been negotiating constructivist and learner-centered pedagogical approaches in contemporary science education. It also explores the challenges that teachers encounter while shifting their pedagogical…

  2. The second pillar of the CAP: the role of Commission policy learning in the creation and reform of EU rural development policy (1968-1999)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Jonny Trapp

    argument advanced in this thesis is that policy learning is a multifaceted phenomenon that can most reliably be examined employing 'method pluralism' (documentary analysis, elite interviews, and survey techniques). A second theoretical assertion is that policy learning can change the beliefs - termed......This thesis examines the concept of 'policy learning' and explores its applicability to the European Commission's role in EU policymaking. Policy learning refers to 'knowledge-based' policy formulation, where content of policy proposals is shaped to a 'non-trivial' extent by administrative...... 'policy strategy' - of political actors. A third theoretical contribution is the concept of 'bureaucratic policy learning capability' (BPLC) which refers to an organisation's ability and inclination to utilise available policy-relevant knowledge. I assess the Commission's BPLC through a survey, designed...

  3. Evidence is good for your health system: policy reform to remedy catastrophic and impoverishing health spending in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaul, Felicia Marie; Arreola-Ornelas, Héctor; Méndez-Carniado, Oscar; Bryson-Cahn, Chloe; Barofsky, Jeremy; Maguire, Rachel; Miranda, Martha; Sesma, Sergio

    2006-11-18

    Absence of financial protection in health is a recently diagnosed "disease" of health systems. The most obvious symptom is that families face economic ruin and poverty as a consequence of financing their health care. Mexico was one of the first countries to diagnose the problem, attribute it to lack of financial protection, and propose systemic therapy through health reform. In this article we assess how Mexico turned evidence on catastrophic and impoverishing health spending into a catalyst for institutional renovation through the reform that created Seguro Popular (Popular Health Insurance). We present 15-year trends on the evolution of catastrophic and impoverishing health spending, including evidence on how the situation is improving. The results of the Mexican experience suggest an important role for the organisation and financing of the health system in reducing impoverishment and protecting households during periods of individual and collective financial crisis.

  4. [Evidence is good for your health system: policy reform to remedy catastrophic and impoverishing health spending in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaul, Felicia Marie; Arreola-Ornelas, Héctor; Méndez-Carniado, Oscar; Bryson-Cahn, Chloe; Barofsky, Jeremy; Maguire, Rachel; Miranda, Martha; Sesma, Sergio

    2007-01-01

    Absence of financial protection in health is a recently diagnosed "disease" of health systems. The most obvious symptom is that families face economic ruin and poverty as a consequence of financing their health care. Mexico was one of the first countries to diagnose the problem, attribute it to lack of financial protection, and propose systemic therapy through health reform. In this article we assess how Mexico turned evidence on catastrophic and impoverishing health spending into a catalyst for institutional renovation through the reform that created Seguro Popular de Salud (Popular Health Insurance). We present 15-year trends on the evolution of catastrophic and impoverishing health spending, including evidence on how the situation is improving. The results of the Mexican experience suggest an important role for the organisation and financing of the health system in reducing impoverishment and protecting households during periods of individual and collective financial crisis.

  5. Education Reform in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Dowson

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 1990s, the pace of educational reform in Hong Kong has accelerated and broadened to incorporate almost all areas of schooling. The reforms introduced during this period can be subsumed under what has generally been labelled the quality movement. In this paper, we review and comment on a number of policy reform initiatives in the four areas of "Quality Education," English Language Benchmarking, Initial Teacher Training and the Integration of Pupils with Special Needs into Ordinary Classrooms. Following a brief description of each policy initiative, the reforms are discussed in terms of their consistency, coherence and cultural fit.

  6. Health promotion interventions and policies addressing excessive alcohol use: a systematic review of national and global evidence as a guide to health-care reform in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Babor, Thomas F; Zeigler, Donald; Xuan, Ziming; Morisky, Donald; Hovell, Melbourne F; Nelson, Toben F; Shen, Weixing; Li, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Steady increases in alcohol consumption and related problems are likely to accompany China's rapid epidemiological transition and profit-based marketing activities. We reviewed research on health promotion interventions and policies to address excessive drinking and to guide health-care reform. We searched Chinese- and English-language databases and included 21 studies in China published between 1980 and 2013 that covered each policy area from the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Strategy to Reduce the Harmful Use of Alcohol. We evaluated and compared preventive interventions to the global alcohol literature for cross-national applicability. In contrast with hundreds of studies in the global literature, 11 of 12 studies from mainland China were published in Chinese; six of 10 in English were on taxation from Taiwan or Hong Kong. Most studies demonstrated effectiveness in reducing excessive drinking, and some reported the reduction of health problems. Seven were randomized controlled trials. Studies targeted schools, drink-driving, work-places, the health sector and taxation. China is the world's largest alcohol market, yet there has been little growth in alcohol policy research related to health promotion interventions over the past decade. Guided by a public health approach, the WHO Global Strategy and health reform experience in Russia, Australia, Mexico and the United States, China could improve its public health response through better coordination and implementation of surveillance and evidence-based research, and through programmatic and legal responses such as public health law research, screening and early intervention within health systems and the implementation of effective alcohol control strategies. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. Energy and behavioral impacts of integrative retrofits for residential buildings: What is at stake for building energy policy reforms in northern China?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Peng; Xu, Tengfang; Shen, Pengyuan

    2013-01-01

    Based upon the results from extensive building monitoring and surveys on occupant’s behaviors in a representative nine-story apartment building in northern China, building energy simulations were performed to evaluate the impacts of integrative retrofits implemented. Integrative retrofits required by the newer building energy standard produced significant heating-energy savings (i.e., 53%) when compared with baseline buildings commonly built in early 1980s. Taking into account district-heating-system upgrades as part of integrative retrofit measures, a representative apartment building was 66% more efficient than the baseline building. Contrary to expectation, little behavioral change was found in response to the provisions of monetary incentive, billing-method reform, or metering of heating energy use in individual apartment units. Yet this paper identified sizable energy savings potential if occupants’ behavioral changes were to actually happen. This indicates that provisions of financial incentives or individual metering were insufficient for triggering substantial behavioral changes leading toward more energy savings in the current buildings. It is recommended that innovative energy policies, technology upgrades, and education would be needed to promote behavioral changes toward additional energy savings. Finally, measures and strategies to further enhance thermal integrity criteria (e.g., insulations of roof and balcony) are recommended in China’s future building energy policy reforms. - Highlights: ► Integrative retrofits significantly reduce residential heating energy in north China. ► Energy effects of retrofits, incentive, billing and behavioral changes were studied. ► Monetary incentive, control or metering technologies did not lead to behavior change. ► Potential energy savings due to occupants’ behavioral changes are sizable. ► Thermal integrity needs to be enhanced in future building standards and policies.

  8. Las políticas de salud reproductiva en el Perú: reformas sociales y derechos ciudadanos Reproductive health policies in Peru: social reforms and citizenship rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Rousseau

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza el caso del proceso de elaboración de políticas de salud reproductiva en el Perú, en el contexto de las reformas de las políticas sociales implementadas durante los últimos 15 años. Las reformas en el sector de la salud sólo han reparado en forma parcial el acceso desigual de las mujeres a la planificación familiar, a los derechos reproductivos y a la atención materna. Las fuentes principales de desigualdad están relacionadas con la naturaleza segmentada del sistema de la atención de la salud que ocasiona, entre otros temas, que la mayoría de las mujeres sin seguro provenientes de las clases populares dependan de qué y cómo sean provistos los servicios públicos de la atención médica. Por otra parte, el continuo papel de sectores conservadores en los debates sobre políticas de salud reproductiva sigue teniendo un impacto sobre los servicios públicamente disponibles de planificación familiar.The article analyzes the case of reproductive health policy-making in Peru in the context of recent social policy reforms. Health-sector reforms have only partially redressed Peruvian women's unequal access to family planning, reproductive rights and maternal care. The main sources of inequalities are related to the segmented character of the health-care system, with the highest burden placed on the public sector. The majority of women from popular classes, who are not protected by an insurance plan, are dependent upon what and how public services are provided. Simultaneously, the continuing role of conservative sectors in public debates about reproductive health policy has a strong impact on public family planning services and other reproductive rights.

  9. Mandates for Collaboration: Health Care and Child Welfare Policy and Practice Reforms Create the Platform for Improved Health for Children in Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnik, Sarah; Wilson, Leigh; Scribano, Philip; Wood, Joanne N; Noonan, Kathleen

    2015-10-01

    Improving the health of children in foster care requires close collaboration between pediatrics and the child welfare system. Propelled by recent health care and child welfare policy reforms, there is a strong foundation for more accountable, collaborative models of care. Over the last 2 decades health care reforms have driven greater accountability in outcomes, access to care, and integrated services for children in foster care. Concurrently, changes in child welfare legislation have expanded the responsibility of child welfare agencies in ensuring child health. Bolstered by federal legislation, numerous jurisdictions are developing innovative cross-system workforce and payment strategies to improve health care delivery and health care outcomes for children in foster care, including: (1) hiring child welfare medical directors, (2) embedding nurses in child welfare agencies, (3) establishing specialized health care clinics, and (4) developing tailored child welfare managed care organizations. As pediatricians engage in cross-system efforts, they should keep in mind the following common elements to enhance their impact: embed staff with health expertise within child welfare settings, identify long-term sustainable funding mechanisms, and implement models for effective information sharing. Now is an opportune time for pediatricians to help strengthen health care provision for children involved with child welfare. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Elements for the development of public policies in the residential sector of Mexico based in the Energy Reform and the Energy Transition law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosas-Flores, Jorge Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Mexico has entered in an important dynamic of structural changes in the energy area, proof of this, it is the Energy Reform 2013 and the Energy Transition Law published the last December 24th, 2015, thus it is important to carry out studies of the impacts of future politics in the consumption of the population, so this study estimate an energy demand system using microdata collected from 97,817 households in a National Households Income and Expenditure Survey (ENIGH acronyms in Spanish, Encuesta Nacional de Ingresos y Gastos de los Hogares) in the 20-years period from 1994 to 2014. The magnitudes of all the fuels are smaller than one indicating that electricity, LPG, gasoline and public transport are normal goods, while LPG is the most inelastic energy source. The geographic factor shows that households in the north of Mexico tend to consume more gasoline, whereas in the south of the country, the lowest share of LPG expenditure is reported. The rigorous evaluation of energy demanded in households will help policy makers to put forward more efficient reforms. - Highlights: • The electricity, LPG, gasoline and public transport are normal goods. • LPG is the most inelastic energy source. • The north of Mexico tend to consume more gasoline. • Evidence of complement between personal vehicle and public transport.

  11. Unintended Consequences of Evidence-Based Treatment Policy Reform: Is Implementation the Goal or the Strategy for Higher Quality Care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Alayna L; Tsai, Katherine H; Guan, Karen; Chorpita, Bruce F

    2018-02-14

    This study examined patterns of evidence-based treatment (EBT) delivery following a county-wide EBT reform initiative. Data were gathered from 60 youth and their 21 providers, who were instructed to deliver therapy as they normally would under the EBT initiative. Results showed limited applicability of county-supported EBTs to this service sample, and that most youth did not receive traditional delivery of EBTs. Findings suggest that it may be unrealistic to expect providers to deliver EBTs with fidelity with all clients, and that EBT implementation may be best thought of as a strategy for improving mental health services rather than a goal.

  12. Moving towards an Educational Policy for Inclusion? Main Reform Stages in the Development of the Norwegian Unitary School System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Sven

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to study the development of educational policy in Norway in the field of the unitary school system and to analyse whether the development can be seen as a move towards increasing inclusion. The educational policy, when seen over a long time span, has progressively aimed towards the development of a common compulsory…

  13. Playing Hopscotch in Inclusive Education Reform: Examining Promises and Limitations of Policy and Practice in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitoller, Federico R.; Thorius, Kathleen King

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we provide commentary on the "state of play" of inclusive education in the United States. We focus on the promises and limitations of inter-related accountability- and market-driven policies and Response to Intervention (RTI) (Vaughn and Fuchs, 2003). We argue that these policies and practice have "hopscotched"…

  14. A Way of Policy Bricolage or Translation: The Case of Taiwan's Higher Education Reform of Quality Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chuo-Chun

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the process and mechanism of higher education policy change related to quality assurance in a globalized world. In particular, the purpose of the study was to identify the impact of globalization on domestic policy change in Taiwan, characterized as a peripheral country. Taiwan's experience in terms of developing a national…

  15. Intersections between Music Education and Music Therapy: Education Reform, Arts Education, Exceptionality, and Policy at the Local Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, Karen; Pasiali, Varvara

    2017-01-01

    In this article, a music teacher educator and a music therapy clinician and educator discuss special education policy and arts instruction at the district level. To illustrate the gulf between federal and local policies with regard to exceptional learners and arts instruction, we examine the intersections of music therapy and music education with…

  16. Governing China’s Clean Energy Transition: Policy Reforms, Flexible Implementation and the Need for Empirical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Lo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the ten years since committing to clean energy transition, China has formulated a large number of policies and programs to achieve some very ambitious targets. This paper argues that the dearth of empirical studies concerning the implementation of these new policies and programs has created a knowledge gap between official policy documents, which are vague and lacking in specifics, and official policy outcomes, which are unreliable. In particular, the merits and limitations of flexible implementation with regard to desirable outcomes need to be debated and clarified. This paper calls for more empirical investigation in four areas as a starting point: (1 the nature and extent of flexibility in the implementation; (2 implementation strategies and their impacts; (3 factors that shape the behavior of local officials responsible for implementation; and (4 the relationship between the central-local relation and policy implementation.

  17. Budget reform in Ukraine and the OECD countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puchko Anna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the fiscal reforms in Ukraine and the OECD countries. It has been proved that the main areas which should undergo changes are the tax reform, regulatory reform and restructuring policies to encourage entrepreneurship, reform of social protection and social security, reform of social sphere constituents, administrative reform, reform of the army and law enforcement, administrative and territorial reform. According to the analysis results, there has been drawn the conclusion about the need to introduce in Ukraine the successful experience of the OECD countries in implementing budget reforms.

  18. Ten years of renewable electricity policies in Spain: An analysis of successive feed-in tariff reforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio Gonzalez, Pablo del

    2008-01-01

    Spain has been one of the most successful countries in the public promotion of electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E), particularly wind electricity. This support has been based on a feed-in tariff (FIT) scheme. Although the basic structure of the system was implemented in 1998, it has been modified in 2004 and 2007. This paper provides an overview of the last 10 years of RES-E promotion in Spain, focusing on the FIT system and analysing the main differences and improvements of the three FIT systems. A political economy approach, which considers the interactions between key stakeholders in RES-E promotion, is used to interpret the actual outcomes of successive FIT reforms and their main design elements

  19. Tales of two islands – Lessons for EU energy policy from electricity market reforms in Britain and Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newbery, David

    2017-01-01

    Britain considers the energy-only EU Target Electricity Model (TEM) wanting in delivering the trilemma of reliability, sustainability and affordability and argues that a capacity auction with long-term contracts for new entrants is the least-cost solution compared to relying on expectations of future prices to deliver adequate generation and demand side response. The Energy Union argues against feed-in tariffs (FiTs) for renewables, pressing for premium FiTs (pFiTs), just as GB has abandoned PFiTs in favour of FiTs. This paper draws on the GB experience of Electricity Market Reform before and after the 2015 change of government, to highlight promising resolutions of the energy trilemma, and the problems that have arisen between the diagnosis of the problem and the delivery of solutions. It sets out the theory and practice of delivering capacity, energy and quality of supply, gives a brief history of GB electricity from the CEGB to its current unbundled, liberalized and privatized structure. That sheds light on the trilemma problem and discusses possible solutions. The island of Ireland Single Electricity Market reforms illustrate the problem and possible answer of how best to deliver quality of service with high intermittency. - Highlights: • The UK has introduced capacity payments and feed-in tariffs for renewables. • This contrasts with the energy-only target model and the Energy Union vision. • Transmission and distribution charges are critical in capacity auctions. • New flexibility services are needed for massive renewables penetration. • Britain and Ireland provide relevant evidence on addressing the energy trilemma.

  20. Towards re-reforming the EU cohesion policy: Key issues in the debate and some thoughts on peripheral regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foutakis Dimitris

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Two years after the inception of the fourth programming period, the debate on post-2013 cohesion policy has already been launched. In fact, public consultation was launched in 2007 and considerable steps have followed since then, while others are about to start. At the same time, the new strategic guidelines and rules that guide cohesion policy have only been in place for a short period and as yet their impacts are not clear. Critical events and major political issues that concern the whole EU structure are the main factors behind this evolution. In particular, the economic recession in addition to the prospects for the new EU Treaty could be considered decisive elements in the launch of the debate on future cohesion policy. More specifically, among the issues highlighted in this context are the distinction between efficiency and equity objectives, the need for a place-based strategy, high growth sectors and their contribution to cohesion, and the potential for creativity and innovation. Overall, it seems like old dilemmas of spatial development recur, while contemporary ones also gain ground. The outcome of this debate is of significant importance for all EU regions not only in budgetary terms, but also in terms of strategic policy goals. This paper examines the above future policy issues with an emphasis on regions faced with particular difficulties such as less favored regions as well as those in the EU periphery.

  1. Reforma del sector salud y la política farmacéutica en Perú Health sector reform and pharmaceutical policy in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Phang Romero

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza el Programa de Administración Compartida de Farmacias (PACFARM y su articulación con la Política Farmacéutica en Perú, en el contexto de la reforma del sector salud. La ejecución de los diversos Programas de Medicamentos Esenciales precedentes muestra el permanente esfuerzo por mejorar la cobertura con medicamentos esenciales a la población, no obstante, el marco jurídico en esta área presenta normas dispersas y desarticuladas, que dificultan la construcción de una Política Nacional de Medicamentos. El PACFARM es un sistema descentralizado de abastecimiento de medicamentos esenciales para el primer nivel de atención, auto-sustentado a través de fondos rotatorios. Mientras la ampliación de cobertura y la disminución de las barreras económicas de acceso a medicamentos esenciales fundamentaban lineamientos de una política farmacéutica, en tanto trazos de eficiencia gerencial en el suministro acompasaban la modernización de la gestión como parte de la reforma, otros aspectos dificultaron su implantación y limitaron sus efectos, tales como: la desregulación y los propios procesos de cambio en el sector. El abordaje metodológico incluyó técnicas cuali y cuantitativas, privilegiando el análisis de implantación del Programa.This article analyzes the Shared Pharmaceutical Management Program (PACFARM and its relationship to pharmaceutical policy in Peru within the scope of health sector reform. Implementation of various programs for essential medicines has involved an on-going effort towards improving the supply of essential drugs to the community. However, the corresponding legal framework includes random and disconnected regulations which hinder the feasibility of a consistent national drug policy. PACFARM is a decentralized system for the provision of essential medicines on a care-level basis, self-supported by revolving funds. While expanded coverage and decreased economic barriers to access to

  2. Responding to obesity in Brazil: understanding the international and domestic politics of policy reform through a nested analytic approach to comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Eduardo J

    2015-02-01

    Why do governments pursue obesity legislation? And is the case of Brazil unique compared with other nations when considering the politics of policy reform? Using a nested analytic approach to comparative research, I found that theoretical frameworks accounting for why nations implement obesity legislation were not supported with cross-national statistical evidence. I then turned to the case of Brazil's response to obesity at three levels of government, national, urban, and rural, to propose alternative hypotheses for why nations pursue obesity policy. The case of Brazil suggests that the reasons that governments respond are different at these three levels. International forces, historical institutions, and social health movements were factors that prompted national government responses. At the urban and rural government levels, receiving federal financial assistance and human resource support appeared to be more important. The case of Brazil suggests that the international and domestic politics of responding to obesity are highly complex and that national and subnational political actors have different perceptions and interests when pursuing obesity legislation. Copyright © 2015 by Duke University Press.

  3. Changes in the pastoral sheep systems of semi-arid Mediterranean areas: association with common agricultural policy reform and implications for sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula M. Toro-Mujica

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of sheep systems the Mediterranean region have been influenced by reforms coming from the Common Agricultural Policy, and the general economic evolution of markets. The aim of this study was the analysis of the structural changes that occurred between 1999 and 2009, and the identification of future implications for the sheep systems in Andalusia region, Spain. Analysis of the structural changes allowed the generation of strategic information, identified trends that should suggest new rural policies and changes that are likely to have social and environmental impacts, and lastly, prioritize future research. The application of multivariate methodology allowed clustering the farm population into four groups. The typology of these systems was determined by variables related to the sheep subsystem, by the set of agricultural activities, and by changes in swine husbandry, within a context of changes in land tenure and the drive for agricultural intensification. Major modifications of extant systems included a 42% reduction in the number of farms, a decrease in sheep numbers, replacement of native rangelands with improved pastures, olive trees and orchards, a reduction of traditional extensive pastoral activities, and increases in hog production in Dehesa grasslands. Given the historical economic and social importance of the sheep-cereal system, the observed substantial modifications of land use suggest a need to assess their consequences in terms of social and environmental impacts, as well as their implications for climate change.

  4. Changes in the pastoral sheep systems of semi-arid Mediterranean areas: association with common agricultural policy reform and implications for sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toro-Mujica, P.M.; Aguilar, C.; Vera, R.; Barba, C.; Rivas, J.; García-Martínez, A.

    2015-07-01

    The dynamics of sheep systems the Mediterranean region have been influenced by reforms coming from the Common Agricultural Policy, and the general economic evolution of markets. The aim of this study was the analysis of the structural changes that occurred between 1999 and 2009, and the identification of future implications for the sheep systems in Andalusia region, Spain. Analysis of the structural changes allowed the generation of strategic information, identified trends that should suggest new rural policies and changes that are likely to have social and environmental impacts, and lastly, prioritize future research. The application of multivariate methodology allowed clustering the farm population into four groups. The typology of these systems was determined by variables related to the sheep subsystem, by the set of agricultural activities, and by changes in swine husbandry, within a context of changes in land tenure and the drive for agricultural intensification. Major modifications of extant systems included a 42% reduction in the number of farms, a decrease in sheep numbers, replacement of native rangelands with improved pastures, olive trees and orchards, a reduction of traditional extensive pastoral activities, and increases in hog production in Dehesa grasslands. Given the historical economic and social importance of the sheep-cereal system, the observed substantial modifications of land use suggest a need to assess their consequences in terms. (Author)

  5. Prisons and Sentencing Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, Jim

    1983-01-01

    Reviews current themes in sentencing and prison policy. The eight articles of this special issue discuss selective incapacitation, prison bed allocation models, computer-scored classification systems, race and gender relations, commutation, parole, and a historical review of sentencing reform. (JAC)

  6. Competition and PUHCA reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.L.

    1991-01-01

    This article examines the national energy policy legislation being developed with respect to Public Utilities Holding Company Act issues. The topics of the article include the proposals to encourage competition among electric power producers, those involved in the process, qualifying facilities, independent power producers, competition and efficiency, and the outlook for reform

  7. Laboratories of Reform? Human Resource Management Strategies in Illinois Charter Schools. Policy Research: IERC 2016-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Bradford R.

    2016-01-01

    Charter schools are publicly-funded educational entities that operate independently from local school districts and are exempt from certain state and local requirements, particularly with regard to teacher personnel policy. In exchange for this flexibility, charter schools are held more accountable for results and may be shut down if they fail to…

  8. Austin, Texas: An Educator/Business Collaboration in Support of Teacher Compensation Reform. Teacher Compensation and Teacher Quality: Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Committee for Economic Development, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In its 2009 report "Teacher Compensation and Teacher Quality," the Committee for Economic Development urged business leaders to be active participants in school district deliberations about teacher compensation policies. The Committee for Economic Development (CED) noted that "business leaders can make the case to the public that…

  9. Structural adjustment programmes on the African continent : the theoretical foundations of IMF/World Bank reform policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meilink, H.A.

    2003-01-01

    Since the early 1980s the majority of countries in sub-Saharan Africa embarked on the implementation of IMF/World Bank designed 'structural adjustment programmes' (SAPs). This paper examines the theoretical underpinnings of the SAPs. It shows that IMF policies are based on a theoretical framework

  10. Chances and limitations of "benchmarking" in the reform of welfare state structures - the case of pension policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schludi, M.

    2003-01-01

    The concept of benchmarking, originally developed as a tool to improve the performance of business enterprises by learning from others’ "best practice", is now increasingly applied in the areas of employment and social policy. Rising internal and external pressures on national welfare states,

  11. Middlemen and Midwives of Reform: The In-Between Worlds of Albanian Educational Policy-Makers and Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardinier, Meg P.

    2015-01-01

    Based on a vertical case study in post-communist Albania, this article examines how three local experts become "in-betweens" who strategically mediate processes of social change. For example, they negotiate constructions of time and place, East and West, policy and practice, state and society. As they localise global educational models,…

  12. Justice policy reform for high-risk juveniles: using science to achieve large-scale crime reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeem, Jennifer L; Scott, Elizabeth; Mulvey, Edward P

    2014-01-01

    After a distinctly punitive era, a period of remarkable reform in juvenile crime regulation has begun. Practical urgency has fueled interest in both crime reduction and research on the prediction and malleability of criminal behavior. In this rapidly changing context, high-risk juveniles--the small proportion of the population where crime becomes concentrated--present a conundrum. Research indicates that these are precisely the individuals to treat intensively to maximize crime reduction, but there are both real and imagined barriers to doing so. Mitigation principles (during early adolescence, ages 10-13) and institutional placement or criminal court processing (during mid-late adolescence, ages 14-18) can prevent these juveniles from receiving interventions that would best protect public safety. In this review, we synthesize relevant research to help resolve this challenge in a manner that is consistent with the law's core principles. In our view, early adolescence offers unique opportunities for risk reduction that could (with modifications) be realized in the juvenile justice system in cooperation with other social institutions.

  13. Political Parties, Clientelism, and Bureaucratic Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Cesi; Keefer, Philip

    2015-01-01

    The challenge of public administration reform is well-known: politicians often have little interest in the efficient implementation of government policy. Using new data from 439 World Bank public sector reform loans in 109 countries, we demonstrate that such reforms are significantly less likely to succeed in the presence of non-programmatic political parties. Earlier research uses evidence from a small group of countries to conclude that clientelistic politicians resist reforms that restrict...

  14. Police bribery and access to methadone maintenance therapy within the context of drug policy reform in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werb, D; Wagner, K D; Beletsky, L; Gonzalez-Zuniga, Patricia; Rangel, Gudelia; Strathdee, S A

    2015-03-01

    In 2009, Mexico passed legislation to decriminalize drug possession and improve access to addiction treatment. We undertook research to assess the implementation of the reform among a cohort of people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana. This study specifically sought to determine whether discretionary policing practices like extortion impact access to methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) in Tijuana, a city characterized by high levels of drug-related harms. Generalized estimating equation analyses were used to construct longitudinal confounding models to determine the association between paying a police bribe and MMT enrolment among PWID in Tijuana enrolled in a prospective cohort study. Outcome of interest was MMT enrolment in the past six months. Data on police interactions and MMT enrolment were also obtained. Between October, 2011 and September, 2013, 637 participants provided 1825 observations, with 143 (7.8%) reports of MMT enrolment during the study period. In a final confounding model, recently reporting being forced to pay a bribe to police was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of accessing MMT (adjusted odds ratio=1.69, 95% confidence interval: 1.02-2.81, p=0.043). However, in 56 (39.2%) cases, MMT enrolment ceased within six months. The majority of participant responses cited the fact that MMT was too expensive (69.1%). Levels of MMT access were low. PWID who experienced police extortion were more likely to access MMT at baseline, though this association decreased during the study period. Coupled with the costs of MMT, this may compromise MMT retention among PWID. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Energy market reform in Europe. European energy and climate policies: achievements and challenges to 2020 and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio and the negotiation of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the European Union has consistently been at the forefront of global action to combat climate change, leading the world to a low-carbon economy. The EU has set itself greenhouse gas emission targets designed to produce an almost carbon-free economy by 2050 in order to make a major contribution to limiting the global temperature increase by the end of the century to 2 deg. C, compared to the pre-industrial average. As an interim step on the way to 2050, EU leaders in March 2007 set a number of ambitious climate and energy targets known as the '20-20-20 targets by 2020' or the 3 x 20 policy. In this, the EU committed to: - A 20% reduction in EU greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 levels; - Raising the share of EU energy consumption produced from renewable resources to 20%; and - A 20% improvement in the EU's energy efficiency. This 3 x 20 package is a part of a wider European energy strategy that aims at enhancing: - Sustainability; - Competitiveness and affordability; and - Security of supply. The EU energy and climate package has attracted criticism in the last few years, as each day brought more evidence that the policy measures had numerous unexpected, or unintended impacts on the energy markets and industry: an excess of intermittent sources of electricity causing disruption for grid operators, surplus electricity resulting in a price collapse of the wholesale electricity market, electricity price increase at retail level, exit of gas from the fuels for power generation and the advent of coal as an electricity price-setter... At the same time, it has also become evident that EU policy has failed to solve the existing EU energy imbalances in general. Ironically, after years of huge investments aimed at achieving the ambitious policy targets, a number of the objectives still seem to be a long way away. Indeed some may not even

  16. HIV and AIDS among adolescents who use drugs: opportunities for drug policy reform within the sustainable development agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinasti, Khalid

    2018-02-01

    The international community's commitment to halve by 2015 the HIV transmission among people who inject drugs has not only been largely missed, instead new HIV infections have increased by 30%. Moreover, drug injection remains one of the drivers of new HIV infections due to punitive responses and lack of harm reduction resourcing. In the midst of this situation, adolescents are a forgotten component of the global response to illegal drugs and their link with HIV infection. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) present an opportunity to achieve the global objective of ending AIDS among adolescents who use drugs, by addressing the structural vulnerabilities they face be they economic, social, criminal, health-related or environmental. The implementation of the SDGs presents an opportunity to address the horizontal nature of drug policy and to efficiently address the drugs-adolescents-HIV risk nexus. Adolescent-focused drug policies are linked to goals 1, 3, 4, 10, 16 and 17. Goals 3 and 16 are the most relevant; the targets of the latter link to the criminalization of drug use and punitive policy environments and their impact on adolescents' health and HIV transmission risks. Moreover, it presents an opportunity to include adolescent needs that are missing in the three drug control conventions (1961, 1971 and 1988), and link them with the provisions of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989). Finally, the six principles to deliver on sustainable development are also an opportunity to divert adolescents who use drugs away from criminalization and punitive environments in which their vulnerability to HIV is greater. Addressing HIV among adolescents who use drugs is an extremely complex policy issue depending on different sets of binding and non-binding commitments, interventions and stakeholders. The complexity requires a horizontal response provided by the SDGs framework, starting with the collection of disaggregated data on this specific subgroup. Ending

  17. Interest Groups and Trade Reform in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Sanchez-Mier

    2005-01-01

    Mexico experienced widespread economic reform in the last two decades. From being a protectionist economy with a policy of import substitution, it has turned into an export-oriented open economy. Why was protectionism a stable policy, and how was it overturned by a reform that went against entrenched interests? I apply a game theoretic model of political influence and economic reform to answer these questions using data to calculate the payoffs for the relevant interest groups. In the underly...

  18. Examining the spatial distribution of law enforcement encounters among people who inject drugs after implementation of Mexico's drug policy reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Tommi L; Beletsky, Leo; Arredondo, Jaime; Werb, Daniel; Rangel, Gudelia; Vera, Alicia; Brouwer, Kimberly

    2015-04-01

    In 2009, Mexico decriminalized the possession of small amounts of illicit drugs for personal use in order to refocus law enforcement resources on drug dealers and traffickers. This study examines the spatial distribution of law enforcement encounters reported by people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana, Mexico to identify concentrated areas of policing activity after implementation of the new drug policy. Mapping the physical location of law enforcement encounters provided by PWID (n = 461) recruited through targeted sampling, we identified hotspots of extra-judicial encounters (e.g., physical/sexual abuse, syringe confiscation, and money extortion by law enforcement) and routine authorized encounters (e.g., being arrested or stopped but not arrested) using point density maps and the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic calculated at the neighborhood-level. Approximately half of the participants encountered law enforcement more than once in a calendar year and nearly one third of these encounters did not result in arrest but involved harassment or abuse by law enforcement. Statistically significant hotspots of law enforcement encounters were identified in a limited number of neighborhoods located in areas with known drug markets. At the local-level, law enforcement activities continue to target drug users despite a national drug policy that emphasizes drug treatment diversion rather than punitive enforcement. There is a need for law enforcement training and improved monitoring of policing tactics to better align policing with public health goals.

  19. The Reform of Qatar University. Monograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moini, Joy S.; Bikson, Tora K.; Neu, C. Richard; DeSisto, Laura

    2009-01-01

    In 2003, the State of Qatar engaged the RAND-Qatar Policy Institute to assist Qatar University, the nation's first and only public higher education institution, with reform of its major administrative and academic structures, policies, and practices. This monograph summarizes that reform effort, which formally lasted from October 2003 through…

  20. Developing a Child and Youth Mental Health and Addictions Framework for Yukon as a Foundation for Policy Reform: Engaging Stakeholders Through a Policy and Research Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Mulvale

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In April 2015 the Yukon Government released a new child and youth mental health and addictions framework (CYMHAF to improve territory-wide access to basic mental health care and coordination of services for children and families. Yukon’s limited resource base and dispersed population challenges delivery of child and youth mental health and addictions services to small rural communities where needs are often high as a legacy of residential school policies. The objective of CYMHAF is to improve outcomes by identifying and capitalizing on current strengths, and reallocating existing resources to better meet the mental health needs of Yukon youth and families. Access, coordination and quality problems associated with existing services, growing public awareness of mental health issues, and a new national policy framework designed to assist provinces and territories, led Yukon policy makers to partner with researchers to capitalize on a Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR strategic grant initiative. CYMHAF was based on extensive stakeholder engagement, best evidence and advice from key informants in other jurisdictions, and offers a cascading model of service delivery through which basic mental health care can be provided by existing health and human service workers in communities. These workers will be trained in child and youth mental health competencies, and will have electronic linkages and support to integrated teams of primary care providers who will be located in regional hubs once fully implemented, and to specialists in Whitehorse and out of Territory. Implementation is underway with some training of front line Health and Social Service and First Nations workers, a new mental wellness strategy for Yukon founded on CYMHAF scheduled for release in spring 2016, and may be accelerated by federal government promises of a new Health Accord and a new relationship with indigenous people.

  1. Interactions: trade policy and healthcare reform after Chaoulli v. Quebec: is it time for Canada to acknowledge the fragile boundary between health and trade policies and strengthen the separation between private and public health insurance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The insulation of Canada's healthcare system from trade treaty obligations is crucial to the legitimacy of Canada's trade policy. Legal analysis has suggested, however, that competitive and for-profit delivery of the kind contemplated by the Kirby Report and some provinces may make healthcare more vulnerable to challenges under NAFTA and GATS. The Government of Canada has tried to counter this interpretation by stressing the importance of public financing as the principal criterion for exemption of healthcare from trade treaties, but now the potential for private financing of essential medical services indicated by the Supreme Court's decision in Chaoulli v. Quebec has made that line of argument look risky as well. It is apparent that Canada failed to anticipate the possible interactions of domestic, international and constitutional law when it made commitments in the area of private health insurance at the WTO in 1997. Accordingly, the time has come to acknowledge the fragility of the boundary between health and trade policies, to take the risks and costs associated with trade treaty obligations fully into account when undertaking healthcare reform and to strengthen the separation between private and public health insurance.

  2. Minority Language Issues in Chinese Higher Education: Policy Reforms and Practice among the Korean and Mongol Ethnic Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weiyan XIONG; W.James JACOB; Huiyuan YE

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare Korean and Mongol minorities in the People's Republic of China in terms of their native language preservation and educational experiences at the higher education level,and to investigate differences and similarities between Korean and Mongol minorities' language issues.Content area experts on Chinese minority education from China,South Korea,and the United States were interviewed for this study.Findings include suggestions for helping to formulate government educational policies regarding issues related to language in Chinese minority education at the higher education level.This information is helpful to better understand and educate others in school and home settings where Chinese ethnic minority students reside.The advancement of Chinese minority education knowledge related to higher education will significantly strengthen and empower individuals,families,and communities throughout the People's Republic of China.

  3. Republican reforming policy and democratic modernization | El reformismo republicano y la modernización democrática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glicerio Sánchez Recio

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the survival of Republican values in our present-day democratic system, values which have been analysed from a dual perspective: on the one hand, the current interest in the principles and values fostered by centre-left governments and organizations during the Second Republic, and on the other, the presence of these principles and values in our present-day democratic system. Consensus, social reform, political pluralism, devolution, and educational and cultural advancement, besides being democratic values and principles, are currently pointing towards a specific way of understanding politics and public affairs, understood as proximity and service to, and respect for all citizens. Moreover, there are similarities between the two regimes; in both cases, the immediate political background was marked by a dictatorship, both expressly declared an intention to establish themselves as democracies and subsequently underwent a transitional process marked by consensus, and both had similar aims. However, there are also significant differences between the two, not only in terms of the system of government, but also the attribution of State powers, the declaration of rights and the way these were put into practice, and the limits of consensus. While we cannot talk of continuity between the two regimes, the Second Republic may be seen as a short-lived precedent to the current democratic system, and one which succumbed to the strength of anti-democratic organizations and interests. | Este trabajo trata de la pervivencia de los valores republicanos en el régimen democrático actual, que se han analizado desde una doble perspectiva: el interés que despiertan los principios y valores activados por los gobiernos y organizaciones del centro izquierda durante la II República, y la presencia de esos mismos principios y valores en el ordenamiento democrático actual. Consenso, reformismo social, pluralismo político, descentralización del

  4. Next Needed Steps in the Evolution of American Education Finance and Policy: Attenuating a Judicially Imposed Policy Distraction, Activating a Balanced Portfolio of K-12 School Reforms, Advancing Rationality as a Goal in Pursuing Productivity, Advocating Change in a Responsible and Effective Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, James W.

    2008-01-01

    This article asserts that although there has been a consistently increasing demand on both the national and state levels for alignment of resources (inputs) to improved student outcomes (outputs), the lack of a systematic and well-defined policy portfolio has limited reform effectiveness. This article specifically examines the overreliance on…

  5. How teen girls think about fertility and the reproductive lifespan. Possible implications for curriculum reform and public health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleton, Fiona Kisby

    2014-09-01

    Despite an 'epidemic' of delayed childbirth in England and Wales beyond a woman's optimally fertile years, research shows that young adults are unaware of or misunderstand the risks regarding starting or extending families that such behaviour entails. Currently, sex education syllabi in British schools neglect these issues, rendering school leavers ignorant of them.These curricula cannot be improved until more is known about adolescents' knowledge of relevant topics. In the light of this, this article describes exploratory research on how teenage girls in one English school think about the reproductive lifespan. Going beyond recent 'scientific' investigations which have mostly only tested the extent of ignorance of young adults, this qualitative enquiry used theories of the life course and emerging adulthood to analyse data gathered in interviews. It sought to understand not only what girls know, but how they apply their knowledge in relation to their assumptions about aging, motherhood, pregnancy, parenting and employment. One finding is highlighted here: that whilst "correct" knowledge about the reproductive lifespan does appear to be held by teenage girls, the ability to apply that knowledge and connect the socio-cultural with the biological domain, may not always be in place. This is relevant for curriculum developers aiming to prepare future citizens to take full control of their reproductive health, and policy makers responsible for ensuring an appropriate public health message about these concerns is available after formal schooling ends.

  6. Towards Universal Health Coverage via Social Health Insurance in China: Systemic Fragmentation, Reform Imperatives, and Policy Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Alex Jingwei; Wu, Shaolong

    2017-12-01

    China's remarkable progress in building a comprehensive social health insurance (SHI) system was swift and impressive. Yet the country's decentralized and incremental approach towards universal coverage has created a fragmented SHI system under which a series of structural deficiencies have emerged with negative impacts. First, contingent on local conditions and financing capacity, benefit packages vary considerably across schemes, leading to systematic inequity. Second, the existence of multiple schemes, complicated by massive migration, has resulted in weak portability of SHI, creating further barriers to access. Third, many individuals are enrolled on multiple schemes, which causes inefficient use of government subsidies. Moral hazard and adverse selection are not effectively managed. The Chinese government announced its blueprint for integrating the urban and rural resident schemes in early 2016, paving the way for the ultimate consolidation of all SHI schemes and equal benefits for all. This article proposes three policy alternatives to inform the consolidation: (1) a single-pool system at the prefectural level with significant government subsidies, (2) a dual-pool system at the prefectural level with risk-equalization mechanisms, and (3) a household approach without merging existing pools. Vertical integration to the provincial level is unlikely to happen in the near future. Two caveats are raised to inform this transition towards universal health coverage.

  7. "Compensatory Legitimation" in Greek Educational Policy: An Explanation for the Abortive Educational Reforms in Greece in Comparison with Those in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persianis, Panayiotis

    1998-01-01

    Examines the political dynamics of planning and implementing educational reforms in Greece, with comparisons to France. Argues that, as in France, the state's concern for "compensatory legitimation" provides a better tool than those advanced by sociologists or historians for explaining Greece's many failed educational reforms. Compares…

  8. Administrative Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Through the example of a Danish reform of educational plans in early childhood education, the paper critically addresses administrative educational reforms promoting accountability, visibility and documentation. Drawing on Foucaultian perspectives, the relation between knowledge and governing...... of administrative technology, tracing how the humanistic values of education embed and are embedded within ‘the professional nursery teacher' as an object and subject of administrative practice. Rather than undermining the humanistic potential of education, it is argued that the technology of accounting...

  9. Challenges and reforms in Long-Term Care policy in Spain - See more at: http://www.gigapp.org/index.php/component/jresearch/?view=publication&task=show&id=1808#sthash.QjsbaT7Q.dpuf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno-Fuentes, Francisco Javier

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The NorSpaR project aims to analyse the main public policy initiatives by which Norway and Spain cope with the new social and economic challenges derived from the so-called New Social Risks (NSR. Although both countries present significant differences in their institutional settings (such as Spanish EU membership, or its belonging to diverse welfare regimes types (Norway is generally included in the Nordic regime, while Spain is part of the Mediterranean one, both countries share a common interest in addressing the aforementioned challenges while maintaining social cohesion. In the last decade, governments in both countries have tried to respond to those challenges by reforming their labour markets, adapting their unemployment schemes, as well as their gender, family and long-term care policies. The analysis covered in this project includes three areas of public policy addressing NSR. First, dependency is one of the most daunting challenges for post-industrial societies experiencing population ageing and with an increasing number of frail people in need of care. This situation is forcing governments to rethink their long-term care policies. Second, family and gender public programs need to respond to the growing difficulties of families in reconciling professional and family life. Third, in the transition to a post-industrial order, and in a context of mass unemployment, social protection systems have a renewed prominence. Along with the so-called passive policies offering financial support to the unemployed, active labour market policies are geared to put people back into work. In our analysis we try to find answers to the following questions: What are the challenges that each of these policies have been trying to address in recent years? How have these policies evolved? What kinds of reforms have been implemented, and which ones have been neglected? Have the policy goals and targets of welfare programs been modified in any significant way

  10. The reform of energy subsidies for the enhancement of marine sustainability: An empirical analysis of energy subsidies worldwide and an in-depth case study of South Korea's energy subsidy policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jae Hyun

    reforms, first of all, humans need a new energy paradigm to replace the hitherto dominant commodification paradigm. On an international level, creation of an international renewable energy agency and creation of renewable funds will spur on energy subsidy reforms of all nations, especially developing countries. On a national level, government's role should change from growth-oriented economic policy to sustainable development that includes environmentally friendly energy systems. In terms of social welfare, energy subsidies should be transformed to direct income policy, which is more effective for the welfare of the poor. The South Korean government should exchange its current supply-oriented fishery policy, which relies heavily on energy subsidies, to a Marine Reserves policy and direct income policy. For successful energy subsidy reforms, the government, NGOs, and private market should cooperate. Specifically, NGOs' role in monitoring and pushing government's energy subsidy reform is invaluable, considering the limits of modern bureaucracy and the profit-oriented market character. Most environmental problems, including global warming, have a close relation with fossil fuel and nuclear energy use. Historically, these energy systems have become entrenched deeply in society through energy subsidy policy. Energy subsidy reforms are a key to the environmental problem and accelerated transition to renewable energy.

  11. Latin American USOMs Seminar on Agrarian Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Cooperation Administration (Dept. of State), Washington, DC.

    This report of seminar proceedings discusses land reform policies and programs and their place in the economic development of Latin America. It analyzes experiences and current situations in Latin America, the United States, and elsewhere which shed light on the problems and possibilities of agrarian reform. An appraisal of existing physical,…

  12. Land Reform and Conflict Resolution in Colombia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nieswiadomy, Mark

    2003-01-01

    ... to change the overall high concentration of landownership, This thesis examines to what effect, if any, a redistributive land reform policy implemented amid the ongoing rural conflict would have on its resolution...

  13. WORLD BANK: Status of Grievance Process Reform

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    In June 1998, in response, to concerns about the fairness of its employee grievance process and as part of a broader effort to reform its human resource policies, the World Bank appointed an internal...

  14. Reform and Backlash to Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.; Hagen Jørgensen, Ole

    Using a stochastic general equilibrium model with overlapping generations, this paper studies (i) the effects on both extensive and intensive labor supply responses to changes in fertility rates, and (ii) the potential of a retirement reform to mitigate the effects of fertility changes on labor s...

  15. IMF and Economic Reform in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    relevant to actors and entities with a broader, and more microeconomic, focus such as national policymakers and the World Bank. It is in choices among competing projects and programs that trial and error is most likely to be necessary. Nevertheless, reforms of the IMF such as the “streamlining initiative......” should start from a good understanding of the reasons for adherence to policy orthodoxy. We discuss underlying institutional and organizational reasons for policy rigidity and consider some suggested reforms....

  16. Some Trends and Reforms in the Educational Policy of Norway in the Light of the Concept of Life-Long Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udjus, Ingelise

    An emphasis on planned and completed educational reforms in Norway which reflect the attitude that education is a lifelong process is presented in this document. A study is made of some of the trends in the development of the formal school system which have been influenced by the concept of life-long education. This study includes primary,…

  17. Environmental fiscal reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Chaturvedi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents concepts and instruments of environmental fiscal reforms (EFR and their application in the Indian context. EFR can lead to environmental improvement more efficiently and cost effectively than traditional regulation. There is substantial experience of successful EFR implementation in the European Union. India has also adopted some EFR measures such as deregulation of petrol prices, coal cess, and subsidy for setting up common effluent treatment plants. The challenges of implementing EFR measures in India are also discussed, including inadequate analysis, policy framework and institutional capacity, as well as conflict with poverty reduction and building political support.

  18. A comparison of higher education reforms in Egypt and Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Kohstall, Florian

    2012-01-01

    This doctoral thesis examines the impact of international aid agencies on the reform agenda of North African countries. It analyses and compares the paths of higher education reform (1997-2007) in Egypt and Morocco, using analytical instruments pertaining to new approaches in public policy theory. For a long time, both countries appeared relatively immune against reform pressure from outside. Still, the analysis of their reform processes shows that the internationalization of higher educa...

  19. Welfare implication of reforming energy consumption subsidies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breton, Michèle; Mirzapour, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Reforming energy consumption subsidies, in particular for fossil fuels, has been frequently referred to as a quick-win policy to enhance environmental mitigation. In addition, the removal of such subsidies may release a sizeable portion of a country's national budget for use on more productive targets. One of the most recognized challenges of such reform is “selling” the new energy prices to citizens, particularly those with a more fragile purchasing power. Several empirical and technical studies have prescribed that the reform might be supported by a direct compensation mechanism in order to ensure feasibility. This is what was done during the recent energy subsidy reform in Iran. However, the compensation mechanism implemented in Iran's reform was successful at the beginning, but did not proceed as expected. This has raised questions about the feasibility and sustainability of the direct compensation mechanism, and even of the reform policy itself. In this paper, we consider a stylized model where direct compensation is the instrument proposed to restore consumers’ utility against increased energy prices. We find that, when prices of Other Goods are affected by the announced reform policy, the feasibility of a subsidy reform critically depends on the value of certain parameters: the initial subsidization rate, the share of energy in the consumers’ bundle, and the energy portion of price of Other Goods. - Highlights: • A model of energy subsidy reform with direct compensation is proposed. • Feasibility of the reform is related to three key parameters. • An illustrative example using data from the recent Iranian reform is discussed.

  20. Curriculum Reform and the Displacement of Knowledge in Peruvian Rural Secondary Schools: Exploring the Unintended Local Consequences of Global Education Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balarin, Maria; Benavides, Martin

    2010-01-01

    This paper draws attention to processes of policy implementation in developing contexts, and to the unintended consequences of education policies that follow international policy scripts without enough consideration of local histories and cultures. Drawing on a study of teaching practices in Peruvian rural secondary schools after a period of…

  1. Possible causes of poverty within a group of land reform beneficiaries in the midlands of KwaZulu-Natal: Analysis and policy recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Shinns, L.H.; Lyne, Michael C.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates possible causes of poverty afflicting a community of land reform beneficiaries in the Midlands of KwaZulu-Natal. The 38 beneficiary households had previously been clustered into four groups displaying different symptoms of poverty. Linear Discriminant Analysis was used first to distinguish households that were relatively income and asset "rich" from those that were relatively income and asset "poor", and second to distinguish households that were relatively income poor...

  2. Mexico´s Energy Reform : an analysis of the market, new policy and integration of renewable energy for economic and sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    Favela, Alfredo Rojas

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of the approved Energy Reform in 2013, Mexico puts an end to seven decades of centralized control of the energy and electricity markets within the government through the State governed companies CFE (Federal Electricity Commission) and PEMEX (Mexican Oil). During the largest part of last century and the beginning of the current, the Mexican government relied heavily on the revenues generated by PEMEX through the sale of oil to foreign countries and tax revenues...

  3. TRANSFERABILITY OF ADMINISTRATIVE REFORMS: NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT AS AN EXAMPLE

    OpenAIRE

    Kapucu, Naim; Kösecik, Muhammet

    2002-01-01

    This article begins with the examination of models of analyzing the process of policy transfer, lesson drawing and policy streams with regard to initiating and directing factors and dynamics of the process. The paper continues with the assessment of administrative reform transferring by evaluating the necessity, major themes and transferability of administrative reform. Strategies for successful administrative reform transferring are emphasized. Special reference is given to New Public Manage...

  4. Neoliberalism, Social Darwinism, and Consumerism Masquerading as School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienken, Christopher H.

    2013-01-01

    Education reform policies harvested from neoliberalism, social Darwinism, consumerism, and free-market ideologies have begun to replace the pragmatic progressivism of the pre-World War II era. In this article, I use three federal and state education reform policies and programs--No Child Left Behind Act, Common Core State Standards Initiative, and…

  5. Arbitration Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Stepurina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 347.73:341.63Subject. This informational article highlights recent changes to the Russian legislation on arbitration.Purpose. To highlight the most important aspects of arbitration law reform, and examines the effects they will have on the development of arbitration in RussiaMethodology. The author uses a formal-legal method.Results, scope of application. The author distinguishes the difference between constantly acting arbitration courts and arbitration courts ad hoc. The special status of a number of arbitration institutions (the ICAC and MAC at the Russian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, is contrary to the constitutional principle of equality under the law. A major achievement of the new legislation on arbitration courts is expanding the range arbitrarily disputes.Conclusions. The new legislation more clearly prescribed the interaction of arbitration and state courts, including requiring the latter to promote the arbitrators, acting under the regulations of the permanent arbitration institutions in obtaining evidence.In addition, the reform of the arbitration law have left aside the problem of improving the quality of judicial control over arbitration decisions.The arbitration law will still be able to improve the arbitration, to enhance its credibility and attractiveness for the participants of civil turnover.

  6. Evaluating the impact of Mexico's drug policy reforms on people who inject drugs in Tijuana, B.C., Mexico, and San Diego, CA, United States: a binational mixed methods research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Angela M; Garfein, Richard S; Wagner, Karla D; Mehta, Sanjay R; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Cuevas-Mota, Jazmine; Moreno-Zuniga, Patricia Gonzalez; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2014-02-12

    Policymakers and researchers seek answers to how liberalized drug policies affect people who inject drugs (PWID). In response to concerns about the failing "war on drugs," Mexico recently implemented drug policy reforms that partially decriminalized possession of small amounts of drugs for personal use while promoting drug treatment. Recognizing important epidemiologic, policy, and socioeconomic differences between the United States-where possession of any psychoactive drugs without a prescription remains illegal-and Mexico-where possession of small quantities for personal use was partially decriminalized, we sought to assess changes over time in knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and infectious disease profiles among PWID in the adjacent border cities of San Diego, CA, USA, and Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico. Based on extensive binational experience and collaboration, from 2012-2014 we initiated two parallel, prospective, mixed methods studies: Proyecto El Cuete IV in Tijuana (n = 785) and the STAHR II Study in San Diego (n = 575). Methods for sampling, recruitment, and data collection were designed to be compatible in both studies. All participants completed quantitative behavioral and geographic assessments and serological testing (HIV in both studies; hepatitis C virus and tuberculosis in STAHR II) at baseline and four semi-annual follow-up visits. Between follow-up assessment visits, subsets of participants completed qualitative interviews to explore contextual factors relating to study aims and other emergent phenomena. Planned analyses include descriptive and inferential statistics for quantitative data, content analysis and other mixed-methods approaches for qualitative data, and phylogenetic analysis of HIV-positive samples to understand cross-border transmission dynamics. Investigators and research staff shared preliminary findings across studies to provide feedback on instruments and insights regarding local phenomena. As a result, recruitment and data

  7. Electricity reform in developing and transition countries: A reappraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.H.; Ghanadan, R.

    2006-01-01

    Since about 1990, many developing and transition countries have undertaken market-oriented reforms in their electric power sectors. Despite the widespread adoption of a standard policy model, reform processes and outcomes have often failed to meet expectations. Drawing on an extensive literature review and case studies in Asia, Africa, Latin America, and Eastern Europe, this paper describes common features of non-OECD electricity reform and reappraises reform policies and underlying assumptions. Comparison with the sector-focused policy goals of deregulation in OECD countries highlights the importance of national fiscal crises, macroeconomic reforms, and persuasion by multilateral lenders in shaping non-OECD reforms. It also makes clear reform's dependence on attracting foreign capital, and consequent vulnerability to volatile international financial conditions. Case studies of Bolivia, Ghana, India, Poland, and Thailand illustrate reform's diverse pathways and problems in different settings. A broad range of non-OECD reform experiences indicates that disappointing results have often resulted from a narrow focus on finance and cost recovery, inflexibly applied. The paper concludes that improving reform will require emphasizing a broader set of objectives, including service provision, public benefits, effective regulation, and social/political legitimacy. Above all, reforms must be based on realistic assessments of national needs and capabilities. (author)

  8. Reform despite politics? The political economy of power sector reform in Fiji, 1996–2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dornan, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Attempts to reform the electricity sector in developing countries have achieved mixed results, despite the implementation of similar reforms in many developed countries, and concerted effort by donors to transfer reform models. In many cases, political obstacles have prevented full and effective implementation of donor-promoted reforms. This paper examines the political economy of power sector reform in Fiji from 1996 to 2013. Reform has been pursued with political motives in a context of clientelism. Policy inconsistency and reversal is explained by the political instability of ethnic-based politics in Fiji. Modest success has been achieved in recent years despite these challenges, with Fiji now considered a model of power sector reform for other Small Islands Developing States (SIDS) in the Pacific. The experience demonstrates that reform is possible within difficult political environments, but it is challenging, takes time and is not guaranteed. The way in which political motives have driven and shaped reform efforts also highlights the need for studies of power sector reform to direct greater attention toward political drivers behind reform. - Highlights: • This is the first study of power sector reform in Fiji or other Small Island Developing States (SIDS) of the Pacific. • The clientelist nature of politics in Fiji is found to have both driven and shaped reform efforts. • There has been modest success in recent years despite these obstacles, with Fiji now considered a model for other SIDS. • The experience demonstrates that reform is possible within difficult political environments, but it is challenging, takes time and is not guaranteed

  9. Education Policy Outlook: Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Diana Toledo; Golden, Gillian; Giovinazzo, Manon; Peterka, Judith; Ullmann, Marie

    2017-01-01

    This policy profile on education in Austria is part of the "Education Policy Outlook" series, which presents comparative analysis of education policies and reforms across OECD countries. Building on the OECD's substantial comparative and sectoral knowledge base, the series offers a comparative outlook on education policy by providing…

  10. The Brazilian electrical system reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonca, A.F.; Dahl, C.

    1999-01-01

    Although the Brazilian electrical system has been a public monopoly, the threat of electricity shortages from a lack of investment triggered a comprehensive reform. In 1993 the government began a series of laws, decrees and regulations reforming the tariff policy, allowing privatization of utilities, foreign investments and independent power producers, and creating an independent transmission grid and a new electricity regulatory agency (ANEEL). The new regulatory framework is not completely defined but the proposed model intends to transform bulk electricity supply into a competitive market similar to that adopted in England. Our objective is to evaluate whether the proposed reform will succeed in attracting the required private capital, will allow an unregulated wholesale electricity market and will require a strict regulatory framework. The reform has been quite successful in privatizing the distribution companies but is allowing monopolistic rents, and has failed until now to attract private investments to expand generation capacity. The risk of blackouts has increased, and the proposed wholesale electricity market may not be appropriate because of barriers to constructing new hydroelectric units, now 90% of the system. Therefore, a new regulatory framework and a strong regulatory agency with a well-defined tariff policy should have preceded the privatization. (author)

  11. Trends and future directions in tax policy reform: a Latin American perspective Tendencias y orientaciones futuras en la reforma a la política tributaria: perspectiva latinoamericana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shome Parthasarathi

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines experiences in tax reform and the evolution of income in Latin America during the 1980s, and identifies the areas of reform to be debated in the 1990s. The reforms of the 1980s removed the progressive rates applicable to income and assets and the focus shifted to indirect taxes such as Value-Added Tax, leaving direct taxation in second place. During the 1990s, the importan
    ce of direct taxation will be raised again, Businesses will be
    taxed in new ways, to ensure that all pay some tax, possibly based on their gross assets. Attempts will be made to tax the financial sector, or the use of financial services. Property will again be taxed. Pollution will be taxes. The system of withholdings will be more widespread, and their will be efforts to harmonize taxation systems in Latin America, especially in the area of capital yields, double taxation of personal income, customs duties and value-added taxes.
    En este trabajo se examina la experiencia de reforma tributaria y la evolución de los ingresos de los países latinoamericanos durante los años ochenta y se identifican con los temas de la reforma tributaria que se debatirán en la década de los noventa. Con las reformas tributarias de los ochenta se derrumbaron las estructuras progresivas a los impuestos de renta y propiedad, y se dio énfasis a los impuestos indirectos, como el Iva, con lo cual perdieron importancia los ingresos por impuestos directos. De modo que en los noventa se reconsiderará el papel de este tipo de impuestos. Se utilizarán distintas formas de gravar a las empresas, tratando de que todas paguen por lo menos un impuesto mínimo, posiblemente sobre sus activos brutos; se intentará gravar el sector financiero o al uso de los servicios financieros; se volverá a gravar la propiedad; se impondrán impuestos a la contaminación ambiental; se difundirá el sistema de retenciones y se verán esfuerzos de armonización tributaria entre los pa

  12. Curriculum reform and the market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Karen Bjerg

    2011-01-01

    A neo-liberal discourse in the 2000s has been prevalent not only in international and Danish educational policy contexts, but also within a specific area, namely the education of adult immigrants in Denmark. With the adoption of a new law in 2003 high-stakes testing, standards, new market economy...... in Denmark. Based on studies of curriculum reform and research about headmasters’ and teachers’ attitudes the article addresses paradoxes rising in the wake of the neo-liberal education policy. Despite the intention of high-stakes testing to increase adult migrants’ language and employment related....... Teachers furthermore find the new working conditions stressing. It is discussed whether a neo-liberal discourse in adult teaching is ‘dumping down’ the intentions of curriculum and education reform....

  13. Curriculum reform and the market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Karen Bjerg

    2012-01-01

    A neo-liberal discourse in the 2000s has been prevalent not only in international and Danish educational policy contexts, but also within a specific area, namely the education of adult immigrants in Denmark. With the adoption of a new law in 2003 high-stakes testing, standards, new market economy...... in Denmark. Based on studies of curriculum reform and research about headmasters’ and teachers’ attitudes the article addresses paradoxes rising in the wake of the neo-liberal education policy. Despite the intention of high-stakes testing to increase adult migrants’ language and employment related....... Teachers furthermore find the new working conditions stressing. It is discussed whether a neo-liberal discourse in adult teaching is ‘dumping down’ the intentions of curriculum and education reform....

  14. Implementação da reforma sanitária: a formação de uma política Health reform implementation and policy formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Maria Gonçalves Menicucci

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo procura interpretar o processo de implementação da reforma do sistema de saúde ocorrida na década de 1990. A implantação de uma política é dotada de autonomia e envolve decisões, além de ser um processo de adaptação em função das mudanças do contexto, portanto, sua implementação exige decisão e iniciativa governamental, e instrumentos para efetivá-la, entre os quais a disponibilidade de recursos financeiros e o suporte político organizado, particularmente, por parte dos grupos sociais afetados positivamente. O processo de implementação da reforma da política de saúde não é simplesmente a tradução concreta de decisões, mas um processo ainda de formulação da política de saúde. Durante esse processo, tiveram grande importância não apenas os efeitos do contexto político-econômico de ajustes e a reconfiguração da agenda pública, mas principalmente os efeitos de feedback das políticas de saúde anteriores, que se traduziram na ausência de suporte político, no subfinanciamento e na incapacidade de publicização da rede de serviços, os quais funcionaram como constrangimentos à implementação completa da reforma nos termos de seus formuladores. Dentro desses limites, foram tomadas decisões cruciais que redefiniram a reforma, sendo as mais significativas o estabelecimento do marco regulatório da assistência privada, que explicita a segmentação e derruba formalmente as pretensões universalistas, e as relacionada ao financiamento, que ainda configurava objeto de disputa. O resultado foi a consolidação de um sistema de saúde dual - público e privado.This paper analyses the process of implementation of the health system reform in the 1990s. The starting point is the proposition that policy implementation is endowed with autonomy and involves decisions, apart from being a process of adaptation to changes in context; implementation requires governmental decision and initiative and tools to

  15. How "Doing Business" jeopardizes institutional reform

    OpenAIRE

    Arruñada, Benito

    2008-01-01

    Simplifying business formalization and eliminating outdated formalities is often a good way of improving the institutional environment for firms. Unfortunately, the World Bank’s "Doing Business" project is harming such policies by promoting a reform agenda that gives them priority even in countries lacking functional business registers, so that the reformed registers keep producing valueless information, but faster. Its methodology also promotes biased measurements that impede proper consider...

  16. Concertina Reforms with International Capital Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreickemeier, Udo; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis

    2006-01-01

    We show that the standard concertina result for tariff reforms -i.e. loweringthe highest tariff increases welfare - no longer holds in general if we allow for international capital mobility. The result can break down if the good whose tariff is lowered is not capital intensive. If the concertina...... reform lowers welfare it lowers market access as well, thereby compromising a second goal that is typically connected with trade liberalisation.JEL-Classification: F11, F13, F15Key words: Trade Policy Reform, International Factor Mobility, Welfare, MarketAccess...

  17. Bangladesh pharmaceutical policy and politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, M R

    1994-06-01

    An analysis of the politics of Bangladesh pharmaceutical policy in the 1980s shows how significant health policy reforms in developing countries depend on political conditions both inside and outside the country. Bangladesh's drug policy of 1982 illustrates that governments can sometimes change public policy in ways unfavourable to multinational corporations, while the failed health policy reform of 1990 shows that reforms unfavourable to powerful domestic interest groups can be more difficult to achieve, even contributing to a government's downfall. The case provides evidence of basic changes in how the international agenda for health policy is set, especially the growing role of non-governmental organizations in international agencies and national policy debates. Understanding the political patterns of policy reform in Bangladesh has important implications for strategies to affect health policy in developing countries.

  18. Small School Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carroll E. Bronson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative ethnographic case study explored the evolution of a public urban high school in its 3rd year of small school reform. The study focused on how the high school proceeded from its initial concept, moving to a small school program, and emerging as a new small high school. Data collection included interviews, observations, and document review to develop a case study of one small high school sharing a multiplex building. The first key finding, “Too Many Pieces, Not Enough Glue,” revealed that the school had too many new programs starting at once and they lacked a clear understanding of their concept and vision for their new small school, training on the Montessori philosophies, teaching and learning in small schools, and how to operate within a teacher-cooperative model. The second key finding, “A Continuous Struggle,” revealed that the shared building space presented problems for teachers and students. District policies remain unchanged, resulting in staff and students resorting to activist approaches to get things done. These findings offer small school reform leaders suggestions for developing and sustaining a small school culture and cohesion despite the pressures to revert back to top-down, comprehensive high school norms.

  19. Pension Reform in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Sun, Li

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes China's pension arrangement and notes that China has recently established a universal non-contributory pension plan covering urban non-employed workers and all rural residents, combined with the pension plan covering urban employees already in place. Further, in the latest reform, China has discontinued the special pension plan for civil servants and integrated this privileged welfare class into the urban old-age pension insurance program. With these steps, China has achieved a degree of universalism and integration of its pension arrangement unprecedented in the non-Western world. Despite this radical pension transformation strategy, we argue that the current Chinese pension arrangement represents a case of "incomplete" universalism. First, its benefit level is low. Moreover, the benefit level varies from region to region. Finally, universalism in rural China has been undermined due to the existence of the "policy bundle." Additionally, we argue that the 2015 pension reform has created a situation in which the stratification of Chinese pension arrangements has been "flattened," even though it remains stratified to some extent.

  20. Health policy in a globalising world

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fustukian, Suzanne; Buse, Kent; Lee, Kelley

    2002-01-01

    ... reform since the 1980s 97 KELLEY LEE AND HILARY GOODMAN viiviii Contents 7 The globalisation of health sector reform policies: is 'lesson drawing' part of the process? 120 BARBARA MCPAKE 8 Cost-...

  1. Attitudes to Agricultural Policy and Farming Futures in the Context of the 2003 CAP Reform: A Comparison of Farmers in Selected Established and New Member States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorton, Matthew; Douarin, Elodie; Davidova, Sophia; Latruffe, Laure

    2008-01-01

    Farmers' attitudes, to agricultural production, diversification and policy support, and behavioural intentions in five Member States of the EU (France, Lithuania, Slovakia, Sweden, England) are analysed comparatively. Groups of farmers with similarly held attitudes are identified using cluster analysis to investigate whether differences in…

  2. Um balanço da reforma psiquiátrica brasileira: instituições, atores e políticas An assessment of Brazilian psychiatric reform: institutions, actors and policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Fernandes Pitta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo provoca olhares sobre a Reforma Psiquiátrica Brasileira (RPB na última década, após a homologação da Lei Federal 10.216/2001 e pretende suscitar o debate inadiável sobre os novos desafios que ela precisa enfrentar para alimentar ou reciclar a antiga utopia de "cidadania plena para todos, numa sociedade sem manicômios". Estaria a Reforma dando sinais de exaustão? É inegável a reorientação do modelo assistencial de Saúde Mental no Brasil do hospital para a comunidade nessa última década. Ao tomar o uso de Substâncias Psicoativas como objeto de políticas e intervenção, incorpora demandas complexas que o atual drama do Crack somente imediatiza a necessidade de questionar sua história, seus limites, sua potência. O que manterá acesa a chama de um movimento exitoso que, surpreendentemente, resiste à força do tempo e do estigma nesses dez anos da Lei? Essas e outras questões precisam ser equacionadas. Está na hora de reciclar os focos de avaliação e análise no sentido de identificar o que ameaça sua vitalidade. Esse é o desafio que a articulista e debatedores estarão provocados a contribuir.The article takes a look at Brazilian Psychiatric Reform over the past decade, after the approval of Federal Law 10.216/2001 and seeks to elicit long overdue discussion about the pressing challenges that Brazilian Psychiatric Reform needs to tackle to promote or review the long-desired utopia of "full citizenship for all in a society without asylums." Is the Reform showing signs of exhaustion? The redirection of the care model for Mental Health in Brazil from the hospital to the community over the past decade is an undeniable achievement. Taking the use of psychoactive substances as the scope of policy and intervention, this incorporates complex demands that the current Crack drama makes it more urgent to question its history, its limits, its power. What will keep the flame alight of a successful movement that, surprisingly

  3. Observations on Agricultural Policy, Policy Reform and Public Policy Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, John E., Jr.

    The intervention of the United States government in agriculture in the 20th century is an explainable response to basic characteristics of agriculture: unpredictability, immobile resources, technological changes and disproportionate supply and demand factors. The concentration of large benefits among relatively few producers and diffusion of costs…

  4. The transnational grip on Scandinavian education reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejsler, John B.; Olsson, Ulf; Petersson, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    This article reveals how templates that emerge from opaque albeit often inclusive policy processes in transnational forums (EU, OECD & the Bologna Process) affect education reform policy in Scandinavian countries, such as Denmark and Sweden. The open method of coordination is the mother template...... of the political technologies (standards, performance indicators, scorecards, best practices) that are instrumental in fashioning reforms. This template commits countries in consensus-making ways to comparison, and normalizes the competitive incentive of mutual peer pressure. The authors draw on post...

  5. Examining the Spatial Distribution of Law Enforcement Encounters among People Who Inject Drugs after Implementation of Mexico’s Drug Policy Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Gaines, Tommi L.; Beletsky, Leo; Arredondo, Jaime; Werb, Daniel; Rangel, Gudelia; Vera, Alicia; Brouwer, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, Mexico decriminalized the possession of small amounts of illicit drugs for personal use in order to refocus law enforcement resources on drug dealers and traffickers. This study examines the spatial distribution of law enforcement encounters reported by people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana, Mexico to identify concentrated areas of policing activity after implementation of the new drug policy. Mapping the physical location of law enforcement encounters provided by PWID (n = 461) ...

  6. Constitutional reform as process

    OpenAIRE

    Schultze, Rainer-Olaf (Prof.)

    2000-01-01

    Constitutional reform as process. - In: The politics of constitutional reform in North America / Rainer-Olaf Schultze ... (eds.). - Opladen : Leske + Budrich, 2000. - S. 11-31. - (Politikwissenschaftliche paperbacks ; 30)

  7. Reforming Organizational Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Van de Walle, Steven

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPublic sectors have undergone major transformations. Public sector reform touches upon the core building blocks of the public sector: organizational structures, people and finances. These are objects of reform. This chapter presents and discusses a set of major transformations with regard to organizational structures. It provides readers a fairly comprehensive overview of the key reforms that have taken place in Western public sectors. Structural reforms in the public sector show ...

  8. Health system reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortolon, Ken

    2009-06-01

    A vote on reforming the nation's health care system seems likely this summer as President Obama makes good on a campaign pledge. Although the Democratic leadership in Congress appears ready to push through reform legislation before the next election, TMA and AMA leaders say very little is known about what that "reform" likely will look like.

  9. Inclusive Education Policy in the Hong Kong Primary Music Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Marina Wai-yee; Chik, Maria Pik-yuk

    2016-01-01

    An education reform policy and inclusive education policy have been implemented in Hong Kong for over a decade. As more students with special educational needs have entered the mainstream education system under these policies, Hong Kong's primary music classrooms offer a site where three policies interact--the education reform policy entitled…

  10. Neoliberalism and Corporate School Reform: "Failure" and "Creative Destruction"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltman, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, corporate school reform or neoliberal educational restructuring has overtaken educational policy, practice, curriculum, and nearly all aspects of educational reform. Although this movement began on the political right, the corporate school model has been heralded across the political spectrum and is aggressively embraced now…

  11. Improving Finance for Qatari Education Reform. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Cassandra M.; Galama, Titus; Constant, Louay; Gonzalez, Gabriella; Tanner, Jeffery C.; Goldman, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    Qatar's education reform, which included implementation of a new finance system, appears to be providing schools with adequate funding but is still struggling with issues of transparency and swift policy shifts that have been difficult to accommodate. [For full report, "Developing a School Finance System for K-12 Reform in Qatar", see…

  12. Potential consequences of discard reform for seabird communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bicknell, A.W.J.; Oro, D.; Camphuysen, K.; Votier, S.C.

    2013-01-01

    Upcoming reform of the European Union (EU) Common Fisheries Policy will be the biggest change in European fisheries management for a generation. A central plank of this reform is a proposed ban on discards, to aid the creation of economically and environmentally sustainable fisheries. This, together

  13. Perspectives on High School Reform. NCREL Viewpoints, Volume 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learning Point Associates / North Central Regional Educational Laboratory (NCREL), 2005

    2005-01-01

    Viewpoints is a multimedia package containing two audio CDs and a brief, informative booklet. This volume of Viewpoints focuses on issues related to high school reform. This booklet offers background information explaining the issues surrounding high school reform with perspectives from research, policy, and practice. It also provides a list of…

  14. Strengthening revenue cycle capabilities in an era of reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, John

    2011-05-01

    Strategies that healthcare finance professionals should incorporate to help their organizations respond effectively to payment reforms include: Assessing the organization's ability to capture and share relevant data. Educating themselves, the board of trustees, and the medical staff on pertinent rules as payment reforms are rolled out. Examining inefficiencies related to care processes. Establishing policies and procedures to address "commingled" data.

  15. Tax reforms and investment in Nigeria: an empirical examination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is informed by the quest to examine the investment implication of the series of tax reforms in Nigeria, particularly the tax reforms of 2003 and National tax policy of 2012. Annual time series data spanning the years (1981-2012) were utilized. Preliminary diagnostic test was conducted to examine whether the ...

  16. Curriculum Reform in Higher Education: A Contested Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, Suellen

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on the theoretical and analytical tools from the sociology of education, in particular the work of Basil Bernstein and Karl Maton, the paper explores the tensions within curriculum reform discourses and how these tensions play out in different global contexts. The analysis focuses on two curriculum reform policies--Hong Kong and South…

  17. Competition Policy in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Cassey

    2004-01-01

    Malaysia does not have a national competition law. Competition is regulated at the sectoral level in the country. Two economic sectors have legal provisions for competition law but these have been relatively ineffectively enforced. The benefits of Malaysia's industrial policy as well as the policy reforms in regulation and trade have been compromised by the lack of a formal institution to address competition related issues. Hence, the future priority and direction of regulatory reform is obvi...

  18. Working on reform. How workers' compensation medical care is affected by health care reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelstein, J; Rest, K

    1996-01-01

    The medical component of workers' compensation programs-now costing over $24 billion annually-and the rest of the nation's medical care system are linked. They share the same patients and providers. They provide similar benefits and services. And they struggle over who should pay for what. Clearly, health care reform and restructuring will have a major impact on the operation and expenditures of the workers' compensation system. For a brief period, during the 1994 national health care reform debate, these two systems were part of the same federal policy development and legislative process. With comprehensive health care reform no longer on the horizon, states now are tackling both workers' compensation and medical system reforms on their own. This paper reviews the major issues federal and state policy makers face as they consider reforms affecting the relationship between workers' compensation and traditional health insurance. What is the relationship of the workers' compensation cost crisis to that in general health care? What strategies are being considered by states involved in reforming the medical component of workers compensation? What are the major policy implications of these strategies?

  19. The Current Reforms Of The Labour Markets And Of The Related Social Policies At European Union Level – Are They The Best Solutions To Solve The Problems Which Appeared During The Crisis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Georgeta AILINCĂ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The global economic and financial crisis seems to have unfortunate residual effects materialised in the increase of the budget deficits and of the public debt within the European Union, situation observed mostly in the old member states. Among the major effects of the crisis we can notice more serious fiscal-budgetary problems, as well as social and labour market problems, with a strong impact on the restoration of the present and future macroeconomic balance. Actually, the measures meant to restore the public finances on their floating line, thus ensuring the fiscal-budgetary sustainability, were the starting line for the economic and social reforms, which many times had rather adverse effects than beneficial effects on the analysed economies. In this paper we will present the measures proposed by the governments of some EU (European Union countries for the labour market, health systems, education and social protection, highlighting the criticisable aspects, such as the lack of concrete results of the employment programs and of the social policies aiming to ameliorate and compensate the effects of population ageing.

  20. Reforming Science and Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-09-01

    Since 1991, the National Science Foundation has signed cooperative agreements with 26 states to undertake ambitious and comprehensive initiatives to reform science, mathematics, and technology education. Collectively, those agreements are known as the State Systemic Initiatives (SSI's). Two complimentary programs, The Urban and Rural Systemic Initiatives (USI's and RSI's), address similar reforms in the nation's largest cities and poorest rural areas. The SSI Program departs significantly from past NSF practice in several ways. The funding is for a longer term and is larger in amount, and the NSF is taking a more activist role, seeking to leverage state and private funds and promote the coordination of programs within states. The Initiatives also have a stronger policy orientation than previous NSF programs have had. The NSF strategy is a reflection of the growing and widely held view that meaningful reforms in schools are most likely to be achieved through state initiatives that set clear and ambitious learning goals and standards; align all of the available policy levers in support of reform; stimulate school-level initiatives; and mobilize human and financial resources to support these changes. Two premises underlie systemic reform: (1) all children can meet significantly higher standards if they are asked to do so and given adequate opportunities to master the content, and (2) state and local policy changes can create opportunities by giving schools strong and consistent signals about the changes in practice and performance that are expected. Because this is an enormous investment of Federal resources that is intended to bring about deep, systemic improvement in the nation's ability to teach science and mathematics effectively, the NSF has contracted with a consortium of independent evaluators to conduct a review of the program. The first of the SSI's were funded in 1991, sufficiently long ago to begin to formulate some initial impressions of their impact. Take

  1. WELFARE REFORM: Progress in Meeting Work-Focused TANF Goals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... The 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (P.L. 104-193) (PRWORA) significantly changed federal welfare policy for low-income families with children, building upon and expanding state-level reforms...

  2. Corporatist Transitions in the Economic Reforms of Chile and Argentina

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Jeremy

    2002-01-01

    .... Scholars in comparative politics and political economy study these obstacles in order to give policymakers a better understanding of what is necessary to successfully reform economic policy and practice...

  3. Fiscal Deficits, Monetary Reform and Inflation Stabilization in Romania.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen, S.J.G.; Budina, N.

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the consistency between inflation, monetary reform and fiscal policy in Romania. Offers a framework for the assessment of the fiscal and monetary interactions of Romanian economy; Shows impact of inflation on fiscal inconsistency measure; Considers importance of consolidating public

  4. Implementing health financing reform: lessons from countries in transition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kutzin, Joseph; Cashin, Cheryl; Jakab, Melitta

    2010-01-01

    Since 1990, the social and economic policies of the transition countries of central and eastern Europe, the Caucasus and central Asia have diverged, including the way they have reformed the financing...

  5. Reforming Land and Resource Use in South Africa: Impact on Livelihoods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hebinck, P.G.M.; Shackleton, C.

    2011-01-01

    This book debates the emergent proprieties of rural and peri-urban South Africa since land and agrarian reforms were initiated after the transition to democracy in 1994. It explores how these reforms have broadened options for the use of land and natural resources. Reform-minded policies in South

  6. The Dutch health insurance law: the accumulation of 30 years of reform thought.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewegen, P.P.; Jong, J.D. de; Delnoij, D.M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The new health insurance law builds on a history of 30 years of reform plans and small steps, eventually leading to the recent reform. Methods: We use policy documents and papers from government, advisory bodies, and independent analysts to describe backgrounds of the reform and actual

  7. Reducing rebound effect through fossil subsidies reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Yang, Yingkui; Li, Hong

    2017-01-01

    China has committed a sharp reduction in its carbon intensity by 2020 and proposed to take integrated policy package including energy subsidy reform to achieve this goal. While energy efficiency improvement is the key influencing factor for this goal, its effectiveness is significantly determined...

  8. Reforming Administrator Training: Here We Go Again!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, William R.

    1989-01-01

    The National Policy Board for Educational Administration report ("Improving the Preparation of School Administrators: An Agenda for Reform") reiterates the need for program improvements for educational administrators. Obstacles to any real change occurring in the near future are pointed out. (six references) (SI)

  9. Reforms and innovations in Nordic vocational education:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian Helms

    2018-01-01

    The chapter examines policy reforms and innovations in the Nordic vocational education and training systems (VET) related to two challenges. The first is to improve the links of the VET system to the labour market and to ease the students’ transition to employment. It examines three new types...

  10. EU agricultural reform fails on biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pe'er, G.; Dicks, L.V.; Visconti, A.; Arlettaz, R.; Baldi, A.; Kleijn, D.; Scott, A.V.

    2014-01-01

    In December 2013, the European Union (EU) enacted the reformed Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) for 2014–2020, allocating almost 40% of the EU's budget and influencing management of half of its terrestrial area. Many EU politicians are announcing the new CAP as “greener,” but the new environmental

  11. Reforms and Economic Growth in Transition Economies: Complementarity, Sequencing and Speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Staehr

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the effects of sequencing and reform speed on output performance in transition countries. These largely unsettled issues are addressed using principal component techniques to construct reform clusters and by explicit tests of speed effects. The results indicate that broad-based reforms are good for output growth, but so is a policy of liberalisation and small-scale privatisation without structural reforms. Conversely, large-scale privatisation without adjoining reforms, market opening without supporting reforms and bank liberalisation without enterprise restructuring affect growth negatively. Swift reform policies allow transition countries to benefit from higher growth for longer time. The speed of reforms appears otherwise to have little effect on growth in the short and medium term.

  12. Clinical evaluation of cardiovascular devices: principles, problems, and proposals for European regulatory reform. Report of a policy conference of the European Society of Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Alan G; Daubert, Jean-Claude; Van de Werf, Frans; Estes, N A Mark; Smith, Sidney C; Krucoff, Mitchell W; Vardas, Panos E; Komajda, Michel

    2011-07-01

    The European Commission announced in 2008 that a fundamental revision of the medical device directives is being considered in order to clarify and strengthen the current legal framework. The system for testing and approving devices in Europe was established >20 years ago as a 'New Approach' to a previously little-regulated industry. It is recognized by many that the regulatory system has not kept pace with technological advances and changing patterns of medical practice. New legislation will be drafted during 2011, but medical experts have been little involved in this important process. This context makes it an opportune time for a professional association to advise from both clinical and academic perspectives about changes which should be made to improve the safety and efficacy of devices used in clinical practice and to develop more appropriate systems for their clinical evaluation and post-marketing surveillance. This report summarizes how medical devices are regulated and it reviews some serious clinical problems that have occurred with cardiovascular devices. Finally, it presents the main recommendations from a Policy Conference on the Clinical Evaluation of Cardiovascular Devices that was held at the European Heart House in January 2011.

  13. La política farmacéutica nacional en Colombia y la reforma de la seguridad social: acceso y uso racional de medicamentos National pharmaceutical policy and social security reform in Colombia: access and rational use of medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Mejía Restrepo

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available A partir del nuevo sistema de seguridad social en Colombia (1993 que consagra la equidad y la obligatoriedad como fundamentos del servicio público, se analiza si la formulación y la implementación de la política farmacéutica favorecen la accesibilidad, la disponibilidad y el uso racional de los medicamentos, contribuyendo a la equidad en salud. Se utilizaron dos enfoques: uno macro, referido al análisis del marco jurídico y a los actores de la reforma, y otro micro, relacionado a los procesos y resultados en el sistema de provisionamiento de medicamentos. Se estudiaron los instrumentos legales que dan soporte a la política farmacéutica y fue evaluada su aplicación, utilizando indicadores y una enfermedad trazadora (diabetes mellitus. Aunque existe un marco jurídico que consagra el derecho al acceso de la población a servicios de salud y medicamentos esenciales, no hay una política de medicamentos integral. La mayoría de las instituciones presentan problemas para distribuir los medicamentos que pertenecen al Plan Obligatorio de Salud, un bajo porcentaje de medicamentos es obtenido sin costo y una gran parte de pacientes los adquiere en asociaciones de diabéticos o recurre a medicina alternativa. Se encontraron aspectos que desfavorecen la equidad en la cobertura en salud y la accesibilidad a medicamentos esencialesBased on the new social security system in Colombia (1993, which establishes equity and mandatory care as the basis for public health care provision, the authors analyze whether the formulation and implementation of pharmaceutical policy promote accessibility, availability, and rational use of medicines, thereby contributing to equity in health. Two approaches were used: a macro approach centered on the legal framework and various actors in the reform process and a micro approach related to the processes and results in the drug supply system. The authors studied the legal instruments backing the country's pharmaceutical

  14. China's health care system reform: Progress and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Fu, Hongqiao

    2017-07-01

    This paper discusses the progress and prospects of China's complex health care reform beginning in 2009. The Chinese government's undertaking of systemic reform has achieved laudable achievements, including the expansion of social health insurance, the reform of public hospitals, and the strengthening of primary care. An innovative policy tool in China, policy experimentation under hierarchy, played an important role in facilitating these achievements. However, China still faces gaps and challenges in creating a single payer system, restructuring the public hospitals, and establishing an integrated delivery system. Recently, China issued the 13th 5-year plan for medical reform, setting forth the goals, policy priorities, and strategies for health reform in the following 5 years. Moreover, the Chinese government announced the "Healthy China 2030" blueprint in October 2016, which has the goals of providing universal health security for all citizens by 2030. By examining these policy priorities against the existing gaps and challenges, we conclude that China's health care reform is heading in the right direction. To effectively implement these policies, we recommend that China should take advantage of policy experimentation to mobilize bottom-up initiatives and encourage innovations. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Interactions: Trade Policy and Healthcare Reform After Chaoulli v. Quebec: Is it time for Canada to acknowledge the fragile boundary between health and trade policies and strengthen the separation between private and public health insurance?

    OpenAIRE

    Crawford, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The insulation of Canada’s healthcare system from trade treaty obligations is crucial to the legitimacy of Canada’s trade policy. Legal analysis has suggested, however, that competitive and for-profit delivery of the kind contemplated by the Kirby Report and some provinces may make healthcare more vulnerable to challenges under NAFTA and GATS. The Government of Canada has tried to counter this interpretation by stressing the importance of public financing as the principal criterion for exempt...

  16. Power sector reforms in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajaj, Harbans L; Sharma, Deepak

    2007-07-01

    India faces endemic electrical energy and peaking shortages. The Power Sector is plagued with mounting commercial losses due various inefficiencies, colossal commercial and technical losses and increasing subsidy burden on the states. These shortages have had a very detrimental effect on the overall economic growth of the country. In order to re-vitalise the sector and improve the techno-economic performance, the Government of India has initiated the reform process in 1991. This paper analyses the pre-reform era and identifies the key concerns which led to the initiation of the reforms. It also analyses the likely impact of the major policy and regulatory initiatives that have been undertaken since 1991 including the provisions of the new enactments which have come into force eventually in the form of The Electricity Act, 2003. This paper details out the key features of the Act and its likely impact on the Indian electricity industry in the emerging scenario. The paper also discusses major issues like power trading, role of regulator in the new regime, issue of open access, introduction of power markets and role of Appellate Tribunal for Electricity in harmonizing the orders of the various regulators.

  17.  Trade reform and gender in Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Robinson, Sherman; Tarp, Finn

    2006-01-01

    treatment of production technology and import protection, and is linked to a top-down microsimulation model of households. We find that trade policy has only a modest effect on gender wage differentials, and conclude that policy concerns with gender imbalances should focus on skill upgrading and sectoral......This paper uses an economywide model to study the impact of trade policy reform on male and female labor in Mozambique. The model disaggregates factor markets by skill and gender, and incorporates links between trade reform, product prices and wages by gender. The model also includes a detailed...... mobility rather than on trade policy...

  18. Fossil fuel subsidy reform: lessons from the Indonesian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savatic, Filip

    2016-10-01

    Global assessments of consumption and the Indonesian case show the relevance of non-household consumers of subsidized energy products. As shown in this study, understanding in more nuance how reforms affect them has the potential to improve the reforms that will be developed by policy-makers worldwide. Further study can reinforce the many benefits of successful reform for the countries and societies slowly turning away from these policies of the past. Estimates regarding the amount of public funds utilized to subsidize the production or consumption of fossil fuels are staggering. For 2011, they range from $83 billion in OECD member states, to nearly $4.1 trillion worldwide if environmental externalities are considered. Numerous studies have demonstrated that subsidies repress economic growth, undermine energy sector investment, increase public debt, benefit wealthy citizens over the poor, instigate a rise in illicit activities, and engender greater global and local pollution. The negative effects of fossil fuel subsidies have led numerous governments to reform their energy policies. There has also been a growing international consensus in favor of reform. While the components of successful reform programs have been identified through past case studies, the nature of reforms adopted by several governments that target non-households have not been systematically examined. Since the late 1990s, the Indonesian government has implemented numerous reforms of its fossil fuel subsidies, including measures targeting household as well as non-household energy consumption. In doing so, it has incurred significant fiscal savings. However, an innovative budgetary analysis reveals that households receive a minority, and a declining share, of fossil fuel subsidy funds. This is the case despite the fact that subsidies were implemented to ensure poor households have access to cheap energy. These findings demonstrate the need to consider non-household sectors in the design of fossil

  19.  Railway Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmild, Mette; Holvad, Torben; Hougaard, Jens Leth

    This paper considers railway operations in 23 European countries during 1995-2001, where a series of reform initiatives were launched by the European Commission, and analyses whether these reform initiatives improved the operating efficiency of the railways. Efficiency is measured using Multi......-directional Efficiency Analysis, which enables investigation of how railway reforms affect the inefficiencies of specific cost drivers. The main findings are that the reform initiatives generally improve operating efficiency but potentially differently for different cost drivers. Specifically, the paper provides clear...

  20. Lesotho - Land Administration Reform

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Michigan State University was assigned to design the impact evaluation (IE) of the Land Administration Reform Project (LARP) funded under the Millennium Challenge...

  1. Philippines - Revenue Administration Reform

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The Millennium Challenge Account-Philippines' (MCA-P) implementation of the Revenue Administration Reform Project (RARP) is expected to improve tax administration,...

  2. German family policy at the crossroads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüst, Miriam

    2009-01-01

    Comparative studies of welfare reforms encounter two problems. First, the counterfactual problem is that in the real world schemes and their reforms do not coexist simultaneously and are hard to compare. Second, the contextual problem derives from the absence of comparable measures for change. Mi...... introduce a new concept of fairness and a focus on gender equality to German family policies........ Microsimulation helps to overcome these problems. It compares policy options - actual reforms or reform plans - simultaneously and provides a comparable measure: the disposable income of model families. This article uses a type-case approach to investigate recent reforms of the German parental leave benefit...

  3. The electoral feedback effects of welfare reform in mature European welfare states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    The electoral hazard of welfare state reforms in mature welfare states has been a widely acknowledged feedback effect in the literature. However, the literature does typically no distinct between party families when it comes to the electoral consequences of welfare state reforms and treats...... electorates as unity. This paper analysis the feedback effects of social policy retrenchment under Third Way social democracy since 1994. The paper argues that Third Way reforms resulted in lasting electoral setback for social democracy since these reforms went against the social policy preferences of social....... The restructuring of mature Western welfare states thus accounts for changing patterns of political behaviour as a consequence of policy feedback....

  4. Panorama actual de las políticas de bienestar y la reforma psiquiátrica en España The present scene of welfare policies and psychiatric reform in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Desviat

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza la situación de la reforma psiquiátrica después de tres décadas de desarrollo en España. Se pregunta por los logros y fracasos; por el grado de implantación del modelo comunitario y de salud pública que inspiraron en su origen el proceso. Trata de explicar el por qué de las insuficiencias asistenciales, normativas y formativas. Las fortalezas, el gran desarrollo de recursos alternativos, y la pérdida de hegemonía del Hospital psiquiátrico; y las amenazas: los cambios producidos en la gestión de los servicios sociales y sanitarios, la creciente privatización de los servicios, la precarización teórica y los cambios en la demanda de la población.The paper analyzes the situation of psychiatric reform after three decades of development in Spain. The achievements and failures are reviewed and the degree of implementation of the community model and public health, that originally inspired the process, is examinated. It tries to explain the reasons for care, policies and training deficiencies. The strengths are: the great development of alternative resources, and the loss of hegemony of the Psychiatric Hospital; and the threats: the changes in the management of the social and health services, the increasing privatization of services, the theoretical impoverishment and the changes in the demand of the population.

  5. Health care reform and federalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Scott L; Jacobson, Peter D

    2010-04-01

    Health policy debates are replete with discussions of federalism, most often when advocates of reform put their hopes in states. But health policy literature is remarkably silent on the question of allocation of authority, rarely asking which levels of government ought to lead. We draw on the larger literatures about federalism, found mostly in political science and law, to develop a set of criteria for allocating health policy authority between states and the federal government. They are social justice, procedural democracy, compatibility with value pluralism, institutional capability, and economic sustainability. Of them, only procedural democracy and compatibility with value pluralism point to state leadership. In examining these criteria, we conclude that American policy debates often get federalism backward, putting the burden of health care coverage policy on states that cannot enact or sustain it, while increasing the federal role in issues where the arguments for state leadership are compelling. We suggest that the federal government should lead present and future financing of health care coverage, since it would require major changes in American intergovernmental relations to make innovative state health care financing sustainable outside a strong federal framework.

  6. The Logic of Policy Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Kennet; Nedergaard, Peter

    depending on whether their emphasis is on rationalist bargaining or constructivist arguing processes. Studies also differ in the number of reforms they examine, single or more. The point of departure for this paper is the view that in order to fully appreciate the insights provided by the literature...... of policy reform by bridging insights into bargaining and arguing processes within the CAP, and by covering three attempts to reform the CAP with a time horizon stretching from 1980 to 2003....

  7. Regulatory Autonomy and Performance: The Reform of Higher Education Re-Visited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enders, Jurgen; de Boer, Harry; Weyer, Elke

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this article is to contribute to the understanding of organizational autonomy and control in higher education reform and related expectations as regards the performance of universities. Our analyses draws on principal-agent models as a normative theory of policy reform, and institutionalist approaches in public policy and…

  8. The Dynamics of Centralized Procurement Reform in a Decentralized State : Evidence and Lessons from Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Sacks, Audrey; Rahman, Erman; Turkewitz, Joel; Buehler, Michael; Saleh, Imad

    2014-01-01

    A central policy of the Government of Indonesia's strategy for enhancing its country's economic and social development is to develop infrastructure and expand service delivery. Public procurement reform is a key component of this policy. Despite the decentralization of financial responsibility and authority to relatively autonomous local level governments, procurement reform in Indonesia i...

  9. Reforming Organizational Structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.G.J. Van de Walle (Steven)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPublic sectors have undergone major transformations. Public sector reform touches upon the core building blocks of the public sector: organizational structures, people and finances. These are objects of reform. This chapter presents and discusses a set of major transformations with

  10. Reforming science: methodological and cultural reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadevall, Arturo; Fang, Ferric C

    2012-03-01

    Contemporary science has brought about technological advances and an unprecedented understanding of the natural world. However, there are signs of dysfunction in the scientific community as well as threats from diverse antiscience and political forces. Incentives in the current system place scientists under tremendous stress, discourage cooperation, encourage poor scientific practices, and deter new talent from entering the field. It is time for a discussion of how the scientific enterprise can be reformed to become more effective and robust. Serious reform will require more consistent methodological rigor and a transformation of the current hypercompetitive scientific culture.

  11. Reform in Mexico: imports, exports and investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada, J.

    1997-01-01

    Terms of the policy and regulatory reform for the natural gas sector in Mexico since 1993 were described, and major changes taking place in the structure, organization and operations of the sector since the introduction of reforms were reviewed. Consequences that the structural changes are likely to have on the long-term balance of natural gas supply and demand in Mexico, have been assessed. The goal of full open access by November of 1997 was reiterated. Reforms to the electric power industry also have been undertaken. As with natural gas, the objective is to eliminate the State monopoly and to allow private power producers to participate in the expansion of the sector's generating capacity. Public investment will be directed towards the improvement of transmission and distribution networks. Over time, independent power producers are expected to become the principal source of funds for the expansion of electric power availability in Mexico. 3 tabs., 29 figs

  12. Health insurance reform: labor versus health perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Walid; Awar, May

    2012-01-01

    The Ministry of Labor (MOL) has submitted to the Council of Ministers a social security reform plan. The Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) considers that health financing should be dealt with as part of a more comprehensive health reform plan that falls under its prerogatives. While a virulent political discussion is taking place, major stakeholders' inputs are very limited and civil society is totally put away from the whole policy making process. The role of the media is restricted to reproducing political disputes, without meaningful substantive debate. This paper discusses health insurance reform from labor market as well as public health perspectives, and aims at launching a serious public debate on this crucial issue that touches the life of every citizen.

  13. Coordinating Policies for Human Resources Development

    OpenAIRE

    G.A. Meagher

    1996-01-01

    In its recent White Paper on Employment and Growth, the Australian Government announced a comprehensive new agenda to supplement its existing employment policies. It includes the following major elements * reforms to labour market assistance; * training and education reforms; * a reconstructed social security system; * a regional strategy; * workplace agreements; and * microeconomic reforms. An important consideration in the implementation of such a multi-faceted policy program is that its va...

  14. Effects of Physician Payment Reform on Provision of Home Dialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Kevin F.; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C.; Chertow, Glenn M.; Bhattacharya, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Patients with end-stage renal disease can receive dialysis at home or in-center. In 2004 the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services reformed physician payment for in-center hemodialysis care from a capitated to a tiered fee-for-service model, augmenting physician payment for frequent in-center visits. We evaluated whether payment reform influenced dialysis modality assignment. Study Design Cohort study of patients starting dialysis in the US in the three years before and after payment reform. Methods We conducted difference-in-difference analyses comparing patients with Traditional Medicare coverage (who were affected by the policy) to others with Medicare Advantage (who were unaffected by the policy). We also examined whether the policy had a more pronounced influence on dialysis modality assignment in areas with lower costs of traveling to dialysis facilities. Results Patients with Traditional Medicare coverage experienced a 0.7% (95% CI 0.2%–1.1%; p=0.003) reduction in the absolute probability of home dialysis use following payment reform compared to patients with Medicare Advantage. Patients living in areas with larger dialysis facilities (where payment reform made in-center hemodialysis comparatively more lucrative for physicians) experienced a 0.9% (95% CI 0.5%–1.4%; ppayment model for dialysis care resulted in fewer patients receiving home dialysis. This area of policy failure highlights the importance of considering unintended consequences of future physician payment reform efforts. PMID:27355909

  15. Review of Tax Policy and Reform Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhail-Wilcox, Bettye

    1982-01-01

    Summarizes the activities of the 97th Congress on taxes. Reviews 1981 enactments and 1982 proposals regarding tax cuts, tax increases, indexing of tax brackets, interest earnings, depreciation, and business incentives. Examines tax administration problems and flat-rate tax proposals and discusses the progressive income tax. (Author/RW)

  16. 78 FR 11109 - International Settlements Policy Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... to foreign carriers' anticompetitive behavior in and timely and effective manner. Eliminating the ISP... routes giving U.S. consumers competitive pricing when they make international calls. The Commission also adopts certain limited measures to improve the Commission's ability to protect U.S. consumers from the...

  17. Tort reform: an issue for nurse practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klutz, Diane L

    2004-02-01

    To inform nurse practitioners (NPs) about the issues related to tort reform and its relationship to malpractice insurance costs. Current journals, newspapers, professional newsletters, and Internet sites. NPs are paying more for their malpractice premiums, and many are losing their places of employment as clinics close due to the increased cost of premiums. One method proposed for curbing the flow of monies spent on premiums and litigation is tort law reform. California serves as an example; its Medical Injury Compensation Reform Act (MICRA) tort reform law was passed 25 years ago, and it has maintained stable malpractice premiums. Other states have proposed similar laws, but some have not had similar success. To curb litigation costs, not only should tort laws be reformed, but NPs and physicians should keep abreast of current practice standards in order to provide quality medical care. Like physicians, NPs are affected directly by tort laws. These laws hold NPs accountable at the same level as physicians. In addition, many states limit NPs' practice to delegation of authority by a physician. Liability is therefore transferred from the NP to the physician and vice versa in cases of injury or wrongful act. In addition, many NPs are finding it increasingly difficult to locate insurers who will write policies for medical liability.

  18. The telecom reform process in Europe and the upcoming challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders

    2013-01-01

    of the whole information communications technology (ICT) area requiring new policy and regulatory answers. Originality/value – The paper provides a brief introduction to the European telecommunication reform process, its achievements, present challenges, and the policy responses of the European Union......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief introduction to the telecommunication reform process in Europe, its status, and upcoming policy issues. Furthermore, it also aims to provide an overview of the papers in this special issue. Design/methodology/approach – The paper provides...

  19. Reforms, Leadership and Quality Management in Greek Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Antigoni

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on research to form an understanding of how to account whether and how quality management (QM) has been adopted in Greek higher education. Greece only recently introduced quality assurance policies. In this study, I will describe governmental reforms related to QM policies until 2010. An issue that is frequently addressed…

  20. Balancing the Readiness Equation in Early Childhood Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christopher P.

    2010-01-01

    As policy-makers continue to implement early childhood education reforms that frame the field as a mechanism that is to ready children for elementary school success, questions arise as to how the multiple variables in the readiness equation, such as the child, family, and program, are affected by these policies. The instrumental case study…

  1. Veto player theory and reform making in Western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelova, Mariyana; Bäck, Hanna; Müller, Wolfgang C; Strobl, Daniel

    2018-05-01

    Veto player theory generates predictions about governments' capacity for policy change. Due to the difficulty of identifying significant laws needed to change the policy status quo, evidence about governments' ability to change policy has been mostly provided for a limited number of reforms and single-country studies. To evaluate the predictive power of veto player theory for policy making across time, policy areas and countries, a dataset was gathered that incorporates about 5,600 important government reform measures in the areas of social, labour, economic and taxation policy undertaken in 13 Western European countries from the mid-1980s until the mid-2000s. Veto player theory is applied in a combined model with other central theoretical expectations on policy change derived from political economy (crisis-driven policy change) and partisan theory (ideology-driven policy change). Robust support is found that governments introduce more reform measures when economic conditions are poor and when the government is positioned further away from the policy status quo. No empirical support is found for predictions of veto player theory in its pure form, where no differentiation between government types is made. However, the findings provide support for the veto player theory in the special case of minimal winning cabinets, where the support of all government parties is sufficient (in contrast to minority cabinets) and necessary (in contrast to oversized cabinets) for policy change. In particular, it is found that in minimal winning cabinets the ideological distance between the extreme government parties significantly decreases the government's ability to introduce reforms. These findings improve our understanding of reform making in parliamentary democracies and highlight important issues and open questions for future applications and tests of the veto player theory.

  2. Shaping Policy Curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broome, André; Seabrooke, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    provide a conceptual framework for understanding how IOs seek to use their own cognitive authority to foster ‘diagnostic coordination’ across technocratic economic policy communities. This encourages officials to adapt to a common policy language and delimits the policy space within which they identify......International organizations (IOs) such as the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank are assumed to rely on ‘sympathetic interlocutors’ at the national level to drive through economic reforms that conform to global policy norms. In this article we answer the following question: How do...... sympathetic interlocutors for IOs emerge in the first place? We address this question by examining how IOs engage in teaching norms to national officials via transnational policy training in order to increase the number of domestic reformers who are sympathetic to their prescriptions for policy change. We...

  3. Catalytic reforming methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadd, Andrew R; Schwank, Johannes

    2013-05-14

    A catalytic reforming method is disclosed herein. The method includes sequentially supplying a plurality of feedstocks of variable compositions to a reformer. The method further includes adding a respective predetermined co-reactant to each of the plurality of feedstocks to obtain a substantially constant output from the reformer for the plurality of feedstocks. The respective predetermined co-reactant is based on a C/H/O atomic composition for a respective one of the plurality of feedstocks and a predetermined C/H/O atomic composition for the substantially constant output.

  4. Reforming the health care system: implications for health care marketers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrochuk, M A; Javalgi, R G

    1996-01-01

    Health care reform has become the dominant domestic policy issue in the United States. President Clinton, and the Democratic leaders in the House and Senate have all proposed legislation to reform the system. Regardless of the plan which is ultimately enacted, health care delivery will be radically changed. Health care marketers, given their perspective, have a unique opportunity to ensure their own institutions' success. Organizational, managerial, and marketing strategies can be employed to deal with the changes which will occur. Marketers can utilize personal strategies to remain proactive and successful during an era of health care reform. As outlined in this article, responding to the health care reform changes requires strategic urgency and action. However, the strategies proposed are practical regardless of the version of health care reform legislation which is ultimately enacted.

  5. Effects of Welfare Reform on Vocational Education and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Dhaval M.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Corman, Hope; Das, Dhiman

    2011-01-01

    Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, this study estimates the effects of welfare reform on an important source of human capital acquisition among women at risk for relying on welfare: vocational education and training. The results suggest that welfare reform reduced enrollment in full-time vocational education and had no significant effects on part-time vocational education or participation in other types of work-related courses, though there appears to be considerable heterogeneity across states with respect to the strictness of educational policy and the strength of work incentives under welfare reform. In addition, we find evidence of heterogeneous effects by prior educational attainment. We find no evidence that the previously-observed negative effects of welfare reform on formal education (including college enrollment), which we replicated in this study, have been offset by increases in vocational education and training. PMID:22125356

  6. Powering China: Reforming the electric power industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi-Chong Xu

    2002-01-01

    The book reports on the rapidly changing face of the electricity business in China. Reforms by the central government and the need for more and more electric power have pushed the electricity sector from a central planned economy to a markets-based system. The international ramifications of China's reform programme are discussed. The author describes electricity industry reform in other countries including the USA and UK. The author points out that in China after 1998 there was a move to recentralise control but by then it was too late to reverse the reforms. The problems of tariff policies, pricing, and sources of new investments, including from foreign countries, are discussed. The final section of the book deals with problems arising from the need for massive retrenchment of power-section workers, cross-subsidies, and triangular debts. The book is said to provide a sound description of the political economy of power reform in China without getting bogged down in economic modelling

  7. Review of Poor States, Power and the Politics of IMF Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulatu Amare Desta

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The book examines the major cases and policy initiatives of International Monetary Fund (IMF in Low-Income Developing Countries (LIDCs in the post-Washington consensus. The IMF policy reform invites scholarly debate, different theoretical explanation and practically problem oriented in addressing the LIDCs needs and powerful states interests. Hibben analyses the driving factors of IMF LIDCs reforms and stakeholder interests and policy tools to achieve the objectives in place.  In doing so, even though author presents the book through lenses of various IPE theories, mainly he posits the IMF policy reforms through the frameworks of the Principal Agent, Constructivist, and Historical structural theories.

  8. Changing closed agricultural policy communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Termeer, C.J.A.M.; Werkman, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural policy networks have served as classic examples of closed policy communities facing pressure to open up. However, attempts to change them are slowly moving forward. The dialogues on Common Agricultural Policy reforms in which the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture is engaged with a range of

  9. Competitive effects and instruments of power sector reforms. International reform concepts blockade structures, risk distribution. A political economy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebchen, Armin

    2014-01-01

    Power sectors with weak or inadequate competition structures are the rule, despite numerous attempts at reform. But can afford modern economies this defect for a long time? Why can the implementation of competition are blocked so effectively? The author studied international reform experiences and opens up interesting insights that can also reflect on problems of the German energy turnaround: The difficulty of timing and coordination of the reform components, the development of resistance levels of individual interest groups, breach of contract as a rational alternative, causes unwanted price effects, shifting interest situations of major stakeholders, change dynamics impending regulatory risks, pending financing risks, stranded cost-conflict situations for power stations disconnected from the grid and facilities and instruments of a political and regulatory risk management for reforms. With numerous examples, background analyzes and instruments to reform analysis, this book is aimed at investors, policy planners and analysts. [de

  10. Non-catalytic recuperative reformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khinkis, Mark J.; Kozlov, Aleksandr P.; Kurek, Harry

    2015-12-22

    A non-catalytic recuperative reformer has a flue gas flow path for conducting hot flue gas from a thermal process and a reforming mixture flow path for conducting a reforming mixture. At least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path is embedded in the flue gas flow path to permit heat transfer from the hot flue gas to the reforming mixture. The reforming mixture flow path contains substantially no material commonly used as a catalyst for reforming hydrocarbon fuel (e.g., nickel oxide, platinum group elements or rhenium), but instead the reforming mixture is reformed into a higher calorific fuel via reactions due to the heat transfer and residence time. In a preferred embodiment, extended surfaces of metal material such as stainless steel or metal alloy that are high in nickel content are included within at least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path.

  11. Social Security Reform

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nuschler, Dawn

    2005-01-01

    .... In recent years, reform ideas have ranged from relatively minor changes to the current pay-as-you-go social insurance system to a redesigned program based on personal savings and investments modeled after IRAs and 401(k...

  12. Railway Reform in China.

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, J. H.; Nash, C.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this working paper is to consider the current situation of Chinese Railways, the progress of reforms to date, and possible future developments. The first section describes the current problems of Chinese Railways, as a vast organisation subject to strong central control, facing enormous and rapidly growing demands which it is unable to satisfy. The progress of reform in Chinese Railways to date, and in particular the Economic Contract Responsibility System instituted in the lat...

  13. Macroeconomic effects of proposed pension reforms in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Fredriksen, Dennis; Heide, Kim Massey; Holmøy, Erling; Solli, Ingeborg Foldøy

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: Ageing combined with generous welfare state schemes makes the present fiscal policy in Norway unsustainable, despite large government petroleum revenues. We estimate to what extent two suggested reforms of the public pension system improve fiscal sustainability and stimulate employment, two main objectives of the reforms. To this end we apply two large models iteratively: 1) a detailed dynamic micro simulation model to estimate government pension expenditures; 2) a la...

  14. Effects of physician payment reform on provision of home dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Kevin F; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C; Chertow, Glenn M; Bhattacharya, Jay

    2016-06-01

    Patients with end-stage renal disease can receive dialysis at home or in-center. In 2004, CMS reformed physician payment for in-center hemodialysis care from a capitated to a tiered fee-for-service model, augmenting physician payment for frequent in-center visits. We evaluated whether payment reform influenced dialysis modality assignment. Cohort study of patients starting dialysis in the United States in the 3 years before and the 3 years after payment reform. We conducted difference-in-difference analyses comparing patients with traditional Medicare coverage (who were affected by the policy) to others with Medicare Advantage (who were unaffected by the policy). We also examined whether the policy had a more pronounced influence on dialysis modality assignment in areas with lower costs of traveling to dialysis facilities. Patients with traditional Medicare coverage experienced a 0.7% (95% CI, 0.2%-1.1%; P = .003) reduction in the absolute probability of home dialysis use following payment reform compared with patients with Medicare Advantage. Patients living in areas with larger dialysis facilities (where payment reform made in-center hemodialysis comparatively more lucrative for physicians) experienced a 0.9% (95% CI, 0.5%-1.4%; P home dialysis use following payment reform compared with patients living in areas with smaller facilities (where payment reform made in-center hemodialysis comparatively less lucrative for physicians). The transition from a capitated to a tiered fee-for-service payment model for in-center hemodialysis care resulted in fewer patients receiving home dialysis. This area of policy failure highlights the importance of considering unintended consequences of future physician payment reform efforts.

  15. Bureaucratic Reform in Irrigation: A Review of Four Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Suhardiman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Poor performance of government-managed irrigation systems persists globally. This paper argues that addressing performance requires not simply more investment or different policy approaches, but reform of the bureaucracies responsible for irrigation management. Based on reform experiences in The Philippines, Mexico, Indonesia, and Uzbekistan, we argue that irrigation (policy reform cannot be treated in isolation from the overall functioning of government bureaucracies and the wider political structure of the states. Understanding of how and why government bureaucracies shape reform processes and outcomes is crucial to increase the actual significance of reforms. To demonstrate this, the paper links reform processes in the irrigation sector with the wider discourse of bureaucratic reform in the political science, public administration, and organisational science literature. Doing so brings to light the need for systematic comparative research on the organisational characteristic of the irrigation bureaucracies, their bureaucratic identities, and how these are shaped by various segments within the bureaucracies to provide the insights needed to improve irrigation systems performance.

  16. Impacts on investments, and transmission/distribution loss through power sector reforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagayama, Hiroaki

    2010-01-01

    This study analyses original panel data from 86 countries between 1985 and 2006. Econometric methods were used to identify the effects of different policy devices of power sector reforms on performance indicators (installed capacity per capita, transmission and distribution loss) in the countries analyzed. The research findings suggest that reform variables such as the entry of independent power producers (IPPs), unbundling of generation and transmission, establishment of regulatory agencies, and the introduction of a wholesale spot market are the driving forces of increasing generation capacity, as well as reducing transmission and distribution loss in the respective regions. In this study, we can assume that, firstly, different electric industry's reform policies/measures have different impacts on geographically and economically diverse countries. Secondly, a country's state of economic development has a different impact on policy effects of reforms. Thirdly, coexistent with independent regulatory agencies, reform policy becomes more powerful in realizing sector performances.

  17. Education Reform: Ten Years after the Massachusetts Education Reform Act of 1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Driscoll, Joseph B. Berger, Ronald K. Hambleton, Lisa A. Keller, Robert W. Maloy, David Hart, Paul Oh, Victoria Getis, Susan Bowles, Francis L. Gougeon, Kathryn A. McDermott, Andrew Churchill

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available In June 1993, Governor William Weld signed into law the Massachusetts Education Reform Act (MERA. MERA greatly increased the state role both in funding public education and in guiding the local educational process. The state’s role changed to incorporate setting curriculum frameworks and holding schools accountable for student performance. Because MERA was designed to be a systemic reform of education, all of the various state activities and policies needed to fit together into a coherent whole based on state educational standards.

  18. Fact-Challenged Policy. Policy Memorandum #182

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a response on the topic of school reform efforts being promoted by Bill Gates and other prominent education policy advocates. Last week, Microsoft Chairman Bill Gates published an op-ed in the Washington Post, "How Teacher Development could Revolutionize our Schools," proposing that American public schools should do a…

  19. Stakeholder learning for health sector reform in Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Simone; Pholsena, Soulivanh; Gao, Jun; Oliveira Cruz, Valeria

    2016-09-01

    Development organizations and academic institutions have expressed the need for increased research to guide the development and implementation of policies to strengthen health systems in low- and middle-income countries. The extent to which evidence-based policies alone can produce changes in health systems remains a point of debate; other factors, such as a country's political climate and the level of actor engagement, have been identified as influential variables in effective policy development and implementation. In response to this debate, this article contends that the success of health sector reform depends largely on policy learning-the degree to which research recommendations saturate a given political environment in order to successfully inform the ideas, opinions and perceived interests of relevant actors. Using a stakeholder analysis approach to analyze the case of health sector reform in Lao PDR, we examine the ways that actors' understanding and interests affect the success of reform-and how attitudes towards reform can be shaped by exposure to policy research and international health policy priorities. The stakeholder analysis was conducted by the WHO during the early stages of health sector reform in Lao PDR, with the purpose of providing the Ministry of Health with concrete recommendations for increasing actor involvement and strengthening stakeholder support. We found that dissemination of research findings to a broad array of actors and the inclusion of diverse stakeholder groups in policy design and implementation increases the probability of a sustainable and successful health sector reform. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. The formation of ‘policy truths’: Foucault and social policy discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Pickerden, Alex; Evans, Donna; Piggott, David

    2015-01-01

    Discuss current approaches to policy analysis Illustrate an alternative method for policy analysis influenced by the theoretical concepts of Michel Foucault Briefly analyse current research which has focused upon education policy and education reform in the United Kingdom (UK) Introduce the concept of ‘policy truths’ and explain how this idea can aid in the critique of neoliberal policies and neoliberal governmentality

  1. Energy pricing policy in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davood Manzoor

    1995-01-01

    Low energy prices in Iran do not reflect economic costs. Further distortions exist in the tariff structures of most energy sources and in their relative prices. Price reform is a key policy element for achieving increased energy conservation and economic substitution. Subsidies should be made transparent and explained by the Government, and, when eliminated, they could be compensated by target measures or direct subsidies for low income households. Price reforms are under way, with some caution though, because of possible political and inflationary consequences. In order to better understand the need for price reforms a brief analysis of the current energy pricing policy is provided there. (author)

  2. Economic Reforms and Gender-based Wage Inequality in the Presence of Factor Market Distortions

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhuri, Sarbajit; Roychowdhury, Somasree

    2014-01-01

    A simple three-sector general equilibrium model has been developed with both male and female labour and factor market distortions. The effects of different liberalized economic policies have been examined on the gender-based wage inequality. The analysis finds that credit market reform and tariff reform produce favourable effects on the wage inequality while the liberalized investment policy becomes counterproductive. These results have important policy implications for a small open developin...

  3. Electricity sector reform in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliadou, Ekaterini N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides an outlook of the electricity market reform in Greece which started in 2001 and is still developing slowly. This is related to the persisting dominance of the incumbent company and the specificities of the electricity sector of Greece which is heavily dependent on indigenous lignite firing generation, while being located in the periphery of the EU internal electricity and gas markets. Competition through enhancing electricity trade in the region is limited to date, as the establishment of an internal market in South East Europe also progresses slowly. Development of competition through gas-firing generation by new entrants has been the priority adopted by State and Regulator's policies. However, the gas supply market in Greece and in the region still lags behind. (author)

  4. The Little White School House: The Impact of Progressive Reform on the Social and Educational Policy of the United States Indian Service and Bureau of Indian Affairs, 1895-1940.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senese, Guy Blaise

    Christian (1880-1900) and Progressive (1920-1940) reforms affected the U.S. government's attempt to acculturate and educate American Indians. Religious groups supported the Dawes Allotment Act (1887), which allotted parcels of land, previously tribally held, to individual Indians. This led to de-tribalization, loss of cultural identity, and loss…

  5. [Human resources for health in Chile: the reform's pending challenge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Claudio A

    2009-09-01

    Omission of human resources from health policy development has been identified as a barrier in the health sector reform's adoption phase. Since 2002, Chile's health care system has been undergoing a transformation based on the principles of health as a human right, equity, solidarity, efficiency, and social participation. While the reform has set forth the redefinition of the medical professions, continuing education, scheduled accreditation, and the introduction of career development incentives, it has not considered management options tailored to the new setting, a human resources strategy that has the consensus of key players and sector policy, or a process for understanding the needs of health care staff and professionals. However, there is still time to undo the shortcomings, in large part because the reform's implementation phase only recently has begun. Overcoming this challenge is in the hands of the experts charged with designing public health strategies and policies.

  6. UKRAINIAN PEASANTRY AS AN OBJECT OF AGRARIAN REFORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Krivchik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose. The article attempts to analyze the agrarian policy of the modern Ukrainian State in the context of its human factor. It demonstrates the effects of agrarian reforms on social sphere of Ukrainian countryside. Methodology. The author uses the following methods: dialectical – in the depiction of the controversial nature of agrarian reforms; retrospective – in determination of the main stages of agrarian transformations inUkraine; comparative – in revealing common and different features in the agrarian policy of theUSSR and modernUkraine.The scientific novelty is in the substantiation of the natural unity of economic and social policies in agriculture, the use of a variety of historical sources for this purpose. Conclusions. While conducting agrarian reform, started in the early 1990s, and continued up to the present time, only economic factors are taken into consideration. At the same time, human factor, and the interests of the peasantry, in particular, were ignored and not taken into account, despite the declarations and promises of politicians. Peasants were removed from the determination of objectives, directions and methods of the agrarian reform. They acted solely as an object and not the subject of the reform. In this sense, the methods for carrying out agrarian reforms in an independent and democraticUkraine do not differ much from the methods of the Bolshevik leadership. Thus, as it is shown in the article, the consequences of the agrarian reform can be equally dangerous for Ukrainian peasants. The peasants will lose their land forever and become laborers on the land inherited from previous generations. While carrying out a large-scale reform of the agrarian sector, it mustn’t be allowed for oligarchs to take countryside, land and agriculture into their hands. The regulations of sale and purchase of the land must be so that the Ukrainian peasant will remain the main contractor.

  7. Pending reforms: challenges to governabilty in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Fleury

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available After President Lula’s two terms of office, the election of Dilma Rousseff generated all kinds of different expectations, whether because of the candidate’s lack of a political career within the Workers’ Party (PT, or because of her rather uncharismatic personality and poor propensity towards political negotiations with the allied parties that favoured the governability of the previous term of office. The country she has inherited is in a much better situation than the one inherited by the first PT government, with a stabilised economy and inflation under control. The sustainable policies for reducing poverty have generated conditions that encourage the enlargement of the middle class which, together with the creation of popular credit mechanisms, have served to halt the effects of the world crisis and have generated enormous expectations of social mobility. This scenario, together with the country’s increasingly recognised presence as an important international actor, provides unprecedented possibilities for the advancement of the “development with social inclusion” project. Nevertheless, certain reforms still need to be implemented that could threaten governability: political reform, federative agreement and tax reform, as well as social reforms.

  8. Drug pricing reform in China: analysis of piloted approaches and potential impact of the reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yixi; Hu, Shanlian; Dong, Peng; Kornfeld, Åsa; Jaros, Patrycja; Yan, Jing; Ma, Fangfang; Toumi, Mondher

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In 2009, the Chinese government launched a national healthcare reform programme aiming to control healthcare expenditure and increase the quality of care. As part of this programme, a new drug pricing reform was initiated on 1 June 2015. The objective of this study was to describe the changing landscape of drug pricing policy in China and analyse the potential impact of the reform. Methods The authors conducted thorough research on the drug pricing reform using three Chinese databases (CNKI, Wanfang, and Weipu), Chinese health authority websites, relevant press releases, and pharmaceutical blogs and discussion forums. This research was complemented with qualitative research based on targeted interviews with key Chinese opinion leaders representing the authorities’ and prescribers’ perspectives. Results With the current reform, the government has attempted to replace its direct control over the prices of reimbursable drugs with indirect, incentive-driven influence. Although the exact implementation of the reform remains unclear at the moment, the changes introduced so far and the pilot project designs indicate that China is considering adaptation of some form of internal and external reference pricing policies, commonly used in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. Several challenges related to the potential new mechanism were identified: 1) the risk of hospital underfunding, if hospital funding reform is not prioritised; 2) the risk of promoting the use of cheap, low-quality drugs, if a reliable quality control system is not in place and discrepancy between the available drugs is present; 3) the risk of increasing disparity in access to care between poor and rich regions, in case of country-wide price convergence; and 4) the risk of industry underinvestment, resulting in reduced competition, issues with quality and sustainability of supply, and potentially negative social impact. Conclusions Foreign pricing policies

  9. Health care reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marušič, Dorjan; Prevolnik Rupel, Valentina

    2016-09-01

    In large systems, such as health care, reforms are underway constantly. The article presents a definition of health care reform and factors that influence its success. The factors being discussed range from knowledgeable personnel, the role of involvement of international experts and all stakeholders in the country, the importance of electoral mandate and governmental support, leadership and clear and transparent communication. The goals set need to be clear, and it is helpful to have good data and analytical support in the process. Despite all debates and experiences, it is impossible to clearly define the best approach to tackle health care reform due to a different configuration of governance structure, political will and state of the economy in a country.

  10. Health care reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marušič Dorjan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In large systems, such as health care, reforms are underway constantly. The article presents a definition of health care reform and factors that influence its success. The factors being discussed range from knowledgeable personnel, the role of involvement of international experts and all stakeholders in the country, the importance of electoral mandate and governmental support, leadership and clear and transparent communication. The goals set need to be clear, and it is helpful to have good data and analytical support in the process. Despite all debates and experiences, it is impossible to clearly define the best approach to tackle health care reform due to a different configuration of governance structure, political will and state of the economy in a country.

  11. The Danish Police Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degnegaard, Rex; Mark, Sofie

    2013-01-01

    Many cases highlight the need for responsible management in regards to transparency of organisations and involvement of stakeholders in decisions that will impact citizens, patients, customers and/or clients. Often these cases take an outside-in approach as they illustrate why it is essential...... for organisations to work with transparency and involvement with the aim of upholding and further developing a social responsibility to their environment. This case on the other hand takes an inside-out perspective on social responsibility by illustrating how social responsibility is necessary for public......, the reform process was problematic and the following years were challenging and filled with changes and turbulence. Media, politicians and the police itself directed heavy criticism towards the effects of the reform and reviews of the reform as well as of the work of the police were carried out resulting...

  12. The politics of policy : participatory irrigation management in Andhra Pradesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikku, B.R.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis studies the emergence, process and politics of the Andhra Pradesh reform policy of Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM). The reform has been labeled as the 'A? model' of irrigation reforms and supported by external aid agencies like World Bank. Within a short span of time Andhra

  13. Shaping China's energy security: The impact of domestic reforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Lixia; Chang, Youngho

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a subsequent study of China's energy security situation which concludes that China's energy security has not improved over 30 years of economic reform. The objective of the study is to explore qualitatively why the energy security situation has not improved. To answer the ‘why’ question, the study opens up a new perspective by analyzing the relationship between energy security and energy policies from the macroeconomic reform perspective. This study discusses major reforms that took place over 30 years. It is found that China's macroeconomic reform has restricted the formation of China's energy policies and determined its energy security situation. In essence, China's energy policies are only a reaction to the macroeconomic measures. In other words, China's energy policies are not originally intended to improve energy security, but passive reactions to China's macroeconomic reform. This explains why China did not improve its energy security situation despite 30 years of reform. - Highlights: • This study identifies relationship between China's reform and energy policy. • This study identifies the key variable that has affected China's energy security. • Policy implication of the identification is drawn. • A new perspective to analyze energy security is provided

  14. Evolving Governance and Contested Water Reforms in Australia’s Murray Darling Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Alexandra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the ways water governance adapts to changing social values and political imperatives by examining the case of water policy reforms in Australia’s Murray Darling Basin. Over more than two decades, Australia’s water reforms have explicitly aimed to promote ecological sustainability and economic efficiency, attempting to balance pro-market, micro-economic reforms with broader social and sustainability goals. Despite the formality of Australia’s intergovernmental agreements, water reforms have been expensive and heavily contested, experiencing many implementation challenges. However, water market reforms have generally been regarded as successful, enabling the reallocation of water for environmental and extractive uses, contributing to flexibility and adaptive capacity. Recognising that discursive contestation is central to policy development, the paper documents the way the reform processes have attempted to broker compromises between three competing policy paradigms—national development, economic rationalism and environmentalism. These inherent tensions resulted in prolonged contests for influence over policy directions long after formal statements of policy intent by Governments. Given that climate change is driving the need for water governance reforms, the paper looks to what lessons can be learnt about the redesigns of meta-governance arrangements, including through structured commitments to independent audits and evaluations that can provide the feedback needed for adaptive governance and policy learning.

  15. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min

    2017-01-01

    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured

  16. China’s Entrance to the WTO and Financial Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Soon Park

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The openness and liberalization of China’s financial market is expected to accelerate with her entrance to the WTO. China plans to carry out liberalization measures, including the expansion of the Renminbi business scope. Openness and liberalization will expedite the integration of internal and external sectors, thereby making the domestic financial market more vulnerable to environmental changes. Consequently, China should establish a strong financial system to efficiently cope with the contagion effects of an external financial crisis. However, China’s financial system is still very weak, mainly due to the enormous bad loans to SOEs (state-owned enterprises. Accordingly, the Chinese government should carry out financial reform measures such as strengthening the financial supervision system, dealing with bad bank loans and restructuring the financial institutions. On the whole, China’s entrance to the WTO is expected to have a positive influence on her financial sector by accelerating such reform policies as financial reform and SOE reform. Entrance to the WTO will make society recognize the necessity of reform and openness. The Chinese government can decide to push some difficult reform policies which would not have been considered without WTO entrance.

  17. Health sector reform in Argentina: a cautionary tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Sherlock, Peter

    2005-04-01

    In November 2002 the World Bank published a report on the Argentine health sector. The report accurately portrays the complexity and severity of the problems facing the health care system. It stresses that these problems are not purely a product of the country's economic collapse, noting that the system has suffered from long-standing structural problems and inefficiencies. Curiously, the report makes no mention of the leading role played by the World Bank in health reform efforts during the 1990s. This paper demonstrates that these reforms did much to worsen pre-existing weaknesses of the sector. The paper criticises the content of the reform agenda and the manner in which it was produced, arguing that these were reforms in which considerations of public health were less significant than conformity to the wider model of neo-liberal social and economic development prevailing at the time. It also highlights problems of implementing the reform agenda, which reduced the coherency of the reforms. The paper goes on to examine the impact of the crisis, noting links with the preceding reforms. It identifies a number of insights and lessons of potential value to other countries which are pursuing similar policies.

  18. Reforming Technical and Technological Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David N.

    1993-01-01

    Review of technical and technological educational reform in Brazil, Canada, Germany, Great Britain, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and Sweden shows that reform takes time to complete effectively, long-term approaches are needed, and reform is linked to industrial development, regional cooperation, and decentralized decision making. (SK)

  19. Education as Recovery: Neoliberalism, School Reform, and the Politics of Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Graham B.

    2015-01-01

    Building upon critical education policy studies of crisis, disaster, and reform, this essay develops a theory of "recovery" that further elaborates the nature and operation of "crisis politics" in neoliberal education reform. Recovery is an integral process in capital accumulation, exploiting material, and subjective…

  20. Thailand - Social and Structural Review : Beyond the Crisis - Structural Reform for Stable Growth

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2000-01-01

    Following the East Asian financial crisis, the Bank's involvement in Thailand intensified, enabling a multifaceted stabilization, and structural reform dialogue, which deepened the economic, financial, and sector knowledge of the country. The study benefits from this analytical work, and provides an overview on the ongoing policy dialogue, regarding short- and medium-term reform, through a...

  1. Enhancing teaching and learning in the Dutch vocational education system : Reforms enacted

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elly de Bruijn; Stephen Billett; Jeroen Onstenk

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses how the Dutch vocational education system has undergone significant waves of reform driven by global imperatives, national concerns and governmental policy goals. Like elsewhere, the impetuses for these reforms are directed to generating a more industry-responsive,

  2. Evaluation of Large-Scale Public-Sector Reforms: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidahl, Karen N.; Gjelstrup, Gunnar; Hansen, Hanne Foss; Hansen, Morten Balle

    2017-01-01

    Research on the evaluation of large-scale public-sector reforms is rare. This article sets out to fill that gap in the evaluation literature and argues that it is of vital importance since the impact of such reforms is considerable and they change the context in which evaluations of other and more delimited policy areas take place. In our…

  3. High School Diversification against Educational Equality: A Critical Analysis of Neoliberal Education Reform in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jeongran

    2011-01-01

    Recent reforms of high school education in Korea have focused on transforming the uniform and standardized system into a deregulated and diversified system that has an emphasis on school choice and competition. Situating the high school diversification policy in the context of the recent controversy of the neoliberal educational reform, this study…

  4. Reforming a University during Political Transformation: A Case Study of Yangon University in Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esson, James; Wang, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    Since 2010, Myanmar has been transitioning from an authoritarian military regime towards a parliamentary democracy. Several education policies have been launched as part of this political transformation process, including the reform of Myanmar's flagship higher education institution, Yangon University. This article investigates the reform of…

  5. Intersections between School Reform, the Arts, and Special Education: The Children Left Behind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourigan, Ryan M.

    2014-01-01

    Arts education and special education within public schools have faced similar challenges in the wake of school reform. Services and programming have been reduced, leaving a larger gap in resources and accessibility. Because of loopholes in policy, new reform initiatives such as vouchers and charter schools will continue to marginalize students…

  6. The Brazilian Experience with Agroecological Extension: A Critical Analysis of Reform in a Pluralistic Extension System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesel, Vivien; Miná Dias, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the Brazilian experience in designing and implementing a recent extension policy reform based on agroecology, and reflect on its wider theoretical implications for extension reform literature. Design/methodology/approach: Using a critical public analysis we characterize the evolution of Brazilian federal extension policy…

  7. Complicating the Rhetoric: How Racial Construction Confounds Market-Based Reformers' Civil Rights Invocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Laura E.

    2016-01-01

    Reformers today maintain the use of civil rights rhetoric when advocating for policies that address educational inequity. While continuing the legacy of earlier civil rights activists, the leaders invoking this rhetoric and the educational platforms they promote differ greatly from previous decades. Not only does this new crop of reformers differ…

  8. Global pension systems and their reform: Worldwide drivers, trends, and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Holzmann, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Across the world, pension systems and their reforms are in a constant state of flux driven by shifting objectives, moving reform needs, and a changing enabling environment. The ongoing worldwide financial crisis and the adjustment to an uncertain 'new normal' will make future pension systems different from past ones. The objectives of this policy review paper are threefold: (i) to briefly ...

  9. Converging Paths or Ships Passing in the Night? An "English" Critique of Japanese School Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Andy

    2000-01-01

    Examines origins and potential effects of liberalizing reforms in Japanese secondary education in light of British experiences with policies such as local school management and school choice. Argues that Japanese reform involves necessary diversification of curriculum and pedagogic practices, but administrative shifts toward deregulation and…

  10. Negotiating Tensions: Grassroots Organizing, School Reform, and the Paradox of Neoliberal Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygreen, Kysa

    2017-01-01

    Drawing from ethnographic fieldwork at a community-based organization (CBO) engaged in parent organizing for urban school reform, this paper examines how organizers engaged with the imperatives of neoliberal reform and the broader neoliberal policy context. It highlights organizers' agency but also shows how hegemonic discourse constrained their…

  11. Electricity reform in Argentina: Lessons for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollitt, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Argentina was one of the first countries in the world to implement a comprehensive reform of its electricity sector. Among developing countries only Chile has had a comparably comprehensive and successful reform. This paper traces the history of the Argentine reform, which began in 1992, and assesses its progress and its lessons. We conclude that the reform was very successful prior to the collapse of the Argentine peso in early 2002. We suggest lessons for the generation, transmission and distribution (and retailing) sectors, as well as the economic regulation of electricity and the general institutional environment. We note that the achievements of the sector have been severely strained by the government's poor energy policy since the crisis

  12. Regulatory reform in Turkish energy industry: An analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdogdu, Erkan

    2007-01-01

    The Republic of Turkey has initiated an ambitious reform program in the most important segments of her energy market; which requires privatization, liberalization as well as a radical restructuring of these industries. However, there is no consensus that the measures introduced are optimal. The present article attempts, first, to evaluate the regulatory framework created by the laws of 2001 in terms of economic efficiency considerations; and second, to determine what still needs to be done to improve the current situation. The paper not only provides an analysis of these reforms but also lists some policy suggestions. The study concludes that despite relatively good legislative framework, in practice, the reforms in Turkey are far from ideal as they are mainly in the form of 'textbook reforms'; and therefore a significant amount of work still lies ahead of Turkey to set up a fully fledged energy market

  13. Distinctions, Affiliations, and Professional Knowledge in Financial Reform Commissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Tsingou, Eleni

    the different stresses in reports with and without clear mandates, and the role of important members of the policy community in promoting particular reform ideas. The article finds that differences in ideas emerging from the financial reform expert groups reflect nested power relationships in the commissioning...... the reports. Fractal distinctions, such as between ‘behavior’ or ‘system’ as a reform focus, allow us to locate the object of regulation within expert groups, experts’ professional context, and the politics behind the commissioning of work. Analyzing fractal distinctions provides a useful way to understand...... of work, constituent audiences, and reform priorities among governing institutions, rather than distinct ‘European’ and ‘American’ ideas....

  14. Distinctions, Affiliations, and Professional Knowledge in Financial Reform Expert Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Tsingou, Eleni

    2014-01-01

    to understand the different stresses in reports with and without clear mandates, and the role of important members of the policy community in promoting particular reform ideas. The contribution finds that differences in ideas emerging from the financial reform expert groups reflect nested power relationships...... the reports. Fractal distinctions, such as between ‘behaviour’ or ‘system’ as a reform focus, allow us to locate the object of regulation within expert groups, the experts' professional context and the politics behind the commissioning of work. Analysing fractal distinctions provides a useful way...... in the commissioning of work, constituent audiences and reform priorities among governing institutions, rather than distinct ‘European’ and ‘American’ ideas....

  15. Electricity reform in Argentina: Lessons for developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollitt, Michael [Judge Business School and ESRC Electricity Policy Research Group, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-15

    Argentina was one of the first countries in the world to implement a comprehensive reform of its electricity sector. Among developing countries only Chile has had a comparably comprehensive and successful reform. This paper traces the history of the Argentine reform, which began in 1992, and assesses its progress and its lessons. We conclude that the reform was very successful prior to the collapse of the Argentine peso in early 2002. We suggest lessons for the generation, transmission and distribution (and retailing) sectors, as well as the economic regulation of electricity and the general institutional environment. We note that the achievements of the sector have been severely strained by the government's poor energy policy since the crisis. (author)

  16. Reform Implementation and Educational Management in Vocational Colleges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friche, Nanna; Slottved, Mette

    In 2014, a new reform of the VET system in Denmark was decided by a broad political coalition in the Parliament. This reform implies fundamental changes in VET, for example by changing the course structure and design, by an intended boost of teaching quality, by limited access, and a separation...... and targets reflects governance principles of performance management. Performance management is an idea that is growing in popularity, in Europa and abroad. In Denmark, the VET reform represents an example of how management philosophy and ideas of performance management inform a number of current reforms...... in the policy area of education. The logic of performance management is that organizations and individuals are given objectives, measurable indicators are derived from these objectives, and features such as authority or incentives are deployed in order for organizational actors to meet or improve performance...

  17. Comments on regulatory reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrie, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear regulatory reform is divided into two parts. The first part contains all those matters for which new legislation is required. The second part concerns all those matters that are within the power of the Commission under existing statutes. Recommendations are presented

  18. Comments on regulatory reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrie, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear regulatory reform is divided into two parts. The first part contains all those matters for which new legislation is required. The second part concerns all those matters that are within the power of the Commission under existing statutes. Recommendations are presented.

  19. Steam reforming of ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trane-Restrup, Rasmus; Dahl, Søren; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2013-01-01

    Steam reforming (SR) of oxygenated species like bio-oil or ethanol can be used to produce hydrogen or synthesis gas from renewable resources. However, deactivation due to carbon deposition is a major challenge for these processes. In this study, different strategies to minimize carbon deposition...

  20. Welfare Reform and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitler, Marianne P.; Gelback, Jonah B.; Hoynes, Hilary W.

    2005-01-01

    A study of the effect of state and federal welfare reforms over the period 1990-2000 on health insurance coverage and healthcare utilization by single women aged between 20-45 is presented. It is observed that Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996 which replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program of 1990s with…

  1. Teenagers and Welfare Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offner, Paul

    This report examines the extent to which welfare reform is changing adolescent behaviors that lead to welfare dependency. It begins by discussing the provisions in the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 that require teenagers to stay in school and live with a parent, concluding that relatively little can be…

  2. Lithuanian way of reforms to electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacauskas, A.

    2002-01-01

    Lithuania has inherited a structure of the energy industry, which originally has been developed not for the country, as an independent state, but according to the provisions of the former USSR energy policy, covering energy demand of whole region, including the Baltic countries, Belarus and the Kaliningrad region of Russia. The Lithuanian power system is interconnected by high voltage power lines and operates in parallel with Latvian, Estonian, Russian and Belarus power systems. During twelve years of independence the power sector passed significant changes from a vertically integrated monopoly to some separate power companies and meets EU requirements to an internal electricity market. The main issues of reforms: transparency of costs, commercial relations in power sector, fulfilment of the Electricity Directive 96/92/EU. The Lithuanian electricity market is small and inefficient. Current reforms of a power sector are directed to create the common Baltic electricity market. (author)

  3. Conditions for successful land reform in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JA Groenewald

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Land reform has traditionally had two objectives: equity and productivity. Food insecurity and the need for agriculture to contribute to development emphasise the need to maintain and improve productivity while improving equitability. Land must foster production and agriculture must attract good human material. The following areas need to be considered in policy formulation and delivery: an effective institutional framework involving all the relevant public and private bodies; efficient fiscal planning is essential; potentially successful farmers must be selected and given special support, including extension and adult education; complementary services and infrastructure are needed; prioritisation of functions and land tenure reform is often necessary. In addition, international agricultural markets are very important for Africa.  Wealthy nations should cease trade-distorting protection of their own farmers.

  4. The 'reformation' of counselling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Lotter

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Although the Reformation took place some four hundred years ago, one area in which reformation is really needed today is the counselling of people. Since Wilhelm Wundt started the “study of the mind” in 1879, William James and Sigmund Freud followed and secular psychology gradually has developed to take the “front seat”; hence moving Biblical counselling, which has been practised since the times of the New Testament, to the “back burner”. This development had been going on for the greater part of the 20th century, up to the publication of Competent to Counsel by Jay E. Adams in 1970. In the model for counselling suggested by Adams, the principles of the Reformation of the sixteenth century, Soli Deo Gloria, Soli Scriptura, Soli Fidei, Sola Gratia, etc. were again implemented in assisting and counselling people with personal and interpersonal problems. The epistomological and anthropological approach of secular psychology differs radically from that of Biblical principles, thus necessitating a new “reformation” of counselling. Within this new form counselling, inter alia, implies the following: the Word of God has its rightful place, sin has to be taken seriously and the work of the Holy Spirit should be recognised. In this article it is proposed that the “reformation” of counselling was started by scholars with a Biblical Reformational approach and that this method of counselling followed the parameters of the Reformation of the sixteenth century. This “reformation” developed into a new direction in counselling and still continues today with fascinating new frontiers opening up for Biblical counselling.

  5. The impact of resource tax reform on China's coal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Huihui; Chen, ZhanMing; Wang, Jianliang; Fan, Jihong

    2017-01-01

    Contributing to approximately two-thirds of primary energy consumption, coal usage is the focus of China's energy policies. To regulate the resource taxation system and reduce the burden of coal enterprises, the Chinese government launched a reform of its resource tax system in 2014 for coal, introducing the ad valorem system to replace the volume-based system that had been in place for the preceding thirty years. To assess the impact of the tax reform, this paper constructs two-stage dynamic game models by taking the coal and coal-fired power industries as the players. The market situations of shortage and oversupply are investigated separately. Empirical data are collected to estimate the model parameters for numerical simulations. The model results suggest that the tax reform will reduce both coal prices and the coal industry profitability if the tax levied on each ton of coal is maintained at the same level as before the reform, regardless of whether the market is in a shortage or an oversupply situation. However, the increased buyer's power will amplify the effect of the tax reform. The numerical simulations also provide an estimation of the tax rate of the ad valorem system that maintains the profit of the coal industry. Considering the demand and supply situations in China's coal market, policy recommendations are provided to guide further reform of China's resource tax system. - Highlights: • The paper examines the influence of resource tax reform on China's coal industry. • We construct two-stage game models between coal and coal-fired power industries. • Market situations of shortage and oversupply are studied in two taxation systems. • Coal price will decrease if maintaining the tax levied on each ton of coal the same. • To achieve the reform objective, the ad valorem tax rate should not be set too high.

  6. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk

    2017-02-16

    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured to be submerged in the liquid. The plasma plume from the plasma torch can cause reformation of the hydrocarbon. The device can use a variety of plasma torches that can be arranged in a variety of positions in the liquid container. The devices can be used for the reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons and/or liquid hydrocarbons. The reformation can produce methane, lower hydrocarbons, higher hydrocarbons, hydrogen gas, water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, or a combination thereof.

  7. How to fit demand side management (DSM) into current Chinese electricity system reform?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yongzhen

    2012-01-01

    DSM is one of the best and most practical policy tools available to China for balancing environmental protection and economic growth. The new round of electricity system reform provides a good opportunity to consolidate and integrate DSM policy and expedite its development and implementation. DSM policy can be upgraded by incorporating it into the current electricity system reform. Comparing the potential acceleration of electricity price reform with the possibility of imposing a System Benefit Charge (SBC), the author argues that support for a SBC would be much easier to gather among policymakers and stakeholders in a short time and would have a much better policy effect in the current situation. The author discusses three kinds of price discrimination related to the DSM development in China: time-based electricity pricing, electricity price discrimination for industrial structure adjustment in China (Fujian Province as a case), and direct power purchases by large customers and preferential tariff policy. These can be well designed to be combined with DSM and energy efficiency policy. - Highlights: ► Elements of DSM have been in place since 1993, but without even and reinforced policy. ► DSM can be upgraded by fitting it into current Chinese electricity system reform. ► Both electricity price reform and SBC would mean increases in electricity payment. ►Imposing SBC is much easier and better than speeding up electricity price reform. ► Three kinds of price discrimination can be well designed to be combined with DSM.

  8. Perspectives: parity--prelude to a fifth cycle of reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Howard H

    2002-09-01

    Based on 2000 Carl Taube Lecture at the NIMH Mental Health Economics Meeting. This perspective article examines the relationship between a policy of parity in financing mental health services and the future of reform in service delivery. Applying theories of static and dynamic efficiency to an understanding of parity and the evolution of mental health services, drawing upon Burton Weisbrod s concept of the health care quadrilemma . Each of four cycles of reform in mental health services have contended with issues of static and dynamic efficiency. Each cycle was associated with static efficiency in the management and financing of services, and each was associated with a set of new treatment technologies intended to improve dynamic efficiency. Each reform proved ultimately unsuccessful primarily because of the failure of the treatment technologies to prevent future patient chronicity or to achieve sustained recovery. Recent advances in treatment technology and management of care can permit an unprecedented level of efficiency consistent with a policy of improved access to mainstream health and social welfare resources, including insurance coverage. This policy of so-called financing parity can improve current mental health service delivery, but it may also portend a future fifth cycle of reform. If new technologies continue to advance as full technologies - simple to deliver and producing true recovery - and mainstream resources are made available, then the specialty mental health services may contract dramatically in favor of effective care and treatment of mental illness in primary care and other mainstream settings. Predicting the future of health care is speculative, but it may be easier using the Weisbrod formulation to understand the process of mental health reform. Over-reliance on administrative techniques for building static efficiency and false optimism about dynamic efficiency from new technology have stymied previous reforms. All the same, a fifth cycle

  9. The core to regulatory reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, J.W. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Orders 436, 500, and 636, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, Public Utility Holding Company Act reform, and the 1992 Energy Policy Act all can have significant effects on an LDC's operations. Such changes in an LDC's environments must be balanced by changes within the utility, its marketplace, and its state regulatory environment. The question is where to start. For Columbia Gas Distribution Cos., based in Columbus, OH, the new operating foundation begins with each employee. Internal strength is critical in designing initiatives that meet the needs of the marketplace and are well-received by regulators. Employees must understand not only the regulatory environment in which the LDC operates, but also how their work contributes to a positive regulatory relationship. To achieve this, Columbia initiated the COntinuing Regulatory Education program, or CORE, in 1991. CORE is a regulatory-focused, information-initiative program coordinated by Columbia's Regulatory Policy, Planning, and Government Affairs Department. The CORE programs can take many forms, such as emerging issue discussions, dialogues with regulators and key parties, updates on regulatory fillings, regulatory policy meetings, and formal training classes. The speakers and discussion facilitators can range from human resource department trainers to senior officers, from regulatory department staff members to external experts, or from state commissioners to executives from other LDCs. The goals of CORE initiatives are to: Support a professional level of regulatory expertise through employee participation in well-developed regulatory programs presented by credible experts. Encourage a constructive state regulatory environment founded on communication and cooperation. CORE achieves these goals via five program levels: introductory basics, advanced learning, professional expertise, crossfunctional dialogues, and external idea exchanges

  10. Implementing public employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Flemming; Bredgaard, Thomas

    disciplining of the unemployed (work first) (cf.Bredgaard & Larsen, 2005; Sol & Westerweld, 2005). It is, however, remarkable that in the research field there seems to be a division of labour so that changes in public administration and changes in the substance of employment policies are dealt with separately......Like most other areas within welfare policy, the employment and social policy areas are undergoing far-reaching changes in many countries. Partly in the shape of new forms of governance inspired by New Public Management (NPM), partly through new policies oriented towards activation and stronger....... But there is an interesting question to investigate here: whether and if so how, NPM-inspired reforms are related to changes in employment policy towards a work-first approach? Are changes in public management systems created as deliberate policy changes, or do they bring about more indirect and unintended policy changes...

  11. Madagascar's future climate change intensified actions and policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... actions and policy reforms: fostering local initiatives or business as usual? ... policies in Madagascar, and suggest that there may be fundamental flaws in ... However, World Bank statistics show that, in current terms, Madagascar was ...

  12. The Lesotho curriculum and assessment policy: Opportunities and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hennie

    The Curriculum and Assessment Policy 2009 represents the latest education reform, which marks a ... statements create for educational development in Lesotho. We adopt a ...... approach is adopted in the higher grades, where there is policy ...

  13. Botswana - Accrual Accounting Policy Note and Guide

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    This paper comprises two volumes: volume one, this concise policy and guidance note that deals with the request as outlined, and a volume two which provides more detailed technical guidance on the implementation of International Public Sector accounting Standards (IPSAS) accrual based standards. Recommended reforms directly relevant to this paper include: 1) fiscal reforms on both the reve...

  14. It is our land. Human rights and land tenure reform in Namaqualand, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Wisborg, Poul

    2006-01-01

    ‘It is our land’: Human rights and land tenure reform in Namaqualand, South Africa Secure access to resources is a universal condition of human well-being and is of considerable concern in contemporary human rights discourse, though often neglected in policy and practice. In this respect the South African constitutional guarantees and policies concerning land reform are of wide interest. The main goal of this study is to contribute to the theoretical and empirical understanding of la...

  15. Transnational Veto Players and the Practice of Financial Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsingou, Eleni

    reforms in the regulatory treatment of large financial institutions deemed ‘too big to fail’. Actors debating and developing policy on ‘too big to fail’ may have formal defined constituencies, as regulators, academics or lobbying organisations, but in their transnational interactions they are also...

  16. Transnational Veto Players and the Practice of Financial Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsingou, Eleni

    2015-01-01

    reforms in the regulatory treatment of large financial institutions deemed ‘too big to fail’. Actors debating and developing policy on ‘too big to fail’ may have formal defined constituencies, as regulators, academics or lobbying organisations, but in their transnational interactions they are also...

  17. Impact of Financial Sector Reforms on Domestic Savings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since economic adjustments and financial reforms were undertaken in the early 1990's ... bank investments and cost of intermediation during the pre-financial sector ... It also showed increased fiscal discipline, improved prudential regulations and ... The negative results were caused by lack of a supportive policy, legal, and ...

  18. Jails and Local Justice System Reform: Overview and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copp, Jennifer E.; Bales, William D.

    2018-01-01

    Over the past three decades, the number of people housed in local jails has more than tripled. Yet when it comes to reforming the nation's incarceration policies, write Jennifer Copp and William Bales, researchers, policymakers, and the public alike have focused almost exclusively on state and federal prisons. If you took a snapshot on a single…

  19. Will Mayor De Blasio Turn Back the School Reform Clock?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Peter

    2014-01-01

    While heads were spinning, policy watchers seemed genuinely perplexed by New York City's Mayor de Blasio's education opinions. De Blasio opposed many of Bloomberg's reform efforts despite the achievement gains realized by the nation's largest school district during the last 12 years. Yet on close reading, de Blasio's nine-page education plan…

  20. Evaluation of Large-scale Public Sector Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breidahl, Karen Nielsen; Gjelstrup, Gunnar; Hansen, Hanne Foss

    2017-01-01

    and more delimited policy areas take place. In our analysis we apply four governance perspectives (rational-instrumental, rational-interest based, institutional-cultural and a chaos perspective) in a comparative analysis of the evaluations of two large-scale public sector reforms in Denmark and Norway. We...

  1. State Flexibility: The Minimum Wage and Welfare Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment Policies Inst., Washington, DC.

    In 1999, Congress for the first time, is debating a federal minimum wage hike that will affect low-skilled people who have dramatically fewer options if they cannot find work. This public policy debate has been occasioned by the new state focus on welfare reform that, to some, suggests that a state flexibility approach be applied to the minimum…

  2. Keeping Faith with Economic Reform | Usman | Economic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a rare glimpse of the policy direction of the present government led by President Umar Yaradua, the Minister of Finance Shamsuddeen Usman discusses the significant macroeconomic and structural reforms being put in place. According to him, the direction of the current administration is to sustain macroeconomic ...

  3. Land Tenure and Land Reform in Namibia. | Amoo | Review of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... problems relating to the ownership and administration of the communal lands. Within the parameters of the Constitution, pieces of legislation have been promulgated and new policies have been formulated aimed at both land distribution and land reform. Review of Southern African Studies Volume 3 No. 1 June 1999, pp.

  4. Analysis on Conflicts of China’s Coal Tax Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Dong

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the conflicts which are resulted from coal tax reform in China from economic and public policy perspectives. An analytical framework involving actors, values, interests and institution has been applied. China’s central government eagers to achieve fiscal revenue increase, environmental protection and energy conversation goals by a good governance of coal system. As a traditional and feasible policy instrument, taxation is regarded for dealing with energy issues in poli...

  5. The Effect of Welfare Reform on Women's Marital Bargaining Power

    OpenAIRE

    Bird, Mia

    2011-01-01

    Marital bargaining models predict changes in the policy environment that affect the relative well-being of husbands and wives in divorce will indirectly affect the distribution of power within marriage. This study estimates the effect of 1996 welfare reform policies on the marital bargaining power of women with young children. Although the distribution of marital power cannot be directly observed, I utilize Consumer Expenditure data to infer shifts in bargaining power from changes in family d...

  6. Reforming process. Reformierungsverfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, C.S.

    1982-05-19

    A naphta fraction is subjected to a catalytic reforming process in several series-connected reactors. The first reactor is equipped with a moving catalyst bed containing not more the 30% of volume of the total catalyst amount. The other reactors are designed as packed-bed systems. The content of coke deposited on the catalyst of the first reactor owing to the reforming process is maintained at below 1% of weight. This is effected by periodic removal of a proportion of the contaminated catalyst from the bottom part of the bed, by its regeneration and re-feeding to the top part of the bed. This results in prolonged service life of the catalyst and simultaneous improvement of the anti-knock value of the product.

  7. Environmental fiscal reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Ashish Chaturvedi; Manjeet S. Saluja; Abhijit Banerjee; Rachna Arora

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents concepts and instruments of environmental fiscal reforms (EFR) and their application in the Indian context. EFR can lead to environmental improvement more efficiently and cost effectively than traditional regulation. There is substantial experience of successful EFR implementation in the European Union. India has also adopted some EFR measures such as deregulation of petrol prices, coal cess, and subsidy for setting up common effluent treatment plants. The challenges of imp...

  8. Implementing Security Sector Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-04

    ownership and genuine reform. His experience in Diyala Province indicated that the most effective means of pursuing transition and transformation among...that I have no solution to the security situation in Afghanistan, or to the questions of violence, crime, insurrection, or militias vs . army vs ...than to merge those interests into a greater whole. Franchising of problems or solutions is often the result. In Afghanistan, problems and

  9. Politics, policy and physical education | van Deventer | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To understand educational reform and the form that Physical Education (PE) takes on we need to understand how policy becomes practice and the nature of the political agenda at any particular time. The research problem focuses on the politics involved in the policy process within educational reform regarding PE as a ...

  10. Planes, straws and oysters: the use of metaphors in healthcare reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Ross; Dickinson, Helen

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to examine the metaphors used by senior managers and clinicians in the delivery of healthcare reform. A study of healthcare reform in England carried out a series of semi structured interviews with senior managers and clinicians leading primary and secondary care organisations. Qualitative data analysis examines instances where metaphorical language is used to communicate how particular policy reforms are experienced and the implications these reforms have for organisational contexts. The findings show how metaphorical language is used to explain the interactions between policy reform and organisational contexts. Metaphors are used to illustrate both the challenges and opportunities associated with the reform proposals for organisational change. The authors provide the first systematic study of patterns and meanings of metaphors within English healthcare contexts and beyond. The authors argue that these metaphors provide important examples of "generative" dialogue in their illustration of the opportunities associated with reform. Conversely, these metaphors also provide examples of "degenerative" dialogue in their illustration of a demarcation between the reform policy proposals and existing organisational contexts.

  11. Social Policy in a Global Society: Parallels and Lessons from the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The focus of the 1980s was economic adjustment; in the 1990s, it's social policy reform. ... In Social Policy in a Global Society, international experts examine common social policy ... Asian outlook: New growth dependent on new productivity.

  12. Recent urban policy and development in China: a reversal of "anti-urbanism".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, R Y

    1987-10-01

    The nature of and reasons for China's urban distribution policy adopted in 1982 are examined. The influence of socialist planning ideology on urban policy is noted. Contradictions between economic reform and urban policies are identified.

  13. [Psychiatric reform, federalism, and the decentralization of the public health in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Nilson do Rosário; Siqueira, Sandra Venâncio; Uhr, Deborah; Silva, Paulo Fagundes da; Molinaro, Alex Alexandre

    2011-12-01

    This study examines the relationships between Brazilian psychiatric reform, the adoption of the Centers for Psychosocial Care (CAPS) and the development of the Unified Health System (SUS). The adherence of municipal governments was a variable determinant for the spread of reform, especially due to the continental scale and fragmentation of the Brazilian federation. The article demonstrates the institutional stability of psychiatric reform in Brazil over two decades. The institutional nature of the decision-making process in the public arena has permitted the implementation of new organizational formats through imitation and financial incentives. The psychiatric reform was successful in defending the advantages of CAPS in relation to the asylum and hospital model dominant in past decades. The inductive policies, strengthened and upheld by Law 10.216/2001, transformed the agenda of psychiatric reform, limited to pioneering cities in a national public policy.

  14. Phasing out of environmentally harmful subsidies. Consequences of the 2003 CAP reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Erwin; Hofreither, Markus F. [Institute for Sustainable Economic Development, Department of Economics and Social Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences Vienna (BOKU), Feistmantelstrasse 4, 1180 Vienna (Austria); Sinabell, Franz [Austrian Institute of Economic Research Vienna (WIFO), PO Box 91, 1103 Vienna (Austria)

    2007-01-15

    Subsidies linked to production have been classified as environmentally harmful by the OECD. A core element of the EU 2003 Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) reform is to decouple income support from production. This paper estimates the environmental consequences of this policy reform. An agricultural sector model using a modified version of the positive mathematical programming method depicts the complex natural, structural, and political relationships of Austrian farming. Changes in management measures can be analyzed with respect to their environmental effects by using appropriate indicators. Simulation results show that the 2003 CAP reform will reduce the average cost of production, and may improve environmental conditions regarding soil, water, and greenhouse gases when compared to a scenario without reform. Thus, the new CAP is likely to bring about outcomes which the previous reform (Agenda 2000) promised but did not deliver. (author)

  15. From Bismarck to Beveridge: the other pension reform in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ignacio Conde-Ruiz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ageing is the major challenge for the PAYG pension systems in developed countries. Most of them are undergoing reforms in order to adapt to the new demographic reality. The package of reforms implemented includes increasing the retirement age, reducing the replacement rate, or introducing a sustainability factor linking pension to life expectancy. The aim of this paper is to analyse the potential consequences of a different type of reform that is at a very incipient stage in Spain but that could have a significant impact if it were fully implemented. This reform, called ‘silent reform’ because it is imperceptible to citizens in its early stages, basically consists in increasing maximum pensions in line with inflation instead of wage or productivity growth. This policy is reducing the replacement rate only for high earning workers and increasing the redistributive component of the system. This paper is the first to quantify and evaluate the potential consequences of this type of reform in Spain. We have used an accounting model with heterogeneous agents and overlapping generations in order to project pension expenditure for the next six decades. The results show that this type of reform could potentially contain future expenditure but at the cost of changing the nature of the pension system from a contributory or Bismarckian-type system into a pure redistributive pension system or Beveridgean-type one.

  16. Evaluation of health care system reform in Hubei Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Shuping; Wang, Zhenkun; Yu, Chuanhua

    2014-02-21

    This study established a set of indicators for and evaluated the effects of health care system reform in Hubei Province (China) from 2009 to 2011 with the purpose of providing guidance to policy-makers regarding health care system reform. The resulting indicators are based on the "Result Chain" logic model and include the following four domains: Inputs and Processes, Outputs, Outcomes and Impact. Health care system reform was evaluated using the weighted TOPSIS and weighted Rank Sum Ratio methods. Ultimately, the study established a set of indicators including four grade-1 indicators, 16 grade-2 indicators and 76 grade-3 indicators. The effects of the reforms increased year by year from 2009 to 2011 in Hubei Province. The health status of urban and rural populations and the accessibility, equity and quality of health services in Hubei Province were improved after the reforms. This sub-national case can be considered an example of a useful approach to the evaluation of the effects of health care system reform, one that could potentially be applied in other provinces or nationally.

  17. Institutional determinants of power sector reform in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, Kafait; Arentsen, Maarten J.; Lovett, Jon C.

    2017-01-01

    The electricity supply sector in Pakistan has performed poorly in recent years. Reforms were introduced in the mid-1990s to improve the sector, but progressed slowly with no significant impacts on pre-reform performance. This study uses new institutional economics as a theoretical basis to elucidate reasons for the failure of power sector reforms in Pakistan to make improvements. Interviews with 23 experts using Q-methodology generated 215 statements that were used as a Q concourse. Of these, 51 statements were selected for the Q sample and ranked by 34 respondents depending on their importance. Analysis revealed four important discourses on the determinants of power sector reform failure in Pakistan. These included weak governance structure, country and sectoral endowments, inefficient regulator and unspecified political institutions or unfriendly political contexts. The study recommends establishment of institutions that support a market based power supply sector and improvements to the contractual arrangements between stakeholders to reduce opportunistic behaviour. - Highlights: • This study utilizes New Institutional Approach to study power sector reforms in Pakistan. • Work of Douglass North and Oliver Williamson help create analytical frame. • Q methodology helps overcome data limitations. • Results reveal institutional aspects as important for poor performance of reforms. • Study suggests policy recommendations to improve institutional environment and governance of power sector in Pakistan.

  18. Economic Reforms and Constitutional Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey D. Sachs; Wing Thye Woo; Xiaokai Yang

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between economic reforms and constitutional transition, which has been neglected by many transition economists. It is argued that assessment of reform performance might be very misleading if it is not recognized that economic reforms are just a small part of large scale of constitutional transition. Rivalry and competition between states and between political forces within each country are the driving forces for constitutional transition. We use Russia...

  19. Security Sector Reform in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Abazi, Enika; Bumci, Aldo; Hide, Enri; Rakipi, Albert

    2009-01-01

    International audience; This paper analyses security sector reform (SSR) in Albania. In all its enterprises in reforming the security sector,Albania is assisted by different initiatives and projects that provide expertise and financial support. To assesswhether reforms improved the overall security environment (national and human) of the country, it is necessaryto measure the effectiveness of the various initiatives and projects. This is gauged by how well the initiatives andprojects achieved...

  20. Steam reformer with catalytic combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voecks, Gerald E. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A steam reformer is disclosed having an annular steam reforming catalyst bed formed by concentric cylinders and having a catalytic combustor located at the center of the innermost cylinder. Fuel is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and air is directed at the top of the combustor, creating a catalytic reaction which provides sufficient heat so as to maintain the catalytic reaction in the steam reforming catalyst bed. Alternatively, air is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and a fuel mixture is directed at the top. The catalytic combustor provides enhanced radiant and convective heat transfer to the reformer catalyst bed.

  1. Health Sector Reform in the Kurdistan Region - Iraq: Financing Reform, Primary Care, and Patient Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, C Ross; Moore, Melinda; Hilborne, Lee H; Mulcahy, Andrew W

    2014-12-30

    In 2010, the Kurdistan Regional Government asked the RAND Corporation to help guide reform of the health care system in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. The overarching goal of reform was to help establish a health system that would provide high-quality services efficiently to everyone to prevent, treat, and manage physical and mental illnesses and injuries. This article summarizes the second phase of RAND's work, when researchers analyzed three distinct but intertwined health policy issue areas: development of financing policy, implementation of early primary care recommendations, and evaluation of quality and patient safety. For health financing, the researchers reviewed the relevant literature, explored the issue in discussions with key stakeholders, developed and assessed various policy options, and developed plans or approaches to overcome barriers and achieve stated policy objectives. In the area of primary care, they developed and helped to implement a new management information system. In the area of quality and patient safety, they reviewed relevant literature, discussed issues and options with health leaders, and recommended an approach toward incremental implementation.

  2. Organizational and Managerial Challenges of Reforming Slovenian Public Agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovač Polonca

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Agencies are among the key contemporary public organizations, prospering within reforms carried out worldwide to increase professionalism and rationalism in public administration (PA. Hence, countries have been establishing agencies and delegating them public tasks in order to achieve expertise-based instead of politically-driven and thus more efficient public policies. In such context, the present article addresses the most important strategic documents related to public administration reform (PAR in Slovenia, analyzing their goals in terms of agencification and the main implementation results and gaps.

  3. The Reforming States Group and the Promotion of Federalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Kathleen S.

    1998-01-01

    Since 1991, leaders in health policy from the legislative and executive branches of state government have come together, with financial support and staff collaboration from the Milbank Memorial Fund, to share their experiences and to work on practical solutions to pressing health care problems. What began with a handful of states at the forefront of health reform is now the Reforming States Group (RSG), a bipartisan, voluntary association that includes leaders from over 40 states. This article describes the origins, history, and future prospects of the RSG. PMID:9510901

  4. Nudging towards nutrition? Soft paternalism and obesity-related reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hector, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is one of the most contentious issues facing the United States today. Some researchers warn of an obesity "epidemic" that poses a grave threat to our nation's health, while others attack these claims as alarmist and misguided. This divide reinforces the political schism between advocates of government intervention and anti-regulatory groups. As a result, obesity science finds itself entangled in partisan battles that leave little room for compromise. This paper explores the potential for the political philosophy of soft paternalism to provide a regulatory framework that may appeal to both sides of the obesity reform debate. Soft paternalism draws upon social science research in order to develop policies that encourage better decision-making, while preserving individual choice. Applying this framework to the issue of obesity, I look at two areas of potential reform: 1) information-based policies such as nutritional label design, and 2) policies that affect default choices, such as portion size norms. I find that while soft paternalism is an appealing framework that offers many promising reforms, it is not a panacea. Instead, I argue that these proposals should be considered on their own merit, not as a complete solution precluding other measures. In addition, in light of potential criticism concerning the stigmatizing effect of some obesity-related measures, I suggest that reforms based on soft paternalism can and should be tailored to promote more mindful eating habits. With these concerns in mind, I conclude that soft paternalism is a promising approach that warrants serious consideration by policymakers.

  5. Reform Drivers and Reform Obstacles in Natural Resource Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gezelius, Stig S.; Raakjær, Jesper; Hegland, Troels Jacob

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The ability to transform historical learning into institutional reform is a key to success in the management of common pool natural resources. Based on a model of institutional inertia and a comparative analysis of Northeast Atlantic fisheries management from 1945 to the present....... Institutional inertia entails that large-scale management reform tends to be crisis driven....

  6. Turkish electricity reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagdadioglu, Necmiddin [Department of Public Finance, Hacettepe University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Odyakmaz, Necmi [E.ON Holding, Armada Business Centre, 06520 Ankara (Turkey)

    2009-03-15

    Turkish electricity reform has progressed slowly due to internal resistance against privatisation, and gained momentum after Electricity Market Law of 2001, prepared in line with EU Energy Acquis and established required institutional and legal framework. Although the eligibility threshold has reached 39% market opening rate, the dominant position of public both as owner and decision-maker is still the major problem in the sector. Currently Turkey is self-sufficient in electricity, but likely to face shortages in 10 years if the growing demand is not met by either speeding the liberalisation process, or joining the South East Europe Electricity Market. (author)

  7. Novel Reforming Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfefferle, Lisa D; Haller, Gary L

    2012-10-16

    Aqueous phase reforming is useful for processing oxygenated hydrocarbons to hydrogen and other more useful products. Current processing is hampered by the fact that oxide based catalysts are not stable under high temperature hydrothermal conditions. Silica in the form of structured MCM-41 is thermally a more stable support for Co and Ni than conventional high surface area amorphous silica but hydrothermal stability is not demonstrated. Carbon nanotube supports, in contrast, are highly stable under hydrothermal reaction conditions. In this project we show that carbon nanotubes are stable high activity/selectivity supports for the conversion of ethylene glycol to hydrogen.

  8. Can history improve big bang health reform? Commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchildon, Gregory P

    2018-01-26

    At present, the professional skills of the historian are rarely relied upon when health policies are being formulated. There are numerous reasons for this, one of which is the natural desire of decision-makers to break with the past when enacting big bang policy change. This article identifies the strengths professional historians bring to bear on policy development using the establishment and subsequent reform of universal health coverage as an example. Historians provide pertinent and historically informed context; isolate the forces that have historically allowed for major reform; and separate the truly novel reforms from those attempted or implemented in the past. In addition, the historian's use of primary sources allows potentially new and highly salient facts to guide the framing of the policy problem and its solution. This paper argues that historians are critical for constructing a viable narrative of the establishment and evolution of universal health coverage policies. The lack of this narrative makes it difficult to achieve an accurate assessment of systemic gaps in coverage and access, and the design or redesign of universal health coverage that can successfully close these gaps.

  9. Trends and prospects of tax reforms in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo Ho Lim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the reform trends in Chinese tax systems with emphasis on the structural tax reduction policy that has been enforced in China’s socialist market economy system for the past 10 years. This study also intends to draw the implications of such tax reforms by identifying the relationship between China’s socialist and capitalist market economy systems along with other related tax systems and describing the tax policy trends for the last 10 years. A comparison and analysis of the differences in viewpoints on taxation between these market economy systems is also conducted. The core and specific contents of this study on structural tax reduction policy that has been enforced in China over the past decade are arranged.

  10. Monetary Policy: Its Impact On The Profitability Of Banks In India

    OpenAIRE

    Punita Rao

    2011-01-01

    This purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of monetary policy on the profitability of banks in the context of financial sector reforms in India. We discuss the financial sector reforms and the implication of the banks, the various instruments of monetary policy in India, and the impact of monetary policy on the profitability of banks.

  11. [The context of health care reforms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, C

    2000-01-01

    In Latin America, health sector reforms have gone hand in hand with social and economic trends during the latter half of the twentieth century and have reflected the particular concept of "development" that has been in vogue at different times. Economic stagnation and increased social spending, both hallmarks of the 1960s, led to the decline of the "import substitution" development model, which had prevailed since the beginning of the century, and slowly gave way in the 1980s to the "globalization" model. From the earlier model, a transition took place toward a restructuring of production and a series of economic adjustment policies that led, ironically, to an increase in poverty in Latin America. Implementation of the new model has occurred in two phases. The first, known as the "social reform" or "first generation" phase, sprang from the notion that poverty is the sum of a number of material shortages that can be corrected through an equitable redistribution of a fixed volume of goods belonging to society. This conceptual framework, which was completely devoid of all historical linkages and separated from economic policy, led to social policies whose entire purpose was to mitigate poverty through subsidies targeting the poorest persons in the society. In the second phase of the globalization model, which arose in the 1990s and became known as the "second generation" or "postadjustment" phase, new economic rules came into play that were based primarily on international competition, efficiency in production, and openness and fairness in the capital markets. And if during the initial stage the conceptual strategy behind all social policy was to fight poverty, in the second stage the strategy became one of achieving equity, which was no longer interpreted as the even distribution of a fixed volume of capital goods, but as the sustained provision of greater and better opportunities for all. Having grown accustomed to the protectionism inherent in the earlier

  12. IMF and economic reform in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    approach is in order. However, the cross-country approach is unlikely to provide a sound basis for drawing clear conclusions, so we review IMF programs from a different perspective, involving a broader literature on development strategy. In particular, it is widely accepted that a common characteristic......In this paper we assess the IMF approach to economic reform in developing countries. The impact of IMF program participation on economic growth has been evaluated empirically in a cross-country literature, with little evidence of IMF programs having been successful. This suggests that a fresh...... of IMF programs is a high degree of policy rigidity. This is in contrast with studies which hold that unleashing an economy's growth potential hinges on a set of well-targeted policy interventions aimed at removing country-specific binding constraints. The process of locating constraints that bind...

  13. Medical Education and Curriculum Reform: Putting Reform Proposals in Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kam Yin Chan, MD, MB.BS, MHA

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to elaborate criteria by which the principles of curriculum reform can be judged. To this end, the paper presents an overview of standard critiques of medical education and examines the ways medical curriculum reforms have responded to these critiques. The paper then sets out our assessment of these curriculum reforms along three parameters: pedagogy, educational context, and knowledge status. Following on from this evaluation of recent curriculum reforms, the paper puts forward four criteria with which to gauge the adequacy medical curriculum reform. These criteria enable us to question the extent to which new curricula incorporate methods and approaches for ensuring that its substance: overcomes the traditional opposition between clinical and resource dimensions of care; emphasizes that the clinical work needs to be systematized in so far as that it feasible; promotes multi-disciplinary team work, and balances clinical autonomy with accountability to non-clinical stakeholders.

  14. Reforming Equalization: Balancing Efficiency, Entitlement and Ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bev Dahlby

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we provide an overview of the equalization grant system in Canada and the issues that have been raised concerning the reform of the fiscal transfer system. Any reforms to the equalization grant system have to balance three concerns — “efficiency” effects that arise through federal financing of transfers, and the incentive effects on provincial fiscal policies, “entitlement” to reasonably comparable public services at reasonably comparable levels of taxation, and “ownership” of resources and independence of fiscal policies by provincial governments. Five proposals for reform of the equalization system are discussed. With regard to the inclusion rate for resource revenues in equalization formula, we argue that the rate should be reduced from 50 per cent to 25 per cent and that ceiling on total equalization payments should be eliminated. We argue against the proposal to exempt from the calculation of equalization entitlements that are deposited in provincial sovereign wealth funds because this would not reduce total equalization entitlements in present value terms, it would be complex to implement if it extended to all forms of savings by provinces (such as debt reduction, and it would not alter the resource rich provinces’ incentives to save more of their resource revenues. We argue against a proposal to reduce CHT and CST to provinces with above average fiscal capacities because this would reduce their incentive to develop and tax their resources, and it would be counter to the purpose of these block grants, which is to reduce the vertical fiscal imbalance between the federal and the provincial governments. We review the Gusen (2012a proto-type model for incorporating variations in costs and needs in the computation of the equalization entitlements and argue that this procedure seems feasible and merits further analysis.

  15. Public Benefits and Power Sector Reform. Report from an International Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Lars J.; Arvidson, Anders; Eberhard, Anton (eds.)

    2003-10-01

    The Workshop on Public Benefits and Power Sector Reform was motivated by the need to address broader development goals and advance the provision of public benefits in power sector reforms. The primary objectives were: To provide a forum for a discussion among specialists, of how the provision of public benefits can be expanded as power sectors in developing countries are reformed, and review the experience (Day 1). To identify the needs for training and capacity building and institutional arrangements, as well as make recommendations for their design and implementation, for policy makers, regulators, and other professionals in developing countries (Day 2). Public benefits is a socially constructed concept that includes activities that are not adequately conceived by competitive markets. Public benefit policies and programmes include those that expand electricity access to rural areas and the urban poor, improve security of supply, promote energy efficiency and renewable energy, etc. Reforms have indeed been a threat to public benefits as traditionally delivered through electric utilities. However, in many cases public benefit programmes have also been rescued. In fewer cases, public benefit programmes have been conceived in the reform process. From experience so far it is clear that power sector reforms must be made more compatible with broader sustainable development goals. Recognising the need for broader policy integration and putting public benefits higher on the reform agenda points to the importance of reaching beyond energy ministries and power sector experts at an early stage in the reform process. Other actors, such as NGOs and academia, may also be instrumental in monitoring and assessing the impacts of reform. Public benefits can be an integral part of a reform package, or a complement to reform. It does appear that reform creates space and opportunity to achieve public benefits, but someone has to utilise that opportunity. The need to make trade

  16. Public Benefits and Power Sector Reform. Report from an International Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Lars J.; Arvidson, Anders; Eberhard, Anton

    2003-10-01

    The Workshop on Public Benefits and Power Sector Reform was motivated by the need to address broader development goals and advance the provision of public benefits in power sector reforms. The primary objectives were: To provide a forum for a discussion among specialists, of how the provision of public benefits can be expanded as power sectors in developing countries are reformed, and review the experience (Day 1). To identify the needs for training and capacity building and institutional arrangements, as well as make recommendations for their design and implementation, for policy makers, regulators, and other professionals in developing countries (Day 2). Public benefits is a socially constructed concept that includes activities that are not adequately conceived by competitive markets. Public benefit policies and programmes include those that expand electricity access to rural areas and the urban poor, improve security of supply, promote energy efficiency and renewable energy, etc. Reforms have indeed been a threat to public benefits as traditionally delivered through electric utilities. However, in many cases public benefit programmes have also been rescued. In fewer cases, public benefit programmes have been conceived in the reform process. From experience so far it is clear that power sector reforms must be made more compatible with broader sustainable development goals. Recognising the need for broader policy integration and putting public benefits higher on the reform agenda points to the importance of reaching beyond energy ministries and power sector experts at an early stage in the reform process. Other actors, such as NGOs and academia, may also be instrumental in monitoring and assessing the impacts of reform. Public benefits can be an integral part of a reform package, or a complement to reform. It does appear that reform creates space and opportunity to achieve public benefits, but someone has to utilise that opportunity. The need to make trade

  17. Public service or commodity goods? Electricity reforms, access, and the politics of development in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanadan, Rebecca Hansing

    Since the 1990s, power sector reforms have become paramount in energy policy, catalyzing a debate in Africa about market-based service provision and the effects of reforms on access. My research seeks to move beyond the conceptual divide by grounding attention not in abstract 'market forces' but rather in how development institutions shape energy services and actually practice policy on the ground. Using the case of Tanzania, a country known for having instituted some of the most extensive reforms and a 'success story' in Africa, I find that reforms are creating large burdens and barriers for access and use of services, including: increasing costs, enforcement pressures, and measures to impose 'market' discipline. However, I also find that many of the most significant outcomes are not found in direct 'market' changes, but rather how reforms are selective, partial, and shaped by the wider needs and claims of the institutions driving reforms, so that questions of how reforms are implemented, how they are measured, and who tells the story become as important as the policies themselves. Using a multiple-arenas framework, including (i) a household and community level study of urban energy conditions, (ii) a study of service and management conditions at the national electric utility, (iii) an examination of the international policy process, and (iv) a study of the history of electricity services across colonial, post-independence, and reform periods, I show that African energy reforms are a technical and political project connecting energy to international investments, donor aid programs, and elite interests within national governments. Energy reforms also involve fundamental service changes that are reorganizing how the costs and benefits of energy systems are distributed, allocated, and managed. The effects of reform extend beyond formal services to have wide-reaching repercussions within natural resources, and uneven social dynamics on the ground. These features point

  18. Fuelwood policies for the 1990s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soussan, J.; Mercer, D.E. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (US). Center for Resource and Environmental Policy Research); O' Keefe, P. (Newcastle upon Tyne Polytechnic (United Kingdom) ETC UK (GB))

    1992-02-01

    The paper provides a review of policy issues and options associated with the role of biomass as an energy resource. It seeks to demonstrate how such policies can be set in the context of local circumstances. The analysis focuses on the relationship of fuelwood problems to other development issues, recognizing that these problems are primarily a consequence of the interaction of environmental and economic forces at a local level. A series of fundamental policy reforms are an essential pre-condition to finding local answers to fuelwood problems. These policy reforms are the main focus of this paper. (author).

  19. Ecological tax reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    An environmental tax reform is seen by many as a possible solution to some crucial problems of modern society - pollution, excessive resource consumption and unemployment. Changes in the system of taxation are here seen as a long term process, one that must cheapen the costs of labour and make the costs of resource use more expensive - a process which can also create major changes in our society as to conceptions of quality, work, consumption etc. The conference presented proposals for an ecological tax and duty system that would contribute to: Changing technology so that it becomes more resource and energy effective. Changing the economic mechanisms so that resource consumption and pollution become more expensive while human resources become cheaper. Changing personal life styles and values so that material consumption becomes less decisive for our choices and priorities. An environmental tax reform is neither without problems nor painless. An economy and an industrial sector based on increasing consumption of energy and raw materials will, in the long run, lead to drawbacks that far outweigh those that are connected with an economic re-orientation whose driving force is another conception of nature. (EG)

  20. Ecological tax reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    An environmental tax reform is seen by many as a possible solution to some crucial problems of modern society - pollution, excessive resource consumption and unemployment. Changes in the system of taxation are here seen as a long term process, one that must cheapen the costs of labour and make the costs of resource use more expensive - a process which can also create major changes in our society as to conceptions of quality, work, consumption etc. The conference presented proposals for an ecological tax and duty system that would contribute to: Changing technology so that it becomes more resource and energy effective. Changing the economic mechanisms so that resource consumption and pollution become more expensive while human resources become cheaper. Changing personal life styles and values so that material consumption becomes less decisive for our choices and priorities. An environmental tax reform is neither without problems nor painless. An economy and an industrial sector based on increasing consumption of energy and raw materials will, in the long run, lead to drawbacks that far outweigh those that are connected with an economic re-orientation whose driving force is another conception of nature. (EG)