Sample records for policy reform program

  1. Measuring improvement in knowledge of drug policy reforms following a police education program in Tijuana, Mexico. (United States)

    Arredondo, J; Strathdee, S A; Cepeda, J; Abramovitz, D; Artamonova, I; Clairgue, E; Bustamante, E; Mittal, M L; Rocha, T; Bañuelos, A; Olivarria, H O; Morales, M; Rangel, G; Magis, C; Beletsky, L


    Mexico's 2009 "narcomenudeo reform" decriminalized small amounts of drugs, shifting some drug law enforcement to the states and mandating drug treatment diversion instead of incarceration. Data from Tijuana suggested limited implementation of this harm reduction-oriented policy. We studied whether a police education program (PEP) improved officers' drug and syringe policy knowledge, and aimed to identify participant characteristics associated with improvement of drug policy knowledge. Pre- and post-training surveys were self-administered by municipal police officers to measure legal knowledge. Training impact was assessed through matched paired nominal data using McNemar's tests. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify predictors of improved legal knowledge, as measured by officers' ability to identify conceptual legal provisions related to syringe possession and thresholds of drugs covered under the reform. Of 1750 respondents comparing pre- versus post training, officers reported significant improvement (p < 0.001) in their technical understanding of syringe possession (56 to 91%) and drug amounts decriminalized, including marijuana (9 to 52%), heroin (8 to 71%), and methamphetamine (7 to 70%). The training was associated with even greater success in improving conceptual legal knowledge for syringe possession (67 to 96%) (p < 0.001), marijuana (16 to 91%), heroin (11 to 91%), and methamphetamine (11 to 89%). In multivariable modeling, those with at least a high school education were more likely to exhibit improvement of conceptual legal knowledge of syringe possession (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.6, 95% CI 1.4-3.2) and decriminalization for heroin (aOR 2.7, 95% CI 1.3-4.3), methamphetamine (aOR 2.2, 95% CI 1.4-3.2), and marijuana (aOR 2.5, 95% CI 1.6-4). Drug policy reform is often necessary, but not sufficient to achieve public health goals because of gaps in translating formal laws to policing practice. To close such gaps, PEP initiatives

  2. Measuring improvement in knowledge of drug policy reforms following a police education program in Tijuana, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Arredondo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mexico’s 2009 “narcomenudeo reform” decriminalized small amounts of drugs, shifting some drug law enforcement to the states and mandating drug treatment diversion instead of incarceration. Data from Tijuana suggested limited implementation of this harm reduction-oriented policy. We studied whether a police education program (PEP improved officers’ drug and syringe policy knowledge, and aimed to identify participant characteristics associated with improvement of drug policy knowledge. Methods Pre- and post-training surveys were self-administered by municipal police officers to measure legal knowledge. Training impact was assessed through matched paired nominal data using McNemar’s tests. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify predictors of improved legal knowledge, as measured by officers’ ability to identify conceptual legal provisions related to syringe possession and thresholds of drugs covered under the reform. Results Of 1750 respondents comparing pre- versus post training, officers reported significant improvement (p < 0.001 in their technical understanding of syringe possession (56 to 91% and drug amounts decriminalized, including marijuana (9 to 52%, heroin (8 to 71%, and methamphetamine (7 to 70%. The training was associated with even greater success in improving conceptual legal knowledge for syringe possession (67 to 96% (p < 0.001, marijuana (16 to 91%, heroin (11 to 91%, and methamphetamine (11 to 89%. In multivariable modeling, those with at least a high school education were more likely to exhibit improvement of conceptual legal knowledge of syringe possession (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.6, 95% CI 1.4–3.2 and decriminalization for heroin (aOR 2.7, 95% CI 1.3–4.3, methamphetamine (aOR 2.2, 95% CI 1.4–3.2, and marijuana (aOR 2.5, 95% CI 1.6–4. Conclusions Drug policy reform is often necessary, but not sufficient to achieve public health goals because of gaps in translating

  3. Reforming Social Policy: Changing Perspectives on Sustainable ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Reforming Social Policy presents an overview of social policy reforms currently ... It shows how some experimental approaches to reform have worked in different ... and students in development studies and social sciences; policymakers and ...

  4. Reforming Romanian energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, S.


    Success in reforming energy sector depends on the implementation of the programme of economic reform agreed in February 1993. The difficulty of the negotiations between the International Monetary Fund and the Romanian government reflects the wider difficulties faced by the economy as a whole. They can be blamed in part on the legacy of uneconomic and inflexible industrial development and in part on opposition from interest groups which stand to lose from reform. Nonetheless, in spite of hesitant approach, the government does appear committed to the economic reform necessary to establish a market-oriented economy. But as the danger of a financial crisis engendered by the inadequately supported short-term borrowing of foreign exchange becomes urgent, the question is whether economic reform can be now implemented fast enough to protect economic enterprises and saving from a debt crisis. The scope for further delay in implementing the 1993 economic reform programme is fast disappearing. Procrastination should not be allowed to threaten the success of the reforms achieved in the energy and other sectors of the economy. 8 refs., 2 figs

  5. Forest policy reform in Brazil (United States)

    S. Bauch; E. Sills; L.C. Rodriguez Estraviz; K. McGinley; F. Cubbage


    Rapid deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, caused by economic, social, and policy factors, has focused global and national attention on protecting this valuable forest resource. In response, Brazil reformed its federal forest laws in 2006, creating new regulatory, development, and incentive policy instruments and institutions. Federal forestry responsibilities are...

  6. Health Reform Requires Policy Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Gerlier Forest


    Full Text Available Among the many reasons that may limit the adoption of promising reform ideas, policy capacity is the least recognized. The concept itself is not widely understood. Although policy capacity is concerned with the gathering of information and the formulation of options for public action in the initial phases of policy consultation and development, it also touches on all stages of the policy process, from the strategic identification of a problem to the actual development of the policy, its formal adoption, its implementation, and even further, its evaluation and continuation or modification. Expertise in the form of policy advice is already widely available in and to public administrations, to well-established professional organizations like medical societies and, of course, to large private-sector organizations with commercial or financial interests in the health sector. We need more health actors to join the fray and move from their traditional position of advocacy to a fuller commitment to the development of policy capacity, with all that it entails in terms of leadership and social responsibility


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The 2012 decree #18, the policy on food states that objective of food implementation is to meet basic human needs and provide fair, equitable, and sustainable benefits based on food sovereignty, food self-sufficiency, and national food security. Food sovereignty, independence and security are fundamental and supports implementation of policies related to food implementation in Indonesia. The 2012 decree #18 stated that food implementation aims to improve ability to produce food independently, provide a variety of food and meet the requirements of security, quality, and nutrition for public consumption.

  8. 76 FR 42625 - International Settlements Policy Reform (United States)


    ...] International Settlements Policy Reform AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Federal Communications Commission proposes to remove the International Settlements... proposes to remove the International Settlements Policy (ISP) from all U.S. international routes except...

  9. Reforming Social Policy: Changing Perspectives on Sustainable ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Reforming Social Policy: Changing Perspectives on Sustainable Human Development. Book cover Reforming Social Policy: Changing Perspectives on Sustainable Human Development. Directeur(s):. Daniel Morales-Gómez, Necla Tschirgi, and Jennifer L. Moher. Maison(s) d'édition: IDRC. 1 janvier 1999. ISBN :.

  10. Policy Reform Impact on Food Manufacturing


    Celikkol, Pinar; Dunn, James W.; Stefanou, Spiro E.


    The impact of agricultural policies and their reform is of major concern when addressing issues of growth, innovation and consolidation in the food manufacturing sector. Growth is one of the forces fueling the globalization of food manufacturing activities. Market- and policy-driven forces present a myriad of opportunities to influence growth and reorientation of patterns at the nexus where food manufacturing links the food system. The productivity and international competitiveness of the foo...

  11. Korea's Post-Crisis Monetary Policy Reforms


    Donghyun Park; Junggun Oh


    Korea's financial crisis of 1997–1998 was brought about by the unsustainable combination of large capital inflows and an inefficient financial system. The Bank of Korea contributed to the crisis primarily through its failures as the regulator of the financial system rather than as the conductor of monetary policy. Our paper explores the role of the two major monetary policy reforms Korea has implemented in response to the crisis — the establishment of a new financial regulator and the adoptio...

  12. Validity Theory: Reform Policies, Accountability Testing, and Consequences (United States)

    Chalhoub-Deville, Micheline


    Educational policies such as Race to the Top in the USA affirm a central role for testing systems in government-driven reform efforts. Such reform policies are often referred to as the global education reform movement (GERM). Changes observed with the GERM style of testing demand socially engaged validity theories that include consequential…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferran Brunet Cid


    Full Text Available This paper considers the social and structural policies in contemporary Europe. The presentation is organized in four sections. First, we discuss the emerging Europe, the new unity based on democracy and the market economy, the special European Union formula, and comparisons with America. Second, we analyze the dynamics of the European economy, the convergence process, the gaps between United States in productivity and standard of living, competitiveness issues, and the emergence of a new European economy and new European policy mix.Third, we consider European social conditions, the stationary and aging population, Europe’s low employment rate and permanently high unemployment. European economic growth could draw on two major sources: the labor reserves and reforms in factor, product and service markets. In a monetary union, advanced industrial relations should promote labor mobility and salary flexibility. The social security systems permit the redistribution and cohesion which defines the European model.Fourth, for the new Europe, the structural reform strategy is the way forward for the challenge of European economic policy and social policy: more and better jobs thanks to sustainable growth in a dynamic and competitive knowledge-based economy, favoring greater social cohesion.

  14. Trade Policy Reform and the Missing Revenue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Thomas Channing; Tarp, Finn


    into a computable general equilibrium model of an African economy (Mozambique) to study the implications of trade policy reform. Model simulations indicate that lowering tariff rates and reducing duty-free importation in a manner that maintains official revenue benefit nearly everyone. The main exception is those......In many African countries, large discrepancies exist between revenues implied by published tariff rates multiplied by estimated import volumes and actual receipts. We develop a stylised trade model where average and marginal tariff rates diverge and incorporate insights from this model...

  15. Policy Capacity for Health Reform: Necessary but Insufficient: Comment on "Health Reform Requires Policy Capacity". (United States)

    Adams, Owen


    Forest and colleagues have persuasively made the case that policy capacity is a fundamental prerequisite to health reform. They offer a comprehensive life-cycle definition of policy capacity and stress that it involves much more than problem identification and option development. I would like to offer a Canadian perspective. If we define health reform as re-orienting the health system from acute care to prevention and chronic disease management the consensus is that Canada has been unsuccessful in achieving a major transformation of our 14 health systems (one for each province and territory plus the federal government). I argue that 3 additional things are essential to build health policy capacity in a healthcare federation such as Canada: (a) A means of "policy governance" that would promote an approach to cooperative federalism in the health arena; (b) The ability to overcome the "policy inertia" resulting from how Canadian Medicare was implemented and subsequently interpreted; and (c) The ability to entertain a long-range thinking and planning horizon. My assessment indicates that Canada falls short on each of these items, and the prospects for achieving them are not bright. However, hope springs eternal and it will be interesting to see if the July, 2015 report of the Advisory Panel on Healthcare Innovation manages to galvanize national attention and stimulate concerted action. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  16. Sustainable Administrative Reform Movements Policy in Joko Widodo's Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogi Suprayogi Sugandi


    Full Text Available Joko Widodo (Jokowi is a leader that is widely expected to transform Indonesia into a better country. Hopes and wishes were rising when he was elected as the president of Indonesia. This paper will describe various innovations undertaken before and after his presidential inauguration as well as the assorted innovations made in reforming the administration of his cabinet. As the president of Indonesia, Joko Widodo is required to realize the aspirations of the people in freeing the government from corruption, collusion, and nepotism. The management of ministerial and non-ministerial institutions becomes the very first crucial issue undertaken by Joko Widodo. This led to a polemic in regards to reducing or increasing the number of institutions, as the Jokowi administration actually increased the amount. In Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono's administration, several policies were made systematically and based on legislations that had been approved by the lagislature. Joko Widodo's administration in more partial in nature. The administrative reform program that is highly anticipated is the continuation of the Public Service Act. This law is a step forward from the administrative reform program that aims at the creation of good governance. Changes is career path, salary system, pension and benefits for civil servants, performance-based staffing are various efforts of sustainability carried out by Joko Widodo's administration.

  17. Land policy reform in Rwanda: A Catalyst for Land Information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Step in geo-ICT application for data handling was achieved, despite a big gap in technical and skills capabilities. Since new land policy coincided with decentralization policy, we recommend research on parallel implementation of policies with some similar dimensions. Keywords: Land policy reform, organizational change, ...

  18. Energy policies in the European Union. Germany's ecological tax reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welfens, P.J.J.; Jungmittag, A.; Meyer, B.; Jasinski, P.


    The chapters discuss the following aspects: 1. Energy policy as a strategic element of economic policy in dynamic open economies. 2. Phasing out nuclear energy and core elements of sustainable energy strategy. 3. Ecological tax reform: Theory, modified double dividend and international aspects. 4. The policy framework in Europe and Germany. 5. Optimal ecological tax reform: Options and recommendations for an EU-action plan. 6. Conclusions. (orig./CB)

  19. Developing Program Management Leadership for Acquisition Reform (United States)


    mêçÅÉÉÇáåÖë= çÑ=íÜÉ= bfdeqe=^kkr^i=^`nrfpfqflk== obpb^o`e=pvjmlpfrj== qeropa^v=pbppflkp== slirjb ff Developing Program Management Leadership for...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Developing Program Management Leadership for Acquisition Reform 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...Developing Program  Management   Leadership   for Acquisition Reform    The 8th Annual Acquisition Research Symposium Panel #20: Investing in People

  20. Reforms in the Policy of English Language Teaching in Malaysia (United States)

    Rashid, Radzuwan A. B.; Abdul Rahman, Shireena Basree; Yunus, Kamariah


    This paper reviews reforms related to English language teaching in the Malaysian education system. It begins by tracing the history of Malaysia as a former British colony which has had significant influences on the status of English in the country. Then, it reviews the key educational reforms which have mainly centred on language policy, thus…

  1. Credible Immigration Policy Reform: A Response to Briggs (United States)

    Orrenius, Pia M.; Zavodny, Madeline


    The authors agree with Vernon M. Briggs, Jr., that U.S. immigration policy has had unexpected consequences. The 1965 immigration reforms led to unanticipated chain migration from developing countries whereas the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act failed to slow unauthorized immigration. The result is a large foreign-born population with…

  2. Three decades of policy layering and politically sustainable reform in the European Union's agricultural policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Swinbank, Alan


    The study of policy reform has tended to focus on single-stage reforms taking place over a relatively short period. Recent research has drawn attention to gradual policy changes unfolding over extended periods. One strategy of gradual change is layering, in which new policy dimensions...

  3. Indirect Monetary Policy Reforms and Output Growth in Nigeria: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BRRE). The efforts in repositioning these banks through the current banking reforms (recapitalization and consolidation) the paper notes are a right step in the right direction. Keywords: Indirect monetary policy, Granger – causality, output growth

  4. Malaysian water sector reform : policy and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, C.T.


    One of the measures that can help developing countries in meeting Target 10 of the Millennium Development Goals – halving the number of people without access to water and adequate sanitation by 2015 – is through a water sector reform. In this research the Malaysian water sector reform is

  5. National Reform Programs in Local Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelholt, Morten; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    . In particular, we emphasize the practices in which national strategic formulations are legitimized and accepted or abandoned by the actors involved. Building on a case study conducted over a two-year time span, we show how a local actor engages with and promotes a national reform program by evoking a discourse...

  6. European Union dairy policy reform: impact and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongeneel, R.A.


    Recent Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) reforms have affected dairy policy, including the milk quota system, and increased the market orientation of the sector. A modelling exercise, using the European Dairy Industry Model (EDIM), simulates an initial sharp decline in the EU milk price in response

  7. Policy conflicts : Market-oriented reform in health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolfsma, W.A.; Mcmaster, R.

    From an institutionalist perspective, we identify five sources of policy conflict. Each may explain why policies intended to obtain particular goals for an institutionalized practice may have unintended consequences. We illustrate by analyzing attempts at introducing market-oriented reform in health

  8. Policy Capacity Meets Politics; Comment on “Health Reform Requires Policy Capacity”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Fafard


    Full Text Available It is difficult to disagree with the general argument that successful health reform requires a significant degree of policy capacity or that all players in the policy game need to move beyond self-interested advocacy. However, an overly broad definition of policy capacity is a problem. More important perhaps, health reform inevitably requires not just policy capacity but political leadership and compromise.

  9. Policy Capacity Meets Politics: Comment on "Health Reform Requires Policy Capacity". (United States)

    Fafard, Patrick


    It is difficult to disagree with the general argument that successful health reform requires a significant degree of policy capacity or that all players in the policy game need to move beyond self-interested advocacy. However, an overly broad definition of policy capacity is a problem. More important perhaps, health reform inevitably requires not just policy capacity but political leadership and compromise. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  10. NAFTA and Mexico's Tax Policy Reform


    Jorge Martinez-Vazquez; Duanje Chen


    The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) has had a significant effect on Mexico’s economy and institutions. The ongoing consideration of tax reform in Mexico requires an evaluation of the role of NAFTA in Mexico’s economy, including its tax structure; it also requires an assessment of the impact of the Mexico’s tax system on the trade and capital flows between Mexico and its NAFTA partners, the United States and Canada. Clearly, no good tax reform in Mexico can ignore the role of NAFTA...

  11. What shapes output of policy reform?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kirsten

    This thesis deals with the factors shaping forest policy output during the stages implementation and bases its main message on empirical findings from the forestry sector in Ghana. Policy and institutional factors are important underlying causes for deforestation, especially in the tropics. Fores...

  12. Reviewing and reforming policy in health enterprise information security (United States)

    Sostrom, Kristen; Collmann, Jeff R.


    Health information management policies usually address the use of paper records with little or no mention of electronic health records. Information Technology (IT) policies often ignore the health care business needs and operational use of the information stored in its systems. Representatives from the Telemedicine & Advanced Technology Research Center, TRICARE and Offices of the Surgeon General of each Military Service, collectively referred to as the Policies, Procedures and Practices Work Group (P3WG), examined military policies and regulations relating to computer-based information systems and medical records management. Using a system of templates and matrices created for the purpose, P3WG identified gaps and discrepancies in DoD and service compliance with the proposed Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Security Standard. P3WG represents an unprecedented attempt to coordinate policy review and revision across all military health services and the Office of Health Affairs. This method of policy reform can identify where changes need to be made to integrate health management policy and IT policy in to an organizational policy that will enable compliance with HIPAA standards. The process models how large enterprises may coordinate policy revision and reform across broad organizational and work domains.

  13. Expressions of agency within complex policy structures: science teachers' experiences of education policy reforms in Sweden (United States)

    Ryder, Jim; Lidar, Malena; Lundqvist, Eva; Östman, Leif


    We explore the experiences of school science teachers as they enact three linked national curriculum and assessment policy reforms in Sweden. Our goal is to understand teachers' differing responses to these reforms. A sample of 13 teachers engaged in 2 interviews over a 6-9-month period. Interviews included exploration of professional background and school context, perceptions of the aims of the policy reforms and experiences of working with these reforms in the classroom. Analysis was guided by an individual-oriented sociocultural perspective on professional agency. Here teaching is conceptualised as an ongoing interplay between teachers' knowledge, skills and personal goals, and the characteristics of the social, institutional and policy settings in which they work. Our analysis shows that navigating the ensuing continuities and contradictions results in many different expressions of teacher agency, e.g. loss of autonomy and trust, pushing back, subversion, transfer of authority, and creative tensions. Typically, an individual teacher's enactment of these reforms involved several of these expressions of agency. We demonstrate that the sociocultural perspective provides insights into teachers' responses to education policy reform likely to be missed by studies that focus largely on individual teacher knowledge/beliefs about reform or skills in 'implementing' reform practices.

  14. New Directions in Education? A Critique of Contemporary Policy Reforms (United States)

    Skourdoumbis, Andrew


    This paper draws on facets of Foucault's theoretical resources to critique current education policy reform from within the Australian State of Victoria, namely the Department of Education and Early Childhood Development's (DEECD) discussion paper "New directions for school leadership and the teaching profession." Implicit in the reform…

  15. Enlargement of the European Union and agricultural policy reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Maria Skovager; Lind, Kim Martin Hjorth; Zobbe, Henrik


    A connection exists between enlargement of the European Union and reforms of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). Based upon rational choice theory, we examine whether the member states’ CAP positions are related to structures in their agricultural sectors. The overall hypothesis...

  16. Agrarian Reform Policies and Development in the Arab Middle East. (United States)

    Baali, Fuad

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze and evaluate the nature, scope, and implications of the rural development in the Arab countries of the Middle East and North Africa. The first section of the paper deals with the forces that have caused changes in agrarian reform policies as they affected rural development in these countries. Specifically…

  17. Reductions in abortion-related mortality following policy reform: evidence from Romania, South Africa and Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benson Janie


    Full Text Available Abstract Unsafe abortion is a significant contributor to worldwide maternal mortality; however, abortion law and policy liberalization could lead to drops in unsafe abortion and related deaths. This review provides an analysis of changes in abortion mortality in three countries where significant policy reform and related service delivery occurred. Drawing on peer-reviewed literature, population data and grey literature on programs and policies, this paper demonstrates the policy and program changes that led to declines in abortion-related mortality in Romania, South Africa and Bangladesh. In all three countries, abortion policy liberalization was followed by implementation of safe abortion services and other reproductive health interventions. South Africa and Bangladesh trained mid-level providers to offer safe abortion and menstrual regulation services, respectively, Romania improved contraceptive policies and services, and Bangladesh made advances in emergency obstetric care and family planning. The findings point to the importance of multi-faceted and complementary reproductive health reforms in successful implementation of abortion policy reform.

  18. Policy work as a reform project


    Hal K. Colebatch


    One aspect of the modernization of liberal government in the late 20th century was an increased attention to policy, both as a concept for interrogating government, and as the basis for organizing work within government, leading to the development of ‘policy analysis’ as a decision tool. This paper reviews the development of specialised forms of ‘policy work’ in liberal western political systems in order to establish what can be learned by other sorts of polity, and in particular, the tran...

  19. Reproductive Health Policies in Peru: Social Reforms and Citizenship Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Rousseau


    Full Text Available The article analyzes the case of reproductive health policy-making in Peru in the context of recent social policy reforms. Health-sector reforms have only partially redressed Peruvian women’s unequal access to family planning, reproductive rights and maternal care. The main sources of inequalities are related to the segmented character of the health-care system, with the highest burden placed on the public sector. The majority of women from popular classes, who are not protected by an insurance plan, are dependent upon what and how public services are provided. Simultaneously, the continuing role of conservative sectors in public debates about reproductive health policy has a strong impact on public family planning services and other reproductive rights.

  20. Renewable energy policy and electricity market reforms in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherni, Judith A.; Kentish, Joanna


    The article examines the potential effectiveness of the renewable energy policy in China and its regulatory Law framework. It frames the option of renewable energy technology within the background of the long-lasting electricity problems that China has faced including serious supply shortages, reliance on coal, and severe environmental contamination. Its dual administrative and ownership system based on state and privately owned industry is discussed together with the market reform measures adopted in the sector. Current renewable energy policy is analysed, and the scope of the 2005 Renewable Energy Promotion Law is investigated. This is conducted within the context of the electricity sector reform that China adopted, and its effects upon the prospects of encouraging as well as expanding the development of renewable energy. This study draws upon primary information collected from interviews with stakeholders on the policy adequacy, and identifies three main types of shortcomings that have interfered with a more successful expansion of renewable energy in China. (author)

  1. Duplex tube steam reformer development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewe, C.K.; Nieto, J.M.; Papadopoulos, A.


    Work done in partial fulfillment of Task 7 of the Duplex Steam Reformer Development Program is described. The DSR concept acts as a double barrier between a process heat high temperature reactor plant (PNP) and a closed loop chemical heat pipe (CHP) for the long distance transport of chemical energy to a remote industrial user. The current state of the DSR design is described as well as related systems and equipment. The PNP concept presented is based upon work currently underway in the Federal Republic of Germany

  2. Reforming primary healthcare: from public policy to organizational change. (United States)

    Gilbert, Frédéric; Denis, Jean-Louis; Lamothe, Lise; Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique; D'amour, Danielle; Goudreau, Johanne


    Governments everywhere are implementing reform to improve primary care. However, the existence of a high degree of professional autonomy makes large-scale change difficult to achieve. The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the change dynamics and the involvement of professionals in a primary healthcare reform initiative carried out in the Canadian province of Quebec. An empirical approach was used to investigate change processes from the inception of a public policy to the execution of changes in professional practices. The data were analysed from a multi-level, combined contextualist-processual perspective. Results are based on a longitudinal multiple-case study of five family medicine groups, which was informed by over 100 interviews, questionnaires, and documentary analysis. The results illustrate the multiple processes observed with the introduction of planned large-scale change in primary care services. The analysis of change content revealed that similar post-change states concealed variations between groups in the scale of their respective changes. The analysis also demonstrated more precisely how change evolved through the introduction of "intermediate change" and how cycles of prescribed and emergent mechanisms distinctively drove change process and change content, from the emergence of the public policy to the change in primary care service delivery. This research was conducted among a limited number of early policy adopters. However, given the international interest in turning to the medical profession to improve primary care, the results offer avenues for both policy development and implementation. The findings offer practical insights for those studying and managing large-scale transformations. They provide a better understanding of how deliberate reforms coexist with professional autonomy through an intertwining of change content and processes. This research is one of few studies to examine a primary care reform from emergence to implementation

  3. Policy alternatives in reforming energy utilities in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriele, Alberto


    This paper examines the policy alternatives faced by developing countries in their endeavor to preserve and develop their electricity and gas systems, two service-oriented industries which--along with oil--provide the bulk of energy supply both in developed and in developing countries. Even in very poor countries, industrially generated energy is indispensable for carrying out most economic activities. Therefore, governments traditionally recognize that the supply of gas and electricity entails a fundamental public service dimension. The Introduction presents the case for reforming of energy utilities, discusses in general terms the pros and cons of privatization, and attempts to locate the reforms in a broader historical framework in which developing countries' governments faced characterized by increasing financial hardship. Section 2 constitutes the core of the paper. It reviews the main features of gas and power sector reforms in the developing world and analyzes specifically the cases of five semi-industrialized countries in Latin America and Asia. Section 3 (Concluding remarks) briefly evaluates the country experiences reviewed above and indicates a few policy lessons which can be learnt from them. The main conclusion is that, in a long-run development perspective, full-scale privatization of gas and power sectors in developing countries entails significant risks, and therefore a flexible policy approach is preferable to a rigid commitment to extensive liberalization

  4. Personal and political histories in the designing of health reform policy in Bolivia. (United States)

    Bernstein, Alissa


    While health policies are a major focus in disciplines such as public health and public policy, there is a dearth of work on the histories, social contexts, and personalities behind the development of these policies. This article takes an anthropological approach to the study of a health policy's origins, based on ethnographic research conducted in Bolivia between 2010 and 2012. Bolivia began a process of health care reform in 2006, following the election of Evo Morales Ayma, the country's first indigenous president, and leader of the Movement Toward Socialism (Movimiento al Socialism). Brought into power through the momentum of indigenous social movements, the MAS government platform addressed racism, colonialism, and human rights in a number of major reforms, with a focus on cultural identity and indigeneity. One of the MAS's projects was the design of a new national health policy in 2008 called The Family Community Intercultural Health Policy (Salud Familiar Comunitaria Intercultural). This policy aimed to address major health inequities through primary care in a country that is over 60% indigenous. Methods used were interviews with Bolivian policymakers and other stakeholders, participant observation at health policy conferences and in rural community health programs that served as models for aspects of the policy, and document analysis to identify core premises and ideological areas. I argue that health policies are historical both in their relationship to national contexts and events on a timeline, but also because of the ways they intertwine with participants' personal histories, theoretical frameworks, and reflections on national historical events. By studying the Bolivian policymaking process, and particularly those who helped design the policy, it is possible to understand how and why particular progressive ideas were able to translate into policy. More broadly, this work also suggests how a uniquely anthropological approach to the study of health policy

  5. Polarization and Policy Reform : Anti-Corruption Policymaking in Sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torenvlied, René; Klein Haarhuis, Carolien M.


    The ability of political systems to adopt policy reforms contributes to their internal stability. This article analyses 29 anti-corruption reforms in seven sub-Saharan countries. It seeks to explain the level of adopted reform in these countries from conflicts of interests between policy actors. Two

  6. The politics of health sector reform in developing countries: three cases of pharmaceutical policy. (United States)

    Reich, M R


    This paper examines the political dynamics of health sector reform in poor countries, through a comparative study of pharmaceutical policy reform in Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, and the Philippines. The paper first reviews five reasons why policy reform is political. It then presents three political economic models of the policy reform process: the political will, political factions, and political survival models. Next, the paper describes the three cases of national pharmaceutical policy reform, and identifies common conditions that made these reforms politically feasible. The paper's analysis suggests that health sector reform is feasible at certain definable, and perhaps predictable, political moments, especially in the early periods of new regimes. The most important and manipulable political factors are: political timing, which provides opportunities for policy entrepreneurs to introduce their ideas into public debate, and political management of group competition, which allows leaders to control the political effects of distributional consequences and protect the regime's stability. A strong and narrow political coalition improves the capacity of political leaders to resist the pressures of concentrated economic costs (both inside and outside national boundaries). The paper argues that for reform to succeed, policy-makers need effective methods to analyze relevant political conditions and shape key political factors in favor of policy reform. The method of Political Mapping is briefly introduced as a technique that can help policy-makers in analyzing and managing the political dimensions of policy reform and in improving the political feasibility of reform.

  7. Energy sector reforms status of Danish energy policy - 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gullev, L.


    The new millennium brings change and new ways of thinking to the energy sector. Today the sector faces new challenges which it must deal with at a time where increasing market liberalisation and increasing internalisation is creating completely new frameworks for the sector. The Danish tradition of progressive energy policy action plans is the best possible basis on which to build. The target remains set. Energy policy must create the framework for structuring future energy systems so as to ensure that they are sustainable. Over many years there have been numerous initiatives to transfer consumption to cleaner energy sources, which has now led to a steady reduction in CO 2 emissions. The government places great importance on a continuation of this current development, both short term and long term. The adoption of the Electricity Reform in spring 1999 was an important step in the right direction. The government can, with great satisfaction, conclude that an agreement has now been made with most of the Parliament regarding a Gas reform, modernisation of the heat Supply Act and a new Energy Saving Act. In addition to this, the agreement also includes a follow up to the Electricity Reform concerning utilisation of biomass, offshore wind turbines, harmonisation of costs for priority electricity production, private generator's payment to priority electricity and the establishment of a market for electricity based on renewable. (author)

  8. Policy Capacity for Health Reform: Necessary but Insufficient; Comment on “Health Reform Requires Policy Capacity”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen Adams


    Full Text Available Forest and colleagues have persuasively made the case that policy capacity is a fundamental prerequisite to health reform. They offer a comprehensive life-cycle definition of policy capacity and stress that it involves much more than problem identification and option development. I would like to offer a Canadian perspective. If we define health reform as re-orienting the health system from acute care to prevention and chronic disease management the consensus is that Canada has been unsuccessful in achieving a major transformation of our 14 health systems (one for each province and territory plus the federal government. I argue that 3 additional things are essential to build health policy capacity in a healthcare federation such as Canada: (a A means of “policy governance” that would promote an approach to cooperative federalism in the health arena; (b The ability to overcome the ”policy inertia” resulting from how Canadian Medicare was implemented and subsequently interpreted; and (c The ability to entertain a long-range thinking and planning horizon. My assessment indicates that Canada falls short on each of these items, and the prospects for achieving them are not bright. However, hope springs eternal and it will be interesting to see if the July, 2015 report of the Advisory Panel on Healthcare Innovation manages to galvanize national attention and stimulate concerted action.

  9. Qualitative analysis of the dynamics of policy design and implementation in hospital funding reform.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen S Palmer

    Full Text Available As in many health care systems, some Canadian jurisdictions have begun shifting away from global hospital budgets. Payment for episodes of care has begun to be implemented. Starting in 2012, the Province of Ontario implemented hospital funding reforms comprising three elements: Global Budgets; Health Based Allocation Method (HBAM; and Quality-Based Procedures (QBP. This evaluation focuses on implementation of QBPs, a procedure/diagnosis-specific funding approach involving a pre-set price per episode of care coupled with best practice clinical pathways. We examined whether or not there was consensus in understanding of the program theory underpinning QBPs and how this may have influenced full and effective implementation of this innovative funding model.We undertook a formative evaluation of QBP implementation. We used an embedded case study method and in-depth, one-on-one, semi-structured, telephone interviews with key informants at three levels of the health care system: Designers (those who designed the QBP policy; Adoption Supporters (organizations and individuals supporting adoption of QBPs; and Hospital Implementers (those responsible for QBP implementation in hospitals. Thematic analysis involved an inductive approach, incorporating Framework analysis to generate descriptive and explanatory themes that emerged from the data.Five main findings emerged from our research: (1 Unbeknownst to most key informants, there was neither consistency nor clarity over time among QBP designers in their understanding of the original goal(s for hospital funding reform; (2 Prior to implementation, the intended hospital funding mechanism transitioned from ABF to QBPs, but most key informants were either unaware of the transition or believe it was intentional; (3 Perception of the primary goal(s of the policy reform continues to vary within and across all levels of key informants; (4 Four years into implementation, the QBP funding mechanism remains

  10. Qualitative analysis of the dynamics of policy design and implementation in hospital funding reform. (United States)

    Palmer, Karen S; Brown, Adalsteinn D; Evans, Jenna M; Marani, Husayn; Russell, Kirstie K; Martin, Danielle; Ivers, Noah M


    As in many health care systems, some Canadian jurisdictions have begun shifting away from global hospital budgets. Payment for episodes of care has begun to be implemented. Starting in 2012, the Province of Ontario implemented hospital funding reforms comprising three elements: Global Budgets; Health Based Allocation Method (HBAM); and Quality-Based Procedures (QBP). This evaluation focuses on implementation of QBPs, a procedure/diagnosis-specific funding approach involving a pre-set price per episode of care coupled with best practice clinical pathways. We examined whether or not there was consensus in understanding of the program theory underpinning QBPs and how this may have influenced full and effective implementation of this innovative funding model. We undertook a formative evaluation of QBP implementation. We used an embedded case study method and in-depth, one-on-one, semi-structured, telephone interviews with key informants at three levels of the health care system: Designers (those who designed the QBP policy); Adoption Supporters (organizations and individuals supporting adoption of QBPs); and Hospital Implementers (those responsible for QBP implementation in hospitals). Thematic analysis involved an inductive approach, incorporating Framework analysis to generate descriptive and explanatory themes that emerged from the data. Five main findings emerged from our research: (1) Unbeknownst to most key informants, there was neither consistency nor clarity over time among QBP designers in their understanding of the original goal(s) for hospital funding reform; (2) Prior to implementation, the intended hospital funding mechanism transitioned from ABF to QBPs, but most key informants were either unaware of the transition or believe it was intentional; (3) Perception of the primary goal(s) of the policy reform continues to vary within and across all levels of key informants; (4) Four years into implementation, the QBP funding mechanism remains misunderstood; and

  11. Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy (United States)


    control number. 1. REPORT DATE 24 MAR 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Bahrain: Reform...agreement ( FTA ); legislation implementing it was signed January 11, 2006 (P.L. 109-169). The unrest has further strained, although not crippled...Bahrain implement the U.S.-Bahrain FTA . In May 2006 Bahrain revoked the visa for the resident program director of the National Democratic Institute

  12. Pharmaceutical policy reform in Canada: lessons from history. (United States)

    Boothe, Katherine


    Canada is the only country with a broad public health system that does not include universal, nationwide coverage for pharmaceuticals. This omission causes real hardship to those Canadians who are not well-served by the existing patchwork of limited provincial plans and private insurance. It also represents significant forgone benefits in terms of governments' ability to negotiate drug prices, make expensive new drugs available to patients on an equitable basis, and provide integrated health services regardless of therapy type or location. This paper examines Canada's historical failure to adopt universal pharmaceutical insurance on a national basis, with particular emphasis on the role of public and elite ideas about its supposed lack of affordability. This legacy provides novel lessons about the barriers to reform and potential methods for overcoming them. The paper argues that reform is most likely to be successful if it explicitly addresses entrenched ideas about pharmacare's affordability and its place in the health system. Reform is also more likely to achieve universal coverage if it is radical, addressing various components of an effective pharmaceutical program simultaneously. In this case, an incremental approach is likely to fail because it will not allow governments to contain costs and realize the social benefits that come along with a universal program, and because it means forgoing the current promising conditions for achieving real change.

  13. 78 FR 17300 - Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles and... (United States)


    ... and II Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles and... Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles and Administrative Requirements (Including...

  14. Encouraging energy efficiency: Policies and programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Successfully overcoming the barriers to higher energy efficiency requires development of policies designed for specific users and locations. Reform of energy pricing, which entails removing subsidies and beginning internalization of externalities, is critical to give technology producers and users proper signals for investment and management decisions. But while a rise in energy prices increases the amount of energy-efficiency improvement that is cost-effective, it does not remove other barriers that deter investment. Minimum efficiency standards or agreements can raise the market floor, and are important because they affect the entire market in the near-term. But they may not raise the celining very much, and do little to push the efficiency frontier. To accomplish these goals, incentives and other market-development strategies are needed. Utility programs in particular can play a key role in pushing energy efficiency beyond the level where users are likely to invest on their own. Policies, programs, and pricing should complement one another. Pricing reform alone will not overcome the many entrenched barriers to higher energy efficiency, but trying to accelerate energy efficiency improvement without addressing energy pricing problems will lead to limited success. Whether tagerting new equipment or management of existing systems, policies must reflect a thorough understanding of the particular system and an awareness of the motivations of the actors. 25 refs

  15. Why do policies change? Institutions, interests, ideas and networks in three cases of policy reform. (United States)

    Shearer, Jessica C; Abelson, Julia; Kouyaté, Bocar; Lavis, John N; Walt, Gill


    Policy researchers have used various categories of variables to explain why policies change, including those related to institutions, interests and ideas. Recent research has paid growing attention to the role of policy networks-the actors involved in policy-making, their relationships with each other, and the structure formed by those relationships-in policy reform across settings and issues; however, this literature has largely ignored the theoretical integration of networks with other policy theories, including the '3Is' of institutions, interests and ideas. This article proposes a conceptual framework integrating these variables and tests it on three cases of policy change in Burkina Faso, addressing the need for theoretical integration with networks as well as the broader aim of theory-driven health policy analysis research in low- and middle-income countries. We use historical process tracing, a type of comparative case study, to interpret and compare documents and in-depth interview data within and between cases. We found that while network changes were indeed associated with policy reform, this relationship was mediated by one or more of institutions, interests and ideas. In a context of high donor dependency, new donor rules affected the composition and structure of actors in the networks, which enabled the entry and dissemination of new ideas and shifts in the overall balance of interest power ultimately leading to policy change. The case of strategic networking occurred in only one case, by civil society actors, suggesting that network change is rarely the spark that initiates the process towards policy change. This analysis highlights the important role of changes in institutions and ideas to drive policymaking, but hints that network change is a necessary intermediate step in these processes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. All rights reserved. For

  16. Economic reform in Vietnam - the role of foreign direct investment and trade policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, D.L.


    Vietnam was one of the five poorest countries in the world in the 1980's. Since then, Vietnam has adopted a market economic policy, and she has made substantial economic progress. In the last 10 years Meanwhile Vietnam's per capita income has increased by 3 times, the volume of export doubled very two years, and the inflation rate was reduced to 4.5 % in 1997 from 775 % in 1986. The GDP also has increased, the exchange rate with the US$ was stabilized and foreign direct investment (FDI) and trade has increased. There was about US$35 billion were invested by the foreign investors between 1987 to the middle of June 1998. However, the current crisis in the economies of Southeast Asian countries has put pressure on Vietnam to rethink seriously her future reform program with respect to stabilization and sustainable current economic policies. Since FDI is an imperative for the development of a country like Vietnam, it is necessary to use this capital very careful for her economy. Thus, the main objective of this dissertation is to study the role of FDI in the development of Vietnam. To examine this objective, various investigations were made, especially focusing on development dimensions such as reforming state enterprises, foreign trade policy, foreign investment and so on. Therefore, in the future, FDI and privatization policies should be strengthened to maintain and create an international market. Moreover, there are some major reforms required to transform the state sector into a private sector with appropriate policy measures, such as improving management of financial companies, developing the agricultural sector and minimizing bureaucracy and red tapism of the government. This dissertation provides a set of recommendations how to strengthen Vietnams economic and market situation in the 21st century. (author)

  17. Perceived Threat Associated with Police Officers and Black Men Predicts Support for Policing Policy Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Louise Skinner


    Full Text Available Racial disparities in policing and recent high-profile incidents resulting in the deaths of Black men have ignited a national debate on policing policies. Given evidence that both police officers and Black men may be associated with threat, we examined the impact of perceived threat on support for reformed policing policies. Across three studies we found correlational evidence that perceiving police officers as threatening predicts increased support for reformed policing practices (e.g., limiting the use of lethal force and matching police force demographics to those of the community. In contrast, perceiving Black men as threatening predicted reduced support for policing policy reform. Perceived threat also predicted willingness to sign a petition calling for police reform. Experimental evidence indicated that priming participants to associate Black men with threat could also reduce support for policing policy reform, and this effect was moderated by internal motivation to respond without prejudice. Priming participants to associate police officers with threat did not increase support for policing policy reform. Results indicate that resistance to policing policy reform is associated with perceiving Black men as threatening. Moreover, findings suggest that publicizing racially charged police encounters, which may conjure associations between Black men and threat, could reduce support for policing policy reform.

  18. The duopoly policy in the Brazilian model of telecommunications reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Mattos


    Full Text Available One of the important characteristics of the Brazilian Model of Telecommunications Reform (BMTR was the adoption of a duopoly policy, constraining the entry of new players in the wire segment in the transitional phase until free competition in 2002. This policy was also used in the reform experience of the United Kingdom in telecommunications in the 80's. The theoretical explanations behind this kind of policy are not strong enough to justify the duopoly policy in telecommunications. The most plausible idea rests on the prominent role conferred to privatization revenues in the design of the reform as a means of helping the efforts to consolidate price stabilization in the country. We introduce a model with the trade-offs between competition, duplication of fixed costs and privatization revenues. Despite the importance of fixed costs in the objective function of the regulator, we show that the privatization revenue target is the aspect, which justifies the imposition of entry constraints. The British experience shows that the sacrifice of this kind of policy regarding efficiency in the long run can be substantial.Uma das características mais importantes do Modelo Brasileiro de Reforma das Telecomunicações foi a adoção de uma política de duopólio, restringindo a entrada de novas empresas no segmento de telefonia fixa durante a fase de transição até a livre concorrência a ser adotada a partir de 2002. Essa política foi também utilizada na experiência de reforma das telecomunicações ocorrida no Reino Unido na década de 80. As explicações teóricas para justificar a adoção deste tipo de política não são satisfatórias o suficiente para justificar a política de duopólio como prescrição de política nas telecomunicações. A idéia mais plausível se baseia no papel proeminente conferido às receitas de privatização no desenho da reforma como forma de auxiliar os esforços de consolidação da estabilização de preços no


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тymoshenko A.


    Full Text Available The article is about the current direction of the transformation of the Ukrainian fiscal policy. The analysis of tax revenues to the State Budget and expenditures from it was carried out. Negative trends in the implementation of fiscal policy have been identified. A mechanism for implementing the fiscal policy is proposed. The main strategic directions of reforming fiscal policy have been identified. It is substantiated that in order to achieve an effective fiscal policy at the macro level it is necessary to create conditions for optimal filling of the state budget and contain inflationary processes. At the meso level it is necessary to ensure the fulfillment of tasks that promote economic growth in the regions and at the micro level ̶ to identify and implement measures to enhance the development of business structures through improvement of the investment climate. It is argued that for this purpose it is important to develop and implement an effective fiscal policy of Ukraine strategy that should include the following smart directions in the field of fiscal policy: improving the combination of fiscal and budgetary spheres in regulation, planning, management with the goal of achieving the maximum results of increasing the welfare of the population; determination of effective communication chains between business centers and the state fiscal service in the course of tax administration, the formation of an objective tax control system. It is pointed that the implementation of the fiscal mechanism combines the fiscal and budgetary mechanisms and includes the mobilization of financial resources from tax payments, as well as their distribution and effective use. It is noted that the instruments of the fiscal mechanism are means for influencing the formation of the optimal amount of financial resources for their further use, in turn, each instrument within the fiscal mechanism has its own functional load. So, expanding the functional boundaries of

  20. Mexico's "ley de narcomenudeo" drug policy reform and the international drug control regime. (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Werb, Daniel; Beletsky, Leo; Rangel, Gudelia; Arredondo, Jaime; Strathdee, Steffanie A


    It has been over half a century since the landmark Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs was adopted, for the first time unifying international drug policy under a single treaty aimed at limiting use, manufacture, trade, possession, and trafficking of opiates, cannabis, and other narcotics. Since then, other international drug policy measures have been adopted, largely emphasizing enforcement-based approaches to reducing drug supply and use. Recently, in response to concerns that the historic focus on criminalization and enforcement has had limited effectiveness, international drug policies have begun to undergo a paradigm shift as countries seek to enact their own reforms to partially depenalize or deregulate personal drug use and possession. This includes Mexico, which in 2009 enacted national drug policy reform partially decriminalizing possession of small quantities of narcotics for personal consumption while also requiring drug treatment for repeat offenders. As countries move forward with their own reform models, critical assessment of their legal compatibility and effectiveness is necessary. In this commentary we conduct a critical assessment of the compatibility of Mexico's reform policy to the international drug policy regime and describe its role in the current evolving drug policy environment. We argue that Mexico's reform is consistent with flexibilities allowed under international drug treaty instruments and related commentaries. We also advocate that drug policy reforms and future governance efforts should be based on empirical evidence, emphasize harm reduction practices, and integrate evidence-based evaluation and implementation of drug reform measures.

  1. Can conditional health policies be justified? A policy analysis of the new NHS dental contract reforms. (United States)

    Laverty, Louise; Harris, Rebecca


    Conditional policies, which emphasise personal responsibility, are becoming increasingly common in healthcare. Although used widely internationally, they are relatively new within the UK health system where there have been concerns about whether they can be justified. New NHS dental contracts include the introduction of a conditional component that restricts certain patients from accessing a full range of treatment until they have complied with preventative action. A policy analysis of published documents on the NHS dental contract reforms from 2009 to 2016 was conducted to consider how conditionality is justified and whether its execution is likely to cause distributional effects. Contractualist, paternalistic and mutualist arguments that reflect notions of responsibility and obligation are used as justification within policy. Underlying these arguments is an emphasis on preserving the finite resources of a strained NHS. We argue that the proposed conditional component may differentially affect disadvantaged patients, who do not necessarily have access to the resources needed to meet the behavioural requirements. As such, the conditional component of the NHS dental contract reform has the potential to exacerbate oral health inequalities. Conditional health policies may challenge core NHS principles and, as is the case with any conditional policy, should be carefully considered to ensure they do not exacerbate health inequities. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Optimising Russian natural gas - reform and climate policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The world's largest gas producer and exporter, Russia has an enormous energy saving potential. At least 30 billion cubic meters, a fifth of Russian exports to European OECD countries, could be saved every year by enhanced technology or energy efficiency. As the era of cheap gas in Russia comes to an end, this potential saving is increasingly important for Russians and importing countries. And, as domestic gas prices increase, efficiency investments will become increasingly economic - not to mention the incentive for Gazprom to enhance its efficiency against a backdrop of high European gas prices. The book analyzes and estimates the potential savings and the associated reductions in greenhouse gas emissions in the oil extraction (flaring), gas transmission, and distribution sectors. Achieving these savings will require linking long-standing energy efficiency goals with energy sector reforms, as well as climate policy objectives. The book also describes Russia's emerging climate policy and institutional framework, including work still ahead before the country is eligible for the Kyoto Protocol's flexibility mechanisms and can attract financing for greenhouse gas reductions. Stressed is the need for Russia to tap the full potential of energy savings and greenhouse gas emission reductions through a more competitive environment in the gas sector to attract timely investments.

  3. Higher Education Policy Reform in Ethiopia: The Representation of the Problem of Gender Inequality (United States)

    Molla, Tebeje


    The higher education (HE) subsystem in Ethiopia has passed through a series of policy reforms in the last 10 years. Key reform areas ranged from improving quality and relevance of programmes to promoting equality in access to and success in HE. Despite the effort underway, gender inequality has remained a critical challenge in the subsystem. This…

  4. Identifying Effective Policy and Technologic Reforms for Sustainable Groundwater Management in Oman (United States)

    Madani, K.; Zekri, S.; Karimi, A.


    Oman has gone through three decades of efforts aimed at addressing groundwater over-pumping and the consequent seawater intrusion. Example of measures adopted by the government since the 1990's include a vast subsidy program of irrigation modernization, a freeze on drilling new wells, delimitation of several no-drill zones, a crop substitution program, re-use of treated wastewater and construction of recharge dams. With no major success through these measures, the government laid the ground for water quotas by creating a new regulation in 1995. Nevertheless, groundwater quotas have not been enforced to date due to the high implementation and monitoring costs of traditional flow meters. This presentation discusses how sustainable groundwater management can be secured in Oman using a suit of policy and technologic reforms at a reasonable economic, political and practical cost. Data collected from farms with smart meters and low-cost wireless smart irrigation systems have been used to propose sustainable groundwater withdrawal strategies for Oman using a detailed hydro-economic model that couples a MODFLOW-SEAWAT model of the coastal aquifers with a dynamic profit maximization model. The hydro-economic optimization model was flexible to be run both as a social planner model to maximize the social welfare in the region, and as an agent-based model to capture the behavior of farmers interested in maximizing their profits independently. This flexibility helped capturing the trade-off between the optimality of the social planner solution developed at the system's level and its practicality (stability) with respect to the concerns and behaviors of the profit-maximizing farmers. The idetified promising policy and technolgical reforms for Oman include strict enforcement of groundwater quotas, smart metering, changing crop mixes, improving irrigation technologies, and revising geographical distribution of the farming activities. The presentation will discuss how different

  5. Comparative analysis of aging policy reforms in Argentina, Chile, Costa Rica, and Mexico. (United States)

    Calvo, Esteban; Berho, Maureen; Roqué, Mónica; Amaro, Juan Sebastián; Morales, Fernando; Rivera, Emiliana; Gutiérrez Robledo, Luis Miguel F; López, Elizabeth Caro; Canals, Bernardita; Kornfeld, Rosa


    This investigation uses case studies and comparative analysis to review and analyze aging policy in Argentina, Chile, Costa Rica, and Mexico, and uncovers similarities and relevant trends in the substance of historical and current aging policy across countries. Initial charity-based approaches to poverty and illness have been gradually replaced by a rights-based approach considering broader notions of well-being, and recent reforms emphasize the need for national, intersectoral, evidence-based policy. The results of this study have implications for understanding aging policy in Latin America from a welfare regime and policymakers' perspective, identifying priorities for intervention, and informing policy reforms in developing countries worldwide.

  6. Another countryside? Policy options for land and agrarian reform in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The focus on South Africa's land and agrarian policies is relevant at a time ... be coordinated at various policy levels, including macroeconomic policy, trade policy, agricultural policy and local economic development and planning for land.

  7. Electoral reform and public policy outcomes in Thailand: the politics of the 30-Baht health scheme. (United States)

    Selway, Joel Sawat


    How do changes in electoral rules affect the nature of public policy outcomes? The current evidence supporting institutional theories that answer this question stems almost entirely from quantitative cross-country studies, the data of which contain very little within-unit variation. Indeed, while there are many country-level accounts of how changes in electoral rules affect such phenomena as the number of parties or voter turnout, there are few studies of how electoral reform affects public policy outcomes. This article contributes to this latter endeavor by providing a detailed analysis of electoral reform and the public policy process in Thailand through an examination of the 1997 electoral reforms. Specifically, the author examines four aspects of policy-making: policy formulation, policy platforms, policy content, and policy outcomes. The article finds that candidates in the pre-1997 era campaigned on broad, generic platforms; parties had no independent means of technical policy expertise; the government targeted health resources to narrow geographic areas; and health was underprovided in Thai society. Conversely, candidates in the post-1997 era relied more on a strong, detailed national health policy; parties created mechanisms to formulate health policy independently; the government allocated health resources broadly to the entire nation through the introduction of a universal health care system, and health outcomes improved. The author attributes these changes in the policy process to the 1997 electoral reform, which increased both constituency breadth (the proportion of the population to which politicians were accountable) and majoritarianism.

  8. Upholding the Malay Language and Strengthening the English Language Policy: An Education Reform (United States)

    Yamat, Hamidah; Umar, Nur Farita Mustapa; Mahmood, Muhammad Ilyas


    Today's global economy and dependency on technology has led to educational reforms in Malaysia, which includes language policies; namely the Upholding the Malay Language, and Strengthening the English Language ("MBMMBI") policy. This policy underpins the project presented and discussed in this paper; on the development of a bilingual…

  9. Redesigning and reforming European regional policy : The reasons, the logic and the outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCann, P.; Ortega-Argilés, R.

    This article discusses the reforms to European Union (EU) regional development policy, or more precisely EU Cohesion Policy, which have been taking place over recent years. Following a discussion of the evolution of the policy, the changes in the rationale, the logic, the architecture, and the

  10. China Public Budget Reform Program (CPBR) - Phase II | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Government of China has adopted a national reform program aimed at making budgeting more transparent and accountable through public involvement and enhanced oversight. Building on work carried out under Phase I (102965), the China Development Research Foundation (CDRF) will analyze China's current ...

  11. From policy to practice: education reform in Mozambique and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Mozambican government has introduced reforms of basic education, notably the introduction of interdisciplinarity, learner-centredness and new teaching pedagogies. This is a case study of how these curriculum reforms have been implemented at Marrere Teachers' Training College. We conducted interviews with ...

  12. Uganda tax policy reforms: A case study of Uganda revenue authority URA


    Kato, Simon Kagambirwe


    In this study I examined the implementation of tax policy reforms at Uganda Revenue Authority. In particular, I examined the impact of the tax policy reforms implemented since the restructuring of Uganda Revenue Authority in 2005. Although Uganda's taxation system is a vital area of study, it has not gotten enough attention from researchers. This is because, in the Ugandan and generally African developing countries context, taxation involves vital and, to a large ex...

  13. Deciding Who Decides Questions at the Intersection of School Finance Reform Litigation and Standards-Based Accountability Policies (United States)

    Superfine, Benjamin Michael


    Courts hearing school finance reform cases have recently begun to consider several issues related to standards-based accountability policies. This convergence of school finance reform litigation and standards-based accountability policies represents a chance for the courts to reallocate decision-making authority for each type of reform across the…

  14. International trade and carbon emissions: The role of Chinese institutional and policy reforms. (United States)

    Andersson, Fredrik N G


    The carbon dioxide embodied in Chinese exports to developed countries increased rapidly from 1995 to 2008. We test the extent to which institutional reforms in China can explain this increase. We focus on five areas of reforms: trade liberalization, environmental institutions, legal and property rights, institutional risk and exchange rate policy. Our results show that trade liberalization, weak environmental institutions, exchange rate policy, and legal and property rights affect emissions. Our results also indicate that the lack of reform in the utilities sector is an important factor in the rapid increase in embodied emissions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Healthcare reform from the inside: A neurosurgical clinical quality program


    Afsar-Manesh, Nasim; Martin, Neil A.


    During the past decade, the U.S. health care system has faced increasing challenges in delivering high quality of care, ensuring patient safety, providing access to care, and maintaining manageable costs. While reform progresses at a national level, health care providers have a responsibility and obligation to advance quality and safety. In 2009, the authors implemented a department-wide Clinical Quality Program. This Program comprised of an inter-disciplinary group of providers and staff wor...

  16. Evaluation Policy Alternatives for the Reengineering of the Department of Defense Personal Property Shipment and Storage Program - A Stakeholder Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lepson, Michael


    ...) to evaluate the personal property pilot programs as part of Management Reform Memorandum # 6. This thesis evaluates the policy alternatives for reengineering the DOD personal property program using a stakeholder approach...

  17. Educational research in Sweden: Reform strategies and research policy (United States)

    Marklund, Inger


    Educational R & D in Sweden is to a large extent policy-oriented. It has been an integrated part of the Swedish educational reform system and has brought about a dialogue between politicians, administrators and researchers. Several circumstances have contributed to the `Swedish model'. One is the system with government-appointed committees in which researchers often play an active part. Another is that the Swedish educational system is highly centralized, with the National Board of Education (NBE) as the central authority, responsible for primary, secondary and adult education. A third — and a crucial one — is that, since 1962, the NBE has had increasing funds for educational R & D at its disposal. These funds account for the main part of the economic resources for R & D, along with resources allocated to research appointments at research departments of universities. Educational R & D, conducted primarily within the NBE funds, has recently been evaluated by a government-appointed committee. In its evaluations of the impact of educational R & D, the committee distinguished between the effects of R & D and the effect correlates. It concluded that the impact of R & D is more indirect than direct, more long-term than immediate. The effects are also more easily recognized at levels above the actual school situation. This finding could be interpreted as a consequence of the policy-orientation of educational R & D, which at the same time shows the difficulties in reaching the `school level' with research and development results. There are two general trends in Sweden, which will influence both research planning and research use. First, there is a trend towards the decentralization of decision-making and responsibility for the educational system. Secondly, there is a trend towards the `sectionalization' of the R & D system as a whole. This sectionalization will mean that research will to a great extent be planned to meet needs from different parts of society — labour

  18. Reform of irrigation management and investment policy in African development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KW Easter


    Full Text Available This paper examines the reform of water and irrigation management in Africa and compares it with similar reforms in Asia.  Several things are evident from the review.  First, Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA is at an earlier stage of irrigation development and reform than Asia.  Second, the articulated need for reform is much stronger in Asia than it is in SSA.  Third, the productivity of small-scale irrigated farms is significantly lower in SSA compared to Asia.  Thus any irrigation investment strategy in SSA should be different from Asia and focus on increasing small-farm productivity as well as small-scale irrigation projects.  Finally, all direct government irrigation investments should be done jointly with decisions regarding the type of project management.

  19. Irrational Exuberance for Market-Based Reform: How Federal Turnaround Policies Thwart Democratic Schooling (United States)

    Trujillo, Tina; Renée, Michelle


    Background: In 2009, the Obama Administration announced its intention to rapidly "turn around" 5,000 of the nation's lowest-performing schools. To do so, it relied on the School Improvement Grant (SIG) program to provide temporary funding for states and schools, and to mandate drastic, school-level reforms. Most of these reforms require…

  20. Institutional stakeholder perceptions of barriers to addiction treatment under Mexico's drug policy reform. (United States)

    Werb, Dan; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Meza, Emilo; Rangel Gomez, Maria Gudelia; Palinkas, Lawrence; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Beletsky, Leo


    Mexico has experienced disproportionate drug-related harms given its role as a production and transit zone for illegal drugs destined primarily for the USA. In response, in 2009, the Mexican federal government passed legislation mandating pre-arrest diversion of drug-dependent individuals towards addiction treatment. However, this federal law was not specific about how the scale-up of the addiction treatment sector was to be operationalised. We therefore conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with key 'interactors' in fields affected by the federal legislation, including participants from the law enforcement, public health, addiction treatment, and governmental administration sectors. Among 19 participants from the municipal, state and federal levels were interviewed and multiple barriers to policy reform were identified. First, there is a lack of institutional expertise to implement the reform. Second, the operationalisation of the reform was not accompanied by a coordinated action plan. Third, the law is an unfunded mandate. Institutional barriers are likely hampering the implementation of Mexico's policy reform. Addressing the concerns expressed by interactors through the scale-up of services, the provision of increased training and education programmes for stakeholders and a coordinated action plan to operationalise the policy reform are likely needed to improve the policy reform process.

  1. Big Business as a Policy Innovator in State School Reform: A Minnesota Case Study. (United States)

    Mazzoni, Tim L.; Clugston, Richard M., Jr.


    The Minnesota Business Partnership (MBP) was studied as a policy innovator in state school reform (for kindergarten through grade 12) in relation to agenda setting, alternative formulation, and authoritative enactment. Focus is on the MBP's policy-making involvement during the 1985 state legislative session. Overall, the MBP's influence was…

  2. Compensation Reform and Design Preferences of Teacher Incentive Fund Grantees. Policy Paper (United States)

    Heyburn, Sara; Lewis, Jessica; Ritter, Gary


    In U.S. K-12 public education, incentive pay for educators remains firmly fixed as a high-interest policy topic and has recently become a popular reform initiative in many school systems. The Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF), created in 2006 by the U.S. Department of Education, is at the forefront of this policy movement and has provided hundreds of…

  3. Whose Quality? The (Mis)Uses of Quality Reform in Early Childhood and Education Policy (United States)

    Hunkin, Elise


    This paper reports on the findings of an in-depth genealogical study of the discourse of quality in Australian Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) policy. Quality reform has become the foremost global policy agenda for ECEC due to assumptions about the economic potentials of quality services. In Australia, the recent National Quality…

  4. Translating Globalization and Democratization into Local Policy: Educational Reform in Hong Kong and Taiwan (United States)

    Law, Wing-Wah


    The past two decades have witnessed three important international trends: an increase in the number of democratic states; economic globalization; and educational reforms in light of the challenges of the new millennium. A great deal of research has addressed educational change in relation to either globalization or democratization, but little has been said about the complex interactions among all three processes. In view of recent educational reforms in Hong Kong and Taiwan, the present contribution examines the local nature of education policy in a globalized age. It challenges those globalization theories which minimize the role of the state and exaggerate the power of globalization over local factors. In particular, it explores how the governments of these two Chinese societies have employed democratization to generate and legitimate reform proposals and have used economic globalization to justify educational reforms. The study concludes by discussing the complex interrelations of these processes, including tensions between global and local concerns in educational reform.

  5. Putting "The System" into a School Autonomy Reform: The Case of the Independent Public Schools Program (United States)

    Gobby, Brad


    The Australian Federal and state governments have been introducing neoliberal reforms to the governance of their education systems for a number of decades. One of the most recent programs of reform is the Western Australian Independent Public Schools (IPS) initiative. Similar to decentralizing reforms around the world, the IPS program seeks…

  6. An analysis of policy levers used to implement mental health reform in Australia 1992-2012. (United States)

    Grace, Francesca C; Meurk, Carla S; Head, Brian W; Hall, Wayne D; Carstensen, Georgia; Harris, Meredith G; Whiteford, Harvey A


    Over the past two decades, mental health reform in Australia has received unprecedented government attention. This study explored how five policy levers (organisation, regulation, community education, finance and payment) were used by the Australian Federal Government to implement mental health reforms. Australian Government publications, including the four mental health plans (published in 1992, 1998, 2003 and 2008) were analysed according to policy levers used to drive reform across five priority areas: [1] human rights and community attitudes; [2] responding to community need; [3] service structures; [4] service quality and effectiveness; and [5] resources and service access. Policy levers were applied in varying ways; with two or three levers often concurrently used to implement a single initiative or strategy. For example, changes to service structures were achieved using various combinations of all five levers. Attempts to improve service quality and effectiveness were instead made through a single lever-regulation. The use of some levers changed over time, including a move away from prescriptive, legislative use of regulation, towards a greater focus on monitoring service standards and consumer outcomes. Patterns in the application of policy levers across the National Mental Health Strategy, as identified in this analysis, represent a novel way of conceptualising the history of mental health reform in Australia. An improved understanding of the strategic targeting and appropriate utilisation of policy levers may assist in the delivery and evaluation of evidence-based mental health reform in the future.

  7. State-Level Reforms That Support College-Level Program Changes in North Carolina (United States)

    Bowling, R. Edward; Morrissey, Sharon; Fouts, George M.


    This chapter describes the concurrent reforms occurring in North Carolina--both campus-level changes focused on such issues as developing structured programs of study and state-level reforms aimed at supporting the campus efforts.

  8. The Fiscal and Macroeconomic Impacts of Reforming Energy Subsidy Policy in Malaysia


    Nora Yusma Bte Mohamed Yusoff; Hussain Ali Bekhet


    The rationalization of a gradual subsidies reforms plan has been set out by the Malaysian government to achieve the high-income nation target. This paper attempts to analyze the impacts of energy subsidy reform policy on fiscal deficit and macroeconomics variables in Malaysia. The Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) Model is employed. Three simulations based on different groups of scenarios have been developed. Importantly, the overall results indicate that removal of fuel subsidy has signif...

  9. Impact of structural reforms on planning systems and policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galland, Daniel; Enemark, Stig


    spatial development processes. The reasoning behind this argument stems from the case of Denmark, where a structural reform that changed the country’s geographies of inter-governmental arrangements significantly transformed the configuration and functioning of the national spatial planning system. Once...... concerning how the scope of Danish spatial planning has been reoriented over time in light of three interrelated strands of understanding....

  10. Policy entrepreneurship in the development of public sector strategy: the case of London health reform. (United States)

    Oborn, Eivor; Barrett, Michael; Exworthy, Mark


    The development of health policy is recognized as complex; however, there has been little development of the role of agency in this process. Kingdon developed the concept of policy entrepreneur (PE) within his ‘windows’ model. He argued inter-related ‘policy streams' must coincide for important issues to become addressed. The conjoining of these streams may be aided by a policy entrepreneur. We contribute by clarifying the role of the policy entrepreneur and highlighting the translational processes of key actors in creating and aligning policy windows. We analyse the work in London of Professor Sir Ara Darzi as a policy entrepreneur. An important aspect of Darzi's approach was to align a number of important institutional networks to conjoin related problems. Our findings highlight how a policy entrepreneur not only opens policy windows but also yokes together a network to make policy agendas happen. Our contribution reveals the role of clinical leadership in health reform.

  11. Challenges and policy implications of gas reform in Italy and Ukraine: Evidence from a benchmarking analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharuk, Anatoliy G.; Storto, Corrado lo


    This paper presents a cross-country benchmarking study of natural gas distribution to final consumers and compares two samples of companies in Italy and Ukraine. A 2-stage DEA procedure calculating efficiency of gas providers and identifying critical context factors and policy issues that affect it is implemented. Both countries are low performing in terms of operators’ technical and scale efficiency and there is room to design more efficient market configurations. Some issues need attention to develop an effective gas market policy: a) search for efficiency requires accurate investigation of its main drivers that depend on context factors; b) while greater efficiency is necessary to reduce cost and increase service quality, at different stages of progress of the reform process other goals may be more important; c) gas industry reform process should be planned adopting a systemic perspective as its development does not remain confined to the sector, but implies changes in the whole country economy, particularly when the gas market is of primary relevance to the economy; d) a more comprehensive package of reforms may be necessary to make gas market reform successful; e) even though the gas market reform is an economic process, it has unavoidably social and political implications. - Highlights: • Benchmarking of natural gas distribution industry in Italy and Ukraine is performed. • Average industry inefficiency is about 27% and decreasing returns to scale are dominant. • Gas industry reform process should be planned adopting a systemic perspective. • Gas reform needs a more comprehensive package of reforms and/or supporting legislation to be successful. • Gas industry reform has social and political implications.

  12. Early Educational Provision--Emphasised in Education Policy Reforms in Norway? An Analysis of Education Policy Documents (United States)

    Bjørnsrud, Halvor; Nilsen, Sven


    The article analyses how the intentions of early provision in Norwegian schools have been expressed in the education policy reforms in Norway from the 1970s to the present day. The first area deals with the intentions that most explicitly cover early provision; prevention, early detection and intervention. The second area of analysis relates to…

  13. Evidence-based health policy: three generations of reform in Mexico. (United States)

    Frenk, Julio; Sepúlveda, Jaime; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; Knaul, Felicia


    The Mexican health system has evolved through three generations of reform. The creation of the Ministry of Health and the main social security agency in 1943 marked the first generation of health reforms. In the late 1970s, a second generation of reforms was launched around the primary health-care model. Third-generation reforms favour systemic changes to reorganise the system through the horizontal integration of basic functions-stewardship, financing, and provision. The stability of leadership in the health sector is emphasised as a key element that allowed for reform during the past 60 years. Furthermore, there has been a transition in the second generation of reforms to a model that is increasingly based on evidence; this has been intensified and extended in the third generation of reforms. We also examine policy developments that will provide social protection in health for all. These developments could be of interest for countries seeking to provide their citizens with universal access to health care that incorporates equity, quality, and financial protection.

  14. Energy subsidies: lessons learned in assessing their impact and designing policy reforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moltke, A. von; McKee, C.; Morgan, T.


    This book, which is based on the work carried out by the International Energy Agency and UNEP, explores the potential impacts of energy subsidies and provides guidelines for policy makers on how to implement reform of energy subsides. The background on energy subsidies is traced and an analytical framework is presented covering defining and measuring energy subsidies, the size of the subsidies, and analysis of the impact of subsidies and their reform. Energy subsidies in OECD countries, Czech and Slovak Republics, Russia, India, Indonesia, Korea, Iran and Senegal are examined along with the impact of removing energy subsidies in Chile, the findings of country case studies, and the design and implementation of energy subsidies reforms. Methodological approaches to analysing the economic, environmental and social effects of energy subsidy reform are considered in the Annex

  15. The Mexican electricity sector: Policy analysis and reform (1992–2009)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramírez-Camperos, Adriana María; Rodríguez-Padilla, Víctor; Guido-Aldana, Pedro Antonio


    This article analyses the cause–effect relation of the structural reform in the Mexican electricity sector, called the Public Electricity Service Act, from 1992 to 2009. One of the main arguments of the reform is to attract private investment in order to reduce the financial load of the government in infrastructure for the development of the National Electric Power System by means of six modalities (Power Self-Supply, Cogeneration, Small Power Production, Independent Power Production, Power Export and Power Import). The article presents the global context of reforms adopted in 1990. The major policies and events are presented in chronological order (before and after reform). In addition, it analyses the new institutional framework, the evolution of modalities, technologies of electricity generation and tariffs. The main conclusion is that the result of reform could be considered a partial progress. The Independent Power Production modality shows greater participation, while Power Self-Supply and Cogeneration are lower. The subsidy policy is maintained. Progress is needed in policies and strengthening, and also in updating regulatory and normative frameworks

  16. Shanghai housing reform. Program a burden on foreign investors. (United States)

    Burke, F


    This document contains a summary of the Housing Reform Program created in Shanghai, China, in 1991, which requires monthly contributions of all employers and employees in Shanghai to a "Collective Reserve Fund." The program also applies to foreign investment enterprises and must be followed by all enterprises, regardless of any previous housing benefits that an enterprise may be providing its employees. Employers must deduct 5% from each employee's salary (with a minimum) monthly and must match that amount. The total is paid into an account in the employer's name with the People's Construction Bank of China. The total amount collected and matched for an employee is considered the property of the employee, but the account is administered by the employer as a collective trust account. Each employee's balance may be withdrawn upon retirement, leaving the area, or purchasing a home and leaving state-owned housing. Foreign investment enterprises contribute a reduced amount in recognition of the fact that they pay salaries that are higher than those of state enterprises. The Housing Reform Program also requires employers to contribute to doubled rent subsidies for public housing, requires workers to purchase housing construction bonds in order to be eligible for newly allocated public housing, calles for housing to be sold at favorable prices, and creates a system whereby mortgages can be obtained from the Collective Reserve Fund.

  17. Economics and Health Reform: Academic Research and Public Policy. (United States)

    Glied, Sherry A; Miller, Erin A


    Two prior studies, conducted in 1966 and in 1979, examined the role of economic research in health policy development. Both concluded that health economics had not been an important contributor to policy. Passage of the Affordable Care Act offers an opportunity to reassess this question. We find that the evolution of health economics research has given it an increasingly important role in policy. Research in the field has followed three related paths over the past century-institutionalist research that described problems; theoretical research, which proposed relationships that might extend beyond existing institutions; and empirical assessments of structural parameters identified in the theoretical research. These three strands operating in concert allowed economic research to be used to predict the fiscal and coverage consequences of alternative policy paths. This ability made economic research a powerful policy force. Key conclusions of health economics research are clearly evident in the Affordable Care Act. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Effects of EU dairy policy reform for Dutch dairy farming : a primal approach using GMM estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooms, D.L.; Peerlings, J.H.M.


    This paper estimates a production function for milk using a generalised method of moments estimator to avoid the endogeneity problem. Using the first-order conditions for profit maximisation, the economic effects for individual Dutch dairy farms of the 2003 EU dairy policy reform are analysed. With

  19. Tensions between Teaching Sexuality Education and Neoliberal Policy Reform in Quebec's Professional Competencies for Beginning Teachers (United States)

    Parker, Dan; McGray. Robert


    This research draws into question the effects that neoliberal policy reforms--with an emphasis on individual and measurable "competencies"--has on new teachers teaching sexuality education in Quebec. While we examine professional competencies that teachers can use to define their mandate for teaching sexuality education as a beginning…

  20. Why Are Studies of Neighborhoods and Communities Central to Education Policy and Reform? (United States)

    Hopson, Rodney


    To understand the long shadow of education policy and reform in the United States, especially in the urban core, requires a full and elaborate understanding of the neighborhoods and communities that have transformed in the last 20 or 30 years. Studying classrooms and educational spaces without concomitant understanding of the dynamics and facets…

  1. Policy reforms, rice production and sustainable land use in China: A macro-micro analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerink, N.; Qu, F.; Kuiper, M.H.; Shi Xiaoping, X.; Tan Shuhao,


    This paper presents a macro¿micro analysis of the impact of policy reforms in China on agricultural production, input use and soil quality change for a major rice-producing area, namely Jiangxi province. This is done in three steps. First, a quantitative assessment is made of the impact of market

  2. Policies lost in translation? Unravelling water reform processes in African waterscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemerink-Seyoum, J.S.


    Since the 1980s a major change took place in public policies for water resources management. The role of governments shifted under this reform process from an emphasis on investment in the development, operation and maintenance of water infrastructure to a focus on managing water resources systems

  3. Market Accountability in Schools: Policy Reforms in England, Germany, France and Italy (United States)

    Mattei, Paola


    This article concentrates on the policy reforms of schools in England, Germany, France and Italy, from 1988 to 2009, with a focus on the introduction of market accountability. Pressing demands for organisational change in schools, shaped by the objectives of "efficiency" and competition, which were introduced in England in the 1980s,…

  4. Vehicles of Logics: The Role of Policy Documents and Instructional Materials in Reform (United States)

    Woulfin, Sarah L.


    To understand the complexities of education policy implementation, it is necessary to consider how artifacts associated with reform are imbued with ideas, meanings, and values. This empirical paper draws on neo-institutional theory to reveal how artifacts carried particular logics (D'Adderio in "J Inst Econ" 7(2):197-230, 2011; Feldman…

  5. 77 FR 17360 - Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles And... (United States)


    ... II Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles And...; cost principles and administrative requirements (including Single Audit Act). The original comment...-idx?c=ecfr&tpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title02/2cfrv1_02.tpl . The Cost Principles for Hospitals are in the...

  6. 77 FR 11778 - Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles and... (United States)


    ... and II Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles and... available on OMB's Web site at . The Cost Principles for... E (Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and...

  7. 78 FR 7282 - Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles and... (United States)


    ... II Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles and... further review, the Cost Principles for Hospitals at 45 CFR Part 74, Appendix E. The proposal consolidates... instructed the OMB Director to ``review and where appropriate revise guidance concerning cost principles...

  8. Policy risk in action: pension reforms and social security wealth in Hungary, Czech Republic, and Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dušek, Libor; Kopecsni, J.

    -, 9/2008 (2008), s. 1-34 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/05/0711 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : pension reforms * social security * policy risk Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  9. Bearing the Cost: An Examination of the Gendered Impacts of Water Policy Reform in Malawi (United States)

    Marra, Simona


    Water insecurity is one of the most pressing issues currently faced by Malawi. The consequences of these issues are borne significantly by women, who are most directly involved with water provision and use, particularly at the household level. Since the mid-1990s, Malawi has undertaken a process of water policy reform. Reflective of international…

  10. Synthesis of Evidence for Tobacco Taxation Policy Reform in West ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Existing evidence shows that tobacco taxation policies, when they make tobacco ... annual conference of McGill's Institute for the Study of International Development. ... In this ROSSA bulletin: Meet Kathryn Toure, the new regional director of ...

  11. Ethical and Human Rights Foundations of Health Policy: Lessons from Comprehensive Reform in Mexico. (United States)

    Frenk, Julio; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio


    This paper discusses the use of an explicit ethical and human rights framework to guide a reform intended to provide universal and comprehensive social protection in health for all Mexicans, independently of their socio-economic status or labor market condition. This reform was designed, implemented, and evaluated by making use of what Michael Reich has identified as the three pillars of public policy: technical, political, and ethical. The use of evidence and political strategies in the design and negotiation of the Mexican health reform is briefly discussed in the first part of this paper. The second part examines the ethical component of the reform, including the guiding concept and values, as well as the specific entitlements that gave operational meaning to the right to health care that was enshrined in Mexico's 1983 Constitution. The impact of this rights-based health reform, measured through an external evaluation, is discussed in the final section. The main message of this paper is that a clear ethical framework, combined with technical excellence and political skill, can deliver major policy results. Copyright © 2015 Frenk and Gómez-Dantés. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  12. Rethink, Reform, Reenter: An Entrepreneurial Approach to Prison Programming. (United States)

    Keena, Linda; Simmons, Chris


    The purpose of this article was to present a description and first-stage evaluation of the impact of the Ice House Entrepreneurship Program on the learning experience of participating prerelease inmates at a Mississippi maximum-security prison and their perception of the transfer of skills learned in program into securing employment upon reentry. The Ice House Entrepreneurship Program is a 12-week program facilitated by volunteer university professors to inmates in a prerelease unit of a maximum-security prison in Mississippi. Participants' perspectives were examined through content analysis of inmates' answers to program Reflection and Response Assignments and interviews. The analyses were conducted according to the constant comparative method. Findings reveal the emergent of eight life-lessons and suggest that this is a promising approach to prison programming for prerelease inmates. This study discusses three approaches to better prepare inmates for a mindset change. The rethink, reform, and reenter approaches help break the traditional cycle of release, reoffend, and return. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. On the choice of farm management practices after the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy in 2003. (United States)

    Schmid, Erwin; Sinabell, Franz


    The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) was fundamentally reformed in 2003. From 2005, farmers will receive decoupled income support payments instead of production premiums if basic standards for environment, food safety, animal health and welfare are met. Farmers are likely to adjust production and management practices to the new policy framework. We describe how this reform fits into the EU strategy of making agricultural production more environmentally friendly by concentrating on the financial aspects of the reforms. Using an agricultural sector model for Austria, we show that the reform will further decrease agricultural outputs, reduce farm inputs, lessen nitrogen surpluses and make environmentally friendly management practices more attractive for farmers.

  14. Making the link: climate policy and the reform of the UK construction industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorrell, Steve


    This paper explores the barriers to energy efficiency in the construction of non-domestic buildings in the UK. The source of the barriers is argued to lie in the organisation of the construction industry, including the linear design process, the reliance on cost-based competitive tendering and the incentives placed upon different actors. The consequences include oversizing of equipment, reduced quality, neglect of whole life costs and lack of integrated design. Each of these problems can usefully be interpreted using concepts from the new institutional economics. While the barriers are well known to construction industry specialists, they are relatively neglected in the academic literature on energy policy. Furthermore, conventional policy measures such as building regulations leave these barriers largely untouched. The UK construction industry is currently undergoing a series of reforms which aim to change the relationship between different actors and to achieve improvements in product quality and productivity. While these reforms have the potential to address many of the barriers, the reform agenda makes practically no reference to sustainability. This paper argues that climate policy objectives must be integrated into the reform agenda if the UK is to begin the transition to a low carbon built environment

  15. Interest Groups' Influence over Drug Pricing Policy Reform in South Korea (United States)

    Chung, Woojin


    In 1999, the Korean government made a drug pricing policy reform to improve the efficiency and transparency of the drug distribution system. Yet, its policy formation process was far from being rational. Facing harsh resistance from various interest groups, the government changed its details into something different from what was initially investigated and planned. So far, little evidence supports any improvement in Korea's drug distribution system. Instead, the new drug pricing policy has deteriorated Korea's national health insurance budget, indicating a heavier economic burden for the general public. From Korea's experience, we may draw some lessons for the future development of a better health care system. As a society becomes more pluralistic, the government should come out of authoritarianism and thoroughly prepare in advance for resistance to reform, by making greater efforts to persuade strong interest groups while informing the general public of potential benefits of the reform. Additionally, facing developing civic groups, the government should listen but not rely too much on them at the final stage of the policy formation. Many of the civic groups lack expertise to evaluate the details of policy and tend to act in a somewhat emotional way. PMID:15988802

  16. Interest groups' influence over drug pricing policy reform in South Korea. (United States)

    Chung, Woo Jin; Kim, Han Joong


    In 1999, the Korean government made a drug pricing policy reform to improve the efficiency and transparency of the drug distribution system. Yet, its policy formation process was far from being rational. Facing harsh resistance from various interest groups, the government changed its details into something different from what was initially investigated and planned. So far, little evidence supports any improvement in Korea's drug distribution system. Instead, the new drug pricing policy has deteriorated Korea's national health insurance budget, indicating a heavier economic burden for the general public. From Korea's experience, we may draw some lessons for the future development of a better health care system. As a society becomes more pluralistic, the government should come out of authoritarianism and thoroughly prepare in advance for resistance to reform, by making greater efforts to persuade strong interest groups while informing the general public of potential benefits of the reform. Additionally, facing developing civic groups, the government should listen but not rely too much on them at the final stage of the policy formation. Many of the civic groups lack expertise to evaluate the details of policy and tend to act in a somewhat emotional way.

  17. Brokering Knowledge Mobilization Networks: Policy Reforms, Partnerships, and Teacher Education (United States)

    Ng-A-Fook, Nicholas; Kane, Ruth G.; Butler, Jesse K.; Glithero, Lisa; Forte, Rita


    Educational researchers and policy-makers are now expected by funding agencies and their institutions to innovate the multi-directional ways in which our production of knowledge can impact the classrooms of teachers (practitioners), while also integrating their experiential knowledge into the landscape of our research. In this article, we draw on…

  18. Policy entrepreneurship in the reform of pediatric dentistry. (United States)

    Edelstein, Burton L; Maas, William R


    In a recently published IJHPR article, Cohen and Horev ask whether an individual who holds rightful governmental power is able to effectively "challenge the equilibrium" in ways that might "clash with the goals" of an influential group". This question is raised within the context of a shift in governmental policy that imposed the potential for cost management by HMOs acting as financial intermediaries for pediatric dental care in an effort to provide Israeli children better access to affordable dental care. The influential group referred to consists of Israel's private dentists and the individual seeking to challenge the equilibrium was an Israeli Minister of Health whom the authors consider to be a policy entrepreneur.The Israeli health care system is similar to that of the United States in that private benefit plans and self-pay financing dominate in dental care. This is in contrast to the substantial role of government in the financing and regulation of medical care in both countries (with Israel having universal coverage financed by government and the US having government financing the care of the elderly and the poor as well as providing subsidies through the tax system for the care of most other Americans).Efforts to expand governmental involvement in dental care in both countries have either been opposed by organized dentistry or have suffered from ineffective advocacy for increased public investment in dental care.In the U.S., philanthropic foundations have acted as or have supported health policy entrepreneurs. The recent movement to introduce the dental therapist, a type of allied dental professional trained to provide a narrow set of commonly-needed procedures, to the U.S. is discussed as an example of a successful challenge to the equilibrium by groups supported by these foundations. This is a somewhat different, and complementary, model of policy entrepreneurship from the individual policy entrepreneur highlighted in the Cohen-Horev paper.The political

  19. Nursing education reform in South Africa--lessons from a policy analysis study. (United States)

    Blaauw, Duane; Ditlopo, Prudence; Rispel, Laetitia C


    Nursing education reform is identified as an important strategy for enhancing health workforce performance, and thereby improving the functioning of health systems. Globally, a predominant trend in such reform is towards greater professionalisation and university-based education. Related nursing education reform in South Africa culminated in a new Framework for Nursing Qualifications in 2013. We undertook a policy analysis study of the development of the new Nursing Qualifications Framework in South Africa. We used a policy analysis framework derived from Walt and Gilson that interrogated the context, content, actors, and processes of policy development and implementation. Following informed consent, in-depth interviews were conducted with 28 key informants from national and provincial government; the South African Nursing Council; the national nursing association; nursing academics, managers, and educators; and other nursing organisations. The interviews were complemented with a review of relevant legislation and policy documents. Documents and interview transcripts were coded thematically using Atlas-ti software. The revision of nursing qualifications was part of the post-apartheid transformation of nursing, but was also influenced by changes in the education sector. The policy process took more than 10 years to complete and the final Regulations were promulgated in 2013. The two most important changes are the requirement for a baccalaureate degree to qualify as a professional nurse and abolishing the enrolled nurse with 2 years training in favour of a staff nurse with a 3-year college diploma. Respondents criticised slow progress, weak governance by the Nursing Council and the Department of Health, limited planning for implementation, and the inappropriateness of the proposals for South Africa. The study found significant weaknesses in the policy capacity of the main institutions responsible for the leadership and governance of nursing in South Africa, which

  20. Nursing education reform in South Africa – lessons from a policy analysis study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duane Blaauw


    Full Text Available Background: Nursing education reform is identified as an important strategy for enhancing health workforce performance, and thereby improving the functioning of health systems. Globally, a predominant trend in such reform is towards greater professionalisation and university-based education. Related nursing education reform in South Africa culminated in a new Framework for Nursing Qualifications in 2013. Objective: We undertook a policy analysis study of the development of the new Nursing Qualifications Framework in South Africa. Design: We used a policy analysis framework derived from Walt and Gilson that interrogated the context, content, actors, and processes of policy development and implementation. Following informed consent, in-depth interviews were conducted with 28 key informants from national and provincial government; the South African Nursing Council; the national nursing association; nursing academics, managers, and educators; and other nursing organisations. The interviews were complemented with a review of relevant legislation and policy documents. Documents and interview transcripts were coded thematically using Atlas-ti software. Results: The revision of nursing qualifications was part of the post-apartheid transformation of nursing, but was also influenced by changes in the education sector. The policy process took more than 10 years to complete and the final Regulations were promulgated in 2013. The two most important changes are the requirement for a baccalaureate degree to qualify as a professional nurse and abolishing the enrolled nurse with 2 years training in favour of a staff nurse with a 3-year college diploma. Respondents criticised slow progress, weak governance by the Nursing Council and the Department of Health, limited planning for implementation, and the inappropriateness of the proposals for South Africa. Conclusions: The study found significant weaknesses in the policy capacity of the main institutions


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niculescu Oana Marilena


    Full Text Available The paper proposed for being presented belongs to the field research International Affairs and European Integration. The paper entitled Common Agricultural Policy from Health Check decisions to the post-2013 reform aims to analyze the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP from the Health Check adoption in November 2008 to a new reform post-2013. The objectives of the paper are the presentation of the Health Check with its advantages and disadvantages as well as the analysis of the opportunity of a new European policy and its reforming having in view that the analysis of Health Check condition was considered a compromise. The paper is related to the internal and international research consisting in several books, studies, documents that analyze the particularities of the most debated, controversial and reformed EU policy. A personal study is represented by the first report within the PhD paper called The reform of CAP and its implications for Romanias agriculture(coordinator prof. Gheorghe Hurduzeu PhD, Academy of Economic Studies Bucharest, Faculty of International Business, research studies in the period 2009-2012. The research methodology used consists in collecting and analysis data from national and international publications, their validation, followed by a dissemination of the results in order to express a personal opinion regarding CAP and its reform. The results of the research consist in proving the opportunity of a new reform due to the fact that Health Check belongs already to the past. The paper belongs to the field research mentioned, in the attempt to prove the opportunity of building a new EU agricultural policy. The challenges CAP is facing are: food safety, environmental and climate changes, territorial balance as well as new challenges-improving sustainable management of natural resources, maintaining competitiveness in the context of globalization growth, strengthening EU cohesion in rural areas, increasing the support of CAP for

  2. A Broken Immigration System: Two Vital Remedies Before Policy Reform (United States)


    labor kept the agricultural economy afloat, most notably under a treaty with Mexico that created the controversial Bracero program . Under the treaty...protect Bracero program participants. Hing, Defining America, 126–133. 47 Bean, Vernez, and Keely, Opening and Closing the Door, 20. 48 Hing

  3. Teacher education policies, practices, and reform in Scotland: Implications in the Indian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar Misra


    Full Text Available India, a country of 1.27 billion, nowadays needs reforms, improvements, and new approaches in teacher education to cater to the demands of changing economy and society. This call to improve teacher education becomes more significant considering the fact that 50% of India’s current population is below the age of 25 and over 65% below 35. There are two ways to proceed in this direction. First, making an internal review and assessment of present scenario of teacher education and suggesting need-based measures. The second one is to learn from those countries that have recently reviewed their teacher education systems and are continuously working for the betterment of teacher education. Following second approach, present paper analyzes teacher education policies, practices, and reform in Scotland, argues that concerns and commitments to reform teacher education in India and Scotland are similar, and suggests implications of Scottish experiences in the Indian context.

  4. Five un-easy pieces of pharmaceutical policy reform. (United States)

    Rodwin, Marc A


    Improper dependencies slant policy over a drug's life span, biasing the development of new drugs, the testing and marketing approval for new drugs, and the monitoring of patient safety after drugs are marketed. This article examines five ways in which the public improperly depends on pharmaceutical firms that compromise the integrity of pharmaceutical policy. Today the public relies on pharmaceutical firms: (1) to set priorities on drug research and development; (2) to conduct clinical trials to test whether drugs are safe and effective; (3) to decide what clinical trial data to disclose to the public; (4) to monitor post marketing drug safety; (5) to supply product information to physicians and to finance continuing medical education and other professional activities. The article suggests options to overcome each of these dependencies. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  5. Property rights and hierarchies of power: a critical evaluation of land-reform policy in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André van der Walt


    Full Text Available The programme of land reform laws introduced in South Africa since 1991 is often seen and discussed as nothing more than a highly technical, black-letter aspect of South African law. In this article, the author directs attention to the policies that underly the land reform laws, and discusses the transformative potential and effect of land reform laws in view of these policies. The main question is whether the land reform programme has succeeded in breaking away from or undermining the hierarchies of power that were inherent in traditional common-law property relationships and, particularly, in the politically sanctioned and statutorily entrenched system of apartheid land law. Through the analysis of the most important land reform laws the author concludes that the land reform programme is only partially successful in this regard, since many of the new laws still uphold or entrench the underlying hierarchies o f power that characterised apartheid land law.

  6. Should the EU climate policy framework be reformed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David ELLISON


    Full Text Available Though to-date the European Union (EU has played the most significant leadership role in international negotiations to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, the emission-reducing performance of individual EU Member states has for many been less than stellar. Several EU15 Member states continue to raise rather than lower emissions. Analysing the most successful policy instruments, this paper argues EU policy efforts could benefit from three important innovations. The following strategies – the adoption of an EU-wide FIT (feed-in tariff, an EU-wide carbon tax and more flexibility in the trading of carbon credits – could significantly improve emission reductions, their relative cost-efficiency and spread burden-sharing more evenly across technologies and Member states. This raises important questions, both about the effectiveness of EU and Kyoto-style commitments, as well as the EU Emission Trading Scheme (ETS. The commitment strategy, and in particular the EU ETS mechanism, have had the smallest impact on emission reductions. The proposed set of strategies could make a far greater contribution to future EU efforts and potentially lock in the impressive progress already made. Such a policy shift, if successful, would also greatly enhance the EU’s already significant credibility and bargaining power in international climate negotiations.

  7. Teacher Reform in Indonesia: Can Offshore Programs Create Lasting Pedagogical Shift? (United States)

    Allen, William; Hyde, Mervyn; Whannel, Robert; O'Neill, Maureen


    Regional and national interest in reforming teaching in Indonesia has seen governments, NGOs and education specialists combine to drive pedagogical changes among school teachers there. Results of these programs have been indifferent at best. This paper reports on teacher reform programs in Provinsi Papua, one of the most marginal societies in…

  8. Welfare reform and women's health: review of the literature and implications for state policy. (United States)

    O'Campo, P; Rojas-Smith, L


    In August 1996, the Personal Responsibility Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (P.L. 104-193) was signed into law, ending a 60-year federal entitlement guaranteeing families some basic level of assistance during periods of economic hardship. Several components of this new legislation have the potential to impact upon the health and well-being of women and children. We summarize studies examining the relationship between welfare participation and physical and mental well-being of women and what is known about the effects of poverty on health; the patterns of employment among welfare participants and the health consequences of low-wage work on women; domestic violence among welfare recipients; the potential health consequences of the provisions of the new Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) program for women's and adolescent health; and the consequences of the new TANF provisions for the health and well-being of immigrant women. We discuss the implications for policy makers in monitoring and minimizing the negative impact of welfare reforms on women's health and well-being.

  9. The policy and politics of the 2015 long-term care reform in the Netherlands. (United States)

    Maarse, J A M Hans; Jeurissen, P P Patrick


    As of 2015 a major reform in LTC is taking place in the Netherlands. An important objective of the reform is to reign in expenditure growth to safeguard the fiscal sustainability of LTC. Other objectives are to improve the quality of LTC by making it more client-tailored. The reform consists of four interrelated pillars: a normative reorientation, a shift from residential to non-residential care, decentralization of non-residential care and expenditure cuts. The article gives a brief overview of these pillars and their underlying assumptions. Furthermore, attention is paid to the political decision-making process and the politics of implementation and evaluation. Perceptions of the effects of the reform so far widely differ: positive views alternate with critical views. Though the reform is radical in various aspects, LTC care will remain a largely publicly funded provision. A statutory health insurance scheme will remain in place to cover residential care. The role of municipalities in publicly funded non-residential care is significantly upgraded. The final section contains a few policy lessons. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Use of a policy debate to teach residents about health care reform. (United States)

    Nguyen, Vu Q C; Hirsch, Mark A


    Resident education involves didactics and pedagogic strategies using a variety of tools and technologies in order to improve critical thinking skills. Debating is used in educational settings to improve critical thinking skills, but there have been no reports of its use in residency education. The present paper describes the use of debate to teach resident physicians about health care reform. We aimed to describe the method of using a debate in graduate medical education. Second-year through fourth-year physical medicine and rehabilitation residents participated in a moderated policy debate in which they deliberated whether the United States has one of the "best health care system(s) in the world." Following the debate, the participants completed an unvalidated open-ended questionnaire about health care reform. Although residents expressed initial concerns about participating in a public debate on health care reform, all faculty and residents expressed that the debate was robust, animated, and enjoyed by all. Components of holding a successful debate on health care reform were noted to be: (1) getting "buy-in" from the resident physicians; (2) preparing the debate; and (3) follow-up. The debate facilitated the study of a large, complex topic like health care reform. It created an active learning process. It encouraged learners to keenly attend to an opposing perspective while enthusiastically defending their position. We conclude that the use of debates as a teaching tool in resident education is valuable and should be explored further.

  11. Policy Reform with Marijuana Use: Weighing Risks and Benefits. (United States)

    Nkemdirim Okere, Arinze


    With the current legalization of medical marijuana and the possibility of recreational use being permitted in some states, the health care benefits associated with the use of marijuana is questionable. States that are on the path of legalizing marijuana, should recognize that as there are perceived positive benefits, there are also many evidence-based negative health consequences which may result in negative economic and societal consequences. As more data on health outcomes regarding the use of marijuana continue to emerge, policies directed toward legalizing marijuana, whether medical or recreational, should consider protecting the society from both harm and societal cost.

  12. The project organization as a policy tool in implementing welfare reforms in the public sector. (United States)

    Jensen, Christian; Johansson, Staffan; Löfström, Mikael


    Organizational design is considered in policy literature as a forceful policy tool to put policy to action. However, previous research has not analyzed the project organization as a specific form of organizational design and, hence, has not given much attention to such organizations as a strategic choice when selecting policy tools. The purpose of the article is to investigate the project as a policy tool; how do such temporary organizations function as a specific form of organization when public policy is implemented? The article is based on a framework of policy implementation and is illustrated with two welfare reforms in the Swedish public sector, which were organized and implemented as project organizations. The case studies and the analysis show that it is crucial that a project organization fits into the overall governance structure when used as a policy tool. If not, the project will remain encapsulated and will not have sufficient impact on the permanent organizational structure. The concept of encapsulation indicates a need to protect the project from a potential hostile environment. The implication of this is that organizational design as a policy tool is a matter that deserves more attention in the strategic discussion on implementing public policies and on the suitability of using certain policy tools. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Translating the human right to water and sanitation into public policy reform. (United States)

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Kayser, Georgia Lyn; Kestenbaum, Jocelyn Getgen; Amjad, Urooj Quezon; Dalcanale, Fernanda; Bartram, Jamie


    The development of a human right to water and sanitation under international law has created an imperative to implement human rights in water and sanitation policy. Through forty-three interviews with informants in international institutions, national governments, and non-governmental organizations, this research examines interpretations of this new human right in global governance, national policy, and local practice. Exploring obstacles to the implementation of rights-based water and sanitation policy, the authors analyze the limitations of translating international human rights into local water and sanitation practice, concluding that system operators, utilities, and management boards remain largely unaffected by the changing public policy landscape for human rights realization. To understand the relevance of human rights standards to water and sanitation practitioners, this article frames a research agenda to ensure that human rights aspirations lead to public policy reforms and public health outcomes.

  14. Do American and Korean Education Systems Converge? Tracking School Reform Policies and Outcomes in Korea and the USA (United States)

    Lee, Jaekyung; Park, Daekwon


    This study examines key school reform policies and outcomes of the USA and Korea over the past three decades from comparative perspectives. Since the two nations' unique educational problems brought divergent educational reform paths--standardization versus differentiation, high-stakes testing versus individualized assessment, and centralization…

  15. Reforming minute reserve policy in Germany. A step towards efficient markets?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rammerstorfer, Margarethe; Wagner, Christian


    The present paper provides an empirical assessment of the effects associated with the reorganization of minute reserve markets in Germany. As the aim of the regulator is to assure a competitive market with transparent pricing, we analyze whether the recent policy reform has had an impact on the dynamics of minute reserve prices. Our results show that the level and volatility of positive and negative minute reserve prices decreased substantially. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the degree of integration between reserve and spot markets has increased. Overall, prices reacted to the policy change in a manner that is in line with the regulator's objective. The reform can thus be viewed as a step towards an efficient reserve market. (author)

  16. The Study of Human Resource Competency Development Policy in Tourism Sector of Bureaucracy Reformation Era


    Wiryanto, Wisber


    The development of the tourism sector ought to be supported by the competent Human Resources (SDM). Human resources of tourism that include human resources apparatus, industrial human resources, and the tourism community until now still facing difficulties of competency gaps and capability certification. Concerning this issue, there will be conducted a research of human resource competency development policy in tourism sector of bureaucratic reformation era. The goal of this research is to ex...


    Schuftan, Claudio


    The author here distills his long-time personal experience with the deleterious effects of globalization on health and on the health sector reforms embarked on in many of the more than 50 countries where he has worked in the last 25 years. He highlights the role that the "human right to health" framework can and should play in countering globalization's negative effects on health and in shaping future health policy. This is a testimonial article.

  18. Policy risk in action: pension reforms and social security wealth in Hungary, Czech Republic, and Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dušek, Libor; Kopecsni, J.


    Roč. 58, 7-8 (2008), s. 329-358 ISSN 0015-1920 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : pension reforms * social security * policy risk Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.275, year: 2008é.pdf

  19. Cotton Trade Liberalizations and Domestic Agricultural Policy Reforms: A Partial Equilibrium Analysis


    Pan, Suwen; Fadiga, Mohamadou L.; Mohanty, Samarendu; Welch, Mark


    This paper analyzed the effects of trade liberalizing reforms in the world cotton market using a partial equilibrium model. The simulation results indicated that a removal of domestic subsidies and border tariffs for cotton would increase the amount of world cotton trade by an average of 4% in the next five years and world cotton prices by an average of 12% over the same time horizon. The findings indicated that under the liberalization policy, the United States would lose part of its export ...

  20. Review: Miller, Michelle Ann (2009, Rebellion and Reform in Indonesia – Jakarta’s Security and Autonomy Policies in Aceh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Missbach


    Full Text Available Review of the monograph: Miller, Michelle Ann, Rebellion and Reform in Indonesia – Jakarta’s Security and Autonomy Policies in Aceh, London/ New York: Routledge, 2009, ISBN 13: 978-0-415-45467-4, 240 pages.

  1. Smallholder Livelihood Adaptation in the Context of Neoliberal Policy Reforms: A Case of Maize Farmers in Southern Veracruz, Mexico.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewald, S.F.; Berg, van den M.M.


    Governments around the world have embraced trade liberalisation as a means of enhancing efficiency to realise economic growth and alleviate poverty. Likewise, the Mexican government implemented neoliberal policy reforms, the NAFTA in particular, to stimulate sustainable development. Using the

  2. Impact of the joint-stock reform of commercial banks on the effectiveness of monetary policy in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Xianming


    Full Text Available Over the past decade, the Chinese government has conducted the joint-stock reform of state-owned commercial banks. The joint-stock reform improves the marketization level of the ownership structure of commercial banks and consequently leads to impacts on the effectiveness of monetary policy. This paper first presents the impacting mechanisms of the joint-stock reform of commercial banks on the effectiveness of monetary policy and then constructs an empirical model to test those impacts. The empirical results show that the increasing degree of joint-stock reform of commercial banks enhances the effectiveness of expansionary monetary policy but weakens the effectiveness of contractionary monetary policy in China.

  3. Do different welfare states engender different policy preferences?: opinions on pension reforms in Eastern and Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velladics, K.; Henkens, C.J.I.M.; van Dalen, H.P.


    This article examines whether the different welfare states of the European Union member states engender different policy preferences and attitudes among the population. More specifically, it investigates variations in attitudes towards population ageing and pension reforms, and variations in

  4. Strengthening the Profession? A Comparison of Recent Reforms in the UK and the USA. ACER Policy Briefs. Issue 2 (United States)

    Ingvarson, Lawrence


    Educational policy makers in many countries recognize the need to focus their policies more directly on factors affecting the quality of teachers. Common to these policies are attempts to reform teachers' pay systems and career paths to place greater value on teachers' work and give stronger incentives for professional development. Investing in…

  5. Reimbursement-Based Economics--What Is It and How Can We Use It to Inform Drug Policy Reform? (United States)

    Coyle, Doug; Lee, Karen M; Mamdani, Muhammad; Sabarre, Kelley-Anne; Tingley, Kylie


    In Ontario, approximately $3.8 billion is spent annually on publicly funded drug programs. The annual growth in Ontario Public Drug Program (OPDP) expenditure has been limited to 1.2% over the course of 3 years. Concurrently, the Ontario Drug Policy Research Network (ODPRN) was appointed to conduct drug class review research relating to formulary modernization within the OPDP. Drug class reviews by ODPRN incorporate a novel methodological technique called reimbursement-based economics, which focuses on reimbursement strategies and may be particularly relevant for policy-makers. To describe the reimbursement-based economics approach. Reimbursement-based economics aims to identify the optimal reimbursement strategy for drug classes by incorporating a review of economic literature, comprehensive budget impact analyses, and consideration of cost-effectiveness. This 3-step approach is novel in its focus on the economic impact of alternate reimbursement strategies rather than individual therapies. The methods involved within the reimbursement-based approach are detailed. To facilitate the description, summary methods and findings from a recent application to formulary modernization with respect to the drug class tryptamine-based selective serotonin receptor agonists (triptans) used to treat migraine headaches are presented. The application of reimbursement-based economics in drug policy reforms allows policy-makers to consider the cost-effectiveness and budget impact of different reimbursement strategies allowing consideration of the trade-off between potential cost savings vs increased access to cost-effective treatments. © 2015 American Headache Society.

  6. Why Do Policy-Makers Adopt Global Education Policies? Toward a Research Framework on the Varying Role of Ideas in Education Reform (United States)

    Verger, Antoni


    Globalization is profoundly altering the education policy landscape. It introduces new problems in education agendas, compresses time and space in policy processes, and revitalizes the role of a range of supra-national players in educational reform. This deterritorialization of the education policy process has important theoretical and…

  7. On the Choice of Farm Management Practices after the Reform of the Common Agricultural Policy in 2003


    Schmid, Erwin; Sinabell, Franz


    The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) was fundamentally reformed in 2003. From 2005 on, farmers will receive decoupled income support payments instead of production premiums if basic standards for environment, food safety, animal health and welfare are met. Farmers will likely adjust production and management practices to the new policy framework. We describe how this reform fits into the EU strategy of making agricultural production more environmentally friendly by concentrating on financial ...

  8. Curriculum Policy Implementation: How Schools Respond to Government's "Soft" Policy in the Curriculum Reform (United States)

    Chan, Jacqueline K. S.


    "Soft" policy has newly emerged as a policy implementation concept in relation to governance. Non-binding in character, "soft" policy is designed for multi-level systems of governance in which there is relative autonomy at different levels of collective decision-making. "Soft" policy has gained attention since the…

  9. Implementing plant clinics in the maelstrom of policy reform in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Solveig; Matsiko, F.B.; Kjær, A.M.


    government commitment and a growing demand for this new type of farmer service, effective implementation of plant clinics turned out to be a challenge.We examine how agricultural policies and institutional setups, and their political context, influenced the implementation of plant clinics from 2010 to 2011...... services. Implementation of plant clinics was further affected by a new district reform and the national elections taking place during the study period. The dual purpose of the plant clinics created uncertainty about their organisational belonging. They fell through the cracks of extension and disease...... the policy and institutional frameworks in which plant clinics operate, but also the effects of political imperatives and donors on policy implementation. This study provides a basis for institutional and policy analysis related to the implementation of plant clinics elsewhere....

  10. What is the appropriate counterfactual when estimating effects of multilateral trade policy reform?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Kym; Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Nelgen, Signe


    the counterfactual price distortions in 2030 are shown to be much larger in the case where agricultural protection grows endogenously than in the case assuming no policy changes over the projection period. This suggests the traditional way of estimating effects of a multilateral agricultural trade agreement may...... of the DDA’s possible effects thus requires first modelling the world economy to 2030 and, in that process, projecting what trade-related policies might be by then without a DDA. Typically, modelers assume the counterfactual policy regime to be a ‘business-as-usual’ projection assuming the status quo. Yet we...... by projecting the world economy to 2030 using the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) model with those two alternative policy regimes and then simulating a move to global free trade (the maximum benefit from a multilateral trade reform) in each of those two cases. The welfare effects of removing...

  11. Farmers' preferences for water policy reforms: Results from a survey in Alberta (United States)

    Zhang, W.; Bjornlund, H.; Klein, K.


    Facing increasingly urgent stress on global water scarcity, many reforms have been launched in countries around the world. As the biggest group of natural resource managers, farmers' behaviour is drawing increasingly wide attention. Satisfying new demands for water will depend on farmers' support since, generally, water will need to be transferred from farmers who have historically secure rights. Although water pricing reform is widely considered to lead to water conservation, the uncertainty of its potential impacts hinders the process of reform. This farmer-level empirical research explores farmers' possible responses to introduction of reforms in water pricing. A survey was conducted of about 300 farm households that use water for irrigating crops in Southern Alberta, an area that is facing water shortages and has had to stop issuing new water licences. By using structural equation modelling, the strength and direction of direct and indirect relationships between external, internal and behavioural variables as proposed in general attitude theory have been estimated. Farming as a family engagement, family members' and family unit's characteristics doubtlessly affect farming practice and farm decisions. Farmers' behaviour was explored under the family and farm context. In developing and testing conceptual models that integrate socio-demographic, psychological, farming context and social milieu factors, we may develop a deeper understanding of farmers' behaviour. The findings and recommendations will be beneficial for environmental practitioners and policy makers.

  12. A synthesis of welfare reform policy and its impact on substance users. (United States)

    Montoya, Isaac D; Atkinson, John S


    The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of welfare reform and its impact on the substance-abusing recipient. The data for this paper were derived from sources including the US Department of Health and Human Services and the National Institute on Drug Abuse. The number of individuals on public assistance has decreased in the years following implementation of welfare reform legislation. Factors relevant to transitioning welfare recipients into the workplace, such as transportation and childcare, have special ramifications for the drug-using population. Additionally, these individuals require treatment for their addictions in order to become employable. The issue of concern is that recipients may be deterred from seeking benefits by various provisions of welfare reform legislation and turn instead to other sources (including illicit activities) for sustenance. Welfare caseloads have been dropping over the past two years. However, the number of substance abusers continues to rise. It is not known in what ways welfare reform will affect substance abusers who are welfare recipients. Important policy issues arise from this nexus; it is argued that these issues will require careful investigation.

  13. Acquisition Policy and Procedures Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    This Instruction establishes policies, responsibilities, and procedures for the procurement of goods and services to include supplies, equipment, publications, furniture, and information technology...

  14. Poor program's progress: the unanticipated politics of Medicaid policy. (United States)

    Brown, Lawrence D; Sparer, Michael S


    Advocates of U.S. national health insurance tend to share an image that highlights universal standards of coverage, social insurance financing, and national administration--in short, the basic features of Medicare. Such an approach is said to be good (equitable and efficient) policy and equally good politics. Medicaid, by contrast, is often taken to exemplify poor policy and poorer politics: means-tested eligibility, general revenue financing, and federal/state administration, which encourage inequities and disparities of care. This stark juxtaposition fails, however, to address important counterintuitive elements in the political evolution of these programs. Medicare's benefits and beneficiaries have stayed disturbingly stable, but Medicaid's relatively broad benefits have held firm, and its categories of beneficiaries have expanded. Repeated alarms about "bankruptcy" have undermined confidence in Medicare's trust funding, while Medicaid's claims on the taxpayer's dollar have worn well. Medicare's national administration has avoided disparities, but at the price of sacrificing state and local flexibility that can ease such "reforms" as the introduction of managed care. That Medicaid has fared better than a "poor people's program" supposedly could has provocative implications for health reform debates.

  15. Between Accommodating and Activating: Framing Policy Reforms in Response to Workforce Aging across Europe. (United States)

    Kroon, Anne C; Vliegenthart, Rens; van Selm, Martine


    In the past decade, European governments have implemented activating policy reforms to maximize older workers' employment and employability, representing a paradigmatic change in approaches to work and retirement. This study isolates the factors that explain the relative success and failure of competitive frames that are either in favor of or against activating policies in European news coverage, by applying time-series analysis (ordinary least squares with panel-corrected standard errors) to monthly aggregated news coverage in the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Denmark, and Spain over the timespan 2006-2013. The results show that pro-activating and counteractivating frames generally coincide in competitive framing environments. The pro-activating frame proliferated in times of high employment protection, whereas the counteractivating frame prevailed stronger in conservative compared with progressive newspapers, and gained momentum during the aftermath of the financial crisis and in times governments on the economic left were in power. The study advances knowledge of competitive issue framing by demonstrating how the economic, policy, and political context matters for the emergence and evolvement of competing frames. In addition, the findings contribute to the understanding of the factors that contribute to news representations that promote active aging in European news, which may foster support for policy reforms that sustain older workers' employability.

  16. Outcomes of the Two 1990s Family Policy Reforms at the Turn of the 2000s in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Haataja


    Full Text Available Finnish family policy faced two rather different reform waves in the 1990s. They were justi? ed by saving public spending but relied on different social policy philosophies. The article assesses the impact of the reforms on public spending and poverty rates at the turn of the 2000s. The method is based on tax-bene? t models and representative micro data, i.e. on static microsimulation. The results suggest that the increased poverty is due more to changes in the socioeconomic structure than changes in the levels of family policy bene? ts, even though the biggest cutbacks in the reforms focused on families with small children and single parents. The reforms also had an impact on gender relations by offering more incentives to reinforce than alleviate the traditional division of child care and paid work between the parents. That in part may have affected the mothers labor market position and increased income differences between families.

  17. Moving from Traditional Teacher Education to a Field-Based Urban Teacher Education Program: One Program's Story of Reform (United States)

    Waddell, Jennifer; Vartuli, Sue


    In recent years, teacher education has been charged with reforming programs to better align curriculum, clinical practice, and accountability. The sense of urgency for reform has been heightened by competition from alternative routes to teaching that jump straight to practice, often criticized for foregoing essential knowledge and theory. This…

  18. EU rural policy reform (1997-1999): between politics and policy learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Jonny Trapp


    EU rural development policy is gaining in relative significance as the "second pillar" of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). Its substance - objectives and instruments - is still under development. This article explores the contribution of so-called "policy learning" by the European Commission...

  19. Department of Education's Student Loan Programs: Are Tax Dollars at Risk? Hearing before the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy, and Human Resources of the Committee on Government Reform. House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, First Session. (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Government Reform.

    This hearing was held to consider whether the student loan programs of the Department of Education place tax dollars at risk. In his opening remarks, Representative John L. Mica (Florida) pointed out that for nearly 10 years, the U.S. General Accounting Office has labeled these programs as a high risk for fraud, waste, abuse, and mismanagement. In…

  20. Interactions of selected policy-stakeholder groups implementing middle school science standards-based systemic reform (United States)

    Boydston, Theodore Lewis, III


    This research is an interpretive inquiry into the views and interactions of stakeholders in a district office of a large school system responsible for implementing science systemic reform. Three major sources of data were used in this research: surveys, stakeholder interviews, and autobiographical reflection on experiences as part of the reform initiative. This is an emergent research that is evident in the shift in the focus of research questions and their supporting assumptions during the research. The literature review describes standards-based reform, arguments about reform, and the major dimensions of reform research. The results of the survey of stakeholders revealed that the views among the stakeholder groups followed the system hierarchy and could be separated into two large groups; staff responsible for implementing the reform initiative and the other stakeholder groups. Each of these groups was composed of identifiable subgroups. The interviews with stakeholders revealed how their different attitudes, values, and beliefs frame the context of stakeholder interactions. An over reliance on an authoritarian view of decision-making leaves many stakeholders feeling disempowered and critical of others. This atmosphere promotes blaming, which inhibits collegial interaction. Work experiences in the district office revealed how stakeholders' unaddressed assumptions, attitudes, and beliefs promote fragmentation and competition rather than cooperation. Hidden assumptions about management by control and mandate, competition, and teaching and learning appear to restrain the interactions of stakeholders. Support of the National Science Education Standards was identified as a unifying view among the stakeholders, yet the professional development program focused on content and pedagogical knowledge without addressing stakeholder concerns and beliefs about the intended constructivist framework of the program. Stakeholders' attitudes about the issue of equity demonstrated

  1. Applying policy network theory to policy-making in China: the case of urban health insurance reform. (United States)

    Zheng, Haitao; de Jong, Martin; Koppenjan, Joop


    In this article, we explore whether policy network theory can be applied in the People's Republic of China (PRC). We carried out a literature review of how this approach has already been dealt with in the Chinese policy sciences thus far. We then present the key concepts and research approach in policy networks theory in the Western literature and try these on a Chinese case to see the fit. We follow this with a description and analysis of the policy-making process regarding the health insurance reform in China from 1998 until the present. Based on this case study, we argue that this body of theory is useful to describe and explain policy-making processes in the Chinese context. However, limitations in the generic model appear in capturing the fundamentally different political and administrative systems, crucially different cultural values in the applicability of some research methods common in Western countries. Finally, we address which political and cultural aspects turn out to be different in the PRC and how they affect methodological and practical problems that PRC researchers will encounter when studying decision-making processes.

  2. The European Common Agricultural Policy on fruits and vegetables: exploring potential health gain from reform. (United States)

    Veerman, J Lennert; Barendregt, Jan J; Mackenbach, Johan P


    Consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. The European Union Common Agricultural Policy keeps prices high by limiting the availability of fruits and vegetables. This policy is at odds with public health interests. We assess the potential health gain for the Dutch population of discontinuing EU withdrawal support for fruits and vegetables. The maximum effect of the reform was estimated by assuming that a quantity equivalent to the amount of produce withdrawn in recent years would be brought onto the market. For the calculation of the effect of consumption change on health we constructed a multi-state life table model in which consumption of fruits and vegetables is linked to ischaemic heart disease, stroke, and cancer of the oesophagus, stomach, colorectum, lung and breast. Uncertainty is quantified using Monte Carlo simulation. The reform would maximally increase the average consumption of fruits and vegetables by 1.80% (95% uncertainty interval 1.12-2.73), with an ensuing increase in life expectancy of 3.8 (2.2-5.9) days for men and 2.6 (1.5-4.2) days for women. The reform is also likely to decrease socio-economic inequalities in health. Ending EU withdrawal support for fruits and vegetables could result in a modest health gain for the Dutch population, though uncertainty in the estimates is high. A more comprehensive examination of the health effects of the EU agricultural policy could help to ensure health is duly considered in decision-making.

  3. Dental healthcare reforms in Germany and Japan: A comparison of statutory health insurance policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayumi Nomura


    Full Text Available This article aims to compare statutory health insurance policy during the dental healthcare reforms in Germany and Japan. Germany and Japan have categorized their statutory health insurance systems. People in both countries have been provided with a wide coverage of dental treatment and prosthetics. To compare the trends of the indicators of oral healthcare systems over time, it has been suggested that the strategic allocation of dental expenditure is more important than the amount of expense. German dental healthcare policy has shifted under political and socio-economic pressures towards a cost-effective model. In contrast, Japanese healthcare reforms have focused on keeping the basic statutory health insurance scheme, whereby individuals share more of the cost of statutory health insurance. As a result, Germany has succeeded in dramatically decreasing the prevalence of dental caries among children. On comparing the dental conditions of both countries, the rate of decline in replacement of missing teeth among adults and the elderly in Germany and Japan has been interpreted as indicating the price-conscious demands of prosthetics. The difference in the decline of DMFT in 12-year-olds in Germany and Japan could be described as being due to the dental health insurance policy being shifted from treatment-oriented to preventive-oriented in Germany. These findings suggest that social health insurance provides people with equal opportunity for dental services, and healthcare reforms have improved people's oral health. A mixed coverage of social health insurance coverage for dental care should be reconsidered in Japan.

  4. Tax reforms in EU Member States - Tax policy challenges for economic growth and fiscal sustainability – 2012 Report


    European Commission


    The 2012 edition of the report ‘Tax reforms in EU Member States’ intends to contribute to the tax policy debate in the EU. Following the successful 2011 edition, the report consists of two parts: i) a short analysis of tax revenue data and an overview of recent tax reforms in Member States, and ii) a discussion of selected up-to-date tax policy topics in the form of two analytical chapters. The first analytical chapter focuses on the economic implications and policy challenges of the EU VAT s...

  5. Can a policy program influence policy change? The case of the Swiss EnergieSchweiz program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sager, Fritz; Bürki, Marietta; Luginbühl, Jennifer


    This paper investigates the interrelation of policy implementation and policy change by addressing the question of whether and how the Swiss energy program “EnergieSchweiz” influenced policy decisions. We discuss different ways in which a policy program may influence policy change: by negative and positive learning, by coalition building and by policy community building. Respective assumptions are tested in two case studies from the “EnergieSchweiz” program, which was in place from 2000 to 2010. We find that, while the policy program was not critical for the policy change itself, it nevertheless played a role as an agenda setter, as an initiator of learning processes as well as through its policy community. - Highlights: • We investigate how energy policy implementation impacts policy change. • We analyse the Swiss energy program “EnergieSchweiz” in place from 2000 to 2010. • Policy programs alone do not deliver policy change. • But they can influence it by agenda setting and by negative learning. • Expert networks have an influence if there are shared goals

  6. Is it necessary to reform the policy of compensation in morocco ?


    Tarbalouti, Mr


    Faut-il réformer la caisse de compensation au Maroc? Par Essaid Tarbalouti Version, Mars 2014 The debate on the efficiency of the subsidy of the prices of foodstuffs granted by the policy of compensation and his reform are deeply livened up between the government and the opposition in terms of its cost and its ineffectiveness. This debate concentrate on the social earnings to replace this mechanism of assistant by the granting of a minimum income to the poor people. We demonstrate that this m...

  7. The OECD and Educational Policy Reform: International Surveys, Governance, and Policy Evidence (United States)

    Volante, Louis; Fazio, Xavier; Ritzen, Jo


    Over the past 50 years, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) has increasingly influenced the nature and scope of education policies in primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors around the world. Policy suggestions in these sectors primarily stem from the results of their various international surveys such as the…

  8. Community health events for enrolling uninsured into public health insurance programs: implications for health reform. (United States)

    Cheng, Scott; Tsai, Kai-ya; Nascimento, Lori M; Cousineau, Michael R


    To determine whether enrollment events may serve as a venue to identify eligible individuals, enroll them into health insurance programs, and educate them about the changes the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act will bring about. More than 2900 surveys were administered to attendees of 7 public health insurance enrollment events in California. Surveys were used to identify whether participants had any change in understanding of health reform after participating in the event. More than half of attendees at nearly all events had no knowledge about health reform before attending the event. On average, more than 80% of attendees knew more about health reform following the event and more than 80% believed that the law would benefit their families. Enrollment events can serve as an effective method to educate the public on health reform. Further research is recommended to explore in greater detail the impact community enrollment events can have on expanding public understanding of health reform.

  9. Future considerations for clinical dermatology in the setting of 21st century American policy reform: The Medicare Access and Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act and Alternative Payment Models in dermatology. (United States)

    Barbieri, John S; Miller, Jeffrey J; Nguyen, Harrison P; Forman, Howard P; Bolognia, Jean L; VanBeek, Marta J


    With the introduction of the Medicare Access and Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act, clinicians who are not eligible for an exemption must choose to participate in 1 of 2 new reimbursement models: the Merit-based Incentive Payment System or Alternative Payment Models (APMs). Although most dermatologists are expected to default into the Merit-based Incentive Payment System, some may have an interest in exploring APMs, which have associated financial incentives. However, for dermatologists interested in the APM pathway, there are currently no options other than joining a qualifying Accountable Care Organization, which make up only a small subset of Accountable Care Organizations overall. As a result, additional APMs relevant to dermatologists are needed to allow those interested in the APMs to explore this pathway. Fortunately, the Medicare Access and Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act establishes a process for new APMs to be approved and the creation of bundled payments for skin diseases may represent an opportunity to increase the number of APMs available to dermatologists. In this article, we will provide a detailed review of APMs under the Medicare Access and Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act and discuss the development and introduction of APMs as they pertain to dermatology. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Hospital Capacity, Waiting Times and Sick Leave Duration - an Empirical Analysis of a Norwegian Health Policy Reform


    Aakvik, Arild; Holmås, Tor Helge; Kjerstad, Egil


    A health policy reform aiming to reduce hospital waiting times and sickness absences, the Faster Return to Work (FRW) scheme, is evaluated by creating treatment and control groups to facilitate causal interpretations of the empirical results. We use a unique dataset on individuals where we match hospital data with social security data and socio-economic characteristics. The main idea behind the reform is that long waiting times for hospital treatment lead to unnecessarily long periods of sick...

  11. Social Security reform: evaluating current proposals. Latest results of the EBRI-SSASIM2 policy simulation model. (United States)

    Copeland, C; VanDerhei, J; Salisbury, D L


    The present Social Security program has been shown to be financially unsustainable in the future without modification to the current program. The purpose of this Issue Brief, EBRI's fourth in a series on Social Security reform, is threefold: to illustrate new features of the EBRI-SSASIM2 policy simulation model not available in earlier EBRI publications, to expand quantitative analysis to specific proposals, and to evaluate the uncertainty involved in proposals that rely on equity investment. This analysis compares the Gregg/Breaux-Kolbe/Stenholm (GB-KS) and Moynihan/Kerrey proposals with three generic or "traditional" reforms: increasing taxes, reducing benefits, and/or increasing the retirement age. Both proposals would create individual accounts by "carving out" funds from current Social Security payroll taxes. This analysis also examines other proposed changes that would "add on" to existing Social Security funds through the use of general revenue transfers and/or investment in the equities market. President Clinton has proposed a general revenue transfer and the collective investment of some of the OASDI trust fund assets in equities. Reps. Archer and Shaw have proposed a general revenue tax credit to establish individual accounts that would be invested partially in the equities markets. When comparing Social Security reform proposals that would specifically alter benefit levels, the Moynihan/Kerrey bill compares quite favorably with the other proposals in both benefit levels and payback ratios, when individuals elect to use the individual account option. In contrast, the GB-KS bills do not compare quite as favorably for their benefit levels, but do compare favorably in terms of payback ratios. An important comparison in these bills is the administrative costs of managing the individual accounts, since benefits can be lowered by up to 23 percent when going from the assumed low to high administrative costs. Moreover, allowing individuals to decide whether to

  12. Viewpoint: methanol poisoning outbreak in Libya: a need for policy reforms. (United States)

    Taleb, Ziyad Ben; Bahelah, Raed


    We address the controversies surrounding a 2013 outbreak of methanol poisoning in Tripoli, Libya. We critically examine and systematically analyze the outbreak to highlight the lessons learned from this disaster and how to act properly to prevent similar outbreaks in future. Many health problems have been directly attributed to drinking alcohol; the type and quality of alcohol determines the detrimental effects. An unregulated and flourishing black market in alcohol is among the factors behind the Libyan tragedy, where approximately 90 deaths and about 1000 hospital admissions were reported. We reviewed gaps in local and regional alcohol policy, and highlighted the issue of illegally produced and home-made alcohol. Collaboration between countries in the region plus critical health and policy reforms in Libya, with emphasis on public health preparedness, can dramatically decrease morbidity and mortality associated with such outbreaks.

  13. The regulatory reform in the European Union environmental policy: A first appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveque, Francois


    This paper is aimed to outline the expected outcome of the regulatory reform which is occurring in the European Union environmental policy: it intends to point out the new institutional procedures for rulemaking introduced by the Maastricht Treaty and the fifth Programme of Action, which would result in the use of market-based instruments and voluntary approaches oppositely to traditional command and control mechanisms. The paper consists of three sections: while the first one is plainly introductory, the following two sections represent a survey on eight recent pieces of European Union legislation, chiefly directives, showing the systematic decrease in the environmental objectives due to the presence of industrial interest groups, and the new problems affecting public intervention caused by the development of the above mentioned voluntary approaches. Moreover, the former provides an analytical model of a firm's involvement in the policy process, the latter an analytical apparatus on the very nature and failures of self-and co-regulation

  14. Future considerations for clinical dermatology in the setting of 21st century American policy reform: The Medicare Access and Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act and the Merit-based Incentive Payment System. (United States)

    Barbieri, John S; Miller, Jeffrey J; Nguyen, Harrison P; Forman, Howard P; Bolognia, Jean L; VanBeek, Marta J


    As the implementation of the Medicare Access and Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act begins, many dermatologists who provide Medicare Part B services will be subject to the reporting requirements of the Merit-based Incentive Payment System (MIPS). Clinicians subject to MIPS will receive a composite score based on performance across 4 categories: quality, advancing care information, improvement activities, and cost. Depending on their overall MIPS score, clinicians will be eligible for a positive or negative payment adjustment. Quality will replace the Physician Quality Reporting System and clinicians will report on 6 measures from a list of over 250 options. Advancing care information will replace meaningful use and will assess clinicians on activities related to integration of electronic health record technology into their practice. Improvement activities will require clinicians to attest to completion of activities focused on improvements in care coordination, beneficiary engagement, and patient safety. Finally, cost will be determined automatically from Medicare claims data. In this article, we will provide a detailed review of the Medicare Access and Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act with a focus on MIPS and briefly discuss the potential implications for dermatologists. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Orchestration in work environment policy programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Limborg, Hans Jørgen; Grøn, Sisse


    In spite of many years’ efforts, it is difficult to prove substantial improvements of the work environment and policymakers are continuously searching for new efficient strategies. This paper examines the concept of orchestration of work environment programs, based on an empirical analysis...... of recent Danish policy. Orchestration is a strategy where different stakeholders and activities are integrated into a unified program aimed at a specific target group. The analysis includes three policy cases, supplemented with two company case studies. The research shows a move toward a more governance...... type of regulation, which is not only emerging in network but also includes more explicitly orchestrated policy programs. The stakeholders participate in the network with different interests and the orchestration of work environment policies is therefore built on a platform of regulation...

  16. Medical society engagement in contentious policy reform: the Ethiopian Society for Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ESOG) and Ethiopia's 2005 reform of its Penal Code on abortion. (United States)

    Holcombe, Sarah Jane


    Unsafe abortion is one of the three leading causes of maternal mortality in low-income countries; however, few countries have reformed their laws to permit safer, legal abortion, and professional medical associations have not tended to spearhead this type of reform. Support from a professional association typically carries more weight than does that from an individual medical professional. However, theory predicts and the empirical record largely reveals that medical associations shy from engagement in conflictual policymaking such as on abortion, except when professional autonomy or income is at stake. Using interviews with 10 obstetrician-gynaecologists and 44 other leaders familiar with Ethiopia's reproductive health policy context, as well as other primary and secondary sources, this research examines why, counter to theoretical expectations from the sociology of medical professions literature and experience elsewhere, the Ethiopian Society of Obstetricians & Gynecologists (ESOG) actively supported reform of national law on abortion. ESOG leadership participation was motivated by both individual and ESOG's organizational commitments to reducing maternal mortality and also by professional training and work experience. Further, typical constraints on medical society involvement in policymaking were relaxed or removed, including those related to ESOG's organizational structure and history, and to political environment. Findings do not contradict theory positing medical society avoidance of socially conflictual health policymaking, but rather identify how the expected restrictions were less present in Ethiopia, facilitating medical society participation. Results can inform efforts to encourage medical society participation in policy reform to improve women's health elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa.

  17. Informing principal policy reforms in South Africa through data-based evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle Wills


    Full Text Available In the past decade there has been a notable shift in South African education policy that raises the value of school leadership as a lever for learning improvements. Despite a growing discourse on school leadership, there has been a lack of empirical based evidence on principals to inform, validate or debate the efficacy of proposed policies in raising the calibre of school principals. Drawing on findings from a larger study to understand the labour market for school principals in South Africa, this paper highlights four overarching characteristics of this market with implications for informing principal policy reforms. The paper notes that improving the design and implementation of policies guiding the appointment process for principals is a matter of urgency. A substantial and increasing number of principal replacements are taking place across South African schools given a rising age profile of school principals. In a context of low levels of principal mobility and high tenure, the leadership trajectory of the average school is established for nearly a decade with each principal replacement. Evidence-based policy making has a strong role to play in getting this right.

  18. Petro-state constraints on health policy: guidelines for workable reform in Venezuela. (United States)

    Trujillo, Antonio J


    This article reviews the performance of the Venezuelan health care sector and suggests guidelines for workable health policy under difficult conditions. Two special circumstances constrain policy options. First, Venezuelans share a traditional value, solidarity, which includes a strong desire for equity. Reforms must comply with this norm to succeed. Second, foreign sales of state-controlled oil constitute the bulk of the government budget and the gross domestic product (GDP). Petroleum market fluctuations expose the country to extreme economic cycles. In response, policy making and stakeholders adopt a rentier attitude, focusing on preserving or enlarging entitlements to government oil monies. The side effects of this largesse include poor productivity, a weak private sector, a widespread sense of entitlement without accountability, and a crippled state which controls most of the available resources yet is unable to effectively tax, regulate, steer the economy, or pursue long-term policies. The health care sector shares these problems. As a result, Venezuela's health systems are fragmented, poorly coordinated, excessively centralized, inequitable, and ineffective. Policies to improve public health and public and private medical care must take into account these constraints.

  19. The financial crisis and recent family policy reforms in Finland, Germany and the United Kingdom : Is there a connection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Nygård


    Full Text Available The turmoil created by the financial crisis and economic recession in Europe has served as an impetus for austerity measures in many countries. In this article, we ask whether these crises have also triggered reforms in family policy, and we focus on three European welfare states – Finland, Germany and the United Kingdom – countries that are often considered members of different family policy regimes. The article addresses two main research questions. The first one relates to the number, direction and magnitude of family policy reforms in these three countries since the beginning of the financial crisis in 2008/2009, while in the second we discuss whether the reforms observed during this period can be seen as being related to the financial crisis and its later repercussions on the Euro-zone area, or if there are other explanations.

  20. China's nuclear programs and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.


    Economics and the futility of arms competition with the US and USSR has forced China to shift its nuclear effort to peaceful uses, although its current nuclear-deterrent warrants including China in arms negotiations. China's nuclear program began during the 1950s with an emphasis on weaponry and some development in space technology. Proponents of nuclear power now appear to have refuted the earlier arguments that nuclear-plant construction would be too slow, too dangerous and polluting, and too expensive and the idea that hydro resources would be adequate. The current leadership supports a serious nuclear-power-plant construction program. 6 references

  1. High performance work systems: the gap between policy and practice in health care reform. (United States)

    Leggat, Sandra G; Bartram, Timothy; Stanton, Pauline


    Studies of high-performing organisations have consistently reported a positive relationship between high performance work systems (HPWS) and performance outcomes. Although many of these studies have been conducted in manufacturing, similar findings of a positive correlation between aspects of HPWS and improved care delivery and patient outcomes have been reported in international health care studies. The purpose of this paper is to bring together the results from a series of studies conducted within Australian health care organisations. First, the authors seek to demonstrate the link found between high performance work systems and organisational performance, including the perceived quality of patient care. Second, the paper aims to show that the hospitals studied do not have the necessary aspects of HPWS in place and that there has been little consideration of HPWS in health system reform. The paper draws on a series of correlation studies using survey data from hospitals in Australia, supplemented by qualitative data collection and analysis. To demonstrate the link between HPWS and perceived quality of care delivery the authors conducted regression analysis with tests of mediation and moderation to analyse survey responses of 201 nurses in a large regional Australian health service and explored HRM and HPWS in detail in three casestudy organisations. To achieve the second aim, the authors surveyed human resource and other senior managers in all Victorian health sector organisations and reviewed policy documents related to health system reform planned for Australia. The findings suggest that there is a relationship between HPWS and the perceived quality of care that is mediated by human resource management (HRM) outcomes, such as psychological empowerment. It is also found that health care organisations in Australia generally do not have the necessary aspects of HPWS in place, creating a policy and practice gap. Although the chief executive officers of health

  2. Science education reform in Confucian learning cultures: teachers' perspectives on policy and practice in Taiwan (United States)

    Huang, Ying-Syuan; Asghar, Anila


    This empirical study investigates secondary science teachers' perspectives on science education reform in Taiwan and reflects how these teachers have been negotiating constructivist and learner-centered pedagogical approaches in contemporary science education. It also explores the challenges that teachers encounter while shifting their pedagogical focus from traditional approaches to teaching science to an active engagement in students' learning. Multiple sources of qualitative data were obtained, including individual interviews with science teachers and teachers' reflective journals about Confucianism in relation to their educational philosophies. Thematic analysis and constant comparative method were used to analyze the data. The findings revealed that Confucian traditions play a significant role in shaping educational practices in Taiwan and profoundly influence teachers' epistemological beliefs and their actual classroom practice. Indeed, science teachers' perspectives on Confucian learning traditions played a key role in supporting or obstructing their pedagogical commitments to inquiry-based and learner-centered approaches. This study draws on the literature concerning teachers' professional struggles and identity construction during educational reform. Specifically, we explore the ways in which teachers respond to educational changes and negotiate their professional identities. We employed various theories of identity construction to understand teachers' struggles and challenges while wrestling with competing traditional and reform-based pedagogical approaches. Attending to these struggles and the ways in which they inform the development of a teacher's professional identity is vital for sustaining current and future educational reform in Taiwan as well as in other Eastern cultures. These findings have important implications for teachers' professional development programs in East Asian cultures.

  3. Response to science education reforms: The case of three science education doctoral programs in the United States (United States)

    Gwekwerere, Yovita Netsai

    Doctoral programs play a significant role in preparing future leaders. Science Education doctoral programs play an even more significant role preparing leaders in a field that is critical to maintaining national viability in the face of global competition. The current science education reforms have the goal of achieving science literacy for all students and for this national goal to be achieved; we need strong leadership in the field of science education. This qualitative study investigated how doctoral programs are preparing their graduates for leadership in supporting teachers to achieve the national goal of science literacy for all. A case study design was used to investigate how science education faculty interpreted the national reform goal of science literacy for all and how they reformed their doctoral courses and research programs to address this goal. Faculty, graduate students and recent graduates of three science education doctoral programs participated in the study. Data collection took place through surveys, interviews and analysis of course documents. Two faculty members, three doctoral candidates and three recent graduates were interviewed from each of the programs. Data analysis involved an interpretive approach. The National Research Council Framework for Investigating Influence of the National Standards on student learning (2002) was used to analyze interview data. Findings show that the current reforms occupy a significant part of the doctoral coursework and research in these three science education doctoral programs. The extent to which the reforms are incorporated in the courses and the way they are addressed depends on how the faculty members interpret the reforms and what they consider to be important in achieving the goal of science literacy for all. Whereas some faculty members take a simplistic critical view of the reform goals as a call to achieve excellence in science teaching; others take a more complex critical view where they question


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsuddin Maldun


    Full Text Available This research aims to know and study the strategy of resource development policy reform of local government district of Makassar Sidenreng Rappang. The research method used is descriptive qualitative study type, while the phenomenological approach is used. This is intended to give description in a systematic, factual and actual response object is examined. Results of the research implementation of education and training is not conducted in a planned and timely to get quality apparatus of the abilities, knowledge, skills, expertise, and job skills, as well as a good mental attitude, and optimal performance. Whereas in the era of regional autonomy, it takes the resources of local government apparatus that is intelligent and responsive to the needs of an increasingly complex society services. 

  5. Reform of the EU's climate policy. Small step or big hit?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, Matthias; Peichert, Patrick; Perner, Jens; Riechmann, Christoph


    Emissions trading listed as a flexible mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol is regarded as a market economy way in climate protection. Since 2005 the European Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) is the central climate policy instrument for reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases, in particular for carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). For years, however, the CO 2 price is too low to direct the politically and socially targeted technical innovations in the electricity sector and the industry. The article analyses the temporary and structural causes of this problem, highlights the EU's reform efforts and points to areas of activity, the basis of which the EU ETS may act in the future as a central instrument for climate protection in the European Union. [de

  6. Chinese Foreign Policy in a Global Perspective: A Responsible Reformer "Striving For Achievement"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Weissmann


    Full Text Available During the last four decades, China has moved from being an isolated country separated from the international community to having become one of the world’s major powers. It is vital to understand what is guiding Chinese foreign policy, why this is so, and not least what kind of power China is and will be in the future. This article analyses the vital elements and thinking that guides Chinese foreign policy, its priorities and decision making process. It is found that China's foreign policy is embedded in domestic issues. The foremost foreign policy objective is domestic political stability, which in turn is a necessity for the survival of one-party rule. Both are dependent on a combination of two key factors: continuing domestic economic growth and nationalism. The foreign policy is also closely linked to the Chinese self-perception, both its self-superiority/self-inferiority dualism and its multitude of confusing (overlapping identities about what China is and should be. A key turning year is 2008 when the "global" financial crisis severely affected the United States and Europe at a time of Chinese economic success, which gave China confidence to pursue a more active and aggressive/assertive stance on the international stage. It is concluded that China under Xi Jinping will not be a status que power accepting the world as it is, but nor are we to expect China to become a revisionist power aiming to remodel the global order. China is what can best be described as a responsible reformer "striving for achievements".

  7. Sponsors of Policy: A Network Analysis of Wealthy Elites, Their Affiliated Philanthropies, and Charter School Reform in Washington State (United States)

    Au, Wayne; Ferrare, Joseph J.


    Background/Context: Charter school policy has evolved into a major component of the current education reform movement in the United States. As of 2012, all but nine U.S. states allowed charter schools, and in one of those nine, Washington State, charter school legislation was passed by popular vote in November 2012. There is a substantial, if…

  8. Past/Forward Policy-Making: Transforming Chinese Engineering Education since the Reform and Opening-Up (United States)

    Zhu, Qin; Jesiek, Brent K.; Gong, Yu


    Although engineering education has played important roles in China's growing power and influence on the world stage, engineering education policy since the Reform and Opening-up in the late 1970s has not been well documented in current English-language scholarship. Informed by historical and sociological studies of education, engineering and…

  9. Can the world cut poverty in half ? how policy reform and effective aid can meet international development goals


    Collier, Paul; Dollar, David


    More effective development aid could greatly improve poverty reduction in the areas where poverty reduction is expected to lag: Sub-Saharan Africa, Eastern Europe, and Central Asia. Even more potent would be significant policy reform in the countries themselves. The authors develop a model of efficient aid in which the total volume of aid is endogenous. In particular, aid flows respond to ...

  10. Aspects with Program Analysis for Security Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fan

    Enforcing security policies to IT systems, especially for a mobile distributed system, is challenging. As society becomes more IT-savvy, our expectations about security and privacy evolve. This is usually followed by changes in regulation in the form of standards and legislation. In many cases......, small modification of the security requirement might lead to substantial changes in a number of modules within a large mobile distributed system. Indeed, security is a crosscutting concern which can spread to many business modules within a system, and is difficult to be integrated in a modular way....... This dissertation explores the principles of adding challenging security policies to existing systems with great flexibility and modularity. The policies concerned cover both classical access control and explicit information flow policies. We built our solution by combining aspect-oriented programming techniques...

  11. Successful Attendance Policies and Programs. Research Brief (United States)

    Education Partnerships, Inc., 2012


    What steps can be taken to assure that High School students have the best attendance possible? It is commonly believed and well supported by research that students who attend school regularly are more successful than those who do not. The challenge for high schools is to design and implement attendance policies and programs that monitor,…

  12. Lifelong Learning: Policies, Practices, and Programs. (United States)

    Hatton, Michael J., Ed.

    The 26 articles in this book focus on lifelong learning policies, practices, and programs in 13 Asia Pacific countries. The following papers are included: "Half a Revolution: A Brief Survey of Lifelong Learning in New Zealand" (P. Methven and J. Hansen); "HRD in a Multicultural Workplace: The Need for Lifelong Learning" (M.…

  13. Strategies and Policies in Employee Assistance Programs. (United States)

    Hedges, Amie

    This document describes and examines effective policies that companies have adopted in developing Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs) to address personal problems of employees, with a specific focus on substance abuse. Chapter 1 introduces the topic, states the problem, indicates the purpose of the study, denotes the limitations, defines important…

  14. Telecom Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telecom Reform: Principles, Policies and Regulatory Practices, provides a comprehensive and definitive review and assessment of the unfolding telecom reform process, and its implications for information society development. It is an invaluable resource and authoritative reference on telecom reform...... and information infrastructure issues - for people in government, academia, industry and the consulting community. This book addresses the process of policy and regulatory reform in telecom that is now in its formative stage. It draws on detailed knowledge of industry development and regulatory experience......, as well as expertise in the new technologies, industries, economics, policy development, and law to present and critique the principles, policies and regulatory practices associated with telecom reform. Twenty six international experts address thirty two topics that are essential to successful telecom...

  15. Problem Drug Use, Marijuana, and European Projects: How Epidemiology Helped Czech Policy Reformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Morávek


    Full Text Available I examine the transfer of the Problem Drug Use (PDU concept into Czech scientific discourse through European institutions’ projects, and view PDU’s utilization by Czech researchers in relation to marijuana decriminalization efforts.PDU is defined as intravenous and/or long-term and regular use of opiates, cocaine, or amphetamines. Out of a vast array of illicit drug use patterns, this concept isolates a relatively small population with the riskiest use patterns to become the focus of public policies. A series of European Union and Council of Europe projects in 1990’s helped bring PDU into European research mainstream. The new common standard, promoted by the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, was utilized by Czech authors in a 2001 policy analysis entitled “Impact Analysis Project of the New Drug Legislation in the Czech Republic” (PAD. PDU played a crucial role in PAD’s drug problem modeling, focusing on a “hard core” of opiate and methamphetamine users, while diverting attention from a large group of cannabis users.By using the new European methodological standard, PAD’s authors constructed marijuana as a non-problem. This helped drug policy reformers in the Czech Government legitimize their focus on “harder” drugs, and subsequently propose more lenient sanctions for the possession and cultivation of marijuana. I argue that continued ignorance of marijuana problems might jeopardize the tolerant expert-driven drug policy in the Czech Republic. Measurement of problem cannabis use should be introduced.

  16. Policy trends and reforms in the German DRG-based hospital payment system. (United States)

    Klein-Hitpaß, Uwe; Scheller-Kreinsen, David


    A central structural point in all DRG-based hospital payment systems is the conversion of relative weights into actual payments. In this context policy makers need to address (amongst other things) (a) how the price level of DRG-payments from one period to the following period is changed and (b) whether and how hospital payments based on DRGs are to be differentiated beyond patient characteristics, e.g. by organizational, regional or state-level factors. Both policy problems can be and in international comparison often are empirically addressed. In Germany relative weights are derived from a highly sophisticated empirical cost calculation, whereas the annual changes of DRG-based payments (base rates) as well as the differentiation of DRG-based hospital payments beyond patient characteristics are not empirically addressed. Rather a complex set of regulations and quasi-market negotiations are applied. There were over the last decade also timid attempts to foster the use of empirical data to address these points. However, these reforms failed to increase the fairness, transparency and rationality of the mechanism to convert relative weights into actual DRG-based hospital payments. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Latin American USOMs Seminar on Agrarian Reform. (United States)

    International Cooperation Administration (Dept. of State), Washington, DC.

    This report of seminar proceedings discusses land reform policies and programs and their place in the economic development of Latin America. It analyzes experiences and current situations in Latin America, the United States, and elsewhere which shed light on the problems and possibilities of agrarian reform. An appraisal of existing physical,…

  18. Neoliberalism, Social Darwinism, and Consumerism Masquerading as School Reform (United States)

    Tienken, Christopher H.


    Education reform policies harvested from neoliberalism, social Darwinism, consumerism, and free-market ideologies have begun to replace the pragmatic progressivism of the pre-World War II era. In this article, I use three federal and state education reform policies and programs--No Child Left Behind Act, Common Core State Standards Initiative, and…

  19. Steepest Ascent Tariff Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan


    . In undertaking this task, and by focusing on tariff reforms, we introduce the concept of a steepest ascent policy reform, which is a locally optimal reform in the sense that it achieves the highest marginal gain in utility of any feasible local reform. We argue that this reform presents itself as a natural......The policy reform literature is primarily concerned with the construction of reforms that yield welfare gains. By contrast, this paper’s contribution is to develop a theoretical concept for which the focus is upon the sizes of welfare gains accruing from policy reforms rather than upon their signs...... benchmark for the evaluation of the welfare effectiveness of other popular tariff reforms such as the proportional tariff reduction and the concertina rules, since it provides the maximal welfare gain of all possible local reforms. We derive properties of the steepest ascent tariff reform, construct...

  20. A Qualitative Approach to Examining Knowledge Sharing in Iran Tax Administration Reform Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Shami Zanjanie


    Full Text Available The paper aims to examine knowledge sharing infrastructure of "Iran Tax Administration Reform Program". The qualitative approach by using case study method was applied in this research. In order to meet the research goal, four infrastructural dimensions of knowledge sharing were studied: leadership & strategy, culture, structure, and information technology. To the authors’ knowledge, this was maybe the first paper which examined knowledge sharing infrastructure in programs environment

  1. Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee and Pesticide Regulatory Reform Meetings (United States)

    EPA’s Office of Pesticide Programs will hold a public meeting of the Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee (PPDC) on Wednesday, May 3, from 9:00 a.m. to 4:45 p.m., and on Thursday, May 4, from 8:30 a.m. to noon.

  2. The Fiscal Stimuli for the Implementing Ukraine’s Energy Policy and Reforming Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Synyutka Nataliya G.


    Full Text Available The article attempts to revise the issue of the State regulation of the macroeconomic processes associated with the economic, energy, fiscal, and educational reforms that are being carried out in Ukraine. In order to implement the State energy policy, fiscal approaches have been emphasized. The use of the fiscal stimulus of «carbon tax» can be seen as an effective measure for implementation of the existing State energy strategy. A review of introduction of such a tax in the developed countries confirms the expediency of applying fiscal mechanism in order to encourage investment in energy-efficient technologies. Prospects for introduction of this tax in Ukraine were considered. To this end, actual CO2 emissions have been generalized and prediction calculations for the energy sector have been accomplished. The calculated estimates of possible tax revenues have been provided. For further studies on the outlined topic, there is an impelling need to detalize the financial statistics of the ecologic tax revenues in terms of sources.

  3. Science as an early driver of policy: child labor reform in the early Progressive Era, 1870-1900. (United States)

    Perera, Frederica


    Scientific evidence is an increasingly important driver of social and environmental policy concerning child health. This trend began earlier than generally recognized. The child labor reform movement of the Gilded Age and early Progressive Era reflected not only moral and economic forces but also the dramatic advances during the later decades of the 19th century in scientific knowledge concerning children's biological and psychological vulnerability to environmental and psychosocial stressors. The growing importance of scientific information in shaping policy concerning children's health between 1870 and 1900 is illustrated by the events leading up to and following the New York State Child Labor Law of 1886. Child labor reform during this period was a critical step in the development of a science-based as well as a value-driven movement to protect children's environmental health and well-being that continues today.

  4. Science as an Early Driver of Policy: Child Labor Reform in the Early Progressive Era, 1870–1900 (United States)


    Scientific evidence is an increasingly important driver of social and environmental policy concerning child health. This trend began earlier than generally recognized. The child labor reform movement of the Gilded Age and early Progressive Era reflected not only moral and economic forces but also the dramatic advances during the later decades of the 19th century in scientific knowledge concerning children’s biological and psychological vulnerability to environmental and psychosocial stressors. The growing importance of scientific information in shaping policy concerning children’s health between 1870 and 1900 is illustrated by the events leading up to and following the New York State Child Labor Law of 1886. Child labor reform during this period was a critical step in the development of a science-based as well as a value-driven movement to protect children’s environmental health and well-being that continues today. PMID:25121809

  5. Teacher Education Reform in Urban Educator Preparation Programs (United States)

    Banks, Tachelle


    The majority of teachers in the United States are of a different race, ethnicity, class, gender, and linguistic dominance from that of their students. Teachers are specifically challenged by a variety of racial and ethnic issues as they enter their classrooms. This paper discusses the importance of educator preparation programs devoting attention…

  6. IMF and Economic Reform in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Tarp, Finn


    relevant to actors and entities with a broader, and more microeconomic, focus such as national policymakers and the World Bank. It is in choices among competing projects and programs that trial and error is most likely to be necessary. Nevertheless, reforms of the IMF such as the “streamlining initiative......” should start from a good understanding of the reasons for adherence to policy orthodoxy. We discuss underlying institutional and organizational reasons for policy rigidity and consider some suggested reforms....

  7. Education Policy Reform in Sri Lanka: The Double-Edged Sword of Political Will (United States)

    Little, Angela W.


    In 1997, the Government of Sri Lanka launched a comprehensive set of education reforms designed to promote equitable access to basic education and improvements in learning outcomes. The package of reforms arose as a political response to widespread youth unrest in the late 1980s and attracted considerable "political will", a vague but…

  8. Compact reformer for the solid polymer fuel cell policy and best

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goulding, P.S.; Deegan, M.; Gough, A. [Newcastle University (United Kingdom)


    This report summarises the results of a study investigating the feasibility of the Compact Reformer concept, and examining its design and manufacture. The development and testing of a hybrid reformer and thin coat catalyst systems are described, and details of the modeling of the reactor, and the optimisation and costing of the solid polymer fuel cell are given. (UK)

  9. The Use (and Misuse) of PISA in Guiding Policy Reform: The Case of Spain (United States)

    Choi, Álvaro; Jerrim, John


    In 2013 Spain introduced a series of educational reforms explicitly inspired by the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012 results. These reforms were mainly implemented in secondary education--based upon the assumption that this is where Spain's educational problems lie. This paper questions this assumption by attempting to…

  10. Policy and Practice Model of Public-Private Partnership in Public Hospitals during the New Medical Reform Period. (United States)

    Zhang, Ju-Yang; Long, Ru-Yin; Yan, Hai; Yang, Qing; Yang, Bo


    Purpose: Since the beginning of the new health care reform in 2009, the state has illustrated the top design and health care improvement strategy of "encouraging social capital to participate in the reform of public hospitals", in accordance with the program's general objective. All areas have been explored on this matter and the results obtained are very interesting, not to mention the acquisition of significant experience. At present, the existing business models in China are mainly the following: Rebuild-Operate-Transfer (ROT), franchise business model, Build-Own-Operate-Transfer (BOOT) model, mixed ownership model and business insurance model. This paper introduces a variety of alternative models, and provides a simple analysis of the advantages and disadvantages. Moreover, for the reform of public hospitals, the government shares should go into franchise mode or mixed ownership, and all property rights should be transferred to the government to ensure the conservation and proliferation of state-owned assets.

  11. Solving Disparities Through Payment And Delivery System Reform: A Program To Achieve Health Equity. (United States)

    DeMeester, Rachel H; Xu, Lucy J; Nocon, Robert S; Cook, Scott C; Ducas, Andrea M; Chin, Marshall H


    Payment systems generally do not directly encourage or support the reduction of health disparities. In 2013 the Finding Answers: Solving Disparities through Payment and Delivery System Reform program of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation sought to understand how alternative payment models might intentionally incorporate a disparities-reduction component to promote health equity. A qualitative analysis of forty proposals to the program revealed that applicants generally did not link payment reform tightly to disparities reduction. Most proposed general pay-for-performance, global payment, or shared savings plans, combined with multicomponent system interventions. None of the applicants proposed making any financial payments contingent on having successfully reduced disparities. Most applicants did not address how they would optimize providers' intrinsic and extrinsic motivation to reduce disparities. A better understanding of how payment and care delivery models might be designed and implemented to reduce health disparities is essential. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  12. Reference drug programs: Effectiveness and policy implications☆ (United States)

    Schneeweiss, Sebastian


    In the current economic environment, health care systems are constantly struggling to contain rapidly rising costs. Drug costs are targeted by a wide variety of measures. Many jurisdictions have implemented reference drug programs (RDPs) or similar therapeutic substitution programs. This paper summarizes the mechanism and rationale of RDPs and presents evidence of their economic effectiveness and clinical safety. RDPs for pharmaceutical reimbursement are based on the assumption that drugs within specified medication groups are therapeutically equivalent and clinically interchangeable and that a common reimbursement level can thus be established. If the evidence documents that a higher price for a given drug does not buy greater effectiveness or reduced toxicity, then under RDP such extra costs are not covered. RDPs or therapeutic substitutions based on therapeutic equivalence are seen as logical extensions of generic substitution that is based on bioequivalence of drugs. If the goal is to achieve full drug coverage for as many patients as possible in the most efficient manner, then RDPs in combination with prior authorization programs are safer and more effective than simplistic fiscal drug policies, including fixed co-payments, co-insurances, or deductibles. RDPs will reduce spending in the less innovative but largest market, while fully covering all patients. Prior authorization will ensure that patients with a specified indication will benefit from the most innovative therapies with full coverage. In practice, however, not all patients and drugs will fit exactly into one of the two categories. Therefore, a process of medically indicated exemptions that will consider full coverage should accompany an RDP. In the current economic environment, health care systems are constantly struggling to contain rapidly rising costs. Drug costs are targeted by a wide variety of measures. Many jurisdictions have implemented reference drug programs, and others are considering

  13. The Power of Politic and Lobbying Parties in the Australian Accounting Regulation Reform Program


    Suwaldiman, Suwaldiman


    This paper argues that Australian accounting regulations seem to be close to the government or political approach in its setting process. CLERP (Corporate Law Economic Reform Program) proposed by government can be viewed as changes made by Federal Government in the structure of setting accounting standards that show a substantial shift in power from the two professional accounting bodies; ICAA (The Institute of Certified Accountants in Australia) and ASCPA (Australian Society of Certified Pra...

  14. The Power Of Politic and Lobbying Parties in the Australian Accounting Regulation Reform Program


    Suwaldiman, Suwaldiman


    This paper argues that Australian accounting regulations seem to be close to the government or political approach in its setting process. CLERP (Corporate Law Economic Reform Program) proposed by government can be viewed as changes made by Federal Government in the structure of setting accounting standards that show a substantial shift in power from the two professional accounting bodies; ICAA (The Institute of Certified Accountants in Australia) and ASCPA (Australian Society of Certified Pra...

  15. Exploiting Policy Obscurity for Legalising Water Grabbing in the Era of Economic Reform: The Case of Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subodh Wagle


    Full Text Available Since the last two decades, economic reform in India is exerting pressure on limited land and water resources. This article argues that sectoral reforms underway in different areas such as water, electricity, and the export sector are giving rise to a new form of water grabbing in the state of Maharashtra, India. This water grabbing is legitimised by the use, application and redefinition of reform instruments such as the sectoral policy statements and laws. Maharashtra, like many other Indian states, has been a theatre for the play of power among different interest groups over control and access to water resources developed through state funding. Dams were built at the cost of depriving the upland riparian communities of their land, water and other resources. The water provided by the dams – which strengthened the political power of the leaders representing the irrigated plains – is now at the core of a shift in regional power equations. Based on case studies of three dams the paper presents these contemporary developments around water allocation and re-appropriation. These developments pertain to the shift from the erstwhile focus on securing water for irrigation to the new focus of securing water to facilitate international and domestic private investments. The paper concludes by arguing that the state is able to legitimise this form of water grabbing due the emergence of a new and grand political coalition and nexus that has emerged at the behest of the ongoing economic reforms.

  16. Point Climat no. 22 'Reform of the Common Agricultural Policy is laying the initial foundations for a European agricultural climate policy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foucherot, Claudine; Bellassen, Valentin


    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Climate Briefs' presents, in a few pages, hot topics in climate change policy. This issue addresses the following points: The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) has had a very small climate component since 1992. The recent inclusion of green payments and the climate risk management tools proposed for the CAP for the period beyond 2013 illustrate the European Commission's willingness to expand this climate component. Furthermore, there is little mention of the agricultural sector in the tools rolled out by the European climate policy, particularly those derived from the 2009 'Climate and Energy' Package. Therefore, even if this autumn's parliamentary debate results in the reform proposals being diluted, the post-2013 CAP could nevertheless become a principal tool for a common EU climate policy in the agricultural sector

  17. Towards a Theory of the Reform of the Common Agricultural Policy


    Adrian Kay


    This paper sets up two competing frameworks to assess the evidence of the CAP reforms of the 1980s and 1990s. The two frameworks differ in the degree of prominence given to interest groups in affecting CAP decisions. The paper concludes that the most important mechanism behind CAP reforms is the interaction of EU institutions and member state governments. Interest groups, at national or EU-level, have limited influence on the reform process. The paper does not claim to have developed a new th...

  18. Reform of investment policy in the function of sustainable development with special emphasis on investment in information technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragičević-Radičević Tatjana


    Full Text Available Global economy still records a decline in FDI. The main causes are increased economic instability and geopolitical risks. Given the continued negative trend, it is clear that it is necessary to reform the investment policies at the national, regional, bilateral, multilateral and international level, to ensure sustainable economic development. Key elements of the reforms are: to provide instruments to reduce risks, create mechanisms of responsible investment, improve the structural coherence and promote regional investments. Refer to the current dates of the sectors investments (according to the report of UNCTAD from 2015th shows that the services sector recorded double growth compared to the investment in the manufacturing sector in 2012. Also, if we take into consideration the fact that investment in IT sector investment involves three aspects: transactional (minimizing costs, strategic (innovation technologies, achieving competitiveness and information (improving access to information and communications, it may be assumed that the reforms in the investment policies should be directly correlated with investments in information technology.

  19. What lessons have been learned in reforming the Renewables Obligation? An analysis of internal and external failures in UK renewable energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Geoffrey; Dow, Stephen


    Despite operating a delivery programme for RES-E since 1990, UK targets and policy goals have not been achieved. In response, the Government reformed the RO. This article re-examines UK renewable energy policy by analysing the internal and external failures of the various mechanisms to determine if Government has learnt from previous experience in reforming the RO. Government did not learn from their own actions during the NFFO/RO transition, evidenced by high-levels of similarity in internal/external failures. The reformed-RO is expected to significantly increase deployment, has provided a 'renewables package' by comprehensively addressing both internal/external failures but major internal failures (price/financial risk) still remain, resulting in contiguous failures over two decades and two mechanism changes (NFFO, RO, RO/reformed-RO). Success will again be heavily dependent on a select few technologies and new/untested measures to combat external failures. Mechanism-extension to 2037 is probably the single most important factor underlying potential deployment increases. However, introducing a FIT-like system via the sheer number of 'bolt-on' reforms to counter policy failures indicates loss of direction and clarity. Overall, although Government appears to have learnt some of its lessons from the past two-decades, significant doubt remains whether renewable energy policy objectives will be met via the latest mechanism change. - Research highlights: → Review of UK renewable energy policy learning behaviour via the 2009 Renewable Obligation reform. → Applies key lessons and analysis of NFFO/RO, RO reform and possible FIT schemes. → Finds UK Government has learnt some lessons from the past but some failures remain contiguous over two decades. → In contrast to previous changes, 2009 reform provided a comprehensive reform package. → Significant doubt remains whether objectives will be met via latest mechanism change.

  20. Reducing Health Services for Refugees Through Reforms to the Interim Federal Health Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C. Stevenson


    Full Text Available Since 1957 the Interim Federal Health Program (IFHP has provided temporary health care coverage to refugees and refugee claimants, but in 2012 the Conservative government reformed the IFHP, reducing, or eliminating access to health services for these groups. The government framed the changes around fairness and safety, stating that it would save tax payers $100 million over five years, reduce incentive for migrants with unfounded refugee claims from coming to Canada, protect public health and safety, and defend the integrity of the immigration system. With a Conservative majority, the reform was easily implemented despite a lack of evidence supporting these claims. In 2014, the Federal Court rejected the government's notion of fairness and safety, ruling that the cuts were cruel and unusual treatment of an already vulnerable population. The government appealed this ruling but, in 2016, the Liberals took power and restored funding to the IFHP to pre-2012 levels. Ad hoc evaluations predicted inequitable and adverse impacts on refugees, negative impacts on health, and increased costs to refugees, provincial governments, and health providers. Overall the threats and weaknesses of this reform clearly outweighed the few and unconvincing opportunities and strengths of the program, leading to its demise.

  1. Agricultural water policy reforms in China: a representative look at Zhangye City, Gansu Province, China. (United States)

    Akiyama, Tomohiro; Kharrazi, Ali; Li, Jia; Avtar, Ram


    Water resources are essential for agricultural production in the grain-producing region of China, and water shortage could significantly affect the production and international trade of agricultural products. China is placing effort in new policies to effectively respond to changes in water resources due to changes in land use/land cover as well as climatic variations. This research investigates the changes in land, water, and the awareness of farmer vis-à-vis the implementation of water-saving policies in Zhangye City, an experimental site for pilot programs of water resources management in China. This research indicates that the water saved through water-saving programs and changes in cropping structure (2.2 × 10 8  m 3  a -1 ) is perhaps lower than the newly increased water withdrawal through corporate-led land reclamation (3.7 × 10 8  m 3  a -1 ). Most critically, the groundwater withdrawal has increased. In addition, our survey suggests that local government is facing a dilemma of water conservation and agricultural development. Therefore, the enforcement of the ban on farmland reclamation and irrigation water quotas in our study area is revealed to be relatively loose. In this vein, the engagement of local stakeholders in water governance is essential for the future sustainable management of water resources.

  2. Overall program status and policy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, T.H.


    Under the terms of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), the US Department of Energy (DOE) will permanently dispose of high-level radioactive waste from defense activities and spent fuel from commercial nuclear power plants. The waste management system authorized by the NWPA, as amended in 1987, is to include three major components: a geologic repository for permanent disposal, a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility for packaging and temporarily storing waste, and a system for transporting the waste to the MRS and to the repository. This paper discusses DOE's objectives for the waste management system, including the priority DOE places on maintaining and enhancing schedules for accepting waste; current policy and programmatic issues; and the strategies being employed for dealing with these issues. These strategies include efforts to ensure that site characterization activities support licensing requirements, the use of contingency planning, the application of systems integration, and systems studies of the role of an MRS. This paper reports briefly on the status of the site characterization program, including DOE's efforts to (a) strengthen quality assurance, (b) prepare for construction of the exploratory shaft facility that will be used to conduct underground tests, (c) clarify US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensing requirements and expedite the licensing process, (d) comply with applicable environmental regulations, and (e) monitor and mitigate the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of site characterization activities

  3. 77 FR 46805 - Small Business Innovation Research Program Policy Directive (United States)


    ... Vol. 77 Monday, No. 151 August 6, 2012 Part II Small Business Administration 13 CFR Chapter I Small Business Innovation Research Program Policy Directive; Small Business Technology Transfer Program Policy Directive; Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small Business Technology...


    Korolenko, V V; Dykun, O P; Isayenko, R M; Remennyk, O I; Avramenko, T P; Stepanenko, V I; Petrova, K I; Volosovets, O P; Lazoryshynets, V V


    The health care system, its modernization and optimization are among the most important functions of the modern Ukrainian state. The main goal of the reforms in the field of healthcare is to improve the health of the population, equal and fair access for all to health services of adequate quality. Important place in the health sector reform belongs to optimizing the structure and function of dermatovenereological service. The aim of this work is to address the issue of human resources management of dermatovenereological services during health sector reform in Ukraine, taking into account the real possibility of disengagement dermatovenereological providing care between providers of primary medical care level (general practitioners) and providers of secondary (specialized) and tertiary (high-specialized) medical care (dermatovenerologists and pediatrician dermatovenerologists), and coordinating interaction between these levels. During research has been found, that the major problems of human resources of dermatovenereological service are insufficient staffing and provision of health-care providers;,growth in the number of health workers of retirement age; sectoral and regional disparity of staffing; the problem of improving the skills of medical personnel; regulatory support personnel policy areas and create incentives for staff motivation; problems of rational use of human resources for health care; problems of personnel training for dermatovenereological service. Currently reforming health sector should primarily serve the needs of the population in a fairly effective medical care at all levels, to ensure that there must be sufficient qualitatively trained and motivated health workers. To achieve this goal directed overall work of the Ministry of Health of Uktaine, the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, medical universities, regional health authorities, professional medical associations. Therefore Ukrainian dermatovenereological care, in particular

  5. Leadership Program for Promoting Policies Linking the Environment ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Leadership Program for Promoting Policies Linking the Environment and Health in Africa. It is obvious that in many African countries, no linkages are being made between health policy and environment policy. In 2005, the global network Environment and Development Action in the Third World (ENDA-TM) francophone ...

  6. 75 FR 54076 - National Flood Insurance Program, Policy Wording Correction (United States)


    ... line with the format of the insurance industry's homeowners policy. FEMA also proposed changes in the...: FEMA-2010-0021] RIN 1660-AA70 National Flood Insurance Program, Policy Wording Correction AGENCY... correction to the FEMA, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, Standard Flood Insurance Policy...

  7. 76 FR 7508 - National Flood Insurance Program, Policy Wording Correction (United States)


    ... the insurance industry's homeowners policy. FEMA also proposed changes in the coverage. On October 12...: FEMA-2010-0021] RIN 1660-AA70 National Flood Insurance Program, Policy Wording Correction AGENCY... Insurance and Mitigation Administration, Standard Flood Insurance Policy regulations. In order to increase...

  8. How federalism shapes public health financing, policy, and program options. (United States)

    Ogden, Lydia L


    In the United States, fiscal and functional federalism strongly shape public health policy and programs. Federalism has implications for public health practice: it molds financing and disbursement options, including funding formulas, which affect allocations and program goals, and shapes how funding decisions are operationalized in a political context. This article explores how American federalism, both fiscal and functional, structures public health funding, policy, and program options, investigating the effects of intergovernmental transfers on public health finance and programs.

  9. Reforma del sector salud y la política farmacéutica en Perú Health sector reform and pharmaceutical policy in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Phang Romero


    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza el Programa de Administración Compartida de Farmacias (PACFARM y su articulación con la Política Farmacéutica en Perú, en el contexto de la reforma del sector salud. La ejecución de los diversos Programas de Medicamentos Esenciales precedentes muestra el permanente esfuerzo por mejorar la cobertura con medicamentos esenciales a la población, no obstante, el marco jurídico en esta área presenta normas dispersas y desarticuladas, que dificultan la construcción de una Política Nacional de Medicamentos. El PACFARM es un sistema descentralizado de abastecimiento de medicamentos esenciales para el primer nivel de atención, auto-sustentado a través de fondos rotatorios. Mientras la ampliación de cobertura y la disminución de las barreras económicas de acceso a medicamentos esenciales fundamentaban lineamientos de una política farmacéutica, en tanto trazos de eficiencia gerencial en el suministro acompasaban la modernización de la gestión como parte de la reforma, otros aspectos dificultaron su implantación y limitaron sus efectos, tales como: la desregulación y los propios procesos de cambio en el sector. El abordaje metodológico incluyó técnicas cuali y cuantitativas, privilegiando el análisis de implantación del Programa.This article analyzes the Shared Pharmaceutical Management Program (PACFARM and its relationship to pharmaceutical policy in Peru within the scope of health sector reform. Implementation of various programs for essential medicines has involved an on-going effort towards improving the supply of essential drugs to the community. However, the corresponding legal framework includes random and disconnected regulations which hinder the feasibility of a consistent national drug policy. PACFARM is a decentralized system for the provision of essential medicines on a care-level basis, self-supported by revolving funds. While expanded coverage and decreased economic barriers to access to

  10. Soil fertility decline and economic policy reform in Sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerink, N.B.M.


    Two decades of economic reforms in Africa have not resulted in the anticipated growth in per capita agricultural production. Declining output-fertiliser price ratios, particularly for food crops, contributed to soil fertility depletion and agricultural stagnation. Current prices of agricultural

  11. Estimating the Effect of Student Aid on College Enrollment: Evidence from a Government Grant Policy Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Sørensen, Torben; Taber, Christopher

    In this paper, we investigate the responsiveness of the demand for college to changes in student aid arising from a Danish reform. We separately identify the effect of aid from that of other observed and unobserved variables such as parental income. We exploit the combination of a kinked aid sche...

  12. Success for All and Comprehensive School Reform: Evidence-Based Policies for Urban Education. (United States)

    Slavin, Robert E.; Madden, Nancy A.

    This paper discusses comprehensive school reform (CSR), which accepts the importance of standards and accountability but adds to these strategies for introducing innovations in curriculum, instruction, school organization, governance, parent interactions, and other core features of practice. The paper reviews research on the nature and quality of…

  13. Making Sense of Policy Implementation Process in Pakistan: The Case of Hospital Autonomy Reforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saeed, Aamir


    Hospital Autonomy Reforms were initiated in the 90s by the Government in the 17 teaching hospitals of the Province of Punjab, Pakistan with the claimed objectives of bringing efficiency and better services to the patients. A host of administrative, structural and financial changes were introduced in

  14. Teacher Education Policies, Practices, and Reform in Scotland: Implications in the Indian Context (United States)

    Misra, Pradeep Kumar


    India, a country of 1.27 billion, nowadays needs reforms, improvements, and new approaches in teacher education to cater to the demands of changing economy and society. This call to improve teacher education becomes more significant considering the fact that 50% of India's current population is below the age of 25 and over 65% below 35. There are…

  15. A Legal Guide to State Pension Reform. Education Sector Policy Briefs (United States)

    Herriot-Hatfield, Jennie; Monahan, Amy; Rosenberg, Sarah; Tucker, Bill


    Just 18 minutes before the midnight signing deadline on May 15, 2010, Minnesota state legislators breathed a sigh of relief. Their bipartisan pension reform legislation, which passed both chambers by large margins and aimed to help shore up a potentially failing pension system, had just escaped a veto threat. Under pressure from his Republican…

  16. School Stakeholders' Experience with Navigating ICT Policy Reforms in Singapore (United States)

    Reyes, Vicente Chua, Jr.; Kheng, Catherine Chua Siew


    Using qualitative research inquiry methods, this inquiry attempts to explore how school stakeholders cope with incessant and seemingly endless transformations in schools. The central phenomenon to be studied focuses on how school stakeholders "make sense" of educational reform. In order to do this, an exploratory case study of two target…

  17. Health Reform for Communities: Financing Substance Abuse Services. Recommendations from a Join Together Policy Panel. (United States)

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    Substance abuse treatment has been demonstrated to be effective in reducing not only substance use, but also the economic, health, and social costs associated with substance abuse. This document examines how health care reform can preserve and enhance community substance abuse services. The cost effectiveness of funding substance abuse prevention…

  18. Allocation Anatomy: How District Policies That Deploy Resources Can Support (or Undermine) District Reform Strategies (United States)

    Roza, Marguerite


    The goal of this paper is to explore the effects of micro-budgeting decisions and show how they might support or hamper district reform strategies. The study draws on public and private sector resource allocation literature to identify key elements of resource allocation decisions. These elements are used to highlight different allocation…

  19. Mental health policy and development in Egypt - integrating mental health into health sector reforms 2001-9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siekkonen Inkeri


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following a situation appraisal in 2001, a six year mental health reform programme (Egymen 2002-7 was initiated by an Egyptian-Finnish bilateral aid project at the request of a former Egyptian minister of health, and the work was incorporated directly into the Ministry of Health and Population from 2007 onwards. This paper describes the aims, methodology and implementation of the mental health reforms and mental health policy in Egypt 2002-2009. Methods A multi-faceted and comprehensive programme which combined situation appraisal to inform planning; establishment of a health sector system for coordination, supervision and training of each level (national, governorate, district and primary care; development workshops; production of toolkits, development of guidelines and standards; encouragement of intersectoral liaison at each level; integration of mental health into health management systems; and dedicated efforts to improve forensic services, rehabilitation services, and child psychiatry services. Results The project has achieved detailed situation appraisal, epidemiological needs assessment, inclusion of mental health into the health sector reform plans, and into the National Package of Essential Health Interventions, mental health masterplan (policy guidelines to accompany the general health policy, updated Egyptian mental health legislation, Code of Practice, adaptation of the WHO primary care guidelines, primary care training, construction of a quality system of roles and responsibilities, availability of medicines at primary care level, public education about mental health, and a research programme to inform future developments. Intersectoral liaison with education, social welfare, police and prisons at national level is underway, but has not yet been established for governorate and district levels, nor mental health training for police, prison staff and teachers. Conclusions The bilateral collaboration programme

  20. 75 FR 69096 - Public Meetings of National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) Reform Effort (United States)


    ... its programs and answer any questions and listen to comments from them on how its programs can be more... policy alternatives is being developed and will be analyzed using the evaluation criteria. The resulting recommendations will be reported to FEMA leadership. The purpose of the public meetings is to describe, update...

  1. The management of evaluating the European programs and policies implemented in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doctoral student ROMAN MIHAELA


    Full Text Available Starting with the reform and modernization of the public administration in Romania in the mid 1990s, an important element of this process being the development of the management process, respectively of planning and managing public policies, the Romanian government started also a process of developing the capacity for evaluating public programs and policies, both the ones with European or foreign financing and the ones with domestic financing. Up-to-date analyses and studies have showed, however, that at the level of the national public sector there is a major discrepancy between the progress made in the evaluation of European programs or the ones with foreign financing and the programs financed from public funds, namely that there is a consolidated evaluation practice as regards the first types of programs, which is virtually inexistent as regards programs financed from the public budget.This paper intends to identify the progress made at the level of the Romanian public administration as regards the management of evaluating programs with European financing, to see the characteristics of building the evaluation capacity within the national system of these programs and the motivation stimulating such approaches. The first part of this paper shall contain a presentation of the background of the current evaluation system, including both the legislative framework and the institutional framework with duties of management and evaluation of European programs; further, I shall analyze the evolution of this system in order to be able to draw conclusions regarding the evaluation capacity of Romania.

  2. Understanding the United States and Brazil's response to obesity: institutional conversion, policy reform, and the lessons learned. (United States)

    Gómez, Eduardo J


    In the United States (US) and Brazil, obesity has emerged as a health epidemic. This article is driven by the following research questions: how did the US and Brazil's federal institutions respond to obesity? And how did these responses affect policy implementation? The aim of this article is therefore to conduct a comparative case study analysis of how these nations' institutions responded in order to determine the key lessons learned. This study uses primary and secondary qualitative data to substantiate causal arguments and factual claims. Brazil shows that converting preexisting federal agencies working in primary healthcare to emphasize the provision of obesity prevention services can facilitate policy implementation, especially in rural areas. Brazil also reveals the importance of targeting federal grant support to the highest obesity prevalence areas and imposing grant conditionalities, while illustrating how the incorporation of social health movements into the bureaucracy facilitates the early adoption of nutrition and obesity policies. None of these reforms were pursued in the US. Brazil's government has engaged in innovative institutional conversion processes aiding its ability to sustain its centralized influence when implementing obesity policy. The US government's adoption of Brazil's institutional innovations may help to strengthen its policy response.

  3. Water Policy Reforms in South Korea: A Historical Review and Ongoing Challenges for Sustainable Water Governance and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ik-Chang Choi


    Full Text Available This study aims to provide an opinion on the state-of-the-art of changes and reforms of water policies in South Korea, as well as the challenges along with their implications for sustainable water governance and management. In parallel with change in water resource characteristics generated by physical, environmental and socio-economic challenges such as: (1 uncertainties about climate change (flooding and drought including seasonal and regional variation in precipitation; (2 significant increase in water use caused by rapid urbanization and population growth in industrialized urban areas; (3 inadequate water pricing mechanism which covers only around 80% of the production cost and makes it harder to maintain water systems; and (4 recursive water quality degradation and conflicts over water rights between regions resulting from non-point source pollution in highland versus lowland areas, Korean water policies have been developed through diverse reforms over 100 years. Nevertheless, new challenges for sustainable water management are continuously emerging. To meet those challenges we provide two ideas: (i provider-gets-principle (payment for ecosystem services of cost-benefit sharing among stakeholders who benefit from water use; and (ii water pricing applying full-cost pricing-principle internalizing environmental externalities caused by the intensive water use. Funds secured from the application of those methods would facilitate: (1 support for upstream (rural low income householders suffering from economic restrictions; (2 improvement in water facilities; and (3 efficient water use and demand management in South Korea’s water sectors. We expect that this paper can examine the lessons relevant to challenges that South Korea faces and offer some implications on the formulation of new integration and further reforms of the institutions, laws and organizations responsible for managing water resources in South Korea.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Kantsir


    Full Text Available Reforming the regulatory system and supervision of audit activity in Ukraine is a basic condition for Ukraine’s accession to the European Community, and the introduction of international standards in the field of audit and supervision of audit activity and quality assurance of audit services should be correlated with the standards of European and world audit practice. The dominant factor in the effective functioning of independent control is the choice of a model of supervision of the mechanism for its implementation; effectiveness of the system of monitoring the quality of audit services; effectiveness of legal and regulatory framework of audit activity. The regulation of audit activity is to coordinate direct and indirect actions aimed at the subject of audit activity with the purpose of ensuring the quality of audit services and minimizing the level of audit risk. The purpose of the research is: analysis of the basic models of regulation of audit activity aimed at improving the legal regulation of economic relations in general and subjects of audit activity in particular. Determination of expediency of implementation of public oversight as monitoring of the process of implementation of audit activity in the context of granting the right to conduct audit activities to individuals, implementation of standards of professional ethics and quality control of audit services, permanence of education and imposing sanctions for non-compliance by auditors with the requirements of the current legislation. Method (methodology. In the process of research, general scientific and special methods of scientific knowledge are used: abstract-logical (in the disclosure of theoretical and methodological foundations of public oversight; synthesis and system analysis (substantiation of the essential characteristics of the system of public oversight; system analysis and theoretical generalization (definition of institutional prerequisites for the introduction of

  5. Reform of the EU's climate policy. Small step or big hit?; Reform der EU-Klimapolitik. Kleiner Schritt oder grosser Wurf?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, Matthias; Peichert, Patrick; Perner, Jens; Riechmann, Christoph [Frontier Economics Ltd., Koeln (Germany)


    Emissions trading listed as a flexible mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol is regarded as a market economy way in climate protection. Since 2005 the European Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) is the central climate policy instrument for reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases, in particular for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). For years, however, the CO{sub 2} price is too low to direct the politically and socially targeted technical innovations in the electricity sector and the industry. The article analyses the temporary and structural causes of this problem, highlights the EU's reform efforts and points to areas of activity, the basis of which the EU ETS may act in the future as a central instrument for climate protection in the European Union. [German] Der im Kyoto-Protokoll als flexibler Mechanismus aufgefuehrte Emissionshandel gilt als marktwirtschaftlicher Weg in den Klimaschutz. Das Europaeische Emissionshandelssystem (EU ETS) ist seit 2005 das zentrale klimapolitische Instrument zur Senkung des Ausstosses von Treibhausgasen, insbesondere fuer Kohlenstoffdioxid (CO{sub 2}). Seit Jahren ist der CO{sub 2}-Preis jedoch zu gering, um die politisch und gesellschaftlich angestrebten technischen Innovationen im Stromsektor und der Industrie zu lenken. Der Artikel untersucht die temporaeren und strukturellen Ursachen dieses Problems, beleuchtet die Reformbestrebungen der EU und zeigt Handlungsfelder auf, anhand derer das EU ETS auch in Zukunft als zentrales Instrument fuer Klimaschutz in der Europaeischen Union fungieren kann.

  6. Impacts of the Interim Federal Health Program reforms: A stakeholder analysis of barriers to health care access and provision for refugees. (United States)

    Antonipillai, Valentina; Baumann, Andrea; Hunter, Andrea; Wahoush, Olive; O'Shea, Timothy


    Changes to the Interim Federal Health Program (IFHP) in 2012 reduced health care access for refugees and refugee claimants, generating concerns among key stakeholders. In 2014, a new IFHP temporarily reinstated access to some health services; however, little is known about these changes, and more information is needed to map the IFHP's impact. This study explores barriers occurring during the time period of the IFHP reforms to health care access and provision for refugees. A stakeholder analysis, using 23 semi-structured interviews, was conducted to obtain insight into stakeholder perceptions of the 2014 reforms, as well as stakeholders' position and their influence to assess the acceptability of the IFHP changes. The majority of stakeholders expressed concerns about the 2014 IFHP changes as a result of the continuing barriers posed by the 2012 retrenchments and the emergence of new barriers to health care access and provision for refugees. Key barriers identified included lack of communication and awareness, lack of continuity and comprehensive care, negative political discourse and increased costs. A few stakeholders supported the reforms as they represented some, but limited, access to health care. Overall, the reforms to the IFHP in 2014 generated barriers to health care access and provision that contributed to confusion among stakeholders, the transfer of refugee health responsibility to provincial authorities and the likelihood of increased health outcome disparities, as refugees and refugee claimants chose to delay seeking health care. The study recommends that policy-makers engage with refugee health stakeholders to formulate a policy that improves health care provision and access for refugee populations.

  7. Livelihood strategies in settlement projects in the Brazilian Amazon: Determining drivers and factors within the Agrarian Reform Program.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diniz, F.H.; Hoogstra, M.A.; Kok, K.; Arts, B.J.M.


    Over the last decades, hundreds of thousands of families have settled in the Brazilian Amazon within the framework of the Agrarian Reform Program (ARP). The rationale behind the program is to enable settlers to earn their living by small-scale farming and producing an agricultural surplus for the

  8. The 2011 Estonian High School Language Reform in the Context of Critical Language Policy and Planning (United States)

    Skerrett, Delaney Michael


    This paper seeks to situate Estonian language use and policy within the emerging field of critical language policy and planning (CLPP) by investigating the discourses that frame linguistic behaviour. This done by way of an analysis of a series of interviews carried out with key actors in language policy in Estonia. The discourses framing language…

  9. World bank's role in the electric power sector: Policies for effective institutional, regulatory, and financial reform. World Bank policy paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The policy paper is based on the World Bank Industry and Energy Department's ongoing policy and research work, which (1) examines experiences of industrial countries and the Bank's borrowers in developing their power sectors, (2) analyzes issues facing these sectors, and (3) describes options for dealing with these issues in developing countries. The paper is supported by a large body of research

  10. 25 CFR 170.2 - What is the IRR Program and BIA Road Maintenance Program policy? (United States)


    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the IRR Program and BIA Road Maintenance Program... and BIA Road Maintenance Program policy? (a) It is the policy of the Secretary of the Interior and the... designed to enable Indian tribes to participate in all contractible IRR and BIA Road Maintenance programs...

  11. Policy Brief: Petroleum product pricing reforms in India. Are we on the right track?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Pravin Kumar; Soni, Anmol


    The path to petroleum product pricing reforms in India has been full of undulations. Even though Administered Pricing Mechanism (APM) was dismantled during 1 April 1998 to 31 March 2002, the government continued to regulate the prices of petrol, diesel, Public distribution System (PDS) kerosene, and domestic LPG, except for over a year, when oil marketing companies (OMCs) revised the consumer prices of petrol and diesel in line with the international prices. In June 2010, petrol pricing was deregulated, but government control continued to an extent. This control of petroleum product prices has not only severely affected the fiscal balance of the economy, but has also adversely impacted the oil companies (both upstream and downstream), eventually affecting the overall development of the sector. In fact, the impact of petroleum product subsidies has compelled the government to announce certain reforms in the past few months.

  12. The Role of the Unit of Analysis in Tax Policy Reform Evaluations


    John Creedy; Rosanna Scutella


    This paper examines the implications, for overall social welfare and inequality comparisons, of using different definitions of the unit of analysis - the income recipient - in computing summary measures. Comparisons are made using the Melbourne Institute Tax and Transfer Simulator (MITTS), a simulation model of the Australian direct tax and benefit system, of the effects of flattening the marginal tax rate structure. The reform was found to reduce inequality in all cases. However, it was not ...

  13. Governing China’s Clean Energy Transition: Policy Reforms, Flexible Implementation and the Need for Empirical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Lo


    Full Text Available In the ten years since committing to clean energy transition, China has formulated a large number of policies and programs to achieve some very ambitious targets. This paper argues that the dearth of empirical studies concerning the implementation of these new policies and programs has created a knowledge gap between official policy documents, which are vague and lacking in specifics, and official policy outcomes, which are unreliable. In particular, the merits and limitations of flexible implementation with regard to desirable outcomes need to be debated and clarified. This paper calls for more empirical investigation in four areas as a starting point: (1 the nature and extent of flexibility in the implementation; (2 implementation strategies and their impacts; (3 factors that shape the behavior of local officials responsible for implementation; and (4 the relationship between the central-local relation and policy implementation.

  14. Are We There Yet? Early Years Reform in Queensland: Stakeholder Perspectives on the Introduction of Funded Preschool Programs in Long Day Care Services (United States)

    Irvine, Susan; Farrell, Ann


    Australian educators are currently engaging with wide-ranging, national early childhood reform that is reshaping Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC). The Australian reform agenda reflects many of the early childhood policy directions championed by bodies, such as the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development and the United…

  15. Dewey and Italian School Policy: Proposals for Reform by Scuola e Città (1950–1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mariuzzo


    Full Text Available The paper analyses the role of Ernesto Codignola’s «Florence School of Pedagogy» in the renewal of Italian democratic and secular education after World War II, particularly its commitment to the diffusion of John Dewey’s educational thinking across Italy, previously dominated by the influence of traditional neo-idealism. Through a systematic analysis of the journal Scuola e Città, the group’s mouthpiece, the paper highlights the importance of Dewey’s ideas in the elaboration of educational policy proposals and potential legislative measures for school reform. It analyses the extent to which the «Deweyan laboratory» in Florence contributed to the emergence and foundation of the positions held by one of its exponents, Ernesto Codignola’s son Tristano – the Italian Socialist Party’s Education minister, in the parliamentary debate of the Sixties. The paper focuses on three main themes: (i assessment of the government’s primary school curricula, drawn up in the mid-fifties, characterized by an overhaul of the existing educational practices, which Scuola e città authors considered to be insufficient and contradictory; (ii universal access to a junior secondary education along the lines of the comprehensive school model to guide the active stimulation of students’ abilities and interests; and (iii school administration reform in response to the persistence of pre-war centralism and the authoritarian character of traditional Italian pedagogy.

  16. A state perspective on the Nuclear Waste Policy Act program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stucker, J.J.


    The author discusses the problems he sees with the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) program. He labels the problems as: against the law, all the eggs in one basket, acceptance rate, and the MRS program. The author comments of five issues that need to be addressed to right the wrongs of the NWPA program

  17. Reliable in their failure: an analysis of healthcare reform policies in public systems. (United States)

    Contandriopoulos, Damien; Brousselle, Astrid


    In this paper, we analyze recommendations of past governmental commissions and their implementation in Quebec as a case to discuss the obstacles that litter the road to healthcare system reform. Our analysis shows that the obstacles to tackling the healthcare system's main problems may have less to do with programmatic (what to do) than with political and governance (how to do it) questions. We then draw on neo-institutional theory to discuss the causes and effects of this situation. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evidence-based policy versus morality policy: the case of syringe access programs. (United States)

    de Saxe Zerden, Lisa; O'Quinn, Erin; Davis, Corey


    Evidence-based practice (EBP) combines proven interventions with clinical experience, ethics, and client preferences to inform treatment and services. Although EBP is integrated into most aspects of social work and public health, at times EBP is at odds with social policy. In this article the authors explore the paradox of evidence-based policy using syringe access programs (SAP) as a case example, and review methods of bridging the gap between the emphasis on EBP and lack of evidence informing SAP policy. Analysis includes the overuse of morality policy and examines historical and current theories why this paradox exists. Action steps are highlighted for creating effective policy and opportunities for public health change. Strategies on reframing the problem and shifting target population focus to garner support for evidence-based policy change are included. This interdisciplinary understanding of the way in which these factors converge is a critical first step in moving beyond morality-based policy toward evidence-based policy.

  19. "Old, Borrowed, and Renewed": A Review of Early Childhood Education Policy in Post-Reform Indonesia (United States)

    Octarra, Harla Sara; Hendriati, Agustina


    Early childhood education (ECE) is not new in Indonesia. However, in the past decade, it has received more attention, as shown by the growing number of ECE centres in both urban and rural areas. This growth is accompanied by policy development that corresponds to the global agenda of ECE. Policy development is inevitably linked with the support of…

  20. Balancing Tensions in Educational Policy Reforms: Large-Scale Implementation of Assessment for Learning in Norway (United States)

    Hopfenbeck, Therese N.; Flórez Petour, María Teresa; Tolo, Astrid


    This study investigates how different stakeholders in Norway experienced a government-initiated, large-scale policy implementation programme on "Assessment for Learning" ("AfL"). Data were collected through 58 interviews with stakeholders in charge of the policy; Ministers of Education and members of the Directorate of…

  1. Teachers' implementation of reform-oriented instructional strategies in science: Lessons from two professional development programs (United States)

    Cook, Nicole D.

    This dissertation reports findings from two studies that investigated the relationship between professional development and teachers' instructional practices in Science,Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM). The first program, the Indiana Science Initiative (ISI) focused on K-8 teachers and their use of inquiry-based science instruction in conjunction with curricular modules provided by the ISI program. The second program, Research Goes to School (RGS), focused on high school STEM teachers and their use of problem-based learning (PBL) as they implemented curricular units that they developed themselves at the RGS summer workshop. In-service teachers were recruited from both programs. They were observed teaching their respective curricular materials and interviewed about their experiences in order to investigate the following research questions: 1. How do teachers implement the reform-oriented instructional strategies promoted by their professional development experiences with the ISI or RGS? 2. What are the challenges and supports that influence teachers' use of the reform-oriented instructional strategies promoted by their professional development experiences with the ISI or RGS? To investigate these questions the fidelity of implementation was it was conceptualized by Century, Rudnick, and Freeman (2010) was used as a theoretical framework. The study of the ISI program was conducted during the program's pilot year (2010-11). Five teachers of grades 3 through 6 were recruited from three different schools. Participants were observed as they taught lessons related to the modules and they were interviewed about their experiences. Based on analysis of the data from the observations, using a modified version of the Science Teacher Inquiry Rubric (STIR) (Bodzin & Beerer, 2003), the participants were found to exhibit partial fidelity of implementation to the model of inquiry-based instruction promoted by the ISI. Based on data from the interviews, the

  2. Coordinating Policies for Human Resources Development


    G.A. Meagher


    In its recent White Paper on Employment and Growth, the Australian Government announced a comprehensive new agenda to supplement its existing employment policies. It includes the following major elements * reforms to labour market assistance; * training and education reforms; * a reconstructed social security system; * a regional strategy; * workplace agreements; and * microeconomic reforms. An important consideration in the implementation of such a multi-faceted policy program is that its va...

  3. Agricultural policy and social returns to eradication programs: the case of Aujeszky's disease in Sweden. (United States)

    Andersson, H; Lexmon, A; Robertsson, J A; Lundeheim, N; Wierup, M


    considering non-monetary aspects such as animal ethics. A scenario where the Swedish agricultural sector is deregulated provides the maximum benefits of the program. Consumers obtain about 50% of the benefits excluding program costs. The deregulation scenario would correspond closely to a case where a reformed Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is applied across member countries. In the current case where Sweden is a member of the EU, the benefits are reduced mainly due to lower prices of inputs and pork.

  4. Challenges and reforms in Long-Term Care policy in Spain - See more at:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno-Fuentes, Francisco Javier


    Full Text Available The NorSpaR project aims to analyse the main public policy initiatives by which Norway and Spain cope with the new social and economic challenges derived from the so-called New Social Risks (NSR. Although both countries present significant differences in their institutional settings (such as Spanish EU membership, or its belonging to diverse welfare regimes types (Norway is generally included in the Nordic regime, while Spain is part of the Mediterranean one, both countries share a common interest in addressing the aforementioned challenges while maintaining social cohesion. In the last decade, governments in both countries have tried to respond to those challenges by reforming their labour markets, adapting their unemployment schemes, as well as their gender, family and long-term care policies. The analysis covered in this project includes three areas of public policy addressing NSR. First, dependency is one of the most daunting challenges for post-industrial societies experiencing population ageing and with an increasing number of frail people in need of care. This situation is forcing governments to rethink their long-term care policies. Second, family and gender public programs need to respond to the growing difficulties of families in reconciling professional and family life. Third, in the transition to a post-industrial order, and in a context of mass unemployment, social protection systems have a renewed prominence. Along with the so-called passive policies offering financial support to the unemployed, active labour market policies are geared to put people back into work. In our analysis we try to find answers to the following questions: What are the challenges that each of these policies have been trying to address in recent years? How have these policies evolved? What kinds of reforms have been implemented, and which ones have been neglected? Have the policy goals and targets of welfare programs been modified in any significant way

  5. 77 FR 46855 - Small Business Technology Transfer Program Policy Directive (United States)


    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Chapter I RIN 3245-AF45 Small Business Technology Transfer Program Policy Directive AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Final policy directive with request for comments. SUMMARY: The U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) is amending its Small Business...

  6. 75 FR 15756 - Small Business Innovation Research Program Policy Directive (United States)


    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RIN 3244-AF61 Small Business Innovation Research Program Policy Directive AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice of Final Amendments to Policy Directive. SUMMARY: This document announces a final amendment to the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR...

  7. Decoupling among CSR policies, programs, and impacts : An empirical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, Johan; Smid, Hugo


    There are relatively few empirical studies on the impacts of corporate social responsibility (CSR) policies and programs. This article addresses the research gap by analyzing the incidence of, and the conditions that affect, decoupling (defined as divergence) among CSR policies, implementation of

  8. Programs and Policies for Reducing Maternal Mortality in Kano ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . This study is aimed to document policies and programs that are directed towards addressing maternal health issues in Kano state of Nigeria. Relevant data was obtained from the state hospital management board, NDHS 2008, and national ...

  9. Evaluating forest management policies by parametric linear programing (United States)

    Daniel I. Navon; Richard J. McConnen


    An analytical and simulation technique, parametric linear programing explores alternative conditions and devises an optimal management plan for each condition. Its application in solving policy-decision problems in the management of forest lands is illustrated in an example.

  10. ETF Yearbook 2012: Evaluation and Monitoring of Vocational Education and Training Systems and the Role of Evidence-Based Policy in Their Reforms (United States)

    European Training Foundation, 2012


    The "ETF Yearbook 2012" continues the tradition of highlighting a thematic field of particular importance to the work of the European Training Foundation (ETF). The theme of this yearbook is evaluation and monitoring of vocational education and training (VET) systems and the role of evidence-based policy in VET reforms in ETF partner…

  11. Music plus Music Integration: A Model for Music Education Policy Reform That Reflects the Evolution and Success of Arts Integration Practices in 21st Century American Public Schools (United States)

    Scripp, Lawrence; Gilbert, Josh


    This article explores the special case of integrative teaching and learning in music as a model for 21st century music education policy reform based on the principles that have evolved out of arts integration research and practices over the past century and informed by the recent rising tide of evidence of music's impact on brain capacity and…

  12. Water Governance Decentralisation and River Basin Management Reforms in Hierarchical Systems: Do They Work for Water Treatment Policy in Mexico’s Tlaxcala Atoyac Sub-Basin?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casiano Flores, Cesar Augusto; Vikolainen, Vera; Bressers, Johannes T.A.


    In the last decades, policy reforms, new instruments development, and economic resources investment have taken place in water sanitation in Mexico; however, the intended goals have not been accomplished. The percentage of treated wastewater as intended in the last two federal water plans has not

  13. Influence of macro-economic growth, CAP reforms and biofuel policy on the Polish agri-food sector in 2007–2020

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabeau, A.A.


    This paper presents the possible development scenario of the Polish agricultural sector till 2020. It also assesses the impact of macroeconomic growth, CAP reforms and worldwide policies towards the agriculture on this development. The scenario is build using an extended version of the Global Trade

  14. "Decentralised" Neoliberalism and/or "Masked" Re-Centralisation? The Policy to Practice Trajectory of Maltese School Reform through the Lens of Neoliberalism and Foucault (United States)

    Mifsud, Denise


    The politics of the later part of the twentieth century have been marked by the emergence of neoliberalism, which has consequently impregnated the global policy climate with neoliberal technologies of government. It is within this political scenario of hegemonic neoliberal discourse that I explore one aspect of school reform in Malta--contrived…

  15. Social limitations to livelihood adaptation : responses of maize-farming smallholder households to neoliberal policy reforms in Morelos, Southern Veracruz, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewald, S.F.


    This thesis describes the adaptation of smallholders to market changes shaped by neoliberal policy reforms in the Mexican maize sector. Contrary to expectations about smallholder responses to a liberalised maize market, in the study area maize still is the main source of income. Farmers did not

  16. Consumer energy conservation policies and programs in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, J. de; Ester, P.; Mindell, C.; Schopman, M.


    This report presents an overview of consumer energy conservation policies and programs in the Netherlands and analyses them in terms of program objectives, conservation strategies, program instruments, context elements, and impacts on energy consumption, on consumers' lifestyles and on the environment. Part 1 briefly outlines the energy situation in the Netherlands. Diversification of energy sources and conservation of energy use are the main themes of Dutch energy policy. Controversial issues are the export volume of natural gas and the acceptability of nuclear energy. Part 2 describes and evaluates a number of consumer energy conservation programs. A broad range of programs is presented, including governmental programs (mass media compaigns, the national insulation program), initiatives from consumer organizations and environmental groups, as well as projects on the community level. Part 3 summarizes the main findings and suggests some policy recommendations. The climate of opinion in the Netherlands appears to be quite favorable towards energy conservation. The commitment to conserve, however, is not very strong. Given the broad variety of conservation programs the necessity of coordination is emphasized. As consumers tend to be weakly represented in the program agencies, it is recommended to extend or introduce their participation. Particular attention is given to the lack of evaluation studies. Usually, program impacts are unknown. The desirability of utilizing community level indicators in the assessment of energy conservation policy is underlined. (orig.)

  17. Against the odds: the OMC as a selective amplifier for reforming Belgian pension policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanhercke, B.


    Tackling pensions' problems means engaging with what Pierson (2001) has called 'immovable objects'. Additionally, the EU competence for drafting specific legislation in this area remains unfulfilled potential, while EU legislation in other policy areas creates indirect pressures on national pension

  18. National findings regarding health IT use and participation in health care delivery reform programs among office-based physicians. (United States)

    Heisey-Grove, Dawn; Patel, Vaishali


    Our objective was to characterize physicians' participation in delivery and payment reform programs over time and describe how participants in these programs were using health information technology (IT) to coordinate care, engage patients, manage patient populations, and improve quality. A nationally representative cohort of physicians was surveyed in 2012 (unweighted N = 2567) and 2013 (unweighted N = 2399). Regression analyses used those survey responses to identify associations between health IT use and participation in and attrition from patient-centered medical homes (PCMHs), accountable care organizations (ACOs), and pay-for-performance programs (P4Ps). In 2013, 45% of physicians participated in PCMHs, ACOs, or P4Ps. While participation in each program increased (P payment reform programs increased between 2012 and 2013. Participating physicians were more likely to use health IT. There was significant attrition from and switching between PCMHs, ACOs, and P4Ps. This work provides the basis for understanding physician participation in and attrition from delivery and payment reform programs, as well as how health IT was used to support those programs. Understanding health IT use by program participants may help to identify factors enabling a smooth transition to alternative payment models. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the United States.

  19. Informing principal policy reforms in South Africa through data-based evidence


    Gabrielle Wills


    In the past decade there has been a notable shift in South African education policy that raises the value of school leadership as a lever for learning improvements. Despite a growing discourse on school leadership, there has been a lack of empirical based evidence on principals to inform, validate or debate the efficacy of proposed policies in raising the calibre of school principals. Drawing on findings from a larger study to understand the labour market for school principals in South Africa...

  20. The effects of a reformer Pilates program on body composition and morphological characteristics in active women after a detraining period. (United States)

    Vaquero-Cristóbal, Raquel; Alacid, Fernando; Esparza-Ros, Francisco; López-Plaza, Daniel; Muyor, José M; López-Miñarro, Pedro A


    The aim of this quasi-experimental pilot study was to explore the effects of a reformer Pilates program on the anthropometry, body composition, and somatotype of active adult women after a short non-exercise period. Twenty-eight women (mean age: 40.21 ± standard deviation of 8.12 years old) with one to three years of reformer Pilates experience participated in the study. The women participated in a reformer Pilates program for 16 weeks (one hour, twice per week) after 4 weeks of detraining (summer holidays) in 2012. The International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry full profile was assessed before and after the intervention program. Significant decreases (p ≤ 0.05) from pre- to post-program were observed for triceps, iliac crest, supraspinale, abdominal, front thigh and medial calf skinfold thicknesses, six and eight skinfold thickness sums, forearm and ankle girths, waist/hip ratio, endomorphy, and fat mass. Significant increases (p ≤ .05) were observed for corrected arm, corrected calf girths, and muscle mass. Generally, women showed a mesomorphic endomorph (endomorphy predominant) and mesomorph-endomorph (endomorphy and mesomorphy predominant) in the pre- and posttests, respectively. In conclusion, the practice of reformer Pilates was associated with healthy changes in anthropometric parameters, body composition, and somatotype in Pilates-experienced women after 4 weeks of no physical exercise.

  1. The impact of maternal employment on children's adiposity: Evidence from China's labor policy reform. (United States)

    Jo, Young; Wang, Qing


    China has experienced a rapid growth in childhood adiposity in recent years. Although a large number of studies examine the effect of maternal employment on children's adiposity in developed countries, only a few studies investigate the issue in developing countries. Moreover, existing studies tend to suffer from a potential endogeneity issue. We provide new evidence on the causal effect of maternal employment on children's adiposity in China. We employ a difference-in-difference strategy that takes advantage of China's 1995 legislative change to labor regulations, which reduced the number of workdays from 6 to 5 days per week. Using longitudinal data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS), we compare children whose mothers are wage-earning employees to those whose mothers are self-employed because the reform only affected the former. Although maternal employment and childhood obesity in China exhibits the same positive association as in the United States, our difference-in-difference estimates present a different picture. We find that a reduction in the maternal labor supply led to children's weight gain. Further investigation reveals that the effect was stronger among children who were male, younger, in urban areas, and from households with low socioeconomic status. Our evidence suggests that a change in maternal behaviors was likely responsible for children's weight gain. In particular, a greater proportion of treatment group mothers cooked and also devoted more time to cooking after the reform, which led to an increased caloric intake by their children. Such weight gain was beneficial for children who were previously underweight but harmful to those who became overweight. The finding implies that additional maternal time at home likely has a different effect in China compared to the United States. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Best Management Practices, Policies and Programs (United States)

    The National Great Practice Compendium highlights outstanding activities, technologies, and programs that prevent trash from entering the aquatic environment and/or that reduce the overall volume of trash that is generated.

  3. The Radical Reform of Administrative Policies in New South Wales School Education: Practical and Theoretical Implications. (United States)

    Macpherson, R. J. S.

    The government of New South Wales (Australia) is attempting to enhance the quality of public education by radically altering management structures and practices. Despite some popular objections, political intervention was mandated and warranted due to excessive centralization in administrative policy making, curriculum development, and resource…

  4. A programme evaluation of pre-primary education reform, and policy, in Plateau State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaye Fadimatu Hamza


    Full Text Available Contextualisation This paper presents a brief overview of the educational system in Nigeria with an emphasis on the pre-primary education level. It addresses the international literature on early childhood pedagogy and assesses to what extent pre-primary education policy in Nigeria is inspired by this literature. The paper will pay special attention to the shortcomings and obstacles encountered in trying to implement the pre-primary education policy of Plateau State in Nigeria Abstract: The current study is an evaluation of the pre-primary education policy in Plateau State in Nigeria. It was inspired by my own experience as a school teacher/principal who has seen the effects on primary schools and the results of a lack of government investment in the sector, itself leading to a proliferation of ‘private owners’. Because of these circumstances the implementation of central policy is highly dependent on the varying understanding of these owners. The study will employ both qualitative and quantitative techniques in data collection through the use of questionnaire, interviews, classroom observation and use of documents. The data will be analysed both quantitatively and qualitatively. The results will hopefully be used, not only to add to existing literature, but also to improve the system serving as a basis for further research in the area.

  5. The Ghosts of Higher Education Reform: On the Organisational Processes Surrounding Policy Borrowing (United States)

    Brøgger, Katja


    The Bologna Process is one of the most extensive examples of policy borrowing processes. Based on qualitative data, this article argues in favour of studying part of this process as "global smallness", centring on the organisational effects of the implementation of a globalised curriculum. Through Derrida's notion on hauntology,…

  6. Reflection on the Education Policy Orientation in Post-May 31 Reform in Korea (United States)

    Lee, Chong Jae; Kim, Yong


    For the last 70 years, since the establishment of the Republic of Korea, Korean education has achieved universal expansion of educational opportunity from elementary to secondary to higher education. Planning, centralized policy making, top-down implementation, and administrative control had been the standards of the first few decades of Korean…

  7. Managing the Dynamics of the Bologna Reforms: How Institutional Actors Re-Construct the Policy Framework (United States)

    Veiga, Amélia; Neave, Guy


    How do the constituencies in higher education re-interpret Bologna's function with regard to the European Higher Education Area? This research examines how institutional actors re-construct the policy framework in the light of their own institutional agendas. Drawing on empirical data from a survey of academics, students and administrative and…

  8. Education Policy as an Act of White Supremacy: Whiteness, Critical Race Theory and Education Reform (United States)

    Gillborn, David


    The paper presents an empirical analysis of education policy in England that is informed by recent developments in US critical theory. In particular, I draw on 'whiteness studies' and the application of critical race theory (CRT). These perspectives offer a new and radical way of conceptualizing the role of racism in education. Although the US…

  9. Rhode Island Pension Reform: Implications and Opportunities for Education. Education Sector Policy Briefs (United States)

    Herriot-Hatfield, Jennie; Monahan, Amy; Rosenberg, Sarah; Tucker, Bill


    On August 24, 2010, the state of Rhode Island received some outstanding news. Its yearlong, bipartisan effort to develop new policies to spur educational improvement was about to pay off. The state, along with eight others and the District of Columbia, was named a winner of the U.S. Department of Education's Race to the Top grant competition. The…

  10. A Cognitive Perspective on Policy Implementation : Reform Beliefs, Sensemaking, and Social Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siciliano, Michael D.; Moolenaar, Nienke M.; Daly, Alan J.; Liou, Yi Hwa


    Utilizing a cognitive perspective, this article examines the social processes through which teachers come to understand the Common Core State Standards. The authors begin by identifying three beliefs that have important implications for policy implementation: self-efficacy, resource adequacy, and

  11. The Impact of 2002 National Teacher Contract Policy Reform on Teacher Absenteeism in Lahore, Pakistan (United States)

    Habib, Masooma


    Teacher absenteeism is a persistent problem in Pakistani government schools. Under a new policy, teachers hired in Pakistani schools after 2002 are hired on fixed term contracts that are renewed, in part, based on low absenteeism. This study uses qualitative analysis techniques to assess the impact of contractual hiring on teacher absenteeism…

  12. Social limitations of maize farmers' adaptation to neoliberal policy reform in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewald, S.F.; Niehof, A.


    This article highlights the interfaces between micro-level livelihoods, social networks, and macroeconomic trends and policies. Specifically, it analyzes the role of farmer groups in livelihood adaptation of smallholder maize producers in southern Mexico. We show how neoliberal market changes have

  13. Feature article coverage of Australian out-of-home care: portrayals and policy reform. (United States)

    McCosker, Laura; Lonne, Bob; Gillespie, Kerri; Marston, Greg


    This article examines the issues that are typically identified in feature articles written about out-of-home care and how those issues are constructed and portrayed. It also considers the potential impact of the coverage upon the policy debates and outcomes that were occurring at the time. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  14. Policy Patrons: Philanthropy, Education Reform, and the Politics of Influence. Educational Innovations Series (United States)

    Tompkins-Stange, Megan E.


    "Policy Patrons" offers a rare behind-the-scenes view of decision making inside four influential education philanthropies: the Ford Foundation, the W. K. Kellogg Foundation, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and the Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation. The outcome is an intriguing, thought-provoking look at the impact of current…

  15. Education Policy and "Friedmanomics": Free Market Ideology and Its Impact on School Reform (United States)

    Fiala, Thomas J.; Owens, Deborah Duncan


    The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of neoliberal ideology, and in particular, the economic and social theories of Milton Friedman on education policy. The paper takes a critical theoretical approach in that ultimately the paper is an ideological critique of conservative thought and action that impacts twenty-first century education…

  16. United States policy initiatives in promoting the RERTR program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huizenga, David G.


    The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program has been successful in furthering efforts to reduce and eventually eliminate highly enriched uranium (HEU) from international commerce. Three key policy initiatives are underway to further promote the RERTR program. The first initiative is implementation of a new nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy concerning foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel. Under this policy, the United States will accept over the next 13 years research reactor spent fuel from 41 countries that have converted or plan to convert to use LEU fuels. The second initiative is to pursue cooperative efforts to expand the RERTR program to new regions of the globe, including Russia and China. The third initiative is to restart the advanced LEU fuels development program at the Argonne National Laboratory in order to increase the number of reactors that can convert to use LEU without significant detriment to their performance

  17. Maternity leave: existing policies in obstetrics and gynecology residency programs. (United States)

    Davis, J L; Baillie, S; Hodgson, C S; Vontver, L; Platt, L D


    To survey program directors in obstetrics and gynecology regarding maternity leave and to determine how programs are dealing with maternity leave coverage. Questionnaires regarding impact and policy on maternity leave were mailed to accredited obstetrics and gynecology residency programs. A total of 188 of 274 (69%) questionnaires were returned completed. Respectively, 80% and 69% of respondents indicated that they have a formal maternity (maximum mean 8.7 weeks) and paternity (mean 5.27 days) leave policy. Approximately 75% of programs require residents to make up time if their leave exceeds 8 weeks during the first 3 years. Eighty-five percent of programs require residents to make up time if their leave exceeds 6 weeks during the fourth year. Ninety-three percent of programs require residents to make up time if their leave exceeds 20 weeks over the 4 years. Seventy-seven percent of respondents have other residents in their program cover for the absent resident. Thirty-seven percent of programs have schedules flexible enough to allow rearrangement so that some rotations go uncovered. Eighty-three percent of programs surveyed stated that maternity leave has a somewhat to very significant impact on the residents' schedules. Most residency programs have written maternity/paternity leave policies. A more flexible curriculum may help to accommodate the residents on leave without overburdening the residents who are left to cover.

  18. Obesity prevention programs and policies: practitioner and policy-maker perceptions of feasibility and effectiveness. (United States)

    Cleland, Verity; McNeilly, Briohny; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie


    The aims of this study were to map obesity prevention activity being implemented by government, non-government, and community-based organizations; to determine practitioner and policy-maker perceptions of the feasibility and effectiveness of a range of evidence-based obesity prevention strategies; and to determine practitioner and policy-maker perceptions of preferred settings for obesity prevention strategies. This study involved a cross-sectional survey of 304 public health practitioners and policy-makers from government, non-government, and community organizations across Victoria, Australia. Participants reported their organizations' current obesity prevention programs and policies, their own perceptions of the feasibility and effectiveness of strategies to prevent obesity and their preferred settings for obesity prevention. Thirty-nine percent had an obesity prevention policy, and 92% were implementing obesity prevention programs. The most common programs focused on education, skill-building, and increasing access to healthy eating/physical activity opportunities. School curriculum-based initiatives, social support for physical activity, and family-based programs were considered the most effective strategies, whereas curriculum-based initiatives, active after-school programs, and providing access to and information about physical activity facilities were deemed the most feasible strategies. Schools were generally perceived as the most preferred setting for obesity prevention. Many organizations had obesity prevention programs, but far fewer had obesity prevention policies. Current strategies and those considered feasible and effective are often mismatched with the empirical literature. Systems to ensure better alignment between researchers, practitioners, and policy-makers, and identifying effective methods of translating empirical evidence into practice and policy are required. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  19. Avoided cost estimation and post-reform funding allocation for California's energy efficiency programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baskette, C.; Horii, B.; Price, S.; Kollman, E.


    This paper summarizes the first comprehensive estimation of California's electricity avoided costs since the state reformed its electricity market. It describes avoided cost estimates that vary by time and location, thus facilitating targeted design, funding, and marketing of demand-side management (DSM) and energy efficiency (EE) programs that could not have occurred under the previous methodology of system average cost estimation. The approach, data, and results reflect two important market structure changes: (a) wholesale spot and forward markets now supply electricity commodities to load serving entities; and (b) the evolution of an emissions market that internalizes and prices some of the externalities of electricity generation. The paper also introduces the multiplier effect of a price reduction due to DSM/EE implementation on electricity bills of all consumers. It affirms that area- and time-specific avoided cost estimates can improve the allocation of the state's public funding for DSM/EE programs, a finding that could benefit other parts of North America (e.g. Ontario and New York), which have undergone electricity deregulation. (author)

  20. 33 CFR 273.13 - Program policy. (United States)


    ... project. (iii) Analysis based on sound economic principles clearly demonstrates that the project will... Program is designed to deal primarily with weed infestations of major economic significance including... infestation should constitute a known problem of economic importance in the area involved. Initial planning...

  1. Employee Assistance: Policies and Programs. Pamphlet Series. (United States)

    Milgram, Gail Gleason

    Approximately six to eight percent of the nation's workers have problems which affect their job performance; without assistance, these problems become worse, affect others, and may have serious consequences to the employer as well. The Employee Assistance Program (EAP) is a pragmatic but compassionate attempt to improve performance by constructing…

  2. Reforming Administrator Training: Here We Go Again! (United States)

    Drury, William R.


    The National Policy Board for Educational Administration report ("Improving the Preparation of School Administrators: An Agenda for Reform") reiterates the need for program improvements for educational administrators. Obstacles to any real change occurring in the near future are pointed out. (six references) (SI)

  3. Renewable energy for rural development in Ethiopia: the case for new energy policies and institutional reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolde-Ghiorgis, W. [Addis Ababa Univ., Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)


    This article argues the case for introducing new energy policies in Ethiopia that will ensure energy initiatives for rural development meet the desired expectations. A review of the rural energy sector in Ethiopia is presented. Rural communities have for centuries relied solely on traditional biomass energy sources, human and animal power. In addition, sample findings show that the basic stock of traditional biomass energy resources is dwindling fast for two reasons: one, due to rapid population growth; and two, due to the absence of energy substitutes for traditional energy sources. Renewable energy technologies and other modern energy technologies are almost non-existent. In terms of budgetary allocation, rural energy development has not received a fair share of public investment in comparison to education, rural road construction and health. A key policy recommendation made in this article is the need for commitment from concerned authorities to the use of renewables for spurring rural development. This could be done through increasing the budget allocation to rural energy, which is currently negligible. Other policy recommendations include the modification of existing institutional frameworks for rural energy delivery, and the design and implementation of appropriate rural energy initiatives suitable for productive activities and sustainable development. (Author)

  4. Evaluation of policy options to reform the EU Emissions Trading System. Effects on carbon price, emissions and the economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdonk, M.; Brink, C.; Vollebergh, H.; Roelfsema, M.


    The EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) is a key instrument of EU climate policy, providing a clear reduction pathway for CO2 emissions. The current carbon price (of about 3 euros per tonne of CO2, April 2013) is much lower than previously expected (which was around 30 euros) and is likely to remain low for a long time. This fuels doubts about whether the ETS will remain a key policy instrument in the long term. Such doubts also increase investment uncertainty, which is likely to have a negative impact on further investments in low-carbon technologies needed for a low-carbon economy in 2050. In November 2012, the European Commission put forward six options for a more structural reform of the EU ETS. The proposed options vary from reducing the cap and expanding the ETS to include other sectors, to strengthening the ETS by measures directly affecting allowance prices. The Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment (IenM) asked the PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency to assess the impact of these options. Four categories of options for reforming the ETS were evaluated: (1) reducing the supply of emission allowances; (2) expanding the ETS by including other sectors; (3) a minimum price for auctioned allowances; and (4) combining ETS with a carbon tax. Recently, the European Parliament voted against the European Commission's proposal to temporarily set aside emission allowances. In an earlier assessment of this proposal, PBL concluded that the impact of this backloading proposal on CO2 prices is likely to be limited, because the total amount of allowances up to 2020 would remain unchanged. All options analysed would reduce emissions and cause the emission price to increase. A minimum price on carbon, however, would provide the best opportunity to make the ETS more robust against unforeseen events, such as a further deterioration of the economy. Such a minimum price would result in more emission reductions if abatement proves to be cheaper

  5. HIGHTEX: a computer program for the steady-state simulation of steam-methane reformers used in a nuclear process heat plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadokoro, Yoshihiro; Seya, Toko


    This report describes a computational model and the input procedure of HIGHTEX, a computer program for steady-state simulation of the steam-methane reformers used in a nuclear process heat plant. The HIGHTEX program simulates rapidly a single reformer tube, and treats the reactant single-phase in the two-dimensional catalyst bed. Output of the computer program is radial distributions of temperature and reaction products in the catalyst-packed bed, pressure loss of the packed bed, stress in the reformer tube, hydrogen permeation rate through the reformer tube, heat rate of reaction, and heat-transfer rate between helium and process gas. The running time (cpu) for a 9m-long bayonet type reformer tube is 12 min with FACOM-230/75. (auth.)

  6. Balancing the Readiness Equation in Early Childhood Education Reform (United States)

    Brown, Christopher P.


    As policy-makers continue to implement early childhood education reforms that frame the field as a mechanism that is to ready children for elementary school success, questions arise as to how the multiple variables in the readiness equation, such as the child, family, and program, are affected by these policies. The instrumental case study…

  7. Health at the center of health systems reform: how philosophy can inform policy. (United States)

    Sturmberg, Joachim P; Martin, Carmel M; Moes, Mark M


    Contemporary views hold that health and disease can be defined as objective states and thus should determine the design and delivery of health services. Yet health concepts are elusive and contestable. Health is neither an individual construction, a reflection of societal expectations, nor only the absence of pathologies. Based on philosophical and sociological theory, empirical evidence, and clinical experience, we argue that health has simultaneously objective and subjective features that converge into a dynamic complex-adaptive health model. Health (or its dysfunction, illness) is a dynamic state representing complex patterns of adaptation to body, mind, social, and environmental challenges, resulting in bodily homeostasis and personal internal coherence. The "balance of health" model-emergent, self-organizing, dynamic, and adaptive-underpins the very essence of medicine. This model should be the foundation for health systems design and also should inform therapeutic approaches, policy decision-making, and the development of emerging health service models. A complex adaptive health system focused on achieving the best possible "personal" health outcomes must provide the broad policy frameworks and resources required to implement people-centered health care. People-centered health systems are emergent in nature, resulting in locally different but mutually compatible solutions across the whole health system.

  8. Risk adjustment policy options for casemix funding: international lessons in financing reform. (United States)

    Antioch, Kathryn M; Ellis, Randall P; Gillett, Steve; Borovnicar, Daniel; Marshall, Ric P


    This paper explores modified hospital casemix payment formulae that would refine the diagnosis-related group (DRG) system in Victoria, Australia, which already makes adjustments for teaching, severity and demographics. We estimate alternative casemix funding methods using multiple regressions for individual hospital episodes from 2001 to 2003 on 70 high-deficit DRGs, focussing on teaching hospitals where the largest deficits have occurred. Our casemix variables are diagnosis- and procedure-based severity markers, counts of diagnoses and procedures, disease types, complexity, day outliers, emergency admission and "transfers in." The results are presented for four policy options that vary according to whether all of the dollars or only some are reallocated, whether all or some hospitals are used and whether the alternatives augment or replace existing payments. While our approach identifies variables that help explain patient cost variations, hospital-level simulations suggest that the approaches explored would only reduce teaching hospital underpayment by about 10%. The implications of various policy options are discussed.

  9. The Effect of the Common Agricultural Policy Reform by 2013 on Direct Payments in Relation to Animal Welfare in the European Union - Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Angelovič


    Full Text Available The primary role of agriculture is to provide food and the European Union should be able to contribute to rising world food demand. The Common Agriculture Policy covers the wide variety of measures used to support and protect the European Union farmers. The most important measure within the Common Agriculture Policy is direct payments paid directly to farmers to protect their income. The Common Agriculture Policy is due to be reformed by 2013. The main object of the Common Agriculture Policy, which is a provision of safe, healthy choice of food at transparent and affordable prices, will remain unchanged, but further changes of the Common Agriculture Policy are necessary to respond to the new challenges such as animal welfare, global food security, natural resources such as water, air, biodiversity and soil, climate changes, increasing globalization and rising price volatility.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos de Freitas


    Full Text Available Despite that businessmen were always trying to interfere with the educational process from the times of theory of human capital, what can be happening of new that is motivating an increased interest of the business community through education? Is it possible that changes in the socio-economic development process of countries or their own crises of capital, are mobilizing the businessmen? We think so. The current interest of businessmen has specific aspects that deserve to be examined. It is not recommended that we believe that “history is repeating itself”. This linearity of analysis disarm us for the local confrontations of contradictions placed by this new escalation of capital on education. The educational policy of the reformers is produced to articulate the need to qualify for the new forms of organization of productive work, at the same time that it preserves and amplifies the classical social functions of the school: exclusion and subordination. At stake is the political and ideological control of the school, at a time when some greater degree of access to knowledge is required by new forms of organization of productive work, new consumption demands of the capitalist system and new political pressures for social mobility through the education.

  11. Understanding Iranian Foreign Policy - The Case of Iranian Nuclear Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emir Hadzikadunic


    Full Text Available This paper examines the complexity of the Iranian foreign policy through the case of Iranian nuclear program. The paper aims to assess foreign policy orientations and compares actions of the last three Iranian presidents, Mohammad Khatami, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and current Hassan Rouhani in dealing with the international community (IC in pursuing its nuclear program. This assessment would not be complete without reference to the Iranian supreme leader Ali Khamenei who is actual head of the state and the most powerful political authority. This paper also relates Iranian foreign policy expectation to competing theories of international relations to identify the most dominant or the most consistent policy orientation. Its aim is to strengthen realist and power-based explanations that have dominated the discourse on Middle Eastern in general and Iranian foreign policy in particular. In this context, a number of questions will be addressed here. To what extend was Iranian negotiation with the IC over its nuclear program consistent throughout these three presidencies? What has changed, if anything, from Iranian foreign policy perspective and why? Can Iranian foreign policy behavior on this specific topic and in this specific time be explained through any international relations theory? As there are many other questions, so there are many theories to examine and explain true Iranian intentions, those below the surface of declared goals (Hadzikadunic, 2014. The methods employed in answering these questions are largely structured around a chronological account and comparative approach. It is also based on the analysis of foreign policy discourse and the assessment of key decision makers.

  12. Towards re-reforming the EU cohesion policy: Key issues in the debate and some thoughts on peripheral regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foutakis Dimitris


    Full Text Available Two years after the inception of the fourth programming period, the debate on post-2013 cohesion policy has already been launched. In fact, public consultation was launched in 2007 and considerable steps have followed since then, while others are about to start. At the same time, the new strategic guidelines and rules that guide cohesion policy have only been in place for a short period and as yet their impacts are not clear. Critical events and major political issues that concern the whole EU structure are the main factors behind this evolution. In particular, the economic recession in addition to the prospects for the new EU Treaty could be considered decisive elements in the launch of the debate on future cohesion policy. More specifically, among the issues highlighted in this context are the distinction between efficiency and equity objectives, the need for a place-based strategy, high growth sectors and their contribution to cohesion, and the potential for creativity and innovation. Overall, it seems like old dilemmas of spatial development recur, while contemporary ones also gain ground. The outcome of this debate is of significant importance for all EU regions not only in budgetary terms, but also in terms of strategic policy goals. This paper examines the above future policy issues with an emphasis on regions faced with particular difficulties such as less favored regions as well as those in the EU periphery.

  13. Steepest Ascent Tariff Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.


    a theoretical concept where the focus is upon the size of welfare gains accruing from tariff reforms rather than simply with the direction of welfare effects that has been the concern of theliterature.JEL code: F15.Keywords: Steepest ascent tariff reforms; piecemeal tariff policy; welfare; market access; small......This paper introduces the concept of a steepest ascent tariff reform for a small open economy. By construction, it is locally optimal in that it yields the highest gain in utility of any feasible tariff reform vector of the same length. Accordingly, it provides a convenient benchmark...... for the evaluation of the welfare effectiveness of other well known tariff reform rules, as e.g. the proportional and the concertina rules. We develop the properties of this tariff reform, characterize the sources of the potential welfare gains from tariff reform, use it to establish conditions under which some...

  14. Human resource for health reform in peri-urban areas: a cross-sectional study of the impact of policy interventions on healthcare workers in Epworth, Zimbabwe. (United States)

    Taderera, Bernard Hope; Hendricks, Stephen James Heinrich; Pillay, Yogan


    The need to understand how healthcare worker reform policy interventions impact health personnel in peri-urban areas is important as it also contributes towards setting of priorities in pursuing the universal health coverage goal of health sector reform. This study explored the impact of post 2008 human resource for health reform policy interventions on healthcare workers in Epworth, a peri-urban community in Harare, Zimbabwe, and the implications towards health sector reform policy in peri-urban areas. The study design was exploratory and cross-sectional and involved the use of qualitative and quantitative methods in data collection, presentation, and analysis. A qualitative study in which data were collected through a documentary search, five key informant interviews, seven in-depth interviews, and five focus group discussions was carried out first. This was followed by a quantitative study in which data were collected through a documentary search and 87 semi-structured sample interviews with healthcare workers. Qualitative data were analyzed thematically whilst descriptive statistics were used to examine quantitative data. All data were integrated during analysis to ensure comprehensive, reliable, and valid analysis of the dataset. Three main factors were identified to help interpret findings. The first main factor consisted policy result areas that impacted most successfully on healthcare workers. These included the deployment of community health workers with the highest correlation of 0.83. Policy result areas in the second main factor included financial incentives with a correlation of 0.79, training and development (0.77), deployment (0.77), and non-financial incentives (0.75). The third factor consisted policy result areas that had the lowest satisfaction amongst healthcare workers in Epworth. These included safety (0.72), equipment and tools of trade (0.72), health welfare (0.65), and salaries (0.55). The deployment of community health volunteers impacted

  15. Intersections between School Reform, the Arts, and Special Education: The Children Left Behind (United States)

    Hourigan, Ryan M.


    Arts education and special education within public schools have faced similar challenges in the wake of school reform. Services and programming have been reduced, leaving a larger gap in resources and accessibility. Because of loopholes in policy, new reform initiatives such as vouchers and charter schools will continue to marginalize students…

  16. Health policy programs realised in Poland in 2016-2017 (United States)

    Kurowska, Patrycja; Królak, Anna; Giermaziak, Wojciech


    Health Policy Program (Program Polityki Zdrowotnej – PPZ) is a state policy tool for engaging local government units into the mechanism of granting provision of health services. Authors show areas in which self-governments most often took preventive health care actions and describe legislative changes in the Act on provision of health services. The aim of the article is to quantitative and qualitative statement of PPZ prepared in Poland in 2016 and 2017, as well as presenting changing legal situation in the scope of evaluation of these projects. Authors use descriptive method, presenting changes of legal status. The article includes data available in the Bulletin of Public Information by The Agency for Health Technology Assessment. 590 programs were analyzed (239 from 2016 and 351 from 2017). In 2016 – 67% of submitted programs were given a positive opinion and in 2017 – 71%. The most of positively evaluated PPZ submitted by local government units (53% in 2016; 47% in 2017) referred to prevention of infectious diseases by vaccines. On the basis of analyses conducted, significant differences were observed in the implementation of the PPZ in various regions of Poland. In the recent years a big improvement in the quality of planned self-government health programs is observed. It is suggested that due to the regulation defining the model of the health policy program and the model of the final report, this trend will continue.

  17. Conclusions, Reflections, and Prospects for Future Research, Policy, and Programming (United States)

    Clark-Kazak, Christina


    This concluding chapter draws together some of the key themes from the contributions and proposes some recommended areas for future research, policy, and programming. It highlights the artificiality of categorization processes related to both migration and childhood that independent child migrants encounter, and problematizes the…

  18. Day Care: A Program in Search of a Policy. (United States)

    Bikales, Gerda

    This report examines current issues relating to day care and challenges many of the policy assumptions that underlie a major public program of subsidized day care for children. A historical perspective of day care is presented and various types of day care are described. The costs and benefits of day care are examined and the relation of day care…

  19. 77 FR 5155 - Interest Rate Risk Policy and Program (United States)


    ... directors and management; appropriate IRR measurement and monitoring systems; good internal controls; and... Systems B. Risk Measurement Methods C. Components of IRR Measurement Methods V. Internal Controls VI... risk management and a program to effectively implement that policy, as part of their asset liability...

  20. 77 FR 57990 - Interest Rate Risk Policy and Program (United States)


    ... NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 741 RIN 3133-AD66 Interest Rate Risk Policy and Program Correction In rule document 2012-02091, appearing on pages 55155-5167 in the issue of Thursday, February 2, 2012, make the following corrections: 1. On page 5157, in the second column, in the first line...

  1. Ten Years Worth of Procurement Reforms with Specific Attention to Selected DON Programs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knox, Bernard


    ... and usher in a Revolution in Business Affairs, Today a wide array of rogue nations, transnational actors, and domestic terrorism demand weapons procurement reform that is effective against a smaller...

  2. Ten Years Worth of Procurement Reforms with Specific Attention to Selected DON Programs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knox, Bernard


    DOD reduced force structure after the Cold War ended, More efficient and sophisticated weapons are necessary to support a smaller force, Acquisition reform legislation is designed to capture savings...

  3. Policy Reforms, Trojan Horses, and Imaginary Friends: The Role of External Stakeholders in Internal Quality Assurance Systems (United States)

    Rosa, Maria João; Teixeira, Pedro


    The governance of higher education has been changing across Europe, most notably in response to the reform agenda that has been pervading many higher education systems. This wave of reforms has given enhanced visibility to external stakeholders, which has been often received with contrasting views. Some regarded it as a factor that would undermine…

  4. Working on reform. How workers' compensation medical care is affected by health care reform. (United States)

    Himmelstein, J; Rest, K


    The medical component of workers' compensation programs-now costing over $24 billion annually-and the rest of the nation's medical care system are linked. They share the same patients and providers. They provide similar benefits and services. And they struggle over who should pay for what. Clearly, health care reform and restructuring will have a major impact on the operation and expenditures of the workers' compensation system. For a brief period, during the 1994 national health care reform debate, these two systems were part of the same federal policy development and legislative process. With comprehensive health care reform no longer on the horizon, states now are tackling both workers' compensation and medical system reforms on their own. This paper reviews the major issues federal and state policy makers face as they consider reforms affecting the relationship between workers' compensation and traditional health insurance. What is the relationship of the workers' compensation cost crisis to that in general health care? What strategies are being considered by states involved in reforming the medical component of workers compensation? What are the major policy implications of these strategies?

  5. Responsive Feeding: Implications for Policy and Program Implementation12 (United States)

    Engle, Patrice L.; Pelto, Gretel H.


    In this article, we examine responsive feeding as a nutrition intervention, with an emphasis on the development and incorporation of responsive feeding into policies and programs over the last 2 decades and recommendations for increasing the effectiveness of responsive feeding interventions. A review of policy documents from international agencies and high-income countries reveals that responsive feeding has been incorporated into nutrition policies. Official guidelines from international agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and professional organizations often include best practice recommendations for responsive feeding. Four potential explanations are offered for the rapid development of policies related to responsive feeding that have occurred despite the relatively recent recognition that responsive feeding plays a critical role in child nutrition and growth and the paucity of effectiveness trials to determine strategies to promote responsive feeding. Looking to the future, 3 issues related to program implementation are highlighted: 1) improving intervention specificity relative to responsive feeding; 2) developing protocols that facilitate efficient adaptation of generic guidelines to national contexts and local conditions; and 3) development of program support materials, including training, monitoring, and operational evaluation. PMID:21270361

  6. A White Paper on Reforming Canada’s Transportation Policies for the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Flemming


    Full Text Available While much of the developed world struggles with debt and chronically low growth, Canada, one of the best-performing members of the G-7, remains on firmer footing. However, this country still has to cope with slower growth, cutbacks and aging infrastructure. As this paper argues, reconciling these facts will take creative, non-partisan problem solving, and it is time governments got to work. Particularly brave politicians might consider charging the public the full costs of infrastructure use in the form of a tax. For the less daring, advances in robotics and data management offer substantial efficiency gains. Whichever path Canadian governments choose, they will not travel it alone. The burgeoning power of social media will amplify citizens’ voices and involvement. However, private sector expertise and capital could be just what is needed to ease Canada’s looming infrastructure woes, notably in the form of infrastructure banks (iBanks; cost-effective, streamlined replacements for the tangled mass of programs and departments that currently build, manage and maintain public infrastructure. Such an institution could allow private investment vehicles like bonds, preference shares and mortgage-backed securities to be issued to create capital and to pay back investors as the objects of its investments repaid the capital borrowed. iBanks could raise tricky problems about overlapping jurisdictions and would, in some parts of the country, be a tough sell, but Canada has been lagging badly in transportation innovation and must consider unorthodox solutions.

  7. Fossil fuel subsidy reform: lessons from the Indonesian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savatic, Filip


    Global assessments of consumption and the Indonesian case show the relevance of non-household consumers of subsidized energy products. As shown in this study, understanding in more nuance how reforms affect them has the potential to improve the reforms that will be developed by policy-makers worldwide. Further study can reinforce the many benefits of successful reform for the countries and societies slowly turning away from these policies of the past. Estimates regarding the amount of public funds utilized to subsidize the production or consumption of fossil fuels are staggering. For 2011, they range from $83 billion in OECD member states, to nearly $4.1 trillion worldwide if environmental externalities are considered. Numerous studies have demonstrated that subsidies repress economic growth, undermine energy sector investment, increase public debt, benefit wealthy citizens over the poor, instigate a rise in illicit activities, and engender greater global and local pollution. The negative effects of fossil fuel subsidies have led numerous governments to reform their energy policies. There has also been a growing international consensus in favor of reform. While the components of successful reform programs have been identified through past case studies, the nature of reforms adopted by several governments that target non-households have not been systematically examined. Since the late 1990s, the Indonesian government has implemented numerous reforms of its fossil fuel subsidies, including measures targeting household as well as non-household energy consumption. In doing so, it has incurred significant fiscal savings. However, an innovative budgetary analysis reveals that households receive a minority, and a declining share, of fossil fuel subsidy funds. This is the case despite the fact that subsidies were implemented to ensure poor households have access to cheap energy. These findings demonstrate the need to consider non-household sectors in the design of fossil

  8. Can free open access resources strengthen knowledge-based emerging public health priorities, policies and programs in Africa? (United States)

    Tambo, Ernest; Madjou, Ghislaine; Khayeka-Wandabwa, Christopher; Tekwu, Emmanuel N; Olalubi, Oluwasogo A; Midzi, Nicolas; Bengyella, Louis; Adedeji, Ahmed A; Ngogang, Jeanne Y


    Tackling emerging epidemics and infectious diseases burden in Africa requires increasing unrestricted open access and free use or reuse of regional and global policies reforms as well as timely communication capabilities and strategies. Promoting, scaling up data and information sharing between African researchers and international partners are of vital importance in accelerating open access at no cost. Free Open Access (FOA) health data and information acceptability, uptake tactics and sustainable mechanisms are urgently needed. These are critical in establishing real time and effective knowledge or evidence-based translation, proven and validated approaches, strategies and tools to strengthen and revamp health systems.  As such, early and timely access to needed emerging public health information is meant to be instrumental and valuable for policy-makers, implementers, care providers, researchers, health-related institutions and stakeholders including populations when guiding health financing, and planning contextual programs.

  9. 76 FR 67484 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) (United States)


    ... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: Information Security Oversight Office... made for the following committee meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters...

  10. 78 FR 9431 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) (United States)


    ... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: National Archives and Records... meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be held on...

  11. 78 FR 38077 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) (United States)


    ... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office [NARA-13-0030] National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: National Archives and... following committee meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The...

  12. 78 FR 64024 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) (United States)


    ... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office [NARA-2014-001] National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: National Archives and... following committee meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The...

  13. 76 FR 28099 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) (United States)


    ... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: Information Security Oversight Office... made for the following committee meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters...

  14. 76 FR 6636 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) (United States)


    ... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: Information Security Oversight Office... made for the following committee meeting. To discuss National Industrial Security Program policy...

  15. 77 FR 63893 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) (United States)


    ... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: National Archives and Records... meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be held on...

  16. An Overview of State Policies Supporting Worksite Health Promotion Programs. (United States)

    VanderVeur, Jennifer; Gilchrist, Siobhan; Matson-Koffman, Dyann


    Worksite health promotion (WHP) programs can reduce the occurrence of cardiovascular disease risk factors. State law can encourage employers and employer-provided insurance companies to offer comprehensive WHP programs. This research examines state law authorizing WHP programs. Quantitative content analysis. Worksites or workplaces. United States (and the District of Columbia). State law in effect in 2013 authorizing WHP programs. Frequency and distribution of states with WHP laws. To determine the content of the laws for analysis and coding, we identified 18 policy elements, 12 from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Worksite Health ScoreCard (HSC) and 6 additional supportive WHP strategies. We used these strategies as key words to search for laws authorizing WHP programs or select WHP elements. We calculated the number and type of WHP elements for each state with WHP laws and selected two case examples from states with comprehensive WHP laws. Twenty-four states authorized onsite WHP programs, 29 authorized WHP through employer-provided insurance plans, and 18 authorized both. Seven states had a comprehensive WHP strategy, addressing 8 or more of 12 HSC elements. The most common HSC elements were weight management, tobacco cessation, and physical activity. Most states had laws encouraging the adoption of WHP programs. Massachusetts and Maine are implementing comprehensive WHP laws but studies evaluating their health impact are needed.

  17. Small School Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carroll E. Bronson


    Full Text Available This qualitative ethnographic case study explored the evolution of a public urban high school in its 3rd year of small school reform. The study focused on how the high school proceeded from its initial concept, moving to a small school program, and emerging as a new small high school. Data collection included interviews, observations, and document review to develop a case study of one small high school sharing a multiplex building. The first key finding, “Too Many Pieces, Not Enough Glue,” revealed that the school had too many new programs starting at once and they lacked a clear understanding of their concept and vision for their new small school, training on the Montessori philosophies, teaching and learning in small schools, and how to operate within a teacher-cooperative model. The second key finding, “A Continuous Struggle,” revealed that the shared building space presented problems for teachers and students. District policies remain unchanged, resulting in staff and students resorting to activist approaches to get things done. These findings offer small school reform leaders suggestions for developing and sustaining a small school culture and cohesion despite the pressures to revert back to top-down, comprehensive high school norms.

  18. 75 FR 39582 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) (United States)


    ... Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: Information Security Oversight Office..., announcement is made for a meeting of the National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee. The meeting will be held to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting...

  19. A Causal Mechanism of Policy Innovation: The Reform of Colombia’s Oil-Rents Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayron Paz


    Full Text Available This article analyzes policy innovation in Colombia, through the adoption of a new centralized oil-rent management system in 2011, after 20 years of decentralized policies. Using a policy-design framework, we identify a causal mechanism linking the opening of a policy window to policy change as a combination of the emergence of a new policy network, the adoption of a new policy paradigm and the selection of a new instruments mix. Drawing on Bayesian statistics, the 11 tests conducted on the causal mechanism show the importance of State resources of information, authority, treasury and organization to assess the outcome of policy change.

  20. Presidential Elections and HIV-Related National Policies and Programs. (United States)

    Holtgrave, David R; Bonacci, Robert A; Valdiserri, Ronald O


    The November 2016 general election and subsequent voting of the Electoral College resulted in the selection of Donald Trump as President of the United States. The incoming Administration ran a campaign that indicated a desire for substantial change in health policy, including the repeal of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). President Trump has said very little directly about HIV programs and policies, but some campaign positions (such as the repeal of the ACA) would clearly and substantially impact the lives of persons living with HIV. In this editorial, we highlight important HIV-related goals to which we must recommit ourselves, and we underscore several key points about evidence-based advocacy that are important to revisit at any time (but most especially when there is a change in Administration).

  1. Moving Beyond Comprehensive Immigration Reform and Trump: Principles, Interests, and Policies to Guide Long-Term Reform of the US Immigration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Kerwin


    • The United States should reduce the size of its undocumented population through a substantial legalization program and seek to ensure that this population never again approximates its current size.

  2. Public Pension Reform and Teacher Turnover: Evidence from Washington State. CEDR Policy Brief. WP #2015-8 (United States)

    Goldhaber, Dan; Grout, Cyrus; Holden, Kristian


    Traditional defined benefit (DB) pension systems in many states face large funding shortfalls. Movement toward defined contribution (DC) pension structures may reduce the likelihood of future shortfalls, but there is concern that such reforms may have the undesirable effect of increasing employee turnover. In studying patterns of employee turnover…

  3. The Impact of Welfare Reform on Academic Outcomes: Does Parental Work Boost Grades? Institute for Policy Research Working Paper. (United States)

    Pareja, Amber Stitziel, Lewis, Dan A.

    The 1996 welfare reform act forced many poor parents into the labor market, with little understanding of how the parents' workforce participation would affect family life in general and their children in particular. In this paper, researchers examine the relationship between parental workforce participation, welfare receipt, and children's…

  4. Science Education Reform in Confucian Learning Cultures: Teachers' Perspectives on Policy and Practice in Taiwan (United States)

    Huang, Ying-Syuan; Asghar, Anila


    This empirical study investigates secondary science teachers' perspectives on science education reform in Taiwan and reflects how these teachers have been negotiating constructivist and learner-centered pedagogical approaches in contemporary science education. It also explores the challenges that teachers encounter while shifting their pedagogical…

  5. SHPPS 2006: School Health Policies and Programs Study--Foods and Beverages Sold Outside of the School Meals Programs (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007


    The School health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) is a national survey periodically conducted to assess school health policies and programs at the state, district, school, and classroom levels. This brief reports study results in the area of foods and beverages sold outside of the school meals program. (Contains 3 tables, 1 figure, and 2…

  6. The second pillar of the CAP: the role of Commission policy learning in the creation and reform of EU rural development policy (1968-1999)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Jonny Trapp

    argument advanced in this thesis is that policy learning is a multifaceted phenomenon that can most reliably be examined employing 'method pluralism' (documentary analysis, elite interviews, and survey techniques). A second theoretical assertion is that policy learning can change the beliefs - termed......This thesis examines the concept of 'policy learning' and explores its applicability to the European Commission's role in EU policymaking. Policy learning refers to 'knowledge-based' policy formulation, where content of policy proposals is shaped to a 'non-trivial' extent by administrative...... 'policy strategy' - of political actors. A third theoretical contribution is the concept of 'bureaucratic policy learning capability' (BPLC) which refers to an organisation's ability and inclination to utilise available policy-relevant knowledge. I assess the Commission's BPLC through a survey, designed...

  7. Pension Reform in China. (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Sun, Li


    This article analyzes China's pension arrangement and notes that China has recently established a universal non-contributory pension plan covering urban non-employed workers and all rural residents, combined with the pension plan covering urban employees already in place. Further, in the latest reform, China has discontinued the special pension plan for civil servants and integrated this privileged welfare class into the urban old-age pension insurance program. With these steps, China has achieved a degree of universalism and integration of its pension arrangement unprecedented in the non-Western world. Despite this radical pension transformation strategy, we argue that the current Chinese pension arrangement represents a case of "incomplete" universalism. First, its benefit level is low. Moreover, the benefit level varies from region to region. Finally, universalism in rural China has been undermined due to the existence of the "policy bundle." Additionally, we argue that the 2015 pension reform has created a situation in which the stratification of Chinese pension arrangements has been "flattened," even though it remains stratified to some extent.

  8. 25 CFR 170.101 - What is the IRR Program consultation and coordination policy? (United States)


    ... WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility... activities: (1) Identifying high-accident locations and locations for improving both vehicle and pedestrian safety; (2) Developing State, metropolitan, regional, IRR, and tribal transportation improvement programs...

  9. Reforming Science and Mathematics Education (United States)

    Lagowski, J. J.


    Since 1991, the National Science Foundation has signed cooperative agreements with 26 states to undertake ambitious and comprehensive initiatives to reform science, mathematics, and technology education. Collectively, those agreements are known as the State Systemic Initiatives (SSI's). Two complimentary programs, The Urban and Rural Systemic Initiatives (USI's and RSI's), address similar reforms in the nation's largest cities and poorest rural areas. The SSI Program departs significantly from past NSF practice in several ways. The funding is for a longer term and is larger in amount, and the NSF is taking a more activist role, seeking to leverage state and private funds and promote the coordination of programs within states. The Initiatives also have a stronger policy orientation than previous NSF programs have had. The NSF strategy is a reflection of the growing and widely held view that meaningful reforms in schools are most likely to be achieved through state initiatives that set clear and ambitious learning goals and standards; align all of the available policy levers in support of reform; stimulate school-level initiatives; and mobilize human and financial resources to support these changes. Two premises underlie systemic reform: (1) all children can meet significantly higher standards if they are asked to do so and given adequate opportunities to master the content, and (2) state and local policy changes can create opportunities by giving schools strong and consistent signals about the changes in practice and performance that are expected. Because this is an enormous investment of Federal resources that is intended to bring about deep, systemic improvement in the nation's ability to teach science and mathematics effectively, the NSF has contracted with a consortium of independent evaluators to conduct a review of the program. The first of the SSI's were funded in 1991, sufficiently long ago to begin to formulate some initial impressions of their impact. Take

  10. Evidence is good for your health system: policy reform to remedy catastrophic and impoverishing health spending in Mexico. (United States)

    Knaul, Felicia Marie; Arreola-Ornelas, Héctor; Méndez-Carniado, Oscar; Bryson-Cahn, Chloe; Barofsky, Jeremy; Maguire, Rachel; Miranda, Martha; Sesma, Sergio


    Absence of financial protection in health is a recently diagnosed "disease" of health systems. The most obvious symptom is that families face economic ruin and poverty as a consequence of financing their health care. Mexico was one of the first countries to diagnose the problem, attribute it to lack of financial protection, and propose systemic therapy through health reform. In this article we assess how Mexico turned evidence on catastrophic and impoverishing health spending into a catalyst for institutional renovation through the reform that created Seguro Popular (Popular Health Insurance). We present 15-year trends on the evolution of catastrophic and impoverishing health spending, including evidence on how the situation is improving. The results of the Mexican experience suggest an important role for the organisation and financing of the health system in reducing impoverishment and protecting households during periods of individual and collective financial crisis.

  11. [Evidence is good for your health system: policy reform to remedy catastrophic and impoverishing health spending in Mexico]. (United States)

    Knaul, Felicia Marie; Arreola-Ornelas, Héctor; Méndez-Carniado, Oscar; Bryson-Cahn, Chloe; Barofsky, Jeremy; Maguire, Rachel; Miranda, Martha; Sesma, Sergio


    Absence of financial protection in health is a recently diagnosed "disease" of health systems. The most obvious symptom is that families face economic ruin and poverty as a consequence of financing their health care. Mexico was one of the first countries to diagnose the problem, attribute it to lack of financial protection, and propose systemic therapy through health reform. In this article we assess how Mexico turned evidence on catastrophic and impoverishing health spending into a catalyst for institutional renovation through the reform that created Seguro Popular de Salud (Popular Health Insurance). We present 15-year trends on the evolution of catastrophic and impoverishing health spending, including evidence on how the situation is improving. The results of the Mexican experience suggest an important role for the organisation and financing of the health system in reducing impoverishment and protecting households during periods of individual and collective financial crisis.

  12. Education Reform in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Dowson


    Full Text Available Since the early 1990s, the pace of educational reform in Hong Kong has accelerated and broadened to incorporate almost all areas of schooling. The reforms introduced during this period can be subsumed under what has generally been labelled the quality movement. In this paper, we review and comment on a number of policy reform initiatives in the four areas of "Quality Education," English Language Benchmarking, Initial Teacher Training and the Integration of Pupils with Special Needs into Ordinary Classrooms. Following a brief description of each policy initiative, the reforms are discussed in terms of their consistency, coherence and cultural fit.

  13. 78 FR 50118 - Policy Statement on Adequacy and Compatibility of Agreement State Programs; Statement of... (United States)


    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2013-0081] Policy Statement on Adequacy and Compatibility of Agreement State Programs; Statement of Principles and Policy for the Agreement State Program AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Policy statements; extension of comment period. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear...

  14. Health promotion interventions and policies addressing excessive alcohol use: a systematic review of national and global evidence as a guide to health-care reform in China. (United States)

    Li, Qing; Babor, Thomas F; Zeigler, Donald; Xuan, Ziming; Morisky, Donald; Hovell, Melbourne F; Nelson, Toben F; Shen, Weixing; Li, Bing


    Steady increases in alcohol consumption and related problems are likely to accompany China's rapid epidemiological transition and profit-based marketing activities. We reviewed research on health promotion interventions and policies to address excessive drinking and to guide health-care reform. We searched Chinese- and English-language databases and included 21 studies in China published between 1980 and 2013 that covered each policy area from the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Strategy to Reduce the Harmful Use of Alcohol. We evaluated and compared preventive interventions to the global alcohol literature for cross-national applicability. In contrast with hundreds of studies in the global literature, 11 of 12 studies from mainland China were published in Chinese; six of 10 in English were on taxation from Taiwan or Hong Kong. Most studies demonstrated effectiveness in reducing excessive drinking, and some reported the reduction of health problems. Seven were randomized controlled trials. Studies targeted schools, drink-driving, work-places, the health sector and taxation. China is the world's largest alcohol market, yet there has been little growth in alcohol policy research related to health promotion interventions over the past decade. Guided by a public health approach, the WHO Global Strategy and health reform experience in Russia, Australia, Mexico and the United States, China could improve its public health response through better coordination and implementation of surveillance and evidence-based research, and through programmatic and legal responses such as public health law research, screening and early intervention within health systems and the implementation of effective alcohol control strategies. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  15. Energy and behavioral impacts of integrative retrofits for residential buildings: What is at stake for building energy policy reforms in northern China?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Peng; Xu, Tengfang; Shen, Pengyuan


    Based upon the results from extensive building monitoring and surveys on occupant’s behaviors in a representative nine-story apartment building in northern China, building energy simulations were performed to evaluate the impacts of integrative retrofits implemented. Integrative retrofits required by the newer building energy standard produced significant heating-energy savings (i.e., 53%) when compared with baseline buildings commonly built in early 1980s. Taking into account district-heating-system upgrades as part of integrative retrofit measures, a representative apartment building was 66% more efficient than the baseline building. Contrary to expectation, little behavioral change was found in response to the provisions of monetary incentive, billing-method reform, or metering of heating energy use in individual apartment units. Yet this paper identified sizable energy savings potential if occupants’ behavioral changes were to actually happen. This indicates that provisions of financial incentives or individual metering were insufficient for triggering substantial behavioral changes leading toward more energy savings in the current buildings. It is recommended that innovative energy policies, technology upgrades, and education would be needed to promote behavioral changes toward additional energy savings. Finally, measures and strategies to further enhance thermal integrity criteria (e.g., insulations of roof and balcony) are recommended in China’s future building energy policy reforms. - Highlights: ► Integrative retrofits significantly reduce residential heating energy in north China. ► Energy effects of retrofits, incentive, billing and behavioral changes were studied. ► Monetary incentive, control or metering technologies did not lead to behavior change. ► Potential energy savings due to occupants’ behavioral changes are sizable. ► Thermal integrity needs to be enhanced in future building standards and policies.

  16. Las políticas de salud reproductiva en el Perú: reformas sociales y derechos ciudadanos Reproductive health policies in Peru: social reforms and citizenship rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Rousseau


    Full Text Available El artículo analiza el caso del proceso de elaboración de políticas de salud reproductiva en el Perú, en el contexto de las reformas de las políticas sociales implementadas durante los últimos 15 años. Las reformas en el sector de la salud sólo han reparado en forma parcial el acceso desigual de las mujeres a la planificación familiar, a los derechos reproductivos y a la atención materna. Las fuentes principales de desigualdad están relacionadas con la naturaleza segmentada del sistema de la atención de la salud que ocasiona, entre otros temas, que la mayoría de las mujeres sin seguro provenientes de las clases populares dependan de qué y cómo sean provistos los servicios públicos de la atención médica. Por otra parte, el continuo papel de sectores conservadores en los debates sobre políticas de salud reproductiva sigue teniendo un impacto sobre los servicios públicamente disponibles de planificación familiar.The article analyzes the case of reproductive health policy-making in Peru in the context of recent social policy reforms. Health-sector reforms have only partially redressed Peruvian women's unequal access to family planning, reproductive rights and maternal care. The main sources of inequalities are related to the segmented character of the health-care system, with the highest burden placed on the public sector. The majority of women from popular classes, who are not protected by an insurance plan, are dependent upon what and how public services are provided. Simultaneously, the continuing role of conservative sectors in public debates about reproductive health policy has a strong impact on public family planning services and other reproductive rights.

  17. Social Security Reform

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nuschler, Dawn


    .... In recent years, reform ideas have ranged from relatively minor changes to the current pay-as-you-go social insurance system to a redesigned program based on personal savings and investments modeled after IRAs and 401(k...

  18. Phasing out of environmentally harmful subsidies. Consequences of the 2003 CAP reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Erwin; Hofreither, Markus F. [Institute for Sustainable Economic Development, Department of Economics and Social Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences Vienna (BOKU), Feistmantelstrasse 4, 1180 Vienna (Austria); Sinabell, Franz [Austrian Institute of Economic Research Vienna (WIFO), PO Box 91, 1103 Vienna (Austria)


    Subsidies linked to production have been classified as environmentally harmful by the OECD. A core element of the EU 2003 Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) reform is to decouple income support from production. This paper estimates the environmental consequences of this policy reform. An agricultural sector model using a modified version of the positive mathematical programming method depicts the complex natural, structural, and political relationships of Austrian farming. Changes in management measures can be analyzed with respect to their environmental effects by using appropriate indicators. Simulation results show that the 2003 CAP reform will reduce the average cost of production, and may improve environmental conditions regarding soil, water, and greenhouse gases when compared to a scenario without reform. Thus, the new CAP is likely to bring about outcomes which the previous reform (Agenda 2000) promised but did not deliver. (author)

  19. In the wake of structural adjustment programs: Exploring the relationship between domestic policies and health outcomes in Argentina and Uruguay. (United States)

    Oliver, Helen C


    The implementation of structural adjustment programs (SAPs) in developing countries has been followed by a marked reduction in their progress on economic growth, health outcomes, and social indicators. Comprehensive and contextualized explorations of the effects of SAPs are needed to assist health and social policy-makers in better determining responses to such programs that continue to dominate global trade, aid and debt cancellation negotiations. A comparative case study of Argentina and Uruguay was developed exploring the effects of SAPs on health. Using a framework developed to analyze the relationship between globalization and health, changes in domestic policies resulting from SAPs and the corresponding economic, social and health outcomes of the countries were explored. In general, SAPs were implemented with greater severity and speed in Argentina than in Uruguay, with the greatest differences occurring over the 1980s. The more gradual and modest reforms implemented in Uruguay were associated with better economic, social and health outcomes. Findings support those of previous studies demonstrating that countries that have maintained more dynamic public social and health programming while applying SAPs have been better able to protect the health of the most vulnerable sectors of society.

  20. Program and Policy Options for Preventing Obesity in China (United States)

    Huijun, Wang; Fengying, Zhai


    By 2002, China’s prevalence of overweight and obesity among adults was 18.9 percent and 2.9 percent, respectively. The Chinese traditional diet has been replaced by the “Western diet” and major declines in all phases of activity and increased sedentary activity as the main reasons explaining the rapid increase in overweight and obesity, bring major economic and health costs. The Nutrition Improvement Work Management Approach was released in 2010. Overweight and obesity prevention-related policies were added to national planning for disease prevention and control. The Guidelines for Prevention and Control of Overweight and Obesity of Chinese Adults and the School-age Children and Teenagers Overweight and Obesity Prevention and Control Guidelines in China were promulgated in 2003 and 2007, respectively. Few education programs have been implemented. Selected academic intervention research projects dominate with a focus on reducing child obesity and promoting healthier diets; increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary time; and facilitating changes in family, school, social, and cultural environments. Intervention samples are small and have not addressed the increasing rates of obesity throughout the entire population. Government provision of effective policy measures, multisectoral cooperation and increasing corporate social responsibility are keys to curb the trend toward overweight and obesity in China. PMID:24102781

  1. To Strengthen Policy Guiding Regionalization of Occupational Programs in New Jersey County Community Colleges. A Report. (United States)

    Martorana, S. V.; And Others

    In 1985 a project was developed to strengthen policy guiding regionalization of occupational programs in New Jersey county community colleges. The project had three major goals: to establish a policy for the regionalization of selected occupational programs offered by the colleges; to describe ways that programs could be identified for regional…

  2. School Voucher Program and Its Enlightenments to the Education Reform in China (United States)

    Shen, Youlu


    This article roughly retrospects the idea of school voucher program proposed by Milton Friedman, lately developed by Peacock, Wiseman and Jencks. The reasons like privatization in education, deterioration of public schooling and school choice promote this program. Then taking a simple look at the ramification of voucher program and its value…

  3. Mandates for Collaboration: Health Care and Child Welfare Policy and Practice Reforms Create the Platform for Improved Health for Children in Foster Care. (United States)

    Zlotnik, Sarah; Wilson, Leigh; Scribano, Philip; Wood, Joanne N; Noonan, Kathleen


    Improving the health of children in foster care requires close collaboration between pediatrics and the child welfare system. Propelled by recent health care and child welfare policy reforms, there is a strong foundation for more accountable, collaborative models of care. Over the last 2 decades health care reforms have driven greater accountability in outcomes, access to care, and integrated services for children in foster care. Concurrently, changes in child welfare legislation have expanded the responsibility of child welfare agencies in ensuring child health. Bolstered by federal legislation, numerous jurisdictions are developing innovative cross-system workforce and payment strategies to improve health care delivery and health care outcomes for children in foster care, including: (1) hiring child welfare medical directors, (2) embedding nurses in child welfare agencies, (3) establishing specialized health care clinics, and (4) developing tailored child welfare managed care organizations. As pediatricians engage in cross-system efforts, they should keep in mind the following common elements to enhance their impact: embed staff with health expertise within child welfare settings, identify long-term sustainable funding mechanisms, and implement models for effective information sharing. Now is an opportune time for pediatricians to help strengthen health care provision for children involved with child welfare. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Elements for the development of public policies in the residential sector of Mexico based in the Energy Reform and the Energy Transition law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosas-Flores, Jorge Alberto


    Mexico has entered in an important dynamic of structural changes in the energy area, proof of this, it is the Energy Reform 2013 and the Energy Transition Law published the last December 24th, 2015, thus it is important to carry out studies of the impacts of future politics in the consumption of the population, so this study estimate an energy demand system using microdata collected from 97,817 households in a National Households Income and Expenditure Survey (ENIGH acronyms in Spanish, Encuesta Nacional de Ingresos y Gastos de los Hogares) in the 20-years period from 1994 to 2014. The magnitudes of all the fuels are smaller than one indicating that electricity, LPG, gasoline and public transport are normal goods, while LPG is the most inelastic energy source. The geographic factor shows that households in the north of Mexico tend to consume more gasoline, whereas in the south of the country, the lowest share of LPG expenditure is reported. The rigorous evaluation of energy demanded in households will help policy makers to put forward more efficient reforms. - Highlights: • The electricity, LPG, gasoline and public transport are normal goods. • LPG is the most inelastic energy source. • The north of Mexico tend to consume more gasoline. • Evidence of complement between personal vehicle and public transport.

  5. Unintended Consequences of Evidence-Based Treatment Policy Reform: Is Implementation the Goal or the Strategy for Higher Quality Care? (United States)

    Park, Alayna L; Tsai, Katherine H; Guan, Karen; Chorpita, Bruce F


    This study examined patterns of evidence-based treatment (EBT) delivery following a county-wide EBT reform initiative. Data were gathered from 60 youth and their 21 providers, who were instructed to deliver therapy as they normally would under the EBT initiative. Results showed limited applicability of county-supported EBTs to this service sample, and that most youth did not receive traditional delivery of EBTs. Findings suggest that it may be unrealistic to expect providers to deliver EBTs with fidelity with all clients, and that EBT implementation may be best thought of as a strategy for improving mental health services rather than a goal.

  6. Moving towards an Educational Policy for Inclusion? Main Reform Stages in the Development of the Norwegian Unitary School System (United States)

    Nilsen, Sven


    The purpose of the article is to study the development of educational policy in Norway in the field of the unitary school system and to analyse whether the development can be seen as a move towards increasing inclusion. The educational policy, when seen over a long time span, has progressively aimed towards the development of a common compulsory…

  7. Playing Hopscotch in Inclusive Education Reform: Examining Promises and Limitations of Policy and Practice in the US (United States)

    Waitoller, Federico R.; Thorius, Kathleen King


    In this article, we provide commentary on the "state of play" of inclusive education in the United States. We focus on the promises and limitations of inter-related accountability- and market-driven policies and Response to Intervention (RTI) (Vaughn and Fuchs, 2003). We argue that these policies and practice have "hopscotched"…

  8. A Way of Policy Bricolage or Translation: The Case of Taiwan's Higher Education Reform of Quality Assurance (United States)

    Hsieh, Chuo-Chun


    This paper focuses on the process and mechanism of higher education policy change related to quality assurance in a globalized world. In particular, the purpose of the study was to identify the impact of globalization on domestic policy change in Taiwan, characterized as a peripheral country. Taiwan's experience in terms of developing a national…

  9. Intersections between Music Education and Music Therapy: Education Reform, Arts Education, Exceptionality, and Policy at the Local Level (United States)

    Salvador, Karen; Pasiali, Varvara


    In this article, a music teacher educator and a music therapy clinician and educator discuss special education policy and arts instruction at the district level. To illustrate the gulf between federal and local policies with regard to exceptional learners and arts instruction, we examine the intersections of music therapy and music education with…

  10. Energy program and policy about nuclear industry in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malvy, M.


    As for the various problems on energy, Japan and France have taken the similar strategy and development program. Both Japan and France lack mineral energy resources, but have the industrial technical ability to make up for this shortage by substitute resources and to limit the dependence on import. Similarly to France, Japan has attained 3 tons in terms of petroleum per 1000 dollars of gross national product, which is about a half of the rate of energy consumption in the U.S., and became one of the advanced countries saving energy most. The consumption of petroleum decreased by 23 % in Japan and 30 % in France from 1973 to 1983. Nuclear power increased to 20 % of the generated output in Japan and to 50 % of that in France. The dependence on imported energy decreased to 80 % in Japan and 60 % in France. The energy policy taken by France was to satisfy demand, to diversity supply sources, to reduce energy cost, and to strengthen stable supply. The total demond of primary energy in 1984 was 191.6 million tons in terms of petroleum. Nuclear power stations generated 182 billion kWh in 1984. The nuclear power program in France, nuclear power stations and nuclear fuel cycle are reported. (Kako, I.)

  11. Regulatory reform in Turkish energy industry: An analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdogdu, Erkan


    The Republic of Turkey has initiated an ambitious reform program in the most important segments of her energy market; which requires privatization, liberalization as well as a radical restructuring of these industries. However, there is no consensus that the measures introduced are optimal. The present article attempts, first, to evaluate the regulatory framework created by the laws of 2001 in terms of economic efficiency considerations; and second, to determine what still needs to be done to improve the current situation. The paper not only provides an analysis of these reforms but also lists some policy suggestions. The study concludes that despite relatively good legislative framework, in practice, the reforms in Turkey are far from ideal as they are mainly in the form of 'textbook reforms'; and therefore a significant amount of work still lies ahead of Turkey to set up a fully fledged energy market

  12. 77 FR 12623 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) (United States)


    ... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: National Archives and Records... discuss National [[Page 12624

  13. Comprehensive Legislative Reform to Protect the Integrity of the 340B Drug Discount Program. (United States)

    Zeta, Lowell M


    The 40B Drug Discount Program (340B Program) is a federally facilitated program that requires drug manufacturers to provide steep discounts on outpatient prescription drugs to qualifying safety net health care providers. The federal program is intended as a safeguard to ensure access to affordable drugs to the indigeut. However, over the last two decades safety net health care providers have exploited financial incentives under the 340B Program at the expense of drug manufacturers and patients, including the most needy and vulnerable populations-they are committed to serve. Although the federal government has been applauded for increasing effortsto combat health care fraud and abuse including recovering $3.3 billion in 2014, federal officials and the general public have paid markedly less attention to pervasive abuse of the 340B Program. In 2014, drug purchases of 340B-designated drugs totaled $7 billion and are expected to increase to $12 billion: by 2016 as a result of the expansion of the program under the Affordable Care Act. The 340B Program has completely lost its way, and comprehensive legislation is necessary to realign the program with its intent.

  14. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Program Federal Legislation Federal Legislation Federal Legislation Health Care Reform Summary Letters on Health Care Reform Medicare Physician Payment Medical Liability Reform Opioids ...

  15. Budget reform in Ukraine and the OECD countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puchko Anna


    Full Text Available The article analyzes the fiscal reforms in Ukraine and the OECD countries. It has been proved that the main areas which should undergo changes are the tax reform, regulatory reform and restructuring policies to encourage entrepreneurship, reform of social protection and social security, reform of social sphere constituents, administrative reform, reform of the army and law enforcement, administrative and territorial reform. According to the analysis results, there has been drawn the conclusion about the need to introduce in Ukraine the successful experience of the OECD countries in implementing budget reforms.

  16. Ten years of renewable electricity policies in Spain: An analysis of successive feed-in tariff reforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio Gonzalez, Pablo del


    Spain has been one of the most successful countries in the public promotion of electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E), particularly wind electricity. This support has been based on a feed-in tariff (FIT) scheme. Although the basic structure of the system was implemented in 1998, it has been modified in 2004 and 2007. This paper provides an overview of the last 10 years of RES-E promotion in Spain, focusing on the FIT system and analysing the main differences and improvements of the three FIT systems. A political economy approach, which considers the interactions between key stakeholders in RES-E promotion, is used to interpret the actual outcomes of successive FIT reforms and their main design elements

  17. 75 FR 65526 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) (United States)


    ... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: Information Security Oversight Office..., announcement is made for the following committee meeting, to discuss National Industrial Security Program...

  18. FY11_EOM_August_Number of Life Insurance Policies by Program by State (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Number of life insurance policies for each administered life insurance program listed by state. Data is current as of 08/31/11. All programs are closed to new issues...

  19. Tales of two islands – Lessons for EU energy policy from electricity market reforms in Britain and Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newbery, David


    Britain considers the energy-only EU Target Electricity Model (TEM) wanting in delivering the trilemma of reliability, sustainability and affordability and argues that a capacity auction with long-term contracts for new entrants is the least-cost solution compared to relying on expectations of future prices to deliver adequate generation and demand side response. The Energy Union argues against feed-in tariffs (FiTs) for renewables, pressing for premium FiTs (pFiTs), just as GB has abandoned PFiTs in favour of FiTs. This paper draws on the GB experience of Electricity Market Reform before and after the 2015 change of government, to highlight promising resolutions of the energy trilemma, and the problems that have arisen between the diagnosis of the problem and the delivery of solutions. It sets out the theory and practice of delivering capacity, energy and quality of supply, gives a brief history of GB electricity from the CEGB to its current unbundled, liberalized and privatized structure. That sheds light on the trilemma problem and discusses possible solutions. The island of Ireland Single Electricity Market reforms illustrate the problem and possible answer of how best to deliver quality of service with high intermittency. - Highlights: • The UK has introduced capacity payments and feed-in tariffs for renewables. • This contrasts with the energy-only target model and the Energy Union vision. • Transmission and distribution charges are critical in capacity auctions. • New flexibility services are needed for massive renewables penetration. • Britain and Ireland provide relevant evidence on addressing the energy trilemma.

  20. Translating policies into practice: a framework to prevent childhood obesity in afterschool programs. (United States)

    Beets, Michael W; Webster, Collin; Saunders, Ruth; Huberty, Jennifer L


    Afterschool programs (3-6 p.m.) are positioned to play a critical role in combating childhood obesity. To this end, state and national organizations have developed policies related to promoting physical activity and guiding the nutritional quality of snacks served in afterschool programs. No conceptual frameworks, however, are available that describe the process of how afterschool programs will translate such policies into daily practice to reach eventual outcomes. Drawing from complex systems theory, this article describes the development of a framework that identifies critical modifiable levers within afterschool programs that can be altered and/or strengthened to reach policy goals. These include the policy environment at the national, state, and local levels; individual site, afterschool program leader, staff, and child characteristics; and existing outside organizational partnerships. Use of this framework and recognition of its constituent elements have the potential to lead to the successful and sustainable adoption and implementation of physical activity and nutrition policies in afterschool programs nationwide.

  1. IMF and economic reform in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Tarp, Finn


    approach is in order. However, the cross-country approach is unlikely to provide a sound basis for drawing clear conclusions, so we review IMF programs from a different perspective, involving a broader literature on development strategy. In particular, it is widely accepted that a common characteristic......In this paper we assess the IMF approach to economic reform in developing countries. The impact of IMF program participation on economic growth has been evaluated empirically in a cross-country literature, with little evidence of IMF programs having been successful. This suggests that a fresh...... of IMF programs is a high degree of policy rigidity. This is in contrast with studies which hold that unleashing an economy's growth potential hinges on a set of well-targeted policy interventions aimed at removing country-specific binding constraints. The process of locating constraints that bind...

  2. Pluri-annual programming of energy (PPE): an escalation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perves, J.P.


    Concerning the pluri-annual programming of energy for the 2018-2023 period, the French government proposes to accelerate the deployment of wind and solar energies in order to reach 43.000 - 49.200 MW globally in 2023. To compare wind and solar energies totaled 16.500 MW in 2015. The 2023 level will represent around 70% of the today's nuclear power production. This energy policy will require a huge investment of 60 billions euros by 2023. It appears that offshore wind energy is not favoured because of its important costs and this acceleration will imply more wind turbines installed on land which can have a negative impact on the environment. Furthermore wind and solar energies will require other sources of energy to compensate seasonal effects, the back-up energy may be nuclear but it would increase the kWh cost because nuclear energy will be under-used. The gain in CO_2 will be null because the electricity production in France is largely de-carbonized thanks to the use of nuclear energy. A more progressive deployment of renewable energies in the French energy mix is recommended. (A.C.)

  3. Responding to obesity in Brazil: understanding the international and domestic politics of policy reform through a nested analytic approach to comparative analysis. (United States)

    Gómez, Eduardo J


    Why do governments pursue obesity legislation? And is the case of Brazil unique compared with other nations when considering the politics of policy reform? Using a nested analytic approach to comparative research, I found that theoretical frameworks accounting for why nations implement obesity legislation were not supported with cross-national statistical evidence. I then turned to the case of Brazil's response to obesity at three levels of government, national, urban, and rural, to propose alternative hypotheses for why nations pursue obesity policy. The case of Brazil suggests that the reasons that governments respond are different at these three levels. International forces, historical institutions, and social health movements were factors that prompted national government responses. At the urban and rural government levels, receiving federal financial assistance and human resource support appeared to be more important. The case of Brazil suggests that the international and domestic politics of responding to obesity are highly complex and that national and subnational political actors have different perceptions and interests when pursuing obesity legislation. Copyright © 2015 by Duke University Press.

  4. Changes in the pastoral sheep systems of semi-arid Mediterranean areas: association with common agricultural policy reform and implications for sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula M. Toro-Mujica


    Full Text Available The dynamics of sheep systems the Mediterranean region have been influenced by reforms coming from the Common Agricultural Policy, and the general economic evolution of markets. The aim of this study was the analysis of the structural changes that occurred between 1999 and 2009, and the identification of future implications for the sheep systems in Andalusia region, Spain. Analysis of the structural changes allowed the generation of strategic information, identified trends that should suggest new rural policies and changes that are likely to have social and environmental impacts, and lastly, prioritize future research. The application of multivariate methodology allowed clustering the farm population into four groups. The typology of these systems was determined by variables related to the sheep subsystem, by the set of agricultural activities, and by changes in swine husbandry, within a context of changes in land tenure and the drive for agricultural intensification. Major modifications of extant systems included a 42% reduction in the number of farms, a decrease in sheep numbers, replacement of native rangelands with improved pastures, olive trees and orchards, a reduction of traditional extensive pastoral activities, and increases in hog production in Dehesa grasslands. Given the historical economic and social importance of the sheep-cereal system, the observed substantial modifications of land use suggest a need to assess their consequences in terms of social and environmental impacts, as well as their implications for climate change.

  5. Changes in the pastoral sheep systems of semi-arid Mediterranean areas: association with common agricultural policy reform and implications for sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toro-Mujica, P.M.; Aguilar, C.; Vera, R.; Barba, C.; Rivas, J.; García-Martínez, A.


    The dynamics of sheep systems the Mediterranean region have been influenced by reforms coming from the Common Agricultural Policy, and the general economic evolution of markets. The aim of this study was the analysis of the structural changes that occurred between 1999 and 2009, and the identification of future implications for the sheep systems in Andalusia region, Spain. Analysis of the structural changes allowed the generation of strategic information, identified trends that should suggest new rural policies and changes that are likely to have social and environmental impacts, and lastly, prioritize future research. The application of multivariate methodology allowed clustering the farm population into four groups. The typology of these systems was determined by variables related to the sheep subsystem, by the set of agricultural activities, and by changes in swine husbandry, within a context of changes in land tenure and the drive for agricultural intensification. Major modifications of extant systems included a 42% reduction in the number of farms, a decrease in sheep numbers, replacement of native rangelands with improved pastures, olive trees and orchards, a reduction of traditional extensive pastoral activities, and increases in hog production in Dehesa grasslands. Given the historical economic and social importance of the sheep-cereal system, the observed substantial modifications of land use suggest a need to assess their consequences in terms. (Author)

  6. 76 FR 41186 - Salmonella Verification Sampling Program: Response to Comments on New Agency Policies and... (United States)


    ... Service [Docket No. FSIS-2008-0008] Salmonella Verification Sampling Program: Response to Comments on New Agency Policies and Clarification of Timeline for the Salmonella Initiative Program (SIP) AGENCY: Food... Federal Register notice (73 FR 4767- 4774), which described upcoming policy changes in the FSIS Salmonella...

  7. 77 FR 34411 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) (United States)


    ... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory... CFR 101-6, announcement is made for the following committee meeting. To discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: This meeting will be held on Wednesday, July 11, 2012 from 10:00 a...

  8. Prisons and Sentencing Reform. (United States)

    Galvin, Jim


    Reviews current themes in sentencing and prison policy. The eight articles of this special issue discuss selective incapacitation, prison bed allocation models, computer-scored classification systems, race and gender relations, commutation, parole, and a historical review of sentencing reform. (JAC)

  9. Competition and PUHCA reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.L.


    This article examines the national energy policy legislation being developed with respect to Public Utilities Holding Company Act issues. The topics of the article include the proposals to encourage competition among electric power producers, those involved in the process, qualifying facilities, independent power producers, competition and efficiency, and the outlook for reform

  10. 75 FR 71136 - Public Meetings of National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) Reform Effort; Correction (United States)


    ... answer any questions and listen to comments from them on how its programs can be more efficient and... is being developed and will be analyzed using the evaluation criteria. The resulting recommendations will be reported to FEMA leadership. The purpose of the public meetings is to describe, update, and...

  11. Laboratories of Reform? Human Resource Management Strategies in Illinois Charter Schools. Policy Research: IERC 2016-1 (United States)

    White, Bradford R.


    Charter schools are publicly-funded educational entities that operate independently from local school districts and are exempt from certain state and local requirements, particularly with regard to teacher personnel policy. In exchange for this flexibility, charter schools are held more accountable for results and may be shut down if they fail to…

  12. Austin, Texas: An Educator/Business Collaboration in Support of Teacher Compensation Reform. Teacher Compensation and Teacher Quality: Policy Brief (United States)

    Committee for Economic Development, 2013


    In its 2009 report "Teacher Compensation and Teacher Quality," the Committee for Economic Development urged business leaders to be active participants in school district deliberations about teacher compensation policies. The Committee for Economic Development (CED) noted that "business leaders can make the case to the public that…

  13. Structural adjustment programmes on the African continent : the theoretical foundations of IMF/World Bank reform policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meilink, H.A.


    Since the early 1980s the majority of countries in sub-Saharan Africa embarked on the implementation of IMF/World Bank designed 'structural adjustment programmes' (SAPs). This paper examines the theoretical underpinnings of the SAPs. It shows that IMF policies are based on a theoretical framework

  14. Chances and limitations of "benchmarking" in the reform of welfare state structures - the case of pension policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schludi, M.


    The concept of benchmarking, originally developed as a tool to improve the performance of business enterprises by learning from others’ "best practice", is now increasingly applied in the areas of employment and social policy. Rising internal and external pressures on national welfare states,

  15. Middlemen and Midwives of Reform: The In-Between Worlds of Albanian Educational Policy-Makers and Professionals (United States)

    Gardinier, Meg P.


    Based on a vertical case study in post-communist Albania, this article examines how three local experts become "in-betweens" who strategically mediate processes of social change. For example, they negotiate constructions of time and place, East and West, policy and practice, state and society. As they localise global educational models,…

  16. Justice policy reform for high-risk juveniles: using science to achieve large-scale crime reduction. (United States)

    Skeem, Jennifer L; Scott, Elizabeth; Mulvey, Edward P


    After a distinctly punitive era, a period of remarkable reform in juvenile crime regulation has begun. Practical urgency has fueled interest in both crime reduction and research on the prediction and malleability of criminal behavior. In this rapidly changing context, high-risk juveniles--the small proportion of the population where crime becomes concentrated--present a conundrum. Research indicates that these are precisely the individuals to treat intensively to maximize crime reduction, but there are both real and imagined barriers to doing so. Mitigation principles (during early adolescence, ages 10-13) and institutional placement or criminal court processing (during mid-late adolescence, ages 14-18) can prevent these juveniles from receiving interventions that would best protect public safety. In this review, we synthesize relevant research to help resolve this challenge in a manner that is consistent with the law's core principles. In our view, early adolescence offers unique opportunities for risk reduction that could (with modifications) be realized in the juvenile justice system in cooperation with other social institutions.

  17. Political Parties, Clientelism, and Bureaucratic Reform


    Cruz, Cesi; Keefer, Philip


    The challenge of public administration reform is well-known: politicians often have little interest in the efficient implementation of government policy. Using new data from 439 World Bank public sector reform loans in 109 countries, we demonstrate that such reforms are significantly less likely to succeed in the presence of non-programmatic political parties. Earlier research uses evidence from a small group of countries to conclude that clientelistic politicians resist reforms that restrict...

  18. Michigan's Physician Group Incentive Program offers a regional model for incremental 'fee for value' payment reform. (United States)

    Share, David A; Mason, Margaret H


    Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan partnered with providers across the state to create an innovative, "fee for value" physician incentive program that would deliver high-quality, efficient care. The Physician Group Incentive Program rewards physician organizations-formal groups of physicians and practices that can accept incentive payments on behalf of their members-based on the number of quality and utilization measures they adopt, such as generic drug dispensing rates, and on their performance on these measures across their patient populations. Physicians also receive payments for implementing a range of patient-centered medical home capabilities, such as patient registries, and they receive higher fees for office visits for incorporating these capabilities into routine practice while also improving performance. Taken together, the incentive dollars, fee increases, and care management payments amount to a potential increase in reimbursement of 40 percent or more from Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan for practices designated as high-performing patient-centered medical homes. At the same time, we estimate that implementing the patient-centered medical home capabilities was associated with $155 million in lower medical costs in program year 2011 for Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan members. We intend to devote a higher percentage of reimbursement over time to communities of caregivers that offer high-value, system-based care, and a lower percentage of reimbursement to individual physicians on a service-specific basis.

  19. Police bribery and access to methadone maintenance therapy within the context of drug policy reform in Tijuana, Mexico. (United States)

    Werb, D; Wagner, K D; Beletsky, L; Gonzalez-Zuniga, Patricia; Rangel, Gudelia; Strathdee, S A


    In 2009, Mexico passed legislation to decriminalize drug possession and improve access to addiction treatment. We undertook research to assess the implementation of the reform among a cohort of people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana. This study specifically sought to determine whether discretionary policing practices like extortion impact access to methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) in Tijuana, a city characterized by high levels of drug-related harms. Generalized estimating equation analyses were used to construct longitudinal confounding models to determine the association between paying a police bribe and MMT enrolment among PWID in Tijuana enrolled in a prospective cohort study. Outcome of interest was MMT enrolment in the past six months. Data on police interactions and MMT enrolment were also obtained. Between October, 2011 and September, 2013, 637 participants provided 1825 observations, with 143 (7.8%) reports of MMT enrolment during the study period. In a final confounding model, recently reporting being forced to pay a bribe to police was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of accessing MMT (adjusted odds ratio=1.69, 95% confidence interval: 1.02-2.81, p=0.043). However, in 56 (39.2%) cases, MMT enrolment ceased within six months. The majority of participant responses cited the fact that MMT was too expensive (69.1%). Levels of MMT access were low. PWID who experienced police extortion were more likely to access MMT at baseline, though this association decreased during the study period. Coupled with the costs of MMT, this may compromise MMT retention among PWID. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Current Reforms Of The Labour Markets And Of The Related Social Policies At European Union Level – Are They The Best Solutions To Solve The Problems Which Appeared During The Crisis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Georgeta AILINCĂ


    Full Text Available The global economic and financial crisis seems to have unfortunate residual effects materialised in the increase of the budget deficits and of the public debt within the European Union, situation observed mostly in the old member states. Among the major effects of the crisis we can notice more serious fiscal-budgetary problems, as well as social and labour market problems, with a strong impact on the restoration of the present and future macroeconomic balance. Actually, the measures meant to restore the public finances on their floating line, thus ensuring the fiscal-budgetary sustainability, were the starting line for the economic and social reforms, which many times had rather adverse effects than beneficial effects on the analysed economies. In this paper we will present the measures proposed by the governments of some EU (European Union countries for the labour market, health systems, education and social protection, highlighting the criticisable aspects, such as the lack of concrete results of the employment programs and of the social policies aiming to ameliorate and compensate the effects of population ageing.

  1. Energy market reform in Europe. European energy and climate policies: achievements and challenges to 2020 and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Since the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio and the negotiation of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the European Union has consistently been at the forefront of global action to combat climate change, leading the world to a low-carbon economy. The EU has set itself greenhouse gas emission targets designed to produce an almost carbon-free economy by 2050 in order to make a major contribution to limiting the global temperature increase by the end of the century to 2 deg. C, compared to the pre-industrial average. As an interim step on the way to 2050, EU leaders in March 2007 set a number of ambitious climate and energy targets known as the '20-20-20 targets by 2020' or the 3 x 20 policy. In this, the EU committed to: - A 20% reduction in EU greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 levels; - Raising the share of EU energy consumption produced from renewable resources to 20%; and - A 20% improvement in the EU's energy efficiency. This 3 x 20 package is a part of a wider European energy strategy that aims at enhancing: - Sustainability; - Competitiveness and affordability; and - Security of supply. The EU energy and climate package has attracted criticism in the last few years, as each day brought more evidence that the policy measures had numerous unexpected, or unintended impacts on the energy markets and industry: an excess of intermittent sources of electricity causing disruption for grid operators, surplus electricity resulting in a price collapse of the wholesale electricity market, electricity price increase at retail level, exit of gas from the fuels for power generation and the advent of coal as an electricity price-setter... At the same time, it has also become evident that EU policy has failed to solve the existing EU energy imbalances in general. Ironically, after years of huge investments aimed at achieving the ambitious policy targets, a number of the objectives still seem to be a long way away. Indeed some may not even

  2. HIV and AIDS among adolescents who use drugs: opportunities for drug policy reform within the sustainable development agenda. (United States)

    Tinasti, Khalid


    The international community's commitment to halve by 2015 the HIV transmission among people who inject drugs has not only been largely missed, instead new HIV infections have increased by 30%. Moreover, drug injection remains one of the drivers of new HIV infections due to punitive responses and lack of harm reduction resourcing. In the midst of this situation, adolescents are a forgotten component of the global response to illegal drugs and their link with HIV infection. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) present an opportunity to achieve the global objective of ending AIDS among adolescents who use drugs, by addressing the structural vulnerabilities they face be they economic, social, criminal, health-related or environmental. The implementation of the SDGs presents an opportunity to address the horizontal nature of drug policy and to efficiently address the drugs-adolescents-HIV risk nexus. Adolescent-focused drug policies are linked to goals 1, 3, 4, 10, 16 and 17. Goals 3 and 16 are the most relevant; the targets of the latter link to the criminalization of drug use and punitive policy environments and their impact on adolescents' health and HIV transmission risks. Moreover, it presents an opportunity to include adolescent needs that are missing in the three drug control conventions (1961, 1971 and 1988), and link them with the provisions of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989). Finally, the six principles to deliver on sustainable development are also an opportunity to divert adolescents who use drugs away from criminalization and punitive environments in which their vulnerability to HIV is greater. Addressing HIV among adolescents who use drugs is an extremely complex policy issue depending on different sets of binding and non-binding commitments, interventions and stakeholders. The complexity requires a horizontal response provided by the SDGs framework, starting with the collection of disaggregated data on this specific subgroup. Ending

  3. Interest Groups and Trade Reform in Mexico


    Luis Sanchez-Mier


    Mexico experienced widespread economic reform in the last two decades. From being a protectionist economy with a policy of import substitution, it has turned into an export-oriented open economy. Why was protectionism a stable policy, and how was it overturned by a reform that went against entrenched interests? I apply a game theoretic model of political influence and economic reform to answer these questions using data to calculate the payoffs for the relevant interest groups. In the underly...

  4. Public service or commodity goods? Electricity reforms, access, and the politics of development in Tanzania (United States)

    Ghanadan, Rebecca Hansing

    Since the 1990s, power sector reforms have become paramount in energy policy, catalyzing a debate in Africa about market-based service provision and the effects of reforms on access. My research seeks to move beyond the conceptual divide by grounding attention not in abstract 'market forces' but rather in how development institutions shape energy services and actually practice policy on the ground. Using the case of Tanzania, a country known for having instituted some of the most extensive reforms and a 'success story' in Africa, I find that reforms are creating large burdens and barriers for access and use of services, including: increasing costs, enforcement pressures, and measures to impose 'market' discipline. However, I also find that many of the most significant outcomes are not found in direct 'market' changes, but rather how reforms are selective, partial, and shaped by the wider needs and claims of the institutions driving reforms, so that questions of how reforms are implemented, how they are measured, and who tells the story become as important as the policies themselves. Using a multiple-arenas framework, including (i) a household and community level study of urban energy conditions, (ii) a study of service and management conditions at the national electric utility, (iii) an examination of the international policy process, and (iv) a study of the history of electricity services across colonial, post-independence, and reform periods, I show that African energy reforms are a technical and political project connecting energy to international investments, donor aid programs, and elite interests within national governments. Energy reforms also involve fundamental service changes that are reorganizing how the costs and benefits of energy systems are distributed, allocated, and managed. The effects of reform extend beyond formal services to have wide-reaching repercussions within natural resources, and uneven social dynamics on the ground. These features point

  5. The cost of policy simplification in conservation incentive programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armsworth, Paul R.; Acs, Szvetlana; Dallimer, Martin


    of biodiversity. Common policy simplifications result in a 49100% loss in biodiversity benefits depending on the conservation target chosen. Failure to differentiate prices for conservation improvements in space is particularly problematic. Additional implementation costs that accompany more complicated policies......Incentive payments to private landowners provide a common strategy to conserve biodiversity and enhance the supply of goods and services from ecosystems. To deliver cost-effective improvements in biodiversity, payment schemes must trade-off inefficiencies that result from over-simplified policies...... with the administrative burden of implementing more complex incentive designs. We examine the effectiveness of different payment schemes using field parameterized, ecological economic models of extensive grazing farms. We focus on profit maximising farm management plans and use bird species as a policy-relevant indicator...

  6. Examining the spatial distribution of law enforcement encounters among people who inject drugs after implementation of Mexico's drug policy reform. (United States)

    Gaines, Tommi L; Beletsky, Leo; Arredondo, Jaime; Werb, Daniel; Rangel, Gudelia; Vera, Alicia; Brouwer, Kimberly


    In 2009, Mexico decriminalized the possession of small amounts of illicit drugs for personal use in order to refocus law enforcement resources on drug dealers and traffickers. This study examines the spatial distribution of law enforcement encounters reported by people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana, Mexico to identify concentrated areas of policing activity after implementation of the new drug policy. Mapping the physical location of law enforcement encounters provided by PWID (n = 461) recruited through targeted sampling, we identified hotspots of extra-judicial encounters (e.g., physical/sexual abuse, syringe confiscation, and money extortion by law enforcement) and routine authorized encounters (e.g., being arrested or stopped but not arrested) using point density maps and the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic calculated at the neighborhood-level. Approximately half of the participants encountered law enforcement more than once in a calendar year and nearly one third of these encounters did not result in arrest but involved harassment or abuse by law enforcement. Statistically significant hotspots of law enforcement encounters were identified in a limited number of neighborhoods located in areas with known drug markets. At the local-level, law enforcement activities continue to target drug users despite a national drug policy that emphasizes drug treatment diversion rather than punitive enforcement. There is a need for law enforcement training and improved monitoring of policing tactics to better align policing with public health goals.

  7. The Reform of Qatar University. Monograph (United States)

    Moini, Joy S.; Bikson, Tora K.; Neu, C. Richard; DeSisto, Laura


    In 2003, the State of Qatar engaged the RAND-Qatar Policy Institute to assist Qatar University, the nation's first and only public higher education institution, with reform of its major administrative and academic structures, policies, and practices. This monograph summarizes that reform effort, which formally lasted from October 2003 through…

  8. Science education policy for emergency, conflict, and post-conflict: An analysis of trends and implications for the science education program in Uganda (United States)

    Udongo, Betty Pacutho

    This study analyzes the impact of armed conflicts on the development of education policy and particularly science education program in Uganda. Since independence from the British colonial rule, Uganda has experienced a series of armed conflicts, with the most devastating being the 21 years of conflict in Northern Uganda. The research study was guided by the following questions: (1) What is the level of government funding towards improving science education program in Uganda? (2) Have recent initiatives, such as free Primary and Secondary education, compulsory science, and 75% sponsorship for science-based courses, had a measurable impact on the proportion of students from the conflict-affected regions who enter tertiary institutions to pursue science and technology programs? (3) To what extent do the Ugandan Education Policy and, in particular, the Science Education Policy effectively address the educational needs of students affected by armed conflicts? The study employed a mixed method design where both quantitative and qualitative data were collected and analyzed. Quantitative data were obtained from a comprehensive search of policy documents and content analysis of literature on education policy, science education programs, and impact of conflicts on educational delivery. Qualitative data were obtained from surveys and interviews distributed to policy makers, central government and the local government officials, teachers, and students from the war-ravaged Northern Uganda. Analysis of policy documents and respondents' views revealed that Uganda does not have a science education policy, and the present education policy does not fully address the educational needs of students studying in conflict-affected regions. It was further observed that fewer students from the conflict-affected regions qualify for government scholarship to study science courses in higher institutions of learning. The study recommended the following policy interventions: (a) affirmative

  9. Developing a Child and Youth Mental Health and Addictions Framework for Yukon as a Foundation for Policy Reform: Engaging Stakeholders Through a Policy and Research Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Mulvale


    Full Text Available In April 2015 the Yukon Government released a new child and youth mental health and addictions framework (CYMHAF to improve territory-wide access to basic mental health care and coordination of services for children and families. Yukon’s limited resource base and dispersed population challenges delivery of child and youth mental health and addictions services to small rural communities where needs are often high as a legacy of residential school policies. The objective of CYMHAF is to improve outcomes by identifying and capitalizing on current strengths, and reallocating existing resources to better meet the mental health needs of Yukon youth and families. Access, coordination and quality problems associated with existing services, growing public awareness of mental health issues, and a new national policy framework designed to assist provinces and territories, led Yukon policy makers to partner with researchers to capitalize on a Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR strategic grant initiative. CYMHAF was based on extensive stakeholder engagement, best evidence and advice from key informants in other jurisdictions, and offers a cascading model of service delivery through which basic mental health care can be provided by existing health and human service workers in communities. These workers will be trained in child and youth mental health competencies, and will have electronic linkages and support to integrated teams of primary care providers who will be located in regional hubs once fully implemented, and to specialists in Whitehorse and out of Territory. Implementation is underway with some training of front line Health and Social Service and First Nations workers, a new mental wellness strategy for Yukon founded on CYMHAF scheduled for release in spring 2016, and may be accelerated by federal government promises of a new Health Accord and a new relationship with indigenous people.

  10. Mitigating pharmaceutical waste exposures: policy and program considerations. (United States)

    Amster, Eric D


    Pharmaceutical disposal and the environmental fate of medication metabolites directly impacts the public's health in two significant ways: accidental medication ingestion of pharmaceuticals that were not disposed of properly results in inadvertent toxicity; and environmental health consequences of pharmaceuticals that were inappropriately disposed and which contaminate municipal water supply. In reviewing the effectiveness of medication disposal policy globally, it is crucial to not only determine which policies are effective but also to assess why they are effective. By assessing the root causes for a specific policy's effectiveness it can be determined if those successes could be translated to another country with a different health care system, unique culture and divergent policy ecosystem. Any intervention regarding pharmaceutical disposal would require a multifaceted approach beyond raising awareness and coordinating pharmaceutical disposal on a national level. While consumer participation is important, effective primary prevention would also include research on drug development that is designed to biodegrade in the environment as opposed to medications that persist and accumulate in the natural environment even when properly disposed. Countries that lack a nationalized disposal policy should leverage the resources and infrastructure already in place in the national health care system to implement a unified policy to address medication disposal in the short-term. In tandem, efforts should be made to recruit the biotechnology sector in high-tech and academia to develop new technologies in medication design and water filtration to decrease exposures in the long-term.

  11. Policies of industrial market and science and technology: the case of Brazilian nuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, R.G. de.


    The relationship between policies and the definition of a national program of nuclear energy, is considered. The case under study is the Brazilian one. It is shown that an overall evaluation of market, industry and science and technology is mandatory for the definition of a nuclear energy program, and serious fault and hesitation, leading to contradiction and failure, have their roots in a basic lack of definition in policies. The evolution of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Program will probably remain at a mediocre level until a definition at the level of policy-making in marketing, industry and science and technology is firmly pursued and maintained. (Author) [pt

  12. Interactions: trade policy and healthcare reform after Chaoulli v. Quebec: is it time for Canada to acknowledge the fragile boundary between health and trade policies and strengthen the separation between private and public health insurance? (United States)

    Crawford, Mark


    The insulation of Canada's healthcare system from trade treaty obligations is crucial to the legitimacy of Canada's trade policy. Legal analysis has suggested, however, that competitive and for-profit delivery of the kind contemplated by the Kirby Report and some provinces may make healthcare more vulnerable to challenges under NAFTA and GATS. The Government of Canada has tried to counter this interpretation by stressing the importance of public financing as the principal criterion for exemption of healthcare from trade treaties, but now the potential for private financing of essential medical services indicated by the Supreme Court's decision in Chaoulli v. Quebec has made that line of argument look risky as well. It is apparent that Canada failed to anticipate the possible interactions of domestic, international and constitutional law when it made commitments in the area of private health insurance at the WTO in 1997. Accordingly, the time has come to acknowledge the fragility of the boundary between health and trade policies, to take the risks and costs associated with trade treaty obligations fully into account when undertaking healthcare reform and to strengthen the separation between private and public health insurance.

  13. Minority Language Issues in Chinese Higher Education: Policy Reforms and Practice among the Korean and Mongol Ethnic Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weiyan XIONG; W.James JACOB; Huiyuan YE


    The purpose of this study is to compare Korean and Mongol minorities in the People's Republic of China in terms of their native language preservation and educational experiences at the higher education level,and to investigate differences and similarities between Korean and Mongol minorities' language issues.Content area experts on Chinese minority education from China,South Korea,and the United States were interviewed for this study.Findings include suggestions for helping to formulate government educational policies regarding issues related to language in Chinese minority education at the higher education level.This information is helpful to better understand and educate others in school and home settings where Chinese ethnic minority students reside.The advancement of Chinese minority education knowledge related to higher education will significantly strengthen and empower individuals,families,and communities throughout the People's Republic of China.

  14. Shiv Nadar University – Program on Water Science and Policy ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The teaching program will be supplemented by a rigorous research program ... IDRC invests in research and knowledge to empower women in India. IDRC is ... in India, including heat stress, water management, and climate-related migration.

  15. Republican reforming policy and democratic modernization | El reformismo republicano y la modernización democrática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glicerio Sánchez Recio


    Full Text Available This study focuses on the survival of Republican values in our present-day democratic system, values which have been analysed from a dual perspective: on the one hand, the current interest in the principles and values fostered by centre-left governments and organizations during the Second Republic, and on the other, the presence of these principles and values in our present-day democratic system. Consensus, social reform, political pluralism, devolution, and educational and cultural advancement, besides being democratic values and principles, are currently pointing towards a specific way of understanding politics and public affairs, understood as proximity and service to, and respect for all citizens. Moreover, there are similarities between the two regimes; in both cases, the immediate political background was marked by a dictatorship, both expressly declared an intention to establish themselves as democracies and subsequently underwent a transitional process marked by consensus, and both had similar aims. However, there are also significant differences between the two, not only in terms of the system of government, but also the attribution of State powers, the declaration of rights and the way these were put into practice, and the limits of consensus. While we cannot talk of continuity between the two regimes, the Second Republic may be seen as a short-lived precedent to the current democratic system, and one which succumbed to the strength of anti-democratic organizations and interests. | Este trabajo trata de la pervivencia de los valores republicanos en el régimen democrático actual, que se han analizado desde una doble perspectiva: el interés que despiertan los principios y valores activados por los gobiernos y organizaciones del centro izquierda durante la II República, y la presencia de esos mismos principios y valores en el ordenamiento democrático actual. Consenso, reformismo social, pluralismo político, descentralización del

  16. Social Policy in Social Work PhD Programs in the United States (United States)

    Lightfoot, Elizabeth; Gal, John; Weiss-Gal, Idit


    While there has been a long-standing concern about the role of policy within social work education and social work practice, most of the emphasis has been on social work education at the BSW and MSW levels. This article examines policy education at the PhD level. It first explores how policy is taught in social work PhD programs in the United…

  17. Politica de las Construcciones Escolares (Policy for School Construction). (United States)

    Storni, Adolfo Enrique, Ed.; And Others

    This document establishes the policy for school construction programs and projects to be conducted in Argentina. The first part establishes the bases for construction and defines the policy and its objectives. The second part discusses school construction in view of educational reform and planning and considers analysis of current systems,…

  18. Handbook of space security policies, applications and programs

    CERN Document Server

    Hays, Peter; Robinson, Jana; Moura, Denis; Giannopapa, Christina


    Space Security involves the use of space (in particular communication, navigation, earth observation, and electronic intelligence satellites) for military and security purposes on earth and also the maintenance of space (in particular the earth orbits) as safe and secure areas for conducting peaceful activities. The two aspects can be summarized as "space for security on earth" and “the safeguarding of space for peaceful endeavors.” The Handbook will provide a sophisticated, cutting-edge resource on the space security policy portfolio and the associated assets, assisting fellow members of the global space community and other interested policy-making and academic audiences in keeping abreast of the current and future directions of this vital dimension of international space policy. The debate on coordinated space security measures, including relevant 'Transparency and Confidence-Building Measures,' remains at a relatively early stage of development. The book offers a comprehensive description of the variou...

  19. Next Needed Steps in the Evolution of American Education Finance and Policy: Attenuating a Judicially Imposed Policy Distraction, Activating a Balanced Portfolio of K-12 School Reforms, Advancing Rationality as a Goal in Pursuing Productivity, Advocating Change in a Responsible and Effective Manner (United States)

    Guthrie, James W.


    This article asserts that although there has been a consistently increasing demand on both the national and state levels for alignment of resources (inputs) to improved student outcomes (outputs), the lack of a systematic and well-defined policy portfolio has limited reform effectiveness. This article specifically examines the overreliance on…

  20. 78 FR 63203 - Policy Statement Regarding a Program for Requesting Consideration of Legal Questions by the... (United States)


    ... Holloway, Assistant General Counsel, or Margaret Forman, Attorney, 999 E Street NW., Washington, DC 20463... FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION [Notice 2013-14] Policy Statement Regarding a Program for Requesting Consideration of Legal Questions by the Commission AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Policy statement...

  1. 76 FR 45798 - Policy Statement Regarding a Program for Requesting Consideration of Legal Questions by the... (United States)


    ... CONTACT: Lorenzo Holloway, Assistant General Counsel, or Allison T. Steinle, Attorney, 999 E Street, NW... FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION [Notice 2011-11] Policy Statement Regarding a Program for Requesting Consideration of Legal Questions by the Commission AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Policy Statement...

  2. Health and Aging Policy Fellows Program: Shaping a Healthy Future for Older Americans. (United States)

    Pincus, Harold Alan; Pike, Kathleen M; Spaeth-Rublee, Brigitta; Elinson, Lynn


    As the size of the elderly population increases, so do the challenges of and barriers to high-quality, affordable health care. The Health and Aging Policy Fellows (HAPF) Program is designed to provide health and aging professionals with the skills and experience to help lead the effort in reducing these barriers and shaping a healthy and productive future for older Americans. Since its inception in 2008, the program has affected not only the fellows who participate, but also the field of health and aging policy. Work needs to be done to sustain this program so that more fellows can participate and sound policies for the elderly population can continue to be shaped and improved. This report describes the HAPF Program, including its background (rationale, description, partners, progress, effect), lessons learned, challenges and solutions, and policy implications. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  3. 75 FR 10507 - Information Security Oversight Office; National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory... (United States)


    ... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office; National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: National Archives and Records... individuals planning to attend must be submitted to the Information Security Oversight Office (ISOO) no later...

  4. The core to regulatory reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, J.W. Jr.


    Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Orders 436, 500, and 636, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, Public Utility Holding Company Act reform, and the 1992 Energy Policy Act all can have significant effects on an LDC's operations. Such changes in an LDC's environments must be balanced by changes within the utility, its marketplace, and its state regulatory environment. The question is where to start. For Columbia Gas Distribution Cos., based in Columbus, OH, the new operating foundation begins with each employee. Internal strength is critical in designing initiatives that meet the needs of the marketplace and are well-received by regulators. Employees must understand not only the regulatory environment in which the LDC operates, but also how their work contributes to a positive regulatory relationship. To achieve this, Columbia initiated the COntinuing Regulatory Education program, or CORE, in 1991. CORE is a regulatory-focused, information-initiative program coordinated by Columbia's Regulatory Policy, Planning, and Government Affairs Department. The CORE programs can take many forms, such as emerging issue discussions, dialogues with regulators and key parties, updates on regulatory fillings, regulatory policy meetings, and formal training classes. The speakers and discussion facilitators can range from human resource department trainers to senior officers, from regulatory department staff members to external experts, or from state commissioners to executives from other LDCs. The goals of CORE initiatives are to: Support a professional level of regulatory expertise through employee participation in well-developed regulatory programs presented by credible experts. Encourage a constructive state regulatory environment founded on communication and cooperation. CORE achieves these goals via five program levels: introductory basics, advanced learning, professional expertise, crossfunctional dialogues, and external idea exchanges

  5. How teen girls think about fertility and the reproductive lifespan. Possible implications for curriculum reform and public health policy. (United States)

    Littleton, Fiona Kisby


    Despite an 'epidemic' of delayed childbirth in England and Wales beyond a woman's optimally fertile years, research shows that young adults are unaware of or misunderstand the risks regarding starting or extending families that such behaviour entails. Currently, sex education syllabi in British schools neglect these issues, rendering school leavers ignorant of them.These curricula cannot be improved until more is known about adolescents' knowledge of relevant topics. In the light of this, this article describes exploratory research on how teenage girls in one English school think about the reproductive lifespan. Going beyond recent 'scientific' investigations which have mostly only tested the extent of ignorance of young adults, this qualitative enquiry used theories of the life course and emerging adulthood to analyse data gathered in interviews. It sought to understand not only what girls know, but how they apply their knowledge in relation to their assumptions about aging, motherhood, pregnancy, parenting and employment. One finding is highlighted here: that whilst "correct" knowledge about the reproductive lifespan does appear to be held by teenage girls, the ability to apply that knowledge and connect the socio-cultural with the biological domain, may not always be in place. This is relevant for curriculum developers aiming to prepare future citizens to take full control of their reproductive health, and policy makers responsible for ensuring an appropriate public health message about these concerns is available after formal schooling ends.

  6. Towards Universal Health Coverage via Social Health Insurance in China: Systemic Fragmentation, Reform Imperatives, and Policy Alternatives. (United States)

    He, Alex Jingwei; Wu, Shaolong


    China's remarkable progress in building a comprehensive social health insurance (SHI) system was swift and impressive. Yet the country's decentralized and incremental approach towards universal coverage has created a fragmented SHI system under which a series of structural deficiencies have emerged with negative impacts. First, contingent on local conditions and financing capacity, benefit packages vary considerably across schemes, leading to systematic inequity. Second, the existence of multiple schemes, complicated by massive migration, has resulted in weak portability of SHI, creating further barriers to access. Third, many individuals are enrolled on multiple schemes, which causes inefficient use of government subsidies. Moral hazard and adverse selection are not effectively managed. The Chinese government announced its blueprint for integrating the urban and rural resident schemes in early 2016, paving the way for the ultimate consolidation of all SHI schemes and equal benefits for all. This article proposes three policy alternatives to inform the consolidation: (1) a single-pool system at the prefectural level with significant government subsidies, (2) a dual-pool system at the prefectural level with risk-equalization mechanisms, and (3) a household approach without merging existing pools. Vertical integration to the provincial level is unlikely to happen in the near future. Two caveats are raised to inform this transition towards universal health coverage.

  7. DOE role in nuclear policies and programs: official transcript of public briefing, December 13, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The record for the first of the public briefings in the Consumer Information Series scheduled by the Department of Energy is presented. The series presents, for public information and discussion, those DOE policies and programs of specific interest to consumers and public interest groups. In the first meeting DOE officials responded to questions from the public on the DOE role in nuclear policies and programs

  8. Medical Marijuana programs: implications for cannabis control policy--observations from Canada. (United States)

    Fischer, Benedikt; Kuganesan, Sharan; Room, Robin


    While prohibition has been the dominant regime of cannabis control in most countries for decades, an increasing number of countries have been implementing cannabis control reforms recently, including decriminalization or even legalization frameworks. Canada has held out from this trend, although it has among the highest cannabis use rates in the world. Cannabis use is universally criminalized, and the current (conservative) federal government has vowed not to implement any softening reforms to cannabis control. As a result of several higher court decisions, the then federal government was forced to implement a 'medical marijuana access regulations' program in 2001 to allow severely ill patients therapeutic use and access to therapeutic cannabis while shielding them from prosecution. The program's regulations and approval processes were complex and subject to extensive criticism; initial uptake was low and most medical marijuana users continued their use and supply outside the program's auspices. This year, the government introduced new 'marijuana for medical purposes regulations', which allow physicians to 'authorize' medical marijuana use for virtually any health condition for which this is considered beneficial; supply is facilitated by licensed commercial producers. It is expected that some 500,000 users, and dozens of commercial producers will soon be approved under the program, arguably constituting - as with medical marijuana schemes elsewhere, e.g. in California--de facto 'legalization'. We discuss the question whether the evolving scope and realities of 'medical cannabis' provisions in Canada offer a 'sneaky side door' or a 'better third way' to cannabis control reform, and what the potential wider implications are of these developments. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. "Compensatory Legitimation" in Greek Educational Policy: An Explanation for the Abortive Educational Reforms in Greece in Comparison with Those in France. (United States)

    Persianis, Panayiotis


    Examines the political dynamics of planning and implementing educational reforms in Greece, with comparisons to France. Argues that, as in France, the state's concern for "compensatory legitimation" provides a better tool than those advanced by sociologists or historians for explaining Greece's many failed educational reforms. Compares…

  10. Convergence of Sample Path Optimal Policies for Stochastic Dynamic Programming

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fu, Michael C; Jin, Xing


    .... These results have practical implications for Monte Carlo simulation-based solution approaches to stochastic dynamic programming problems where it is impractical to extract the explicit transition...

  11. 49 CFR 260.13 - Credit reform. (United States)


    ... appropriations, direct payment of a Credit Risk Premium by the Applicant or a non-Federal infrastructure partner... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Credit reform. 260.13 Section 260.13... REHABILITATION AND IMPROVEMENT FINANCING PROGRAM Overview § 260.13 Credit reform. The Federal Credit Reform Act...

  12. Variation in the Viral Hepatitis and HIV Policies and Practices of Methadone Maintenance Programs. (United States)

    Jessop, Amy B; Hom, Jeffrey K; Burke, Monika

    Patients prescribed methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) demonstrate elevated prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus, and HIV. Government agencies recommend testing for these infections in MMT programs, but uptake is limited. We audited infection-related policies and practices of all 14 MMT programs in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 2015. Results were tabulated and compared with the results from a 2010 audit of 10 of 12 MMT programs. The audit focused on which patients are tested, timing and frequency, specific tests ordered, vaccination, and communication of test results. Written policies were nonspecific, offering little guidance on appropriate testing. The principal change in policy between 2010 and 2015 involved adding clearer guidance for communication of results to patients. In 2010 and 2015, all MMT programs tested new patients for hepatitis C virus antibodies, although retesting of existing patients varied. HBV testing increased from 2010 to 2015, though it was not uniform, with 5 programs testing for HBV surface antibodies and 10 programs testing for HBV surface antigens. Six programs assessed hepatitis vaccination status, but only 1 administered vaccines. In 2010, city-sponsored HIV antibody testing was available at all MMT programs. Without this program in 2015, few MMT programs conducted HIV testing. Despite limited hepatitis and HIV screening in MMT programs nationally, this study shows that testing can be incorporated into routine procedures. MMT programs are positioned to play an integral role in the identification of patients with chronic infections, but additional guidance and resources are required to maximize their impact.

  13. Campus Support Services, Programs, and Policies for International Students (United States)

    Bista, Krishna, Ed.; Foster, Charlotte, Ed.


    Study abroad programs have proven beneficial for both the international student as well as the domestic community and school population interacting with the student. In an effort to promote cultural awareness, intercultural communications as well as opportunities for future study abroad program success, universities must take care to provide…

  14. Financial Education in TRIO Programs. Institutional Policy Brief (United States)

    Yang, Hannah; Kezar, Adrianna


    To address some of the financial challenges facing low-income students, federal policymakers enacted a provision in the 2008 Higher Education Opportunity Act (HEOA) that makes financial literacy a required service of all TRIO programs (or, in the case of McNair, simply makes permissible). Effective August 2008, these programs started offering…

  15. Developing a public involvement policy for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.; Summerson, J.; Gleason, M.E.; Reyes, P.C.


    The Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program is entering its second decade. Given the Department of Energy's current efforts toward openness and culture change, the role of stakeholders is likely to evolve throughout the 1990s to enable greater participation by these external parties in making program decisions. Although the program has a tradition of inviting its stakeholders to review and comment on its activities, it also is known for employing on occasion what has been derisively called a open-quotes decide-announce-defendclose quotes strategy. Program efforts to involve the public have come under considerable criticism for being inadequate, inconsistent, lacking in follow-through, and offered on a sporadic and selective basis. The program is vulnerable to these criticisms because ground rules for public involvement have never been firmly established as part of the program's routine operations. This deficiency has contributed, in part, to stakeholder doubts about the program's sincerity in engaging in a meaningful dialogue with them. The program and its stakeholders both could benefit from an official public involvement policy that would serve as a guidepost for interactions between program officials and stakeholders. Such a policy, developed in concert with stakeholders, would ensure that all parties understand how stakeholder participation is to occur. This paper reviews (1) events establishing the need for a formal public involvement policy; (2) public involvement initiatives that will inform the process of developing a new policy; (3) current efforts to develop a Department of Energy public involvement policy; and (4) key elements for inclusion in a public involvement policy developed specifically for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program

  16. Welfare Reform and Health (United States)

    Bitler, Marianne P.; Gelback, Jonah B.; Hoynes, Hilary W.


    A study of the effect of state and federal welfare reforms over the period 1990-2000 on health insurance coverage and healthcare utilization by single women aged between 20-45 is presented. It is observed that Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996 which replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program of 1990s with…

  17. Administrative Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Through the example of a Danish reform of educational plans in early childhood education, the paper critically addresses administrative educational reforms promoting accountability, visibility and documentation. Drawing on Foucaultian perspectives, the relation between knowledge and governing...... of administrative technology, tracing how the humanistic values of education embed and are embedded within ‘the professional nursery teacher' as an object and subject of administrative practice. Rather than undermining the humanistic potential of education, it is argued that the technology of accounting...

  18. Trade Adjustment Assistance for Firms: Economic, Program, and Policy Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hornbeck, J. F


    .... This report focuses on the trade adjustment assistance (TAA) program for firms, which provides technical assistance to help them develop strategies to remain competitive in the changing international economy...

  19. Program for advanced study in public science policy and administration (United States)

    Rosenthal, A. H.


    The results and conclusions of the six-year effort concerned with the development and implementation of a university educational program intended to prepare scientists and engineers for upper-level management and administrative positions (as distinct from senior technical positions) were presented. This interdisciplinary program is at the graduate level, leading to a Master of Arts degree, and is given within a Division of Public Administration.

  20. Professional Development of Science Teachers: History of Reform and Contributions of the STS-Based Iowa Chautauqua Program (United States)

    Dass, Pradeep M.; Yager, Robert E.


    During the last quarter of a century, it became abundantly clear that the desired reforms in science teaching and learning could not be accomplished without significant professional development of in-service science teachers. Yet, there was a dearth of effective professional development models that could lead to the kind of instructional reforms…

  1. 75 FR 26757 - National Toxicology Program (NTP); Office of Liaison, Policy and Review; Meeting of the... (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Toxicology Program (NTP); Office of Liaison, Policy and Review; Meeting of the Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods... Director, National Toxicology Program. [FR Doc. 2010-11318 Filed 5-11-10; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4140-01-P ...

  2. Advances and Challenges in Public Policies and Programs to Prevent Discrimination in the Governmental Sphere. The Paped's Case, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Treviño Ronzón


    Full Text Available This article discusses some of the challenges implied in the task of implementing and evaluating actions to prevent and eradicate discrimination in the government sector. It is to recognize that in Mexico the task is in the making and follows patterns of unequal development, although it is widely legislated. For this discussion, we introduce contextual references about the implementation of reforms in favor of human rights in Mexico, and we articulate them with the notion of public policies. Then, we take as reference the case of the “Program to Prevent and Eliminate Discrimination” in the Mexico City (PAPED. We argue that, in contexts such as the Mexican, marked by multidimensional violence, corruption, and a poor performance of public institutions, it is necessary to increase the reflexivity of the instances that must implement actions of non-discrimination, as well as to increase this reflexivity in the transparency and visibility of evaluation exercises of their anti-discrimination actions, so as to reach more people and produce progressive movements of appropriation.

  3. An Overview of Turkish Healthcare System after Health Transformation Program: Main Successes, Performance Assessment, Further Challenges, and Policy Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir GÜRSOY


    Full Text Available Turkish healthcare system has been stated to show significant improvements regarding wider access to healthcare facilities, and the quality and efficiency through the introduction of Health Transformation Program launched in 2003. While the old system relied on differing provisions and financing and lacked behind many developed nations in terms of health outcomes, the new system achieved nearly universal coverage and many health outcomes enhanced significantly. Health expenditures rose to 5.4% of GDP in 2013 from 4.8% in 1998. Furthermore, Turkey provided both better financial protection for the poor against high health expenditures, and equity in access to health care across the population. However, Turkey still faces new challenges to catch other developed countries to have better health and further improve financial sustainability. To reach these targets, Turkey needs to further implement new policy options for reform such as combating informal economy, allocating more on health resources, designing incentive- based payment methods, adopting gate keeping system and referral chain, developing capacity to deploy health technology assessments in reimbursement decisions, and ensuring the hospital autonomy.

  4. The Indiana Choice Scholarship Program: Legal Challenges, Program Expansion, and Participation. Informing Policy and Improving Practice. Policy Brief (United States)

    Cierniak, Katherine; Billick, Rebecca; Ruddy, Anne-Maree


    School choice programs can take a variety of forms, from the provision of various public school options, such as charter schools, to programs which provide funds to offset the cost of students' attendance at a private school. The provision of funds is most often accomplished in two ways: through the provision of state educational funds to be used…

  5. Labor market reforms, growth, and unemployment in labor-exporting countries in the Middle East and North Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agénor, Pierre-Richard; Nabli, Mustapha K.; Yousef, Tarik


    A general equilibrium model is used to study the impact of labor market policies on growth, employment, urban inequality, and rural welfare in labor-exporting countries in the Middle East and North Africa. Various experiments are conducted, such as a reduction in payroll taxation, cuts in public......-enhancing job creation in the region, labor market reforms must take account of general equilibrium effects, including crowding-in effects on private investment and variations in income remittances and international migration patterns. Finally, we argue that labor market reforms should be viewed as a component...... of a more comprehensive program of structural reforms aimed at spurring growth and employment...

  6. Using tracking infrastructure to support public health programs, policies, and emergency response in New York City. (United States)

    Jeffery, Nancy Loder; McKelvey, Wendy; Matte, Thomas


    To describe how the New York City (NYC) Tracking Program has used nationally mandated Secure Portal infrastructure and staff analytical expertise to support programs and inform policy. The NYC Health Department assesses, investigates, and acts on a wide range of environmental concerns to protect the health of New Yorkers. Specific examples of highly effective policies or initiatives that relied on the NYC Tracking Program are described, including restaurant sanitary grade posting, rat indexing, converting boilers to cleaner-burning fuels, reducing exposure to mercury from fish and contaminated products, and responding to Superstorm Sandy. The NYC Tracking Program supports the Health Department in using inspectional, administrative, and health data to guide operations. Tracking has also allowed internal and external partners to use these data to guide policy development.

  7. Achieving greater public confidence in the application of transportation policies and programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jim, R.; Stevens, D.W.


    Transportation policies deserve a higher level of priority in the national repository siting program. Affected Indian Tribes and States hold that transportation policies and activities are critical to all stages of the program. They are concerned that the lessening of public confidence brings into question the ability of DOE to successfully carry out the Congressionally-directed effort to find two suitable sites for national repositories. DOE must strive to develop a technically-excellent program and treat, with equal importance, the critical need for a more open participatory process. There are a number of ways in which program improvements can be made to assist in regaining the level of public confidence needed. An improved program will result from the application of earlier and continuous opportunities for Tribes and States to participate. The rewards will lessen delay, deal with conflict in a participatory context, and build incremently improved public confidence in the transportation element of the repository program

  8. Variation in school health policies and programs by demographic characteristics of US schools, 2006. (United States)

    Balaji, Alexandra B; Brener, Nancy D; McManus, Tim


    To identify whether school health policies and programs vary by demographic characteristics of schools, using data from the School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) 2006. This study updates a similar study conducted with SHPPS 2000 data and assesses several additional policies and programs measured for the first time in SHPPS 2006. SHPPS 2006 assessed the status of 8 components of the coordinated school health model using a nationally representative sample of public, Catholic, and private schools at the elementary, middle, and high school levels. Data were collected from school faculty and staff using computer-assisted personal interviews and then linked with extant data on school characteristics. Results from a series of regression analyses indicated that a number of school policies and programs varied by school type (public, Catholic, or private), urbanicity, school size, discretionary dollars per pupil, percentage of white students, percentage of students qualifying for free lunch funds, and, among high schools, percentage of college-bound students. Catholic and private schools, smaller schools, and those with low discretionary dollars per pupil did not have as many key school health policies and programs as did schools that were public, larger, and had higher discretionary dollars per pupil. However, no single type of school had all key components of a coordinated school health program in place. Although some categories of schools had fewer policies and programs in place, all had both strengths and weaknesses. Regardless of school characteristics, all schools have the potential to implement a quality school health program. © Published 2010. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. Citizen science and natural resource governance: program design for vernal pool policy innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridie McGreavy


    Full Text Available Effective natural resource policy depends on knowing what is needed to sustain a resource and building the capacity to identify, develop, and implement flexible policies. This retrospective case study applies resilience concepts to a 16-year citizen science program and vernal pool regulatory development process in Maine, USA. We describe how citizen science improved adaptive capacities for innovative and effective policies to regulate vernal pools. We identified two core program elements that allowed people to act within narrow windows of opportunity for policy transformation, including (1 the simultaneous generation of useful, credible scientific knowledge and construction of networks among diverse institutions, and (2 the formation of diverse leadership that promoted individual and collective abilities to identify problems and propose policy solutions. If citizen science program leaders want to promote social-ecological systems resilience and natural resource policies as outcomes, we recommend they create a system for internal project evaluation, publish scientific studies using citizen science data, pursue resources for program sustainability, and plan for leadership diversity and informal networks to foster adaptive governance.

  10. Evaluation of policies to promote physical activity in afterschool programs: are we meeting current benchmarks? (United States)

    Beets, Michael W; Rooney, Laura; Tilley, Falon; Beighle, Aaron; Webster, Collin


    Policies now recommend afterschool programs (ASP, 3-6 pm) provide children a minimum amount of physical activity daily. We examined the extent to which children attending ASPs meet existing national and state-level policies that specify expected levels of physical activity (PA). Accelerometer-derived physical activity (light and moderate-to-vigorous, MVPA) of 253 children (5-13 years) was compared to policies that recommend varying amounts of PA children should achieve during an ASP. The proportion of children achieving a policy ranged from 0.0% (California 60 min MVPA and North Carolina 20% of daily program time devoted to MVPA), 1.2% (California 30 min MVPA), to 48.2% (National Afterschool Association 30 min light plus MVPA). Random effects logistic models indicated boys (odds ratio [OR] range 2.0 to 6.27) and children from a minority background (Black/Hispanic, OR range 1.87 to 3.98) were more likely to achieve a recommended level of physical activity, in comparison to girls and White children. Neither age nor BMI were related to achieving a policy. The PA of children attending ASP falls below policy recommended levels; however, these policies were developed in absence of data on expected PA levels during ASPs. Thus, concerted effort towards building a stronger ASP evidence-base for policy refinement is required. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Handbook of Student Financial Aid: Programs, Procedures, and Policies. (United States)

    Fenske, Robert H.; And Others

    The full range of topics relevant to student financial aid are covered in this book by a variety of experts in financial aid administration and scholarship. The volume details how to organize, implement and assess a financial aid program--including how to determine student need, deal with student bankruptcy and aid termination, and improve…

  12. Implications of DOD Funds Execution Policy for Acquisition Program Management (United States)


    package, the Automated Cost Estimating Integrated Tools ( ACEIT ). Using development cost estimation modeling techniques, the team also estimates...using Automated Cost Estimating Integrated Tool ( ACEIT )  An SQL database, known as the Program Financial Management System, currently used by the AH... ACEIT Automated Cost Estimating Integrated Tools AFOTEC Air Force Operational Test and Evaluation Center AFSOC Air Force Special Operations Command

  13. A Consideration of What Educational Faculty Need to Know and Be Able to Do: Federal and State Policies and Best Practices for Collaborative Preparation Programs (United States)

    Grenot-Scheyer, Marquita; Coots, Jennifer J.; Bishop-Smith, Kathryn


    This article addresses how teacher preparation programs can best respond to the broad, complex calls for reform in ways that are locally meaningful and honor academic integrity, but that are also true to the intent of the reform mandates. The authors begin with an overview of some of the federal and state initiatives that are presenting challenges…

  14. Breastfeeding policies and breastfeeding support programs in the mother's workplace. (United States)

    Bettinelli, Maria Enrica


    Women should never be forced to make a choice between mother-work and other work. Many women mistakenly think they cannot breastfeed if they plan to return to work, and thus they may not talk with their employers about their intention to breastfeed or how breastfeeding might be supported at their workplace. All breastfeeding policies and strategies underline the importance of providing support for lactating mothers and highlight the need to promote specific interventions in the workplace. Possible strategies for working mothers include having the mother keep the baby with her while she works, allowing the mother to go to the baby to breastfeed during the workday, telecommuting, offering flexible work schedules, maintaining part-time work schedules, and using on-site or nearby child care centres.

  15. Environmental policy and programs of Petroleos de Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, J.C.


    Few issues are of more concern to the oil industry than protecting the environment. Industrial wastes disposal, urban air pollution by vehicle emissions, large oil spills, acid rain, and more recently, the fear of a possible increase of the greenhouse effect, are all examples linked to oil and other fossil fuel consumption, that have contributed to a ''greening'' of public opinion. As a response, new and tighter environmental regulations are being enacted worldwide inducing a reshape of oil business strategies and operations. This paper summarizes the environmental policy and the more significant activities conducted at the Venezuelan National oil company, PDVSA, to comply with such regulations. Pollution prevention and control measures, oil spills and hazardous substances release contingency plans, manufacture of cleaner products, and other activities implemented to protect natural resources are described

  16. Policy uncertainty and corporate performance in government-sponsored voluntary environmental programs. (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Tang, Shui-Yan; Zhan, Xueyong; Lo, Carlos Wing-Hung


    This study combines insights from the policy uncertainty literature and neo-institutional theory to examine corporate performance in implementing a government-sponsored voluntary environmental program (VEP) during 2004-2012 in Guangzhou, China. In this regulatory context, characterized by rapid policy changes, corporate performance in VEPs is affected by government surveillance, policy uncertainty, and peer pressures. Specifically, if VEP participants have experienced more government surveillance, they tend to perform better in program implementation. Such positive influence of government surveillance is particularly evident among those joining under high and low, rather than moderate uncertainty. Participants also perform better if they belong to an industry with more certified VEP firms, but worse if they are located in a regulatory jurisdiction with more certified VEP firms. At a moderate level of policy uncertainty, within-industry imitation is most likely to occur but within-jurisdiction imitation is least likely to occur. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Determining energy and climate market policy using multiobjective programs with equilibrium constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, Sauleh; Christensen, Adam


    Energy and climate market policy is inherently multiobjective and multilevel, in that desired choices often conflict and are made at a higher level than influenced actors. Analyzing tradeoff between reducing emissions and keeping fuel prices low, while seeking compromise among producers, traders, and consumers is the crux of the policy problem. This paper aims to address this issue by combining multiobjective optimization problems, which allow the study of tradeoff between choices, with equilibrium problems that model the networks and players over which these policies are chosen, to produce a formulation called a Multiobjective Program with Equilibrium Constraints. We apply this formulation to the United States renewable fuel market to help understand why it has been so difficult in releasing the 2014 mandate for the RFS (Renewable Fuel Standard). The RFS ensures that a minimum volume of renewable fuel is included in transportation fuel sold in the United States. Determining the RFS volume requirements involves anticipating market reaction as well as balancing policy objectives. We provide policy alternatives to aid in setting these volume obligations that are applicable to a wide variety of climate and energy market settings and explain why the RFS is not an optimal policy for reducing emissions. - Highlights: • First time a MOPEC has been used to model energy markets and climate policy. • Method to endogenously determine energy policy along with associated tradeoff. • Computationally efficient algorithm for MOPECs and compare to methods. • Explain why the RFS is not an optimal policy for emission reduction.

  18. Multiple drug cost containment policies in Michigan's Medicaid program saved money overall, although some increased costs. (United States)

    Kibicho, Jennifer; Pinkerton, Steven D


    Michigan's Medicaid program implemented four cost containment policies--preferred drug lists, joint and multistate purchasing arrangements, and maximum allowable cost--during 2002-04. The goal was to control growth of drug spending for beneficiaries who were enrolled in both Medicaid and Medicare and taking antihypertensive or antihyperlipidemic prescription drugs. We analyzed the impact of each policy while holding the effect of all other policies constant. Preferred drug lists increased both preferred and generic drugs' market share and reduced daily cost--the cost per day for each prescription provided to a beneficiary. In contrast, the maximum allowable cost policy increased daily cost and was the only policy that did not generate cost savings. The joint and multistate arrangements did not affect daily cost. Despite these policy trade-offs, the cumulative effect was a 10 percent decrease in daily cost and a total cost savings of $46,195 per year. Our findings suggest that policy makers need to evaluate the impact of multiple policies aimed at restraining drug spending, and further evaluate the policy trade-offs, to ensure that scarce public dollars achieve the greatest return for money spent.

  19. Impetus and Creation of an Accelerated Second-Degree Baccalaureate Nursing Program Readmission Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Schwartz PhD, PMHNP-BC, CNE


    Full Text Available An accelerated second-degree baccalaureate nursing (ASDBN is an academic plan of study typically 12 to 24 months in duration. ASDBN students make many changes when entering this type of program. Some of the major changes ASDBN students make when entering an ASDBN program include leaving jobs, incurring debt, draining financial resources, forgoing time with children, spouses, and significant others, and, in some cases, relocating far from family and support systems. Because of the nature and scope of the many sacrifices ASDBN students typically make, academic program dismissal is particularly traumatic and devastating. It is not uncommon for an ASDBN student to seek program readmission when they are dismissed for academic reasons. Many academically dismissed ASDBN students seek program readmission. Administrators face a challenging decision in program readmission requests. The key issue with program readmission of ASDBN students is having a rigorous and comprehensive policy to determine which ASDBN students should be readmitted. This article examines one large, private, urban university’s ASDBN program’s readmission policy design and how the policy is applied to manage and determine ASDBN program readmission requests.

  20. Evaluation of the Waste Tire Resources Recovery Program and Environmental Health Policy in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ching Chen


    Full Text Available This paper examines the effectiveness of Taiwanese environmental health policies, whose aim is to improve environmental quality by reducing tire waste via the Tire Resource Recovery Program. The results confirm that implemented environmental health policies improve the overall health of the population (i.e. a decrease in death caused by bronchitis and other respiratory diseases. Current policy expenditures are far below the optimal level, as it is estimated that a ten percent increase in the subsidy would decrease the number of deaths caused by bronchitis and other respiratory diseases by 0.58% per county/city per year on average.

  1. Study on Formulating Policy and Strategies for IAEA TC Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, B. J.; Lee, M. K.; Shin, J. Y.


    The objectives of this study is to provide recommendations for formulating adequate policy and strategies for IAEA-TC programme as being of a donor Member State and to guide directions to facing the challenges of changing the status from IAEA-TC recipient to donor country. In addition, this study gives recommendations and feedbacks to the IAEA-TC programmer: how it has contributed to nation's nuclear technology development in the past on one hand and how the country has contributed to it on the other. Besides, this study also conducted to identify the following impacts expected: termination of on-going National TC projects, discontinuation of TC-based technical advices, sponsored fellowship and scientific visits for capacity building opportunities, and limitation in participations of various regional projects due to termination of IAEA financial support. In terms of financial aspect, this study has also performed to assess the nation's annual financial contribution (Technical Cooperation (TC) Fund: 1,67 million dollars in 2008) by comparing the experiences of other OECD countries cases. In conclusion, it is expected that the results of this study will contribute to develop appropriate measures in order to maximize the benefits for future national nuclear technology development and in addition, to explore the possibilities to extend the nuclear technology export market potentials

  2. The reform of energy subsidies for the enhancement of marine sustainability: An empirical analysis of energy subsidies worldwide and an in-depth case study of South Korea's energy subsidy policies (United States)

    Shim, Jae Hyun

    reforms, first of all, humans need a new energy paradigm to replace the hitherto dominant commodification paradigm. On an international level, creation of an international renewable energy agency and creation of renewable funds will spur on energy subsidy reforms of all nations, especially developing countries. On a national level, government's role should change from growth-oriented economic policy to sustainable development that includes environmentally friendly energy systems. In terms of social welfare, energy subsidies should be transformed to direct income policy, which is more effective for the welfare of the poor. The South Korean government should exchange its current supply-oriented fishery policy, which relies heavily on energy subsidies, to a Marine Reserves policy and direct income policy. For successful energy subsidy reforms, the government, NGOs, and private market should cooperate. Specifically, NGOs' role in monitoring and pushing government's energy subsidy reform is invaluable, considering the limits of modern bureaucracy and the profit-oriented market character. Most environmental problems, including global warming, have a close relation with fossil fuel and nuclear energy use. Historically, these energy systems have become entrenched deeply in society through energy subsidy policy. Energy subsidy reforms are a key to the environmental problem and accelerated transition to renewable energy.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Владлен Володимирович ЛЕПСЬКИЙ


    Full Text Available The strategic goal of the state policy in the field of health Ukraine is to improve human health through providing the population with affordable and quality health care, and the development of a healthy lifestyle and expansion of preventive measures. The main problem with the current health system is called the low level of public health services. So, it is necessary to use modern innovation management technology to reform the healthcare industry. The author is invited to consider the applicability of strategic management to the management of the healthcare industry reforms through the application of innovative medical technologies and management, focusing on the development of innovations in the industry, as improving the existing health care system, and developing projects to reform and the creation of new approaches based on project management tools. The necessity of the organization of the healthcare industry focused on the development of innovations in the field of health and improvement of existing processes has been proved. A new look at the planning and implementation of Ukraine healthcare industry reforms through the integration strategic and project management has been proposed. It is shown how can be related vision, mission, goals and relevant reform programs. Further studies will be subject to the classification of projects that constitute the program, development structure programs and portfolios of projects, implementation of which will achieve the strategic goals of reforming the industry

  4. Governing Health Care through Free Choice: Neoliberal Reforms in Denmark and the United States. (United States)

    Larsen, Lars Thorup; Stone, Deborah


    We compare free choice reforms in Denmark and the United States to understand what ideas and political forces could generate such similar policy reforms in radically different political contexts. We analyze the two cases using our own interpretation of neoliberalism as having "two faces." The first face seeks to expand private markets and shrink the public sector; the second face seeks to strengthen the public sector's capacity to govern through incentives and competition. First, we show why these two most-different cases offer a useful comparison to understand similar policy tools. Second, we develop our theoretical framework of the two faces of neoliberalism. Third, we examine Denmark's introduction of a free choice of hospitals in 2002, a policy that for the first time allowed some patients to receive care either in a public hospital outside their local area or in a private hospital. Fourth, we examine the introduction of free choice among private managed care plans into the US Medicare program in 1997. We show how policy makers in both countries used neoliberal reform as a mechanism to make their public health care sectors governable. Fifth, on the basis of our analysis, we draw five lessons about neoliberal policy reforms. Copyright © 2015 by Duke University Press.

  5. An optimal maintenance policy for machine replacement problem using dynamic programming


    Mohsen Sadegh Amalnik; Morteza Pourgharibshahi


    In this article, we present an acceptance sampling plan for machine replacement problem based on the backward dynamic programming model. Discount dynamic programming is used to solve a two-state machine replacement problem. We plan to design a model for maintenance by consid-ering the quality of the item produced. The purpose of the proposed model is to determine the optimal threshold policy for maintenance in a finite time horizon. We create a decision tree based on a sequential sampling inc...

  6. Asheville, North Carolina: Reducing Electricity Demand through Building Programs & Policies (City Energy: From Data to Decisions)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Office of Strategic Programs, Strategic Priorities and Impact Analysis Team


    This fact sheet "Asheville, North Carolina: Reducing Electricity Demand through Building Programs & Policies" explains how the City of Asheville used data from the U.S. Department of Energy's Cities Leading through Energy Analysis and Planning (Cities-LEAP) and the State and Local Energy Data (SLED) programs to inform its city energy planning. It is one of ten fact sheets in the "City Energy: From Data to Decisions" series.

  7. Sexual harassment policies and programs in the militaries of TTCP countries


    Bennett, Darlene R


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis examines the policies, programs, and scope of sexual harassment in the United States Navy and the military forces in The Technical Cooperation Program (TTCP) countries, (United States, New Zealand, Australia, Canada, and United Kingdom). It highlights the most effective approaches to eliminate sexual harassment and makes recommendations for improvement. Research was conducted on the information provided from all participati...

  8. Program, policy, and price interventions for tobacco control: quantifying the return on investment of a state tobacco control program. (United States)

    Dilley, Julia A; Harris, Jeffrey R; Boysun, Michael J; Reid, Terry R


    We examined health effects associated with 3 tobacco control interventions in Washington State: a comprehensive state program, a state policy banning smoking in public places, and price increases. We used linear regression models to predict changes in smoking prevalence and specific tobacco-related health conditions associated with the interventions. We estimated dollars saved over 10 years (2000-2009) by the value of hospitalizations prevented, discounting for national trends. Smoking declines in the state exceeded declines in the nation. Of the interventions, the state program had the most consistent and largest effect on trends for heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, respiratory disease, and cancer. Over 10 years, implementation of the program was associated with prevention of nearly 36,000 hospitalizations, at a value of about $1.5 billion. The return on investment for the state program was more than $5 to $1. The combined program, policy, and price interventions resulted in reductions in smoking and related health effects, while saving money. Public health and other leaders should continue to invest in tobacco control, including comprehensive programs.

  9. Land Reform and Conflict Resolution in Colombia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nieswiadomy, Mark


    ... to change the overall high concentration of landownership, This thesis examines to what effect, if any, a redistributive land reform policy implemented amid the ongoing rural conflict would have on its resolution...

  10. WORLD BANK: Status of Grievance Process Reform

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    In June 1998, in response, to concerns about the fairness of its employee grievance process and as part of a broader effort to reform its human resource policies, the World Bank appointed an internal...

  11. Policy, environment, and worksite fitness program participation among financial enterprise employees in Taiwan. (United States)

    Huang, Sheu-Jen; Hung, Wen-Chi


    This study explored the intertwined effects between the policies and regulations of the companies and personal background on participation in the physical fitness programs and leisure-time activities in financial enterprises. A total of 823 employees were selected as the sample with the multilevel stratification random-sampling technique. The response rate was 52.0%. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and hierarchical linear logistic regression. Thirty-two percent and 39% of the employees participated in the physical fitness programs and leisure-time activities, respectively. The factors affecting participation were categorized into intrapersonal factors, interpersonal processes, and primary groups, as well as institutional factors. In the interpersonal processes and primary groups level, higher family social support, more equipment in health promotion was associated with more participation in the programs. With the influence from the institutional level, it was found that health promotion policy amplified the relationship between employees' age and participation, but attenuated the relationship between education level and participation. Health promotion equipment in the institutes attenuated the relationship between colleague social support, family social support, and education level with program participation. Physical activity equipment in the community attenuated the relationship between family social support and program participation. The influential factors of social support and worksite environment could predict the employees' participation in the physical fitness programs and leisure-time physical activities. Health promotion policy and equipment attenuated the negative effects of nonparticipation as well as amplified the positive effects of participation.

  12. Reform and Backlash to Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.; Hagen Jørgensen, Ole

    Using a stochastic general equilibrium model with overlapping generations, this paper studies (i) the effects on both extensive and intensive labor supply responses to changes in fertility rates, and (ii) the potential of a retirement reform to mitigate the effects of fertility changes on labor s...

  13. Faculty and student perceptions about attendance policies in baccalaureate nursing programs. (United States)

    Ruth-Sahd, Lisa A; Schneider, Melissa A


    To understand perceptions of faculty and students about attendance policies in baccalaureate nursing programs. Classroom attendance is an issue of debate across academic disciplines. A mixed-methods study was conducted using qualitative data from a stratified random sample of 65 accredited baccalaureate nursing programs; 591 students and 91 faculty from 19 schools responded. Sixty-two percent of faculty thought students who missed class exhibited unprofessional behavior; 69 percent believed students who missed class were less successful in the clinical setting. Students (57 percent) and faculty (66 percent) believed there should be an attendance policy. Twenty-nine students reported needing a break in workload (16.8 percent) or did not find class time valuable (11.8 percent). Variability exists in student and faculty beliefs regarding attendance policies. Understanding these viewpoints and utilizing creative teaching approaches will facilitate learning and create an environment of teamwork and mutual respect.

  14. Policy and Programs for Cycling in the City of Zagreb – A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Pilko


    Full Text Available Studying cycling traffic issues in a beginner city – City of Zagreb, stems from unclear development policy, an increase in cycling volume, a large number of traffic accidents, an inadequate infrastructure and legislation, a small number of high quality studies and published papers, and the question, did current cycling policy and programs advance cycling? A comprehensive search of available literature, including data from the Zagreb Traffic Department, was made. These data do not adequately address the direction of causality, such as whether current cycling policy and programs advance cycling or whether cycling demand led to increased levels of cycling. This review paper suggests that, it is not yet possible to evaluate which pro-bicycle packages are the most effective and, development of cycling traffic requires a coordinated holistic planning strategy. Results could serve as a beacon light for similarly sized beginner cities, especially those who are located in South-eastern and Eastern Europe.

  15. The Family and Federal Drug Abuse Policies--Programs: Toward Making the Invisible Family Visible. (United States)

    Clayton, Richard R.


    Notes why the family is not considered in drug policy and programing and asserts that existing conditions demand conscious consideration of the family in efforts of federal drug agencies. Data show changing parameters of drug use-abuse. A research and prevention agenda that integrates the family is presented. (Author/BEF)

  16. Alleviating Praxis Shock: Induction Policy and Programming for Urban Music Educators (United States)

    Shaw, Julia T.


    An integral part of a teacher learning continuum ranging from preservice education to professional development for experienced educators, new teacher induction holds particular potential to effect change in urban education. Accordingly, this article offers recommendations for induction-related policy and programming capable of supporting beginning…

  17. Universities' Expectations for Study-Abroad Programs Fostering Internationalization: Educational Policies (United States)

    Take, Hiroko; Shoraku, Ai


    Because internationalization in higher education has recently received significant attention within the context of globalization, universities in Japan have begun to develop study-abroad programs to support their students in gaining international experience. This article explores those university policies designed to support the…

  18. Advanced Technological Education (ATE) Program: Building a Pipeline of Skilled Workers. Policy Brief (United States)

    American Youth Policy Forum, 2010


    In the Fall of 2008, the American Youth Policy Forum hosted a series of three Capitol Hill forums showcasing the Advanced Technological Education (ATE) program supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF). The goal of these forums was to educate national policymakers about the importance of: (1) improving the science and math competencies of…

  19. 78 FR 38989 - New Policies and Procedural Requirements for Electronic Submission of State Plans, and Program... (United States)


    .... Report (FFR). Child Abuse and Neglect State Grant Form SF-425: Federal Financial Part 1. Report (FFR... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families New Policies and..., for Mandatory Grant Programs AGENCY: Office of Administration (OA), Administration for Children and...

  20. Employer Child Care Resources: A Guide to Developing Effective Child Care Programs and Policies. (United States)

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Increasing numbers of employers are responding to employee child care needs by revising their benefit packages, work schedules, and recruitment plans to include child care options. This guide details ways to develop effective child care programs and policies. Section 1 of the guide describes employees' growing child care needs and employers'…

  1. Discounted semi-Markov decision processes : linear programming and policy iteration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessels, J.; van Nunen, J.A.E.E.


    For semi-Markov decision processes with discounted rewards we derive the well known results regarding the structure of optimal strategies (nonrandomized, stationary Markov strategies) and the standard algorithms (linear programming, policy iteration). Our analysis is completely based on a primal

  2. Discounted semi-Markov decision processes : linear programming and policy iteration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessels, J.; van Nunen, J.A.E.E.


    For semi-Markov decision processes with discounted rewards we derive the well known results regarding the structure of optimal strategies (nonrandomized, stationary Markov strategies) and the standard algorithms (linear programming, policy iteration). Our analysis is completely based on a primal

  3. Early Childhood Development Policy and Programming in India: Critical Issues and Directions for Paradigm Change (United States)

    Sharma, Adarsh; Sen, Rekha Sharma; Gulati, Renu


    The critical importance of the early childhood years and the rights perspective to human development has made policy and programming for early childhood development an imperative for every nation. In India, poverty, changing economic and social structures resulting in the breakdown of traditional coping mechanisms and family care systems, and the…

  4. Guidelines to the Development of Human Resources in Libraries: Rationale, Policies, Programs and Recommendations (United States)

    Library Trends, 1971


    It is apparent that there are many roadblocks preventing the release of the human potential in our libraries. These guidelines take the position that a great deal can be done toward diagnosing and removing these roadblocks by establishing and developing meaningful policies and programs. (49 references) (Author/NH)

  5. 77 FR 74625 - Policy To Encourage Trial Disclosure Programs; Information Collection (United States)


    ... BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION 12 CFR Chapter X [Docket No. CFPB-2012-0046] Policy To Encourage Trial Disclosure Programs; Information Collection AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection... Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection (Bureau) invites the general public and other Federal agencies to...

  6. The Affordances and Constraints of Special Education Initial Teacher Licensure Policy for Teacher Preparation (United States)

    Blanton, Linda P.; Boveda, Mildred; Munoz, Lorena R.; Pugach, Marleen C.


    Initial licensure polices in special education were examined to determine how these policies support or hinder reform efforts to develop teacher education programs that prepare graduates for the increasingly complex needs of diverse students. Initial special education licensure policies are described with an emphasis on the differences across…

  7. Military and Veteran Families and Children: Policies and Programs for Health Maintenance and Positive Development. Social Policy Report. Volume 28, Number 3 (United States)

    Cozza, Stephen J.; Lerner, Richard M.; Haskins, Ron


    This "Social Policy Report" summarizes what is currently known about our nation's military children and families and presents ideas and proposals pertinent to the formulation of new programs and the policies that would create and sustain these initiatives. We emphasize the need for future rigorous developmental research about military…

  8. Some Trends and Reforms in the Educational Policy of Norway in the Light of the Concept of Life-Long Education. (United States)

    Udjus, Ingelise

    An emphasis on planned and completed educational reforms in Norway which reflect the attitude that education is a lifelong process is presented in this document. A study is made of some of the trends in the development of the formal school system which have been influenced by the concept of life-long education. This study includes primary,…

  9. Inclusion or Exclusion? Local Ownership and Security Sector Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Donais


    Full Text Available This paper explores the dynamics of security sector reform (SSR, a term used to refer to efforts made to reform the security structures of states emerging from conflict or authoritarianism. While "local ownership" is increasingly viewed as a necessary element of any sustainable SSR strategy, there remains a significant gap between international policy and practice in this area. In practice, the SSR agenda continues to be driven largely by international actors, with minimal input, let alone ownership, on the part of either governments or civil society within reforming states. Indeed, the notion of local ownership has come to serve as much as a disciplining mechanism as a tool to overcome exclusion in the making and execution of security policy, and the effectiveness and sustainability of SSR programming have suffered as a result. In light of this, the paper will explore both the potential for, and the limits of, rehabilitating the notion of local ownership to enable more participatory forms of SSR, and argues that any practical local ownership strategy requires a dual policy of negotiating with state actors and engaging with non-state actors.

  10. [Use of evidence in heath policies and programs contributions of the instituto nacional de salud]. (United States)

    Gutierrez, Ericson L; Piazza, Marina; Gutierrez-Aguado, Alfonso; Hijar, Gisely; Carmona, Gloria; Caballero, Patricia; Reyes, Nora; Canelo, Carlos; Aparco, Juan Pablo; Tejada, Romina A; Bolaños-Díaz, Rafael; Saravia, Silvia; Gozzer, Ernesto


    This article analyzes some examples about how the Ministry of Health of Peru has used evidence for policy and program formulation, implementation and evaluation. It describes the process by which health budget programs are based and strengthened with scientific evidence. Provides an overview about how the development of clinical guidelines methodology is facilitating the generation of high quality evidence based clinical guidelines.It presents some examples of specific information needs of the Ministry of Health to which the Instituto Nacional de Salud has responded, and the impact of that collaboration. Finally, the article proposes future directions for the use of research methodology especially relevant for the development and evaluation of policy and programs, as well as the development of networks of health technology assessment at the national and international level.

  11. Environmental fiscal reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Chaturvedi


    Full Text Available The paper presents concepts and instruments of environmental fiscal reforms (EFR and their application in the Indian context. EFR can lead to environmental improvement more efficiently and cost effectively than traditional regulation. There is substantial experience of successful EFR implementation in the European Union. India has also adopted some EFR measures such as deregulation of petrol prices, coal cess, and subsidy for setting up common effluent treatment plants. The challenges of implementing EFR measures in India are also discussed, including inadequate analysis, policy framework and institutional capacity, as well as conflict with poverty reduction and building political support.

  12. Reimbursement rates and policies for primary molar pit-and-fissure sealants across state Medicaid programs. (United States)

    Chi, Donald L; Singh, Jennifer


    Little is known about Medicaid policies regarding reimbursement for placement of sealants on primary molars. The authors identified Medicaid programs that reimbursed dentists for placing primary molar sealants and hypothesized that these programs had higher reimbursement rates than did state programs that did not reimburse for primary molar sealants. The authors obtained Medicaid reimbursement data from online fee schedules and determined whether each state Medicaid program reimbursed for primary molar sealants (no or yes). The outcome measure was the reimbursement rate for permanent tooth sealants (calculated in 2012 U.S. dollars). The authors compared mean reimbursement rates by using the t test (α = .05). Seventeen Medicaid programs reimbursed dentists for placing primary molar sealants (34 percent), and the mean reimbursement rate was $27.57 (range, $16.00 [Maine] to $49.68 [Alaska]). All 50 programs reimbursed dentists for placement of sealants on permanent teeth. The mean reimbursement for permanent tooth sealants was significantly higher in programs that reimbursed for primary molar sealants than in programs that did not ($28.51 and $23.67, respectively; P = .03). Most state Medicaid programs do not reimburse dentists for placing sealants on primary molars, but programs that do so have significantly higher reimbursement rates. Medicaid reimbursement rates are related to dentists' participation in Medicaid and children's dental care use. Reimbursement for placement of sealants on primary molars is a proxy for Medicaid program generosity.

  13. A comparison of higher education reforms in Egypt and Morocco


    Kohstall, Florian


    This doctoral thesis examines the impact of international aid agencies on the reform agenda of North African countries. It analyses and compares the paths of higher education reform (1997-2007) in Egypt and Morocco, using analytical instruments pertaining to new approaches in public policy theory. For a long time, both countries appeared relatively immune against reform pressure from outside. Still, the analysis of their reform processes shows that the internationalization of higher educa...

  14. Welfare implication of reforming energy consumption subsidies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breton, Michèle; Mirzapour, Hossein


    Reforming energy consumption subsidies, in particular for fossil fuels, has been frequently referred to as a quick-win policy to enhance environmental mitigation. In addition, the removal of such subsidies may release a sizeable portion of a country's national budget for use on more productive targets. One of the most recognized challenges of such reform is “selling” the new energy prices to citizens, particularly those with a more fragile purchasing power. Several empirical and technical studies have prescribed that the reform might be supported by a direct compensation mechanism in order to ensure feasibility. This is what was done during the recent energy subsidy reform in Iran. However, the compensation mechanism implemented in Iran's reform was successful at the beginning, but did not proceed as expected. This has raised questions about the feasibility and sustainability of the direct compensation mechanism, and even of the reform policy itself. In this paper, we consider a stylized model where direct compensation is the instrument proposed to restore consumers’ utility against increased energy prices. We find that, when prices of Other Goods are affected by the announced reform policy, the feasibility of a subsidy reform critically depends on the value of certain parameters: the initial subsidization rate, the share of energy in the consumers’ bundle, and the energy portion of price of Other Goods. - Highlights: • A model of energy subsidy reform with direct compensation is proposed. • Feasibility of the reform is related to three key parameters. • An illustrative example using data from the recent Iranian reform is discussed.

  15. A review of low carbon fuel policies: Principles, program status and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Sonia; Witcover, Julie; Lade, Gabriel E.; Sperling, Daniel


    A low carbon fuel standard (LCFS) is a market-based policy that specifies declining standards for the average lifecycle fuel carbon intensity (AFCI) of transportation fuels sold in a region. This paper: (i) compares transportation fuel carbon policies in terms of their economic efficiency, fuel price impacts, greenhouse gas emission reductions, and incentives for innovation; (ii) discusses key regulatory design features of LCFS policies; and (iii) provides an update on the implementation status of LCFS policies in California, the European Union, British Columbia, and Oregon. The economics literature finds that an intensity standard implicitly taxes emissions and subsidizes output. The output subsidy results in an intensity standard being inferior to a carbon tax in a first-best world, although the inefficiency can be corrected with a properly designed consumption tax (or mitigated by a properly designed carbon tax or cap-and-trade program). In California, from 2011 to 2015 the share of alternative fuels in the regulated transportation fuels pool increased by 30%, and the reported AFCI of all alternative fuels declined 21%. LCFS credit prices have varied considerably, rising to above $100/credit in the first half of 2016. LCFS programs in other jurisdictions share many features with California's, but have distinct provisions as well. - Highlights: • LCFS is a market-based policy that sets standards for carbon intensity of fuels. • We compare efficiency, price impacts, GHG emissions, and innovation of C policies. • In California, reported carbon intensity of alternative fuels declined 21% 2011–2015. • LCFS credit prices have varied considerably, rising to above $100/credit in the first half of 2016. • Other LCFS programs share many features with CA's and have distinct provisions.

  16. An Analysis of Merit Pay Reforms in Educational Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Brulle


    Full Text Available With roots in behaviorist philosophy, performance pay for teachers is often linked to accountability regimes in school reform. The theory girding such programs suggests that pay as an economic incentive can help cause teachers to increase student outcomes as measured by standardized test scores. What is little noticed by many educationists, but particularly by policy makers, is how programmatic effects affect the ontology of educational environment. There are several ways to approach the viability of such programs. In this study of three pay-for-performance programs, two in the U.S. and one in the UK, we provide theoretic insights in light of three variables: (i their psychological framework, (ii teacher efficacy and the teacher-student relationship, and (iii how the psychological impact of such programs coincides with larger institutional forces. Using theory to examine pay-for-performance is necessary in order to get beneath mere data and secure more thorough understandings of the phenomenological impacts of performance pay. And better understanding of these foundational features is necessary, even critical, in order to fully appreciate the economic and informational trade-offs in implementation. Our study suggests that as a small-scale reform measure and when it specifically accounts for complexities of educational production, performance pay may be a viable reform option.

  17. Medicare program; clarification of Medicare's accrual basis of accounting policy--HCFA. Final rule. (United States)


    This final rule revises the Medicare regulations to clarify the concept of "accrual basis of accounting" to indicate that expenses must be incurred by a provider of health care services before Medicare will pay its share of those expenses. This rule does not signify a change in policy but, rather, incorporates into the regulations Medicare's longstanding policy regarding the circumstances under which we recognize, for the purposes of program payment, a provider's claim for costs for which it has not actually expended funds during the current cost reporting period.

  18. Conference Report: "Health Policy and Programs Evaluative Research for Social Change". An Ibero-American Symposium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Mercado-Martínez


    Full Text Available This is a report of the "Health Policy and Programs Evaluative Research for Social Change" Ibero-American Symposium held in Guadalajara, Mexico November 1-3, 2006. Attendees represented eight countries, and were associated with NGO's and academic and health services organizations. The most important themes included in the debates were the meaning of qualitative and evaluative health research for social change, the challenges of teaching for change, ethical challenges, and possibilities for making the findings of qualitative research available to different groups or stakeholders (users, policy makers, professionals, and the population as a whole. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0802194

  19. State Clean Energy Policies Analysis: State, Utility, and Municipal Loan Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, E.


    High initial costs can impede the deployment of clean energy technologies. Financing can reduce these costs. And, state, municipal, and utility-sponsored loan programs have emerged to fill the gap between clean energy technology financing needs and private sector lending. In general, public loan programs are more favorable to clean energy technologies than are those offered by traditional lending institutions; however, public loan programs address only the high up-front costs of clean energy systems, and the technology installed under these loan programs rarely supports clean energy production at levels that have a notable impact on the broader energy sector. This report discusses ways to increase the impact of these loan programs and suggests related policy design considerations.

  20. Curriculum Reform and the Displacement of Knowledge in Peruvian Rural Secondary Schools: Exploring the Unintended Local Consequences of Global Education Policies (United States)

    Balarin, Maria; Benavides, Martin


    This paper draws attention to processes of policy implementation in developing contexts, and to the unintended consequences of education policies that follow international policy scripts without enough consideration of local histories and cultures. Drawing on a study of teaching practices in Peruvian rural secondary schools after a period of…