WorldWideScience

Sample records for policy recommendations focus

  1. From micronutrient recommendations to policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timotijevic, Lada; Raats, Monique M.; Barnett, Julie

    2010-01-01

    the Eurreca network of excellence (commissioned by the European Commission), the research involved in-depth desk research of key documents and communication channels linked to the process of setting micronutrient recommendations across seven countries: the United Kingdom, Norway, Denmark, Germany, Spain......, the Czech Republic and Hungary. Results: Stakeholder engagement is recognized by most countries as an important aspect of the process of setting micronutrient recommendations and their translation into policy, although there is notable variation in the extent to which this has been achieved across the seven...... of involvement include historical sociopolitical context; the extent to which food and nutrition are key policy agenda; and the relative power of stakeholders in influencing food and nutrition policy....

  2. Policy Recommendations on Decentralization, Local Power and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-22

    Policy Recommendations on Decentralization, Local Power and Women's Rights. December 22, 2010. Image. The present document comprises a set of policy recommendations that define a global agenda on gender and decentralization. It emerged from the analysis and experiences shared during the Conference and the ...

  3. Policy Recommendations on Decentralization, Local Power and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Policy Recommendations on Decentralization, Local Power and Women's Rights. 22 décembre 2010. Image. The present document comprises a set of policy recommendations that define a global agenda on gender and decentralization. It emerged from the analysis and experiences shared during the Conference and the ...

  4. Recommendations for an energy policy for Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-10-01

    Over the next few years, Australia must modify its dependence on natural oil and place greater reliance on other fossil fuels and renewable energy sources. The recommendations contained in this report are the result of two years of study, and the long term energy prospects for Australia and energy resource policies for coal, liquid fuels, nuclear energy, solar energy and natural gas are considered in detail. Energy conservation policies and the identification of areas where energy research, development and demonstration need to be undertaken are also covered. (J.R.)

  5. Progress Implementing the IEA 25 Energy Efficiency Policy Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Significantly improving energy efficiency remains a priority for all countries. Meetings of G8 leaders and IEA ministers reaffirmed the critical role that improved energy efficiency can play in addressing energy security, environmental and economic challenges. Many IEA publications have also documented the essential role of energy efficiency. For example, the World Energy Outlook and the Energy Technology Perspectives reports identify energy efficiency as the most significant contributor to achieving energy security, economic and environmental goals. Energy efficiency is clearly the “first fuel” in the delivery of energy services in the coming low-carbon energy future. To support governments in their implementation of energy efficiency, the IEA recommended the adoption of specific energy efficiency policy measures to the G8 summits in 2006, 2007 and 2008. The consolidated set of recommendations to these summits is known as the ‘IEA 25 energy efficiency policy recommendations’ because it covers 25 fields of action across seven priority areas: cross-sectoral activity, buildings, appliances, lighting, transport, industry and energy utilities. The IEA estimates that if implemented globally without delay, the proposed actions could save as much as 7.6 giga tonnes (Gt) CO2/year by 2030 – almost 1.5 times the current annual carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions of the United States. The IEA 25 energy efficiency policy recommendations were developed to address policy gaps and priorities. This has two implications. First, the recommendations do not cover the full range of energy efficiency policy activity possible. Rather, they focus on priority energy efficiency policies identified by IEA analysis. Second, while IEA analysis, the energy efficiency professional literature and engagement with experts clearly demonstrate the broad benefits of these IEA priority measures, the recommendations are not weighted to reflect the different energy end-use make up of different

  6. Policy analysis and recommendations for the DCM research data exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This report is a policy analysis and set of recommendations regarding open data policies and policies for new, transformative data environments that are being developed as part of the Connected Vehicle research program. It is presented in three secti...

  7. Patient dumping. Status, implications, and policy recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansell, D A; Schiff, R L

    1987-03-20

    Patient dumping, or the transfer of patients from private to public hospitals because of economic or social factors, is on the increase throughout the United States. Focusing on the dumping of patients by hospital emergency departments, the authors examine the economic, ethical, legal, and medical aspects of the problem. Although 22 states and the federal government have enacted statutes requiring hospitals to provide emergency care regardless of ability to pay and requiring that patients be stabilized before transfer to another hospital, Ansell and Schiff contend that even the best of these laws are deficient in defining such terms as "emergency" and "patient stability" and that monitoring and enforcement of existing laws and the guidelines of the American College of Emergency Physicians are inadequate. They propose a policy that no patient in need of emergency hospitalization should be denied admission or transferred for economic reasons.

  8. Best practices and recommendations on policy packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fearnley, Nils; Longva, Frode; Ramjerdi, Farideh

    2011-01-01

    This report, which is the final deliverable of the Optic project (Optimal Policies for Transport In Combination), summarises two years of collaborative research into the policy process of combining individual measures into policy packages. Six stages of the policy process are identified. This rep...

  9. Nuclear Cyber Security Issues and Policy Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Cheol-Kwon; Lee, Dong-Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Na-Young; Hwang, Young-Soo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The cyber-attack against computer systems causes the loss of function which brings about the big economic loss, and it becomes a national-wide issue. In recent days the cyber threat has occurred in the national critical infrastructure around the world. In the nuclear industry, while discussing responses to various threats against nuclear facilities since 2006, cyber-terrorism was also discussed. But at that time, cyber-attacks against control networks in nuclear facilities were not seriously considered because those networks were isolated from the Internet thoroughly and it was evaluated that cyber penetration would not be possible. However Stuxnet worm virus which attacked Iran's nuclear facilities confirmed that the cyber security problem could occur even in other nuclear facilities. The facilities were isolated from the Internet. After the cyber incident, we began to discuss the topic of NPP cyber security. It is very difficult to predict whether or when or how the cyber-attack will be occurred, which is a characteristic of cyber-attack. They could be always detected only after when an incident had occurred. This paper summarizes the report, 'Nuclear Cyber Security Issues and Policy Recommendations' by issue committee in the Korea Nuclear Society, which reviewed the cyber security framework for nuclear facilities in the Republic of Korea being established to prevent nuclear facilities from cyber-attacks and to respond systematically. As a result this paper proposes several comments to improve the security and furthermore safety of nuclear facilities Digital technology will be used more widely at the national critical infrastructure including nuclear facilities in the future, and moreover wireless technologies and mobile devices will be soon introduced to nuclear industry. It is therefore anticipated that the rapid advance in digital technology will accelerate the opportunity of hacking these facilities.

  10. Nuclear Cyber Security Issues and Policy Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Cheol-Kwon; Lee, Dong-Young; Lee, Na-Young; Hwang, Young-Soo

    2015-01-01

    The cyber-attack against computer systems causes the loss of function which brings about the big economic loss, and it becomes a national-wide issue. In recent days the cyber threat has occurred in the national critical infrastructure around the world. In the nuclear industry, while discussing responses to various threats against nuclear facilities since 2006, cyber-terrorism was also discussed. But at that time, cyber-attacks against control networks in nuclear facilities were not seriously considered because those networks were isolated from the Internet thoroughly and it was evaluated that cyber penetration would not be possible. However Stuxnet worm virus which attacked Iran's nuclear facilities confirmed that the cyber security problem could occur even in other nuclear facilities. The facilities were isolated from the Internet. After the cyber incident, we began to discuss the topic of NPP cyber security. It is very difficult to predict whether or when or how the cyber-attack will be occurred, which is a characteristic of cyber-attack. They could be always detected only after when an incident had occurred. This paper summarizes the report, 'Nuclear Cyber Security Issues and Policy Recommendations' by issue committee in the Korea Nuclear Society, which reviewed the cyber security framework for nuclear facilities in the Republic of Korea being established to prevent nuclear facilities from cyber-attacks and to respond systematically. As a result this paper proposes several comments to improve the security and furthermore safety of nuclear facilities Digital technology will be used more widely at the national critical infrastructure including nuclear facilities in the future, and moreover wireless technologies and mobile devices will be soon introduced to nuclear industry. It is therefore anticipated that the rapid advance in digital technology will accelerate the opportunity of hacking these facilities

  11. 25 energy efficiency policy recommendations. 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The IEA recommends that G8 leaders adopt and urgently implement this package of measures to significantly enhance energy efficiency. This package was developed under the Gleneagles G8 Plan of Action, which mandates the pursuit of a clean, clever and competitive energy future.

  12. Problems and Recommendations over Tax Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin ONER

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tax policy is a tool that state uses on economic, social and financial fields. Funding public expenditure is its financial goal, providing economic stability and development is its economic goal and contributing to fair distribution of income and wealth is its social goal. In result of high debt load, rupture between taxes and economic goals, being not established a document and registration order and lacking in management of administration and control functions, significantly increasing tax loss and evasion and factors such as unfair competition that it leads to show that our tax system is ineffective and have a negative influence in economic life. In order to succeed in tax policies, “taxes should be minimalistic, should consider the ability to pay with respect to income level, should prevent the luxurious consumption and waste, should decrease tax evasion and loss, should tax informal economy, should encourage export, employment and development, should be reformed in a permanent way and implementing tax consciousness into whole society” is inevitable.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF FRANCHISING IN CROATIA OBSTACLES AND POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Alpeza, Mirela; Erceg, Aleksandar; Oberman Peterka, Sunčica

    2015-01-01

    Franchising is very popular growth model but despite the wide application of franchising in the developed countries of the world, its impact on the Croatian economy is still marginal. The purpose of this research is to identify the obstacles and challenges to a wider application of franchising in Croatia and generate policy recommendations for removing the identified obstacles. Obstacles and recommendations are identified on the basis of a conducted longitudinal qualitative research, the firs...

  14. Recommendations for responding to changes in reimbursement policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, John; Fifer, Joe

    2010-01-01

    With profound changes in reimbursement policy on the horizon, organizations are preparing a variety of responses to ensure long-term success. Most are anticipating decreases in reimbursement rates from most payers. Whether due to nonpayment for hospital-acquired complications and infections, reductions due to high readmission rates, or a move toward value-based purchasing and bundled payment models, the impact is predicted to be substantial. Because of these sweeping changes, organizations must quickly prepare a thoughtful, effective response to ensure their financial stability. At the heart of these global changes in reimbursement, including those in the healthcare reform legislation, is a drive toward integration, the formation of integrated delivery systems in response to changing financial incentives. However, the new integrated systems must be not just an assemblage of the required components, but a true functional integration in which patients experience a seamless continuum of care that is highly coordinated, efficient, effective, and accessible. In this article, we'll address changes in reimbursement and recommended responses from three perspectives. First, we offer a three-pronged approach for managing general decreases in reimbursement. Second, we highlight strategies for managing nonpayment for readmissions, focusing on the demonstration project in the state of Michigan, MI STAAR. And finally, we review managing patient care in an environment of bundled payment, including the interventions at the center of the PROMETHEUS demonstration project.

  15. Recommended revised sections to line focus solar central power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-18

    The design requirements, subsystem characteristics, environmental requirements, and cost and performance evaluation techniques are defined for the Line Focus Solar Central Power Systems. Specific passages revised are enumerated. (LEW)

  16. Micronutrient recommendations and policies in Spain: the cases of iodine, folic acid and vitamin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito Garcia, N; Serra Majem, L

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: As part of the work carried out within the EURopean micronutrient RECommendations Aligned (EURRECA) Network of Excellence in Spain, we conducted a series of semi-structured interviews with decision makers and relevant scientific institutions in the field of nutrition and public health. The information gathered was collated with national relevant official and unofficial documents and subsequently analysed. To describe the current situation about nutrition policy in Spain, with special focus on the process of setting micronutrient recommendations and the development of subsequent policies. 3 cases will be detailed: iodine, folic acid and vitamin D. Information from 9 interviews was contrasted with the available official and unofficial documents on micronutrients recommendations setting and subsequent policy applications to help the population to achieve their requirements. Common topics and themes were identified in the interviews and desk research. They describe a heterogenic picture of isolated initiatives and timid measures regarding micronutrients recommendations and subsequent policy instruments. Several recommendations coexist but none of them is the result of an official request by the government or competent authority. Iodine, folic acid and vitamin D represent the past, the present and the future of public health policy measures on micronutrients in Spain. Despite of some examples, there exist a need for action. Current nutrition strategies are focused on obesity, with little room for micronutrients national measures despite of the opinion of many experts. Regardless of the several nutrients recommendations coexisting nowadays in Spain, there exist the need for a coordinated action in the field of micronutrients recommendations, fostered by the health and nutrition official authorities with financial support and clear terms of reference.

  17. Focusing the Sun: State Considerations for Designing Community Solar Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Jeffrey J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Shah, Monisha R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-31

    This report summarizes outcomes from the National Community Solar Partnership State Best Practices working group by identifying key differences in state policies that enable community solar and illustrating how various policy design approaches may impact the market. For the latter question, it is too early to quantify a relationship between policy design and market impacts, because most state programs have not been fully implemented. So, the authors conducted interviews with 19 subject matter experts, including project developers, regulators, and utilities to better understand how various policy design approaches may impact community solar markets. These perspectives, along with those gleaned from the working group and relevant literature were synthesized to identify key considerations for policymakers designing community solar programs. Though state community solar policies vary in numerous ways, the report focuses on the following critical elements: program cap, project size cap, subscriber location requirements, subscriber eligibility requirements, low- and moderate-income stipulations, and subscriber compensation.

  18. Recommendation 1074 on family policy, 3 May 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    This document contains a 1988 Recommendation of the Council of Europe on family policy in which the Council recognizes the profound changes which have occurred in family structure and the increased tensions within families caused by such factors as poverty and crime. The Council notes, however, that the family remains a popular institution for young people and that some changes, such as the replacement of the marriage-alliance with the marriage-partnership, have been positive. Also the family is the best place for nurturing human relationships and caring for children and the elderly. Both "legitimate" and "de facto" families must be recognized, and the emancipation of women requires a democratization of the family which implies equality and protects the exercise of free choice among its members. After drawing attention to earlier Recommendations, the Council recommends that the governments of member states base their preparation of family policy on specific proposals: 1) legislation should protect equality between the sexes and children's rights, pay attention to the problems encountered by spouses of different nationalities, contain policies on adoption and reproductive technologies, and be directed to eliminating domestic violence; 2) working life should have greater flexibility, including parental leave; 3) separate taxation should be enacted for spouses, a flat-rate child allowance should be introduced instead of tax reductions, and costs of caring for preschool-age children should be tax deductible; 4) social security should recognize the value of housework and child care, a minimum guaranteed income should be explored, individual rights should be established, people should be credited for time spent giving care to dependents, and the European Convention on Social Security should be ratified; 5) housing needs of families should be met and the infrastructures of towns should meet the needs of inhabitants, social infrastructure should help families care for

  19. A literature review of the market effects of federal biofuel policy and recommendations for future policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Alex Elgin

    The United States has had a federal biofuels policy since the 1970s. The purpose of this policy was to help the development of a biofuel industry during a time of high fuel prices in order to provide a domestic alternative to expensive foreign oil. Later the policy was changed to help lower the environmental impact caused by conventional fuels. Since that time the industry has grown and currently produces around 15 billion gallons of biofuels every year. The current federal biofuel policy is largely based on one program, the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS), which mandates the production and blending of several different classes of biofuels and provides a form of subsidy to the biofuel industry. This paper examines the market effects of the federal biofuel policy and provides recommendations for improving the policy to counteract any negative effects. Federal biofuel policy has many far-reaching market effects. Some are easily calculable through expenditures and lost revenues, while others are harder to quantify because their full effects are not yet known. By evaluating these market effects, this paper will provide ample evidence that the federal biofuels policy needs to change, and will show what effects these changes could induce. The biofuels industry largely owes its existence to government policies, however as the research shows the industry can now stand on its own. This paper will examine what will happen if the federal policy is eliminated and what the future of the biofuels industry could hold. Based on these examinations, it is unlikely that the industry needs further government support and policies should be adjusted in light of this.

  20. Policy and science in children's health and environment: recommendations from the PINCHE project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hazel, Peter; Zuurbier, Moniek; Bistrup, Marie Louise; Busby, Chris; Fucic, Aleksandra; Koppe, Janna G; Lundqvist, Christofer; Ronchetti, Roberto; ten Tusscher, Gavin

    2006-10-01

    Policy recommendations result from the discussions and analysis of the present situation in environment and health. Such analysis was performed in PINCHE. This led to recommendations based on the scientific literature. In the field of children's environmental health the policy process will follow more or less fixed rules, but this process is still at an early level of development. The link between science and policy still faces many challenges. Scientific assessment of environmental risk must recognize and tackle the problems of data sets, variability of human and environmental systems, the range, spatial and temporal diffusion of potential health effects and many biases and confounding factors. The PINCHE network recommends a general improvement of the supporting scientific fields in environment and health. Assessments from epidemiology or toxicology should play a key role in influencing science-policy decisions in programmes that are intended to inform the public policy process. Scientific committees at a local level could play a role. The relation between health and environment needs to be better incorporated in training and education. There is a need for harmonization of data production and use. The priorities in PINCHE focus on the most important issues. A classification of low, medium or high priority for action was used to describe a range of different environmental stressors. PINCHE provided recommendations to reduce exposure for children. Exposure reduction is not always linked to improved health in the short term, but it will reduce the body burden of accumulating chemicals in children. A strategic choice is reduction of exposure of children to compounds by changing production techniques or by increasing the distance of child specific settings to sources. The contribution of all players in the production, distribution and use of scientific knowledge in the field of children's environmental health is necessary.

  1. Biological invasions: recommendations for U.S. policy and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodge, David M; Williams, Susan; MacIsaac, Hugh J; Hayes, Keith R; Leung, Brian; Reichard, Sarah; Mack, Richard N; Moyle, Peter B; Smith, Maggie; Andow, David A; Carlton, James T; McMichael, Anthony

    2006-12-01

    The Ecological Society of America has evaluated current U.S. national policies and practices on biological invasions in light of current scientific knowledge. Invasions by harmful nonnative species are increasing in number and area affected; the damages to ecosystems, economic activity, and human welfare are accumulating. Without improved strategies based on recent scientific advances and increased investments to counter invasions, harm from invasive species is likely to accelerate. Federal leadership, with the cooperation of state and local governments, is required to increase the effectiveness of prevention of invasions, detect and respond quickly to new potentially harmful invasions, control and slow the spread of existing invasions, and provide a national center to ensure that these efforts are coordinated and cost effective. Specifically, the Ecological Society of America recommends that the federal government take the following six actions: (1) Use new information and practices to better manage commercial and other pathways to reduce the transport and release of potentially harmful species; (2) Adopt more quantitative procedures for risk analysis and apply them to every species proposed for importation into the country; (3) Use new cost-effective diagnostic technologies to increase active surveillance and sharing of information about invasive species so that responses to new invasions can be more rapid and effective; (4) Create new legal authority and provide emergency funding to support rapid responses to emerging invasions; (5) Provide funding and incentives for cost-effective programs to slow the spread of existing invasive species in order to protect still uninvaded ecosystems, social and industrial infrastructure, and human welfare; and (6) Establish a National Center for Invasive Species Management (under the existing National Invasive Species Council) to coordinate and lead improvements in federal, state, and international policies on invasive species

  2. NAACP Policy Recommendations for Economic Growth and Combating Inflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisis, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Reacts to the Reagan Administration's economic plans. Presents NAACP policy positions on combating inflation, tax relief, unemployment, and stimulating growth in inner cities to offset urban blight. (MK)

  3. Policy and science in children's health and environment : Recommendations from the PINCHE project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazel, P.J. van den; Zuurbier, M.; Bistrup, M.L.; Busby, C.; Fucic, A.; Koppe, J.G.; Lundqvist, C.; Ronchetti, R.; Tusscher, G. Ten

    2006-01-01

    Background: Policy recommendations result from the discussions and analysis of the present situation in environment and health. Such analysis was performed in PINCHE. This led to recommendations based on the scientific literature. In the field of children's environmental health the policy process

  4. Use of Focus Group Data to Develop Recommendations for Demographically Segmented Colorectal Cancer Educational Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Cheryl L.; Shipp, Michele; Eloubeidi, Mohamad; Clay, Kimberly S.; Smith-Janas, Mary Ann; Janas, Michael John; Britt, Kristi; Norena, Maria; Fouad, Mona N.

    2009-01-01

    Screening is available and effective in colorectal cancer (CRC) control, but underutilized. The purpose of this study was to use focus group data to develop recommendations for the development of educational interventions to increase CRC screening, using an audience segmentation strategy. Demographic segments were based on urban-rural residence,…

  5. Using research evidence to reframe the policy debate around mental illness and guns: process and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Emma E; Frattaroli, Shannon; Appelbaum, Paul S; Bonnie, Richard J; Grilley, Anna; Horwitz, Joshua; Swanson, Jeffrey W; Webster, Daniel W

    2014-11-01

    Recent mass shootings have prompted a national dialogue around mental illness and gun policy. To advance an evidence-informed policy agenda on this controversial issue, we formed a consortium of national gun violence prevention and mental health experts. The consortium agreed on a guiding principle for future policy recommendations: restricting firearm access on the basis of certain dangerous behaviors is supported by the evidence; restricting access on the basis of mental illness diagnoses is not. We describe the group's process and recommendations.

  6. Resource Needs for English Learners: Getting Down to Policy Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandara, Patricia; Maxwell-Jolly, Julie; Rumberger, Russell W.

    2008-01-01

    This document is an extension of "Resource Needs for California's English Learners" and is the result of deliberations from several informal meetings and two formal meetings of major stakeholders in the area of English Learner (EL) education. Its intent is to suggest a series of policy options, based on data examined in the initial…

  7. Homeless and Special Education Administrative Collaboration: Recommendations. Policy Forum Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Diana; Burdette, Paula; Julianelle, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Project Forum at the National Association of State Directors of Special Education (NASDSE) and the National Center for Homeless Education (NCHE) worked together to collect information regarding the need for a policy forum on the topic of administrative collaboration between school personnel who support homeless education under the McKinney-Vento…

  8. Policy recommendations for Canadian municipal greenhouse gas trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seskus, A.

    2002-01-01

    The municipal policies regarding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading from municipalities in developed countries outside of Canada were examined in an effort to help establish a position on municipal carbon trading in Canada. The main uncertainty regarding this new concept of GHG emissions trading is the fate of the Kyoto Protocol, when or if it will be ratified. It is premature for municipalities to have well-established polices about emissions trading because the country in which a municipality is located determines the position towards GHG emissions trading. For this study, an extensive literature search of municipal policies was conducted for both GHG trading and domestic national GHG trading. This was followed by a survey on emissions trading which was distributed to more than 350 member cities (including the United States, Europe and Australia) of the International Council for Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI) Cities for Climate Protection (CCP) Campaign. The literature search revealed that municipalities outside of Canada have not yet formulated policies to address the issue of emissions trading. Only 7 per cent of the cities felt that they were informed about emissions trading, even in Europe and Australia where domestic emissions trading is closer to becoming a reality. This paper demonstrated that it is evident that more training is needed for municipalities regarding this issue. For the very few cities that had developed a GHG trading policy, each municipal policy supported municipal participation in emissions trading under conditions that included an environmental retirement, a do-no-harm clause, or an obligation to meet voluntary commitments before excess emissions can be traded. refs., tabs., figs

  9. Additive Manufacturing in Finland: Recommendations for a Renewed Innovation Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ituarte, Iñigo Flores; Salmi, Mika; Ballardini, Rosa Maria; Tuomi, Jukka; Partanen, Jouni

    The objective of this research is to define an optimal innovation policy and funding strategy to improve Additive Manufacturing (AM) capabilities in Finnish companies. To do so, we present an international review of innovation programs in the area of AM. In addition, the study replied upon a survey prepared to evaluate factors for AM implementation. The ultimate goal is to help in the definition of a national policy strategy in the area of AM based on the characteristics of the Finnish industrial ecosystem. The methodology and data collection method involved defining the taxonomy of Finnish AM industry. The target group of the survey was a population of AM experts, and individuals with knowledge on AM and industrial processes. Overall, the survey revealed that research and innovation activities are well positioned in Finland. In order for future innovation policies to further support developments in the field, we estimated that policy strategies need to generate about 6-8 M€/year in national and EU- funding instruments for AM technology transfer, development, and innovation activities. Efforts should be targeted towards strengthening uses of AM in final production. In fact, only 36% of Finnish respondents declared to use AM for final production, while leading countries in AM use it in average more than 50%. Another area in need of development in Finland is the use of AM high performance materials. Moreover, outsourcing of AM services in Finland is 23 percentage point higher in national and 13 percentage point higher in international outsourcing to service bureaus and suppliers. In this regard, future policies and funding strategies should maintain the created momentum. However, there is a need to acquire high-end research and industrial equipment to stimulate AM integration to the existing production systems. This in the end can trigger the creation of new products, processes and intellectual property, enabling innovation and competitive advantage.

  10. Main Issues on Electronic Commerce and Policy Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Chongwha Lee; Seongbong Lee

    1998-01-01

    "Electronic Commerce" means that people sell and buy commodity, labor service and information through internet and now is mainly be used in commercial intercourse. The core of the international research related to Electronic Commerce is a tax-exemption, land tax, liberalization of encrypted technology and privacy protection policy, etc. Meanwhile, intellectual property, consumer protection and limitation of packing specification are also researched together with the business activeness. The r...

  11. Family Policies in Eastern Europe: A Focus on Parental Leave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robila, Mihaela

    2012-01-01

    Family policy is an issue of concern for many Governments. Family policies are organized around the four main functions of the family: marriage, childrearing, financial support and family care. Eastern Europe is an area with significant socio-economic and political changes in the last decades that determined revisions of social policies. The goal…

  12. Climate change and mountain water resources: overview and recommendations for research, management and policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Viviroli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Mountains are essential sources of freshwater for our world, but their role in global water resources could well be significantly altered by climate change. How well do we understand these potential changes today, and what are implications for water resources management, climate change adaptation, and evolving water policy? To answer above questions, we have examined 11 case study regions with the goal of providing a global overview, identifying research gaps and formulating recommendations for research, management and policy.

    After setting the scene regarding water stress, water management capacity and scientific capacity in our case study regions, we examine the state of knowledge in water resources from a highland-lowland viewpoint, focusing on mountain areas on the one hand and the adjacent lowland areas on the other hand. Based on this review, research priorities are identified, including precipitation, snow water equivalent, soil parameters, evapotranspiration and sublimation, groundwater as well as enhanced warming and feedback mechanisms. In addition, the importance of environmental monitoring at high altitudes is highlighted. We then make recommendations how advancements in the management of mountain water resources under climate change could be achieved in the fields of research, water resources management and policy as well as through better interaction between these fields.

    We conclude that effective management of mountain water resources urgently requires more detailed regional studies and more reliable scenario projections, and that research on mountain water resources must become more integrative by linking relevant disciplines. In addition, the knowledge exchange between managers and researchers must be improved and oriented towards long-term continuous interaction.

  13. OECD Policy Recommendations on Security for Biological Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radisch, J.

    2007-01-01

    Biomedical innovations derived from research on pathogenic micro-organisms promise astounding health and economic benefits. Some such biological resources employed in the RandD for diagnostic kits, vaccines and therapeutics, however, possess capacity for dual-use; they may be misused to develop biological weapons. Research facilities entrusted with possession of such dual-use materials have a responsibility to comply with biosecurity measures that are designed to prevent loss or theft and thereby reduce the probability of a bioterrorist attack. The OECD has provided a forum for its Member countries to engage in a dialogue of international co-operation with a view to produce policies that achieve a research environment fortified by biosecurity measures and capable of producing health innovations. In 2007, the OECD developed a risk assessment framework and risk management principles for Biological Resource Centres. Ongoing policy work at the OECD will look to design biosecurity guidelines appropriate to a broader range of facilities in possession of dual-use materials, such as university and industrial laboratories.(author)

  14. Supporting recommendations to policies for expanding the building of nuclear stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasr, Nahla

    2009-01-01

    This article speaks about the policy recommendations concerning the future of nuclear energy. It includes the findings and recommendations based upon the presentations and discussions at the meeting of nearly 40 scientists, policy makers, industry representatives, and non governmental experts from around the world. The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists convened them. The meeting was cosponsored by the University of Chicago, Argonne National Laboratory, and the Chicago Council on Science and Technology

  15. Recommendations for a software quality assurance policy for the nuclear waste disposal risk assessment programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, I.E.

    1985-05-01

    This study reviewed a number of published standards for software quality assurance, and included a series of interviews with software developers aimed at exploring their attitudes to software quality assurance. Recommendations for software quality assurance policy are made based on the above investigations. This document provides a summary of the recommendations made in the full report on project, reference MR-CDS-4. (author)

  16. ATS-6 and State Telecommunications Policy for Rural Alaska: An Analysis of Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Theda Sue; Orvik, James M.

    This paper analyzes thirteen recommendations for media policy making in rural Alaska which were formulated as a product of a study of the educational television aspect of the ATS-6 (Applications Technology Satellite) project in 1974-75. The recommendations, which emphasize local media control, were based on information provided by village…

  17. Main Issues on Electronic Commerce and Policy Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongwha Lee

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available "Electronic Commerce" means that people sell and buy commodity, labor service and information through internet and now is mainly be used in commercial intercourse. The core of the international research related to Electronic Commerce is a tax-exemption, land tax, liberalization of encrypted technology and privacy protection policy, etc. Meanwhile, intellectual property, consumer protection and limitation of packing specification are also researched together with the business activeness. The reason why questions related to Electronic Commerce are in the back of the spotlight is that US and major countries in EU lead the international research to maximize their own benefits. These researches are related to rectify legal system framework for protecting development of Electronic Commerce and to work out international standards. Also, enlarging Electronic Commerce on online resources is also regarded as the core issue by OECD, APEC and other international organization and it is inevitable to have multilateral negotiation regarding this issue. Based on the opinion above mentioned, we collect all the problems brought by Electronic Commerce Activeness in each area in this paper and try to find out corresponding solutions to face these problems.

  18. Decarbonizing the international shipping industry: Solutions and policy recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Zheng; El Makhloufi, Abdel; Chen, Yang; Tang, Jiayuan

    2018-01-01

    Ship-source greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions could increase by up to 250% by 2050 from their 2012 levels, owing to increasing global freight volumes. Binding international legal agreements to regulate GHGs, however, are lacking as technical solutions remain expensive, and crucial industrial support is absent. In 2003, the International Maritime Organization adopted Resolution A.963 (23) to regulate shipping CO 2 emissions via technical, operational, and market-based routes. However, progress has been slow and uncertain; there is no concrete emission reduction target or definitive action plan. Yet, a full-fledged roadmap may not even emerge until 2023. In this policy analysis, we revisit the progress of technical, operational, and market-based routes and the associated controversies. We argue that 1) a performance-based index, though good-intentioned, has loopholes affecting meaningful CO 2 emission reductions driven by technical advancements; 2) using slow steaming to cut energy consumption stands out among all operational solutions thanks to its immediate and obvious results, but with the already slow speed in practice, this single source has limited emission reduction potential; 3) without a technology-savvy shipping industry, a market-based approach is essentially needed to address the environmental impact. To give shipping a 50:50 chance for contributing fairly and proportionately to keep global warming below 2°C, deep emission reductions should occur soon. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Leveraging Mindsets to Promote Academic Achievement: Policy Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattan, Aneeta; Savani, Krishna; Chugh, Dolly; Dweck, Carol S

    2015-11-01

    The United States must improve its students' educational achievement. Race, gender, and social class gaps persist, and, overall, U.S. students rank poorly among peers globally. Scientific research shows that students' psychology-their "academic mindsets"-have a critical role in educational achievement. Yet policymakers have not taken full advantage of cost-effective and well-validated mindset interventions. In this article, we present two key academic mindsets. The first, a growth mindset, refers to the belief that intelligence can be developed over time. The second, a belonging mindset, refers to the belief that people like you belong in your school or in a given academic field. Extensive research shows that fostering these mindsets can improve students' motivation; raise grades; and reduce racial, gender, and social class gaps. Of course, mindsets are not a panacea, but with proper implementation they can be an excellent point of entry. We show how policy at all levels (federal, state, and local) can leverage mindsets to lift the nation's educational outcomes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. The Tax Wedge in Slovenia: International Comparison and Policy Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primož Dolenc

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available When taxes on labor are introduced, a “tax wedge” appears between the labor costs paid by the employer (gross wage and the net wage received by an employee. At a certain level of wage, a higher tax wedge increases unemployment and decreases employment, all other things being equal. The paper tackles three main questions: the characteristics of the tax wedge, unemployment and employment rates in OECD countries in the recent past, tax wedge policy in the EU15 and the new EU members and the tax system and its effects on the unemployment and employment rates in Slovenia. We found that the OECD countries can be classified into two groups of countries if the tax wedge, the unemployment rate and the employment rate are taken into consideration. The first group is the high tax wedge, high unemployment rate and low employment rate group of countries, whereas the other group has the opposite characteristics. European member states (old and new have on average a higher tax burden on labor than the OECD average, consequently suffering from higher unemployment rates. Slovenia has an unreasonably high tax wedge; in the EU only Belgium and Germany have a higher tax burden. According to previous and our empirical findings we suggest that Slovenia could benefit from a reduction in the tax wedge.

  1. Healthy food procurement and nutrition standards in public facilities: evidence synthesis and consensus policy recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, Kim D; Atkey, Kayla; Olstad, Dana Lee; Ferdinands, Alexa R; Beaulieu, Dominique; Buhler, Susan; Campbell, Norm; Cook, Brian; L'Abbé, Mary; Lederer, Ashley; Mowat, David; Maharaj, Joshna; Nykiforuk, Candace; Shelley, Jacob; Street, Jacqueline

    2018-01-01

    Unhealthy foods are widely available in public settings across Canada, contributing to diet-related chronic diseases, such as obesity. This is a concern given that public facilities often provide a significant amount of food for consumption by vulnerable groups, including children and seniors. Healthy food procurement policies, which support procuring, distributing, selling, and/or serving healthier foods, have recently emerged as a promising strategy to counter this public health issue by increasing access to healthier foods. Although numerous Canadian health and scientific organizations have recommended such policies, they have not yet been broadly implemented in Canada. To inform further policy action on healthy food procurement in a Canadian context, we: (1) conducted an evidence synthesis to assess the impact of healthy food procurement policies on health outcomes and sales, intake, and availability of healthier food, and (2) hosted a consensus conference in September 2014. The consensus conference invited experts with public health/nutrition policy research expertise, as well as health services and food services practitioner experience, to review evidence, share experiences, and develop a consensus statement/recommendations on healthy food procurement in Canada. Findings from the evidence synthesis and consensus recommendations for healthy food procurement in Canada are described. Specifically, we outline recommendations for governments, publicly funded institutions, decision-makers and professionals, citizens, and researchers. Implementation of healthy food procurement policies can increase Canadians' access to healthier foods as part of a broader vision for food policy in Canada.

  2. Healthy food procurement and nutrition standards in public facilities: evidence synthesis and consensus policy recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim D. Raine

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Unhealthy foods are widely available in public settings across Canada, contributing to diet-related chronic diseases, such as obesity. This is a concern given that public facilities often provide a significant amount of food for consumption by vulnerable groups, including children and seniors. Healthy food procurement policies, which support procuring, distributing, selling, and/or serving healthier foods, have recently emerged as a promising strategy to counter this public health issue by increasing access to healthier foods. Although numerous Canadian health and scientific organizations have recommended such policies, they have not yet been broadly implemented in Canada. Methods: To inform further policy action on healthy food procurement in a Canadian context, we: (1 conducted an evidence synthesis to assess the impact of healthy food procurement policies on health outcomes and sales, intake, and availability of healthier food, and (2 hosted a consensus conference in September 2014. The consensus conference invited experts with public health/nutrition policy research expertise, as well as health services and food services practitioner experience, to review evidence, share experiences, and develop a consensus statement/recommendations on healthy food procurement in Canada. Results: Findings from the evidence synthesis and consensus recommendations for healthy food procurement in Canada are described. Specifically, we outline recommendations for governments, publicly funded institutions, decision-makers and professionals, citizens, and researchers. Conclusion: Implementation of healthy food procurement policies can increase Canadians’ access to healthier foods as part of a broader vision for food policy in Canada.

  3. Recommendations for NRC policy on shift scheduling and overtime at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, P.M.

    1985-07-01

    This report contains the Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL's) recommendations to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for an NRC policy on shift scheduling and hours of work (including overtime) for control room operators and other safety-related personnel in nuclear power plants. First, it is recommended that NRC make three additions to its present policy on overtime: (1) limit personnel to 112 hours of work in a 14-day period, 192 hours in 28 days, and 2260 hours in one year; exceeding these limits would require plant manager approval; (2) add a requirement that licensees obtain approval from NRC if plant personnel are expected to exceed 72 hours of work in a 7-day period, 132 hours in 14 days, 228 hours in 28 days, and 2300 hours in one year; and (3) make the policy a requirement, rather than a nonbinding recommendation. Second, it is recommended that licensees be required to obtain NRC approval to adopt a routine 12-hour/day shift schedule. Third, it is recommended that NRC add several nonbinding recommendations concerning routine 8-hour/day schedules. Finally, because additional data can strengthen the basis for future NRC policy on overtime, five methods are suggested for collecting data on overtime and its effects. 44 refs., 10 tabs

  4. Recommendations for NRC policy on shift scheduling and overtime at nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, P.M.

    1985-07-01

    This report contains the Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL's) recommendations to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for an NRC policy on shift scheduling and hours of work (including overtime) for control room operators and other safety-related personnel in nuclear power plants. First, it is recommended that NRC make three additions to its present policy on overtime: (1) limit personnel to 112 hours of work in a 14-day period, 192 hours in 28 days, and 2260 hours in one year; exceeding these limits would require plant manager approval; (2) add a requirement that licensees obtain approval from NRC if plant personnel are expected to exceed 72 hours of work in a 7-day period, 132 hours in 14 days, 228 hours in 28 days, and 2300 hours in one year; and (3) make the policy a requirement, rather than a nonbinding recommendation. Second, it is recommended that licensees be required to obtain NRC approval to adopt a routine 12-hour/day shift schedule. Third, it is recommended that NRC add several nonbinding recommendations concerning routine 8-hour/day schedules. Finally, because additional data can strengthen the basis for future NRC policy on overtime, five methods are suggested for collecting data on overtime and its effects. 44 refs., 10 tabs.

  5. A Community-Driven Approach to Generate Urban Policy Recommendations for Obesity Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Díez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing research interest in targeting interventions at the neighborhood level to prevent obesity. Healthy urban environments require including residents’ perspectives to help understanding how urban environments relate to residents’ food choices and physical activity levels. We describe an innovative community-driven process aimed to develop environmental recommendations for obesity prevention. We conducted this study in a low-income area in Madrid (Spain, using a collaborative citizen science approach. First, 36 participants of two previous Photovoice projects translated their findings into policy recommendations, using an adapted logical framework approach. Second, the research team grouped these recommendations into strategies for obesity prevention, using the deductive analytical strategy of successive approximation. Third, through a nominal group session including participants, researchers, public health practitioners and local policy-makers, we discussed and prioritized the obesity prevention recommendations. Participants identified 12 policy recommendations related to their food choices and 18 related to their physical activity. The research team grouped these into 11 concrete recommendations for obesity prevention. The ‘top-three’ ranked recommendations were: (1 to adequate and increase the number of public open spaces; (2 to improve the access and cost of existing sports facilities and (3 to reduce the cost of gluten-free and diabetic products.

  6. Special Issue of Policy in Focus features IDRC supported projects ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-20

    Apr 20, 2016 ... These issues have been at the core of a series of projects supported by IDRC that have also been prioritised by The International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth's (IPC-IG) research and knowledge-sharing activities. IDRC has supported research to examine how social protection impacts labour markets, ...

  7. Baltic Eye: Focusing on Science and Communication to Improve Policy Making for the Baltic Sea Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrackin, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    In order to better communicate relevant scientific knowledge to policy- and decision makers, Stockholm University and the Baltic Sea 2020 Foundation partnered to create Baltic Eye in 2014. Seven scientists and two communicators constitute the core team of this initiative. The team integrates communications with scientific analysis and synthesis of Baltic Sea environmental issues. In the past year, the team has focused on two main issues: fisheries management and microplastics. Baltic Sea cod stocks are in poor condition, with large numbers of small individuals. Baltic Eye recommended improvements to the European Union's multiannual fisheries plan to better align with ecosystem-based management principles: prioritization of cod stock recovery, greater consideration of natural variability of temperature and salinity (which affects cod spawning success), and inclusion of mechanisms to adjust quotas in the event of major environmental changes. Communications included policy briefs and debate articles targeted to the European Parliament, national government ministries, and non-governmental organizations. Every year, up to 40 tons of microplastics from personal care products are released in the Baltic Sea catchment. Baltic Eye raised awareness of the issue and made recommended ways to reduce microplastic emissions. Communications included a public presentation to journalists, politicians, and representatives of Swedish government ministries. A policy brief was provided Heads of Delegates of the Helsinki Commission (for protrection of the Baltic Sea environment) in advance of a meeting to develop a plan of action for marine litter. Researchers were interviewed for radio, TV, and print media in Sweden, Finland, and Germany. Next steps are to engage with multinational manufacturers about plans to voluntarily phase out microplastics in personal care products.

  8. Malaria Policy Advisory Committee to the WHO: conclusions and recommendations of seventh biannual meeting (March 2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-05

    The Malaria Policy Advisory Committee to the World Health Organization held its seventh meeting in Geneva, Switzerland from 5 to 7 March 2015. This article provides a summary of the discussions, conclusions and meeting recommendations. Meeting sessions included: an update on the Greater Mekong Subregion elimination strategy; an update on the RTS,S vaccine; G6PD testing to support the safe use of anti-relapse therapy for Plasmodium vivax; update from the Vector Control Advisory Group; newly proposed evidence reviews or consultations on malaria terminology, malaria in pregnancy, and the feasibility of eradication; as well as updates from the World Health Organization Global Malaria Programme regarding their strategy update and policy setting processes. Policy statements, position statements, and guidelines that arise from the Malaria Policy Advisory Committee meeting conclusions and recommendations will be formally issued and disseminated to World Health Organization Member States by the World Health Organization Global Malaria Programme.

  9. Developing recommendations to improve the quality of diabetes care in Ireland: a policy analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mc Hugh, Sheena M

    2014-09-01

    In 2006, the Health Service Executive (HSE) in Ireland established an Expert Advisory Group (EAG) for Diabetes, to act as its main source of operational policy and strategic advice for this chronic condition. The process was heralded as the starting point for the development of formal chronic disease management programmes. Although recommendations were published in 2008, implementation did not proceed as expected. Our aim was to examine the development of recommendations by the EAG as an instrumental case study of the policy formulation process, in the context of a health system undergoing organisational and financial upheaval.

  10. Preconception care policy, guidelines, recommendations and services across six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shawe, Jill; Delbaere, Ilse; Ekstrand, Maria

    2015-01-01

    : Governmental policy and legislation; Professional bodies and organisations; Healthcare providers; Charitable organisations; Web-based public information and internet sites. Results All countries had preconception recommendations for women with chronic diseases, such as diabetes and epilepsy. Recommendations...... supplementation. Conclusions Current guidelines are heterogeneous. Collaborative research across Europe is required in order to develop evidence-based guidelines for preconception health and care. There is a need to establish a clear strategy for promoting advice and guidance within the European childbearing...

  11. Dismantling the Afghan Opiate Economy: A Cultural and Historical Policy Assessment, with Policy Recommendations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Byrom, Christopher L

    2005-01-01

    .... Specific lessons are taken from a chapter dedicated to Afghan culture, history, and rural power structures, and applied in chapters analyzing the opiate economy and current counter-narcotics policies...

  12. Ethics Guide Recommendations for Organ-Donation-Focused Physicians: Endorsed by the Canadian Medical Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemie, Sam D; Simpson, Christy; Blackmer, Jeff; MacDonald, Shavaun; Dhanani, Sonny; Torrance, Sylvia; Byrne, Paul

    2017-05-01

    Donation physicians are specialists with expertise in organ and tissue donation and have been recognized internationally as a key contributor to improving organ and tissue donation services. Subsequent to a 2011 Canadian Critical Care Society-Canadian Blood Services consultation, the donation physician role has been gradually implemented in Canada. These professionals are generally intensive care unit physicians with an enhanced focus and expertise in organ/tissue donation. They must manage the dual obligation of caring for dying patients and their families while providing and/or improving organ donation services. In anticipation of actual, potential or perceived ethical challenges with the role, Canadian Blood Services in partnership with the Canadian Medical Association organized the development of an evidence-informed consensus process of donation experts and bioethicists to produce an ethics guide. This guide includes overarching principles and benefits of the DP role, and recommendations in regard to communication with families, role disclosure, consent discussions, interprofessional conflicts, conscientious objection, death determination, donation specific clinical practices in neurological determination of death and donation after circulatory death, end-of-life care, performance metrics, resources and remuneration. Although this report is intended to inform donation physician practices, it is recognized that the recommendations may have applicability to other professionals (eg, physicians in intensive care, emergency medicine, neurology, neurosurgery, pulmonology) who may also participate in the end-of-life care of potential donors in various clinical settings. It is hoped that this guidance will assist practitioners and their sponsoring organizations in preserving their duty of care, protecting the interests of dying patients, and fulfilling best practices for organ and tissue donation.

  13. Globalization, English Language Policy, and Teacher Agency: Focus on Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, M. Obaidul; Nguyen, Hoa Thi Mai

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on English teachers in Asia in the context of globalization, the global spread of English and the emergence of English as an "Asian language." It highlights the dilemmas facing these teachers in meeting the growing social demands of English proficiency in a technology-influenced, managerial and neoliberal education…

  14. Recommendations for international gambling harm-minimisation guidelines: comparison with effective public health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainsbury, Sally M; Blankers, Matthijs; Wilkinson, Claire; Schelleman-Offermans, Karen; Cousijn, Janna

    2014-12-01

    Problem gambling represents a significant public health problem, however, research on effective gambling harm-minimisation measures lags behind other fields, including other addictive disorders. In recognition of the need for consistency between international jurisdictions and the importance of basing policy on empirical evidence, international conventions exist for policy on alcohol, tobacco, and illegal substances. This paper examines the evidence of best practice policies to provide recommendations for international guidelines for harm-minimisation policy for gambling, including specific consideration of the specific requirements for policies on Internet gambling. Evidence indicates that many of the public health policies implemented for addictive substances can be adapted to address gambling-related harms. Specifically, a minimum legal age of at least 18 for gambling participation, licensing of gambling venues and activities with responsible gambling and consumer protection strategies mandated, and brief interventions should be available for those at-risk for and experiencing gambling-related problems. However, there is mixed evidence on the effectiveness of limits on opening hours and gambling venue density and increased taxation to minimise harms. Given increases in trade globalisation and particularly the global nature of Internet gambling, it is recommended that jurisdictions take actions to harmonise gambling public health policies.

  15. Developing Public Policy in Romania: Focusing Responsability, Authority and Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. RINGSMUTH

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available The model of foreign friends visiting fellow democracies to observe and participate in the civic culture, has a long and distinguished tradition. Tocqueville’s visit to and observations of the United States nearly 200 years ago provide a lofty exemplar to which few could pretend to or attempt to duplicate or approach. Nothing in the following observations is meant to make such a pretense1 My journey in Romania has been and will be substantially less noted and notable, but my observations are offered with similar intentions. Rather they are meant in the spirit and offered with the hope that they might, in some small way, begin to make a contribution to the dialogue about the development of democracy and democratic institutions in Romania. In particular, here, I am concerned with Romania’s ability, will and means to develop public policy.

  16. Environmental tobacco smoke: health policy and focus on Italian legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldi, G; Fovi De Ruggiero, G; Marsella, L T; De Luca d'Alessandro, E

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide tobacco smoking kills nearly 6 million people each year, including more than 600,000 non-smokers who die from smoke exposure. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, also called secondhand smoke, involuntary smoke, or passive smoke) is the combination of sidestream smoke, the smoke given off by a burning tobacco product and mainstream smoke, the smoke exhaled by smokers. People may be exposed to ETS in homes, cars, workplaces, and public places, such as bars, restaurants, and recreational settings. In addition, there is another type of smoke which until now has not been recognized: the so-called thirdhand smoke, that comes from the reaction of mainstream smoke and environmental nitrous acid (HNO2) making carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs). The effects of ETS on human health are well-known, passive smoking is harmful to those who breathe the toxins and it is a serious problem for public health. The smoking ban in Italy had reduced ETS pollution, as in the United States and in other countries all over the world. However, the implementation of comprehensive legislation on smoking policy will necessitate other tobacco control measures for its successful fulfillment: increased media awareness, telephone smoking cessation helplines and smoking cessation support services could be an opportunity to ensure awareness, comprehension and support to those who want to quit smoking. The effectiveness of legislative efforts will also depend on successful enforcement of smoking bans and compliance with the legislation. This review summarizes the evidences about the effect of ETS and provides an overview of smoke-free laws and policies.

  17. Wartime Distribution Operations: Roles of Focused Logistics, Velocity Management, Strategic Distribution Policy and Air Clearance Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gardner, Mark

    2004-01-01

    ...) and service policies on materiel consolidation and air clearance authority. The paper argues that developing common DoD and services policies for materiel consolidation and air clearance will result in a more effective joint distribution system...

  18. Recommendations for institutional policy and network regulatory frameworks towards distributed generation in EU Member States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ten Donkelaar, M.; Van Oostvoorn, F. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2005-01-01

    Recommendations regarding the development of regulatory frameworks and institutional policies towards an optimal integration of distributed generation (DG) into electricity networks are presented. These recommendations are based on findings from a benchmarking study conducted in the framework of the ENIRDG-net project. The aim of the benchmarking exercise was to identify examples of well-defined pro-DG policies, with clear targets and adequate implementation mechanisms. In this study an adequate pro-DG policy is defined on the basis of a level playing field, a situation where distributed and centralised generation receive equal incentives and have equal access to the liberalised markets for electricity. The benchmark study includes the results of a similar study conducted in the framework of the SUSTELNET project. When comparing the results a certain discrepancy can be noticed between the actual regulation and policy in a number of countries, the medium to long-term targets and the ideal situation described by the level playing field objective. To overcome this discrepancy, a number of recommendations have been drafted for future policy and regulation towards distributed generation.

  19. Malaria Policy Advisory Committee to the WHO: conclusions and recommendations of fifth biannual meeting (March 2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-03

    The Malaria Policy Advisory Committee to the World Health Organization (WHO) held its fifth meeting in Geneva, Switzerland from 12 to 14 March 2014. This article provides a summary of the discussions, conclusions and recommendations from that meeting.Meeting sessions covered: maintaining universal coverage of long-lasting insecticidal nets; combining indoor residual spraying with long-lasting insecticidal nets; the sound management of old long-lasting insecticidal nets; malaria diagnosis in low transmission settings; the Global Technical Strategy for Malaria (2016 -2025); and Technical Expert Group updates on vector control, the RTS,S vaccine, the Malaria Treatment Guidelines, anti-malarial drug resistance and containment, and surveillance, monitoring and evaluation.Policy statements, position statements, and guidelines that arise from the Malaria Policy Advisory Committee meeting conclusions and recommendations will be formally issued and disseminated to WHO Member States by the WHO Global Malaria Programme.

  20. Supporting Evidence-Based Policy on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services: Recommendations for Effective Policy Briefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balian, Estelle V.; Drius, Liza; Eggermont, Hilde; Livoreil, Barbara; Vandewalle, Marie; Vandewoestjine, Sofie; Wittmer, Heidi; Young, Juliette

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge brokerage on biodiversity and ecosystem services can apply communication tools such as policy briefs to facilitate the dialogue between scientists and policymakers. There is currently considerable debate on how to go beyond the linear communication model, outdated in theoretical debate but still often implicitly leading interaction with…

  1. Modeling Uncertainty and the Economics of Climate Change. Recommendations for Robust Energy Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haurie, A.; Tavoni, M.; Van der Zwaan, B.C.C.

    2011-01-01

    This special issue is meant to gather front-edge research and innovative analysis in the modeling of uncertainty related to the economics of climate change. The focus is notably on advancements in probabilistic integrated assessment modeling and stochastic analysis of climate futures. The possibility to use non-probabilistic economic methods to treat uncertainty in global or regional dynamic climate change models is explored as well. Given the intimate link between climate change and the nature of mankind's energy production and consumption system, this special issue also proffers direct practical recommendations for energy decision making at the global, regional, and national levels. The special issue originated from a series of research tasks carried out under the PLANETS project, funded by the European Commission under its 7th Framework Programme and co-coordinated by the Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM) and the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN). This project, accomplished in 2010, had, as main focus, how to incorporate uncertainty when carrying out numerical analysis of climate and energy policies. A special PLANETS session was organized during the 2010 edition of the International Energy Workshop (IEW 2010, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm), which generated broad expert discussion on both methodology and policy-related issues. The recognition of the importance of these topics and the diversity of approaches undertaken, plus a concern over them becoming fragmented in the literature, constituted the motivation to edit this special issue gathering the generated material in one orchestrated publication. Several contributions, in the form of 12 papers, have been brought together with the aim of providing a comprehensive overview of some of the main recent developments in the modeling of uncertainty in the economics of climate change. We categorize these 12 articles in five distinct domains in hybrid integrated assessment EEE (Energy

  2. Malaria Policy Advisory Committee to the WHO: conclusions and recommendations of September 2012 meeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Malaria Policy Advisory Committee to the World Health Organization met in Geneva, Switzerland from 11 to 13 September, 2012. This article provides a summary of the discussions, conclusions and recommendations from that meeting. Meeting sessions included: updated policy recommendations on the use of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine for Intermittent Preventive Treatment of malaria in pregnancy, as well as the use of single dose primaquine as a Plasmodium falciparum gametocytocide; the need to develop a Global Technical Strategy for Malaria Control and Elimination 2016– 2025 and a global strategy for control of Plasmodium vivax; the Affordable Medicines Facility for malaria independent evaluation and promoting malaria case management in the private sector; updates from the Technical Expert Group on drug resistance and containment and the Evidence Review Group on malaria burden estimation; update on the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine; progress on the policy setting process for malaria vector control; and the process for updating the WHO Guidelines for the Treatment of Malaria. Policy statements, position statements, and guidelines that arise from the MPAC meeting conclusions and recommendations will be formally issued and disseminated to World Health Organization Member States by the World Health Organization Global Malaria Programme.

  3. Malaria Policy Advisory Committee to the WHO: conclusions and recommendations of September 2013 meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    The Malaria Policy Advisory Committee to the World Health Organization held its fourth meeting in Geneva, Switzerland from 11 to 13 September, 2013. This article provides a summary of the discussions, conclusions and recommendations from that meeting.Meeting sessions included: recommendations for achieving universal coverage of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets; guidance on estimating the longevity of insecticide-treated nets; improving capacity in entomology and vector control; a review of the latest evidence on intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy; improving dissemination of Malaria Policy Advisory Committee guidance; updates on the development of the global technical strategy for malaria control and elimination (2016-2025) and the global strategy for control and elimination of Plasmodium vivax; updates from the drug resistance and containment technical expert group, the evidence review group on malaria burden estimation, a consultation on malaria case management indicators, and the constitution of the surveillance, monitoring and evaluation technical expert group; subnational elimination criteria; and consideration for future evidence review groups, including diagnosis in low transmission settings and testing for Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency.Policy statements, position statements and guidelines that arise from the Malaria Policy Advisory Committee meeting conclusions and recommendations will be formally issued and disseminated to World Health Organization Member States by the World Health Organization Global Malaria Programme.

  4. A Review of Electric Vehicle Lifecycle Emissions and Policy Recommendations to Increase EV Penetration in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachana Vidhi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicles reduce pollution only if a high percentage of the electricity mix comes from renewable sources and if the battery manufacturing takes place at a site far from the vehicle use region. Industries developed due to increased electric vehicle adoption may also cause additional air pollution. The Indian government has committed to solving New Delhi’s air pollution issues through an ambitious policy of switching 100% of the light duty consumer vehicles to electric vehicles by 2030. This policy is based on vehicle grid interaction and relies on shared mobility through the electric vehicle fleet. There are several human behavioral changes necessary to achieve 100% adoption of electric vehicles. This paper reviews different steps in the lifecycle of an electric vehicle (EV, their impact on environmental emissions, and recommends policies suitable for different socio-economic group that are relevant to the Indian market. To reduce air pollution through adoption of electric vehicles, the Indian government needs to adopt policies that increase sale of electric vehicles, increase percentage of renewable energy in the electricity mix, and prevent air pollution caused from battery manufacturing. The recommended policies can be customized for any market globally for reducing air pollution through increased adoption of electric vehicles.

  5. Better Policies Accelerate Clean Energy Transition. Policy brief - Focus on energy system flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karimi, Farid; Lund, Peter; Skytte, Klaus

    2018-01-01

    . We present seven major recommendations, which could mitigate the market barriers to flexibility. A central recommendation is to have better tariffs for electricity and grid use to promote flexibility. This would improve the coupling of access renewable power to other sectors such as heat, transport...

  6. Developing recommendations to improve the quality of diabetes care in Ireland: a policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Hugh, Sheena M; Perry, Ivan J; Bradley, Colin; Brugha, Ruairí

    2014-09-18

    In 2006, the Health Service Executive (HSE) in Ireland established an Expert Advisory Group (EAG) for Diabetes, to act as its main source of operational policy and strategic advice for this chronic condition. The process was heralded as the starting point for the development of formal chronic disease management programmes. Although recommendations were published in 2008, implementation did not proceed as expected. Our aim was to examine the development of recommendations by the EAG as an instrumental case study of the policy formulation process, in the context of a health system undergoing organisational and financial upheaval. This study uses Kingdon's Multiple Streams Theory to examine the evolution of the EAG recommendations. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 15 stakeholders from the advisory group. Interview data were supplemented with documentary analysis of published and unpublished documents. Thematic analysis was guided by the propositions of the Kingdon model. In the problem stream, the prioritisation of diabetes within the policy arena was a gradual process resulting from an accumulation of evidence, international comparison, and experience. The policy stream was bolstered by group consensus rather than complete agreement on the best way to manage the condition. The EAG assumed the politics stream was also on course to converge with the other streams, as the group was established by the HSE, which had the remit for policy implementation. However, the politics stream did not converge due to waning support from health service management and changes to the organisational structure and financial capacity of the health system. These changes trumped the EAG process and the policy window remained closed, stalling implementation. Our results reflect the dynamic nature of the policy process and the importance of timing. The results highlight the limits of rational policy making in the face of organisational and fiscal upheaval

  7. Recommendations for policy development regarding sport-related concussion prevention and management in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frémont, Pierre; Bradley, Lindsay; Tator, Charles H; Skinner, Jill; Fischer, Lisa K

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Concussion Collaborative (CCC) is composed of health-related organisations concerned with the recognition, treatment and management of concussion. Its mission is to create synergy between organisations concerned with concussion to improve education and implementation of best practices for the prevention and management of concussions. Each of the organisations that constitute the CCC has endorsed two recommendations that address the need for relevant authorities to develop policies about concussion management in sports. The recommendations were developed to support advocacy for regulations, policies or legislation to improve concussion prevention and management at all levels of sport. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Radon in HUD assisted multifamily housing: Policy recommendations to the Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    The report complies with Section 1091 of the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Amendments Act of 1988 which requires that the HUD Secretary report to the Congress on a recommended policy for addressing radon contamination in specified housing. The housing specified in the Act is virtually all rental housing predominantly for low-income and moderate-income households. Almost all of it is multifamily housing: row houses, walk-up apartment buildings, or high-rise buildings. There is inadequate information on the extent to which excessive concentrations of radon occur above the first floor of multistory buildings and on the variation in radon concentrations in attached houses in the same row. HUD's recommended policy is in the four topic areas specified in the Act: research, education, testing, and mitigation

  9. Environmental components of OCS policy committee recommendations regarding national oil spill prevention and response program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groat, C.G.; Thorman, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Exxon Valdez oil spill of March 24, 1989 resulted in thousands of pages of analytical reports assessing the environmental, organizational, legal, procedural, social, economic, and political aspects of the event. Even though the accident was a transportation incident, it had a major impact on the public and political perception of offshore oil operations. This caused the OCS Policy Committee, which advises the Secretary of the Interior and the Minerals Management Service on Outer Continental Shelf resource development and environmental matters, to undertake a review of the reports for the purpose of developing recommendations to the secretary for improvements in OCS operations that would insure maximum efforts to prevent spills and optimal ability to deal with any that occur. The Committee felt strongly that 'a credible national spill prevention and response program from both OCS and non-OCS oil spills in the marine environment is needed to create the political climate for a viable OCS program.' The report of the Committee described eight essential elements of this program; four of these focused on the environmental aspects of oil spills, calling for (1) adequate characterization of the marine and coastal environment, including both information and analysis, accessible to decision makers, (2) the capacity to restore economic and environmental resources as quickly as possible if damage occurs, (3) a mechanism for research on oil spill impacts, and (4) a meaningful role for all interested and responsible parties, including the public, in as many of these activities as possible, from spill prevention and contingency planning to environmental oversight of ongoing operations and participation in clean-up and restoration activities

  10. Practitioner-recommended policies and procedures for children exposed to domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Sally; Dempsey, Sandra H; Davis, Martha B

    2010-11-01

    Children exposed to domestic violence experience higher rates of psychosocial, behavioral, and physical problems. Current policy recommendations are that health care providers offer regular screening and treatment for childhood exposure to domestic violence (CEDV). However, screening recommendations have been slow to take hold. The purpose of this study was to identify recommended practices of CEDV, as reported by practitioners. Interviews were held with 24 experienced service providers from 14 agencies. Respondents provided practical suggestions for CEDV screening and intervention. Suggestions included refinement of screening tools for maximum validity and reliability, improved integration of DV education into medical training and practice, on-site DV resources in pediatric settings, and establishment of formal partnerships between human service organizations that promoted ongoing collaborative activities. Next steps are to evaluate outcomes for evidence-based practice.

  11. The 25 IEA energy efficiency policy recommendations to the G8 Gleneagles Plan of Action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jollands, Nigel; Laustsen, Jens; Tanaka, Kanako; De T' Serclaes, Philippine; Barnsley, Ingrid; Bradley, Rick [International Energy Agency (France); Waide, Paul [Navigant (United States); Ellis, Mark [Mark Ellis and Associates (Australia); Onoda, Takao [Japan' s Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport (Japan); Meier, Alan [The Lawrence Berkley Laboratory (United States)

    2010-11-15

    The imperative to pursue energy efficiency improvements is clearly on the political agenda at all levels of governments. This paper explores the lessons from past attempts at galvanising international efforts to expand energy efficiency activities through the use of international-level recommendations. Drawing on these lessons, the paper outlines the IEA response to the call for policy advice on energy efficiency through the G8 Gleneagles Plan of Action. Specifically, the paper outlines a 'necessary conditions' framework that was used to develop a set of energy efficiency policy priorities and describes the subsequent recommendations presented to the G8 in Hokkaido-Toyako Summit in 2008. The recommendations cover 25 fields of action in seven priority areas: buildings, appliances, lighting, transport, industry, energy utilities and cross-sectoral issues. Together, the suite of recommendations sets out an ambitious road map for global energy efficiency improvement. If implemented globally without delay, they could save around 8.2 GtCO{sub 2}/yr or 96 EJ/yr by 2030. This is equivalent to roughly twice the current total EU energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions. (author)

  12. Marine renewable energy policy in China and recommendations for improving implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haifeng; Wang, Ji; Liu, Yuxin; Chen, Libo

    2018-02-01

    Renewable energy is the effective solution for the harmonious coexistence of human and environment as well as for the sustainable development. Marine renewable energy as one of the renewable energies, potentially offer fewer environmental risks and thus community acceptance than other renewable energy developments. Government support is the key and initial power for developing marine renewable energy. To promote the development and utilization of marine renewable energy, the Chinese government has established the special funding plan for marine renewable energy, and released “the 13th Five-years Plan (2016-2020) for marine renewable energy”. This paper describes the mechanisms established by the marine renewable Energy policy in China, and provides a comparative analysis of the Chinese marine renewable energy policy framework. We provides some policy recommendations for future development of marine renewable energy in China.

  13. Healthy by Design: Using a Gender Focus to Influence Complete Streets Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keippel, April Ennis; Henderson, Melissa A; Golbeck, Amanda L; Gallup, TommiLee; Duin, Diane K; Hayes, Stephen; Alexander, Stephanie; Ciemins, Elizabeth L

    2017-10-17

    Public health leaders in Yellowstone County, Montana, formed an alliance to address community-wide issues. One such issue is Complete Streets, with its vision of safe streets for all. This case study focuses on development and adoption of a Complete Streets policy. It examines how a community coalition, Healthy By Design, infused a gender focus into the policymaking process. An incremental and nonlinear policymaking process was aided by a focus on gender and health equity. The focus on a large constituency helped to frame advocacy in terms of a broad population's needs, not just special interests. The city council unanimously adopted a Complete Streets resolution, informed by a gender lens. Healthy By Design further used gender information to successfully mobilize the community in response to threats of repeal of the policy, and then influenced the adoption of a revised policy. Policies developed with a focus on equity, including gender equity, may have broader impact on the community. Such policies may pave the way for future policies that seek to transform gender norms toward building a healthier community for all residents. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Qualitative Research and Consumer Policy: Focus Group Discussions as a Form of Consumer Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiskanen, Eva; Jarvela, Katja; Pulliainen, Annukka; Saastamoinen, Mika; Timonen, Paivi

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes our ongoing attempts to involve consumers in innovation and technology policy by means of a national Consumer Panel, using focus group discussions as the primary method of consumer participation. We evaluate our experiences of the usefulness of focus group discussions in this context by considering two examples of studies…

  15. Toward a national policy for managing low-level radioactive waste: key issues and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duerksen, C.J.; Mantell, M.; Thompson, G.P.

    1981-06-01

    The Conservation Foundation, a not-for-profit research and public education organization, asked individuals with diverse backgrounds and viewpoints to come together under Foundation leadership as a Dialogue Group on Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management. The group, including persons who represent waste generators, concerned citizens, state regulators, and environmentalists, met over an 18-month period to discuss issues crucial to the development of a national policy on low-level wastes. The Dialogue Group agreed that three principles, if accepted broadly, would form the basis of a sound national policy for managing low-level radioactive wastes: with proper implementation, technology exists to manage low-level waste safely; generators and their customers should pay disposal costs; and greater public involvement at all stages can improve the disposal system. These principles acted as polestars for the group as it worked toward a series of policy recommendations in four main areas: (1) cleaning up closed commercial sites; (2) remodeling a system for defining and classifying low-level radioactive waste; (3) siting new low-level waste disposal facilities; and (4) decommissioning, long-term care, and liability. This report presents an extensive discussion of these recommendations covering qualifications, limitations, and alternatives

  16. Malaria Policy Advisory Committee to the WHO: conclusions and recommendations of sixth biannual meeting (September 2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-10

    The Malaria Policy Advisory Committee to the World Health Organization held its sixth meeting in Geneva, Switzerland from 10 to 12 September 2014. This article provides a summary of the discussions, conclusions and recommendations from that meeting.Meeting sessions covered the following: an update on drug resistance and containment including an assessment on the feasibility of elimination of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in the Greater Mekong Subregion; guidance on the control of residual malaria transmission by behaviourally resistant vectors; progress on the implementation of the Global Plan for Insecticide Resistance Management; updates on the Global Technical Strategy, Global Malaria Action Plan and the Plasmodium vivax technical brief; gaps in current World Health Organization Global Malaria Programme guidance for acceleration to elimination; surveillance, monitoring and evaluation; the updated World Health Organization Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Malaria; Round 5 product testing for rapid diagnostic tests; and Intermittent Preventive Treatment for infants.Policy statements, position statements, and guidelines that arise from the Malaria Policy Advisory Committee meeting conclusions and recommendations will be formally issued and disseminated to World Health Organization Member States by the World Health Organization Global Malaria Programme.

  17. Advancing Health Marketing Research and Policy Recommendations by Incorporating Source Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackert, Michael; Guadagno, Marie; Champlin, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Communication researchers, recognizing the message sent is not necessarily the same as the message received, have incorporated the perspective of advertising professionals into the study of advertising effects. Health marketing research could similarly benefit from incorporating this largely absent perspective into the academic and policy debate surrounding the impact of advertising on health issues ranging from obesity to alcohol use. This commentary serves as a call to action to stakeholders in this academic and policy debate: focus on the perspective of advertising professionals to enrich health marketing and public health research in which advertising is the delivery vehicle for health messages.

  18. Women Entrepreneurship in the Western Romania. Research Results and Policy Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca DODESCU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the results of the empirical, quantitative, and qualitative research performed in the AntrES project, between 5.01.2009 - 4.01.2011, in the Western Romania, referring to the existence of obvious gender gaps regarding the start up of new businesses and the ownership of the businesses; the characteristics, the motivations, and the difficulties of the women entrepreneurs and potentially enterprising women; the successful women entrepreneurs' perceptions on the sex equality in the field of entrepreneurship - this paper presents arguments and recommendations of specific policies meant to support the potential women entrepreneurship in Romania, as an engine to overcome the economic crisis and to reconnect to the regional development mechanism facilitated by the European Union's regional policy.

  19. Short rotation plantations policy history in Europe: lessons from the past and recommendations for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindegaard, Kevin N; Adams, Paul W R; Holley, Martin; Lamley, Annette; Henriksson, Annika; Larsson, Stig; von Engelbrechten, Hans-Georg; Esteban Lopez, Gonzalo; Pisarek, Marcin

    2016-08-01

    Short rotation plantations (SRPs) are fast-growing trees (such as willow ( Salix spp.), poplar ( Populus spp.) and Eucalyptus ) grown closely together and harvested in periods of 2-20 years. There are around 50,000 hectares of SRPs in Europe, a relatively small area considering that there have been supportive policy measures in many countries for 30 years. This paper looks at the effect that the policy measures used in different EU countries have had, and how other external factors have impacted on the development of the industry. Rokwood was a 3-year European funded project which attempted to understand the obstacles and barriers facing the woody energy crops sector using well established methods of SWOT and PESTLE analysis. Stakeholder groups were formed in six different European regions to analyze the market drivers and barriers for SRP and propose ways that the industry could make progress through targeted research and development and an improved policy framework. Based upon the outcomes of the SWOT and PESTLE analysis, each region produced a series of recommendations for policymakers, public authorities, and government agencies to support the development, production, and use of SRP-derived wood fuel in each of the partner countries. This study provides details of the SRP policy analysis and reveals that each region shared a number of similarities with broad themes emerging. There is a need to educate farmers and policymakers about the multifunctional benefits of SRPs. Greater financial support from regional and/or national government is required in order to grow the SRP market. Introducing targeted subsidies as an incentive for growers could address lack of local supply chains. Long-term policy initiatives should be developed while increasing clarity within Government departments. Research funding should enable closer working between universities and industry with positive research findings developed into supportive policy measures.

  20. Barriers and Recommended Interventions to Prevent Melioidosis in Northeast Thailand: A Focus Group Study Using the Behaviour Change Wheel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornpan Suntornsut

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Melioidosis, an often fatal infectious disease in Northeast Thailand, is caused by skin inoculation, inhalation or ingestion of the environmental bacterium, Burkholderia pseudomallei. The major underlying risk factor for melioidosis is diabetes mellitus. Recommendations for melioidosis prevention include using protective gear such as rubber boots and gloves when in direct contact with soil and environmental water, and consuming bottled or boiled water. Only a small proportion of people follow such recommendations.Nine focus group discussions were conducted to evaluate barriers to adopting recommended preventive behaviours. A total of 76 diabetic patients from northeast Thailand participated in focus group sessions. Barriers to adopting the recommended preventive behaviours and future intervention strategies were identified using two frameworks: the Theoretical Domains Framework and the Behaviour Change Wheel.Barriers were identified in the following five domains: (i knowledge, (ii beliefs about consequences, (iii intention and goals, (iv environmental context and resources, and (v social influence. Of 76 participants, 72 (95% had never heard of melioidosis. Most participants saw no harm in not adopting recommended preventive behaviours, and perceived rubber boots and gloves to be hot and uncomfortable while working in muddy rice fields. Participants reported that they normally followed the behaviour of friends, family and their community, the majority of whom did not wear boots while working in rice fields and did not boil water before drinking. Eight intervention functions were identified as relevant for the intervention: (i education, (ii persuasion, (iii incentivisation, (iv coercion, (v modeling, (vi environmental restructuring, (vii training, and (viii enablement. Participants noted that input from role models in the form of physicians, diabetic clinics, friends and families, and from the government via mass media would be required for them

  1. The Status, Obstacles and Policy Recommendations of Shale Gas Development in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanglin Pi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese government has introduced numerous policies and development plans to boost its shale gas industry in recent years. However, China’s shale gas exploration and development is still in the initial stage and has been confronted with many challenges. This paper systematically analyzes the current status of China’s shale gas industry from five aspects for the first time—resource situation, exploration and development status, policy and planning situation, technology status and international cooperation—then respectively elaborates on the different obstacles of shale gas development in the short run and the medium and long term. We argue that short-term barriers to the Chinese shale gas industry mainly include objective factors, such as geological and surface conditions, shale gas proven reserves, technology innovation and environmental concerns, while some man-made obstacles (except for water scarcity may restrict shale gas development in the medium and long term. In order to better tackle the short-term challenges, this paper proposes policy recommendations from five perspectives: strengthening the investigation and evaluation of China’s shale gas resources; perfecting shale gas industry policy; establishing a national shale gas comprehensive experimental zone; enhancing scientific and technological research; and establishing a shale gas regulatory system with an emphasis on environmental protection and supervision.

  2. Review of hookah tobacco smoking among college students: policy implications and research recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathuru, Irene M; Tarter, Ralph E; Klein-Fedyshin, Michele

    2015-01-01

    About 30% of college students have smoked hookah tobacco. Although most students perceive this product to be innocuous and non-addictive, hookah tobacco increases the risk for disease and nicotine dependence. Currently, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not regulate the manufacture, distribution, or sale of hookah tobacco. Empirical literature pertaining to hookah tobacco smoking is reviewed with a focus on the implications for regulatory policy. PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases were searched to locate articles published in English. The literature search combined several key words including "hookahs", "college", "advertising", "health effects", and "health policy". Smoking hookah tobacco may play a role in the initiation of smoking among tobacco-naïve college students and may portend persistent smoking among those who have smoked cigarettes. College students are typically nondaily, social smokers. They do not perceive that their heightened risk for tobacco diseases and nicotine dependence relates to their smoking behavior. However, few public health messages target college-age adults to counter media messages that endorse hookah tobacco smoking. Given that the FDA is not authorized to ban specific tobacco products, policy actions should focus on the development of effective risk communication strategies that target college-age adults and on limiting the accessibility of hookah tobacco products to these adults. Accordingly, a research agenda that would inform these policy actions is proposed.

  3. Contextual Positive Psychology: Policy Recommendations for Implementing Positive Psychology into Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Ciarrochi, Joseph; Atkins, Paul W. B.; Hayes, Louise L.; Sahdra, Baljinder K.; Parker, Philip

    2016-01-01

    There has been a rapid growth in positive psychology, a research and intervention approach that focuses on promoting optimal functioning and well-being. Positive psychology interventions are now making their way into classrooms all over the world. However, positive psychology has been criticized for being decontextualized and coercive, and for putting an excessive emphasis on positive states, whilst failing to adequately consider negative experiences. Given this, how should policy be used to ...

  4. Are School Policies Focused on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Associated with Less Bullying? Teachers’ Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Stephen T.; Day, Jack K.; Ioverno, Salvatore; Toomey, Russell B.

    2016-01-01

    Bullying is common in U.S. schools and is linked to emotional, behavioral, and academic risk for school-aged students. School policies and practices focused on sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) have been designed to reduce bullying and show promising results. Most studies have drawn from students’ reports: We examined teachers’ reports of bullying problems in their schools along with their assessments of school safety, combined with principals’ reports of SOGI-focused policies and practices. Merging two independent sources of data from over 3,000 teachers (California School Climate Survey) and nearly 100 school principals (School Health Profiles) at the school level, we used multi-level models to understand bullying problems in schools. Our results show that SOGI-focused policies reported by principals do not have a strong independent association with teachers’ reports of bullying problems in their schools. However, in schools with more SOGI-focused policies, the association between teachers’ assessments of school safety and bullying problems is stronger. Recent developments in education law and policy in the United States and their relevance for student well-being are discussed. PMID:26790701

  5. Are school policies focused on sexual orientation and gender identity associated with less bullying? Teachers' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Stephen T; Day, Jack K; Ioverno, Salvatore; Toomey, Russell B

    2016-02-01

    Bullying is common in U.S. schools and is linked to emotional, behavioral, and academic risk for school-aged students. School policies and practices focused on sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) have been designed to reduce bullying and show promising results. Most studies have drawn from students' reports: We examined teachers' reports of bullying problems in their schools along with their assessments of school safety, combined with principals' reports of SOGI-focused policies and practices. Merging two independent sources of data from over 3000 teachers (California School Climate Survey) and nearly 100 school principals (School Health Profiles) at the school level, we used multi-level models to understand bullying problems in schools. Our results show that SOGI-focused policies reported by principals do not have a strong independent association with teachers' reports of bullying problems in their schools. However, in schools with more SOGI-focused policies, the association between teachers' assessments of school safety and bullying problems is stronger. Recent developments in education law and policy in the United States and their relevance for student well-being are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Credit Crisis with focus on level three valuations anFAS157: Analysis and Recommendations for Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph.D. candidate Arber H. Hoti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the effect of level three valuations and FAS 157 implications on investors, auditors’ work, valuation disclosures and gives recommendations for improvements based on best practices. The aim of this research is to demonstrate that the fair value measurements should not be suspended. The standards provide for measurement of fair value in all market conditions. Therefore, level 3 measurements or mark-to-model is an answer for many issuers that are not sure how to measure their assets and liabilities at the fair value. The paper concludes that fair value measurement has not caused the current crisis and has no pro-cyclical effect and suggests several recommendations for policy makers and regulators.

  7. [Bad results obtained from the current public health policies and recommendations of hydration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Mauro Martín, Ismael; Romo Orozco, Denisse Aracely; Mendive Dubourdieu, Paula; Garicano Vilar, Elena; Valente, Ana; Betancor, Fabiana; Morales Hurtado, Alexis Daniel; Garagarza, Cristina

    2016-07-19

    Achieving an adequate intake of water is crucial within a balanced diet. For that purpose, dietary guidelines for healthy eating and drinking are an important consideration and need to be updated and disseminated to the population. We aimed to evaluate the liquid intake habits of a Mediterranean and Latin American population (Spain-Portugal and Mexico-Uruguay) and if they support the current recommendations of hydration by the EFSA. A record of fluid intake was obtained from 1168 participants from 4 countries above; and then compared with current consensus about hydration 1600 mL/day (female) and 2000 mL/day (male). The average fluid intake slightly surpassed the recommended: mean of 2049 mL/day (2,223 mL in males, 1,938 mL in females). Portugal stood out due to its lower intake (mean of 1,365 mL/day). Water contributed the largest part to total fluid intake (37%) in all countries (mean of 1365 mL/day). Hot beverages (18%) and milk and derivates (17%) follow water in highest consumption. The 20% of males and only 0.3% of females knew recommendations of hydration, while 63.3% of males and 62% of females followed them. Only 8.4% of people who follow the recommendations know them. The people studied surpassed the recommendation, although majority they didn´t know it. Future research should examine actual beverage consumption patterns and evaluate if the current consensuses are correctly adapted to the population needs. Hydration's policies should be transmitted to the population for their knowledge and adequate compliance.

  8. Economic and other barriers to adopting recommendations to prevent childhood obesity: results of a focus group study with parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taveras Elsie M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents are integral to the implementation of obesity prevention and management recommendations for children. Exploration of barriers to and facilitators of parental decisions to adopt obesity prevention recommendations will inform future efforts to reduce childhood obesity. Methods We conducted 4 focus groups (2 English, 2 Spanish among a total of 19 parents of overweight (BMI ≥ 85th percentile children aged 5-17 years. The main discussion focused on 7 common obesity prevention recommendations: reducing television (TV watching, removing TV from child's bedroom, increasing physically active games, participating in community or school-based athletics, walking to school, walking more in general, and eating less fast food. Parents were asked to discuss what factors would make each recommendation more difficult (barriers or easier (facilitators to follow. Participants were also asked about the relative importance of economic (time and dollar costs/savings barriers and facilitators if these were not brought into the discussion unprompted. Results Parents identified many barriers but few facilitators to adopting obesity prevention recommendations for their children. Members of all groups identified economic barriers (time and dollar costs among a variety of pertinent barriers, although the discussion of dollar costs often required prompting. Parents cited other barriers including child preference, difficulty with changing habits, lack of information, lack of transportation, difficulty with monitoring child behavior, need for assistance from family members, parity with other family members, and neighborhood walking safety. Facilitators identified included access to physical activity programs, availability of alternatives to fast food and TV which are acceptable to the child, enlisting outside support, dietary information, involving the child, setting limits, making behavior changes gradually, and parental change in shopping

  9. Economic and other barriers to adopting recommendations to prevent childhood obesity: results of a focus group study with parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonneville, Kendrin R; La Pelle, Nancy; Taveras, Elsie M; Gillman, Matthew W; Prosser, Lisa A

    2009-12-21

    Parents are integral to the implementation of obesity prevention and management recommendations for children. Exploration of barriers to and facilitators of parental decisions to adopt obesity prevention recommendations will inform future efforts to reduce childhood obesity. We conducted 4 focus groups (2 English, 2 Spanish) among a total of 19 parents of overweight (BMI >or= 85th percentile) children aged 5-17 years. The main discussion focused on 7 common obesity prevention recommendations: reducing television (TV) watching, removing TV from child's bedroom, increasing physically active games, participating in community or school-based athletics, walking to school, walking more in general, and eating less fast food. Parents were asked to discuss what factors would make each recommendation more difficult (barriers) or easier (facilitators) to follow. Participants were also asked about the relative importance of economic (time and dollar costs/savings) barriers and facilitators if these were not brought into the discussion unprompted. Parents identified many barriers but few facilitators to adopting obesity prevention recommendations for their children. Members of all groups identified economic barriers (time and dollar costs) among a variety of pertinent barriers, although the discussion of dollar costs often required prompting. Parents cited other barriers including child preference, difficulty with changing habits, lack of information, lack of transportation, difficulty with monitoring child behavior, need for assistance from family members, parity with other family members, and neighborhood walking safety. Facilitators identified included access to physical activity programs, availability of alternatives to fast food and TV which are acceptable to the child, enlisting outside support, dietary information, involving the child, setting limits, making behavior changes gradually, and parental change in shopping behaviors and own eating behaviors. Parents identify

  10. Malaria Policy Advisory Committee to the WHO: conclusions and recommendations of March 2013 meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The Malaria Policy Advisory Committee to the World Health Organization met in Geneva, Switzerland from 13 to 15 March, 2013. This article provides a summary of the discussions, conclusions and recommendations from that meeting. Meeting sessions included: a review of the efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapy in Guyana and Suriname; the outcomes from a consultation on non-malaria febrile illness; the outcomes from the second meeting of the Evidence Review Group on malaria burden estimation; an update on the review of the WHO Guidelines for the Treatment of Malaria; an update regarding progress on the constitution of the vector control Technical Expert Group; updates on the RTS, S/AS01 vaccine and the malaria vaccine technology roadmap; financing and resource allocation for malaria control; malaria surveillance and the need for a surveillance, monitoring and evaluation Technical Expert Group; criteria and classification related to malaria elimination; the next meeting of the Evidence Review Group on Intermittent Preventive Treatment in pregnancy; an update on the soon-to-be launched Elimination Scenario Planning Tool; and an update on the process for the Global Technical Strategy for Malaria Control and Elimination (2016–2025). Policy statements, position statements, and guidelines that arise from the MPAC meeting conclusions and recommendations will be formally issued and disseminated to World Health Organization Member States by the World Health Organization Global Malaria Programme. PMID:23787092

  11. Decomposition of energy-related carbon emissions in Xinjiang and relative mitigation policy recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changjian; Zhang, Xiaolei; Wang, Fei; Lei, Jun; Zhang, Li

    2015-03-01

    Regional carbon emissions research is necessary and helpful for China in realizing reduction targets. The LMDI I (Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index I) technique based on an extended Kaya identity was conducted to uncover the main five driving forces for energy-related carbon emissions in Xinjiang, an important energy base in China. Decomposition results show that the affluence effect and the population effect are the two most important contributors to increased carbon emissions. The energy intensity effect had a positive influence on carbon emissions during the pre-reform period, and then became the dominant factor in curbing carbon emissions after 1978. The renewable energy penetration effect and the emission coefficient effect showed important negative but relatively minor effects on carbon emissions. Based on the local realities, a comprehensive suite of mitigation policies are raised by considering all of these influencing factors. Mitigation policies will need to significantly reduce energy intensity and pay more attention to the regional economic development path. Fossil fuel substitution should be considered seriously. Renewable energy should be increased in the energy mix. All of these policy recommendations, if implemented by the central and local government, should make great contributions to energy saving and emission reduction in Xinjiang.

  12. Building a wave energy policy focusing on innovation, manufacturing and deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, G.; Gallachoir, B.P.O.

    2010-01-01

    The Irish Government has set a goal to make Ireland a world leader for research, development and deployment of ocean energy technologies. Ireland has a wave energy resource of 21 TWh and an ambition is to achieve at least 500 MW installed generating capacity from ocean energy by 2020. This paper investigates what is required to move from ambition to delivery. A successful wave energy strategy will require focused policies that will stimulate innovation to develop the technologies, manufacturing to produce the devices and deployment to build the required wave power plants. The paper draws on the successful policies in Ireland that have stimulated each of these dimensions, albeit for different sectors. From 2004 to 2008, successful policies in (ICT and biotech) innovation led to an increase in Ireland's Innovation Index score from 0.48 to 0.53. The policy focus on (food and pharmaceuticals) manufacturing in Ireland resulted in high levels of economic growth over the period 1998-2002, reaching >10% GDP growth levels per annum, and full employment. Successful wind energy policies deployment has accelerated rapidly since 2003 and reached 1.2 GW installed capacity in 2009 representing 15% of Ireland's total installed capacity. The paper draws on appropriate elements of these policies to build a successful wave energy policy for Ireland. It also draws on the successful policies adopted in Denmark for innovation, manufacturing and deployment of wind energy. The Danish wind turbine manufacturers hold a world market share of approximately 40%. The paper proposes establishing a wave energy strategy group to develop an action plan to deliver the 500 MW. It also proposes a novel extension of corporate tax specifically for wave energy companies, an initial 30% capital grant scheme for wave energy developers, a grid code for wave energy devices and fast tracking of planning decisions through an amended approach to strategic infrastructure. (author)

  13. Energy sector assistance in developing countries: Current trends and policy recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tharakan, Pradeep J.; Castro, Julio de; Kroeger, Timm

    2007-01-01

    An estimated 2.5 billion people remain without access to modern energy supplies. This shortfall is expected to grow as the population in developing countries continues to grow rapidly and the existing infrastructure ages. The United Nations' goal of lowering poverty by half by 2015 will not be attained unless the poor in developing countries gain greater access to basic infrastructure and services, including energy services. The key objective of this paper is to analyze trends in overseas development assistance (ODA) to the energy sector in developing countries during the period 1990-2003, relative to realized private sector investments. This analysis then forms the basis for policy recommendations for consideration by decision makers within countries that are major contributors to ODA

  14. The Ethics of Virtual Reality Technology: Social Hazards and Public Policy Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, James S

    2017-09-23

    This article explores four major areas of moral concern regarding virtual reality (VR) technologies. First, VR poses potential mental health risks, including Depersonalization/Derealization Disorder. Second, VR technology raises serious concerns related to personal neglect of users' own actual bodies and real physical environments. Third, VR technologies may be used to record personal data which could be deployed in ways that threaten personal privacy and present a danger related to manipulation of users' beliefs, emotions, and behaviors. Finally, there are other moral and social risks associated with the way VR blurs the distinction between the real and illusory. These concerns regarding VR naturally raise questions about public policy. The article makes several recommendations for legal regulations of VR that together address each of the above concerns. It is argued that these regulations would not seriously threaten personal liberty but rather would protect and enhance the autonomy of VR consumers.

  15. The Belgian Health System Performance Report 2012: snapshot of results and recommendations to policy makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrijens, France; Renard, Françoise; Jonckheer, Pascale; Van den Heede, Koen; Desomer, Anja; Van de Voorde, Carine; Walckiers, Denise; Dubois, Cécile; Camberlin, Cécile; Vlayen, Joan; Van Oyen, Herman; Léonard, Christian; Meeus, Pascal

    2013-09-01

    Following the commitments of the Tallinn Charter, Belgium publishes the second report on the performance of its health system. A set of 74 measurable indicators is analysed, and results are interpreted following the five dimensions of the conceptual framework: accessibility, quality of care, efficiency, sustainability and equity. All domains of care are covered (preventive, curative, long-term and end-of-life care), as well as health status and health promotion. For all indicators, national/regional values are presented with their evolution over time. Benchmarking to results of other EU-15 countries is also systematic. The policy recommendations represent the most important output of the report. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Ebola Virus Epidemic in West Africa: Global Health Economic Challenges, Lessons Learned, and Policy Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmahdawy, Mahmoud; Elsisi, Gihan H; Carapinha, Joao; Lamorde, Mohamed; Habib, Abdulrazaq; Agyie-Baffour, Peter; Soualmi, Redouane; Ragab, Samah; Udezi, Anthony W; Usifoh, Cyril; Usifoh, Stella

    2017-09-01

    The Ebola virus has spread across several Western Africa countries, adding a significant financial burden to their health systems and economies. In this article the experience with Ebola is reviewed, and economic challenges and policy recommendations are discussed to help curb the impact of other diseases in the future. The West African Ebola virus disease epidemic started in resource-constrained settings and caused thousands of fatalities during the last epidemic. Nevertheless, given population mobility, international travel, and an increasingly globalized economy, it has the potential to re-occur and evolve into a global pandemic. Struggling health systems in West African countries hinder the ability to reduce the causes and effects of the Ebola epidemic. The lessons learned include the need for strengthening health systems, mainly primary care systems, expedited access to treatments and vaccines to treat the Ebola virus disease, guidance on safety, efficacy, and regulatory standards for such treatments, and ensuring that research and development efforts are directed toward existing needs. Other lessons include adopting policies that allow for better flow of relief, averting the adverse impact of strong quarantine policy that includes exaggerating the aversion behavior by alarming trade and business partners providing financial support to strengthen growth in the affected fragile economies by the Ebola outbreak. Curbing the impact of future Ebola epidemics, or comparable diseases, requires increased long-term investments in health system strengthening, better collaboration between different international organizations, more funding for research and development efforts aimed at developing vaccines and treatments, and tools to detect, treat, and prevent future epidemics. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Contextual positive psychology: Policy recommendations for implementing positive psychology into schools.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Ciarrochi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There has been a rapid growth in positive psychology, a research and intervention approach that focuses on promoting optimal functioning and well-being. Positive psychology interventions are now making their way into classrooms all over the world. However, positive psychology has been criticized for being decontextualized and coercive, and for putting an excessive emphasis on positive states, whilst failing to adequately consider negative experiences. Given this, how should policy be used to regulate and evaluate these interventions? We review evidence that suggests these criticisms may be valid, but only for those interventions that focus almost exclusively on changing the content of people’s inner experience (e.g., make it more positive and personality (improving character strength, and overemphasize the idea that inner experience causes action. We describe a contextualized form of positive psychology that not only deals with the criticisms, but also has clear policy implications for how to best implement and evaluate positive education programs so that they do not do more harm than good.

  18. Contextual Positive Psychology: Policy Recommendations for Implementing Positive Psychology into Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarrochi, Joseph; Atkins, Paul W B; Hayes, Louise L; Sahdra, Baljinder K; Parker, Philip

    2016-01-01

    There has been a rapid growth in positive psychology, a research and intervention approach that focuses on promoting optimal functioning and well-being. Positive psychology interventions are now making their way into classrooms all over the world. However, positive psychology has been criticized for being decontextualized and coercive, and for putting an excessive emphasis on positive states, whilst failing to adequately consider negative experiences. Given this, how should policy be used to regulate and evaluate these interventions? We review evidence that suggests these criticisms may be valid, but only for those interventions that focus almost exclusively on changing the content of people's inner experience (e.g., make it more positive) and personality (improving character strength), and overemphasize the idea that inner experience causes action. We describe a contextualized form of positive psychology that not only deals with the criticisms, but also has clear policy implications for how to best implement and evaluate positive education programs so that they do not do more harm than good.

  19. Occupational health and safety for agricultural workers in Thailand: gaps and recommendations, with a focus on pesticide use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewboonchoo, Orawan; Kongtip, Pornpimol; Woskie, Susan

    2015-05-01

    Over 16.7 million workers in Thailand (42 percent of the working population) are engaged in agriculture, disproportionately from the lower socioeconomic strata of Thai society. Most agricultural workers (over 93 percent) work in the informal sector without the protections of regulations or enforcement of labor or health and safety laws or enrollment in a social security system. Although Thailand's use of herbicides, fungicides, and insecticides is growing, there is little regulation of the sale, use, or application of these potentially toxic chemicals. This paper summarizes the research to date on occupational health and safety for Thai agricultural workers, identifies gaps in pesticide regulations and the current systems for occupational health and safety and social support for Thai agricultural workers, and makes recommendations for future policy and research initiatives to fill the identified gaps. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  20. Occupational Health and Safety for Agricultural Workers in Thailand: Gaps and Recommendations, with a Focus on Pesticide Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewboonchoo, Orawan; Kongtip, Pornpimol; Woskie, Susan

    2018-01-01

    Over 16.7 million workers in Thailand (42 percent of the working population) are engaged in agriculture, disproportionately from the lower socioeconomic strata of Thai society. Most agricultural workers (over 93 percent) work in the informal sector without the protections of regulations or enforcement of labor or health and safety laws or enrollment in a social security system. Although Thailand’s use of herbicides, fungicides, and insecticides is growing, there is little regulation of the sale, use, or application of these potentially toxic chemicals. This paper summarizes the research to date on occupational health and safety for Thai agricultural workers, identifies gaps in pesticide regulations and the current systems for occupational health and safety and social support for Thai agricultural workers, and makes recommendations for future policy and research initiatives to fill the identified gaps. PMID:25815744

  1. Seasonal influenza vaccine policies, recommendations and use in the World Health Organization’s Western Pacific Region Original Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Members of the Western Pacific Region Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Vaccination is the most effective way to prevent seasonal influenza and its severe outcomes. The objective of our study was to synthesize information on seasonal influenza vaccination policies, recommendations and practices in place in 2011 for all countries and areas in the Western Pacific Region of the World Health Organization (WHO. Methods: Data were collected via a questionnaire on seasonal influenza vaccination policies, recommendations and practices in place in 2011. Results: Thirty-six of the 37 countries and areas (97% responded to the survey. Eighteen (50% reported having established seasonal influenza vaccination policies, an additional seven (19% reported having recommendations for risk groups for seasonal influenza vaccination only and 11 (30% reported having no policies or recommendations in place. Of the 25 countries and areas with policies or recommendations, health-care workers and the elderly were most frequently recommended for vaccination; 24 (96% countries and areas recommended vaccinating these groups, followed by pregnant women (19 [76%], people with chronic illness (18 [72%] and children (15 [60%]. Twenty-six (72% countries and areas reported having seasonal influenza vaccines available through public funding, private market purchase or both. Most of these countries and areas purchased only enough vaccine to cover 25% or less of their populations. Discussion: In light of the new WHO position paper on influenza vaccines published in 2012 and the increasing availability of country-specific data, countries and areas should consider reviewing or developing their seasonal influenza vaccination policies to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with annual epidemics and as part of ongoing efforts for pandemic preparedness.

  2. HyRA: A Hybrid Recommendation Algorithm Focused on Smart POI. Ceutí as a Study Scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Uribe, Joanna; Gómez-Oliva, Andrea; Barrera-Animas, Ari Yair; Molina, Germán; Gonzalez-Mendoza, Miguel; Parra-Meroño, María Concepción; Jara, Antonio J

    2018-03-17

    Nowadays, Physical Web together with the increase in the use of mobile devices, Global Positioning System (GPS), and Social Networking Sites (SNS) have caused users to share enriched information on the Web such as their tourist experiences. Therefore, an area that has been significantly improved by using the contextual information provided by these technologies is tourism. In this way, the main goals of this work are to propose and develop an algorithm focused on the recommendation of Smart Point of Interaction (Smart POI) for a specific user according to his/her preferences and the Smart POIs' context. Hence, a novel Hybrid Recommendation Algorithm (HyRA) is presented by incorporating an aggregation operator into the user-based Collaborative Filtering (CF) algorithm as well as including the Smart POIs' categories and geographical information. For the experimental phase, two real-world datasets have been collected and preprocessed. In addition, one Smart POIs' categories dataset was built. As a result, a dataset composed of 16 Smart POIs, another constituted by the explicit preferences of 200 respondents, and the last dataset integrated by 13 Smart POIs' categories are provided. The experimental results show that the recommendations suggested by HyRA are promising.

  3. HyRA: A Hybrid Recommendation Algorithm Focused on Smart POI. Ceutí as a Study Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Oliva, Andrea; Molina, Germán

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, Physical Web together with the increase in the use of mobile devices, Global Positioning System (GPS), and Social Networking Sites (SNS) have caused users to share enriched information on the Web such as their tourist experiences. Therefore, an area that has been significantly improved by using the contextual information provided by these technologies is tourism. In this way, the main goals of this work are to propose and develop an algorithm focused on the recommendation of Smart Point of Interaction (Smart POI) for a specific user according to his/her preferences and the Smart POIs’ context. Hence, a novel Hybrid Recommendation Algorithm (HyRA) is presented by incorporating an aggregation operator into the user-based Collaborative Filtering (CF) algorithm as well as including the Smart POIs’ categories and geographical information. For the experimental phase, two real-world datasets have been collected and preprocessed. In addition, one Smart POIs’ categories dataset was built. As a result, a dataset composed of 16 Smart POIs, another constituted by the explicit preferences of 200 respondents, and the last dataset integrated by 13 Smart POIs’ categories are provided. The experimental results show that the recommendations suggested by HyRA are promising. PMID:29562590

  4. HyRA: A Hybrid Recommendation Algorithm Focused on Smart POI. Ceutí as a Study Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Alvarado-Uribe

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Physical Web together with the increase in the use of mobile devices, Global Positioning System (GPS, and Social Networking Sites (SNS have caused users to share enriched information on the Web such as their tourist experiences. Therefore, an area that has been significantly improved by using the contextual information provided by these technologies is tourism. In this way, the main goals of this work are to propose and develop an algorithm focused on the recommendation of Smart Point of Interaction (Smart POI for a specific user according to his/her preferences and the Smart POIs’ context. Hence, a novel Hybrid Recommendation Algorithm (HyRA is presented by incorporating an aggregation operator into the user-based Collaborative Filtering (CF algorithm as well as including the Smart POIs’ categories and geographical information. For the experimental phase, two real-world datasets have been collected and preprocessed. In addition, one Smart POIs’ categories dataset was built. As a result, a dataset composed of 16 Smart POIs, another constituted by the explicit preferences of 200 respondents, and the last dataset integrated by 13 Smart POIs’ categories are provided. The experimental results show that the recommendations suggested by HyRA are promising.

  5. How Narrative Focus and a Statistical Map Shape Health Policy Support Among State Legislators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Roh, Sungjong; Dreisbach, Caitlin

    2016-01-01

    This study attempts to advance theorizing about health policy advocacy with combinations of narrative focus and a statistical map in an attempt to increase state legislators' support for policies to address the issue of obesity by reducing food deserts. Specifically, we examine state legislators' responses to variations in narrative focus (individual vs. community) about causes and solutions for food deserts in U.S. communities, and a statistical map (presence vs. absence) depicting the prevalence of food deserts across the United States. Using a Web-based randomized experiment (N=496), we show that narrative focus and the statistical map interact to produce different patterns of cognitive response and support for policies to reduce the prevalence of food deserts. The presence of a statistical map showing the prevalence of food deserts in the United States appeared to matter only when combined with an individual narrative, offsetting the fact that the individual narrative in isolation produced fewer thoughts consistent with the story's persuasive goal and more counterarguments in opposition to environmental causes and solutions for obesity than other message conditions. The image did not have an impact when combined with a story describing a community at large. Cognitive responses fully mediated message effects on intended persuasive outcomes. We conclude by discussing the study's contributions to communication theory and practice.

  6. Variation in adult vaccination policies across Europe: an overview from VENICE network on vaccine recommendations, funding and coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanitz, Elisabeth E; Wu, Lauren A; Giambi, Cristina; Strikas, Raymond A; Levy-Bruhl, Daniel; Stefanoff, Pawel; Mereckiene, Jolita; Appelgren, Eva; D'Ancona, Fortunato

    2012-07-27

    In 2010-2011, in the framework of the VENICE project, we surveyed European Union (EU) and Economic Area (EEA) countries to fill the gap of information regarding vaccination policies in adults. This project was carried out in collaboration with the United States National Vaccine Program Office, who conducted a similar survey in all developed countries. VENICE representatives of all 29 EU/EEA-countries received an online questionnaire including vaccination schedule, recommendations, funding and coverage in adults for 17 vaccine-preventable diseases. The response rate was 100%. The definition of age threshold for adulthood for the purpose of vaccination ranged from 15 to 19 years (median=18 years). EU/EEA-countries recommend between 4 and 16 vaccines for adults (median=11 vaccines). Tetanus and diphtheria vaccines are recommended to all adults in 22 and 21 countries respectively. The other vaccines are mostly recommended to specific risk groups; recommendations for seasonal influenza and hepatitis B exist in all surveyed countries. Six countries have a comprehensive summary document or schedule describing all vaccines which are recommended for adults. None of the surveyed countries was able to provide coverage estimates for all the recommended adult vaccines. Vaccination policies for adults are not consistent across Europe, including the meaning of "recommended vaccine" which is not comparable among countries. Coverage data for adults should be collected routinely like for children vaccination. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Policy Implications and Research Recommendations: A Review of Hookah Use Among US College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fevrier, Bradley; Vidourek, Rebecca A; Privitera, Pauline

    2018-03-30

    The rate of Hookah use among college students during the last decade is about 30%. Although college students perceive hookah use as a safer alternative to conventional cigarettes, hookah use increases the risk of disease and nicotine dependence, and therefore remains an area of concern. Presently, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has little regulation for the manufacture, distribution, or sale of hookah. This review attempts to assess empirical literature relating to hookah use while focusing on the consequences for regulatory policy. PubMed (including MEDLINE 2010-2017), PsycINFO, EBSCO, Scopus (Elsevier) databases were examined to pinpoint articles published in English. The following terms were used in the searches: Hookah or Waterpipe or nargile or "arghile" or "shisha" or "hubble bubble" or "alternative tobacco product" or "flavored tobacco". Hookah use may initiate smoking among tobacconaïve college students. College students who use hookah are generally not aware of the increased risks for tobacco related diseases as it relates to their behavior. In addition, few public health messages target college-age adults with anti-hookah messages. A lack of information regarding the dangers and potential harms of hookah use may be misinterpreted as a sign of "safety" which inadvertently may imply a suggestion of no need for safety measures. Hence, a research agenda that would inform about health policy actions has been proposed.

  8. Emission trade in climate policy. Follow-up recommendation with regard to the Memorandum on Climate Policy, part 1. National measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In this recommendation the option to introduce tradable emission permits for greenhouse gases in the Netherlands and Europe is discussed, as well as the conditions for a national experiment with this market tool. In it's advice on the 'Memorandum on Climate Policy, part 1' the Social and Economic Council (SER) declared itself in favor of the options that are offered by emission trade for a cost-effective climate policy. In this follow-up advice on the same Memorandum the SER discusses this new, market tool for climate policy in more detail

  9. Facing policy challenges with inter- and transdisciplinary soil research focused on the UN Sustainable Development Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouma, Johan; Montanarella, Luca

    2016-04-01

    Our current information society, populated by increasingly well-informed and critical stakeholders, presents a challenge to both the policy and science arenas. The introduction of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) offers a unique and welcome opportunity to direct joint activities towards these goals. Soil science, even though it is not mentioned as such, plays an important role in realizing a number of SDGs focusing on food, water, climate, health, biodiversity, and sustainable land use. A plea is made for a systems approach to land use studies, to be initiated by soil scientists, in which these land-related SDGs are considered in an integrated manner. To connect with policy makers and stakeholders, two approaches are functional. The first of these is the policy cycle when planning and executing research, which includes signaling, design, decision making, implementation, and evaluation. Many current research projects spend little time on signaling, which may lead to disengagement of stakeholders. Also, implementation is often seen as the responsibility of others, while it is crucial to demonstrate - if successful - the relevance of soil science. The second approach is the DPSIR approach when following the policy cycle in land-related research, distinguishing external drivers, pressures, impact, and responses to land use change that affect the state of the land in the past, present, and future. Soil science cannot by itself realize SDGs, and interdisciplinary studies on ecosystem services (ESs) provide an appropriate channel to define contributions of soil science in terms of the seven soil functions. ESs, in turn, can contribute to addressing the six SDGs (2, 3, 6, 12, 13, and 15) with an environmental, land-related character. SDGs have a societal focus and future soil science research can only be successful if stakeholders are part of the research effort in transdisciplinary projects, based on the principle of time-consuming "joint learning". The

  10. Tobacco Policies in Louisiana: Recommendations for Future Tobacco Control Investment from SimSmoke, a Policy Simulation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, David; Fergus, Cristin; Rudov, Lindsey; McCormick-Ricket, Iben; Carton, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Despite the presence of tobacco control policies, Louisiana continues to experience a high smoking burden and elevated smoking-attributable deaths. The SimSmoke model provides projections of these health outcomes in the face of existing and expanded (simulated) tobacco control polices. The SimSmoke model utilizes population data, smoking rates, and various tobacco control policy measures from Louisiana to predict smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. The model begins in 1993 and estimates are projected through 2054. The model is validated against existing Louisiana smoking prevalence data. The most powerful individual policy measure for reducing smoking prevalence is cigarette excise tax. However, a comprehensive cessation treatment policy is predicted to save the most lives. A combination of tobacco control policies provides the greatest reduction in smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. The existing Louisiana excise tax ranks as one of the lowest in the country and the legislature is against further increases. Alternative policy measures aimed at lowering prevalence and attributable deaths are: cessation treatments, comprehensive smoke-free policies, and limiting youth access. These three policies have a substantial effect on smoking prevalence and attributable deaths and are likely to encounter more favor in the Louisiana legislature than increasing the state excise tax.

  11. Conflict between Supermarkets and Wet-Markets in Ghana: Early Warning Signals and Preventive Policy Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etornam Kosi Anku

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The source of conflict between Supermarkets and Wet-markets arise from the use of market power and economies of scale by one group against the other. This study explores the tensions that exist between modern retailers and their traditional counterparts as a result of the influx of supermarkets in Ghana. The main objective of the study is to compare attributes related to the control of access to consumers by the Supermarket and the Wet-market. In this study, the dot-survey approach of Rapid Market Assessment Technique was used to elicit information from 438 respondents at the Madina market (wet-market and Melcom (supermarket over a period of two weeks and Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney (WMW comparison test and descriptive statistics were employed for the analysis. The results revealed that consumers patronise the supermarkets for convenience and the wet-market for freshness of product. Their purchasing decisions were affected by their level of education and product selections of the retailer. The highly educated preferred to shop at the Supermarket instead of the Wet-market; however, over 50% of respondents preferred the wet-market for fresh food products and the supermarket for non-food items. Each retailer receives its fair share of purchases from its loyal customers, therefore the revolution arising from the supermarket influx in Ghana has not yet resulted into conflict between supermarkets and their traditional counterparts, though it is inevitable if nothing is done to prevent it from happening. To avoid the conflict, it is recommended that policies should be instituted to (i improve the market infrastructures and shopping environment in the Wet-markets, (ii give tax concession to modern retailers who source products from local farmers and small-scale processors, (iii enable traditional retailers position themselves on the fringe and co-exist with modern retailers and (iv enforce public standards with regards to food safety laws in the traditional

  12. A lexicographic approach to language policy and recommendations for future dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven; Gouws, Rufus H.

    2008-01-01

    Language policy prevails at different levels and its formulation typically results in a prescriptive presentation of data. In their dictionaries, lexicographers have to respond to the deci­sions of language policy makers. In this regard dictionaries can adhere to a strict prescriptive policy by i...

  13. Policy Recommendation from Stakeholders to Improve Forest Products Transportation: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Koirala

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available With recently announced federal funding and subsidies to redevelop vacant mills and the communities they were in, the forest products industry in Maine is poised to gain its momentum once again. One of the important components influencing the cost of delivered forest products is transportation. A recent study in the region has shown that the location and availability of markets along with lack of skilled labor force are the major challenges faced by the forest products transportation sector in Maine. This study was focused on developing a management guideline which included various field level options for improving trucking enterprises in Maine. For this, a qualitative research approach utilizing a case study research tradition was employed, with in-depth semi-structured interviews with professionals directly related to the forest products transportation sector used for data generation. Thirteen semi-structured interviews were conducted, with each being audio recorded and later transcribed verbatim. Interview transcriptions were analyzed using NVivo 11. Suggestions, like increasing benefits to drivers and providing training, were proposed for challenges related to manpower shortage, while the marketing of new forest products and adjustment in some state-level policies were proposed for challenges related to the forest products market condition of the state.

  14. Policies to Avoid Cost Overruns in Infrastructure Projects: Critical Evaluation and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Lind

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Many infrastructure projects have cost overruns and there has been a lot of research both on why these cost overruns occur and what can be done to reduce hem. Bent Flyvbjerg is the leading researcher in the area and in this article his proposals are used as the starting point. Besides a literature review, a questionnaire was sent out to experienced Swedish project managers to find out what they thought could reduce cost overruns. The literature review and the questionnaire were the foundation for the proposals formulated in this article. Proposals concerned three areas: (1. Organisational macro-structure, e.g. using more PPP projects but also decentralisation of budgets where cost overruns in one project in a region lead to less alternative projects in the specific region. (2. Organisational quality: It should be easy to see when and where cost overruns occur and who was responsible. There should be a well-developed knowledge management system in the organisation and an organisation culture of openness with a focus on improvements. (3. Organisational processes, e.g. a systematic use of external reviewers in different stages of a project.   Keywords: Cost overruns, Infrastructure projects, Policy measures

  15. Policies to Avoid Cost Overruns in Infrastructure Projects: Critical Evaluation and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Lind

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Many infrastructure projects have cost overruns and there has been a lot of research both on why these cost overruns occur and what can be done to reduce hem. Bent Flyvbjerg is the leading researcher in the area and in this article his proposals are used as the starting point. Besides a literature review, a questionnaire was sent out to experienced Swedish project managers to find out what they thought could reduce cost overruns. The literature review and the questionnaire were the foundation for the proposals formulated in this article. Proposals concerned three areas: (1. Organisational macro-structure, e.g. using more PPP projects but also decentralisation of budgets where cost overruns in one project in a region lead to less alternative projects in the specific region. (2. Organisational quality: It should be easy to see when and where cost overruns occur and who was responsible. There should be a well-developed knowledge management system in the organisation and an organisation culture of openness with a focus on improvements. (3. Organisational processes, e.g. a systematic use of external reviewers in different stages of a project. Keywords: Cost overruns, Infrastructure projects, Policy measures

  16. Equity-focused health impact assessment: A tool to assist policy makers in addressing health inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, Sarah; Mahoney, Mary; Harris, Elizabeth; Aldrich, Rosemary; Stewart-Williams, Jenny

    2005-01-01

    In Australasia (Australia and New Zealand) the use of health impact assessment (HIA) as a tool for improved policy development is comparatively new. The public health workforce do not routinely assess the potential health and equity impacts of proposed policies or programs. The Australasian Collaboration for Health Equity Impact Assessment was funded to develop a strategic framework for equity-focused HIA (EFHIA) with the intent of strengthening the ways in which equity is addressed in each step of HIA. The collaboration developed a draft framework for EFHIA that mirrored, but modified the commonly accepted steps of HIA; tested the draft framework in six different health service delivery settings; analysed the feedback about application of the draft EFHIA framework and modified it accordingly. The strategic framework shows promise in providing a systematic process for identifying potential differential health impacts and assessing the extent to which these are avoidable and unfair. This paper presents the EFHIA framework and discusses some of the issues that arose in the case study sites undertaking equity-focused HIA

  17. A Policy Analysis of the Coast Guard's Existing Patient Satisfaction System and Recommendations for Improvement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coughlin, Kelly A

    2007-01-01

    .... This paper evaluates CG organizational demands, describes CG practice landscape, presents standards, reviews initial clinic process analysis, and evaluates the cost and criteria of proposed policy alternatives...

  18. Social Media Policy in Social Work Education: A Review and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpman, Hannah E.; Drisko, James

    2016-01-01

    Although social media use has grown dramatically, program policies have not kept pace. Some programs now state that student social media activities have led to professional conduct reviews and may violate ethical standards. This article reviews current social media policies and conceptualizes their key elements. A review of current social media…

  19. Reducing the Impact of Immigration Enforcement Policies to Ensure the Health of North Carolinians: Statewide Community-Level Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Lilli; Simán, Florence M; Downs, Mario; Sun, Christina J; de Hernandez, Brisa Urquieta; García, Manuel; Alonzo, Jorge; Lawlor, Emma; Rhodes, Scott D

    2016-01-01

    Research indicates that fear of immigration enforcement among Latinos in North Carolina results in limited access to and utilization of health services and negative health consequences. This project developed recommendations to mitigate the public health impact of immigration enforcement policies in North Carolina. Our community-based participatory research partnership conducted 6 Spanish-language report-backs (an approach to sharing, validating, and interpreting data) and 3 bilingual forums with community members and public health leaders throughout North Carolina. The goals of these events were to discuss the impact of immigration enforcement on Latino health and develop recommendations to increase health services access and utilization. Findings from the report-backs and forums were analyzed using grounded theory to identify and refine common recommendations. A total of 344 people participated in the report-backs and forums. Eight recommendations emerged: increase knowledge among Latinos about local health services; build capacity to promote policy changes; implement system-level changes among organizations providing health services; train lay health advisors to help community members navigate systems; share Latinos' experiences with policy makers; reduce transportation barriers; increase schools' support of Latino families; and increase collaboration among community members, organizations, health care providers, and academic researchers. Representatives from 16 of 100 North Carolina counties participated. These 16 counties represent geographically diverse regions, and many of these counties have large Latino populations. Immigration enforcement is a public health issue. Participants proposed developing new partnerships, identifying strategies, and implementing action steps for carrying out recommendations to reduce negative health outcomes among Latinos in North Carolina. ©2016 by the North Carolina Institute of Medicine and The Duke Endowment. All rights

  20. Policy analysis and recommendations for the open source application development portal (OSADP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This white paper addresses the policy and institutional issues that are associated with the development of an open source applications development portal (OSADP), part of a larger research effort being conducted under the ITS Programs Dynamic Mobi...

  1. The level of perceived quality and safety of health services by recipients. Recommendations and inter- ventions for health care policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foteini Koulouri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the importance of the quality in health sector is more and more acknowledged. In broader terms the literature on quality in health care contributed to this, and stressed the importance of meeting the needs of the service recipient. Safety and quality in health care constitute a multi-dimensional parameter and involve many factors and various resources. Safety is positively associated to the quality, as the existence of the one ensures the improvement of the other. Thus, there is a great effort to create a framework, through guidelines and instructions that could contribute to the protection and development of quality and safety. It is important that this framework includes many features that have been expressed as requests by the patients themselves and which can contribute to the development of realistic and effective recommendations for improvement. Greek reality reveals certain gaps in safety and quality of services delivered, so the main attention has to be focused on developing an integral national health policy; the development of guidelines and the appropriate evaluation of their implementation could be a first effective approach. Formulating an institutional framework about safety and quality in health sector should be incorporated in the culture of all health organizations. To this end, the involvement of health professionals is a vital and strategic point. Health care practitioners should incorporate safety and quality culture in their daily routine and health managers should enact efficient ways of evaluation and control mechanisms in order to achieve better outcomes. Motivation to this direction and active participation should be encouraged with positive approaches, away from any kind of sanction. Any mistakes, adverse effects and deviations should be identified, reported, analyzed and formulate the base of the corrective action. In conclusion, safety and quality in health sector are essential and strongly associated

  2. Policy Recommendations on Impact Bonds for Early Childhood Development in Low- and Middle-Income Countries. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson-Wright, Emily; Gardiner, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    The confluence of the agreement on 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs, or Global Goals) in 2015, and the increased attention being paid to the role of non-traditional actors in contributing to shared prosperity, provide a unique opportunity to focus attention on attempts to identify promising new solutions to the barriers that impede the full…

  3. The Diffusion of Disability Rights Policy: A Focus on Special Education in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Joan P.; Palley, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the development of South Korean special education policy and suggests that different strategies of policy diffusion influenced the design of the policy at different times. Historically, South Korea relied on external pressures and influences, particularly US law and UN guidelines, to develop much of its human rights law,…

  4. Chancellors and Superintendents Employment Terms: Contracts, Policies, and Practices. Recommendations and Survey Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cindra

    This document provides recommendations to Community College chancellors and superintendents based on survey responses from 11 multi-college district chancellors and 37 single college district superintendents and/or presidents of the Community College League of California. The report provides demographic information, such as gender, ethnicity,…

  5. Regulatory and Financial Reform of Federal Research Policy: Recommendations to the NRC Committee on Research Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of American Universities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    At the request of the National Research Council (NRC) Committee on Research Universities, the Council on Governmental Relations (COGR), the Association of American Universities (AAU), and the Association of Public and Land-grant Universities (APLU) have assembled a set of ten recommendations for regulatory reform that would improve research…

  6. Anonymous Communication Policies for the Internet: Results and Recommendations of the AAAS Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teich, Al; Frankel, Mark S.; Kling, Rob; Lee, Yaching

    1999-01-01

    Reports the results of a conference on the Internet and anonymous communication organized by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). Discusses how anonymous communications can be shaped by the law, education, and public awareness, and highlights the importance of involving all affected interests in policy development.…

  7. Physical and Psychological Health Following Military Sexual Assault: Recommendations for Care, Research, and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    syndrome, infertility , chronic fatigue, and chronic pain (Ciccone et al., 2005; Frayne et al., 1999; Golding, 1994). Acute psychological distress in...medical, forensic, and psychological support services. These reports are kept strictly confidential and are not released to commanding officers, and...those for combat exposure, policies and programs that support psychological health and deliver mental health care are applicable for MSA victims

  8. An Economic and Environmental Assessment Model for Selecting the Optimal Implementation Strategy of Fuel Cell Systems—A Focus on Building Energy Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daeho Kim

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Considerable effort is being made to reduce the primary energy consumption in buildings. As part of this effort, fuel cell systems are attracting attention as a new/renewable energy systems for several reasons: (i distributed generation system; (ii combined heat and power system; and (iii availability of various sources of hydrogen in the future. Therefore, this study aimed to develop an economic and environmental assessment model for selecting the optimal implementation strategy of the fuel cell system, focusing on building energy policy. This study selected two types of buildings (i.e., residential buildings and non-residential buildings as the target buildings and considered two types of building energy policies (i.e., the standard of energy cost calculation and the standard of a government subsidy. This study established the optimal implementation strategy of the fuel cell system in terms of the life cycle cost and life cycle CO2 emissions. For the residential building, it is recommended that the subsidy level and the system marginal price level be increased. For the non-residential building, it is recommended that gas energy cost be decreased and the system marginal price level be increased. The developed model could be applied to any other country or any other type of building according to building energy policy.

  9. Multinational evidence-based recommendations for the use of methotrexate in rheumatic disorders with a focus on rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, K; Katchamart, W; Loza, E

    2009-01-01

    of discussions and Delphi votes. Ten clinical questions concerning the use of methotrexate in rheumatic disorders were formulated. A systematic literature search in Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library and 2005-7 American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism meeting abstracts was conducted......OBJECTIVES: To develop evidence-based recommendations for the use of methotrexate in daily clinical practice in rheumatic disorders. METHODS: 751 rheumatologists from 17 countries participated in the 3E (Evidence, Expertise, Exchange) Initiative of 2007-8 consisting of three separate rounds...... on their clinical practice was assessed. RESULTS: A total of 16 979 references was identified, of which 304 articles were included in the systematic reviews. Ten multinational key recommendations on the use of methotrexate were formulated. Nine recommendations were specific for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), including...

  10. Practical Recommendations on the Improvement of the Effectiveness of Anti-Corruption Policy in Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Zamaletdinov, Radif R.; Yudina, Nadezhda P.; Lavrentyeva, Elvira I.; Savva, Lubov I.; Pugacheva, Natalya B.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the study is conditioned by the expansion of the scale of corruption in higher education. The purpose of the article is to develop practical recommendations for improving of anti-corruption policy’s effectiveness at universities. The study involved 450 teachers, 1200 students from 140 Russian universities. The main results of the study are to identify the causes of bribery and popular tools of counteraction of corruption in universities, organizational and practical measure...

  11. Tackling U.S. energy challenges and opportunities: preliminary policy recommendations for enhancing energy innovation in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anadon, Laura Diaz; Gallagher, Kelly Sims; Bunn, Matthew; Jones, Charles

    2009-02-18

    The report offers preliminary recommendations for near-term actions to strengthen the U.S. effort to develop and deploy advanced energy technologies. The report comes as the Obama Administration and the 111th U.S. Congress face enormous challenges and opportunities in tackling the pressing security, economic, and environmental problems posed by the energy sector. Improving the technologies of energy supply and end-use is a prerequisite for surmounting these challenges in a timely and cost-effective way, and this report elaborates on how policy can support develop of these important energy technologies.

  12. Hazing in the U.S. Armed Forces: Recommendations for Hazing Prevention Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    life. 2. Bullying —United States. 3. Hazing— United States—Government policy. 4. Military offenses—United States. 5. Soldiers— United States—Social...for hazing prevention and swift enforcement of punishment for hazing. – Ensure that there are options for reporting anonymously and outside the chain...standalone category in the database P P P P The system tracks bullying separately P The system tracks anonymous reports P P The system tracks initial

  13. A Review of Electric Vehicle Lifecycle Emissions and Policy Recommendations to Increase EV Penetration in India

    OpenAIRE

    Rachana Vidhi; Prasanna Shrivastava

    2018-01-01

    Electric vehicles reduce pollution only if a high percentage of the electricity mix comes from renewable sources and if the battery manufacturing takes place at a site far from the vehicle use region. Industries developed due to increased electric vehicle adoption may also cause additional air pollution. The Indian government has committed to solving New Delhi’s air pollution issues through an ambitious policy of switching 100% of the light duty consumer vehicles to electric vehicles by 2030....

  14. Toward the Target Model 2.0. Policy Recommendations for a Sustainable EU Power Market Design. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roques, Fabien; Perekhodtsev, Dmitri; Verhaeghe, Charles

    2015-06-01

    One of the 10 key priorities of the new European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker consists of 'reform(ing) and reorganis(ing) Europe's energy policy into a new European Energy Union'. The Energy Union work programme released on 25 February 2015 suggests that a new electricity market design is needed in order to tackle Europe's chosen policy objectives of de-carbonisation whilst maintaining security of supply. The current regulatory and market framework does not provide a sound basis for the investments needed to maintain security of supply and de-carbonise the power sector at an affordable cost. As policy priorities in favour of de-carbonisation and maintaining security of supply have taken centre stage on the policy agenda in the past decade, the design of liberalised electricity markets has failed to evolve and be reconciled with these new priorities. In addition, the issues of competitiveness and affordability of electricity in Europe remain central in the discussions about the market framework. The objective of this study is to assess the deficiencies and gaps in the current European Target Model and the wider regulatory framework for power generation and to propose a number of policy recommendations for improvement. Recognising the need for 'fresh thinking' on the issue, this study looks outside Europe to learn the lessons from experiences with a range of alternative market designs that exist around the globe. The study provides a comprehensive assessment of the issues with current European electricity markets. The study investigates the lessons from market reforms in North America and in Latin America in the past decade to identify 'out of the box' thinking to fill the gaps in the current European Target model. This report presents some of the research findings and concludes with a set of alternative potential directions for reform of European power markets models in the long term, as well as a number of

  15. State-level immigration and immigrant-focused policies as drivers of Latino health disparities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philbin, Morgan M; Flake, Morgan; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Hirsch, Jennifer S

    2018-02-01

    There has been a great deal of state-level legislative activity focused on immigration and immigrants over the past decade in the United States. Some policies aim to improve access to education, transportation, benefits, and additional services while others constrain such access. From a social determinants of health perspective, social and economic policies are intrinsically health policies, but research on the relationship between state-level immigration-related policies and Latino health remains scarce. This paper summarizes the existing evidence about the range of state-level immigration policies that affect Latino health, indicates conceptually plausible but under-explored relationships between policy domains and Latino health, traces the mechanisms through which immigration policies might shape Latino health, and points to key areas for future research. We examined peer-reviewed publications from 1986 to 2016 and assessed 838 based on inclusion criteria; 40 were included for final review. These 40 articles identified four pathways through which state-level immigration policies may influence Latino health: through stress related to structural racism; by affecting access to beneficial social institutions, particularly education; by affecting access to healthcare and related services; and through constraining access to material conditions such as food, wages, working conditions, and housing. Our review demonstrates that the field of immigration policy and health is currently dominated by a "one-policy, one-level, one-outcome" approach. We argue that pursuing multi-sectoral, multi-level, and multi-outcome research will strengthen and advance the existing evidence base on immigration policy and Latino health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Addressing the mandate for hand-off education: a focused review and recommendations for anesthesia resident curriculum development and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane-Fall, Meghan B; Brooks, Amber K; Wilkins, Sara A; Davis, Joshua J; Riesenberg, Lee Ann

    2014-01-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requires that residency programs teach residents about handoffs and ensure their competence in this communication skill. Development of hand-off curricula for anesthesia residency programs is hindered by the paucity of evidence regarding how to conduct, teach, and evaluate handoffs in the various settings where anesthesia practitioners work. This narrative review draws from literature in anesthesia and other disciplines to provide recommendations for anesthesia resident hand-off curriculum development and evaluation.

  17. Barriers and Recommended Interventions to Prevent Melioidosis in Northeast Thailand: A Focus Group Study Using the Behaviour Change Wheel.

    OpenAIRE

    Suntornsut, P; Wongsuwan, N; Malasit, M; Kitphati, R; Michie, S; Peacock, SJ; Limmathurotsakul, D

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Melioidosis, an often fatal infectious disease in Northeast Thailand, is caused by skin inoculation, inhalation or ingestion of the environmental bacterium, Burkholderia pseudomallei. The major underlying risk factor for melioidosis is diabetes mellitus. Recommendations for melioidosis prevention include using protective gear such as rubber boots and gloves when in direct contact with soil and environmental water, and consuming bottled or boiled water. Only a small proportion ...

  18. State of the art conference on weight management in VA: Policy and research recommendations for advancing behavioral interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masheb, Robin M; Chan, Stephanie H; Raffa, Susan D; Ackermann, Ronald; Damschroder, Laura J; Estabrooks, Paul A; Evans-Hudnall, Gina; Evans, Neil C; Histon, Trina; Littman, Alyson J; Moin, Tannaz; Nelson, Karin M; Pagoto, Sherry; Pronk, Nico P; Tate, Deborah F; Goldstein, Michael G

    2017-04-01

    This article summarizes outcomes of the behavioral interventions work group for the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) State of the Art Conference (SOTA) for Weight Management. Sixteen VHA and non-VHA subject matter experts, representing clinical care delivery, research, and policy arenas, participated. The work group reviewed current evidence of efficacy, effectiveness, and implementation of behavioral interventions for weight management, participated in phone- and online-based consensus processes, generated key questions to address gaps, and attended an in-person conference in March 2016. The work group agreed that there is strong evidence for efficacy and effectiveness of core behavioral intervention components and processes, but insufficient evidence to determine the comparative effectiveness of multiple clinician-delivered weight management modalities, as well as technologies that may or may not supplement clinician-delivered treatments. Effective strategies for implementation of weight management services in VHA were identified. The SOTA work group's foremost policy recommendations are to establish a system-wide culture for weight management and to identify a population-level health metric to measure the impact of weight management interventions that can be tracked and clearly communicated throughout VHA. The work group's top research recommendation is to determine how to deploy and scale the most effective behavioral weight management interventions for Veterans.

  19. INDIA’S FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT: CURRENT STATUS, ISSUES AND POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Ranga

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Foreign Direct Investment (FDI as an important driver of growth. It is an important source of non debt financial resources for country for economic development. Besides it is a means of achieving technical know-how and employment generation of employment. However, many are of the view that FDI is a big threat to sovereignty of host and domestic business houses. Faster exploitation of natural resources for profit may deprive host from such resources in long run. Midst of debate on pros and cons of FDI, world economy has observed a phenomenal change in volume and pattern of FDI. There is clearly an intense global competition of FDI. India is not behind this global race of attracting foreign investment. India emerged as an attractive FDI destination in services but has failed to evolve a manufacturing hub which has greater economic benefit. FDI though one of the important sources of financing the economic development, but not is not a solution for poverty eradication, unemployment and other economic ills. India needs a massive investment to achieve the goals of vision 20-20. Policy makers need to ensure transparency and consistency in policy making along with comprehensive long term development strategy.

  20. The Determinants of won/dollar Exchange Rate Volatility and Policy Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chae-Shick Chung

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available This thesis analyzed the feature and different points of the changing of the exchange rate of Korea won against US dollar, then discussed the direction of the completion of Korea exchange rate system. The prediction result of the model GARCH which vividly shows the phenomenon of the auto-regression of the exchange rate has indicated the level of the exchange rate yesterday could explain the circumstance of the change of exchange rate today. Meanwhile, the policy of the US exchange rate will affect the exchange rate of Korea won against US dollar and the volatility of foreign exchange rate. In the present situation of Korean economy in which the liberalization of capital and the independence of the central bank has been established, the choosing range of the exchange system could only be completely changeable exchange rate system or exchange rate system of multilateral arrangement like Europe. However, in terms of the condition of the world economy, the introduction of the latter system is too early. There is an idea that under the changeable exchange rate system which is the only choice, it is the right time to activate the main body of private economy, the financial derivatives market in which the exchange risk could be trade-off. Government should work on and create a policy that would be able to satisfy the expectations of the market participants.

  1. Captive power generation in Saudi Arabia—Overview and recommendations on policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul-Majeed, Mohammed Arif; Al-Hadhrami, Luai M.; Al-Soufi, Khaled Y.; Ahmad, Firoz; Rehman, Shafiqur

    2013-01-01

    The power sector in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is undergoing the restructuring process. Moreover, during the last decade the Kingdom has witnessed a phenomenal growth in the load demand, consequently a huge amount of generation is added to the electric utilities to meet the load. Up to now only the electric utility generation was taken in the planning of the electrical sector. The data regarding the captive power generation was not readily available. A survey is conducted regarding the captive power generation in Saudi Arabia based on its utilization pattern, fuel used and amount of excess energy available to the grid. The existing regulatory framework and institutional structure of the Saudi power industry was also reviewed. Based on the information collected in the survey of captive power, key guidelines that may be considered in developing the policy for the captive power generators are presented. Furthermore, these guidelines and later the policies will help promote the investors to come forward in developing the captive power generation in Saudi Arabia. -- Highlights: •Database of captive power generation in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. •Historical perspective of electrical power industry in the Kingdom. •Saudi Arabia′s power requirements. •Regulatory framework and key guidelines regarding captive power generation. •It is first of its kind study in the region

  2. Policy Recommendations for the Argentinean Water Resources National Plan Related to Extreme Events in Forested Mountain Basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urciuolo, A. B.; Iturraspe, R. J.; Lofiego, R.

    2007-05-01

    In the framework of activities developed by COHIFE (Federal Water Resource Council), Argentina is preparing the Water Resources National Plan. To achieve an integrating project and considering that Argentina is a federal country, each province is working on the basis of its own Water Resources Provincial Plan. The first step of the plan consists in the identification of problems, with the purpose of further defining solutions based on structural and non structural actions. The general perception of the stakeholders involved in the plan development is the necessity of the analysis of strategies for the integrated water resource management Although a first document for water policy, named "Principios Rectores de Política Hídrica" is available, there are not specific strategies for integrated management of water and land use oriented to extreme events. In other way, there are a lack of policies oriented to Mountain basin with forest coverage, may be because of most of the population and the economical structure of the country is located on plain regions. This article proposes recommendations for policy to be integrated to the Water Resources National Plan, based on studies developed in a pilot basin representative of the Andean-Patagonia eco-region, in the framework of the EPIC FORCE proyect, financed by the European Union. Project methodology includes basin instrumentation, reconstruction and analysis of extreme events and land-water management practices revision. Climate, flow and sediment Data are available for simulation using the Shetran model on different land use scenarios, including changes in the basin forest coverage. On the basis of the first results of the project, policy guides oriented to fill mentioned policy lacks were defined.

  3. Climate Change Series: Federal, State, and Local Policy Recommendations for Creating a Positive School Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardichon, Jessica; Roc, Martens

    2015-01-01

    Too frequently, education reform takes a siloed view that focuses on an individual issue instead of a broader and more comprehensive perspective. For example, students' lack of access to challenging and rigorous course work and their lack of access to experienced, engaging, and effective teachers are often discussed as separate issues rather than…

  4. Considerations of Administrative Licensure, Provider Type, and Leadership Quality: Recommendations for Research, Policy, and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackmann, Donald G.

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews U.S. administrative licensure regulations, focusing on type of school leader licensure, provider types, and leadership quality. Licensure obtained through university-based and alternative routes is examined. Due to limited research on alternative school administrative licensure, regulations in medicine, psychology,…

  5. Developing Policy for Integrating Biomedicine and Traditional Chinese Medical Practice Using Focus Groups and the Delphi Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent C. H. Chung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Hong Kong, statutory regulation for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM practitioners has been implemented in the past decade. Increasing use of TCM on top of biomedicine (BM services by the population has been followed; but corresponding policy development to integrate their practices has not yet been discussed. Using focus group methodology, we explore policy ideas for integration by collating views from frontline BM (n=50 and TCM clinicians (n=50. Qualitative data were analyzed under the guidance of structuration model of collaboration, a theoretical model for understanding interprofessional collaboration. From focus group findings we generated 28 possible approaches, and subsequently their acceptability was assessed by a two round Delphi survey amongst BM and TCM policy stakeholders (n=12. Consensus was reached only on 13 statements. Stakeholders agreed that clinicians from both paradigms should share common goals of providing patient-centered care, promoting the development of protocols for shared care and information exchange, as well as strengthening interprofessional connectivity and leadership for integration. On the other hand, attitudes amongst policy stakeholders were split on the possibility of fostering trust and mutual learning, as well as on enhancing innovation and governmental support. Future policy initiatives should focus on these controversial areas.

  6. Environmental policy plans in comparison. Main focus: emission; Umweltplaene im Vergleich. Schwerpunkt: Emissionen/Immissionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochte-Clemens, B.; Ballschmiter, K.

    2000-07-01

    This study compares the environmental policy plans of the Netherlands, Denmark, Austria, New Zealand, South-Korea and Switzerland as well as the draft of an ecopolitical programme of selective problems and measures established in 1998 by Angela Merkel, former Minister of the Environment. In this connection the main focus is on the one hand on the comparison of the reduction objectives referring to emissions of substances and on the other hand on the measures suggested in order to achieve these objectives. In addition, the report contains a summary of the EU-environmental plan as well as an insight into the draft of an environmental plan of Baden-Wuerttemberg. The top priority of the environment policy plans is the problem area 'climate change' followed by 'transport and traffic' and 'biodiversity and conservation'. For a big part, the quality of the plan's basic objectives and measures are similar. There are differences in the ideas about time and quantity concerning specific target values in order to reach an emission reduction of the individual substances. In the environmental policy plans 92 different substances in total are brought up in the discussion. Most of them are specified in the environmental policy plan of the Netherlands and in the German draft, and also in Austria's environmental plan. The environmental aims and the measures to reduce carbon dioxide (minimisation of the greenhouse effect), ozone layer-destroying substances (problems of CFC), sulphur dioxide (acidification, eutrophication), nitrogen oxide (acidification, ozone precursor), volatile organic compounds (VOC) (ozone precursor), nitrogen and phosphor discharge into the soil and water (eutrophication) as well as proposals for measures in the traffic and transport sector are compared with each other. The Dutch plan includes almost thoroughly quantitative specifications respectively precise temporal stipulations. Such detailed information is only given

  7. Assessing the sustainability of African lion trophy hunting, with recommendations for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Scott; M'soka, Jassiel; Dröge, Egil; Rosenblatt, Eli; Becker, Matthew S; Matandiko, Wigganson; Simpamba, Twakundine

    2016-10-01

    While trophy hunting provides revenue for conservation, it must be carefully managed to avoid negative population impacts, particularly for long-lived species with low natural mortality rates. Trophy hunting has had negative effects on lion populations throughout Africa, and the species serves as an important case study to consider the balance of costs and benefits, and to consider the effectiveness of alternative strategies to conserve exploited species. Age-restricted harvesting is widely recommended to mitigate negative effects of lion hunting, but this recommendation was based on a population model parameterized with data from a well-protected and growing lion population. Here, we used demographic data from lions subject to more typical conditions, including source-sink dynamics between a protected National Park and adjacent hunting areas in Zambia's Luangwa Valley, to develop a stochastic population projection model and evaluate alternative harvest scenarios. Hunting resulted in population declines over a 25-yr period for all continuous harvest strategies, with large declines for quotas >1 lion/concession (~0.5 lion/1,000 km 2 ) and hunting of males younger than seven years. A strategy that combined periods of recovery, an age limit of ≥7 yr, and a maximum quota of ~0.5 lions shot/1,000 km 2 yielded a risk of extirpation lion trophy hunting with a combination of regulations. To implement sustainable trophy hunting while maintaining revenue for conservation of hunting areas, our results suggest that hunting fees must increase as a consequence of diminished supply. These findings are broadly applicable to hunted lion populations throughout Africa and to inform global efforts to conserve exploited carnivore populations. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  8. An Investigation of the Vietnamese Shipping Industry and Policy Recommendations for Profound Participation into ASEAN Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Thuy Nguyen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vietnam is a coastal country of a long history of maritime trade, which includes a shipping fleet of 1.840 ships with a total deadweight of 7.3 million DWT. This shipping fleet has been transporting about 90% of domestic sea cargo volume. Taking advantage of participating in the ASEAN community presents the shipping industry with a number of key challenges. These include unbalanced fleet proportions, which makes maximizing the shipping space available problematic; limited financial and managerial competences as well as outdated and inadequate infrastructure. The aim of this paper is to examine the Vietnam shipping industry and consider possible changes in policy led factors to facilitate the country's full participation in the ASEAN integration.

  9. Predictors of physical inactivity among elderly malaysians: recommendations for policy planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Jasvindar; Kaur, Gurpreet; Ho, Bee Kiau; Yao, Weng Keong; Salleh, Mohmad; Lim, Kuang Hock

    2015-04-01

    Physical inactivity is the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. Regular moderate-intensity physical activity has significant benefits for health. To determine the socioeconomic predictors of physical inactivity among elderly Malaysian population. A nationwide community-based survey was conducted among 4831 respondents aged ≥60 years with a face-to-face questionnaire. The prevalence of physical inactivity among the elderly was 88.0%, highest in respondents aged older than 80 years (95.4%), females (90.1%), other Bumiputra (92.2%), earning household income less than RM1000 (87.9%), and residing in urban locality (88.4%). In the multivariate model, the predictors of physical inactivity were only sex, ethnicity, locality, and age group (adjusted odds ratio = 1.3-3.6). The predictors of physical inactivity can identify the risk factors to develop policies that will reduce the public health burden of noncommunicable diseases. © 2014 APJPH.

  10. Public and Opinion Leader Willingness to Fund Obesity-Focused Policies in Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Carol L; Curry, Laurel E; Homsi, Ghada; Williams, Pamela A; Glasgow, LaShawn M; Van Hersh, Deanna; Willett, Jeffrey; Rogers, Todd

    2017-08-01

    Obesity increases the risk for leading causes of death, including cardiovascular disease and some cancers. Midwestern and southern states have the highest obesity rates-in Kansas, one in every three adults is obese. We compared the willingness of Kansas adults and opinion leaders to pay more in taxes to fund obesity prevention policies. In 2014, we asked a representative sample of 2,203 Kansas adults (response rate 15.7%) and 912 opinion leaders (response rate 55%) drawn from elected office and other sectors, including business and health, whether they would pay an additional $50 in annual taxes to support five policies that improve access to healthy foods and opportunities for physical activity. We used adjusted Wald tests to compare public and opinion leaders' responses, and regression analysis to assess whether differences in respondents' gender, age, location (urban/rural), race/ethnicity, and political stance affected results. Adjusting for demographic differences, Kansas adults were more willing than opinion leaders to pay $50 in taxes for each of the five policy interventions. This study demonstrates a willingness among residents of a fiscally conservative state to pay increased taxes for policies that could reduce population obesity rates. Health professionals, including nurses, can use these findings to educate policy makers in Kansas and geopolitically similar states about widespread public support for obesity prevention policies. Public health and other nurses could also apply our methods to assess support for obesity prevention policies in their jurisdictions.

  11. Roadmap for Educator Licensure Policy Addressing Data Literacy: Key Focus Areas to Ensure Quality. Data for Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data Quality Campaign, 2014

    2014-01-01

    State licensure polices are meant to provide teacher preparation programs with direction about the skills teachers need to be qualified to teach, including skills to use data. This roadmap discusses the 10 key data use skills that states can include in a licensure policy with a quality focus on effective data use.

  12. Getting attention is the name of the game: how the publication pressure crowds out focusing on policy. 13 June 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, H.P.

    2012-01-01

    We academics might love to be on the receiving end of applause from our peers but the singular focus on publications as the sole measuring rod of academic quality is deeply misguided. Harry van Dalen writes that our best minds are being tempted away from realworld policy and only a serious rethink

  13. Recommendations for Adopting the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes Into U.S. Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldavini, Jessica; Taillie, Lindsey Smith

    2017-08-01

    In 1981, the World Health Organization adopted the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes ( International Code), with subsequent resolutions adopted since then. The International Code contributes to the safe and adequate provision of nutrition for infants by protecting and promoting breastfeeding and ensuring that human milk substitutes, when necessary, are used properly through adequate information and appropriate marketing and distribution. Despite the World Health Organization recommendations for all member nations to implement the International Code in its entirety, the United States has yet to take action to translate it into any national measures. In 2012, only 22.3% of infants in the United States met the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation of at least 6 months of exclusive breastfeeding. Countries adopting legislation reflecting the provisions of the International Code have seen increases in breastfeeding rates. This article discusses recommendations for translating the International Code into U.S. policy. Adopting legislation that implements, monitors, and enforces the International Code in its entirety has the potential to contribute to increased rates of breastfeeding in the United States, which can lead to improved health outcomes in both infants and breastfeeding mothers.

  14. Professional Veterinary Programs' Perceptions and Experiences Pertaining to Emotional Support Animals and Service Animals, and Recommendations for Policy Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina M; Kogan, Lori R

    Given the unique nature of programs in professional veterinary medicine (PVM), the increasing numbers of students requesting accommodations for emotional support animals (ESAs) in higher education settings is of growing interest to student affairs and administrative staff in PVM settings. Since the legislation pertaining to this type of support animal differs from the laws governing disability service animals, colleges and universities now need to develop new policies and guidelines. Representatives from a sample of 28 PVM programs completed a survey about the prevalence of student requests for ESAs and service animals. PVM associate deans for academic affairs also reported their perceptions of this issue and the challenges these requests might pose within veterinary teaching laboratories and patient treatment areas. Responses indicated that approximately one third of PVM programs have received requests for ESAs (32.1%) in the last 2 years, 17.9% have had requests for psychiatric service animals, and 17.9% for other types of service animals. Despite this, most associate deans reported not having or not being aware of university or college policies pertaining to these issues. Most associate deans are interested in learning more about this topic. This paper provides general recommendations for establishing university or PVM program policies.

  15. Recommendations and Standardization of Biomarker Quantification Using NMR-based Metabolomics with Particular Focus on Urinary Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Emwas, Abdul-Hamid M.

    2016-01-08

    NMR-based metabolomics has shown considerable promise in disease diagnosis and biomarker discovery because it allows one to non-destructively identify and quantify large numbers of novel metabolite biomarkers in both biofluids and tissues. Indeed, precise metabolite quantification is a necessary prerequisite to move any chemical biomarker or biomarker panel from the lab into the clinic. Among the many biofluids (urine, serum, plasma, cerebrospinal fluid and saliva) commonly used for disease diagnosis and prognosis, urine has several advantages. It is abundant, sterile, easily obtained, needs little sample preparation and does not require any invasive medical procedures for collection. Furthermore, urine captures and concentrates many “unwanted” or “undesirable” compounds throughout the body, thereby providing a rich source of potentially useful disease biomarkers. However, the incredible variation in urine chemical concentrations due to effects such as gender, age, diet, life style, health conditions, and physical activity make the analysis of urine and the identification of useful urinary biomarkers by NMR quite challenging. In this review, we discuss a number of the most significant issues regarding NMR-based urinary metabolomics with a specific emphasis on metabolite quantification for disease biomarker applications. We also propose a number of data collection and instrumental recommendations regarding NMR pulse sequences, acceptable acquisition parameter ranges, relaxation effects on quantitation, proper handling of instrumental differences, as well as recommendations regarding sample preparation and biomarker assessment.

  16. EFL Speaking Anxiety among Senior High School Students and Policy Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirul Mukminin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This report drew on a larger study which was to describe and understand the sources of senior high school students’ English language speaking anxiety at senior high schools in Jambi, Indonesia. The purpose of this paper was to report some of findings from the qualitative interview data on the sources of senior high school students’ English language speaking anxiety at one senior high school in Jambi, Indonesia. Data were collected through demographic profiles and semi-structured interview with senior high school students. The demographic data were analysed descriptively while the interview data were transcribed and analysed line by line to generate and develop codes and themes. An analysis of the interview data revealed that five major themes were related to students’ English language speaking anxiety, including (1 low speaking skill due to lack of vocabulary and grammar, (2 fear of negative responses from others, (3 low self-esteem to speak in English, (4 fear of being evaluated by teachers, and (5 cultural influences to speak English due to a more teacher-centred style. Suggestions and policy implications are also discussed.

  17. Contraceptive practices in Nigeria: Literature review and recommendation for future policy decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Monjok

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Emmanuel Monjok1, Andrea Smesny1, John E Ekabua2, E James Essien11Institute of Community Health, University of Houston, Texas, USA; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Calabar, NigeriaAbstract: The current prevalence rate for contraceptive use in Nigeria is approximately 11%–13%. This rate is very low in spite of the high rate of sexual activity and widespread awareness of the various contraceptive methods among Nigerian adolescence and youths. As a result there are many unintended pregnancies and illegal abortions contributing to a high maternal mortality ratio, which seems to indicate a large unmet need for contraceptive use. There is ample research evidence identifying the various factors that contribute to the low prevalence of modern contraceptive use in Nigeria, with the most common factor being the myth about the side effects of modern contraceptives. However, what is lacking is a political will in Nigeria to provide family planning programs on a much larger scale, using community-oriented approaches and communication programs, to help change the myth about the side effects of modern contraceptives. This review highlights current methods and concepts in contraception, reasons for low contraceptive use and practice in Nigeria, and the need for Nigeria to generate a political priority and a will to make a change in maternal health indicators, with the ultimate goal of providing direction to guide changes in the Nigerian Population Policy as it affects contraceptive use and family planning.Keywords: contraceptive practice, literature review, research, Nigeria

  18. Family/children cash benefits in Serbia: The analysis and policy recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matković Gordana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Around 400 thousand children in Serbia are covered with cash-benefits targeting poor children representing 31.7% of the total number of children in 2011. Additionally, around 60 thousand families receive birth grants that is more than 90% of the newly born. When it comes to child-birth related leaves, there were around 37 thousand beneficiaries in 2012. This means that around 50% of the newly born children’s parents are covered with maternity/parental leave, while the coverage of employed mothers is almost full. Coverage of the poor children, particularly by the financial social assistance (FSA, can be considered inadequate. When it comes to targeting (vertical efficiency, FSA is targeted quite well, while there is scope for improvement of the inclusion error within the child-allowance program. When the adequacy of cash benefits targeting poor children is analyzed from the perspective of meeting the basic needs, then the amount is at the verge of being acceptable and differs for different kinds of families - single parent and families with very young children (0-2 being better off. However, when compared to the minimum wage, the cumulative amount of FSA and child allowance is lower only for one- child families. Total expenditures for cash-benefits connected to children amount to 1.4%of GDP - 1.21% being related to ESSPROS family/children function and 0.18% for the FSA for families with children. When compared to the EU, the total expenditure is below the EU average, with the birth related expenditures being higher and child allowance lower than the EU average. The first group of recommendations for cash benefits aimed at families with children relate to the improvement of adequacy and coverage of benefits aiming at poverty reduction, while respecting budget constraints. The increase of benefits for children above 14 years old - increase of child allowance or/and assigning higher weights (0.5 instead of 0.3 for the FSA’s equivalence scale

  19. Passenger transport in Nigeria: Environmental and economic analysis with policy recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gujba, H.; Mulugetta, Y.; Azapagic, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the life cycle environmental impacts and economic costs of the passenger transport sector in Nigeria for 2003–2030. Four scenarios are considered: business as usual (BAU); increased use of public transport (buses) at the expense of cars (LOWCAR) and motorcycles (LOWMC), respectively; and high economic growth with increased car ownership and decline of public transport (HICAR). The findings show that for the BAU scenario the life cycle environmental impacts double over the period, despite the assumption of increased fuel and vehicle efficiency of 35% over time. The total fuel costs at the sectoral level increase three times, from US$3.4 billion/yr in 2003 to US$9.7 billion in 2030. Increasing the use of buses would reduce the environmental impacts on average by 15–20% compared to BAU; at the same time, the total fuel costs would be 25–30% lower. If the use of cars grows much faster due to a high economic growth as in HICAR, the environmental impacts and fuel costs would increase by 16% and 26%, respectively. These results demonstrate clearly that future transport policy in Nigeria should promote and incentivise public (bus) transport as a much more environmentally and economically sustainable option than transport by cars and motorcycles. - Highlights: ► The life cycle environmental impacts of passenger transport in Nigeria estimated for 2003–2030. ► The tradeoffs between economic costs and environmental impacts discussed. ► Scenarios considered: business as usual; sustainable transport; high economic growth. ► Public transport is more sustainable than transport by cars and motorcycles. ► Ending gas flaring would improve substantially environmental, economic and social impacts

  20. Inter-jurisdictional fiscal competition: a review of the literature and policy recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Guimarães Ferreira

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper surveys the literature on fiscal competition. We consider tax and expenditure competition in a more general set up where different jurisdictions within a federation may compete in the provision of public goods in order to attract some residents (Tiebout, 1956 and expel others (Brueckner, 1999; and/or for business. We address the vast literature on welfare gains or losses of these types of competition. Then, we discuss the empirical evidence, focusing on estimates of the sensitiveness of production factors to tax differentials and on the importance of the strategic interdependence among jurisdictions. We combine econometric studies with some case studies. Last we discuss the design of mechanisms to cope with fiscal competition, especially under a more global environment where factors become more mobile.

  1. ADHERENCE TO LONG-TERM TREATMENT OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE AND NON-COMPLIANCE WITH MEDICAL RECOMMENDATIONS: THE OPINION OF PATIENTS AND PHYSICIANS BY THE RESULTS OF FOCUSED INTERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Semenova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the subjective opinion of patients and doctors about their individual experiences with adherence to treatment for chronic cardiovascular diseases in the group focused interview of patients and their physicians.Material and methods. 3 groups of patients from clinical studies adhering to the doctor's recommendations (focus-group 1 and 3 groups of patients hospitalized for cardiovascular events, not adhering to recommendations after discharge (focus-group 2 and one focus-group of doctors were analyzed. Group discussion was performed by a moderator (experienced sociologist, with no medical training who was not familiar with the patients and physicians.Results. 47 patients (25 (53.2 % men and 22 (46.8% women and 6 doctors participated in the study. Paternalistic model of communication with doctors present in the minds of all patients. In patients of the first group this results in a full confidence in the doctor and compliance with all recommendations while in patients of the second group lack of care in the outpatient clinic makes them "offended" by the underestimation of their trust and causes non-compliance. Physicians intuitively divide patients into less and more "attractive" for themselves. This "division" on the one hand may have some predictive value in respect of patients’ adherence to a further treatment, and on the other hand, the "doctors’ prejudice" in relation to the patient may adversely effect the behavior of the patients and failure to follow the recommendations in the future.Conclusion. The significant paternalism on the part of the patient on the one hand increases the responsibility of the physician for his patient, and on the other hand – increases opportunities for his influence on the patients’ behavior.

  2. ADHERENCE TO LONG-TERM TREATMENT OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE AND NON-COMPLIANCE WITH MEDICAL RECOMMENDATIONS: THE OPINION OF PATIENTS AND PHYSICIANS BY THE RESULTS OF FOCUSED INTERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Semenova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the subjective opinion of patients and doctors about their individual experiences with adherence to treatment for chronic cardiovascular diseases in the group focused interview of patients and their physicians.Material and methods. 3 groups of patients from clinical studies adhering to the doctor's recommendations (focus-group 1 and 3 groups of patients hospitalized for cardiovascular events, not adhering to recommendations after discharge (focus-group 2 and one focus-group of doctors were analyzed. Group discussion was performed by a moderator (experienced sociologist, with no medical training who was not familiar with the patients and physicians.Results. 47 patients (25 (53.2 % men and 22 (46.8% women and 6 doctors participated in the study. Paternalistic model of communication with doctors present in the minds of all patients. In patients of the first group this results in a full confidence in the doctor and compliance with all recommendations while in patients of the second group lack of care in the outpatient clinic makes them "offended" by the underestimation of their trust and causes non-compliance. Physicians intuitively divide patients into less and more "attractive" for themselves. This "division" on the one hand may have some predictive value in respect of patients’ adherence to a further treatment, and on the other hand, the "doctors’ prejudice" in relation to the patient may adversely effect the behavior of the patients and failure to follow the recommendations in the future.Conclusion. The significant paternalism on the part of the patient on the one hand increases the responsibility of the physician for his patient, and on the other hand – increases opportunities for his influence on the patients’ behavior.

  3. National innovation system as a focus of state in-novation policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olexandr Fedirko

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The article offers a systematic review of tools and mechanisms utilised by developed countries (United States, Japan, EU to pursue their innovation policies, and classifies methods which support innovation and ways that help to strengthen the innovation capacity. It describes the evolution of research and development (R&D policy in other countries. The article examines arguments in support of a trend in the innovation policy which promotes the development of national innovation systems. It reviews the substance and components of the national innovation system. It also explores the trends of R&D cooperation. The article outlines the variety of domestic tools which regulate innovation in EU countries (framework programs, the European Research Area Initiative.

  4. Recommendations and Standardization of Biomarker Quantification Using NMR-Based Metabolomics with Particular Focus on Urinary Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emwas, Abdul-Hamid; Roy, Raja; McKay, Ryan T; Ryan, Danielle; Brennan, Lorraine; Tenori, Leonardo; Luchinat, Claudio; Gao, Xin; Zeri, Ana Carolina; Gowda, G A Nagana; Raftery, Daniel; Steinbeck, Christoph; Salek, Reza M; Wishart, David S

    2016-02-05

    NMR-based metabolomics has shown considerable promise in disease diagnosis and biomarker discovery because it allows one to nondestructively identify and quantify large numbers of novel metabolite biomarkers in both biofluids and tissues. Precise metabolite quantification is a prerequisite to move any chemical biomarker or biomarker panel from the lab to the clinic. Among the biofluids commonly used for disease diagnosis and prognosis, urine has several advantages. It is abundant, sterile, and easily obtained, needs little sample preparation, and does not require invasive medical procedures for collection. Furthermore, urine captures and concentrates many "unwanted" or "undesirable" compounds throughout the body, providing a rich source of potentially useful disease biomarkers; however, incredible variation in urine chemical concentrations makes analysis of urine and identification of useful urinary biomarkers by NMR challenging. We discuss a number of the most significant issues regarding NMR-based urinary metabolomics with specific emphasis on metabolite quantification for disease biomarker applications and propose data collection and instrumental recommendations regarding NMR pulse sequences, acceptable acquisition parameter ranges, relaxation effects on quantitation, proper handling of instrumental differences, sample preparation, and biomarker assessment.

  5. Learnings from wind energy policy in EU, with focus on Denmark, Sweden and Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I

    The paper describes the learnings from different policies for promotion of wind power and compares the Danish development to that in Sweden and Spain. It is concluded that liberalization has created a number of problems for the promotion of wind power and for the establishment of a sustainable...

  6. The Family Impact Lens: A Family-Focused, Evidence-Informed Approach to Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogenschneider, Karen; Little, Olivia M.; Ooms, Theodora; Benning, Sara; Cadigan, Karen; Corbett, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Families have long been recognized for the contributions they make to their members and to society. Yet families are seldom substantively incorporated into the normal course of policy and program development, implementation, and evaluation. We propose the family impact lens as one way to shift the rhetoric from appreciating families to…

  7. Closing the Achievement Gap: Focus on Latino Students. Policy Brief Number 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Federation of Teachers, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The Latino population is the fastest growing ethnic minority in the United States. This group is rapidly changing the face of public schools and presenting a unique set of challenges to public education. This policy brief provides the data and context to support the American Federation of Teacher's call for increased attention to the condition of…

  8. Public Policy Focus in the Context of a Globalised Economy: Debt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evidently, there appears to be a growing appetite for Nigerian markets on the part of foreign investors seeking opportunities for good returns on investment. As an emerging market, Nigeria must strive to articulate public policy to manage the process of economic integration, especially in the area of public debt management.

  9. Reference centres for adults with rare and complex cancers - Policy recommendations to improve the organisation of care in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stordeur, S; Vrijens, F; Leroy, R

    2016-02-01

    Rare and/or complex cancers call for a very specific expertise and adequate infrastructure. In Belgium, every hospital with a programme in oncology can deliver care for adults with rare and/or complex cancer types, without having demonstrated a specific know-how to adequately manage these patients. Therefore, the Minister of Health ordered a scenario for the organisation of care for adults with rare and/or complex cancers, taking into account the current Belgian situation and relevant foreign experience. Combined methods were used in this study: a literature review, the consultation of stakeholders, in depth discussions in 14 multidisciplinary groups leading to concrete proposals for several rare/complex cancers and the consultation of a panel of expert pathologists. The core recommendation is the set-up of shared care networks around reference centres, with multidisciplinary teams of recognised expertise in specific rare/complex cancers. The definition of minimum caseloads for hospitals and medical specialists, the evaluation of the quality of care, a model of diagnostic confirmation and the set-up of a national portal website which provides information on rare and/or complex cancers and reference centres are highly recommended. It is no longer practicable, efficient or ethical that every hospital or every practitioner continues to offer care for every rare/complex cancer. Improving the quality of rare/complex cancer care requires to concentrate expertise and sophisticated infrastructure in reference centres. Furthermore, the formation of networks between reference centres and peripheral centres will allow a delivery of care combining expertise and proximity. The next step is the translation of the recommendations into policy decisions. It is very well realised that this will take some courage and that a certain degree of resistance will have to be surmounted, but eventually, the best interest of the patient should prevail. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS

  10. Client-Focused Security Assessment of mHealth Apps and Recommended Practices to Prevent or Mitigate Transport Security Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müthing, Jannis; Jäschke, Thomas; Friedrich, Christoph M

    2017-10-18

    Mobile health (mHealth) apps show a growing importance for patients and health care professionals. Apps in this category are diverse. Some display important information (ie, drug interactions), whereas others help patients to keep track of their health. However, insufficient transport security can lead to confidentiality issues for patients and medical professionals, as well as safety issues regarding data integrity. mHealth apps should therefore deploy intensified vigilance to protect their data and integrity. This paper analyzes the state of security in mHealth apps. The objectives of this study were as follows: (1) identification of relevant transport issues in mHealth apps, (2) development of a platform for test purposes, and (3) recommendation of practices to mitigate them. Security characteristics relevant to the transport security of mHealth apps were assessed, presented, and discussed. These characteristics were used in the development of a prototypical platform facilitating streamlined tests of apps. For the tests, six lists of the 10 most downloaded free apps from three countries and two stores were selected. As some apps were part of these top 10 lists in more than one country, 53 unique apps were tested. Out of the 53 apps tested from three European App Stores for Android and iOS, 21/53 (40%) showed critical results. All 21 apps failed to guarantee the integrity of data displayed. A total of 18 apps leaked private data or were observable in a way that compromised confidentiality between apps and their servers; 17 apps used unprotected connections; and two apps failed to validate certificates correctly. None of the apps tested utilized certificate pinning. Many apps employed analytics or ad providers, undermining user privacy. The tests show that many mHealth apps do not apply sufficient transport security measures. The most common security issue was the use of any kind of unprotected connection. Some apps used secure connections only for selected tasks

  11. Focus on CSIR research in pollution waste: Planning and policy for the systematic conservation of freshwater biodiversity

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, D

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available for the systematic conservation of freshwater biodiversity Key capabilities Cross-sectoral engagement of biodiversity specialists and practitioners in developing policy objectives, setting conservation targets and debating planning options Development... for the conservation of biodiversity. Its primary focus is to identify priority areas for conserving living landscapes, waters and oceans, with both formally protected areas and off-reserve management as options for achieving conservation goals...

  12. CRIBs (Climate Relevant Innovation-system Builders): a powerful new focus for international climate technology policy

    OpenAIRE

    Ockwell, David; Byrne, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This briefing suggests some key ways in which the UNFCCC architecture could be extended in order to strengthen National Systems of Innovation (NISs) to achieve more transformative rates of climate technology transfer and development via the creation of “Climate Relevant Innovation-system Builders” (CRIBs).\\ud This policy briefing builds on an invited presentation by one of the authors at a workshop on NSIs convened by the Technology Executive Committee (TEC) of the United Nations Framework Co...

  13. Using print focused collections development policies (CDPs) in digitally born libraries

    KAUST Repository

    Buck, Stephen

    2016-11-03

    The King Abdullah University of Science & Technology (KAUST) library is a ‘born digital’ library. The core, and vast majority, of library resources was acquired in electronic form and a smaller print collection, which complemented the wider collection, was acquired contemporaneously. The purpose of this paper is to determine whether, in conjunction with our specific print collections development policy, we need a complementary E-Resources policy. The writing of such a policy utilizes valuable resources (both staff and time) and involves itself with the sometimes vaguely defined and complex concept of collection evaluation. Issues in e-resources are constantly changing and updates will be necessary to reflect this. How, and how often, do we update our E-Resources CDP? While Biblarz (2001) maintains that the main argument for the existence of a print CDP is to prevent the library from being driven by events or by individual enthusiasms and from purchasing a random set of resources, which may not support the mission of the library this paper explores issues in maintaining a joint print and ‘E’ CDP.

  14. Review of Current Student-Monitoring Techniques used in eLearning-Focused recommender Systems and Learning analytics. The Experience API & LIME model Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Corbi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Recommender systems require input information in order to properly operate and deliver content or behaviour suggestions to end users. eLearning scenarios are no exception. Users are current students and recommendations can be built upon paths (both formal and informal, relationships, behaviours, friends, followers, actions, grades, tutor interaction, etc. A recommender system must somehow retrieve, categorize and work with all these details. There are several ways to do so: from raw and inelegant database access to more curated web APIs or even via HTML scrapping. New server-centric user-action logging and monitoring standard technologies have been presented in past years by several groups, organizations and standard bodies. The Experience API (xAPI, detailed in this article, is one of these. In the first part of this paper we analyse current learner-monitoring techniques as an initialization phase for eLearning recommender systems. We next review standardization efforts in this area; finally, we focus on xAPI and the potential interaction with the LIME model, which will be also summarized below.

  15. D3.4: Recommendations for common policy across the EU regarding professional development as an element of quality in ECEC and child wellbeing for all. Final report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bente; Iannone, Rosa Lisa

    Executive summary This report’s discussion and recommendations build on Workpackage 3’s (WP3) work within CARE, including: 1) a review of the systems of professional development, pre-service and in-service across 10 European countries and the impact that structural and processual shifts have...... contexts. In an attempt to overcome the dualisms of structured-interactive systems and structural-processual approaches to quality enhancement, we acknowledge that the recommendations herein can be applied to ECEC settings across Europe, though actors and methods may vary. The strive is to strengthen...... European ECEC without suggesting radical system changes that disregard historical legacies. In light of this, WP3’s findings and recommendations address implications for policy, practice and research for each of the six policy priorities identified. Since ECEC’s policies, systems and professionals’ work...

  16. Competition Policy in the European Film Industry Focused on Consumers’ Interests – a Romanian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puiu Nistoreanu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available European cinema was and still is often assimilated by film consumers as art cinema which is more difficult to understand and ultimately to reach a big number of consumers. The objectives of this paper were to examine the pathway of European cinema market and the relationship with its consumers along with their interests and attitudes towards European films and to research the most important measures taken by European Union institutions under their competition policy to support European films through state aid schemes. In order to give shape to these objectives, in-depth interviews with five elite specialists from the Romanian film industry were used, specialists who possess international expertise and recognition. The problems of the qualitative research are: the modification of consumer behaviour face to European cinema and support measures. The findings suggest that regarding its relationship with consumers and their interests in the seventh art, European cinema faces many different difficulties ranging from the competition with American films and insufficient funds, to the increased comfortableness or coziness of the movie consumers of our times. The paper concludes with examples of measures suggested by the respondents, to help European cinema become more attractive to consumers, measures which are already being implemented by the industry, making the results of our study useful for policy and decision makers within this cultural area.

  17. [Priorities for health policy and systems research focused on human resources in health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveiz, Ludovic; Chapman, Evelina; Flórez, Carlos E Pinzón; Torres, Rubén

    2013-11-01

    Identify priorities for health policy and systems research related to human resources in Latin America and Caribbean countries. An online survey was designed based on a search in PubMed, Cochrane Library, and LILACS that contributed previously prioritized research questions. Respondents, mainly researchers and decision-makers, were identified through various sources. The first round, directed at researchers, aimed at refining and adding research questions and prioritizing questions that researchers regarded as relevant or very relevant. The second round was directed at researchers and decision-makers. A question was considered a priority when 50% (or more) of respondents described it as "relevant" or "very relevant." The first round included 20 questions on human resources and 33/66 researchers responded. Questions suggested by the researchers were added, resulting in 26 questions for the second round, which were sent to 121 researchers and decision-makers. Respondent representation by country was uniform in both rounds. In the second round, 14/26 (54%) questions were described as very relevant. Priority issues related to regulation of the market, integration of education and health care needs, and distribution of human resources. The response rate was 50% in the first round (33/66), and 34% in the second round (41/121). The results of this exercise provide a starting point for mobilization of resources for health policy and systems research. Identification of health systems research priorities is an effective and efficient strategy for reorienting political, financial, management, and social organization efforts for attaining universal health coverage.

  18. Attractiveness of foreign investments in Albania: a focused analysis of factors, constrains and policy assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blerta Dragusha (Spahija

    2013-01-01

    Determining the factors that attract FDI, and furthermore identify the main characteristics of the host country’s economy, are essential to understand the reason of FDI inflows to a country or region. In the empirical perspective, various studies give different results. More specifically, this paper has focused on determining the factors for and against FDI in Albania.

  19. Economic evaluation on tight sandstone gas development projects in China and recommendation on fiscal and taxation support policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Yang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available China is rich in tight sandstone gas resources (“tight gas” for short. For example, the Sulige Gasfield in the Ordos Basin and the Upper Triassic Xujiahe Fm gas reservoir in the Sichuan Basin are typical tight gas reservoirs. In the past decade, tight gas reserve and production both have increased rapidly in China, but tight gas reservoirs are always managed as conventional gas reservoirs without effective fiscal, taxation and policy supports. The potential of sustainable tight gas production increase is obviously restricted. The tight gas development projects represented by the Sulige Gasfield have failed to make profit for a long period, and especially tight gas production has presented a slight decline since 2015. In this paper, a new economic evaluation method was proposed for tight gas development projects. The new method was designed to verify the key parameters (e.g. production decline rate and single-well economic service life depending on tight gas development and production characteristics, and perform the depreciation by using the production method. Furthermore, the possibility that the operation cost may rise due to pressure-boosting production and intermittent opening of gas wells is considered. The method was used for the tight gas development project of Sulige Gasfield, showing that its profit level is much lower than the enterprise's cost level of capital. In order to support a sustainable development of tight gas industry in China, it is recommended that relevant authorities issue value-added tax (VAT refund policy as soon as possible. It is necessary to restore the non-resident gas gate price of the provinces where tight gas is produced to the fair and reasonable level in addition to the fiscal subsidy of CNY0.24/m3, or offer the fiscal subsidy of CNY0.32/m3 directly based on the on-going gate price. With these support policies, tax income is expected to rise directly, fiscal expenditure will not increase, and gas

  20. Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; proposed general guidelines for recommendation of sites for nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    In accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (Pub. L. 97-425), hereinafter referred to as the Act, the Department of Energy is proposing general guidelines for the recommendation of sites for repositories for disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel in geologic formations. These guidelines are based on the criteria that the Department has used in its National Waste Terminal Storage program, the criteria proposed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the environmental standards proposed by the Environmental Protection Agency. These guidelines establish the performance requirements for a geologic repository system, specify how the Department will implement its site-selection program, and define the technical qualifications that candidate sites must meet in the various steps of the site-selection process mandated by the Act. After considering comments from the public; consulting with the Council on Environmental Quality, the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, the Director of the Geological Survey, and interested Governors; and obtaining NRC concurrence, the Department will issue these guidelines in final form as a new Part 960 to Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR Part 960)

  1. Recommendations concerning Tennessee's hazardous waste management policies by a task force representing generators, environmentalists, and other key constituencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colglazier, E.W.; English, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    Four recommendations are proposed. 1) A Governor's Roundtable on Hazardous and Solid Wastes should be established to ensure that Tennessee have sound policies and plans for waste management, adequate waste treatment and disposal capacity, and the means to meet the October, 1989 deadline for certification of hazardous waste capacity. 2) Opportunities for early public information and participation in Tennessee's RCRA permitting process should be improved. 3) A Superfund Public Involvement Task Force should be appointed by the Commissioner of Health and Environment to find ways to ensure that a community affected by a Tennessee Superfund site has early and adequate opportunities for information and involvement. 4) Communications about hazardous waste issues should be improved by the appointment of a hazardous waste information officer, the establishment of a Speakers Bureau, the funding of the UT Center for Industrial Services' Hazardous Waste Extension Program, establishment of a crisis situation network of consultants for communities, and exploration of the possibility of Amnesty Days for household hazardous waste and for small-quantity generators waste

  2. Communicating human biomonitoring results to ensure policy coherence with public health recommendations: analysing breastmilk whilst protecting, promoting and supporting breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arendt Maryse

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article addresses the problem of how to ensure consistency in messages communicating public health recommendations on environmental health and on child health. The World Health Organization states that the protection, promotion and support of breastfeeding rank among the most effective interventions to improve child survival. International public health policy recommends exclusive breastfeeding for six months, followed by continued breastfeeding with the addition of safe and adequate complementary foods for two years and beyond. Biomonitoring of breastmilk is used as an indicator of environmental pollution ending up in mankind. This article will therefore present the biomonitoring results of concentrations of residues in breastmilk in a wider context. These results are the mirror that reflects the chemical substances accumulated in the bodies of both men and women in the course of a lifetime. The accumulated substances in our bodies may have an effect on male or female reproductive cells; they are present in the womb, directly affecting the environment of the fragile developing foetus; they are also present in breastmilk. Evidence of man-made chemical residues in breastmilk can provide a shock tactic to push for stronger laws to protect the environment. However, messages about chemicals detected in breastmilk can become dramatized by the media and cause a backlash against breastfeeding, thus contradicting the public health messages issued by the World Health Organization. Analyses of breastmilk show the presence of important nutritional components and live protective factors active in building up the immune system, in gastro intestinal maturation, in immune defence and in providing antiviral, antiparasitic and antibacterial activity. Through cohort studies researchers in environmental health have concluded that long-term breastfeeding counterbalances the effect of prenatal exposure to chemicals causing delay in mental and

  3. Communicating human biomonitoring results to ensure policy coherence with public health recommendations: analysing breastmilk whilst protecting, promoting and supporting breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arendt Maryse

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article addresses the problem of how to ensure consistency in messages communicating public health recommendations on environmental health and on child health. The World Health Organization states that the protection, promotion and support of breastfeeding rank among the most effective interventions to improve child survival. International public health policy recommends exclusive breastfeeding for six months, followed by continued breastfeeding with the addition of safe and adequate complementary foods for two years and beyond. Biomonitoring of breastmilk is used as an indicator of environmental pollution ending up in mankind. This article will therefore present the biomonitoring results of concentrations of residues in breastmilk in a wider context. These results are the mirror that reflects the chemical substances accumulated in the bodies of both men and women in the course of a lifetime. The accumulated substances in our bodies may have an effect on male or female reproductive cells; they are present in the womb, directly affecting the environment of the fragile developing foetus; they are also present in breastmilk. Evidence of man-made chemical residues in breastmilk can provide a shock tactic to push for stronger laws to protect the environment. However, messages about chemicals detected in breastmilk can become dramatized by the media and cause a backlash against breastfeeding, thus contradicting the public health messages issued by the World Health Organization. Analyses of breastmilk show the presence of important nutritional components and live protective factors active in building up the immune system, in gastro intestinal maturation, in immune defence and in providing antiviral, antiparasitic and antibacterial activity. Through cohort studies researchers in environmental health have concluded that long-term breastfeeding counterbalances the effect of prenatal exposure to chemicals causing delay in mental and

  4. Effects of pharmaceutical cost containment policies on doctors' prescribing behavior: Focus on antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Euna; Chae, Su-Mi; Kim, Nam-Soon; Park, Sylvia

    2015-09-01

    We analyzed the effect of the outpatient prescription incentive program and price cuts of listed medicines in South Korea on prescription drug expenditures and prescription behaviors, focusing on antibiotics for the most common infectious diseases. We used the National Health Insurance claims data from January 1, 2009 through December 31, 2012. For 1625 primary clinics randomly sampled, we included all claims with principal diagnoses of acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs, J00-J06), acute lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs, J20-J22), or otitis media (H65, H66). An interrupted time-series analysis was conducted. Pharmaceutical spending per claim dropped immediately after the outpatient prescription incentive program only for otitis media (adults), but the secular trend shifted downward after the incentive program for all target diseases. The incentive program lowered the trend of antibiotic prescribing rate in otitis media (adults). The program was associated with an increase of the number of antibiotics prescribed in URTI (adults) and LRTI (children) and decrease in otitis media (adults). The broad markdown of drug prices reduced pharmaceutical expenditures immediately for all diseases, but without lasting effect. The direct financial incentives to physicians to reduce in prescription spending had the intended effect over time and can be an important tool to improve pharmaceutical spending management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Innovation policy of European chemical companies with special focus on large companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyo Das

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available According to Arora et alii (1998, the chemical industry is one of the largest and most R&D-intensive manufacturing sectors in all the advanced economies, and its innovative patterns and productivity growth processes can have profound impacts on economic growth as a whole. The European chemical industry supplies virtually all sectors of the economy and accounts for 17.8% of the total sales of chemicals in the world. This paper gives an overview of the European chemical industry and the changing scenario of the world chemical industry by focusing on the top fifteen chemical companies in Europe. It describes the current problems this industry is facing in Europe especially after the economic crisis and shows that the region and the top companies are investing in R&D to bring about innovation and overcome the current challenges. It shows that R&D spending in absolute terms has hardly changed over the years and that the industry is still globally the largest investor in R&D activities. In terms of R&D, BASF has made the greatest investment followed by Bayer and Syngenta, while R&D intensity is highest for Syngenta and Bayer. BASF and Bayer have made most patent applications and have also had the highest number of patents granted. The quality of research in most chemical companies is very high and most of the large European companies make their first patent application in Europe rather than elsewhere. All the large chemical companies use Merger & Acquisition (M&A to gain access to innovation. Industry-academia collaboration is one way to generate innovation in the chemical industry in Europe. Chemical clusters and the geographical distribution of chemical companies play a significant role in generating innovation.

  6. The health of homeless people in high-income countries: descriptive epidemiology, health consequences, and clinical and policy recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazel, Seena; Geddes, John R; Kushel, Margot

    2014-10-25

    In the European Union, more than 400,000 individuals are homeless on any one night and more than 600,000 are homeless in the USA. The causes of homelessness are an interaction between individual and structural factors. Individual factors include poverty, family problems, and mental health and substance misuse problems. The availability of low-cost housing is thought to be the most important structural determinant for homelessness. Homeless people have higher rates of premature mortality than the rest of the population, especially from suicide and unintentional injuries, and an increased prevalence of a range of infectious diseases, mental disorders, and substance misuse. High rates of non-communicable diseases have also been described with evidence of accelerated ageing. Although engagement with health services and adherence to treatments is often compromised, homeless people typically attend the emergency department more often than non-homeless people. We discuss several recommendations to improve the surveillance of morbidity and mortality in homeless people. Programmes focused on high-risk groups, such as individuals leaving prisons, psychiatric hospitals, and the child welfare system, and the introduction of national and state-wide plans that target homeless people are likely to improve outcomes.

  7. The health of homeless people in high-income countries: descriptive epidemiology, health consequences, and clinical and policy recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazel, Seena; Geddes, John R; Kushel, Margot

    2015-01-01

    In the European Union, more than 400 000 individuals are homeless on any one night and more than 600 000 are homeless in the USA. The causes of homelessness are an interaction between individual and structural factors. Individual factors include poverty, family problems, and mental health and substance misuse problems. The availability of low-cost housing is thought to be the most important structural determinant for homelessness. Homeless people have higher rates of premature mortality than the rest of the population, especially from suicide and unintentional injuries, and an increased prevalence of a range of infectious diseases, mental disorders, and substance misuse. High rates of non-communicable diseases have also been described with evidence of accelerated ageing. Although engagement with health services and adherence to treatments is often compromised, homeless people typically attend the emergency department more often than non-homeless people. We discuss several recommendations to improve the surveillance of morbidity and mortality in homeless people. Programmes focused on high-risk groups, such as individuals leaving prisons, psychiatric hospitals, and the child welfare system, and the introduction of national and state-wide plans that target homeless people are likely to improve outcomes. PMID:25390578

  8. Analysis on Green Agriculture Policy during the Development of Eco-city in European Countries and United States and Policy Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    QIN, Li; QI, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Ecological agriculture is the important industrial foundation for building eco-cities, while green agriculture policy plays an essential role in promoting sustainable development of ecological agriculture. This paper analyzed the relationship between green agriculture policy and developing eco-cities and characteristics of green agriculture policies in European countries and the United States developing ecological cities. Besides, it summarized experience, in hope of providing beneficial refe...

  9. The European Federation of Organisations for Medical Physics Policy Statement No. 6.1: Recommended Guidelines on National Registration Schemes for Medical Physicists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofides, Stelios; Isidoro, Jorge; Pesznyak, Csilla; Bumbure, Lada; Cremers, Florian; Schmidt, Werner F O

    2016-01-01

    This EFOMP Policy Statement is an update of Policy Statement No. 6 first published in 1994. The present version takes into account the European Union Parliament and Council Directive 2013/55/EU that amends Directive 2005/36/EU on the recognition of professional qualifications and the European Union Council Directive 2013/59/EURATOM laying down the basic safety standards for protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionising radiation. The European Commission Radiation Protection Report No. 174, Guidelines on Medical Physics Expert and the EFOMP Policy Statement No. 12.1, Recommendations on Medical Physics Education and Training in Europe 2014, are also taken into consideration. The EFOMP National Member Organisations are encouraged to update their Medical Physics registration schemes where these exist or to develop registration schemes taking into account the present version of this EFOMP Policy Statement (Policy Statement No. 6.1"Recommended Guidelines on National Registration Schemes for Medical Physicists"). Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Policy Document on Earth Observation for Urban Planning and Management: State of the Art and Recommendations for Application of Earth Observation in Urban Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichol, Janet; King, Bruce; Xiaoli, Ding; Dowman, Ian; Quattrochi, Dale; Ehlers, Manfred

    2007-01-01

    A policy document on earth observation for urban planning and management resulting from a workshop held in Hong Kong in November 2006 is presented. The aim of the workshop was to provide a forum for researchers and scientists specializing in earth observation to interact with practitioners working in different aspects of city planning, in a complex and dynamic city, Hong Kong. A summary of the current state of the art, limitations, and recommendations for the use of earth observation in urban areas is presented here as a policy document.

  11. Recommendations for Infant Feeding Policy and Programs in Dzimauli Region, South Africa: Results From the MAL-ED Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushaphi, Lindelani Fhumudzani; Mahopo, Tjale Cloupas; Nesamvuni, Cebisa Noxolo; Baloyi, Brenda; Mashau, Ellen; Richardson, Jeniata; Dillingham, Rebecca; Guerrant, Richard; Ambikapathi, Ramya; Bessong, Pascal

    2017-09-01

    There is strong evidence that exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) in the first 6 months of life reduces the risk of diseases in infancy and in later life. To understand the maternal reasoning that influences optimum infant feeding practices of caregivers in semirural communities of Limpopo province. Nested qualitative study among mothers in an ongoing birth cohort study was conducted; structured and semi-structured interviews were used to collect data. Data from 234 infants after 6 months of follow-up was included for quantitative analysis. Four focus discussion groups comprising 7 to 10 caregivers were used to obtain perception of mothers on breastfeeding. A semi-structured interview guide was used to stimulate discussions. Thematic content analyses were conducted to identify the main themes that influence breastfeeding practices of caregivers. Over 90% of the caregivers initiated breastfeeding after delivery. However, less than 1% of mothers practiced EBF by 3 months, and none of the children were exclusively breastfed for up to 6 months. All caregivers introduced non-breast milk liquids and solids by the second month of child's life. Common reasons for introducing non-breast milk foods included insufficiency of breast milk production, going back to work or school, and influence by elderly women (mothers/mothers-in-law) and church members. Exclusive breastfeeding was not practiced in this community due to cultural and religious beliefs and misinformation. The involvement of elderly women and church members in infant feeding education and promotion programs and the dissemination of breastfeeding information through mobile phones to younger mothers are recommended.

  12. Policy in Focus

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    as populations age, and for studies of generational equity and the sustainability of economic support systems. They inform the efforts of policymakers to raise the living standards of people of all ages, from children to the elderly. How NTA makes its estimates. NTA estimates do not require new surveys. They are estimated ...

  13. The Policy Recommendations of the Association of American Geographers as Reflected In the Ventura County Community College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDannold, Thomas A.

    A survey was conducted to identify the degree to which the Association of American Geographers (AAG) 1970 recommendations on geography programs in two-year colleges were reflected in geography programs offered in the Ventura County Community College District (California). Results indicated that the recommendations were followed to a great extent,…

  14. Medium of Instruction Policies in Ghanaian and Indian Primary Schools: An Overview of Key Issues and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erling, Elizabeth J.; Adinolfi, Lina; Hultgren, Anna Kristina; Buckler, Alison; Mukorera, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a rigorous literature review of research into medium of instruction in Ghana and India, whose language-in-education policies represent two contrasting models of use of local languages and the development of competence in English. The paper begins by briefly overviewing the language-in-education policy in these two countries…

  15. Sexual Assault Prevention and Reporting on College Campuses in the US: A Review of Policies and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streng, Tara K.; Kamimura, Akiko

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Sexual violence within the collegiate environment is a pressing issue within American society. One way to address sexual violence is through the adaptation and implementation of a sexual assault policy by colleges and universities. The purpose of this study is to review sexual misconduct and assault policies of ten public universities…

  16. Potential of criminological research in evaluation of victim-focused policy and legislation in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štefunková Michaela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For effective victim-focused legislation, evidence-based knowledge is essential, thus making criminological research of great importance. Victimization surveys represent a globally recognized type of criminological investigation. Although they are primarily focused on measuring the dark figure of crime, they can also provide a broad spectrum of information on victimization-related issues. The latest victimization survey was carried out in the Czech Republic by the Institute of Criminology and Social Prevention in 2013. Through face to face interviews, victimization was explored through eight selected offences in the period of 12 months prior the survey. The representative sample included 3000 respondents 15 years of age and older. The next round is planned for 2017. Since 2013, a new Act no. 45/2013 Coll., on Victims of Crime has come into effect in the Czech Republic. This paper will discuss how victimization surveys can enrich the knowledge on victimization-related issues and how they can help in the evaluation of criminal policy.

  17. Identifying factors likely to influence compliance with diagnostic imaging guideline recommendations for spine disorders among chiropractors in North America: a focus group study using the Theoretical Domains Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussières, André E; Patey, Andrea M; Francis, Jill J; Sales, Anne E; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Brouwers, Melissa; Godin, Gaston; Hux, Jan; Johnston, Marie; Lemyre, Louise; Pomey, Marie-Pascale; Sales, Anne; Zwarenstein, Merrick

    2012-08-31

    The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) was developed to investigate determinants of specific clinical behaviors and inform the design of interventions to change professional behavior. This framework was used to explore the beliefs of chiropractors in an American Provider Network and two Canadian provinces about their adherence to evidence-based recommendations for spine radiography for uncomplicated back pain. The primary objective of the study was to identify chiropractors' beliefs about managing uncomplicated back pain without x-rays and to explore barriers and facilitators to implementing evidence-based recommendations on lumbar spine x-rays. A secondary objective was to compare chiropractors in the United States and Canada on their beliefs regarding the use of spine x-rays. Six focus groups exploring beliefs about managing back pain without x-rays were conducted with a purposive sample. The interview guide was based upon the TDF. Focus groups were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed by two independent assessors using thematic content analysis based on the TDF. Five domains were identified as likely relevant. Key beliefs within these domains included the following: conflicting comments about the potential consequences of not ordering x-rays (risk of missing a pathology, avoiding adverse treatment effects, risks of litigation, determining the treatment plan, and using x-ray-driven techniques contrasted with perceived benefits of minimizing patient radiation exposure and reducing costs; beliefs about consequences); beliefs regarding professional autonomy, professional credibility, lack of standardization, and agreement with guidelines widely varied ( social/professional role & identity); the influence of formal training, colleagues, and patients also appeared to be important factors ( social influences); conflicting comments regarding levels of confidence and comfort in managing patients without x-rays ( belief about capabilities); and

  18. Identifying factors likely to influence compliance with diagnostic imaging guideline recommendations for spine disorders among chiropractors in North America: a focus group study using the Theoretical Domains Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bussières André E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF was developed to investigate determinants of specific clinical behaviors and inform the design of interventions to change professional behavior. This framework was used to explore the beliefs of chiropractors in an American Provider Network and two Canadian provinces about their adherence to evidence-based recommendations for spine radiography for uncomplicated back pain. The primary objective of the study was to identify chiropractors’ beliefs about managing uncomplicated back pain without x-rays and to explore barriers and facilitators to implementing evidence-based recommendations on lumbar spine x-rays. A secondary objective was to compare chiropractors in the United States and Canada on their beliefs regarding the use of spine x-rays. Methods Six focus groups exploring beliefs about managing back pain without x-rays were conducted with a purposive sample. The interview guide was based upon the TDF. Focus groups were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed by two independent assessors using thematic content analysis based on the TDF. Results Five domains were identified as likely relevant. Key beliefs within these domains included the following: conflicting comments about the potential consequences of not ordering x-rays (risk of missing a pathology, avoiding adverse treatment effects, risks of litigation, determining the treatment plan, and using x-ray-driven techniques contrasted with perceived benefits of minimizing patient radiation exposure and reducing costs; beliefs about consequences; beliefs regarding professional autonomy, professional credibility, lack of standardization, and agreement with guidelines widely varied ( social/professional role & identity; the influence of formal training, colleagues, and patients also appeared to be important factors ( social influences; conflicting comments regarding levels of confidence and comfort in managing patients

  19. Identifying factors likely to influence compliance with diagnostic imaging guideline recommendations for spine disorders among chiropractors in North America: a focus group study using the Theoretical Domains Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) was developed to investigate determinants of specific clinical behaviors and inform the design of interventions to change professional behavior. This framework was used to explore the beliefs of chiropractors in an American Provider Network and two Canadian provinces about their adherence to evidence-based recommendations for spine radiography for uncomplicated back pain. The primary objective of the study was to identify chiropractors’ beliefs about managing uncomplicated back pain without x-rays and to explore barriers and facilitators to implementing evidence-based recommendations on lumbar spine x-rays. A secondary objective was to compare chiropractors in the United States and Canada on their beliefs regarding the use of spine x-rays. Methods Six focus groups exploring beliefs about managing back pain without x-rays were conducted with a purposive sample. The interview guide was based upon the TDF. Focus groups were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed by two independent assessors using thematic content analysis based on the TDF. Results Five domains were identified as likely relevant. Key beliefs within these domains included the following: conflicting comments about the potential consequences of not ordering x-rays (risk of missing a pathology, avoiding adverse treatment effects, risks of litigation, determining the treatment plan, and using x-ray-driven techniques contrasted with perceived benefits of minimizing patient radiation exposure and reducing costs; beliefs about consequences); beliefs regarding professional autonomy, professional credibility, lack of standardization, and agreement with guidelines widely varied ( social/professional role & identity); the influence of formal training, colleagues, and patients also appeared to be important factors ( social influences); conflicting comments regarding levels of confidence and comfort in managing patients without x-rays ( belief

  20. Male circumcision for HIV prevention in Papua New Guinea: a summary of research evidence and recommendations for public health following a national policy forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallely, A; MacLaren, D J; Kaleva, W; Millan, J; Tommbe, R; Marape, W; Manineng, C; Buchanan, H; Amos, A; Frank, R; Kelly, A; Kupul, M; Aeno, H; Trowalle, E; John, L N; Redman-Maclaren, M L; Ryan, C; Browne, K; Tynan, A; Hill, P S; Gray, R T; Murray, J; Wilson, D P; Law, G; Siba, P; McBride, W J H; Farley, T; Kaldor, J M

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, a clinical trial in South Africa found that circumcision of young men could reduce their risk of acquiring HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection by over 60%. In the following year, two more trials in Africa confirmed this finding, leading the World Health Organization to recommend male circumcision as a public health strategy for HIV prevention in high-incidence countries. In order to inform public health policy in Papua New Guinea (PNG), two major research projects were initiated with the goals of investigating the status of penile cutting practices and assessing understandings, acceptability, feasibility and cost-effectiveness of male circumcision for HIV prevention. In addition, behavioural surveillance surveys systematically asked questions on penile cutting practices and an ethnographic literature review informed historical perspectives of penile cutting in PNG. Key findings from these research activities were presented at a National Policy Forum on Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention held in Port Moresby in November 2011. The Forum made three key recommendations: (1) the formation of a joint National Department of HealthlNational AIDS Council Secretariat Policy Committee on male circumcision; (2) the establishment of an integrated harm reduction program; and (3) that future policy on wide-scale roll-out of male circumcision for HIV prevention in PNG be informed by a combination of data from (a) male circumcision intervention pilot programs and (b) research on the potential protective effect of other forms of penile cutting.

  1. Low-Carbon City Policy Databook: 72 Policy Recommendations for Chinese Cities from the Benchmarking and Energy Savings Tool for Low Carbon Cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area. Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Division. China Energy Group; Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area. Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Division. China Energy Group; Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area. Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Division. China Energy Group; Ohshita, Stephanie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area. Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Division. China Energy Group; Khanna, Nina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area. Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Division. China Energy Group; Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area. Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Division. China Energy Group; Hong, Lixuan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area. Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Division. China Energy Group; He, Gang [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area. Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Division. China Energy Group; Romankiewicz, John [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area. Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Division. China Energy Group; Min, Hu [Energy Foundation China, Beijing (China)

    2016-07-01

    This report is designed to help city authorities evaluate and prioritize more than 70 different policy strategies that can reduce their city’s energy use and carbon-based greenhouse gas emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). Local government officials, researchers, and planners can utilize the report to identify policies most relevant to local circumstances and to develop a low carbon city action plan that can be implemented in phases, over a multi-year timeframe. The policies cover nine city sectors: industry, public and commercial buildings, residential buildings, transportation, power and heat, street lighting, water & wastewater, solid waste, and urban green space. See Table 1 for a listing of the policies. Recognizing the prominence of urban industry in the energy and carbon inventories of Chinese cities, this report includes low carbon city policies for the industrial sector. The policies gathered here have proven effective in multiple locations around the world and have the potential to achieve future energy and carbon savings in Chinese cities.

  2. How is the process of setting micronutrients recommendations reflected in nutrition policies in Poland? The case study of folate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Sicińska

    2018-03-01

    The current Polish nutrition recommendations for folate are consistent with the levels set by most other countries. The constant improvement of nutritional knowledge on folate among consumers, especially young women, is necessary.

  3. Predictors of public support for nutrition-focused policy, systems and environmental change strategies in Los Angeles County, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Brenda; Kuo, Tony

    2017-01-13

    Since 2010, federal and local agencies have invested broadly in a variety of nutrition-focused policy, systems and environmental change (PSE) initiatives in Los Angeles County (LAC). To date, little is known about whether the public supports such efforts. We address this gap in the literature by examining predictors of support for a variety of PSEs. Voters residing in LAC (n=1007) were randomly selected to participate in a cross-sectional telephone survey commissioned by the LAC Department of Public Health. The survey asked questions about attitudes towards the obesity epidemic, nutrition knowledge and behaviours, public opinions about changing business practices/government policies related to nutrition, and sociodemographics. A factor analysis informed outcome variable selection (ie, type of PSEs). Multivariable regression analyses were performed to examine predictors of public support. Predictors in the regression models included (primary regressor) community economic hardship; (control variables) political affiliation, sex, age, race and income; and (independent variables) perceptions about obesity, perceived health and weight status, frequency reading nutrition labels, ease of finding healthy and unhealthy foods, and food consumption behaviours (ie, fruit and vegetables, non-diet soda, fast-food and sit-down restaurant meals). 3 types of PSE outcome variables were identified: promotional/incentivising, limiting/restrictive and business practices. Community economic hardship was not found to be a significant predictor of public support for any of the 3 PSE types. However, Republican party affiliation, being female and perceiving obesity as a serious health problem were. These findings have implications for public health practice and community planning in local health jurisdictions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Update on NHANES Dietary Data: Focus on Collection, Release, Analytical Considerations, and Uses to Inform Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Namanjeet; Dwyer, Johanna; Terry, Ana; Moshfegh, Alanna; Johnson, Clifford

    2016-01-01

    NHANES is the cornerstone for national nutrition monitoring to inform nutrition and health policy. Nutritional assessment in NHANES is described with a focus on dietary data collection, analysis, and uses in nutrition monitoring. NHANES has been collecting thorough data on diet, nutritional status, and chronic disease in cross-sectional surveys with nationally representative samples since the early 1970s. Continuous data collection began in 1999 with public data release in 2-y cycles on ∼10,000 participants. In 2002, the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals and the NHANES dietary component were merged, forming a consolidated dietary data collection known as What We Eat in America; since then, 24-h recalls have been collected on 2 d using the USDA's Automated Multiple-Pass Method. Detailed and targeted food-frequency questionnaires have been collected in some NHANES cycles. Dietary supplement use data have been collected (in detail since 2007) so that total nutrient intakes can be described for the population. The continuous NHANES can adapt its content to address emerging public health needs and reflect federal priorities. Changes in data collection methods are made after expert input and validation/crossover studies. NHANES dietary data are used to describe intake of foods, nutrients, food groups, and dietary patterns by the US population and large sociodemographic groups to plan and evaluate nutrition programs and policies. Usual dietary intake distributions can be estimated after adjusting for day-to-day variation. NHANES remains open and flexible to incorporate improvements while maintaining data quality and providing timely data to track the nation's nutrition and health status. In summary, NHANES collects dietary data in the context of its broad, multipurpose goals; the strengths and limitations of these data are also discussed in this review. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Update on NHANES Dietary Data: Focus on Collection, Release, Analytical Considerations, and Uses to Inform Public Policy12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Namanjeet; Dwyer, Johanna; Terry, Ana; Moshfegh, Alanna; Johnson, Clifford

    2016-01-01

    NHANES is the cornerstone for national nutrition monitoring to inform nutrition and health policy. Nutritional assessment in NHANES is described with a focus on dietary data collection, analysis, and uses in nutrition monitoring. NHANES has been collecting thorough data on diet, nutritional status, and chronic disease in cross-sectional surveys with nationally representative samples since the early 1970s. Continuous data collection began in 1999 with public data release in 2-y cycles on ∼10,000 participants. In 2002, the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals and the NHANES dietary component were merged, forming a consolidated dietary data collection known as What We Eat in America; since then, 24-h recalls have been collected on 2 d using the USDA’s Automated Multiple-Pass Method. Detailed and targeted food-frequency questionnaires have been collected in some NHANES cycles. Dietary supplement use data have been collected (in detail since 2007) so that total nutrient intakes can be described for the population. The continuous NHANES can adapt its content to address emerging public health needs and reflect federal priorities. Changes in data collection methods are made after expert input and validation/crossover studies. NHANES dietary data are used to describe intake of foods, nutrients, food groups, and dietary patterns by the US population and large sociodemographic groups to plan and evaluate nutrition programs and policies. Usual dietary intake distributions can be estimated after adjusting for day-to-day variation. NHANES remains open and flexible to incorporate improvements while maintaining data quality and providing timely data to track the nation’s nutrition and health status. In summary, NHANES collects dietary data in the context of its broad, multipurpose goals; the strengths and limitations of these data are also discussed in this review. PMID:26773020

  6. Working Paper 78: Policy recommendations to the EU Commission, Changing families and sustainable societies: Policy contexts and diversity over the life course and across generations (2017) : Collaborative research project financed by the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme 2013-2017 (Grant no. 320116, FP7-SSH-2012-1)

    OpenAIRE

    Carlson, Laura; Oláh, Livia; Hobson, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    These policy recommendations are based on main findings of the largescale EU Seventh Framework project, Changing families and sustainable societies: Policy contexts and diversity over the life course and across generations (FamiliesAndSocieties). This executive summary highlights a few of the key policy recommendations: • Policy makers ought to be aware of the remarkable diversity of family forms and relationships in contemporary Europe, and aim for a better understanding of the nature and me...

  7. Recommended strategies for spectral processing and post-processing of 1D 1H-NMR data of biofluids with a particular focus on urine

    KAUST Repository

    Emwas, Abdul-Hamid M.

    2018-02-12

    1H NMR spectra from urine can yield information-rich data sets that offer important insights into many biological and biochemical phenomena. However, the quality and utility of these insights can be profoundly affected by how the NMR spectra are processed and interpreted. For instance, if the NMR spectra are incorrectly referenced or inconsistently aligned, the identification of many compounds will be incorrect. If the NMR spectra are mis-phased or if the baseline correction is flawed, the estimated concentrations of many compounds will be systematically biased. Furthermore, because NMR permits the measurement of concentrations spanning up to five orders of magnitude, several problems can arise with data analysis. For instance, signals originating from the most abundant metabolites may prove to be the least biologically relevant while signals arising from the least abundant metabolites may prove to be the most important but hardest to accurately and precisely measure. As a result, a number of data processing techniques such as scaling, transformation and normalization are often required to address these issues. Therefore, proper processing of NMR data is a critical step to correctly extract useful information in any NMR-based metabolomic study. In this review we highlight the significance, advantages and disadvantages of different NMR spectral processing steps that are common to most NMR-based metabolomic studies of urine. These include: chemical shift referencing, phase and baseline correction, spectral alignment, spectral binning, scaling and normalization. We also provide a set of recommendations for best practices regarding spectral and data processing for NMR-based metabolomic studies of biofluids, with a particular focus on urine.

  8. No Child Left Behind in Art Education Policy: A Review of Key Recommendations for Arts Language Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Anne C.

    2010-01-01

    From bipartisan origins and a laudable intent, the No Child Left Behind (Act) of 2001 has profoundly altered the condition of art education. A historical vantage point and review of literature reveals the current status of pending arts language revisions to the NCLB Act, as well as a pressing need to examine the key recommendations and to consider…

  9. Alternative fuel buses currently in use in China: Life-cycle fossil energy use, GHG emissions and policy recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou Xunmin, E-mail: oxm07@mails.tsinghua.edu.c [School of Public Policy and Management (SPPM), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang Xiliang, E-mail: zhang_xl@tsinghua.edu.c [China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Chang Shiyan [China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-01-15

    The Chinese government has enacted policies to promote alternative vehicle fuels (AVFs) and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), including city bus fleets. The life cycle (LC), energy savings (ES) and GHG reduction (GR) profiles of AVFs/AFVs are critical to those policy decisions. The well-to-wheels module of the Tsinghua-CA3EM model is employed to investigate actual performance data. Compared with conventional buses, AFVs offer differences in performance in terms of both ES and GR. Only half of the AFVs analyzed demonstrate dual benefits. However, all non-oil/gas pathways can substitute oil/gas with coal. Current policies seek to promote technology improvements and market creation initiatives within the guiding framework of national-level diversification and district-level uniformity. Combined with their actual LC behavior and in keeping with near- and long-term strategies, integrated policies should seek to (1) apply hybrid electric technology to diesel buses; (2) encourage NG/LPG buses in gas-abundant cities; (3) promote commercialize electric buses or plug-in capable vehicles through battery technology innovation; (4) support fuel cell buses and hydrogen technology R and D for future potential applications; and (5) conduct further research on boosting vehicle fuel efficiency, applying low-carbon transportation technologies, and addressing all resultant implications of coal-based transportation solutions to human health and natural resources.

  10. Alternative fuel buses currently in use in China. Life-cycle fossil energy use, GHG emissions and policy recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou, Xunmin [School of Public Policy and Management (SPPM), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Xiliang; Chang, Shiyan [China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-01-15

    The Chinese government has enacted policies to promote alternative vehicle fuels (AVFs) and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), including city bus fleets. The life cycle (LC), energy savings (ES) and GHG reduction (GR) profiles of AVFs/AFVs are critical to those policy decisions. The well-to-wheels module of the Tsinghua-CA3EM model is employed to investigate actual performance data. Compared with conventional buses, AFVs offer differences in performance in terms of both ES and GR. Only half of the AFVs analyzed demonstrate dual benefits. However, all non-oil/gas pathways can substitute oil/gas with coal. Current policies seek to promote technology improvements and market creation initiatives within the guiding framework of national-level diversification and district-level uniformity. Combined with their actual LC behavior and in keeping with near- and long-term strategies, integrated policies should seek to (1) apply hybrid electric technology to diesel buses; (2) encourage NG/LPG buses in gas-abundant cities; (3) promote commercialize electric buses or plug-in capable vehicles through battery technology innovation; (4) support fuel cell buses and hydrogen technology R and D for future potential applications; and (5) conduct further research on boosting vehicle fuel efficiency, applying low-carbon transportation technologies, and addressing all resultant implications of coal-based transportation solutions to human health and natural resources. (author)

  11. IT Policies for Development: Analysis and Recommendations of Free Libre Open Source Software Initiatives of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado Rangel, Edgar A.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years the two concepts of economic development and technological advancement have become entwined so that they have, in many cases, come to mean the same thing. For countries seeking economic development through engagement with the Information Economy, policies supporting technological development claim privileged positions in national…

  12. Alternative fuel buses currently in use in China: Life-cycle fossil energy use, GHG emissions and policy recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou Xunmin; Zhang Xiliang; Chang Shiyan

    2010-01-01

    The Chinese government has enacted policies to promote alternative vehicle fuels (AVFs) and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), including city bus fleets. The life cycle (LC), energy savings (ES) and GHG reduction (GR) profiles of AVFs/AFVs are critical to those policy decisions. The well-to-wheels module of the Tsinghua-CA3EM model is employed to investigate actual performance data. Compared with conventional buses, AFVs offer differences in performance in terms of both ES and GR. Only half of the AFVs analyzed demonstrate dual benefits. However, all non-oil/gas pathways can substitute oil/gas with coal. Current policies seek to promote technology improvements and market creation initiatives within the guiding framework of national-level diversification and district-level uniformity. Combined with their actual LC behavior and in keeping with near- and long-term strategies, integrated policies should seek to (1) apply hybrid electric technology to diesel buses; (2) encourage NG/LPG buses in gas-abundant cities; (3) promote commercialize electric buses or plug-in capable vehicles through battery technology innovation; (4) support fuel cell buses and hydrogen technology R and D for future potential applications; and (5) conduct further research on boosting vehicle fuel efficiency, applying low-carbon transportation technologies, and addressing all resultant implications of coal-based transportation solutions to human health and natural resources.

  13. Europe's energy transition. The big five recommendations to guide and inspire EU policy-makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-09-01

    The energy transition is more than a shift from one energy system (finite resources) to another (more renewable and low energy-based). Our century's challenge is to radically reduce our energy use. The local level is where the new energy paradigm is happening. Ambitious policies at European level are crucial to speed up the movement

  14. Shadows of Stuxnet: Recommendations for U.S. Policy on Critical Infrastructure Cyber Defense Derived from the Stuxnet Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition ( SCADA ) 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 137 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY...Management xiv PDD presidential decision directive PPD 21 Presidential Policy Directive 21 PLC programmable logic controller SCADA supervisory...also required an update to the National Infrastructure Protection Plan (NIPP). The resulting work product was the NIPP 2013. EO 13636 called for

  15. The East Asian Development Experience: Policy Lessons, Implications, and Recommendations for Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) Global Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Ashford C. Chea

    2012-01-01

    The paper looks at the development experience of East Asia and draws lessons for Sub-Saharan Africa in building global competitiveness. It starts with a historical perspective of both regions’ developmental trajectories. This is followed by an analysis of the causes of East Asia’s superior economic performance and development and SSA underdevelopment. The article also draws policy lessons from East Asia development strategies for SSA global competitiveness. The paper ends with a presentation ...

  16. Recommendations regarding problems of research policy relating to the establishment and operation of atomic power stations in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This report, which was submitted by the Danish Planning Council for Research to the Parliamentary Committee on Scientific Research, is based on reports from the DANISH Atomic Energy Commission. and on a sub-committee appointed by the Planning Council, as well as on the comments of the Danish Research Council on these reports. The Planning Council submit that: 1) the question of the introduction and scope of Danish utilization of atomic energy should be considered as a link in setting up a total plan for energy policy elucidating the possibilities in the energy field from both aspects of supply and demand, 2) that there is a continuous interaction between energy policy and research policy in the subject field 3) that the total resources for energy research and development should be considerably increased, 4) that investigations into the economy of atomic power should be intensified, and 5) that investigations of possibilities for long-term storage of radioactive waste in Denmark should be speeded up. Further, the Planning Council points out the need for research in areas such as a) wind and solar energy, b) the environmental impact of utilizing atomic power in relation to that of utilizing other forms of power, c) economic and social effects of different forms of energy supply, as well as the problems of siting, decision taking and public information and participation and finally, d) the utilization of the energy raw materials found in Greenland. (B.P.)

  17. Farmer’s views and values to focus on cattle conservation policies: the case of eight European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gandini, G.; Martin-Collado, D.; Colinet, F.; Duclos, D.; Hiemstra, S.J.; Soini, K.; Diaz, C.

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to identify elements useful in designing policies and programmes for conservation of farm animal genetic resources, taking as case study a group of European local cattle breeds. We first investigated the implications of differences among countries in the policies and programmes to be

  18. Decentralization in Educational Governance and Its Challenges in Korea: Focused on Policy Conflicts between Central and Local Government in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Sung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Decentralization of educational governance is characterized by the recent education reform in Korea. With the election of progressive superintendents and local council members, educational policy conflicts have often occurred and deepened in the process of decision-making and implementation of policies such as School Violence Prevention, National…

  19. EU climate policy impact in 2020. With a focus on the effectiveness of emissions trading policy in an economic recession scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graus, W.; Sreenivasamurthy, U.; Wesselink, B.

    2009-06-01

    PBL's Environmental Balance 2009 provides information on the current status and trends of environmental and climate policies. Ecofys contributes to the climate policy section of the report by developing the following three indicators: (1) ex-post and ex-ante policy impacts until 2020 at EU level (wedge diagram); (2) business-as-usual emissions of EU ETS sectors until 2020, revised for the current economic recession; (3) a latest literature review of EUA (EU emission allowances) price band expected until 2020. Based on the latter two analyses, a brief note on the impact of the current economic recession on the effectiveness of the EU emission trading scheme until 2020 is presented.An economic recession of two years or longer will considerably decrease the effectiveness of the Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) in stimulating low-carbon technologies. In order to meet EU climate targets in the longer term, new governmental policies will be needed to compensate for this.

  20. Recommendations concerning the scientific foundation of radiohygienic policy based on the UNSCEAR-77, -82 and BEIR reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report studies to what extent the UNSCEAR-77 report and other more recent scientific literature (in particular the BEIR-80 and UNSCEAR-82 reports) support the risk factors mentioned in ICRP-26, which formed the basis of the weighting factors per organ, recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. It discusses the nature and size of the different contributions to the exposure to ionizing radiation both on a global level and with respect to the Dutch situation. An estimate is given of the average total annual dose equivalent for the world population, for the population of the Netherlands and for radiological workers in the Netherlands. An extensive discussion is presented of the dose-effect relationships of stochastic radiation effects in the female breast, the thyroid, red bone marrow, bone tissue, the lungs, other organs and the whole body. Furthermore consideration is given to nonstochastic effects in the lens of the eye and in the skin and to the late effects of radiotherapy. Finally the effects of prenatal irradiation and the genetic effects of ionizing radiation are discussed. Subsequently the risk factors used by ICRP in formulating its recommendations in publication ICRP-26, are compared with the risk factors mentioned in the scientific literature. (Auth.)

  1. European Federation of Organisations for Medical Physics (EFOMP) policy statement 12.1: Recommendations on medical physics education and training in Europe 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruana, C J; Christofides, S; Hartmann, G H

    2014-09-01

    In 2010, EFOMP issued Policy Statement No. 12: "The present status of Medical Physics Education and Training in Europe. New perspectives and EFOMP recommendations" to be applied to education and training in Medical Physics within the context of the developments in the European Higher Education Area arising from the Bologna Declaration and with a view to facilitate the free movement of Medical Physics professionals within Europe. Concurrently, new recommendations regarding qualifications frameworks were published by the European Parliament and Council which introduced new terminology and a new qualifications framework - the European Qualifications Framework (EQF) for lifelong learning. In addition, a new European directive involving the medical use of ionizing radiations and set to replace previous directives in this area was in the process of development. This has now been realized as Council Directive 2013/59/Euratom of 5 December 2013 which has repealed directive 97/43/Euratom. In this regard, a new document was developed in the context of the EC financed project "European Guidelines on the Medical Physics Expert" and published as RP174. Among other items, these guidelines refer to the mission statement, key activities, qualification framework and curricula for the specialty areas of Medical Physics relating to radiological devices and protection from ionizing radiation. These developments have made necessary an update of PS12; this policy statement provides the necessary update. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Food-based recommendations to reduce fat intake: an evidence-based approach to the development of a family-focused child weight management programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehling, R K; Magarey, A M; Daniels, L A

    2005-03-01

    To develop food-based recommendations to lower fat and energy intake for use in a family-focussed weight management programme for 6-9 year old children. Secondary analysis of the 1995 National Nutrition Survey (NNS95) informed the development of food-based recommendations aiming to reduce fat and energy intake. Each recommendation was used to progressively modify a model 3-day high fat dietary intake with the accumulative effect on energy and nutrient intake of each recommendation assessed. Six to nine-year-olds in the NNS95 consuming 35-45% energy as fat (n= 280) consumed more total energy (mean +/- SD, 8671 +/- 2741 vs. 7571 +/- 2328 kJ/day) than children consuming a 'low fat' (23-27% energy as fat, n= 85) diet (P replacing juice or soft drink with water. These changes, together with avoiding adding fat to vegetables and using sources of lean meat, reduced energy intake by approximately 10%, total fat intake by approximately 30% and saturated fat intake by 53%. Modifying six areas of food choices results in a moderate reduction in fat and energy intake. An eating pattern that is consistent with Australian dietary guidelines and uses foods commonly eaten by children is achievable for children aged 6-9 years. These food-based recommendations provide an evidence-based dietary framework for prevention and management of overweight in children.

  3. Multi-stakeholder innovation processes in African smallholder farming: key lessons and policy recommendations from Benin, Kenya and South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Triomphe, B.; Floquet, A.; Waters-Bayer, A.; Kamau, G.; Berg, van den J.; Letty, B.; Mongbo, R.; Crane, T.; Almekinders, C.J.M.; Sellamna, N.; Vodouhe, S.D.; Oudwater, N.

    2014-01-01

    Within the context of the European-funded JOLISAA FP7 project (JOint Learning in Innovation Systems in African Agriculture), several agricultural innovation experiences focused on smallholders were assessed in Benin, Kenya and South Africa. Fifty-six cases were characterised through review of grey

  4. Changes in alcohol policies and practices in bars and restaurants after completion of manager-focused responsible service training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenk, Kathleen M; Erickson, Darin J; Nelson, Toben F; Horvath, Keith J; Nederhoff, Dawn M; Hunt, Shanda L; Ecklund, Alexandra M; Toomey, Traci L

    2018-03-01

    Irresponsible and illegal serving practices at bars and restaurants, such as sales to obviously intoxicated patrons, can lead to various public health harms. Training managers of bars and restaurants in the development and promotion of responsible alcohol policies may help prevent risky and illegal alcohol serving practices. We implemented a training program for managers of bars/restaurants designed to establish and promote responsible beverage service policies/practices. The program included online and in-person components. Bars/restaurants were randomised to intervention (n = 171) and control (n = 163) groups. To assess changes in policies/practices, we surveyed managers prior to and at 1 and 6 months post-training. Logistic regression models assessed changes in policies/practices across time points. The proportion in the intervention group that had written alcohol policies increased from 62% to 95% by 6 months post-training while the control group increased from 65% to 79% (P training 70% of managers in the intervention group reported they had communicated to their staff how to cut off intoxicated patrons, a significant increase from baseline (37%) and from the change observed in the control group (43%-56%). Prevalence of other policies/practices also increased post-training but differences between intervention and control groups were not statistically significant. Our training program appears to have led to implementation of some policies/practices. Additional studies are needed to determine how training can be combined with other strategies to further improve establishment policies and ultimately reduce alcohol-related harms. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  5. [Are nail polish, artificial nails and piercings allowed outside the surgical area?Recommendations for the perioperative policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucx, M J L; Krijtenburg, P; Scheffer, G J

    2017-01-01

    - An increasing number of patients wear nail polish, artificial nails or have piercings.- There is uncertainty about the perioperative management of these items, especially when located outside the surgical area.- In the majority of hospitals, patients are urged to remove these items preoperatively, under the assumption that they might cause problems.- Frequently, however, these items cannot be removed straightforwardly.- Nail polish and artificial nails only very rarely cause perioperative problems and therefore do not need to be removed pre-operatively.- The same applies to most piercings, except when located in or near the respiratory tract, if they have sharp endings or if they might cause problems as a result of the perioperative positioning of the patient.- Providing adequate information to the patient, knowledge about removal of these items and documentation of agreed arrangements are all important.- A national guideline concerning perioperative policy is urgently required.

  6. Recommendations on chemicals management policy and legislation in the framework of the Egyptian-German twinning project on hazardous substances and waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Burkhard O; Aziz, Elham Refaat Abdel; Schwetje, Anja; Shouk, Fatma Abou; Koch-Jugl, Juliane; Braedt, Michael; Choudhury, Keya; Weber, Roland

    2013-04-01

    The sustainable management of chemicals and their associated wastes-especially legacy stockpiles-is always challenging. Developing countries face particular difficulties as they often have insufficient treatment and disposal capacity, have limited resources and many lack an appropriate and effective regulatory framework. This paper describes the objectives and the approach of the Egyptian-German Twinning Project under the European Neighbourhood Policy to improve the strategy of managing hazardous substances in the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA) between November 2008 and May 2011. It also provides an introduction to the Republic of Egypt's legal and administrative system regarding chemical controls. Subsequently, options for a new chemical management strategy consistent with the recommendations of the United Nations Chemicals Conventions are proposed. The Egyptian legal and administrative system is discussed in relation to the United Nations' recommendations and current European Union legislation for the sound management of chemicals. We also discuss a strategy for the EEAA to use the existing Egyptian legal system to implement the United Nations' Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals, the Stockholm Convention and other proposed regulatory frameworks. The analysis, the results, and the recommendations presented may be useful for other developing countries in a comparable position to Egypt aspiring to update their legislation and administration to the international standards of sound management of chemicals.

  7. "Like throwing a bowling ball at a battle ship" audience responses to Australian news stories about alcohol pricing and promotion policies: a qualitative focus group study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea S Fogarty

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Policies affecting alcohol's price and promotion are effective measures to reduce harms. Yet policies targeting populations are unpopular with the public, whose views can be influenced by news framings of policy narratives. In Australia, alcohol taxation receives high news coverage, while advertising restrictions have not until recently, and narratives are highly contested for each. However, research specifically examining how audiences respond to such news stories is scant. We sought to explore audience understanding of news reports about two alcohol policy proposals. METHOD: From June to August 2012, 46 participants were recruited for 8 focus groups in age-brackets of young people aged 18-25 years, parents of young people, and adults aged 25 or older. Groups were split by education. Participants were asked their prior knowledge of alcohol policies, before watching and discussing four news stories about alcohol taxation and advertising. RESULTS: Participants were clear that alcohol poses problems, yet thought policy solutions were ineffective in a drinking culture they viewed as unamenable to change and unaffected by alcohol's price or promotion. Without knowledge of its actual effect on consumption, they cited the 2008 alcopops tax as a policy failure, blaming cheaper substitution. Participants had low knowledge of advertising restrictions, yet were concerned about underage exposure. They offered conditional support for restrictions, while doubting its effectiveness. There was marked distrust of statistics and news actors in broadcasts, yet discussions matched previous research findings. CONCLUSIONS: News coverage has resulted in strong audience understanding of alcohol related problems but framed solutions have not always provided clear messages, despite audience support for policies. Future advocacy will need to continue recent moves to address the links between alcohol's price and promotion with the drinking culture, as well

  8. New Metrics for Economic Evaluation in the Presence of Heterogeneity: Focusing on Evaluating Policy Alternatives Rather than Treatment Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, David D; Basu, Anirban

    2017-11-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) methods fail to acknowledge that where cost-effectiveness differs across subgroups, there may be differential adoption of technology. Also, current CEA methods are not amenable to incorporating the impact of policy alternatives that potentially influence the adoption behavior. Unless CEA methods are extended to allow for a comparison of policies rather than simply treatments, their usefulness to decision makers may be limited. We conceptualize new metrics, which estimate the realized value of technology from policy alternatives, through introducing subgroup-specific adoption parameters into existing metrics, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) and Incremental Net Monetary Benefits (NMBs). We also provide the Loss with respect to Efficient Diffusion (LED) metrics, which link with existing value of information metrics but take a policy evaluation perspective. We illustrate these metrics using policies on treatment with combination therapy with a statin plus a fibrate v. statin monotherapy for patients with diabetes and mixed dyslipidemia. Under the traditional approach, the population-level ICER of combination v. monotherapy was $46,000/QALY. However, after accounting for differential rates of adoption of the combination therapy (7.2% among males and 4.3% among females), the modified ICER was $41,733/QALY, due to the higher rate of adoption in the more cost-effective subgroup (male). The LED metrics showed that an education program to increase the uptake of combination therapy among males would provide the largest economic returns due to the significant underutilization of the combination therapy among males under the current policy. This framework may have the potential to improve the decision-making process by producing metrics that are better aligned with the specific policy decisions under consideration for a specific technology.

  9. ENDOCRINE-DISRUPTING CHEMICALS: PREPUBERTAL EXPOSURES AND EFFECTS ON SEXUAL MATURATION AND THYROID FUNCTION IN THE MALE RAT. A FOCUS ON THE EDSTAC RECOMMENDATIONS. ENDOCRINE DISRUPTER SCREENING AND TESTING ADVISORY COMMITTEE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals: prepubertal exposures and effects on sexual maturation and thyroid function in the male rat. A focus on the EDSTAC recommendations. Endocrine Disrupter Screening and Testing Advisory Committee.Stoker TE, Parks LG, Gray LE, Cooper RL.

  10. Extensively Drug-resistant Tuberculosis (XDR-TB): A daunting challenge to the current End TB Strategy and policy recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Arifur; Sarkar, Atanu

    2017-07-01

    Extensively Drug-resistant Tuberculosis (XDR-TB) has emerged as one of the most formidable challenges to the End TB Strategy that has targeted a 95% reduction in TB deaths and 90% reduction in cases by 2035. Globally, there were an estimated 55,100 new XDR-TB cases in 2015 in 117 countries. However, only one in 30 XDR-TB cases had been reported so far. Drug susceptibility test (DST) is the mainstay for diagnosing XDR-TB, but the lack of laboratory facilities in the resource-limited endemic countries limit its uses. A few new drugs including bedaquiline and delamanid, have the potential to improve the efficiency of XDR-TB treatment, but the drugs have been included in 39 countries only. The costs of XDR-TB treatment are several folds higher than that of the MDR-TB. Despite the financing from the donors, there is an urgent need to fill the current funding gap of US$ 2 billion to ensure effective treatment and robust surveillance. In the review article we have addressed current update on XDR-TB, including surveillance, diagnosis and the interventions needed to treat and limit its spread, emphasis on extensive financial support for implementing of current recommendations to meet the goals of End TB Strategy. Copyright © 2017 Tuberculosis Association of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Focus groups for allied health professionals and professions allied to technical services in the NHS--marketing opportunities, lessons learnt and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, David; Brook, Richard

    2011-09-01

    Worcestershire Health Libraries provides services to all NHS and social care staff in Worcestershire. Despite intensive marketing, statistics showed low usage of the library service for professions allied to technical services and allied health professionals. To discover why there was low usage of the library services using qualitative techniques and to use focus groups as a marketing opportunity. This article also aims to outline the processes involved in delivering focus groups, the results gained, and the actions taken in response to the results. Focus groups were conducted in two departments, Pathology and Occupational Therapy. The Biochemistry department (part of Pathology) had two focus groups. An additional focus group was conducted for all the Pathology education leads. Occupational Therapy had two meetings, one for hospital based staff, and the other for community staff. Issues centred on registration, inductions, time, library ambience, multi-disciplinary service and resources. The findings raised marketing opportunities and the process identified potential candidates for the role of team knowledge officer, to act as library champions within departments. It also identified areas in which the library service was not meeting user needs and expectations, and helped focus service development. Focus groups allowed an opportunity to speak to non-users face to face and to discover, and where appropriate challenge both their, and library staff's pre-conceived ideas about the service. The information revealed gave an opportunity to market services based on user needs. © 2011 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2011 Health Libraries Group.

  12. Policy measure for creating an integrated and brand-focused regional innovation system in tourism in a shadow destination:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brambini, Annalisa; Vang, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Tourism has often been hyped as an engine of regional growth and development but often failed to deliver the expected results. This is especially the case in shadow destinations. The concept of a shadow destination refers to a region whose relative attractioness is significantly lower than co......-located places. Based on regional innovation systems and place branding research the paper develops policy measures adapted to the specific challenges a shadow destination faces. Empirically, the appropriateness of the policy measures is demonstrated through applying it to a paradigmatic shadow destination...

  13. Sustainable prevention of resource conflicts. Policy and research recommendations (report 5); Rohstoffkonflikte nachhaltig vermeiden. Forschungs- und Handlungsempfehlungen (Teilbericht 5)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taenzler, Dennis; Westerkamp, Meike [Adelphi Research, Berlin (Germany); Supersberger, Nikolaus; Ritthoff, Michael; Bleischwitz, Raimund [Wuppertal Institut (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    Raw material conflict occurs in various forms: in the form of supply bottlenecks and crises, violent disputes, or even war; as well as due to the effects of environmental destruction, whereby the sources of people's livelihood are lost. Raw material conflict is a reality in many instances, but in others is merely postulated. On the one hand, the nature, strategic importance and price of raw materials influence potential conflict constellations. On the other hand, much depends on the management and governance of raw material resources and production, material flows, value creation chains and sources of financing, across a variety of levels. Existing research into raw material conflict in the field of oil, gas and valuable minerals reveals the multi-layered complexity of the issue as well as the necessity and possibilities of avoiding such conflict in a sustainable manner over the long term. This research landscape was the starting point for the study by adelphi and the Wuppertal Institute titled ''Sustainable Prevention of Resource Conflicts: Identifying and reducing international conflict risk relating to access to and use of raw materials''. The project has added to existing research and delivered new perspectives in relation to lithium and rare earths - resources which are of special relevance for future energy supply and planning - with a view to developing renewable energy sources and meeting ambitious climate protection goals. This report summarises the results of the research project and sets out recommendations. The project was sponsored by the German Federal Environmental Agency, and was conducted in the period between July 2008 and September 2010. The results are published in a total of eight reports which are briefly summarised here. (orig.)

  14. Scientific and Regulatory Policy Committee: Recommended ("Best") Practices for Determining, Communicating, and Using Adverse Effect Data from Nonclinical Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerlin, Roy; Bolon, Brad; Burkhardt, John; Francke, Sabine; Greaves, Peter; Meador, Vince; Popp, James

    2016-02-01

    Recommendations (best practices) are provided by the Society of Toxicologic Pathology's Adversity Working Group for making consistent interpretations of test article-related effects as "adverse" and assigning a "no observed adverse effect level" (NOAEL) in nonclinical toxicity studies. Adverse is a term indicating "harm" to the test animal, while nonadverse indicates lack of harm. Adverse findings in the study reports should be defined in relation to effects on the test species used and within the context of the given study. Test article-related effects should be described on their own merits, and decisions to consider them as adverse or nonadverse should be justified. Related effects may be discussed together; in particular, markers of toxicity that are not in and of themselves adverse ideally should be discussed in conjunction with the causal toxicity to determine adversity. Adverse findings should be identified in subreports (clinical data, pathology data, etc.) if sufficient information is available, and/or in the final study report as individual or grouped findings, but study NOAELs should be established at the level of the overall study report. Interpretations such as "not biologically relevant" or "not toxicologically important" should be avoided unless defined and supported by scientific rationale. Decisions defining adverse findings and the NOAEL in final study reports should combine the expertise of all contributing scientific disciplines. Where possible, use of NOAELs in data tables should be linked to explanatory text that places them in context. Ideally, in nonclinical summary documents, NOAELs from multiple studies are considered together in defining the most important adverse responses in the most sensitive species. These responses are then considered along with an understanding of their likely mechanisms, as well as other information such as variability in species sensitivity, comparative pathology, reversibility and progression, kinetics, and

  15. Preventing Alcohol Problems among Young People: Californians Support Key Public Policies. Growing Up Well. Focus on Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, James F.

    This report, fourth in a series of eight, highlights the views of Californians about policies local communities and the state can establish to reduce the potential for alcohol problems among young people. In the California Center for Health Improvement (CCHI) "Children and Youth Survey," 51% of the adults surveyed said that they were…

  16. Prevention of childhood obesity in Spain: a focus on policies outside the health sector. SESPAS report 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Manuel; Sanz, Belén; Otero, Laura; Domínguez-Vila, Adrián; Caballero, Benjamín

    2010-12-01

    Obesity is currently a global public health problem. Obesity in early life increases the risk of long-term energy imbalance and adult obesity and its comorbidities, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Since infancy and childhood are critical periods for the adoption of food preferences and physical activity, prevention strategies must intervene in these early periods to promote healthy habits and reduce risk behaviors. Trends in the prevalence of childhood obesity and overweight in Spain have continuously increased in the last three decades. Obesity and overweight currently affect 15 and 20% of Spanish children, respectively, and these percentages are among the highest in Europe. Childhood obesity is determined by social and economic factors pertaining to sectors other than the health system, such as advertising, the built environment, education and the school environment, transportation and the food environment. Following the Health in All Policies (HiAP) approach, the authors identified a series of multisector policy changes that may help to prevent and control the current rising trend of childhood obesity in Spain. The HiAP approach acknowledges that social factors including socioeconomic status, gender differences and the work-life balance are important to develop effective policy changes in the prevention of childhood obesity. A key to success in the prevention of childhood obesity in Spain through policy changes will depend on the ability to establish a policy with the explicit and primary goal of improving health outcomes, despite the anticipated resistance from various sectors and stakeholders. Copyright © 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Developing Effective Health Interventions for Women Who Inject Drugs: Key Areas and Recommendations for Program Development and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Pinkham

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Women who inject drugs face multiple gender-specific health risks and barriers to healthcare access. These gendered factors may contribute to elevated rates of HIV for this population. Though few countries systematically collect gender-disaggregated data related to injecting drug use, evidence indicates that there are large populations of women who inject drugs and who are in need of improved health services, including HIV prevention. Research on the effectiveness of interventions specifically tailored for women who inject drugs, along with the experience of programs working with this subpopulation, suggests that HIV risk practices need to be addressed within the larger context of women's lives. Multifaceted interventions that address relationship dynamics, housing, employment, and the needs of children may have more success in reducing risky practices than interventions that focus exclusively on injecting practices and condom use. Improved sexual and reproductive healthcare for women who use drugs is an area in need of development and should be better integrated into basic harm reduction programs.

  18. The European Federation of Organisations for Medical Physics Policy Statement No. 10.1: Recommended Guidelines on National Schemes for Continuing Professional Development of Medical Physicists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofides, Stelios; Isidoro, Jorge; Pesznyak, Csilla; Cremers, Florian; Figueira, Rita; van Swol, Christiaan; Evans, Stephen; Torresin, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Continuing Professional Development (CPD) is vital to the medical physics profession if it is to embrace the pace of change occurring in medical practice. As CPD is the planned acquisition of knowledge, experience and skills required for professional practice throughout one's working life it promotes excellence and protects the profession and public against incompetence. Furthermore, CPD is a recommended prerequisite of registration schemes (Caruana et al. 2014) and is implied in the Council Directive 2013/59/EURATOM (EU BSS) and the International Basic Safety Standards (BSS). It is to be noted that currently not all national registration schemes require CPD to maintain the registration status necessary to practise medical physics. Such schemes should consider adopting CPD as a prerequisite for renewing registration after a set period of time. This EFOMP Policy Statement, which is an amalgamation and an update of the EFOMP Policy Statements No. 8 and No. 10, presents guidelines for the establishment of national schemes for CPD and activities that should be considered for CPD. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Clinical Policy Recommendations from the VHA State-of-the-Art Conference on Non-Pharmacological Approaches to Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kligler, Benjamin; Bair, Matthew J; Banerjea, Ranjana; DeBar, Lynn; Ezeji-Okoye, Stephen; Lisi, Anthony; Murphy, Jennifer L; Sandbrink, Friedhelm; Cherkin, Daniel C

    2018-05-01

    As a large national healthcare system, Veterans Health Administration (VHA) is ideally suited to build on its work to date and develop a safe, evidence-based, and comprehensive approach to the care of chronic musculoskeletal pain conditions that de-emphasizes opioid use and emphasizes non-pharmacological strategies. The VHA Office of Health Services Research and Development (HSR&D) held a state-of-the-art (SOTA) conference titled "Non-pharmacological Approaches to Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain Management" in November 2016. Goals of the conference were (1) to establish consensus on the current state of evidence regarding non-pharmacological approaches to chronic musculoskeletal pain to inform VHA policy in this area and (2) to begin to identify priorities for the future VHA research agenda. Workgroups were established and asked to reach consensus recommendations on clinical and research priorities for the following treatment strategies: psychological/behavioral therapies, exercise/movement therapies, manual therapies, and models for delivering multimodal pain care. Participants in the SOTA identified nine non-pharmacological therapies with sufficient evidence to be implemented across the VHA system as part of pain care. Participants further recommended that effective integration of these non-pharmacological approaches across the VHA and especially into VHA primary care, pain care, and mental health settings should be a priority, and that these treatments should be offered early in the course of pain treatment and delivered in a team-based, multimodal treatment setting concurrently with active self-care and self-management approaches. In addition, we recommend that VHA leadership and policy makers systematically address the barriers to implementation of these approaches by expanding opportunities for clinician and veteran education on the effectiveness of these strategies; supporting and funding further research to determine optimal dosage, duration, sequencing

  20. Human Health and the Biological Effects of Tritium in Drinking Water: Prudent Policy Through Science – Addressing the ODWAC New Recommendation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingwall, S.; Mills, C.E.; Phan, N.; Taylor, K.; Boreham, D.R.

    2011-01-01

    Tritium is a radioactive form of hydrogen and is a by-product of energy production in Canadian Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) reactors. The release of this radioisotope into the environment is carefully managed at CANDU facilities in order to minimize radiation exposure to the public. However, under some circumstances, small accidental releases to the environment can occur. The radiation doses to humans and non-human biota from these releases are low and orders of magnitude less than doses received from naturally occurring radioisotopes or from manmade activities, such as medical imaging and air travel. There is however a renewed interest in the biological consequences of low dose tritium exposures and a new limit for tritium levels in Ontario drinking water has been proposed. The Ontario Drinking Water Advisory Council (ODWAC) issued a formal report in May 2009 in response to a request by the Minister of the Environment, concluding that the Ontario Drinking Water Quality Standard for tritium should be revised from the current 7,000 Bq/L level to a new, lower 20 Bq/L level. In response to this recommendation, an international scientific symposium was held at McMaster University to address the issues surrounding this change in direction and the validity of a new policy. Scientists, regulators, government officials, and industrial stakeholders were present to discuss the potential health risks associated with low level radiation exposure from tritium. The regulatory, economic, and social implications of the new proposed limit were also considered. The new recommendation assumed a linear-no-threshold model to calculate carcinogenic risk associated with tritium exposure, and considered tritium as a non-threshold chemical carcinogen. Both of these assumptions are highly controversial given that recent research suggests that low dose exposures have thresholds below which there are no observable detrimental effects. Furthermore, mutagenic and carcinogenic risk calculated from

  1. Market policy as an innovative element of marketing in the Romanian healthcare services - an approach focused on the patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coculescu, B I; Coculescu, E C; Radu, A; Petrescu, L; Purcărea, V L

    2015-01-01

    The orientation towards one of the marketing policies with a major impact in organizations providing healthcare services, requires a careful analysis of the needs and aspirations of customers, targeting those patients whose needs the service organization can achieve through the existing resources at the respective health facility, finding the most effective way of achieving benefits associated with reduced costs to maximizing profits, placing the offers for medical services required by the patients on the market, as well as promptly reacting and acting to the changes of health services market which is constantly evolving through a flexible organizing and functioning structure, connected to the financial needs of the patients.

  2. Market policy as an innovative element of marketing in the Romanian healthcare services – an approach focused on the patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coculescu, BI; Coculescu, EC; Radu, A; Petrescu, L; Purcărea, VL

    2015-01-01

    The orientation towards one of the marketing policies with a major impact in organizations providing healthcare services, requires a careful analysis of the needs and aspirations of customers, targeting those patients whose needs the service organization can achieve through the existing resources at the respective health facility, finding the most effective way of achieving benefits associated with reduced costs to maximizing profits, placing the offers for medical services required by the patients on the market, as well as promptly reacting and acting to the changes of health services market which is constantly evolving through a flexible organizing and functioning structure, connected to the financial needs of the patients. PMID:26664466

  3. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Guide Focus Group Development of Messages Aimed at Increasing Compliance With a Tobacco-Free Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Record, Rachael A; Harrington, Nancy G; Helme, Donald W; Savage, Matthew W

    2018-01-01

    This study details the persuasive message development for a theory-based campaign designed to increase compliance with a university's tobacco-free policy. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) guided message design and evaluation for focus group-tested messages that were adapted to the context of complying with a tobacco-free policy. The study was conducted at a university located in the tobacco belt. Undergraduate focus group participants (n = 65) were mostly male (69%), white (82%), and freshman (62%) who smoked at least 1 cigarette in the last 30 days; on-campus smoking percentages were never/rare (60%), occasionally (23%), and often/frequently (16%). Data analysis used a theoretical thematic approach to identify how the TPB constructs related to perceptions of message effectiveness. Participants responded favorably to attitudinal strategies about health, respect, and university figures; they rejected approaches they considered juvenile and offensive. They also discussed the impact of noncompliance and avoiding overgeneralized statements for addressing subjective norms, suggesting shortening text, adjusting picture location, and emphasizing the importance of compliance to increase perceptions of behavioral control. Applying theory to preexisting messages is challenging. The design approach in this study is an evidence-based strategy that can be used as a universal process for message adaptation. Results offer health promotion suggestions for designing messages aimed at improving undergraduate smokers' willingness to comply with tobacco-free campus policies.

  4. Further Democratizing Latin America: Broadening Access to Higher Education and Promoting Science Policies Focused on the Advanced Training of Human Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Heitor

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We focus this paper on the conditions to build reliable science, technology and higher education systems in Latin America, based on international comparative studies, fieldwork and interviews conducted over the last three years. The analysis shows that science can have a major role in furthering the democratization of society through public policies that foster opportunities to access knowledge and the advanced training of human resources. Broadening the social basis for higher education promotes the qualification of the labour force and contributes to social and economic development. The need to guarantee higher education diversity, strengthening scientific institutions and investing in a strong science base, is deemed as critical, but goes far beyond policies centred on innovation and industry-science relationships. It requires adequate training and attraction of skilled people, as well as the social promotion of a scientific and technological culture.

  5. Recommendations for reporting of secondary findings in clinical exome and genome sequencing, 2016 update (ACMG SF v2.0): a policy statement of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalia, Sarah S; Adelman, Kathy; Bale, Sherri J; Chung, Wendy K; Eng, Christine; Evans, James P; Herman, Gail E; Hufnagel, Sophia B; Klein, Teri E; Korf, Bruce R; McKelvey, Kent D; Ormond, Kelly E; Richards, C Sue; Vlangos, Christopher N; Watson, Michael; Martin, Christa L; Miller, David T

    2017-02-01

    the process was implemented. Applying the new process while upholding the core principles of the original policy statement resulted in the addition of four genes and removal of one gene; one gene did not meet criteria for inclusion. The updated secondary findings minimum list includes 59 medically actionable genes recommended for return in clinical genomic sequencing. We discuss future areas of focus, encourage continued input from the medical community, and call for research on the impact of returning genomic secondary findings.Genet Med 19 2, 249-255.

  6. Barriers to Integration of Immigrants and Integration Policy in the Czech Republic with Focus on Stakeholders and Their Co-operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Rákoczyová

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Social integration of migrants and related social work with this target group is increasingly becoming a focus of the enlarged conception of social policies in advanced economies. While immigration policy is often defined and shaped at a national level, its effects influence the lives of migrants and, consequently, also the host society, particularly at the regions and localities, where this policy is confronted with the specifics of the measures in other policy areas. Integration policies at the local level are created and implemented by a wide range of stakeholders, which places considerable demands on the mutual coordination and co-operation to achieve maximum efficiency of services provided. In the Czech Republic, coordination among different actors is still under-developed. Non-governmental organizations, which are oriented towards specific needs of foreigners, are generally considered to be the principal actors in the delivery of services to and social work with migrants. Public institutions’ competences are usually limited to the exercise of specific services defined by the legislation. Yet the cooperation between actors from among representatives of government and nonprofit organizations is not based on equal partnership. Based on qualitative interviews with the key stakeholders of social integration in the Czech Republic, this study aims to provide some insight into strategies for the integration of foreigners charged with activities of local actors with special emphasis on the role of NGOs in this process. Moreover, the authors try to highlight some barriers of collaboration between the actors, and the risk of inefficient allocation of resources to support social services for migrants.

  7. Eye conditions and blindness in children: Priorities for research, programs, and policy with a focus on childhood cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Gilbert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The major causes of blindness in children encompass intrauterine and acquired infectious diseases, teratogens and developmental and molecular genetics, nutritional factors, the consequences of preterm birth, and tumors. A multidisciplinary approach is therefore needed. In terms of the major avoidable causes (i.e., those that can be prevented or treated the available evidence shows that these vary in importance from country to country, as well as over time. This is because the underlying causes closely reflect socioeconomic development and the social determinants of health, as well as the provision of preventive and therapeutic programs and services from the community through to tertiary levels of care. The control of blindness in children therefore requires not only strategies that reflect the local epidemiology and the needs and priorities of communities, but also a well functioning, accessible health system which operates within an enabling and conducive policy environment. In this article we use cataract in children as an example and make the case for health financing systems that do not lead to ′catastrophic health expenditure′ for affected families, and the integration of eye health for children into those elements of the health system that work closely with mothers and their children.

  8. Applying policy and health effects of air pollution in South Korea: focus on ambient air quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jongsik

    2014-01-01

    South Korea's air quality standards are insufficient in terms of establishing a procedure for their management. The current system lacks a proper decision-making process and prior evidence is not considered. The purpose of this study is to propose a measure for establishing atmospheric environmental standards in South Korea that will take into consideration the health of its residents. In this paper, the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) of the US was examined in order to suggest ways, which consider health effects, to establish air quality standards in South Korea. Up-to-date research on the health effects of air pollution was then reviewed, and tools were proposed to utilize the key results. This was done in an effort to ensure the reliability of the standards with regard to public health. This study showed that scientific research on the health effects of air pollution and the methodology used in the research have contributed significantly to establishing air quality standards. However, as the standards are legally binding, the procedure should take into account the effects on other sectors. Realistically speaking, it is impossible to establish standards that protect an entire population from air pollution. Instead, it is necessary to find a balance between what should be done and what can be done. Therefore, establishing air quality standards should be done as part of an evidence-based policy that identifies the health effects of air pollution and takes into consideration political, economic, and social contexts.

  9. Eye conditions and blindness in children: priorities for research, programs, and policy with a focus on childhood cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Clare; Muhit, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    The major causes of blindness in children encompass intrauterine and acquired infectious diseases, teratogens and developmental and molecular genetics, nutritional factors, the consequences of preterm birth, and tumors. A multidisciplinary approach is therefore needed. In terms of the major avoidable causes (i.e., those that can be prevented or treated) the available evidence shows that these vary in importance from country to country, as well as over time. This is because the underlying causes closely reflect socioeconomic development and the social determinants of health, as well as the provision of preventive and therapeutic programs and services from the community through to tertiary levels of care. The control of blindness in children therefore requires not only strategies that reflect the local epidemiology and the needs and priorities of communities, but also a well functioning, accessible health system which operates within an enabling and conducive policy environment. In this article we use cataract in children as an example and make the case for health financing systems that do not lead to 'catastrophic health expenditure' for affected families, and the integration of eye health for children into those elements of the health system that work closely with mothers and their children.

  10. The influence of evaluation recommendations on instrumental and conceptual uses: A preliminary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Isabelle; Whynot, Jane

    2018-02-10

    Evaluation recommendations are sometimes included in evaluation reports to highlight specific actions to be taken to improve a program or to make other changes to its operational context. This preliminary study sought to examine evaluation recommendations drawn from 25 evaluation reports published by Canadian federal government departments and agencies, in order to examine the evaluation issues covered and the focus of the recommendations. Our results show that in keeping with policy requirements, the evaluation recommendations focused on program relevance, effectiveness and efficiency and economy. Furthermore, a significant number of recommendations also focused on the implementation of more rigorous performance measurement strategies. The focus of the recommendations did not vary by publication date, recommendation type, and organizational sector. The findings also show that for the most part, the management responses produced as part of the broader evaluation process support the recommendations included in the report and identify specific timelines for implementation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Green energy - the road to a Danish energy system without fossil fuels. Summary of the work, results and recommendations of the Danish Commission on Climate Change Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-09-15

    This summary report describes the main outcomes of the deliberations of the Danish Commission on Climate Change Policy. It includes a proposal for how Denmark can become independent of fossil fuels and, at the same time, meet the target of reducing greenhouse gases by 80%-95% compared with 1990. In addition, 40 specific recommendations for initiatives which will contribute to the realisation of the vision are presented. The documentation section of the overall report, which is only available in Danish, presents the Climate Commission's work in more detail, as well as a description of the comprehensive analyses on which the Climate Commission has based its recommendations. Finally, the background documents, which have been prepared at the request of the Climate Commission are available (in Danish) at the Commission's website, www.klimakommissionen.dk. We can both reduce Danish emissions of greenhouse gasses significantly, and make Denmark independent of fossil fuels. This will require a total conversion of the Danish energy system; conversion away from oil, coal and gas, which today account for more than 80% of our energy consumption, and to green energy with wind turbines and bioenergy as the most important elements. The cost of conversion may seem surprisingly low. The low cost means that not only can we maintain our present living standards, we can also have considerable economic growth, so that energy expenditures will constitute less of our budgets in the future than today. The reason the cost is not higher is primarily because we will not have to pay for overpriced fossil fuels and CO{sub 2} reductions, and we will be able to limit our energy consumption through efficiency improvements in all areas in the future. It is difficult to make predictions about the exact design of the green energy system of the future. However, in overall terms it could look like this: 1) Energy will be used far more efficiently, so that we can, for example, heat our houses

  12. Greek health professionals’ perceptions of the HPV vaccine, state policy recommendations and their own role with regards to communication of relevant health information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Karamanidou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Every year in Europe 60,000 women develop cervical cancer and 30,000 die from the disease. HPV vaccines are currently believed to constitute an important element of cervical cancer control strategy. Currently in Greece, the HPV vaccine is given on demand after prescription by a healthcare professional. Health care professionals’ role is key as they are in a position to discuss HPV vaccination with parents, adolescents and young women. This study is aiming to explore health care professionals’ perceptions of the HPV vaccine, state policy recommendations and their own role with regards to communication of relevant health information. Methods This was an in-depth, qualitative study, employing a stratified, purposeful sampling. Fifteen face-to-face, semi-structured interviews were conducted with health care professionals from a variety of disciplines: pediatrics, obstetrics and gynecology, infectious diseases, pharmacy, dermatology, general practice. Thematic qualitative analysis was used to analyze participants’ accounts. Results Five major themes were identified: health care professionals’ perceptions towards the HPV vaccine (recognition of importance, concerns about safety, effectiveness and impact of long-term use, animosity between medical specialties (territorial disputes among professional bodies, role advocacy, role limitations, health care professionals’ perceptions of the public’s attitudes (effects of cultural beliefs, health professionals’ attitudes, media and family, the role of the state (health policy issues, lack of guidance, unmet expectations and their own role (provision of health information, sex education. Conclusions Health professionals’ concerns, lack of role definition and uniform information provision have led to territorial disputes among professional bodies and distrust among different medical specialties. Positive and negative judgements deriving from a multitude of sources have

  13. Greek health professionals' perceptions of the HPV vaccine, state policy recommendations and their own role with regards to communication of relevant health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamanidou, Christina; Dimopoulos, Kostas

    2016-06-03

    Every year in Europe 60,000 women develop cervical cancer and 30,000 die from the disease. HPV vaccines are currently believed to constitute an important element of cervical cancer control strategy. Currently in Greece, the HPV vaccine is given on demand after prescription by a healthcare professional. Health care professionals' role is key as they are in a position to discuss HPV vaccination with parents, adolescents and young women. This study is aiming to explore health care professionals' perceptions of the HPV vaccine, state policy recommendations and their own role with regards to communication of relevant health information. This was an in-depth, qualitative study, employing a stratified, purposeful sampling. Fifteen face-to-face, semi-structured interviews were conducted with health care professionals from a variety of disciplines: pediatrics, obstetrics and gynecology, infectious diseases, pharmacy, dermatology, general practice. Thematic qualitative analysis was used to analyze participants' accounts. Five major themes were identified: health care professionals' perceptions towards the HPV vaccine (recognition of importance, concerns about safety, effectiveness and impact of long-term use), animosity between medical specialties (territorial disputes among professional bodies, role advocacy, role limitations), health care professionals' perceptions of the public's attitudes (effects of cultural beliefs, health professionals' attitudes, media and family), the role of the state (health policy issues, lack of guidance, unmet expectations) and their own role (provision of health information, sex education). Health professionals' concerns, lack of role definition and uniform information provision have led to territorial disputes among professional bodies and distrust among different medical specialties. Positive and negative judgements deriving from a multitude of sources have resulted in the confusion of the general public, as manifested by low vaccination

  14. Trade policy and health: from conflicting interests to policy coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Chantal

    2007-03-01

    Policy incoherence at the interface between trade policy and health can take many forms, such as international trade commitments that strengthen protection of pharmaceutical patents, or promotion of health tourism that exacerbates the shortage of physicians in rural areas. Focusing on the national policy-making process, we make recommendations regarding five conditions that are necessary, but not sufficient, to ensure that international trade policies are coherent with national health objectives. These conditions are: space for dialogue and joint fact-finding; leadership by ministries of health; institutional mechanisms for coordination; meaningful engagement with stakeholders; and a strong evidence base.

  15. Exploring barriers to the implementation of evidence-based practice in psychiatry to inform health policy: a focus group based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannes, Karin; Pieters, Guido; Goedhuys, Jo; Aertgeerts, Bert

    2010-10-01

    This study aims to explore the obstacles to Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) experienced by Belgian Dutch-speaking psychiatrists. We used an inductive, qualitative research strategy. Thirty-nine psychiatrists participated in five focus groups organised between September 2004 and September 2006. Data-analysis was guided by a 'grounded theory approach'. Three major themes emerged from the data: (1) Characteristics of evidence, including the lack of (use of) evidence and the applicability of evidence; (2) Characteristics of other partners in mental health care, including government, patients and drug companies and (3) Discipline-related barriers, including the complexity of diagnoses, the importance of the therapeutic relationship and personal experience, and the different schools of thoughts. A problem tree was developed, linking all obstacles. Although context-specific, the problem tree can assist policy makers working in health care systems with similar characteristics in formulating objectives and developing strategies that facilitate EBP in the field of psychiatric care.

  16. YUCCA MOUNTAIN PROJECT RECOMMENDATION BY THE SECRETARY OF ENERGY REGARDING THE SUITABILITY OF THE YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE FOR A REPOSITORY UNDER THE NUCLEAR WASTE POLICY ACT OF 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NA

    2002-03-26

    For more than half a century, since nuclear science helped us win World War II and ring in the Atomic Age, scientists have known that !he Nation would need a secure, permanent facility in which to dispose of radioactive wastes. Twenty years ago, when Congress adopted the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA or ''the Act''), it recognized the overwhelming consensus in the scientific community that the best option for such a facility would be a deep underground repository. Fifteen years ago, Congress directed the Secretary of Energy to investigate and recommend to the President whether such a repository could be located safely at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Since then, our country has spent billions of dollars and millions of hours of research endeavoring to answer this question. I have carefully reviewed the product of this study. In my judgment, it constitutes sound science and shows that a safe repository can be sited there. I also believe that compelling national interests counsel in favor of proceeding with this project. Accordingly, consistent with my responsibilities under the NWPA, today I am recommending that Yucca Mountain be developed as the site for an underground repository for spent fuel and other radioactive wastes. The first consideration in my decision was whether the Yucca Mountain site will safeguard the health and safety of the people, in Nevada and across the country, and will be effective in containing at minimum risk the material it is designed to hold. Substantial evidence shows that it will. Yucca Mountain is far and away the most thoroughly researched site of its kind in the world. It is a geologically stable site, in a closed groundwater basin, isolated on thousands of acres of Federal land, and farther from any metropolitan area than the great majority of less secure, temporary nuclear waste storage sites that exist in the country today. This point bears emphasis. We are not confronting a hypothetical problem. We have a

  17. YUCCA MOUNTAIN PROJECT RECOMMENDATION BY THE SECRETARY OF ENERGY REGARDING THE SUITABILITY OF THE YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE FOR A REPOSITORY UNDER THE NUCLEAR WASTE POLICY ACT OF 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    For more than half a century, since nuclear science helped us win World War II and ring in the Atomic Age, scientists have known that the Nation would need a secure, permanent facility in which to dispose of radioactive wastes. Twenty years ago, when Congress adopted the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA or ''the Act''), it recognized the overwhelming consensus in the scientific community that the best option for such a facility would be a deep underground repository. Fifteen years ago, Congress directed the Secretary of Energy to investigate and recommend to the President whether such a repository could be located safely at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Since then, our country has spent billions of dollars and millions of hours of research endeavoring to answer this question. I have carefully reviewed the product of this study. In my judgment, it constitutes sound science and shows that a safe repository can be sited there. I also believe that compelling national interests counsel in favor of proceeding with this project. Accordingly, consistent with my responsibilities under the NWPA, today I am recommending that Yucca Mountain be developed as the site for an underground repository for spent fuel and other radioactive wastes. The first consideration in my decision was whether the Yucca Mountain site will safeguard the health and safety of the people, in Nevada and across the country, and will be effective in containing at minimum risk the material it is designed to hold. Substantial evidence shows that it will. Yucca Mountain is far and away the most thoroughly researched site of its kind in the world. It is a geologically stable site, in a closed groundwater basin, isolated on thousands of acres of Federal land, and farther from any metropolitan area than the great majority of less secure, temporary nuclear waste storage sites that exist in the country today. This point bears emphasis. We are not confronting a hypothetical problem. We have a staggering amount of

  18. The European Federation of Organisations for Medical Physics Policy Statement No 14: the role of the Medical Physicist in the management of safety within the magnetic resonance imaging environment: EFOMP recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, J; Bosmans, H; Caruana, C; Keevil, S; Norris, D G; Padovani, R; Speck, O

    2013-03-01

    This European Federation of Organisations for Medical Physics (EFOMP) Policy Statement outlines the way in which a Safety Management System can be developed for MRI units. The Policy Statement can help eliminate or at least minimize accidents or incidents in the magnetic resonance environment and is recommended as a step towards harmonisation of safety of workers, patients, and the general public regarding the use of magnetic resonance imaging systems in diagnostic and interventional procedures. Copyright © 2012 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Anti-doping policy development process in the sports world (1968~1999): focusing on IOC activities and passive response from Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eui-Ryong; Kim, Tae-Young

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the anti-doping policy promoted by the IOC historical sociologically focusing on the period from 1968 to 1999. Public opinion surrounding doping control has emerged as a large amount of drug possession by athletes who had participated in the 1952 Olympics was caught, as well as following the accident where an athlete had died during the competition as a result of doping. From 1960, as many doping cases in sports games were exposed, several international organizations proclaimed fight against doping in order to seek a preventive measure. In 1961, the IOC newly established a medical commission within the organization. It was decided to implement doping control and female sex testing at the same time for all athletes who participated in the 1967 Olympics, and they were implemented from 1968 winter and summer Olympic Games. In 1971, the provisions for the tests were prescribed as mandatory on the IOC charter. From 1989, the OCT system was introduced as a measure to overcome limitations of the detection during competition period. As political problems and limitations emerged, WADA (World Anti-Doping Agency) was established in 1999 to professionally manage and push for doping control. Female sex testing policy contributed to preventing males from participating in female competition by deceiving their gender to some extent. However, it was abolished due to strong public condemnation such as women's rights issues, social stigma and pain, and gender discrimination debate. In 1984, a doping control center was established in Korea, which enabled drug use or doping in the sports world to emerge to the surface in our society. Korea Sports Council and KOC articles of association that supervise doping related matters of Korean athletes were revised in 1990. The action of inserting doping related issue in the articles of association was taken 20 years after the start of IOC doping policy. Beginning with two international competitions in the 1980s, Korean

  20. Designing strategies to implement research-based policies and procedures: a set of recommendations for nurse leaders based on the PARiHS framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Janet E; Reay, Trish; Moralejo, Donna; Lefort, Sandra M; Hutchinson, Alison M; Estabrooks, Carole A

    2012-05-01

    Organizational policies and procedures are one vehicle for translating research into nursing practice and improving quality and patient and organizational outcomes. However, their existence alone is not sufficient to ensure use. In this article, we describe the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services framework and how nurse leaders can use the framework to support the implementation of research-based policies and procedures.

  1. Family Planning Practices, Programmes and Policies in India Including Implants and Injectables with a Special Focus on Jharkhand, India: A Brief Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samal, Janmejaya; Dehury, Ranjit Kumar

    2015-11-01

    The National Family Health Survey (NFHS)-3 clearly delineates that the usage of contraceptive practices has increased considerably but is more inclined toward terminal methods of contraception especially the female sterilization. The fact is also evident from various studies carried out from time to time in different Indian states. Given the context we carried out a short review to understand the family planning practices, programs and policies in India including implants and injectable contraceptives with a special focus on the state of Jharkhand. We found that among the reversible methods IUCD (intra uterine contraceptive devices), OC (oral contraceptive) pills and condoms are the most commonly used methods. In this review, in addition to national picture, we specially focused on the state of Jharkhand owing to its very gloomy picture of family planning practices as per NFHS -3 reports. The current usage of any methods of contraception in Jharkhand is only 35.7% out of which terminal methods especially female sterilization accounts to 23.4% and male sterilization being only 0.4%. Similar picture is also reflected in the conventional methods such as; IUCD-0.6%, oral pill -3.8% and condom-2.7%. Compared to the national figure the unmet need for family planning in Jharkhand is also relatively high for the conventional reversible methods than that of terminal methods which is 11.9 and 11.3 respectively. Injectable contraceptives are available only through private or social marketing channels, because of which their use is limited. The studies carried out in different Indian states show improvement in contraceptive prevalence but the same needs further improvement.

  2. Professional Opinions And Attitudes On Tax Policy In Bosnia And Herzegovina With A Special Focus On The Federation Of Bosnia And Herzegovina1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazović-Pita Lejla

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research is based on tax policy opinion survey data collected in Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H among tax experts. A special focus of the survey was to investigate the consequences of the different institutional environments that exist between the two entities of the country. After having reviewed all previous tax reforms in B&H, the most interesting results suggest that respondents agree on the introduction of a progressive personal income tax (PIT and excise duty on luxury products, the maintenance of personal and family allowances and the maintenance of the current value added tax (VAT and corporate income tax (CIT rates. However, differences exist in the respondents’ perceptions about the introduction of reduced VAT rates, the regressivity of the VAT, and giving priority to the equity principle over the efficiency principle in taxation. Probability modelling highlighted these differences and indicated inconsistencies in the definition of the PIT tax base, namely the comprehensiveness of the PIT base under the S-H-S definition of income.

  3. The European Federation of Organisations for Medical Physics Policy Statement no. 15: recommended guidelines on the role of the Medical Physicist within the hospital governance board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofides, Stelios; Sharp, Peter

    2015-05-01

    This EFOMP Policy Statement presents an outline on hospital governance and encourages the participation of the Medical Physicist in the hospital governance. It also emphasises how essential it is for Medical Physicists to engage in their hospital's governing board's committees for the overall good of the patient. Copyright © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Practical Recommendations for the Development and Implementation of Youth Policy in the University as a Tool for Development of Student Public Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezhov, Sergey G.; Komarova, Nataliya M.; Khairullina, Elmira R.; Rapatskaia, Liudmila, A.; Miftakhov, Radik R.; Khusainova, Liana R.

    2016-01-01

    The research urgency is caused by the increase of social responsibility of universities for improvement of the quality of higher education and development of students' socio-professional values. In terms of the conflicting realities of modern society the youth policy at the University is the most important tool to form students' commitment to…

  5. Consumer preference and willingness to pay for a renewable fuel standard (RFS) policy: Focusing on ex-ante market analysis and segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jungwoo; Hwang, Won-Sik

    2017-01-01

    Total energy consumption of oil in 2050 is expected to increase to 1.6 times its level in 2005, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the transportation sector will be second only to the electricity sector. In order to reduce GHG emissions in transportation, leading countries have started to implement renewable fuel standard (RFS) policies. Other countries such as Korea have recently started implementing RFS policies in order to comply with the proposed global GHG reduction target. However, previous research did not consider the impact of RFS policy on consumer acceptance levels. Therefore, this study analyzes consumer preferences and willingness-to-pay (WTP) for RFS. To provide detailed policy strategies, this study conducts additional analysis using market segmentation and sensitivity analysis. The results indicate that consumers generally accept the cost of implementing an RFS policy if the cost falls between KRW 101.78/liter (USD 0.33/gal) and KRW 187.26/liter (USD 0.60/gal). In addition, consumer WTP for implementing an RFS policy changes when the income exceeds KRW 5 million (USD 4229.1) in driver group, and relatively lower-income groups tend not to support RFS policies. Based on the results of this study, we can suggest proper pricing policies for each income group and a public relations strategy to improve the level of policy acceptance. - Highlights: • We analyze consumer preferences and willingness-to-pay for Korea's RFS policy. • We also conduct market segmentation and sensitivity analysis. • Korean consumers will accept the cost between KRW 101.78/liter and KRW 187.26/liter. • Preference structure for RFS policy is changed when income exceeds KRW 5 million. • Relatively lower-income groups tend not to support RFS policies.

  6. Recommender systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kembellec, Gérald; Saleh, Imad

    2014-01-01

    Acclaimed by various content platforms (books, music, movies) and auction sites online, recommendation systems are key elements of digital strategies. If development was originally intended for the performance of information systems, the issues are now massively moved on logical optimization of the customer relationship, with the main objective to maximize potential sales. On the transdisciplinary approach, engines and recommender systems brings together contributions linking information science and communications, marketing, sociology, mathematics and computing. It deals with the understan

  7. Trust and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Patricia; de Cock, Martine; Cornelis, Chris

    Recommendation technologies and trust metrics constitute the two pillars of trust-enhanced recommender systems. We discuss and illustrate the basic trust concepts such as trust and distrust modeling, propagation and aggregation. These concepts are needed to fully grasp the rationale behind the trust-enhanced recommender techniques that are discussed in the central part of the chapter, which focuses on the application of trust metrics and their operators in recommender systems. We explain the benefits of using trust in recommender algorithms and give an overview of state-of-the-art approaches for trust-enhanced recommender systems. Furthermore, we explain the details of three well-known trust-based systems and provide a comparative analysis of their performance. We conclude with a discussion of some recent developments and open challenges, such as visualizing trust relationships in a recommender system, alleviating the cold start problem in a trust network of a recommender system, studying the effect of involving distrust in the recommendation process, and investigating the potential of other types of social relationships.

  8. The European Federation of Organisations for Medical Physics. Policy Statement No. 12: The present status of Medical Physics Education and Training in Europe. New perspectives and EFOMP recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eudaldo, T.; Olsen, Kjeld

    2010-01-01

    A recently published EFOMP's survey on the status of Education and Training in Europe, has showed the important role played by the NMOs in the organisation of the Medical Physics education and training in most countries and their efforts to fulfil EFOMP recommendations. However, despite of this...... of the architecture of the European Higher Education System, arising from the "Botogna Declaration", for 2010, 2. the recently issued European directive: "Directive 2005/36/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 September 2005 on the recognition of professional qualifications". EFOMP is now challenged...... to make recommendations for education and training in Medical Physics, within the context of the current developments in the European Higher Education Area arising from "The Bologna Declaration", and with a view to facilitate the free movement of professionals within Europe, according to the new Directive...

  9. Accurate market price formation model with both supply-demand and trend-following for global food prices providing policy recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagi, Marco; Bar-Yam, Yavni; Bertrand, Karla Z; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2015-11-10

    Recent increases in basic food prices are severely affecting vulnerable populations worldwide. Proposed causes such as shortages of grain due to adverse weather, increasing meat consumption in China and India, conversion of corn to ethanol in the United States, and investor speculation on commodity markets lead to widely differing implications for policy. A lack of clarity about which factors are responsible reinforces policy inaction. Here, for the first time to our knowledge, we construct a dynamic model that quantitatively agrees with food prices. The results show that the dominant causes of price increases are investor speculation and ethanol conversion. Models that just treat supply and demand are not consistent with the actual price dynamics. The two sharp peaks in 2007/2008 and 2010/2011 are specifically due to investor speculation, whereas an underlying upward trend is due to increasing demand from ethanol conversion. The model includes investor trend following as well as shifting between commodities, equities, and bonds to take advantage of increased expected returns. Claims that speculators cannot influence grain prices are shown to be invalid by direct analysis of price-setting practices of granaries. Both causes of price increase, speculative investment and ethanol conversion, are promoted by recent regulatory changes-deregulation of the commodity markets, and policies promoting the conversion of corn to ethanol. Rapid action is needed to reduce the impacts of the price increases on global hunger.

  10. Research for health policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bell, Erica

    2010-01-01

    ... Explicit, implicit, and pragmatic dimensions of policy-maker's needs and context 31 Constraints on policy-makers 32 Deciphering trade-offs 33 The policy-problem: deciphering uncertainty and the problem of innovation 34 A tool for deciphering policy problems 35 The different components of the policy problem 37 Recommended reading 38 Case studies in...

  11. Energy policy strategies of the Baltic Sea Region for the post-Kyoto period - focusing on electricity and district heating generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-05-15

    This study presents a comprehensive analysis of energy policy strategies for the Baltic Sea Region for the post-Kyoto period. To this aim, the study provides scenarios for the region in order to develop a both secure and climate-compatible energy system for the year 2020 and beyond. The long-term development of the energy systems in the Baltic Sea Region is analysed, i.e. in Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Sweden, and the north western part of Russia. The study focuses on the electricity and district heating sectors. The Baltic Sea Region is comprised of countries with very different economies and characteristics. Hydropower is an important source of electricity generation in Norway, Sweden, Finland and Latvia. Biomass resources are significant throughout the region, deriving from both agricultural residues and large forested areas. Wind power already contributes considerably to electricity generation in countries such as Denmark and Germany, and is likely to play a much greater role in the region in the years to come, both onshore and offshore. In the longer term (2030 and beyond), solar power and geothermal energy could also provide notable contributions to the overall energy supply. The study shows that it is technically possible to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the electricity and district heating sectors of the Baltic Sea Region by close to 100% using mainly renewable energy sources. The results indicate that this is a challenging, but manageable task. The associated costs are moderate and can be further decreased through regional cooperation. Once the various production technologies have the possibility to interact with district heating and flexible electricity consumption, and transmission connections are optimally utilised, it becomes realistic to integrate e.g. large volumes of wind power into the energy system as a whole. Furthermore, the hydro power reservoirs, particularly in Norway, play a key role in

  12. The European Federation of Organisations for Medical Physics. Policy Statement No. 12: The present status of Medical Physics Education and Training in Europe. New perspectives and EFOMP recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eudaldo, Teresa; Olsen, Kjeld

    2010-01-01

    A recently published EFOMP's survey on the status of Education and Training in Europe, has showed the important role played by the NMOs in the organisation of the Medical Physics education and training in most countries and their efforts to fulfil EFOMP recommendations. However, despite of this, there is still a wide variety of approaches within Europe, not only in the education and training programmes but also in professional practice. There is right now some European issues that can affect not only education and training but also the future of Medical Physics as a profession: 1. the harmonisation of the architecture of the European Higher Education System, arising from the "Bologna Declaration", for 2010, 2. the recently issued European directive: "Directive 2005/36/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 September 2005 on the recognition of professional qualifications". EFOMP is now challenged to make recommendations for education and training in Medical Physics, within the context of the current developments in the European Higher Education Area arising from "The Bologna Declaration", and with a view to facilitate the free movement of professionals within Europe, according to the new Directive. Copyright 2009 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Official Position of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology Social Security Administration Policy on Validity Testing: Guidance and Recommendations for Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafetz, M D; Williams, M A; Ben-Porath, Y S; Bianchini, K J; Boone, K B; Kirkwood, M W; Larrabee, G J; Ord, J S

    2015-01-01

    The milestone publication by Slick, Sherman, and Iverson (1999) of criteria for determining malingered neurocognitive dysfunction led to extensive research on validity testing. Position statements by the National Academy of Neuropsychology and the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology (AACN) recommended routine validity testing in neuropsychological evaluations. Despite this widespread scientific and professional support, the Social Security Administration (SSA) continued to discourage validity testing, a stance that led to a congressional initiative for SSA to reevaluate their position. In response, SSA commissioned the Institute of Medicine (IOM) to evaluate the science concerning the validation of psychological testing. The IOM concluded that validity assessment was necessary in psychological and neuropsychological examinations (IOM, 2015 ). The AACN sought to provide independent expert guidance and recommendations concerning the use of validity testing in disability determinations. A panel of contributors to the science of validity testing and its application to the disability process was charged with describing why the disability process for SSA needs improvement, and indicating the necessity for validity testing in disability exams. This work showed how the determination of malingering is a probability proposition, described how different types of validity tests are appropriate, provided evidence concerning non-credible findings in children and low-functioning individuals, and discussed the appropriate evaluation of pain disorders typically seen outside of mental consultations. A scientific plan for validity assessment that additionally protects test security is needed in disability determinations and in research on classification accuracy of disability decisions.

  14. Italian consensus on the recommendations about the use of methotrexate for the treatment of rheumatic diseases with a focus on rheumatoid arthritis: results from the “3E initiative”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Montecucco

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To develop a set of national evidence-based recommendations for the use of Methotrexate (MTX in daily clinical practice. Methods: A panel of 37 Italian Rheumatologists reviewed 10 international recommendations formulated during the “3E (Evidence, Expertise, Exchange initiative” for the year 2007-8, following a systematic literature search in Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, and 2005-7 American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism meeting abstracts and the revision of selected papers and the appraisal of Oxford levels of evidence. Moreover, the same panel by the same methodology formulated further 5 recommendations on topics previously selected by Italian representatives to 3E initiative. The agreement about the set of proposed recommendations was stated by a consensus process and the potential impact on clinical practice was assessed. Results: International Recommendations were analysed and changed when appropriate. In addition, 5 national recommendations were developed by identifying 6371 references, selecting and evaluating the 29 ones satisfying Evidence Based Medicine principles. Conclusions: A set of 15 national recommendations for the use of MTX in daily clinical practice was developed. These recommendations are evidence-based and integrate the expertise of a large panel of Italian rheumatologists.

  15. Appraisal of literature reviews on end-of-life care for minority ethnic groups in the UK and a critical comparison with policy recommendations from the UK end-of-life care strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pool Robert

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence of low end-of-life (EoL care service use by minority ethnic groups in the UK has given rise to a body of research and a number of reviews of the literature. This article aims to review and evaluate literature reviews on minority ethnic groups and EoL care in the UK and assess their suitability as an evidence base for policy. Methods Systematic review. Searches were carried out in thirteen electronic databases, eight journals, reference lists, and grey literature. Reviews were included if they concerned minority ethnic groups and EoL care in the UK. Reviews were graded for quality and key themes identified. Results Thirteen reviews (2001-2009 met inclusion criteria. Seven took a systematic approach, of which four scored highly for methodological quality (a mean score of six, median seven. The majority of systematic reviews were therefore of a reasonable methodological quality. Most reviews were restricted by ethnic group, aspect of EoL care, or were broader reviews which reported relevant findings. Six key themes were identified. Conclusions A number of reviews were systematic and scored highly for methodological quality. These reviews provide a good reflection of the primary evidence and could be used to inform policy. The complexity and inter-relatedness of factors leading to low service use was recognised and reflected in reviews' recommendations for service improvement. Recommendations made in the UK End-of-Life Care Strategy were limited in comparison, and the Strategy's evidence base concerning minority ethnic groups was found to be narrow. Future policy should be embedded strongly in the evidence base to reflect the current literature and minimise bias.

  16. Appraisal of literature reviews on end-of-life care for minority ethnic groups in the UK and a critical comparison with policy recommendations from the UK end-of-life care strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Natalie; Meñaca, Arantza; Andrew, Erin Vw; Koffman, Jonathan; Harding, Richard; Higginson, Irene J; Pool, Robert; Gysels, Marjolein

    2011-06-02

    Evidence of low end-of-life (EoL) care service use by minority ethnic groups in the UK has given rise to a body of research and a number of reviews of the literature. This article aims to review and evaluate literature reviews on minority ethnic groups and EoL care in the UK and assess their suitability as an evidence base for policy. Systematic review. Searches were carried out in thirteen electronic databases, eight journals, reference lists, and grey literature. Reviews were included if they concerned minority ethnic groups and EoL care in the UK. Reviews were graded for quality and key themes identified. Thirteen reviews (2001-2009) met inclusion criteria. Seven took a systematic approach, of which four scored highly for methodological quality (a mean score of six, median seven). The majority of systematic reviews were therefore of a reasonable methodological quality. Most reviews were restricted by ethnic group, aspect of EoL care, or were broader reviews which reported relevant findings. Six key themes were identified. A number of reviews were systematic and scored highly for methodological quality. These reviews provide a good reflection of the primary evidence and could be used to inform policy. The complexity and inter-relatedness of factors leading to low service use was recognised and reflected in reviews' recommendations for service improvement. Recommendations made in the UK End-of-Life Care Strategy were limited in comparison, and the Strategy's evidence base concerning minority ethnic groups was found to be narrow. Future policy should be embedded strongly in the evidence base to reflect the current literature and minimise bias.

  17. RTD and D to increase the share of renewables in emerging and developing countries with European technologies. Policy Assessment, Stakeholders opinions, Best-practices and Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanekamp, E.

    2008-11-01

    The future energy demand worldwide will increase by 45% in 2030. To be able to meet this demand, respond to the threats of Climate Change and also improve access to energy for the very poor in emerging and developing countries (especially in rural areas) renewable energy technologies play a crucial role. The European Union envisions a thriving and sustainable future economy, with world leadership in a diverse portfolio of clean, efficient and low-carbon energy technologies as a motor for prosperity and a key contributor to growth and jobs. Strengthening of the international dimension in European Technology Platforms and in Joint Technology Initiatives is a priority in the EU. The demographic trends in Europe coupled with an ambitious strategy of growth based on the Lisbon agenda provide a new context for considering international co-operation in Science and Technology. No fortress Europe, but an open Europe - building open 'win-win' S and T relations with EDCs. The RTD4EDC project is focussed on the role of research, technological development and demonstration (RTD and D) in the implementation of renewable energy technologies in Emerging and Developing Countries (EDCs). The project is executed by a consortium of four partners based in Europe (Belgium/The Netherlands), and in Emerging and Developing Countries (Paraguay, South- Africa and India). The project consisted of desk research on relevant policies and developments, interviews with policymakers, representatives from EU RE industries and development cooperation agencies, a survey amongst EU RE industry representatives and analysis of 74 cases of RE implementations in EDCs. In this report the overall results are presented. Other deliverables are three reports with background material (policies, case studies and market potential for EU RE industry) and a website (www.developingrenewables.org) containing all information as reported and with a database containing the 74 cases of RE implementations in EDCs.

  18. Preliminary guidelines for the evaluation and management of dyslipidemia in adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus and receiving antiretroviral therapy: Recommendations of the Adult AIDS Clinical Trial Group Cardiovascular Disease Focus Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubé, M. P.; Sprecher, D.; Henry, W. K.; Aberg, J. A.; Torriani, F. J.; Hodis, H. N.; Schouten, J. [=Judith; Levin, J.; Myers, G.; Zackin, R.; Nevin, T.; Currier, J. S.

    2000-01-01

    Dyslipidemia is a prevalent condition that affects patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who are receiving antiretroviral therapy, These preliminary recommendations summarize the current understanding in this area and propose guidelines for management. Existing guidelines for the

  19. Lessons Learned from the Niger Delta Conflict: A Policy Recommendation for a New Framework for Relations Between Extractive Companies and Host Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, Alison

    The tumultuous experience of the Shell Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria Ltd (SPDC) in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria has contributed to the debates surrounding the role of transnational companies in their host communities and the impact that resource extraction has on the economic development of emerging countries. The case study demonstrates that methods used by extraction companies for interacting with their host communities are ineffective and superficial. Using the lessons learned from the Niger Delta conflict, this thesis proposes a new strategy, entitled community- corporate diplomacy, and a protocol for companies to implement before opening production sites in Africa. The proposed strategy and an accompanying protocol offer a break from the status quo in that they are built upon an understanding of the specificities of the African continent, that host communities need to be respected as key stakeholders, and that extraction activities have a higher risk of negatively impacting neighboring communities. The recommendation could be applied to other countries and industries, but the increasing importance of African natural resources, the particularities of African political and social structures and the effects of extraction activities make this proposal especially important for extractive companies beginning production in Africa. Keywords: Nigeria, Niger Delta, Shell, corporate social responsibility, transnational advocacy networks, multi-stakeholder initiatives, community relations, corporate diplomacy, Africa, extractive industries.

  20. Brazil - Attacking Brazil's Poverty : A Poverty Report with a Focus on Urban Poverty Reduction Policies (Vol. 2 of 2) - Main Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2001-01-01

    The first central message of this report is that Brazil has over the last years achieved great progress in its social policies and indicators. The second central message is that poverty remains unacceptably high for a country with Brazil's average income levels. The worst remaining income poverty is mostly concentrated in the Northeast region, and in the smaller urban and rural areas. The ...

  1. Local Control in Action: Learning from the CORE Districts' Focus on Measurement, Capacity Building, and Shared Accountability. Policy Brief 16-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Julie; Bush-Mecenas, Susan; Hough, Heather

    2016-01-01

    California and the nation are at the crossroads of a major shift in school accountability policy. At the state level, California's Local Control and Accountability Plan (LCAP) encourages the use of multiple measures of school performance used locally to support continuous improvement and strategic resource allocation. Similarly, the federal Every…

  2. International recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, Bo

    1986-01-01

    Full text: This short presentation will indicate the general radiation protection background to protective measures against foodstuffs contaminated with radioactive substances. A number of international organizations are involved in various aspects of radiation protection, for example, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), and the World Health Organization (WHO). Two international organizations, however, provide the basic background. These are the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). UNSCEAR provides the scientific information on radiation levels and effects. It consists of 21 member countries, with truly international coverage. It issues reports to the UN General Assembly, including comprehensive scientific annexes. Its latest comprehensive report was issued in 1982, the next is expected to be published in 1988. That report will include an assessment of the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The ICRP is a non-governmental organization. It has issued recommendations on radiation protection since 1928. The postulated biological basis for radiation protection recommendations involves two types of biological effects. The so-called non-stochastic effects, mainly due to cell death, appear only when the radiation doses exceed a certain threshold value. These effects, therefore, can only appear after high accidental exposures. After the Chernobyl accident, they only affected about 200 individuals involved in fire extinction and rescue work at the damaged nuclear power plant. Stochastic effects, with some simplification, may be seen as the result of initial changes in the genetic code of some surviving cells. If these cells are germ cells, this may lead to hereditary harm. If they are somatic cells, the result could be cancer

  3. Recommendations for the Preparation of Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact Statements, 2nd edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2004-12-01

    This document provides recommendations for the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) preparation of environmental assessments and environmental impact statements under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). The Office of NEPA Policy and Compliance prepared these recommendations in consultation with the Office of the Assistant General Counsel for Environment and following coordination with the DOE NEPA Community. The recommendations should materially aid those responsible for preparing and reviewing NEPA documents to focus on significant environmental issues, adequately analyze environmental impacts, and effectively present the analysis to decisionmakers and the public. The recommendations are not all-encompassing, however; preparers must apply independent judgment to determine the appropriate scope and analytical requirements of NEPA for each proposal. These recommendations do not constitute legal requirements, but are intended to enhance compliance with existing NEPA regulations (40 CFR Parts 1500-1508, 10 CFR Part 1021).

  4. A study on the nuclear technology policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Ham, C. H.; Kim, H. J.; Chung, W. S.; Lee, T. J.; Lee, B. O.; Yun, S. W.; Choi, Y. M.; Eom, T. Y.

    1998-01-01

    This study analyzed the major issues as the research activities for the support of establishment and implementation of national policy. The analyses were focused on the recommendations of the responsive direction of national policy in positive and effective manners in accordance with the changes of international nuclear affairs. This study also analyzed the creation of environmental foundation for effective implementation of the national policy and national R and D investment such as securing national consensus and openings of policy information to the public. The major results of the role and position of nuclear policy, trends of nuclear policy and nuclear R and D activities of USA, France, Japan, Asian developing countries etc. and international trends of small- and medium-sized reactor as well as spin-offs of nuclear R and D activities, were analyzed. (author). 66 refs., 27 tabs., 15 figs

  5. Assessing the Role of Shape and Label in the Misleading Packaging of Food Imitating Products: From Empirical Evidence to Policy Recommendation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Frédéric; Bouillé, Julien; Le Goff, Kévin; Robert-Demontrond, Philippe; Oullier, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    . These results require confirmation in other studies involving different shapes and labels. Notwithstanding, due to the misleading effect of this ambiguity, public health authorities are thus well advised to focus their market surveillance on chemical products emulating a food or drink shape. PMID:27065919

  6. Assessing the role of shape and label in the misleading packaging of Food Imitating Products: From empirical evidence to policy recommendation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic eBasso

    2016-03-01

    safe and drinkable. These results require confirmation in other studies involving different shapes and labels. Notwithstanding, due to the misleading effect of this ambiguity, public health authorities are thus well advised to focus their market surveillance on chemical products emulating a food or drink shape.

  7. Assessing the Role of Shape and Label in the Misleading Packaging of Food Imitating Products: From Empirical Evidence to Policy Recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Frédéric; Bouillé, Julien; Le Goff, Kévin; Robert-Demontrond, Philippe; Oullier, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    . These results require confirmation in other studies involving different shapes and labels. Notwithstanding, due to the misleading effect of this ambiguity, public health authorities are thus well advised to focus their market surveillance on chemical products emulating a food or drink shape.

  8. Movie Recommendation using Random Walks over the Contextual Graph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Toine

    Recommender systems have become an essential tool in fighting information overload. However, the majority of recommendation algorithms focus only on using ratings information, while disregarding information about the context of the recommendation process. We present ContextWalk, a recommendation...

  9. Joseph A. Burton Forum Award Talk: How a Physics Education has Influenced Practice and Graduate Education in Technically-Focused Quantitative Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger Morgan, M.

    2011-04-01

    In a book for the general public published a year before his death, Carl Sagan wrote, "Every time a scientific paper presents a bit of data, it's accompanied by an error bar---a quiet but instant reminder that no knowledge is complete or perfect." For those of us educated in experimental natural science such an observation seems so obvious as to hardly need saying. Yet when, after completing a PhD in experimental radio physics, I began to work on problems in environmental and energy risk and policy analysis in the early 1970s, I was amazed to find that the characterization and treatment of uncertainty was almost completely lacking in the analysis of that day. In the first part of this talk, I will briefly summarize how I, and a number of my physics-educated colleagues, have worked to rectify this situation. Doctoral education in the Department of Engineering and Public Policy (EPP) at Carnegie Mellon University has also been shaped by a number of ideas and problem-solving styles that derive from physics. These have been strengthened considerably through integration with a number of ideas from experimental social science -- a field that too many in physics ignore or even belittle. In the second part of the talk, I will describe the PhD program in EPP, talk a bit about some of its unique features, and describe a few of the problems we address.

  10. Multi-Criteria Recommender Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adomavicius, Gediminas; Manouselis, Nikos; Kwon, Youngok

    This chapter aims to provide an overview of the class of multi-criteria recommender systems. First, it defines the recommendation problem as a multicriteria decision making (MCDM) problem, and reviews MCDM methods and techniques that can support the implementation of multi-criteria recommenders. Then, it focuses on the category of multi-criteria rating recommenders - techniques that provide recommendations by modelling a user's utility for an item as a vector of ratings along several criteria. A review of current algorithms that use multi-criteria ratings for calculating predictions and generating recommendations is provided. Finally, the chapter concludes with a discussion on open issues and future challenges for the class of multi-criteria rating recommenders.

  11. Distributed Deliberative Recommender Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recio-García, Juan A.; Díaz-Agudo, Belén; González-Sanz, Sergio; Sanchez, Lara Quijano

    Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) is one of most successful applied AI technologies of recent years. Although many CBR systems reason locally on a previous experience base to solve new problems, in this paper we focus on distributed retrieval processes working on a network of collaborating CBR systems. In such systems, each node in a network of CBR agents collaborates, arguments and counterarguments its local results with other nodes to improve the performance of the system's global response. We describe D2ISCO: a framework to design and implement deliberative and collaborative CBR systems that is integrated as a part of jcolibritwo an established framework in the CBR community. We apply D2ISCO to one particular simplified type of CBR systems: recommender systems. We perform a first case study for a collaborative music recommender system and present the results of an experiment of the accuracy of the system results using a fuzzy version of the argumentation system AMAL and a network topology based on a social network. Besides individual recommendation we also discuss how D2ISCO can be used to improve recommendations to groups and we present a second case of study based on the movie recommendation domain with heterogeneous groups according to the group personality composition and a group topology based on a social network.

  12. Tough Policies, Incredible Policies?

    OpenAIRE

    Andres Velasco; Alejandro Neut

    2003-01-01

    We revisit the question of what determines the credibility of macroeconomic policies here, of promises to repay public debt. Almost all thinking on the issue has focused on governments' strategic decision to default (or erode the value of outstanding debt via inflation/devaluation). But sometimes governments default not because they want to, but because they cannot avoid it: adverse shocks leave them no option. We build a model in which default/devaluation can occur deliberately (for strategi...

  13. Prospective analysis of energy security: A practical life-cycle approach focused on renewable power generation and oriented towards policy-makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Gusano, Diego; Iribarren, Diego; Garraín, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Formulation and application of the Renewable Energy Security Index (RESI). • Prospective analysis combining Energy Systems Modelling and Life Cycle Assessment. • Feasibility proven through two case studies of power generation in Spain and Norway. • Good coverage of key energy security aspects (availability, affordability, etc.). • Novel and easy-to-report index suitable for energy policy-making. - Abstract: Energy security is a wide-ranging term to encompass issues such as security of supply, reliability of infrastructures, affordability and environmental friendliness. This article develops a robust indicator – the Renewable Energy Security Index, RESI – to enrich the body of knowledge associated with the presence of renewable energy technologies within national electricity production mixes. RESI is built by combining environmental life cycle assessment and techno-economic energy systems modelling. Spain and Norway are used as illustrative case studies for the prospective analysis of power generation from an energy security standpoint. In the Spanish case, with a diversified electricity production mix and a growing presence of renewable technologies, RESI favourably “evolves” from 0.36 at present to 0.65 in 2050 in a business-as-usual scenario, reaching higher values in a highly-restricted CO 2 scenario. The Norwegian case study attains RESI values similar to 1 due to the leading role of renewable electricity (mainly hydropower) regarding both satisfaction of national demand and exportation of electricity surplus. A widespread use of RESI as a quantifiable energy security index of national power generation sectors is found to be feasible and practical for both analysts and energy policy-makers, covering a significant number of energy security aspects.

  14. Policy Studies in Asia--the Training of Educational Personnel: India, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    Five study papers by educators from India, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, and Thailand focus on: (1) policies and strategies in the implementation of universalization of education; (2) current policies and strategies in the preparation of teachers; and (3) recommendations for teachers in the universalization of education. Each of these elements…

  15. Recommendations on national radioactive waste management policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    As a nation, we have learned that sound technical solutions to the problems of waste disposal cannot be carried out without public acceptance. The key to gaining the public's confidence is a process of decision making which is open and accessible to elected officials from all levels of government. The Council believes that such a process can be put in place through a renewal of the traditional principles of our federal system of government. State, local, and tribal officials must become working partners with the federal government in making the crucial decisions about how radioactive wastes will be handled, transported, and ultimately disposed. A workable and effective partnership must include, first the full sharing of information and plans regarding waste disposal activities among all levels of government and, second, the opportunity for state, local, and tribal governments to participate effectively in waste management decisions which affect their jurisdictions. Finally, althougcome this difficulty

  16. The development of alcohol policy in contemporary China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Guo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Over recent years, an increase in alcohol-related problems has been noted in China. Taking effective measures against the problem requires clear reviewing and understanding of the evolution of the Chinese alcohol policy. This study is aimed to evaluate the alcohol policy with special focus on reviewing the alcohol production and consumption situation in China and assessing the changes in Chinese alcohol policy along with other related fields. This article finishes with a set of recommended policy changes that could help solve the recent alcohol-related problems and analyze the major impediments.

  17. Multiple policies to enhance prescribing efficiency for established medicines in Europe with a particular focus on demand-side measures: findings and future implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian eGodman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The appreciable growth in pharmaceutical expenditure has resulted in multiple initiatives across Europe to lower generic prices and enhance their utilisation. However, considerable variation in their use and prices. Objective: Assess the influence of multiple supply and demand-side initiatives across Europe for established medicines to enhance prescribing efficiency before a decision to prescribe a particular medicine. Subsequently utilise the findings to suggest potential future initiatives that countries could consider. Method: Analysis of different methodologies involving cross national and single country retrospective observational studies on reimbursed use and expenditure of PPIs, statins and renin-angiotensin inhibitor drugs among European countries. Results: Nature and intensity of the various initiatives appreciably influenced prescribing behaviour and expenditure, e.g. multiple measures resulted in reimbursed expenditure for PPIs in Scotland in 2010 56% below 2001 levels despite a 3 fold increase in utilisation and in the Netherlands, PPI expenditure fell by 58% in 2010 vs. 2000 despite a 3-fold increase in utilisation. A similarly picture was seen with prescribing restrictions, i.e. (i more aggressive follow-up of prescribing restrictions for patented statins and ARBs resulted in a greater reduction in the utilisation of patented statins in Austria vs. Norway and lower utilisation of patented ARBs vs. generic ACEIs in Croatia than Austria. However, limited impact of restrictions on esomeprazole in Norway with the first prescription or recommendation in hospital where restrictions do not apply. Similar findings when generic losartan became available in Western Europe. Conclusions: Multiple demand-side measures are needed to influence prescribing patterns. When combined with supply-side measures, activities can realise appreciable savings. Health authorities cannot rely on a ‘spill over’ effect between classes to affect

  18. Recommendation systems in software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Robillard, Martin P; Walker, Robert J; Zimmermann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    With the growth of public and private data stores and the emergence of off-the-shelf data-mining technology, recommendation systems have emerged that specifically address the unique challenges of navigating and interpreting software engineering data.This book collects, structures and formalizes knowledge on recommendation systems in software engineering. It adopts a pragmatic approach with an explicit focus on system design, implementation, and evaluation. The book is divided into three parts: "Part I - Techniques" introduces basics for building recommenders in software engineering, including techniques for collecting and processing software engineering data, but also for presenting recommendations to users as part of their workflow.?"Part II - Evaluation" summarizes methods and experimental designs for evaluating recommendations in software engineering.?"Part III - Applications" describes needs, issues and solution concepts involved in entire recommendation systems for specific software engineering tasks, fo...

  19. Research of intelligent recommendation for mobile reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qu

    2013-07-01

    Mobile reading is the trend of current publishing industry. Intelligent Recommendation system is useful and profitable for mobile reading platforms. Currently, intelligent recommendation systems mainly focus on news recommendation or production recommendation in e-commerce. In this paper, we designed and implemented an intelligent recommendation system based on slope one algorithm. Results show that our algorithm can help the users to find their interested books and thus greatly improve the income of mobile reading platform.

  20. Effectiveness evaluation of public policy incentive R&D in technological innovation in Brazil: a focus on law of the well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Zanghelini

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper will address pharmaceutical industries that carry out research, development and innovation (RD&I Brazil and their consequent adherence to tax incentives based on ‘Law of the Well’ (Brazilian, Law No. 11,196 / 2005. Our hypothesis evaluates if public policies of incentives for transformation of technological knowledge could encourage firms to invest in RD&I. Our research was based on Government Annual Reports that reported the use of tax incentives during a period between 2006 and 2012; and legal framework destined for supporting research, both provided by Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation of Brazil. During the studied period, an increase of 800% of the participating companies of the ‘Law of the Well’ was observed, demonstrating a need to invest in R&D. The sum of the expenditure of defrayal for the computation of the incentives the companies that operated in real income regime and have chosen to take advantage of tax incentives ‘Law of the Well’ amounted to R $ 40.52 billion. Well although one of the purposes of the ‘Law of the Well’ is to subsidize the establishment of researchers in companies, the total value of capital expenditure does not exceed 4% of the total amount invested in R & D activities. Similarly it is observed that the percentage of encouraging the development and patenting did not exceed 1%. In spite of Good Law be used as institutional apparatus for improvement of the efficiency and competitivity of the companies for the global market, recent indicators of spending on R&D in Brazil demonstrate stagnation of investments in various sectors.Keywords: Law of the Well. Public policy. Pharmaceutical complex. Technological innovation. Avaliação da efetividade das políticas públicas de incentivo a p & d na inovação tecnológica no Brasil: um enfoque na lei do bemO presente artigo abordará sobre as indústrias farmacêuticas que realizam atividades de pesquisa, desenvolvimento e

  1. Evaluation of a multi-year policy-focused intervention to increase physical activity and related behaviors in lower-resourced early care and education settings: Active Early 2.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily J. Tomayko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is a critical component of obesity prevention, but few interventions targeting early childhood have been described. The Active Early guide was designed to increase physical activity in early care and education (ECE settings. The purpose of Active Early 2.0 was to evaluate the effectiveness of Active Early along with provider training, microgrant support, and technical assistance over 2 years (2012–2014 to increase physical activity and related behaviors (e.g., nutrition in settings serving a high proportion of children from underserved groups in recognition of significant disparities in obesity and challenges meeting physical activity recommendations in low-resource settings. The physical activity and nutrition environment were assessed before and after the intervention in 15 ECE settings in Wisconsin using the Environment and Policy Observation Assessment tool, and interviews were conducted with providers and technical consultants. There was no significant change in Total Physical Activity Score or any EPAO subscale over the intervention period; however, significant improvements in the Total Nutrition Score and the several Nutrition subscales were observed. Additionally, the percentage of sites with written activity policies significantly increased. Overall minutes of teacher-led physical activity increased to 61.5 ± 29.0 min (p < 0.05. Interviews identified key benefits to children (i.e., more energy, better rest, improved behavior and significant barriers, most notably care provider and child turnover and low parent engagement. Moderate policy and environmental improvements in physical activity and nutrition were achieved with this intervention, but more work is needed to understand and address barriers and to support sustained changes in lower-resource ECE settings.

  2. Evaluation of a multi-year policy-focused intervention to increase physical activity and related behaviors in lower-resourced early care and education settings:Active Early2.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomayko, Emily J; Prince, Ronald J; Hoiting, Jill; Braun, Abbe; LaRowe, Tara L; Adams, Alexandra K

    2017-12-01

    Physical activity is a critical component of obesity prevention, but few interventions targeting early childhood have been described. The Active Early guide was designed to increase physical activity in early care and education (ECE) settings. The purpose of Active Early 2.0 was to evaluate the effectiveness of Active Early along with provider training, microgrant support, and technical assistance over 2 years (2012-2014) to increase physical activity and related behaviors (e.g., nutrition) in settings serving a high proportion of children from underserved groups in recognition of significant disparities in obesity and challenges meeting physical activity recommendations in low-resource settings. The physical activity and nutrition environment were assessed before and after the intervention in 15 ECE settings in Wisconsin using the Environment and Policy Observation Assessment tool, and interviews were conducted with providers and technical consultants. There was no significant change in Total Physical Activity Score or any EPAO subscale over the intervention period; however, significant improvements in the Total Nutrition Score and the several Nutrition subscales were observed. Additionally, the percentage of sites with written activity policies significantly increased. Overall minutes of teacher-led physical activity increased to 61.5 ± 29.0 min (p care provider and child turnover and low parent engagement. Moderate policy and environmental improvements in physical activity and nutrition were achieved with this intervention, but more work is needed to understand and address barriers and to support sustained changes in lower-resource ECE settings.

  3. Recommender systems in knowledge-mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volna, Eva

    2017-07-01

    The subject of the paper is to analyse the possibilities of application of recommender systems in the field of data mining. The work focuses on three basic types of recommender systems (collaborative, content-based and hybrid). The goal of the article is to evaluate which of these three concepts of recommender systems provides forecast with the lowest error rate in the domain of recommending movies. This target is fulfilled by the practical part of the work - at first, the own recommender system was designed and created, capable of obtaining movies recommendation from the database based on the user's preferences. Next, we verified experimentally which recommender system produces more accurate results.

  4. EURRECA—Framework for Aligning Micronutrient Recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, van 't P.; Grammatikaki, E.; Matthys, C.; Raats, M.M.; Contor, L.

    2013-01-01

    There is currently no standard approach for deriving micronutrient recommendations, and large variations exist across Europe, causing confusion among consumers, food producers, and policy makers. More aligned information could influence dietary behaviors and potentially lead to a healthier

  5. An integrated policy framework for the sustainable exploitation of biomass for bioenergy from marginal lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panoutsou, Calliope

    2017-04-01

    Currently, there are not sufficiently tailored policies focusing on biomass and bioenergy from marginal lands. This paper will provide an integrated policy framework and recommendations to facilitate understanding for the market sectors involved and the key principles which can be used to form future sustainable policies for this issue. The work will focus at EU level policy recommendations and discuss how these can interrelate with national and regional level policies to promote the usage of marginal lands for biomass and bioenergy. Recommended policy measures will be based on the findings of the Biomass Policies (www.biomasspolicies.eu) and S2Biom (www.s2biom.eu) projects and will be prepared taking into account the key influencing factors (technical, environmental, social and economic) on biomass and bioenergy from marginal lands: • across different types of marginality (biophysical such as: low temperature, dryness, excess soil moisture, poor chemical properties, steep slope, etc., and socio-economic resulting from lack of economic competitiveness in certain regions and crops, abandonment or rural areas, etc.) • across the different stages of the biomass value chain (supply, logistics, conversion, distribution and end-use). The aim of recommendations will be to inform policy makers on how to distinguish key policy related attributes across biomass and bioenergy from marginal lands, measure them and prioritise actions with a 'system' based approach.

  6. Environmental Education Policy Implementation in Botswana:The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It focuses on environmental education as practised by education officers and school heads. The results indicate some constraints regarding the logistics and official commitment of these key role players. The paper also puts forward some recommendations for further research and review of environmental education policy ...

  7. Policy interpretation network on children's health and environment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazel, P.J. van den; Zuurbier, M.; Bistrup, M.L.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: The main objective of PINCHE is to provide policy recommendations aiming at protecting children's health and environment based on completed scientific research. The project focused on four themes: indoor and outdoor air pollutants, carcinogens, neurotoxicants, and noise. The data were evaluated

  8. USGEO DMWG Cloud Computing Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Beaujardiere, J.; McInerney, M.; Frame, M. T.; Summers, C.

    2017-12-01

    The US Group on Earth Observations (USGEO) Data Management Working Group (DMWG) has been developing Cloud Computing Recommendations for Earth Observations. This inter-agency report is currently in draft form; DMWG hopes to have released the report as a public Request for Information (RFI) by the time of AGU. The recommendations are geared toward organizations that have already decided to use the Cloud for some of their activities (i.e., the focus is not on "why you should use the Cloud," but rather "If you plan to use the Cloud, consider these suggestions.") The report comprises Introductory Material, including Definitions, Potential Cloud Benefits, and Potential Cloud Disadvantages, followed by Recommendations in several areas: Assessing When to Use the Cloud, Transferring Data to the Cloud, Data and Metadata Contents, Developing Applications in the Cloud, Cost Minimization, Security Considerations, Monitoring and Metrics, Agency Support, and Earth Observations-specific recommendations. This talk will summarize the recommendations and invite comment on the RFI.

  9. Preference-Based Recommendations for OLAP Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerbi, Houssem; Ravat, Franck; Teste, Olivier; Zurfluh, Gilles

    This paper presents a framework for integrating OLAP and recommendations. We focus on the anticipatory recommendation process that assists the user during his OLAP analysis by proposing to him the forthcoming analysis step. We present a context-aware preference model that matches decision-makers intuition, and we discuss a preference-based approach for generating personalized recommendations.

  10. Without 'Focus'

    OpenAIRE

    Aldo Sevi; Nirit Kadmon

    2010-01-01

    It is widely accepted that a notion of 'focus', more or less as conceived of in Jackendoff (1972), must be incorporated into our theory of grammar, as a means of accounting for certain observed correlations between prosodic facts and semantic/pragmatic facts. In this paper, we put forth the somewhat radical idea that the time has come to give up this customary view, and eliminate 'focus' from our theory of grammar. We argue that such a move is both economical and fruitful.Research over the ye...

  11. The Universal Recommender

    OpenAIRE

    Kunegis, Jérôme; Said, Alan; Umbrath, Winfried

    2009-01-01

    We describe the Universal Recommender, a recommender system for semantic datasets that generalizes domain-specific recommenders such as content-based, collaborative, social, bibliographic, lexicographic, hybrid and other recommenders. In contrast to existing recommender systems, the Universal Recommender applies to any dataset that allows a semantic representation. We describe the scalable three-stage architecture of the Universal Recommender and its application to Internet Protocol Televisio...

  12. Without 'Focus'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Sevi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that a notion of 'focus', more or less as conceived of in Jackendoff (1972, must be incorporated into our theory of grammar, as a means of accounting for certain observed correlations between prosodic facts and semantic/pragmatic facts. In this paper, we put forth the somewhat radical idea that the time has come to give up this customary view, and eliminate 'focus' from our theory of grammar. We argue that such a move is both economical and fruitful.Research over the years has revealed that the correlations between prosody, 'focus', and the alleged semantic/pragmatic effects of focus are much less clear and systematic than we may have initially hoped. First we argue that this state of affairs detracts significantly from the utility of our notion of 'focus', to the point of calling into question the very motivation for including it in the grammar. Then we look at some of the central data, and show how they might be analyzed without recourse to a notion of 'focus'. We concentrate on (i the effect of pitch accent placement on discourse congruence, and (ii the choice of 'associate' for the so-called 'focus sensitive' adverb only. We argue that our focus-free approach to the data improves empirical coverage, and begins to reveal patterns that have previously been obscured by preconceptions about 'focus'.ReferencesBeaver, D. & Clark, B. 2008. Sense and Sensitivity: How Focus Determines Meaning. Blackwell.Beaver, D., Clark, B., Flemming, E., Jaeger, T. F. & Wolters, M. 2007. ‘When semantics meets phonetics: Acoustical studies of second occurrence focus’. Language 83.2: 245–76.http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/lan.2007.0053Beckman, M. & Hirschberg, J. 1994. ‘The ToBI Annotation Conventions’. Ms.,http://www.cs.columbia.edu/~julia/files/conv.pdf.Bolinger, D. 1972. ‘Accent is predictable (if you are a mind-reader’. Language 48.3: 633–44.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/412039Büring, D. 2006. ‘Focus projection and default

  13. Policy Archaeology: A New Policy Studies Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheurich, James Joseph

    1994-01-01

    Discusses policy archaeology, a radically different approach to policy studies in education drawn from the poststructuralist work of Foucault. Policy archaeology examines the social construction of problems before they become visible, focusing on five social regularities (race, gender, class, governmentality, and professionalization) comprising…

  14. Context-Aware Recommender Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adomavicius, Gediminas; Tuzhilin, Alexander

    The importance of contextual information has been recognized by researchers and practitioners in many disciplines, including e-commerce personalization, information retrieval, ubiquitous and mobile computing, data mining, marketing, and management. While a substantial amount of research has already been performed in the area of recommender systems, most existing approaches focus on recommending the most relevant items to users without taking into account any additional contextual information, such as time, location, or the company of other people (e.g., for watching movies or dining out). In this chapter we argue that relevant contextual information does matter in recommender systems and that it is important to take this information into account when providing recommendations. We discuss the general notion of context and how it can be modeled in recommender systems. Furthermore, we introduce three different algorithmic paradigms - contextual prefiltering, post-filtering, and modeling - for incorporating contextual information into the recommendation process, discuss the possibilities of combining several contextaware recommendation techniques into a single unifying approach, and provide a case study of one such combined approach. Finally, we present additional capabilities for context-aware recommenders and discuss important and promising directions for future research.

  15. Focus: Digital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Technology has been an all-important and defining element within the arts throughout the 20th century, and it has fundamentally changed the ways in which we produce and consume music. With this Focus we investigate the latest developments in the digital domain – and their pervasiveness and rapid...... production and reception of contemporary music and sound art. With ‘Digital’ we present four composers' very different answers to how technology impact their work. To Juliana Hodkinson it has become an integral part of her sonic writing. Rudiger Meyer analyses the relationships between art and design and how...... technology affects our habits of consumption. Risto Holopainen presents a notion of autonomous instruments and automated composition that, in the end, cannot escape the human while Jøren Rudi reflects on aesthetic elements and artistic approaches to sound in computer games. This focus is edited by Sanne...

  16. Material focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Tomas; Vallgårda, Anna K. A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we build on the notion of computational composites, which hold a material perspective on computational technology. We argue that a focus on the material aspects of the technology could be a fruitful approach to achieve new expressions and to gain a new view on the technology's role...... in design. We study two of the computer's material properties: computed causality and connectability and through developing two computational composites that utilize these properties we begin to explore their potential expressions....

  17. Energetic policy, society and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, George Gurgel de

    1999-01-01

    This paper sets out connections between emerging philosophies of economic development grouped together within the concept of sustainability, and future energy policies. The article discusses Brazilian energy policy recommendations formulated on the basis of present energy supply and demand levels

  18. Rollout sampling approximate policy iteration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimitrakakis, C.; Lagoudakis, M.G.

    2008-01-01

    Several researchers have recently investigated the connection between reinforcement learning and classification. We are motivated by proposals of approximate policy iteration schemes without value functions, which focus on policy representation using classifiers and address policy learning as a

  19. Plasma Focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, Alain; Jolas, Alain; Garconnet, J.-P.; Mascureau, J. de; Nazet, Christian; Coudeville, Alain; Bekiarian, Andre.

    1977-01-01

    The present report is the edition of the lectures given in a conference on the Focus experiment held at the Centre d'etudes de Limeil, on Oct. 1975. After a survey of the early laboratories one will find the main results obtained in Limeil concerning interferometry, laser scattering, electric and magnetic-measurements, X-ray and neutron emission and also the possible use of explosive current generators instead of capacitor banks at high energy levels. The principal lines of future research are given in the conclusion [fr

  20. Towards a Legal Recommender System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkels, R.; Boer, A.; Vredebregt, B.; van Someren, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of ongoing research aimed at a legal recommender system where users of a legislative portal receive suggestions of other relevant sources of law, given a focus document. We describe how we make references in case law to legislation explicit and machine readable,

  1. Adolescent Vaccines: Latest Recommendations, Addressing Barriers, and Improving Vaccine Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Kathleen C

    2017-07-01

    The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends that the Tdap, HPV, and meningitis vaccines be administered to youth beginning between the ages of 11 and 12. The school nurse, knowledgeable about vaccine schedules and the rationale for the schedules, is in a unique position to advocate for all adolescent vaccines and their timely administration through addressing parent-guardian concerns and supporting other healthcare providers in completing the adolescent vaccines. This article reviews current recommendations for adolescent vaccinations and the actions needed to improve vaccination rates with a focus on Human Papillomavirus vaccine, the vaccine with the lowest completion rates among this age group. Additionally, school nurses are introduced to Middle School Health Starts Here, a program for school nurses designed to address the whole child as students progress from 5th grade to middle school. Public policy issues including school mandates, along with possible barriers to vaccine completion in adolescents, are discussed.

  2. The European Federation of Organisations for Medical Physics Policy Statement No 14, The role of the Medical Physicist in the management of safety within the magnetic resonance imaging environment, EFOMP recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hand, J.; Bosmans, H.; Caruana, C.; Keevil, S.; Norris, David Gordon; Padovani, R.; Speck, O.

    2013-01-01

    This European Federation of Organisations for Medical Physics (EFOMP) Policy Statement outlines the way in which a Safety Management System can be developed for MRI units. The Policy Statement can help eliminate or at least minimize accidents or incidents in the magnetic resonance environment and is

  3. Focusing horn

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    This was the first magnetic horn developed by Simon Van der Meer to collect antiprotons in the AD complex. It was used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). Making an antiproton beam took a lot of time and effort. Firstly, protons were accelerated to an energy of 26 GeV/c (protons at 26GeV/c, antiprotons at 3.6GeV/c) in the PS and ejected onto a metal target. From the spray of emerging particles, a magnetic horn picked out 3.6 GeV antiprotons for injection into the AA through a wide-aperture focusing quadrupole magnet. For a million protons hitting the target, just one antiproton was captured, 'cooled' and accumulated. It took 3 days to make a beam of 3 x 10^11 -, three hundred thousand million - antiprotons. The development of this technology was a key step to the functioning of CERN's Super Proton Synchrotron as a proton - antiproton collider.

  4. Why is South Korea's renewable energy policy failing? A qualitative evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Jong-Han; Sim, Kwang-ho

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the causes of the South Korean government's failure to successfully deploy its renewable energy policy. Despite the South Korean government’s ongoing efforts since 2002 to promote the deployment of renewable energy, the established deployment target has not been met and the share of renewable energy supply in total primary energy supply is poor compared to peer countries with a similar level of economic development. Therefore, we attempt to find the causes of this policy failure using qualitative evaluation methods. Through the analyses, conducted using focused interviews and secondary data, we found that the domination of the fossil fuel and nuclear power industry's interests, inconsistent policy shifts, policy design that lacks sufficient support schemes, poorly coordinated government activities, and unsystemic and untimely monitoring and feedback have led to the failure of renewable energy deployment policies in South Korea. To overcome these problems, we suggest that the South Korean government should set more ambitious policy goals, establish a new independent organization that focuses on energy policy issues, use a varied policy mix, and secure political support from diverse policy actors. - Highlights: • We identify factors for successful renewable energy deployment policies. • We construct an evaluation framework based on the established literature. • We analyze data collected from focused interviews and secondary materials. • There exists an overall weakness throughout all renewable energy policy phases. • We recommend some policy prescriptions based on the evaluation results.

  5. Renewable energy policy options for Abu Dhabi: Drivers and barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezher, Toufic; Dawelbait, Gihan; Abbas, Zeina

    2012-01-01

    Climate change and fossil fuel depletion are the main drivers for the recent focus on Renewable Energy (RE) resources. However, since the high cost of RE technologies is the main obstacle facing the diffusion of RE power generation, economic and political intervention is inevitable. In the United Arab Emirates (UAE) population and economic growth are the main causes of a sharp increase of energy demand. Two key related factors highlight the need to establish a RE sector: first the UAE has one of the highest carbon footprint in the world and second, the rate of depletion of its main energy generation resource – fossil fuel. In this study, we present a review of overall policies in sixty-one countries, focusing on their efforts to adopt RE resources in the power sector, and on their implementation of fundamental policies implemented. Furthermore, we investigate the applicability to Abu Dhabi UAE of the main RE policies implemented worldwide. As a result of our analysis, we recommend the implementation of a mixed policy of Feed-in-Tariff (FIT) and the Quota system for RE electricity generation in order for the UAE to meet its 7% target by 2020. - Highlights: ► Comprehensive review of renewable energy policy mechanisms. ► Summarizes the renewable energy policy adoptions, targets, and installed capacity in many countries. ► Gives recommendations on renewable energy policy options for Abu Dhabi, an oil rich country.

  6. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING MONETARY POLICY IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitorac Ruxandra

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to study the Romania’s monetary policy, in the period 1996-2013. The research starts with a theoretical review of the monetary policy, whose main purpose is influencing the broad money supply and the lending requirements and the institution in charge of achieving this objective is the Central Bank, highlighting its impact upon the economic activity, through the Keynesian analysis model IS-LM and a correlation between the monetary policy measures and the phases of the economic cycle whose results indicate that during the recession periods it is recommended to reduce interest rates in order to stimulate investments, by raising the money supply, and during the expansion period it is recommended to increase the interest rate in order to cut back the money supply. Starting from this premises, the research takes into account the study of the monetary policy measures adopted by the governmental authority of Romania, making a quantitative analysis of the main macroeconomic indicators: the real interest rate, the lending interest rate, the deposit interest rate and the broad money supply and through a multifactorial regression, highlighting the impact of the interest rates upon the monetary aggregate M2. Moreover, a comparison between the monetary policy measures adopted in Romania and the monetary policies recommended by specialized literature has been done, and the results have indicated that during recession periods the attention of the governmental authorities is focused upon adopting the right measures, but during the expansion periods this doesn’t happen. The results of this research highlight the economic situation in Romania and the way in which the governmental authority intervened, through the monetary policy measures, in order to mitigate the negative effects of the cyclical fluctuations.

  7. Focus on Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Koningsbrugge, H.

    2008-01-01

    A few articles in this magazine focus on the developments and policies in Russia. The titles of some of the articles are 'Between state power and liberal reform' on the task of the new Russian president to find a new balance between government interference and market economy; 'Green light for green energy' on the willingness of the Russian government to stimulate renewable energy; 'Russian power play' on the role of Gazprom in the liberalization of the Russian power market; 'Gazprom's risky strategy' on it's pricing strategy

  8. National policies for the promotion of physical activity and healthy nutrition in the workplace context: a behaviour change wheel guided content analysis of policy papers in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppälä, Tuija; Hankonen, Nelli; Korkiakangas, Eveliina; Ruusuvuori, Johanna; Laitinen, Jaana

    2017-08-02

    Health policy papers disseminate recommendations and guidelines for the development and implementation of health promotion interventions. Such documents have rarely been investigated with regard to their assumed mechanisms of action for changing behaviour. The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) and Behaviour Change Techniques (BCT) Taxonomy have been used to code behaviour change intervention descriptions, but to our knowledge such "retrofitting" of policy papers has not previously been reported. This study aims first to identify targets, mediators, and change strategies for physical activity (PA) and nutrition behaviour change in Finnish policy papers on workplace health promotion, and second to assess the suitability of the Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW) approach for this purpose. We searched all national-level health policy papers effectual in Finland in August 2016 focusing on the promotion of PA and/or healthy nutrition in the workplace context (n = 6). Policy recommendations targeting employees' nutrition and PA including sedentary behaviour (SB) were coded using BCW, TDF, and BCT Taxonomy. A total of 125 recommendations were coded in the six policy papers, and in two additional documents referenced by them. Psychological capability, physical opportunity, and social opportunity were frequently identified (22%, 31%, and 24%, respectively), whereas physical capability was almost completely absent (1%). Three TDF domains (knowledge, skills, and social influence) were observed in all papers. Multiple intervention functions and BCTs were identified in all papers but several recommendations were too vague to be coded reliably. Influencing individuals (46%) and changing the physical environment (44%) were recommended more frequently than influencing the social environment (10%). The BCW approach appeared to be useful for analysing the content of health policy papers. Paying more attention to underlying assumptions regarding behavioural change processes may help to

  9. National policies for the promotion of physical activity and healthy nutrition in the workplace context: a behaviour change wheel guided content analysis of policy papers in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuija Seppälä

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health policy papers disseminate recommendations and guidelines for the development and implementation of health promotion interventions. Such documents have rarely been investigated with regard to their assumed mechanisms of action for changing behaviour. The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF and Behaviour Change Techniques (BCT Taxonomy have been used to code behaviour change intervention descriptions, but to our knowledge such “retrofitting” of policy papers has not previously been reported. This study aims first to identify targets, mediators, and change strategies for physical activity (PA and nutrition behaviour change in Finnish policy papers on workplace health promotion, and second to assess the suitability of the Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW approach for this purpose. Method We searched all national-level health policy papers effectual in Finland in August 2016 focusing on the promotion of PA and/or healthy nutrition in the workplace context (n = 6. Policy recommendations targeting employees’ nutrition and PA including sedentary behaviour (SB were coded using BCW, TDF, and BCT Taxonomy. Results A total of 125 recommendations were coded in the six policy papers, and in two additional documents referenced by them. Psychological capability, physical opportunity, and social opportunity were frequently identified (22%, 31%, and 24%, respectively, whereas physical capability was almost completely absent (1%. Three TDF domains (knowledge, skills, and social influence were observed in all papers. Multiple intervention functions and BCTs were identified in all papers but several recommendations were too vague to be coded reliably. Influencing individuals (46% and changing the physical environment (44% were recommended more frequently than influencing the social environment (10%. Conclusions The BCW approach appeared to be useful for analysing the content of health policy papers. Paying more attention to underlying

  10. Renewable Energy Policy Country Profiles. 2011 version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teckenburg, E.; Rathmann, M.; Winkel, T. [ECOFYS, Utrecht (Netherlands); Ragwitz, M.; Steinhilber, S. [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI, Karlsruhe (Germany); Resch, G.; Panzer, C.; Busch, S. [Energy Economics Group EEG, Technical University Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Konstantinaviciute, I. [Lithuanian Energy Institute, Kaunas (Lithuania)

    2011-08-15

    The core objective of the project RE-Shaping is to assist Member State (MS) governments in preparing for the implementation of Directive 2009/28/EC and to guide a European policy for RES in the mid- to long term. The past and present success of policies for renewable energies will be evaluated and recommendations derived to improve future RES support schemes. The effectiveness and the efficiency of current and future RES support schemes is analysed with specific focus on a single European market for renewable electricity products. Current best practices are identified, and (future) costs of RES and the corresponding support necessary to initiate stable growth are assessed. Better integration of RES policies with climate and innovation policy as well as liberalised energy markets will be analysed and promoted. Options for flexibility between Member States will be analysed. The future deployment of RES in each MS will be calculated based on the Green-X model to assist MS in implementing national action plans and to support a long term vision of the European RES policy. The latter will be based on an in-depth analysis of the long term RES potentials and costs. The impact of policies on risks for RES financing will be analysed and improved policies and financing instruments will be proposed.

  11. Staffing Policy for Solving the Information Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Tolstoy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Determining staffing policy implementation of information security tasks is given. The basic requirements that must be taken into account when developing policies are defined. The policy framework is determined and recommendations for the design of such policies are formulated. Requirements for the implementation of the policy are defined.

  12. 12 CFR 368.4 - Recommendations to customers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recommendations to customers. 368.4 Section 368... POLICY GOVERNMENT SECURITIES SALES PRACTICES § 368.4 Recommendations to customers. In recommending to a customer the purchase, sale or exchange of a government security, a bank that is a government securities...

  13. Hybrid Security Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu CONSTANTINESCU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Policy is defined as the rules and regulations set by the organization. They are laid down by management in compliance with industry regulations, law and internal decisions. Policies are mandatory. Security policies rules how the information is protected against security vulnerabilities and they are the basis for security awareness, training and vital for security audits. Policies are focused on desired results. The means of achieving the goals are defined on controls, standards and procedures.

  14. CSIA IWG Cybersecurity R and D Recommendations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — The President`s Cyberspace Policy Review challenges the Federal community to develop a framework for research and development strategies that focus on game-changing...

  15. Trust for intelligent recommendation

    CERN Document Server

    Bhuiyan, Touhid

    2013-01-01

    Recommender systems are one of the recent inventions to deal with the ever-growing information overload in relation to the selection of goods and services in a global economy. Collaborative Filtering (CF) is one of the most popular techniques in recommender systems. The CF recommends items to a target user based on the preferences of a set of similar users known as the neighbors, generated from a database made up of the preferences of past users. In the absence of these ratings, trust between the users could be used to choose the neighbor for recommendation making. Better recommendations can b

  16. Explaining the non-implementation of health-improving policies related to solid fuels use in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matinga, Margaret Njirambo; Clancy, Joy S.; Annegarn, Harold J.

    2014-01-01

    In 1998, the South African government developed an energy policy that focused on a pro-poor agenda. Its objectives included addressing the health impacts of solid fuel use in households. Fourteen years later, and with household electrification at over 80%, millions still use solid fuels and yet ambitious policy objectives to address this situation are not being met. Using three theoretical frameworks; institutional capacity, policy inheritance and the symbolic use of policy, this paper analyses the reasons why household energy policy objectives related to solid fuels and health, as stated in the 1998 South African energy policy, have not been implemented. The results of the analysis show that the symbolic use of policy, including meanings of objects used for meeting policy objectives is the most critical explanation. The paper illustrates that political and historical contexts are critical to understanding policy outcomes in developing and transition countries which often experience tensions between implementing what may seem as objective policies, and that matches their political and historical experiences and aspirations. We recommend that policy analysts in the energy sector complement currently common methods to include political contexts of policy development and implementation in order to better understand why policy makers chose to implement certain policies over others. - Highlights: • Policy non-implementation in developing countries focuses on lack of resources. • We add policy inheritance and policy symbolism to assess non-implementation. • South Africa's racial politics affect how policies are perceived and implemented. • Politically, firewood and electricity symbolise repression and emancipation. • Electricity and firewood's symbolic meanings affect policy makers' focus on these

  17. [Policy recommendations based on SWOT analysis for agricultural industrialization of traditional Chinese medicinal materials--a case study of uncariae ramulus cum uncis from Jianhe county in Guizhou province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yong; Huo, Ke-Yi; Xiang, Hua

    2013-09-01

    This thesis reviews the historical background of agricultural industrialization, and analyzes the major theories of agricultural industrialization. It also utilizes SWOT analysis method to discuss the industrialization of traditional Chinese medicinal materials in Jianhe county, and finally it puts forward the recommendations for its further development.

  18. Malaria vaccine: WHO position paper, January 2016 - Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-03

    This article presents the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommendations on the use of malaria vaccine excerpted from the WHO position paper on malaria vaccine published in the Weekly epidemiological Record in January 2016 [1]. The current document is the first WHO position paper on malaria vaccination and focuses primarily on the available evidence concerning the only malaria vaccine having received a positive regulation assessment from the European Medicines Agency (EMA) [2]. The position paper gives consideration to the epidemiological features of the disease and assesses the potential use of the vaccine for public health benefits. Footnotes to this paper provide a number of core references including references to grading tables that assess the quality of the scientific evidence, and to the evidence to recommendation table. In accordance with its mandate to provide guidance to Member States on health policy matters, WHO issues a series of regularly updated position papers on vaccines and combinations of vaccines against diseases that have an international public health impact. These papers are concerned primarily with the use of vaccines in large-scale immunization programmes; they summarize essential background information on diseases and vaccines, and conclude with WHO's current position on the use of vaccines in the global context. This paper reflects the joint recommendation of the WHO's Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) on immunization and the Malaria Policy Advisory Committee (MPAC). These recommendations were discussed by SAGE and MPAC at the October 2015 SAGE meeting. Evidence presented at the meeting can be accessed at http://www.who.int/immunization/sage/previous/en/index.html. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Leveraging position bias to improve peer recommendation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Lerman

    Full Text Available With the advent of social media and peer production, the amount of new online content has grown dramatically. To identify interesting items in the vast stream of new content, providers must rely on peer recommendation to aggregate opinions of their many users. Due to human cognitive biases, the presentation order strongly affects how people allocate attention to the available content. Moreover, we can manipulate attention through the presentation order of items to change the way peer recommendation works. We experimentally evaluate this effect using Amazon Mechanical Turk. We find that different policies for ordering content can steer user attention so as to improve the outcomes of peer recommendation.

  20. OARSI Clinical Trials Recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAlindon, T. E.; Driban, J. B.; Henrotin, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this document is to update the original OARSI recommendations specifically for the design, conduct, and reporting of clinical trials that target symptom or structure modification among individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA). To develop recommendations for the design, conduct......, and reporting of clinical trials for knee OA we initially drafted recommendations through an iterative process. Members of the working group included representatives from industry and academia. After the working group members reviewed a final draft, they scored the appropriateness for recommendations. After...... and index knee, describing interventions, patient-reported and physical performance measures, structural outcome measures, biochemical biomarkers, and reporting recommendations. In summary, the working group identified 25 recommendations that represent the current best practices regarding clinical trials...

  1. Health Policy for Persons with Intellectual Disability: Experiences from Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Halperin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Intellectual disability (ID is a life-long disability characterized by impaired cognitive and adaptive skills. Over the past few decades, a shift has occurred in the conceptualization and treatment of people with ID and research in health policy and health-care delivery has become increasingly global with a notable disparity between the developed and developing world. This review presents a literature overview of global health policy for ID with the intent to focus specifically on the policy and treatment within Israel. The methodology involved sites visits to care centers, discussions with stakeholders in health policy, and a literature review. We believe that Israel is in a unique position between a developed and developing culture. In particular, the distinct problems faced by the Arab and Bedouin community in terms of ID must be formally accounted for in Israel's future policies. Research from the developing world would be instructive to this end. The global approach in this presentation led to certain policy recommendations that take into account the uniqueness of Israel's position from a social, economic, religious, and demographic perspective. It is the hope that this paper will lead to an increased awareness of the challenges faced by persons with ID and their providers in all sectors of Israeli society and that the necessary policy recommendations will ultimately be adopted.

  2. Policies and procedures related to testing for weak D phenotypes and administration of Rh immune globulin: results and recommendations related to supplemental questions in the Comprehensive Transfusion Medicine survey of the College of American Pathologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, S Gerald; Roseff, Susan D; Domen, Ronald E; Shaz, Beth; Gottschall, Jerome L

    2014-05-01

    Advances in RHD genotyping offer an opportunity to update policies and practices for testing weak D phenotypes and administration of Rh immune globulin to postpartum women. To repeat questions from a 1999 College of American Pathologists proficiency test survey, to evaluate current practices for testing for weak D and administration of Rh immune globulin, and to determine whether there is an opportunity to begin integrating RHD genotyping in laboratory practice. The College of American Pathologists Transfusion Medicine Resource Committee sent questions from the 1999 survey to laboratories that participated in the 2012 proficiency test survey. The results of the 2012 survey were compared with those from 1999. Results from published RHD genotyping studies were analyzed to determine if RHD genotyping could improve current policies and practices for serological Rh typing. More than 3100 survey participants responded to the 2012 questions. The most significant finding was a decrease in the number of transfusion services performing a serological weak D test on patients as a strategy to manage those with a weak D as Rh negative (from 58.2% to 19.8%, P policies and practices could improve the accuracy of Rh typing results, reduce unnecessary administration of Rh immune globulin in women with a weak D, and decrease transfusion of Rh-negative red blood cells in most recipients with a serological weak D phenotype.

  3. Mental Health and Mental Disorder Recommendation Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchiwit, Manyat

    2017-12-01

    The characteristic differences among the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) countries in terms of trade and investment, society and cultural values, medical information and technology, and the living and working environment have become major health problems in terms of mental disorders. The purpose of this article is to identify the gaps in those aspects, to propose mental health and mental disorder recommendation programs, and to recommend policies for policy makers and research investors. A comparative analysis and literature review of existing policy, including overviews of previous research were used to generate a synthesis of the existing knowledge of the mental health and mental disorder recommendation programs. The review results recommend mental health and mental disorder programs for policy makers, research investors, and stakeholders in order to strengthen the directions for implementing these programs in the future. The healthcare provision in each country will not be limited only to its citizens; the healthcare markets and target groups are likely to expand to the neighboring countries in the context of changes in domestic and international factors, which have both positive and negative impacts according to the political, economic, and social situations of the influencing countries.

  4. Focusing on key development challenges

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    addresses today's pressing environmental, social, economic, and political challenges. It reflects continuity and change, balancing research in hard science with public policy concerns. We will implement changes to our program architecture on a rolling basis to reflect our focus on four broad themes. OUR PROGRAMS.

  5. Building Scientific Data's list of recommended data repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufton, A. L.; Khodiyar, V.; Hrynaszkiewicz, I.

    2016-12-01

    When Scientific Data launched in 2014 we provided our authors with a list of recommended data repositories to help them identify data hosting options that were likely to meet the journal's requirements. This list has grown in size and scope, and is now a central resource for authors across the Nature-titled journals. It has also been used in the development of data deposition policies and recommended repository lists across Springer Nature and at other publishers. Each new addition to the list is assessed according to a series of criteria that emphasize the stability of the resource, its commitment to principles of open science and its implementation of relevant community standards and reporting guidelines. A preference is expressed for repositories that issue digital object identifiers (DOIs) through the DataCite system and that share data under the Creative Commons CC0 waiver. Scientific Data currently lists fourteen repositories that focus on specific areas within the Earth and environmental sciences, as well as the broad scope repositories, Dryad and figshare. Readers can browse and filter datasets published at the journal by the host repository using ISA-explorer, a demo tool built by the ISA-tools team at Oxford University1. We believe that well-maintained lists like this one help publishers build a network of trust with community data repositories and provide an important complement to more comprehensive data repository indices and more formal certification efforts. In parallel, Scientific Data has also improved its policies to better support submissions from authors using institutional and project-specific repositories, without requiring each to apply for listing individually. Online resources Journal homepage: http://www.nature.com/scientificdata Data repository criteria: http://www.nature.com/sdata/policies/data-policies#repo-criteria Recommended data repositories: http://www.nature.com/sdata/policies/repositories Archived copies of the list: https

  6. Research recommendations [Chapter 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary; Alvin L. Medina; John N. Rinne

    2012-01-01

    This chapter contains a number of research recommendations that have developed from the 15 years of research on the UVR conducted by the Southwest Watershed Science Team, as well as from insights from key cooperators and contacts. It is meant to be our best insight as to where efforts should go now. Achieving these recommendations will depend on a number of factors,...

  7. Environmental education policy research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Jeppe; Feinstein, Noah Weeth; Blum, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This essay examines the relationship between research and policy and, more specifically, how researchers might relate to policy work. Given the current international policy focus on climate change, green growth and sustainability in general, it argues for strengthening and widening policy research...... in the areas of Environmental Education (EE), Education for Sustainable Development and Climate Change Education. It especially makes a case for two kinds of research on EE policy: (1) a multi-sited approach to empirical documentation and theory development which explores the relationships between...

  8. Determinants of evidence use in Public Health Policy making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van de Goor, Ien; Hämäläinen, Riitta-Maija; Syed, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    evidence, evidence on costs, and a lack of joint understanding were specific hindrances. Also users' characteristics and the role media play were identified as factors of influence. Attention for individual and social factors within the policy context might provide the key to enhance more sustainable......, lacking the most effective approaches, thus limiting the impact of health promotion strategies. This article focuses on facilitators and barriers in the use of evidence in developing health enhancing physical activity policies. Data was collected in 2012 by interviewing 86 key stakeholders from six EU...... evidence use. Developing and evaluating tailored approaches impacting on networking, personal relationships, collaboration and evidence coproduction is recommended....

  9. Classification of Recommender Expertise in the Wikipedia Recommender System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian D.; Pilkauskas, Povilas; Lefevre, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The Wikipedia is a web-based encyclopedia, written and edited collaboratively by Internet users. The Wikipedia has an extremely open editorial policy that allows anybody, to create or modify articles. This has promoted a broad and detailed coverage of subjects, but also introduced problems relating...... to the quality of articles. The Wikipedia Recommender System (WRS) was developed to help users determine the credibility of articles based on feedback from other Wikipedia users. The WRS implements a collaborative filtering system with trust metrics, i.e., it provides a rating of articles "which emphasizes...... in the Wikipedia. In this paper, we examine different ways to classify the subject area of Wikipedia article according to well established knowledge classification schemes. We identify a number of requirements that a classification scheme must meet in order to be useful in the context of the WRS and present...

  10. Sustainability transition dynamics: Towards overcoming policy resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooyert, V. de; Rouwette, E.A.J.A.; Kranenburg, H.L. van; Freeman, R.E.; Breen, H.J. van

    2016-01-01

    Sustainability transitions receive major scholarly attention, often explicitly with the intention to develop policy recommendations aimed towards progressing such transitions. Despite these efforts, many implemented transition policies have not been able to meet expectations. This tendency of

  11. The growth and development of gerontological nurse leaders in policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, G Adriana; Mason, Diana J; Harden, J Taylor; Cortes, Tara A

    2017-11-03

    The National Hartford Center of Gerontological Nursing Excellence (NHCGNE) Scholars/Fellows Award Program was designed to promote the growth and development of nurse scientists, educators, and leaders in aging. McBride's conceptual framework of the growth and development of nurse leaders was used to examine the NHCGNE impact on health and aging policy work among scholars/fellows, including barriers, facilitators, and resources. A multimethod two-phased approach included an online survey (phase I) focused on research and policy impact at local, state, or national level. Telephone interviews (phase II) were conducted to further understand the nature, depth, and focus of respondents' policy work. Based on our findings, we propose multilevel recommendations for advancing nurse scientists' capacity to be leaders in shaping policy. Keen research skills are influential in policy advancement but not sufficient to advance policy. Preparing nurse scientists with competencies in translating research into policy can ultimately transform health and health care for older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Recommender Systems for Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Manouselis, Nikos; Verbert, Katrien; Duval, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Technology enhanced learning (TEL) aims to design, develop and test sociotechnical innovations that will support and enhance learning practices of both individuals and organisations. It is therefore an application domain that generally covers technologies that support all forms of teaching and learning activities. Since information retrieval (in terms of searching for relevant learning resources to support teachers or learners) is a pivotal activity in TEL, the deployment of recommender systems has attracted increased interest. This brief attempts to provide an introduction to recommender systems for TEL settings, as well as to highlight their particularities compared to recommender systems for other application domains.

  13. Collection Development Policies in Community College Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesling, Chris Fowler

    2003-01-01

    Emphasizes the need for collection development policy in community college academic libraries. Highlights areas of resource sharing, community analysis, and collection assessment. Also provides an overview of how to create a collection for development policy, and recommends books on writing such policy. Includes model policy statements. (NB)

  14. Genetic testing in asymptomatic minors: background considerations towards ESHG Recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borry, Pascal; Evers-Kiebooms, Gerry; Cornel, Martina C

    2009-01-01

    Although various guidelines and position papers have discussed, in the past, the ethical aspects of genetic testing in asymptomatic minors, the European Society of Human Genetics had not earlier endorsed any set of guidelines exclusively focused on this issue. This paper has served as a background...... document in preparation of the development of the policy recommendations of the Public and Professional Committee of the European Society of Human Genetics. This background paper first discusses some general considerations with regard to the provision of genetic tests to minors. It discusses the concept...... of best interests, participation of minors in health-care decisions, parents' responsibilities to share genetic information, the role of clinical genetics and the health-care system in communication within the family. Second, it discusses, respectively, the presymptomatic and predictive genetic testing...

  15. Global warming and options for China: energy and environmental policy profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Gan.

    1990-09-01

    This report attempts to give a comprehensive review of current perspectives on energy/environmental problems and policies in China during the last ten years. The second chapter serves as a starting point by giving a general background of the characteristics of economic development and major policy changes in China during the last ten years (1979-89). The third chapter analyzes the characteristics and problems of energy demand and supply in China by breaking down different economic sectors (industry, agriculture, transportation and residential/commercial sectors). The fourth chapter focuses on the problems of CO 2 emissions by giving a historical review of CO 2 emissions by linking up the impact of economic policies and political development in the country during 1950-89. The fifth chapter is mostly devoted to describing policy performance within government environmental policy-making and implementation in the last ten years. Finally, the report concludes by giving several policy recommendations. (Quittner)

  16. weHelp: A Reference Architecture for Social Recommender Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Swapneel; Arora, Nipun; Murphy, Christian; Kaiser, Gail

    2010-01-01

    Recommender systems have become increasingly popular. Most of the research on recommender systems has focused on recommendation algorithms. There has been relatively little research, however, in the area of generalized system architectures for recommendation systems. In this paper, we introduce weHelp : a reference architecture for social recommender systems - systems where recommendations are derived automatically from the aggregate of logged activities conducted by the system's users. Our architecture is designed to be application and domain agnostic. We feel that a good reference architecture will make designing a recommendation system easier; in particular, weHelp aims to provide a practical design template to help developers design their own well-modularized systems.

  17. Search and Recommendation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Toine

    2014-01-01

    In just a little over half a century, the field of information retrieval has experienced spectacular growth and success, with IR applications such as search engines becoming a billion-dollar industry in the past decades. Recommender systems have seen an even more meteoric rise to success with wide......-scale application by companies like Amazon, Facebook, and Netflix. But are search and recommendation really two different fields of research that address different problems with different sets of algorithms in papers published at distinct conferences? In my talk, I want to argue that search and recommendation...... are more similar than they have been treated in the past decade. By looking more closely at the tasks and problems that search and recommendation try to solve, at the algorithms used to solve these problems and at the way their performance is evaluated, I want to show that there is no clear black and white...

  18. Water SA: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. This journal publishes refereed, original work in all branches of water science, technology, engineering and policy. This includes: water resource development; the hydrological cycle; surface hydrology; geohydrology, hydropedology and hydrometeorology; limnology; freshwater and estuarine ecology; ...

  19. Microgrid Policy Review of Selected Major Countries, Regions, and Organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Min [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Marnay, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-11-30

    This report collects and reviews policies and regulations related to microgrid development, and is intended as a reference. The material is divided into three parts under five dimensions: interconnection, RD&D, tariff policy, other policies, and recommendations.

  20. Probabilistic approaches to recommendations

    CERN Document Server

    Barbieri, Nicola; Ritacco, Ettore

    2014-01-01

    The importance of accurate recommender systems has been widely recognized by academia and industry, and recommendation is rapidly becoming one of the most successful applications of data mining and machine learning. Understanding and predicting the choices and preferences of users is a challenging task: real-world scenarios involve users behaving in complex situations, where prior beliefs, specific tendencies, and reciprocal influences jointly contribute to determining the preferences of users toward huge amounts of information, services, and products. Probabilistic modeling represents a robus

  1. OARSI Clinical Trials Recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emery, C. A.; Roos, Ewa M.; Verhagen, E.

    2015-01-01

    the design, conduct and analytical approaches to RCTs evaluating the preventative effect of joint injury prevention strategies. Recommendations regarding the design, conduct, and reporting of RCTs evaluating injury prevention interventions were established based on the consensus of nine researchers...... regarding the research question, research design, study participants, randomization, baseline characteristics, intervention, outcome measurement, analysis, implementation, cost evaluation, reporting and future considerations including the impact on development of PTOA. Methodological recommendations...

  2. Energy policy after 2020 : Economic arguments to pursue energy policy for non-climate related reasons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocsis, V.; Koutstaal, P.; Tieben, B.; van Hout, M.; Hof, B.

    2012-01-01

    This research investigates the contribution of sustainable energy policy and energy saving policy to the public goals of energy policy in the Netherlands. Not surprisingly current discussion about sustainable energy policy focus on the contribution of energy policy to the goals of climate policy,

  3. Language Policy in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak-Lukanovic, Sonja; Limon, David

    2012-01-01

    The historical background, political changes, migration processes, EU membership and the current socio-linguistic situation have all influenced language policy and language planning in Slovenia. This article presents the most important aspects of language policy in Slovenia with a focus on the concept of linguistic diversity. The ethnic make-up of…

  4. Addressing tobacco use in homeless populations: recommendations of an expert panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Janet; Houston, Lisa; Anderson, Robert H; Maryman, Kristi

    2011-11-01

    A diverse group of panelists met for one day on October 21, 2009, in Washington, DC, for the purpose of addressing the high tobacco use prevalence rates in homeless populations; identifying appropriate policy, cessation practices and models for implementation in this population; and providing targeted recommendations for researchers, homeless service providers, tobacco control advocates, and policy makers. The panel was convened by Break Free Alliance, one of six national networks funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Office on Smoking and Health. The panelists worked through a process of problem identification, generation of responses, analysis and prioritization, development of recommendations, and arrival of final decisions reached by consensus. The resulting recommendations for addressing tobacco use in homeless populations focused on tobacco non-use policy implementation, cessation programming, and expansion of partnerships and collaborations between tobacco control advocates and social service providers. The panel also identified unanswered research questions that can serve to develop a framework for future initiatives to reduce tobacco use among homeless persons. The expert panel model serves as one approach for engaging nontraditional partners and building consensus among leaders from a variety of sectors to address tobacco use in special populations.

  5. Confronting a rising tide of eating disorders and obesity: treatment vs. prevention and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battle, E K; Brownell, K D

    1996-01-01

    Eating disorders and obesity are rising in prevalence and are problems of considerable public health significance. Prevailing treatments have a limited impact on public health because the disorders do not yield easily to intervention and because the treatments are costly and available to few. Shifting from a medical to a public health model argues for increased focus on both prevention and public policy. Research on prevention is in its early stages but must be aggressively pursued. Even less is known about policy, but recommendations are made to alter policy so that consumption of healthful foods increases, consumption of unhealthful foods decreases, and levels of physical activity are enhanced.

  6. Dietary behaviors related to cancer prevention among pre-adolescents and adolescents: the gap between recommendations and reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Mary C

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diet is thought to play an important role in cancer risk. This paper summarizes dietary recommendations for cancer prevention and compares these recommendations to the dietary behaviors of U.S. youth ages 8-18. Methods We identified cancer prevention-related dietary recommendations from key health organizations and assessed dietary consumption patterns among youth using published statistics from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the national Youth Risk Behavior Survey, and other supplemental sources. Results Cancer prevention guidelines recommend a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, recommend limiting sugary foods and beverages, red and processed meats, sodium, and alcohol, and recommend avoiding foods contaminated with carcinogens. However, youth typically do not meet the daily recommendations for fruit, vegetable, or whole grain consumption and are over-consuming energy-dense, sugary and salty foods. Conclusions A large discrepancy exists between expert recommendations about diet and cancer and actual dietary practices among young people and points to the need for more research to better promote the translation of science into practice. Future research should focus on developing and evaluating policies and interventions at the community, state and national levels for aligning the diets of youth with the evolving scientific evidence regarding cancer prevention.

  7. A Hybrid Recommender System Based on User-Recommender Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Heng-Ru; Min, Fan; He, Xu; Xu, Yuan-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Recommender systems are used to make recommendations about products, information, or services for users. Most existing recommender systems implicitly assume one particular type of user behavior. However, they seldom consider user-recommender interactive scenarios in real-world environments. In this paper, we propose a hybrid recommender system based on user-recommender interaction and evaluate its performance with recall and diversity metrics. First, we define the user-recommender interaction...

  8. The Strange Case of the Two Wootton Reports: What Can We Learn about the Evidence-Policy Relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Ann

    2012-01-01

    The contrasting careers of two government-sponsored commissions of inquiry in the late 1960s are the focus of this paper, which examines what can be learnt from them about the impact, or lack of impact, of such bodies on policy making. The Wootton Report on cannabis, published in 1968, had its recommendations rejected by the government that had…

  9. 76 FR 50500 - Request for Comments on the Draft Policy Statement on Volume Reduction and Low-Level Radioactive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... General Accounting Office (now U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO)) report that recommended that... publication of the 1981 Volume Reduction Policy Statement. Nuclear industry groups have also played a central... focus on volume reduction will extend the operational lifetime of the existing commercial low-level...

  10. Nordic Intervention Criteria for Nuclear or Radiological Emergencies. Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Recommendations of the Nordic radiation protection authorities on application of international criteria in a nuclear or radiological emergency in the Nordic countries are presented. The recommendations are focused on the generic intervention levels for various actions to protect members of the public and workers undertaking an intervention. Prompt precautionary actions for the near zones around the Finnish and Swedish nuclear power plants are defined. These actions are; preventive sheltering, iodine prophylaxis and precautionary evacuation. No special intervention levels for these precautionary actions have been set, because implementation of these actions is always based on very limited information about an accident. These actions can be initiated on a mere indication of possible release of radioactivity. The indication might be an alarm or any other predefined signal. Intervention level for actions to protect members of the public are based on the concept of avertable dose. They are in line with the international recommendations. With regard to iodine prophylaxis, a national approach is recommended due to different national policies of advance distribution of iodine tablets. The longer term intervention actions, temporary relocation and permanent resettlement, will be based not only on radiation protection factors but also on wider judgement of the overall situation. For that reason, no generic intervention levels, in terms of radiation dose, are recommended. The intervention levels for various protective actions are in the following table.Table 1. Generic intervention levels for actions to protect members of the public.Protective action. Generic intervention level as an avertable dose. Sheltering: 10 mSv within two days (effective dose); Iodine prophylaxis: National recommendations; Evacuation: 50 mSv within one week (effective dose); Temporary relocation: No predetermined intervention level; Permanent resettlement: No predetermined intervention level. Workers

  11. Dengue vaccine: WHO position paper, July 2016 - recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Health Organization

    2017-03-01

    This article presents the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommendations on the use of dengue vaccine excerpted from the WHO position paper on dengue vaccine published in the Weekly epidemiological Record in July 2016 (Dengue vaccine: WHO position paper, 2016) [1]. The current document is the first WHO position paper on dengue vaccination and focuses primarily on the available evidence concerning the only dengue vaccine to have been registered by National Regulatory Authorities. The position paper gives consideration to the epidemiological features of the disease and assesses the potential use of the vaccine for public health benefits. Footnotes to this paper provide a number of core references including references to grading tables that assess the quality of the scientific evidence, and to the evidence-to-recommendation table. In accordance with its mandate to provide guidance to Member States on health policy matters, WHO issues a series of regularly updated position papers on vaccines and combinations of vaccines against diseases that have an international public health impact. These papers are concerned primarily with the use of vaccines in large-scale immunization programmes; they summarize essential background information on diseases and vaccines, and conclude with WHO's current position on the use of vaccines in the global context. This paper reflects the recommendations of the WHO's Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) on immunization. Recommendations on the use of this dengue vaccine were discussed by SAGE in April 2016; evidence presented at that SAGE meeting can be accessed at: http://www.who.int/immunization/sage/previous/en/index.html. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Summary (and) recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report looks at the Health and Safety record at the Atomic Weapons Establishment at Aldermaston. The last outside report was by Pochin in 1978 which recommended that staffing for health physicists and maintenance staff should be increased and that some buildings where solid and liquid radioactive wastes were processed should be replaced. A new facility to process contaminated heavy equipment was also recommended. This report finds that none of the recommendations have been fully implemented. It also lists accidents, fires and worker contamination. It is concluded that some of the problems are that nuclear weapons production is inherently unsafe and cannot be made safe, that the secrecy surrounding the establishments' safety record is not good for improving it and finally the report calls for production at Aldermaston to be halted. (UK)

  13. Archetypal Game Recommender Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sifa, Rafet; Bauckhage, C.; Drachen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary users (players, consumers) of digital games have thousands of products to choose from, which makes nding games that t their interests challenging. Towards addressing this challenge, in this paper two dierent formulations of Archetypal Analysis for Top-L recommender tasks using implicit...... feedback are presented: factor- and neighborhood-oriented models. These form the rst application of rec- ommender systems to digital games. Both models are tested on a dataset of 500,000 users of the game distribution platform Steam, covering game ownership and playtime data across more than 3000 games....... Compared to four other recommender models (nearest neighbor, two popularity mod- els, random baseline), the archetype based models provide the highest recall rates showing that Archetypal Analysis can be successfully applied for Top-L recommendation purposes...

  14. Recommending Multidimensional Queries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacometti, Arnaud; Marcel, Patrick; Negre, Elsa

    Interactive analysis of datacube, in which a user navigates a cube by launching a sequence of queries is often tedious since the user may have no idea of what the forthcoming query should be in his current analysis. To better support this process we propose in this paper to apply a Collaborative Work approach that leverages former explorations of the cube to recommend OLAP queries. The system that we have developed adapts Approximate String Matching, a technique popular in Information Retrieval, to match the current analysis with the former explorations and help suggesting a query to the user. Our approach has been implemented with the open source Mondrian OLAP server to recommend MDX queries and we have carried out some preliminary experiments that show its efficiency for generating effective query recommendations.

  15. New Insulin Delivery Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, Anders H; Kreugel, Gillian; Grassi, Giorgio; Halimi, Serge; Hicks, Debbie; Hirsch, Laurence J; Smith, Mike J; Wellhoener, Regine; Bode, Bruce W; Hirsch, Irl B; Kalra, Sanjay; Ji, Linong; Strauss, Kenneth W

    2016-09-01

    Many primary care professionals manage injection or infusion therapies in patients with diabetes. Few published guidelines have been available to help such professionals and their patients manage these therapies. Herein, we present new, practical, and comprehensive recommendations for diabetes injections and infusions. These recommendations were informed by a large international survey of current practice and were written and vetted by 183 diabetes experts from 54 countries at the Forum for Injection Technique and Therapy: Expert Recommendations (FITTER) workshop held in Rome, Italy, in 2015. Recommendations are organized around the themes of anatomy, physiology, pathology, psychology, and technology. Key among the recommendations are that the shortest needles (currently the 4-mm pen and 6-mm syringe needles) are safe, effective, and less painful and should be the first-line choice in all patient categories; intramuscular injections should be avoided, especially with long-acting insulins, because severe hypoglycemia may result; lipohypertrophy is a frequent complication of therapy that distorts insulin absorption, and, therefore, injections and infusions should not be given into these lesions and correct site rotation will help prevent them; effective long-term therapy with insulin is critically dependent on addressing psychological hurdles upstream, even before insulin has been started; inappropriate disposal of used sharps poses a risk of infection with blood-borne pathogens; and mitigation is possible with proper training, effective disposal strategies, and the use of safety devices. Adherence to these new recommendations should lead to more effective therapies, improved outcomes, and lower costs for patients with diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Latin America Regional Seminar 'Civil-Military Responses to Terrorism' Group Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Shemella, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Given the high degree of cultural continuity in the region, we recommend proposing a common definition of terrorism to guide national policy formulation for responding to terrorist activities. We further recommend...

  17. Manpower Policy and Programmes in Canada. Reviews of Manpower and Social Policies No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This report describes the Canadian labor force and economic climate, and the employment and manpower policies which comprise Canada's active manpower policy. Expanded programs for vocational and technical training are recommended, especially for unemployed youth. (BH)

  18. Comparing Alcohol Marketing and Alcohol Warning Message Policies Across Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettlaufer, Ashley; Cukier, Samantha N; Giesbrecht, Norman

    2017-08-24

    In order to reduce harms from alcohol, evidence-based policies are to be introduced and sustained. To facilitate the dissemination of policies that reduce alcohol-related harms by documenting, comparing, and sharing information on effective alcohol polices related to restrictions on alcohol marketing and alcohol warning messaging in 10 Canadian provinces. Team members developed measurable indicators to assess policies on (a) restrictions on alcohol marketing, and (b) alcohol warning messaging. Indicators were peer-reviewed by three alcohol policy experts, refined, and data were collected, submitted for validation by provincial experts, and scored independently by two team members. The national average score was 52% for restrictions on marketing policies and 18% for alcohol warning message policies. Most provinces had marketing regulations that went beyond the federal guidelines with penalties for violating marketing regulations. The provincial liquor boards' web pages focused on product promotion, and there were few restrictions on sponsorship activities. No province has implemented alcohol warning labels, and Ontario was the sole province to have legislated warning signs at all points-of-sale. Most provinces provided a variety of warning signs to be displayed voluntarily at points-of-sale; however, the quality of messages varied. Conclusions/Importance: There is extensive alcohol marketing with comparatively few messages focused on the potential harms associated with alcohol. It is recommended that governments collaborate with multiple stakeholders to maximize the preventive impact of restrictions on alcohol marketing and advertising, and a broader implementation of alcohol warning messages.

  19. Future nuclear energy policy - the West German enquete commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, J.

    1982-01-01

    The fast breeder prototype SNR 300, under construction, was repeatedly one focus of the nuclear energy debate in West Germany. As part of a political bargaining process the parliamentary enquete commission 'Future nuclear energy policy' was established consisting of members of parliament and scientific experts. It was to propose recommendations on how to deal with the fast breeder reactor in the future. But also, in a wider context, it was to assess the pros and cons of different energy policy options and to find a viable way out of the nuclear stalemate. The genesis, working process, recommendations, procedures and political context of the commission are described and its significance for and probable impacts on the energy controversy are discussed. (author)

  20. Recommendations for Alternative Credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenderman, Ed; And Others

    Following a review of the mathematics topics taught in accounting, electronics, auto, food and clothing, and metals courses at Linn-Benton Community College, Albany, Oregon, recommendations were made to grant one semester of mathematics credit for completing a two-year sequence of these courses. The other required semester of mathematics should be…

  1. Privacy in Recommender Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeckmans, Arjan; Beye, Michael; Erkin, Zekeriya; Erkin, Zekeriya; Hartel, Pieter H.; Lagendijk, Reginald; Tang, Qiang; Ramzan, Naeem; van Zwol, Roelof; Lee, Jong-Seok; Clüver, Kai; Hua, Xian-Sheng

    In many online applications, the range of content that is offered to users is so wide that a need for automated recommender systems arises. Such systems can provide a personalized selection of relevant items to users. In practice, this can help people find entertaining movies, boost sales through

  2. Privacy enhanced recommender system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkin, Zekeriya; Erkin, Zekeriya; Beye, Michael; Veugen, Thijs; Lagendijk, Reginald L.

    2010-01-01

    Recommender systems are widely used in online applications since they enable personalized service to the users. The underlying collaborative filtering techniques work on user’s data which are mostly privacy sensitive and can be misused by the service provider. To protect the privacy of the users, we

  3. Chapter 10: Management recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Janie Agyagos; Tracy McCarthey; Robert M. Marshall; Scott H. Stoleson; Mary J. Whitfield

    2000-01-01

    This chapter was developed over a series of meetings using a group-consensus process. Our recommendations are based on published results, on information compiled in the previous chapters, on expert opinion, and on unpublished data of conservation team members. This chapter is available as temporary guidance until the Recovery Plan for the southwestern willow flycatcher...

  4. Booklet for sub-national stakeholders heading towards the COP 21. Agricultural and forestry focus. Key concepts on the impacts of climate change, climate policies and economic tools: insight from French territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depoues, Vivian; Leseur, Alexia; Bordier, Cecile; Foucherot, Claudine; Lacan, Lea; Planton, Serge; Blanchard, Michele; Lemonsu, Aude; Martin, Eric; Masson, Valery; Soubeyroux, Jean-Michel; Ouzeau, Gaelle; Dandin, Philippe; Pigeon, Gregoire; Duvernoy, Jerome; Mondon, Sylvain; Bodiguel, Aude; Gouthiere, Laurence; Martin-Phipps, Cecile; Archambault, Sabrina; Joubert, Marion; Madariaga, Nicole; Coste, Marie-Alexandra; Viguie, Vincent; Avner, Paolo; Cassen, Christophe; Guivarch, Celine; Salagnac, Jean-Luc; Carrega, Marie; Menager, Yann

    2015-11-01

    This report, released in the year of the Paris Climate 2015 summit (COP21), reviews concepts vital for understanding and acting to address climate change at a regional level. Based on the experience of French territories it presents 37 fact-sheets aimed at local players, providing concise and informative access to the most up-to-date knowledge. It also offers feedback on the impacts of climate change, climate policies at a global, European and French level, and economic tools supporting climate change mitigation and adaptation

  5. Recommendations to improve the National Development Plan for Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jager, Pieter; Hofman, Karen; Khan, Taskeen; Volmink, Heinrich; Jina, Ruxana

    2012-09-07

    In November 2011, a draft National Development Plan (NDP) was released that addresses two of South Africa's major challenges: poverty and inequity. Health and economic development are interdependent, presenting an important opportunity through the NDP to integrate health within goals of broader socio-economic development. Reviewing the NDP identified gaps based on evidence and the epidemiological risk profile of South Africa. Recommendations to improve the NDP and to deal with poverty and inequity should focus on prevention and addressing the social determinants of health, including: (i) a multisectoral approach to establish a comprehensive early childhood development programme; (ii) fiscal and legislative policies to bolster efforts to reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases; (iii) promoting and maintaining a healthy workforce; (iv) and promoting a culture of evidence-based priority setting. Achieving the goal of 'a long and healthy life for all South Africans' will require healthy public policies, well functioning institutional and physical infrastructure, social solidarity, and an active and conscientious civil society.

  6. Innovation and the policy environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Derek; Hamann, Karen

    This report summarises discussions with a small number of meat industry firms about the effects of policy on their innovation activities, and their recommendations for future policy changes. Although firms, like researchers and policymakers, lack strong definitions and measurement procedures...... for innovation, they were able to list and describe their innovation processes and outcomes. Firms expressed some dissatisfaction with innovation policy, and were able to make a number of recommendations for change. Notably, this included its linkage to an overall strategy that emphasises international...

  7. High School Students' Recommendations to Improve School Food Environments: Insights From a Critical Stakeholder Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Yuka; Hughes, Alejandro G; Read, Margaret; Schwartz, Marlene B; Chriqui, Jamie F

    2017-11-01

    The Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFKA) directed the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) to revise school meal standards. Students are most affected by efforts to improve the school food environment; yet, few studies directly include students. This study examined high school students' experiences of school meal reform to gain insight into implementation recommendations. We conducted 5 focus groups with high school students (N = 15) from high schools across 9 states. We also conducted follow-up interviews to further explore personal experiences. Focus groups and interview transcripts were coded and organized in Atlas.ti v7 by analysts, following principles of constant comparative analysis. Students reported overall positive perceptions of the revised school meal standards and supported continued efforts to improve the food environment. Recommendations to improve the food environment included engaging students, focusing on the quality and palatability of meal items, moving toward scratch-cooking, and addressing cafeteria infrastructure. Students' recommendations point to opportunities where school districts, as well as local, state, and federal organizations can work to improve the school food environment. Their insights are directly relevant to USDA's recently released Local School Wellness Policy final rule, of which school meal standards are one provision. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  8. OARSI Clinical Trials Recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, V B; Blanco, F J; Englund, M

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to describe requirements for inclusion of soluble biomarkers in osteoarthritis (OA) clinical trials and progress toward OA-related biomarker qualification. The Guidelines for Biomarkers Working Group, representing experts in the field of OA biomarker research from...... both academia and industry, convened to discuss issues related to soluble biomarkers and to make recommendations for their use in OA clinical trials based on current knowledge and anticipated benefits. This document summarizes current guidance on use of biomarkers in OA clinical trials...... and their utility at five stages, including preclinical development and phase I to phase IV trials. As demonstrated by this summary, biomarkers can provide value at all stages of therapeutics development. When resources permit, we recommend collection of biospecimens in all OA clinical trials for a wide variety...

  9. User Controllability in a Hybrid Recommender System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra Santander, Denis Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Since the introduction of Tapestry in 1990, research on recommender systems has traditionally focused on the development of algorithms whose goal is to increase the accuracy of predicting users' taste based on historical data. In the last decade, this research has diversified, with "human factors" being one area that has received…

  10. Farmers\\' Characteristics And Adoption Of Recommended Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study focused on farmers under the fadama project scheme in Edo State, Nigeria with emphasis on the relationship between farmers\\' characteristics and adoption of recommended technologies. Analyses of data obtained from a random sample of 80 respondents reveals that fadama farming was dominated by females ...

  11. Recommending audio mixing workflows

    OpenAIRE

    Sauer, Christian; Roth-Berghofer, Thomas; Auricchio, Nino; Proctor, Sam

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes our work on Audio Advisor, a workflow recommender for audio mixing. We examine the process of eliciting, formalising and modelling the domain knowledge and expert’s experience. We are also describing the effects and problems associated with the knowledge formalisation processes. We decided to employ structured case-based reasoning using the myCBR 3 to capture the vagueness encountered in the audio domain. We detail on how we used extensive similarity measure modelling to ...

  12. Personalized recommendation based on unbiased consistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuzhen; Tian, Hui; Zhang, Ping; Hu, Zheng; Zhou, Tao

    2015-08-01

    Recently, in physical dynamics, mass-diffusion-based recommendation algorithms on bipartite network provide an efficient solution by automatically pushing possible relevant items to users according to their past preferences. However, traditional mass-diffusion-based algorithms just focus on unidirectional mass diffusion from objects having been collected to those which should be recommended, resulting in a biased causal similarity estimation and not-so-good performance. In this letter, we argue that in many cases, a user's interests are stable, and thus bidirectional mass diffusion abilities, no matter originated from objects having been collected or from those which should be recommended, should be consistently powerful, showing unbiased consistence. We further propose a consistence-based mass diffusion algorithm via bidirectional diffusion against biased causality, outperforming the state-of-the-art recommendation algorithms in disparate real data sets, including Netflix, MovieLens, Amazon and Rate Your Music.

  13. Badali recommends simplified bills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2003-01-01

    A report on the variety of retail electricity bills across the province, authored by Salvatore Badali of Deloitte Consulting, was recently released by the Ontario Government. The report was commissioned by the Government to examine the underlying reasons for the significant format differences and the wide variation of fixed and variable charges among the approximately 95 local electricity distribution companies across the province. Regarding the appropriateness of the charges the report recommends common definitions for local distribution company (LDC) fixed and variable costs, and consideration of options for reducing LDC charges, mainly by consolidating the sector and sharing such services as customer billing, accounting and out sourcing operations. Seven recommendations deal with bill simplification. These include bills that are clear and easy to read and provide sufficient information for consumers to verify charges; promote energy conservation, e.g. by including historical information; allow comparisons between retail suppliers and distributors; accommodate revenue collection, marketing needs and other billing services. The report also recommends clearly defined and consistently used terminology for standardized line items, suggests ways to provide consumer information in a form useful for making energy conservation decisions, development of an LDC scorecard to enable stake holders to compare their own LDCs with LDCs around the province, creation of a conservation and bill calculation website, consideration of further use of shared services, and solutions to address the removal of line losses from invoices

  14. Conclusions and recommendations based on interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, B.

    1991-01-01

    This memorandum discusses five key issues that initial interviews have brought into focus: The preoccupation of the public with nuclear waste disposal, the credibility of public opinion polls addressing nuclear power, the unlikelihood of dramatic change in opinion by nuclear critics, difficulties in communicating technical concepts, and the problem of focussing narrowly or broadly on policy issues

  15. Tendencies in applied policy research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sophie Danneris; Jensen, Tanja Dall

    2018-01-01

    Within the policy area addressing long-term unemployed individuals with health and social problems in addition to unemployment, we have witnessed three parallel developments over the last decades: The development of active labour market policies (ALMP) extending conditionality and economic...... incentives to the more vulnerable groups of unemployed individuals; of New Public Management (NMP) focused on increasing efficiency and lowering expenditures through performance measurement and standardization of procedures, and; of evidence based policy research (EBPR) that seek to support policy efforts...

  16. African Journal of Economic Policy: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The primary aim of this journal, an offshoot of the Trade Policy Research and Training Programme in Economics Department, University of Ibadan, is to provide a forum for development and equity on the African continent. It, therefore, welcomes well researched papers on the implications of a specific ...

  17. The challenges and recommendations of accessing to affected population for humanitarian assistance: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslehi, Shandiz; Fatemi, Farin; Mahboubi, Mohammad; Mozafarsaadati, Hossein; Karami, Shirzad

    2014-11-17

    Access to affected people pays an important role in United Nation Organization for Coordination and Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). The aim of this article is to identify the main obstacles of humanitarian access and the humanitarian organization responses to these obstacles and finally suggest some recommendations and strategies. In this narrative study the researchers searched in different databases. This study focused on the data from five countries in the following areas: access challenges and constraints to affected population and response strategies selected for operations in the affected countries by humanitarian organizations. Three main issues were studied: security threats, bureaucratic restrictions and indirect constraint, which each of them divided to three subcategories. Finally, nine related subcategories emerged from this analysis. Most of these constraints relate to political issues. Changes in policy structures, negotiations and advocacy can be recommended to solve most of the problems in access issues.

  18. A Food Systems Approach To Healthy Food And Agriculture Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Roni A; Merrigan, Kathleen; Wallinga, David

    2015-11-01

    Food has become a prominent focus of US public health policy. The emphasis has been almost exclusively on what Americans eat, not what is grown or how it is grown. A field of research, policy, and practice activities addresses the food-health-agriculture nexus, yet the work is still often considered "alternative" to the mainstream. This article outlines the diverse ways in which agriculture affects public health. It then describes three policy issues: farm-to-school programming, sustainability recommendations in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, and antibiotic use in animal agriculture. These issues illustrate the progress, challenges, and public health benefits of taking a food systems approach that brings together the food, agriculture, and public health fields. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  19. Population policies and reproductive patterns in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, A; Hoa, H T; Lap, N T; Diwan, V; Eriksson, B

    1996-06-01

    Vietnam's population policy since the 1980s had stipulated a limit on family size to two children, born 3-5 years apart, and recommends a minimum age of 19 for the mother of a first child. We analysed trends in the timing of marriages and births, and in fertility and abortion rates, among women born between 1945 and 1970, to assess the impact of these policies on reproductive patterns. Reproductive histories were recorded in a random sample of 1432 married women aged 15-49 in a rural province in northern Vietnam. Mean age at marriage and at birth of the first child, birth intervals, fertility, and abortion rates were examined in relation to the woman's year of birth. Later-born women married and had their first child at a younger age than women born earlier. Birth intervals had increased among later-born women but 25% still had only a 1-year interval between first and second child. Fertility had gradually decreased while abortion ratios had increased rapidly. Childbearing patterns had become "earlier, longer, and fewer" rather than "later, longer, and fewer" as stipulated by the policies. The results also show that women with more schooling married and had their first child later. Women involved in farming had shorter spacing between children. There are signs that Vietnam's population policy has focused too strongly on contraception and abortion while ignoring the connection between fertility and women's opportunities for education and employment. In these respects, rural women are at particular risk.

  20. Analysis of Spanish generic medicines retail market: recommendations to enhance long-term sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dylst, Pieter; Vulto, Arnold G; Simoens, Steven

    2014-06-01

    The use of generic medicines in Spain is traditionally low compared to other European countries, despite efforts of the Spanish government in the past. This paper provides a perspective on the Spanish generic medicines retail market and how the current policy environment may affect the long-term sustainability. The Spanish government's focus on prices of generic medicines (e.g., mandatory price cuts, reference price set at the lowest level) have made them amongst the lowest in Europe. In our opinion, this combination of continuous pressure on prices and limited diffusion of generic medicines may undermine the long-term sustainability of the Spanish generic medicines retail market. The unique experience in Spain shows the impact of demand-side policies on the use of generic medicines. Because a sustainable generic medicines retail market is important to maintain future competition in the off-patent medicines market, this perspective paper rounds off with recommendations to increase its sustainability.

  1. The formation of ‘policy truths’: Foucault and social policy discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Pickerden, Alex; Evans, Donna; Piggott, David

    2015-01-01

    Discuss current approaches to policy analysis Illustrate an alternative method for policy analysis influenced by the theoretical concepts of Michel Foucault Briefly analyse current research which has focused upon education policy and education reform in the United Kingdom (UK) Introduce the concept of ‘policy truths’ and explain how this idea can aid in the critique of neoliberal policies and neoliberal governmentality

  2. Structural Volatility in Mexico: A Policy Report

    OpenAIRE

    Caballero, Ricardo J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper surveys Mexico`s economic weaknesses and provides related policy recommendations. Current problems include weak international financial links and external conditions, a recurrent credit crunch and financial underdevelopment problem, with particularly fragile banks, a weak fiscal situation, due to extreme vulnerability to internal and external shocks, and a latent monetary policy credibility problem. The paper`s policy recommendations include improving external financial links, redu...

  3. ICRS Recommendation Document

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Ewa M.; Engelhart, Luella; Ranstam, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    and function evaluated for validity and psychometric properties in patients with articular cartilage lesions. Results: The knee-specific instruments, titled the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form and the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis and Outcome Score, both fulfill the basic......, and confirmatory longitudinal studies are needed prior to recommending this scale for use in cartilage repair. Inclusion of a generic measure is feasible in cartilage repair studies and allows analysis of health-related quality of life and health economic outcomes. The Marx or Tegner Activity Rating Scales...

  4. Policy Pathways: Joint Public-Private Approaches for Energy Efficiency Finance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    This Policy Pathway outlines, through the experiences and lessons learned from country examples, the critical elements to put in place a public-private partnership to finance energy efficiency. It focuses on three mechanisms - dedicated credit lines, risk guarantees, and energy performance service contracts and presents the planning, implementing, monitoring, and evaluating phases of implemention. Accelerating and scaling up private investment in energy efficiency is crucial to exploit the potential of energy efficiency. However many barriers remain to private investment such as access to capital, uncertainty of future energy prices, transaction costs, perceived higher risk, and lack of knowledge. As part of the IEA 25 Energy Efficiency Policy Recommendations, the IEA recommends that governments support private investment in energy efficiency. A joint public-private approach can use public finance and regulatory policy to support the scaling up of private investment in energy efficiency.

  5. Do current European policies support soil multifunctionality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helming, Katharina; Glaesner, Nadia; de Vries, Wim

    2017-04-01

    Soils are multifunctional. Maximising one function, e.g. production of biomass, is often at the costs of the other functions, e.g. water purification, carbon sequestration, nutrient recycling, habitat provision. Sustainable soil management actually means the minimization of trade-offs between multiple soil functions. While Europe does not have a policy that explicitly focuses on soil functions, a number of policies exist in the agricultural, environmental and climate domains that may affect soil functions, in particular food production, water purification, climate change mitigation, biodiversity conservation. The objective of this study was to identify gaps and overlaps in existing EU legislation that is related to soil functions. We conducted a cross-policy analysis of 19 legislative policies at European level. Results revealed two key findings: (i) soil functions are addressed in existing legislation but with the approach to their conservation rather than their improvement. (ii) Different legislations addressed isolated soil functions but there is no policy in place that actually addressed the soil multifunctionality, which is the integrated balancing of the multitude of functions. Because soil degradation is ongoing in Europe, it raises the question whether existing legislation is sufficient for maintaining soil resources and achieving sustainable soil management. Addressing soil functions individually in various directives fails to account for the multifunctionality of soil. Here, research has a role to play to better reveal the interacting processes between soil functions and their sensitivity to soil management decisions and to translate such understanding into policy recommendation. We conclude the presentation with some insights into a research approach that integrates the soil systems into the socio-economic systems to improve the understanding of soil management pressures, soil functional reactions and their impacts on societal value systems, including

  6. Ebola virus: recommendations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Medical Service

    2014-01-01

    The CERN Medical Service has been closely following, in particular via the WHO, the development of the Ebola virus outbreak currently affecting some African countries. This infectious disease may be passed on through direct contact with the bodily fluids of a sick person.   Based on the recommendations of the WHO and the two Host States, Switzerland and France, as updated on their respective websites, so far there has been no ban on travel to the countries concerned. However, unless it is absolutely essential, you are advised not to visit any of the countries affected by Ebola (Guinea, Republic of Sierra Leone, Liberia, Nigeria). The two Host States have established an alert system, and a check is carried out on departure from the airports of those countries. It is strongly recommended that you contact the Medical Service if you are travelling to those countries. We remind you to observe the basic rules of hygiene such as frequent hand washing, whatever your destination. The Medical Service is...

  7. Screening mammography beliefs and recommendations: a web-based survey of primary care physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmeen Shagufta

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The appropriateness and cost-effectiveness of screening mammography (SM for women younger than 50 and older than 74 years is debated in the clinical research community, among health care providers, and by the American public. This study explored primary care physicians' (PCPs perceptions of the influence of clinical practice guidelines for SM; the recommendations for SM in response to hypothetical case scenarios; and the factors associated with perceived SM effectiveness and recommendations in the US from June to December 2009 before the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF recently revised guidelines. Methods A nationally representative sample of 11,922 PCPs was surveyed using a web-based questionnaire. The response rate was 5.7% (684; (41% 271 family physicians (FP, (36% 232 general internal medicine physicians (IM, (23% 150 obstetrician-gynaecologists (OBG, and (0.2% 31 others. Cross-sectional analysis examined PCPs perceived effectiveness of SM, and recommendation for SM in response to hypothetical case scenarios. PCPs responses were measured using 4-5 point adjectival scales. Differences in perceived effectiveness and recommendations for SM were examined after adjusting for PCPs specialty, race/ethnicity, and the US region. Results Compared to IM and FP, OBG considered SM more effective in reducing breast cancer mortality among women aged 40-49 years (p = 0.003. Physicians consistently recommended mammography to women aged 50-69 years with no differences by specialty (p = 0.11. However, 94% of OBG "always recommended" SM to younger and 86% of older women compared to 81% and 67% for IM and 84% and 59% for FP respectively (p = p = Conclusions A majority of physicians, especially OBG, favour aggressive breast cancer screening for women from 40 through 79 years of age, including women with short life expectancy. Policy interventions should focus on educating providers to provide tailored recommendations for

  8. Mining and representing recommendations in actively evolving recommender systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assent, Ira

    2010-01-01

    Recommender systems provide an automatic means of filtering out interesting items, usually based on past similarity of user ratings. In previous work, we have suggested a model that allows users to actively build a recommender network. Users express trust, obtain transparency, and grow (anonymous......) recommender connections. In this work, we propose mining such active systems to generate easily understandable representations of the recommender network. Users may review these representations to provide active feedback. This approach further enhances the quality of recommendations, especially as topics...... of interest change over time. Most notably, it extends the amount of control users have over the model that the recommender network builds of their interests....

  9. Wind farm policy 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-03-01

    Argyll and Bute District Council, having received a number of planning applications for the erection of wind farms, seeks, in this document, to set out its environmental policy on these installations in line with national government guidelines and those from Strathclyde Regional Council. District Council policy on thirteen environmental issues connected with wind farm construction is set out, covering issues such as environmental impacts on wild-life, noise pollution, access for construction, maintenance and decommissioning vehicles as well as planning consent issues. Recommendations are made to four interested bodies, Strathclyde Regional Council, the Forestry Authority and Scottish Natural Heritage and the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds. (UK)

  10. Science and technology policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Who is responsible for environmental and technological policy in Denmark? And how are those "policy-makers" made accountable to the public for their decisions?   This report attempts to answer these important questions by presenting the Danish contribution to the EU-funded project, Analysing Public...... Accountability Procedures in Europe.   The first chapter presents Danish public accountability procedures and places them in historical perspective. The other chapters are case studies of genetically modified food, transport policy in the Copenhagen area with a focus on the Metro, and local waste management...

  11. Nutrition recommendations and science: next parallel steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogelholm, Mikael

    2016-03-15

    This article examines nutrition recommendations in relation to developments in nutrition science. Combining data on the genome, metabolome and microbiota is likely to open possibilities for personalized nutrition planning, but we are still far from practical applications. However, even these new steps are unlikely to challenge the role and importance of population-based nutrition recommendations as a tool to promote dietary patterns, policies and public health. Developments in science could help in deriving more benefits from nutrition recommendations. For instance, improved accuracy of dietary intake assessment is needed both for surveillance and for understanding the quantitative interplay between diet and health. Applying metabolomics together with food diaries or questionnaires, and also modern technologies such as digital photography, are potentially interesting methods in this respect. Research on consumer behaviour, attitudes and policy interventions, such as taxation of unhealthy foods and nutrition labelling, are needed to gain more insight into how to change eating behaviour for better health at the population level. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Tobacco Free * Japan: Recommendations for Tobacco Control Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Mochizuki-Kobayashi, Y; Samet, JM; Yamaguchi, N

    2004-01-01

    Worldwide, tobacco use is a leading cause of preventable disease and premature death. For a century, large corporations have manufactured and sold cigarettes, a highly, addictive tobacco product. Today, over 1 billion people smoke. In recent decades, as smoking has declined in developed countries, the multinational tobacco companies have aggressively sought new markets in the developing countries. In Japan, tobacco smoking is one of the main avoidable causes of disease and death. The...

  13. Relieving Consumer Overindebtedness in South Africa: Policy Reviews and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssebagala, Ralph Abbey

    2017-01-01

    A large fraction of South African consumers are highly leveraged, inadequately insured, and/or own little to no assets of value, which increases their exposure not only to idiosyncratic risk but also to severe indebtedness and/or default. This scenario can present negative ramifications that lead well beyond the confines of individual households.…

  14. Decarbonizing the international shipping industry : solutions and policy recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    el Makhloufi, A.

    2017-01-01

    Ship-source greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions could increase by up to 250% from 2012 levels by 2050 owing to increasing global freight volumes. Binding international legal agreements to regulate GHGs, however, are lacking as technical solutions remain expensive and crucial industrial support is absent.

  15. Islamic Fundamentalism in Egypt: U.S. Policy Recommendations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liberatore, Carla

    1994-01-01

    Islamic fundamentalism is frightening to many Americans. It immediately draws reminders of the American hostages in Iran, the Ayatollah Khomeni, and the bombing of the World Trade Center in New York...

  16. Recent developments in affective recommender systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katarya, Rahul; Verma, Om Prakash

    2016-11-01

    Recommender systems (RSs) are playing a significant role since 1990s as they provide relevant, personalized information to the users over the internet. Lots of work have been done in information filtering, utilization, and application related to RS. However, an important area recently draws our attention which is affective recommender system. Affective recommender system (ARS) is latest trending area of research, as publication in this domain are few and recently published. ARS is associated with human behaviour, human factors, mood, senses, emotions, facial expressions, body gesture and physiological with human-computer interaction (HCI). Due to this assortment and various interests, more explanation is required, as it is in premature phase and growing as compared to other fields. So we have done literature review (LR) in the affective recommender systems by doing classification, incorporate reputed articles published from the year 2003 to February 2016. We include articles which highlight, analyse, and perform a study on affective recommender systems. This article categorizes, synthesizes, and discusses the research and development in ARS. We have classified and managed ARS papers according to different perspectives: research gaps, nature, algorithm or method adopted, datasets, the platform on executed, types of information and evaluation techniques applied. The researchers and professionals will positively support this survey article for understanding the current position, research in affective recommender systems and will guide future trends, opportunity and research focus in ARS.

  17. National Innovation Policies in the EU: A Fuzzy-Set Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Pustovrh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that innovation policy research can benefit from utilizing new research methods as they might lead to different policy recommendations. It demonstrates this by using a set-theoretic fsQCA method to analyse the data on innovation policies in the European Union (EU. It shows that the use of correlation-based statistical methods is not appropriate for the evaluation of innovation policies due to their causally complex nature that correlational statistical methods cannot unravel. This paper demonstrates this by focusing on the special importance of linkages among actors and innovation commercialisation through entrepreneurship and the notion that they represent a necessary condition for innovation success. Results confirm that the single factor of Linkages & entrepreneurship is the necessary condition for innovation success, thus emphasizing the importance of an open innovation framework for innovation policy-making. Results also show three combinations of sufficient conditions (but no single factor lead to innovation success. They confirm the causal complexity of innovation policy and confirm that using different research methods will lead to different policy recommendations

  18. Renewable energy policy: Enumerating costs reduces support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evensen, Darrick

    2017-08-01

    Renewable energy policies enjoy greater support compared to policies focused explicitly on climate change, and thus present a politically plausible path toward carbon emission reduction. However, new research shows that renewable energy policy support declines when people are informed about the policy costs for home energy bills.

  19. Improving policy implementation through collaborative policymaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansell, Christopher; Sørensen, Eva; Torfing, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    We offer a fresh perspective on implementation problems by suggesting that collaborative policy design and adaptive policy implementation will help public policy makers to improve policy execution. Classical implementation theories have focused too narrowly on administrative stumbling blocks and ...... collaborative policymaking and adaptive policy implementation might work in theory and practice......We offer a fresh perspective on implementation problems by suggesting that collaborative policy design and adaptive policy implementation will help public policy makers to improve policy execution. Classical implementation theories have focused too narrowly on administrative stumbling blocks...... and New Public Management has reinforced the split between politics and administration. Attempts to improve policy implementation must begin by looking at policy design, which can be improved through collaboration and deliberation between upstream and downstream actors. We provide a broad overview of how...

  20. "Highly recommended introduction"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ask Vest

    2009-01-01

    by detachment, normatively and morally. Besides researching the actual abuse, individually and in aggregate, they also study structural circumstances that promote the use of drugs in sports; besides evaluations of the efficacy of the anti-doping efforts, they consider the effects of various anti-doping schemes...... on the integrity and privacy of the athletes. Ask Vest Christiansen, himself an internationally renowned scholar in the field, has read a recent, thus detached, introduction to drug use in sports, An Introduction to Drugs in Sport: Addicted to Winning by Ivan Waddington and Andy Smith (Routledge). Christiansen...... finds much to appreciate in the book, and a couple of disconcerting mistakes and misjudgments notwithstanding, he recommends the book as a solid introduction to the problem of doping – knowledgeable, well written and easy to read....

  1. Conclusions and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The FAO/IAEA/GSF/SIDA Co-ordinated Research Programme on Cereal Grain Protein Improvement by Nuclear Techniques was a follow-up to the FAO/IAEA/GSF Co-ordinated Research Programme on the Use of Nuclear Techniques for Seed Protein Improvement. It was initiated in 1969 and ended in 1981. The objectives of the meeting were to review and evaluate the achievements of the current and previous programmes in order to draw conclusions on the possibility of genetic improvement of cereal grain protein using nuclear techniques, to identify unsolved problems and to discuss and propose possible approaches for their solution. Through reviews and discussions, conclusions and recommendations were made by the participants

  2. Urgent recommendation. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Masayuki

    2000-01-01

    The Investigation Committee for Critical Accident at Uranium Processing Plant was founded immediately after the accident to investigate the cause of the accident and to establish measures to prevent the similar accident. On September 30, 1999 around 10:35, the Japan's first criticality accident occurred at JCO Co. Ltd. Uranium processing plant (auxiliary conversion plant) located at Tokai-mura Ibaraki-ken. The criticality continued on and off for approximately 20 hours after the first instantaneous criticality. The accident led the recommendation of tentative evacuation and sheltering indoors for residents living in the neighborhood. The serious exposure to neutrons happened to three workers. The dominant effect is dose due to neutrons and gamma rays from the precipitation tank. When the accident took place, three workers dissolved sequentially about 2.4 kg uranium powder with 18.8 % enrichment in the 10-litter bucket with nitric acid. The procedure of homogenization of uranium nitrate was supposed to be controlled using the shape-limited narrow storage column. Actually, however, the thick and large precipitation tank was used. As a result, about 16.6 kg of uranium was fed into the tank, which presumably caused criticality. The first notification by JCO was delayed and the following communication was not smooth. This led to the delay of correct understanding of the situation and made the initial proper response difficult, then followed by insufficient communication between the nation, prefecture, and local authority. Urgent recommendations were made on the following items; (1) Safety measures to be taken at the accident site, (2) health cares for residents and others, (3) Comprehensive safety securing at nuclear operators such as Establishment of the effective audit system, Safety education for employees and Qualification and licensing system, Safety related documents, etc. (4) Reconstruction of the government's safety regulations such as How safety regulation

  3. OARSI Clinical Trials Recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, J N; Losina, E; Lohmander, L S

    2015-01-01

    To highlight methodological challenges in the design and conduct of randomized trials of surgical interventions and to propose strategies for addressing these challenges. This paper focuses on three broad areas: enrollment; intervention; and assessment including implications for analysis. For each...... relating to obsolescence, fidelity of intervention delivery, and adherence and crossover. Assessment and analysis raise questions regarding blinding and clustering of observations. This paper describes methodological problems in the design and conduct of surgical randomized trials and proposes strategies...

  4. Illuminating the Decision Path: The Yucca Mountain Site Recommendation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, E.; Slothouber, L.

    2003-02-25

    On February 14, 2002, U.S. Secretary of Energy Spencer Abraham provided to the President the ''Recommendation by the Secretary of Energy Regarding the Suitability of the Yucca Mountain Site for a Repository Under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982.'' This Recommendation, along with supporting materials, complied with statutory requirements for communicating a site recommendation to the President, and it did more: in 49 pages, the Recommendation also spoke directly to the Nation, illuminating the methodology and considerations that led toward the decision to recommend the site. Addressing technical suitability, national interests, and public concerns, the Recommendation helped the public understand the potential risks and benefits of repository development and placed those risks and benefits in a meaningful national context.

  5. Recommendation in evolving online networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao; Zeng, An; Shang, Ming-Sheng

    2016-02-01

    Recommender system is an effective tool to find the most relevant information for online users. By analyzing the historical selection records of users, recommender system predicts the most likely future links in the user-item network and accordingly constructs a personalized recommendation list for each user. So far, the recommendation process is mostly investigated in static user-item networks. In this paper, we propose a model which allows us to examine the performance of the state-of-the-art recommendation algorithms in evolving networks. We find that the recommendation accuracy in general decreases with time if the evolution of the online network fully depends on the recommendation. Interestingly, some randomness in users' choice can significantly improve the long-term accuracy of the recommendation algorithm. When a hybrid recommendation algorithm is applied, we find that the optimal parameter gradually shifts towards the diversity-favoring recommendation algorithm, indicating that recommendation diversity is essential to keep a high long-term recommendation accuracy. Finally, we confirm our conclusions by studying the recommendation on networks with the real evolution data.

  6. The policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laruelle, Ph.; Snegaroff, Th.; Moreau, S.; Tellenne, C.; Brunel, S.

    2005-01-01

    Fourth chapter of the book on the geo-policy of the sustainable development, this chapter deal with the different and international policies concerned by the problem. The authors analyze the american energy attitude and policy, the economical equilibrium facing the environmental equilibrium for the european policy, the sanctified and sacrificed nature and the japanese attitude, India and China, the great fear of the 21 century and the sustainable development in Africa. (A.L.B.)

  7. The Effectiveness of Private Forest Institutional and Policy in Banjarnegara and Banyumas Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Fauziyah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to analyze the effectiveness of institusional and policy on private forest. The research was conducted in Banjarnegara and Banyumas Regency in August 2012 - May 2013. The methods used in this study are structured interview, open interview and Focus Group Discussion (FGD. Assessment of institutional effectiveness was done to government institutional, marketing institututional, and farmer institutional using recommended indicator namely: 1 user and resource boundaries, 2 appropriation and provision, 3 collective-choice arrangements, 4 monitoring, 5 graduated sanctions, 6 conflict-resolution mechanisms, and 7 recognition of appropriators’ rights to organize. The collected data were processed using likert scale and analyzed descriptively. The results showed that effectiveness of institutional in Kabupaten Banjarnegara and Banyumas Regency was moderate condition (quite effective. The effectiveness of private forest policy is seen from four policy viewpoints: policy accuracy, policy implementation, target accuracy, and environmental accuracy. Private forest policy in Kabupaten Banjarnegara is effective based on policy accuracy and environmental accuracy, while private forest policy in Banyumas Regency is effective based on target accuracy and environmental accuracy. This difference in assessment is due to the different of policy or program at the location according to the condition and the desire of community.

  8. Useful and usable alarm systems : recommended properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veland, Oeystein; Kaarstad, Magnhild; Seim, Lars Aage; Foerdestroemmen, Nils T.

    2001-01-01

    This document describes the result of a study on alarm systems conducted by IFE in Halden. The study was initiated by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate. The objective was to identify and formulate a set of important properties for useful and usable alarm systems. The study is mainly based on review of the latest international recognised guidelines and standards on alarm systems available at the time of writing, with focus on realistic solutions from research and best practice from different industries. In addition, IFE experiences gathered through specification and design of alarm systems and experimental activities in HAMMLAB and bilateral projects, have been utilized where relevant. The document presents a total of 43 recommendations divided into a number of general recommendations and more detailed recommendations on alarm generation, structuring, prioritisation, presentation and handling. (Author)

  9. Assistance Focus: Africa (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-12-01

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center Ask an Expert service connects governments seeking policy information and advice with one of more than 30 global policy experts who can provide reliable and unbiased quick-response advice and information. The service is available at no cost to government agency representatives from any country and the technical institutes assisting them. This publication presents summaries of assistance provided to African governments, including the benefits of that assistance.

  10. Urgent recommendation. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Masayuki [International Affairs and Safeguards Division, Atomic Energy Bureau, Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-12-01

    The Investigation Committee for Critical Accident at Uranium Processing Plant was founded immediately after the accident to investigate the cause of the accident and to establish measures to prevent the similar accident. On September 30, 1999 around 10:35, the Japan's first criticality accident occurred at JCO Co. Ltd. Uranium processing plant (auxiliary conversion plant) located at Tokai-mura Ibaraki-ken. The criticality continued on and off for approximately 20 hours after the first instantaneous criticality. The accident led the recommendation of tentative evacuation and sheltering indoors for residents living in the neighborhood. The serious exposure to neutrons happened to three workers. The dominant effect is dose due to neutrons and gamma rays from the precipitation tank. When the accident took place, three workers dissolved sequentially about 2.4 kg uranium powder with 18.8 % enrichment in the 10-litter bucket with nitric acid. The procedure of homogenization of uranium nitrate was supposed to be controlled using the shape-limited narrow storage column. Actually, however, the thick and large precipitation tank was used. As a result, about 16.6 kg of uranium was fed into the tank, which presumably caused criticality. The first notification by JCO was delayed and the following communication was not smooth. This led to the delay of correct understanding of the situation and made the initial proper response difficult, then followed by insufficient communication between the nation, prefecture, and local authority. Urgent recommendations were made on the following items; (1) Safety measures to be taken at the accident site, (2) health cares for residents and others, (3) Comprehensive safety securing at nuclear operators such as Establishment of the effective audit system, Safety education for employees and Qualification and licensing system, Safety related documents, etc. (4) Reconstruction of the government's safety regulations such as How safety

  11. National Recommended Water Quality Criteria

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Recommended Water Quality Criteria is a compilation of national recommended water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life and human health...

  12. Achieving efficiency in Africa: What are the priorities, the best practices and the policy measures?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fall, Latsoucabe

    2010-09-15

    Energy Efficiency (EE) improvements offer huge opportunities for Africa to meet growing energy needs, secure a more sustainable energy supply and demand, improve business productivity, preserve local environment and mitigate GHG emissions. The paper focuses on the ways and means to overcome the related challenges in order to reap the benefits of such improvements. It also identifies the priorities for Africa and provides responses on how to establish and implement effective policy-measures to enhance EE in African countries. Subsequently, it delivers key recommendations to help improve EE policies and practices and to implement national and regional measures of EE improvements.

  13. Site Recommendation Subsurface Layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C.L. Linden

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to develop a Subsurface Facility layout that is capable of accommodating the statutory capacity of 70,000 metric tons of uranium (MTU), as well as an option to expand the inventory capacity, if authorized, to 97,000 MTU. The layout configuration also requires a degree of flexibility to accommodate potential changes in site conditions or program requirements. The objective of this analysis is to provide a conceptual design of the Subsurface Facility sufficient to support the development of the Subsurface Facility System Description Document (CRWMS M andO 2000e) and the ''Emplacement Drift System Description Document'' (CRWMS M andO 2000i). As well, this analysis provides input to the Site Recommendation Consideration Report. The scope of this analysis includes: (1) Evaluation of the existing facilities and their integration into the Subsurface Facility design. (2) Identification and incorporation of factors influencing Subsurface Facility design, such as geological constraints, thermal loading, constructibility, subsurface ventilation, drainage control, radiological considerations, and the Test and Evaluation Facilities. (3) Development of a layout showing an available area in the primary area sufficient to support both the waste inventories and individual layouts showing the emplacement area required for 70,000 MTU and, if authorized, 97,000 MTU

  14. Focus group report, Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    The Waste Policy Institute, through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science and Technology (OST), conducted two focus groups with people who live or work near DOE sites. The purpose of the focus groups was to gain a better understanding of the general community's information needs about the development of innovative technologies that are used in the cleanup of the sites. The authors wanted to better understand of what role these people want to play in the development of new technologies, how OST communication products can help facilitate that role, and the usefulness of current OST communication products. WPI held the focus groups in communities near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the Savannah River Site (SRS) because they are among the DOE sites that cannot be cleaned up before 2006. To include many facets of the communities, WPI randomly selected participants from membership lists of organized groups in each community including: elected officials, school boards, unions, chambers of commerce, economic development organizations, environmental organizations, health and human service organizations, and area clergy. While in the communities, WPI also interviewed stakeholders such as tribal representatives and a Citizens Advisory Board (CAB) member. Qualitative data gathered during the focus group sessions give some indication of general stakeholder opinions. However, the authors caution readers not to make broad assumptions about the general stakeholder audience based on the opinions of a limited number of general community stakeholders

  15. Bridging science and health policy in cardiovascular disease: focus on lipid management: A Report from a Session held during the 7th International Symposium on Multiple Risk Factors in Cardiovascular Diseases: Prevention and Intervention--Health Policy, in Venice, Italy, on 25 October, 2008.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Atella, V

    2009-06-10

    In Europe, cardiovascular disease (CVD) represents the main cause of morbidity and mortality, costing countries euro 190 billion yearly (2006). CVD prevention remains unsatisfactory across Europe largely due to poor control of CVD risk factors (RFs), growing incidence of obesity and diabetes, and sedentary lifestyle\\/poor dietary habits. Hypercholesterolaemia is a proven CVD RF, and LDL-C lowering slows atherosclerotic progression and reduces major coronary events. Lipid-lowering therapy is cost-effective, and intensive treatment of high-risk patients further improves cost effectiveness. In Italy, models indicate that improved cholesterol management translates into potential yearly savings of euro 2.9-4 billion. Identifying and eliminating legislative and administrative barriers is essential to providing optimal lipid care to high-risk patients. Public health and government policy can influence clinical practice rapidly, and guideline endorsement via national health policy may reduce the CVD burden and change physician and patient behaviour. Action to reduce CVD burden should ideally include the integration of strategies to lower the incidence of major CV events, improvement in total CV risk estimation, database monitoring of CVD trends, and development of population educational initiatives on CVD prevention. Failure to bridge the gap between science and health policy, particularly in relation to lipid management, could result in missed opportunities to reverse the burgeoning epidemic of CVD in Europe.

  16. CERN anti-fraud policy

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, a working group on improved fraud prevention and management was established. The group was composed of the Director of Administration and General Infrastructure, the Head of the Human Resources Department, and the Heads of the Legal Service and Internal Audit. It recommended the adoption of a global fraud prevention and management policy.   The global fraud prevention and management policy was implemented through the CERN Anti-Fraud Policy, which was endorsed by the Enlarged Directorate in May 2012 and approved by the Director-General for entry into force on 1 January 2013. The CERN Anti-Fraud Policy defines the Organization’s policy in matters of fraud.  CERN has a zero tolerance approach towards fraud, as it would compromise the accomplishment of its objectives and undermine its functioning, credibility and reputation. The policy also states CERN’s commitment to the prevention, identification and investigation of fraud. All CERN contributors have a key rol...

  17. Focus on Fluorides: Update on the Use of Fluoride for the Prevention of Dental Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Clifton M.

    2014-01-01

    Declarative Title: Improving the efficacy of fluoride therapies reduces dental caries and lowers fluoride exposure. Background Fluoride is delivered to the teeth systemically or topically to aid in the prevention of dental caries. Systemic fluoride from ingested sources is in blood serum and can be deposited only in teeth that are forming in children. Topical fluoride is from sources such as community water, processed foods, beverages, toothpastes, mouthrinses, gels, foams, and varnishes. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the American Dental Association (ADA) have proposed changes in their long standing recommendations for the amount of fluoride in community drinking water in response to concerns about an increasing incidence of dental fluorosis in children. Current research is focused on the development of strategies to improve fluoride efficacy. The purpose of this update is to inform the reader about new research and policies related to the use of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries. Methods Reviews of the current research and recent evidence based systematic reviews on the topics of fluoride are presented. Topics discussed include: updates on community water fluoridation research and policies; available fluoride in dentifrices; fluoride varnish compositions, use, and recommendations; and other fluoride containing dental products. This update provides insights into current research and discusses proposed policy changes for the use of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries. Conclusions The dental profession is adjusting their recommendations for fluoride use based on current observations of the halo effect and subsequent outcomes. The research community is focused on improving the efficacy of fluoride therapies thus reducing dental caries and lowering the amount of fluoride required for efficacy. PMID:24929594

  18. Brownfields Recommendations for Sustainable Site Design — Green Landscape Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The assessment of conditions contained in this report focuses on site-specific environmental and soil conditions that might affect recommendations related to sustainable landscaping and site design, stormwater management, and stormwater reuse.

  19. New staff contract policy

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    Following discussion at TREF and on the recommendation of the Finance Committee, Council approved a new staff contract policy, which became effective on 1 January 2006. Its application is covered by a new Administrative Circular No. 2 (Rev. 3) 'Recruitment, appointment and possible developments regarding the contractual position of staff members'. The revised circular replaces the previous Circulars No. 9 (Rev. 3) 'Staff contracts' and No. 2 (Rev. 2) 'Guidelines and procedures concerning recruitment and probation period for staff members'. The main features of the new contract policy are as follows: The new policy provides chances for long-term employment for all staff recruits staying for four years without distinguishing between those assigned to long-term or short-term activities when joining CERN. In addition, it presents a number of simplifications for the award of ICs. There are henceforth only 2 types of contract: Limited Duration (LD) contracts for all recruitment and Indefinite Contracts (IC) for...

  20. Drinking culture of elderly Korean immigrants in Canada: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wooksoo

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the drinking culture of elderly Korean immigrants in Canada. Using a focus group approach, qualitative data were collected from 19 elderly Korean immigrants (14 men; 5 women) residing in Canada. Data were analyzed using the techniques of grounded theory. The findings indicated that elderly Korean immigrants did not dramatically change their understanding of drinking or their ways of drinking. Instead, they modified their drinking behavior in accordance with the social and legal environment of their new country. In particular, Canadian alcohol policies, including the higher cost of alcohol, lower accessibility, and strict law enforcement, discouraged excessive drinking. Policy implications and recommendations for future research are presented.

  1. The Planning Policy of Bilingualism in Education in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Huri Yaseen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Iraq as a multicultural and multilingual country has different languages as Arabic, which is the dominant language, and it also has some other minority languages, such as Kurdish, Turkish, Syriac....etc. Over the last 80 years, Iraq which was involved in some political struggles, had faced many internal problems regarding the Arabic domination that occurred, and this was owing to the absence of clear language policy used. Children learning in the Iraqi system, for instance, speak and study all courses in Arabic, while speaking and using their own culture at home tend to be done in their first language. The minorities’ language usage in Iraq was ignored both inside the schools as well as in the curriculum construction. So this study focuses on the following issues: the first issue is, What is the strategy of language planning policy in Iraq? the study discusses the strategy and the planning educational system that Iraq applies now, the second issue is, What is the status of minority languages in Iraq? Iraq is a multicultural county and has many minorities communities with different languages, the third issue is, What are the challenges of language in Iraq? as long as there is different languages within one country the study also focuses on the challenges that been faced in the planning policy system, and the last issue is, Is there a homogenous relationship during the current policy? How? the study shows the homogenous relationship inside the current policy and the researches give many suggestions and recommendations regarding to the current policy and what is needed for improving the educational planning policy system.

  2. Improving health through policies that promote active travel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Nazelle, Audrey; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Antó, Josep M

    2011-01-01

    Substantial policy changes to control obesity, limit chronic disease, and reduce air pollution emissions, including greenhouse gasses, have been recommended. Transportation and planning policies that promote active travel by walking and cycling can contribute to these goals, potentially yielding ...

  3. 78 FR 24749 - Health Information Technology Policy Committee Appointment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Health Information Technology Policy Committee Appointment AGENCY... Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) established the Health Information Technology Policy Committee to make recommendations on the implementation of a nationwide health information technology...

  4. Joint safety recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhofer, A.; Cogne, F.X.

    1996-01-01

    In 1992, the French utility EdF, a consortium of German utilities, and the vendor NPI, a joint venture of Siemens and Framatome, joint the efforts in developing an advanced reactor concept called EPR (European Pressurized water Reactor). Therefore, the French and German safety authorities decided to work out a common safety approach which has been laid down in the form of recommendations firstly drawn up by GRS and IPSN and then reviewed by the French and German Nuclear Safety commissions GPR and RSK. The main objective of this approach is the strengthening of accident prevention through optimization of defense-in-depth. Particular objectives are the improvement of plant behavior during transients, especially by increasing thermal inertia and the grace periods for interventions by the control room personnel, the reduction of the possibility of common cause failures, a further improvement of the man-machine interface, the simplification of the systems configuration, and the use of advanced information technology. These objectives are similar to those of many other evolutionary rector concepts. Regarding severe accidents, the French-German approach surpasses current evolutionary developments. One of the fundamental aims is the practical elimination of accidents situations which would lead to large early releases such as containment bypass, shutdown states and open containment building, reactivity accidents, high pressure core melt, depressurization of the RPV or global hydrogen detonation. The dual concept of 'practical elimination' of scenarios or phenomena and of 'dealing with them' is essential for the consistency of the approach and the safety demonstration. This would be expressed by no permanent relocation, no need for emergency evacuation outside the immediate vicinity of the plant, limited sheltering and no long-term restriction in the consumption of food. Such a reduction of radioactive release implies a substantial improvement of the containment function

  5. [Recommendations for neonatal transport].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Hernando, J; Thió Lluch, M; Salguero García, E; Rite Gracia, S; Fernández Lorenzo, J R; Echaniz Urcelay, I; Botet Mussons, F; Herranz Carrillo, G; Sánchez Luna, M

    2013-08-01

    During pregnancy, it is not always possible to identify maternal or foetal risk factors. Infants requiring specialised medical care are not always born in centres providing intensive care and will need to be transferred to a referral centre where intensive care can be provided. Therefore Neonatal Transport needs to be considered as part of the organisation of perinatal health care. The aim of Neonatal Transport is to transfer a newborn infant requiring intensive care to a centre where specialised resources and experience can be provided for the appropriate assessment and continuing treatment of a sick newborn infant. Intrauterine transfer is the ideal mode of transport when the birth of an infant with risk factors is diagnosed. Unfortunately, not all problems can be detected in advance with enough time to safely transfer a pregnant woman. Around 30- 50% of risk factors will be diagnosed during labour or soon after birth. Therefore, it is important to have the knowledge and resources to resuscitate and stabilise a newborn infant, as well as a specialised neonatal transport system. With this specialised transport it is possible to transfer newly born infants with the same level of care that they would receive if they had been born in a referral hospital, without increasing their risks or affecting the wellbeing of the newborn. The Standards Committee of the Spanish Society of Neonatology reviewed and updated recommendations for intrauterine transport and indications for neonatal transfer. They also reviewed organisational and logistic factors involved with performing neonatal transport. The Committee review included the type of personnel who should be involved; communication between referral and receiving hospitals; documentation; mode of transport; equipment to stabilise newly born infants; management during transfer, and admission at the referral hospital. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. The Pedagogy of Education Policy Formulation: Working from Policy Assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack, Richard; Marope, Mmantsetsa

    2007-01-01

    This article explores a "pedagogical" approach to education policy formulation in developing countries. This constitutes a process that shows promise in promoting the "ownership" necessary for sustainable policies and programs, especially when they rely on external financing. Based on case studies from 26 countries focused on "what works," the…

  7. A Practical Method of Policy Analysis by Simulating Policy Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, James L.

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on a method of policy analysis that has evolved from the previous articles in this issue. The first section, "Toward a Theory of Educational Production," identifies concepts from science and achievement production to be incorporated into this policy analysis method. Building on Kuhn's (1970) discussion regarding paradigms, the…

  8. Land policy reform in Rwanda: A Catalyst for Land Information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Step in geo-ICT application for data handling was achieved, despite a big gap in technical and skills capabilities. Since new land policy coincided with decentralization policy, we recommend research on parallel implementation of policies with some similar dimensions. Keywords: Land policy reform, organizational change, ...

  9. Kenya Veterinarian: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The Kenya Veterinarian is a journal of the Kenya Veterinary Association. It publishes original papers in English, within the whole field of animal science and veterinary medicine and those addressing legal and policy issues related to the veterinary profession. The journal accepts articles and reports in the ...

  10. Evaluation and Policy Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Højlund, Steven

    2015-01-01

    emanating from them are examined. The findings are that only two types of actors involved in the evaluation are actually learning (programme units and external evaluators), that learners learn different things (programme overview, small-scale programme adjustments, policy change and evaluation methods......This article examines how evaluation induces policy learning – a question largely neglected by the scholarly literature on evaluation and policy learning. Following a learner's perspective, the article attempts to ascertain who the learners are, and what, and how, learners actually learn from...... evaluations. In so doing, it focuses on what different types of learners actually learn within the context of the evaluation framework (the set of administrative structures defining the evaluation goals and process). Taking the empirical case of three EU programme evaluations, the patterns of policy learning...

  11. Social Media Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stohl, Cynthia; Etter, Michael; Banghart, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Three global developments situate the context of this investigation: the increasing use of social media by organizations and their employees, the burgeoning presence of social media policies, and the heightened focus on corporate social responsibility (CSR). In this study the intersection...... of these trends is examined through a content analysis of 112 publicly available social media policies from the largest corporations in the world. The extent to which social media policies facilitate and/or constrain the communicative sensibilities and values associated with contemporary notions of CSR...... negotiation and participation in the social responsibilities of corporations. Moreover, policies generally enact organizational communication practices that are contrary to international CSR guidelines (e.g., the UN Global Compact and other international agreements). Findings suggest that social media...

  12. Security and policy driven computing

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Lei

    2010-01-01

    Security and Policy Driven Computing covers recent advances in security, storage, parallelization, and computing as well as applications. The author incorporates a wealth of analysis, including studies on intrusion detection and key management, computer storage policy, and transactional management.The book first describes multiple variables and index structure derivation for high dimensional data distribution and applies numeric methods to proposed search methods. It also focuses on discovering relations, logic, and knowledge for policy management. To manage performance, the text discusses con

  13. Transformation of Croatian Disabled Policy: Analysis of Policy Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Petek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on the idea of transformation of the policy-making mode of Croatian disabled policy, from the medical model, through the social model to the human rights model. The paper highlights 7 elements according to which these models differ, and which are structured into categories of problem-definition, goal-determination and then implementation of disabled policy. The analysis is focused on the goals of Croatian disabled policy, and is based on an interdisciplinary research project of political science, special education and social work. Empirical data were collected by document analysis, by interviewing relevant policy actors and by a survey with the members of representative bodies on all government levels. With the discourse analysis of documents, open coding of interviews and statistical analysis of data collected in the survey, the paper attempts, through the indicator of activity of persons with disability, to answer to what extent Croatian disabled policy is transformed into human rights policy.

  14. Policy modeling for industrial energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Park, Hi-Chun; Lee, Sang-Gon; Jung, Yonghun; Kato, Hiroyuki; Ramesohl, Stephan; Boyd, Gale; Eichhammer, Wolfgang; Nyboer, John; Jaccard, Mark; Nordqvist, Joakim; Boyd, Christopher; Klee, Howard; Anglani, Norma; Biermans, Gijs

    2003-03-01

    The international workshop on Policy Modeling for Industrial Energy Use was jointly organized by EETA (Professional Network for Engineering Economic Technology Analysis) and INEDIS (International Network for Energy Demand Analysis in the Industrial Sector). The workshop has helped to layout the needs and challenges to include policy more explicitly in energy-efficiency modeling. The current state-of-the-art models have a proven track record in forecasting future trends under conditions similar to those faced in the recent past. However, the future of energy policy in a climate-restrained world is likely to demand different and additional services to be provided by energy modelers. In this workshop some of the international models used to make energy consumption forecasts have been discussed as well as innovations to enable the modeling of policy scenarios. This was followed by the discussion of future challenges, new insights in the data needed to determine the inputs into energy model s, and methods to incorporate decision making and policy in the models. Based on the discussion the workshop participants came to the following conclusions and recommendations: Current energy models are already complex, and it is already difficult to collect the model inputs. Hence, new approaches should be transparent and not lead to extremely complex models that try to ''do everything''. The model structure will be determined by the questions that need to be answered. A good understanding of the decision making framework of policy makers and clear communication on the needs are essential to make any future energy modeling effort successful. There is a need to better understand the effects of policy on future energy use, emissions and the economy. To allow the inclusion of policy instruments in models, evaluation of programs and instruments is essential, and need to be included in the policy instrument design. Increased efforts are needed to better understand the

  15. Recommendation Process in SR1 Web Document Recommender System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan MUNTEANU

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a recommender system for web documents (given as bookmarks. The system uses for classification a combination of content, event and collaborative filters and for recommendation a modified Pearson-r algorithm. The algorithm for recommendation is using not only the correlation between users but also the similarity between classes. Some experimental results that support this approach are also presented.

  16. Forest policy reform in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Bauch; E. Sills; L.C. Rodriguez Estraviz; K. McGinley; F. Cubbage

    2009-01-01

    Rapid deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, caused by economic, social, and policy factors, has focused global and national attention on protecting this valuable forest resource. In response, Brazil reformed its federal forest laws in 2006, creating new regulatory, development, and incentive policy instruments and institutions. Federal forestry responsibilities are...

  17. Public Procurement of Innovation Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolfstam, Max; Petersen, Ole Helby

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, Danish policy interest in public procurement has mainly been driven by efficiency and cost-effectiveness concerns. Public-procurement policies have in general focused on the utilisation of economies of scale as a Means of achieving lower prices on goods and services. Attempts...

  18. Public Professionals and Policy implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Tummers (Lars); B. Vermeeren (Brenda); A.J. Steijn (Bram); V.J.J.M. Bekkers (Victor)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractNowadays, public policies often focus on economic values, such as efficiency and financial transparency. Public professionals often resist implementing such policies. We analyse this using the concept of ‘role conflicts’. We use a novel approach by conceptualizing and measuring

  19. Fiscal policy is still an effective instrument of macroeconomic policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arestis Philip

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in macroeconomics and macroeconomic policy, what has come to be known as “New Consensus in Macroeconomics”, downgrades the role of fiscal policy and upgrades that of monetary policy. This contribution aims to consider this particular contention by focusing on fiscal policy. We consider fiscal policy within the current “new consensus” theoretical framework, which views fiscal policy as ineffective, and argue that it deserves a great deal more attention paid to it than it has been recently. We review and appraise recent and not so recent theoretical and empirical developments on the fiscal policy front. The possibility of fiscal and monetary policy coordination is proposed and discussed to conclude that it deserves a great deal more attention and careful consideration than it has been given to in the past. Our overall conclusion is that discretionary application of fiscal and monetary policy in a coordinated and focused manner as a tool of macroeconomic policy deserves serious attention paid to it than hitherto.

  20. Perspective plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakicevic, I. S.

    1997-01-01

    Experimental results of the plasma focus have been analyzed and compared with theoretical regularities of the plasma force-free state. It has been shown that the plasma focus vortex filaments structures, which are closing in itself forming hot spots, have to be unstable, and so they are quickly destroying. That is the reason why in the plasma focus the controlled thermonuclear fusion can not be realized. (author)

  1. Transfer pricing and the Czech tax policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Solilová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Czech Republic as a small open economy with an extensive network of the international tax treaties for the avoidance of the double taxation prevents from shifting the tax base of the associated enterprises to countries with preferential tax regime through transfer pricing rules. Transfer pricing as one of the important areas of international taxes determines how the profits of the multinational enterprises are split between the jurisdictions in which they operate and which countries get to tax those profits. This situation may affect the global budget of the multinational enterprises and the tax reve­nues of the jurisdictions. This paper is focused on the transfer pricing rules used in the Czech Republic and makes recommendations for the Czech tax policy in this area based on the analysis of the transfer pricing rules in the EU Member States.

  2. Energy Policy. Highlights. 2013 Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    Energy Policy Highlights showcases recent developments in energy policies among all 28 IEA member countries. Each contribution underscores the changing nature of both global and domestic energy challenges, as well as the commonality of energy concerns among member countries. The policies highlighted in this publication identify an urgent need to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as a clear policy objective. Electricity, enhancing energy efficiency and increasing the share of renewables in the energy mix in a cost effective manner are likewise areas of common focus. On the end-user side, increasing public awareness of domestic energy policies through improved transparency and engagement is an important facet of policy support among IEA member countries. The successful implementation of policies and other initiatives benefitted from efforts to inform the public.

  3. NASA Education Recommendation Report - Education Design Team 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengra, Trish; Stofan, James

    2011-01-01

    NASA people are passionate about their work. NASA's missions are exciting to learners of all ages. And since its creation in 1958, NASA's people have been passionate about sharing their inspiring discoveries, research and exploration with students and educators. In May 2010, NASA administration chartered an Education Design Team composed of 12 members chosen from the Office of Education, NASA's Mission Directorates and Centers for their depth of knowledge and education expertise, and directed them to evaluate the Agency's program in the context of current trends in education. By improving NASA's educational offerings, he was confident that the Agency can play a leading role in inspiring student interest in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) as few other organizations can. Through its unique workforce, facilities, research and innovations, NASA can expand its efforts to engage underserved and underrepresented communities in science and mathematics. Through the Agency's STEM education efforts and science and exploration missions, NASA can help the United States successfully compete, prosper and be secure in the 21st century global community. After several months of intense effort, including meeting with education experts; reviewing Administration policies, congressional direction and education research; and seeking input from those passionate about education at NASA, the Education Design Team made six recommendations to improve the impact of NASA's Education Program: (1) Focus the NASA Education Program to improve its impact on areas of greatest national need (2) Identify and strategically manage NASA Education partnerships (3) Participate in National and State STEM Education policy discussions (4) Establish a structure to allow the Office of Education, Centers and Mission Directorates to implement a strategically integrated portfolio (5) Expand the charter of the Education Coordinating Committee to enable deliberate Education Program design (6

  4. Focus group report - part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    The Waste Policy Institute, through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science and Technology (OST) conducted a focus group with members of the Hanford Advisory Board (HAB), interviews with tribal government representatives, and a survey of Oak Ridge Local Oversight Committee (LOC) and Site Specific Advisory Board (SSAB) members. The purpose was to understand what members of the interested and involved public want to know about technology development and ways to get that information to them. These data collection activities were used as a follow-up to two previously held focus groups with the general public near Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the Savannah River Site (SRS). Most participants from the first two focus groups said they did not have time and/or were not interested in participating in technology decision-making. They said they would prefer to defer to members of their communities who are interested and want to be involved in technology decision-making

  5. The Time Needed to Implement the Blue Ribbon Commission Recommendation on Interim Storage - 13124

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voegele, Michael D.; Vieth, Donald

    2013-01-01

    The report of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future [1] makes a number of important recommendations to be considered if Congress elects to redirect U.S. high-level radioactive waste disposal policy. Setting aside for the purposes of this discussion any issues related to political forces leading to stopping progress on the Yucca Mountain project and driving the creation of the Commission, an important recommendation of the Commission was to institute prompt efforts to develop one or more consolidated storage facilities. The Blue Ribbon Commission noted that this recommended strategy for future storage and disposal facilities and operations should be implemented regardless of what happens with Yucca Mountain. It is too easy, however, to focus on interim storage as an alternative to geologic disposal. The Blue Ribbon Commission report does not go far enough in addressing the magnitude of the contentious problems associated with reopening the issues of relative authorities of the states and federal government with which Congress wrestled in crafting the Nuclear Waste Policy Act [2]. The Blue Ribbon Commission recommendation for prompt adoption of an interim storage program does not appear to be fully informed about the actions that must be taken, the relative cost of the effort, or the realistic time line that would be involved. In essence, the recommendation leaves to others the details of the systems engineering analyses needed to understand the nature and details of all the operations required to reach an operational interim storage facility without derailing forever the true end goal of geologic disposal. The material presented identifies a number of impediments that must be overcome before the country could develop a centralized federal interim storage facility. In summary, and in the order presented, they are: 1. Change the law, HJR 87, PL 107-200, designating Yucca Mountain for the development of a repository. 2. Bring new nuclear waste

  6. Basis for a healthy energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueki, Shigeaki

    1993-01-01

    A summary of the prices policy for oil adopted by the Brazilian government in the last thirty years is presented. Some recommendations aiming at increasing the internal energy production and decreasing the external dependence are given

  7. Is India's policy framework geared for effective action on avoidable blindness from diabetes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivani M Gaiha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The growing burden of avoidable blindness caused by diabetic retinopathy (DR needs an effective and holistic policy that reflects mechanisms for early detection and treatment of DR to reduce the risk of blindness. Materials and Methods: We performed a comprehensive health policy review to highlight the existing systemic issues that enable policy translation and to assess whether India's policy architecture is geared to address the mounting challenge of DR. We used a keyword-based Internet search for documents available in the last 15 years. Two reviewers independently assessed retrieved policies and extracted contextual and program-oriented information and components delineated in national policy documents. Using a “descriptive analytical” method, the results were collated and summarized as per themes to present status quo, gaps, and recommendations for the future. Results: Lack of focus on building sustainable synergies that require well laid out mechanisms for collaboration within and outside the health sector and poor convergence between national health programs appears to be the weakest links across policy documents. Conclusions: To reasonably address the issues of consistency, comprehensiveness, clarity, context, connectedness, and sustainability, policies will have to rely more strongly on evidence from operational research to support decisions. There is a need to involve multiple stakeholders from multiple sectors, recognize contributions from not-for-profit sector and private health service providers, and finally bring about a nuanced holistic perspective that has a voice with implementable multiple sector actions.

  8. Vietnam's energy sector: A review of current energy policies and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tien Minh Do; Sharma, Deepak

    2011-01-01

    Since the introduction of market-oriented economy in 1986, Vietnam has made noticeable socio-economic progress. In this progress, the energy sector has played a vital role. This role is likely to deepen in the years to come as Vietnam strives to achieve even higher levels in economic progress. Such deepening in the role of energy, this paper argues, will heighten concerns about the security of energy supply, and economic, environmental, social and political consequences. In order to address these issues, Vietnam has over the last decade, developed a suite of energy policies. A deeper review of these policies suggests that they are typified by economic-growth orientation, exclusive focus on a single-sector or single issue, and largely neglect the significance of cross-sectoral and cross-thematic issues arising from the interdependencies between energy, economy, and the polity at large. The existing energy policy settings are, therefore, unlikely to be able to provide a satisfactory redress to the challenges noted above. This paper provides an overview of the current energy policies with a view to identify areas where further policy effort is needed in order to facilitate a sustainable development of the Vietnamese energy sector. - Highlights: → Identifying challenges faced by the Vietnamese energy sector. → Analyzing limitations of the existing energy policy settings (policies, strategies and institutions) in addressing these challenges. → Developing recommendations on improving the existing energy policy settings to provide a satisfactory redress for the challenges noted above.

  9. Assistance Focus: Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-18

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center, an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, helps countries throughout the world create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. Through the Solutions Center's no-cost Ask an Expert service, a team of international experts has delivered assistance to countries in all regions of the world, including Africa.

  10. Carbon dioxide storage in unconventional reservoirs workshop: summary of recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kevin B.; Blondes, Madalyn S.

    2015-01-01

    “Unconventional reservoirs” for carbon dioxide (CO2) storage—that is, geologic reservoirs in which changes to the rock trap CO2 and therefore contribute to CO2 storage—including coal, shale, basalt, and ultramafic rocks, were the focus of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) workshop held March 28 and 29, 2012, at the National Conservation Training Center in Shepherdstown, West Virginia. The goals of the workshop were to determine whether a detailed assessment of CO2 storage capacity in unconventional reservoirs is warranted, and if so, to build a set of recommendations that could be used to develop a methodology to assess this storage capacity. Such an assessment would address only the technically available resource, independent of economic or policy factors. At the end of the workshop, participants agreed that sufficient knowledge exists to allow an assessment of the potential CO2 storage resource in coals, organic-rich shales, and basalts. More work remains to be done before the storage resource in ultramafic rocks can be meaningfully assessed.

  11. Focused ultrasound in ophthalmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silverman RH

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ronald H Silverman1,2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Columbia University Medical Center, 2F.L. Lizzi Center for Biomedical Engineering, Riverside Research, New York, NY, USA Abstract: The use of focused ultrasound to obtain diagnostically significant information about the eye goes back to the 1950s. This review describes the historical and technological development of ophthalmic ultrasound and its clinical application and impact. Ultrasound, like light, can be focused, which is crucial for formation of high-resolution, diagnostically useful images. Focused, single-element, mechanically scanned transducers are most common in ophthalmology. Specially designed transducers have been used to generate focused, high-intensity ultrasound that through thermal effects has been used to treat glaucoma (via cilio-destruction, tumors, and other pathologies. Linear and annular transducer arrays offer synthetic focusing in which precise timing of the excitation of independently addressable array elements allows formation of a converging wavefront to create a focus at one or more programmable depths. Most recently, linear array-based plane-wave ultrasound, in which the array emits an unfocused wavefront and focusing is performed solely on received data, has been demonstrated for imaging ocular anatomy and blood flow. While the history of ophthalmic ultrasound extends back over half-a-century, new and powerful technologic advances continue to be made, offering the prospect of novel diagnostic capabilities. Keywords: ophthalmic ultrasound, ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU, ultrafast imaging, Doppler imaging 

  12. Focusing Automatic Code Inspections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogerd, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    Automatic Code Inspection tools help developers in early detection of defects in software. A well-known drawback of many automatic inspection approaches is that they yield too many warnings and require a clearer focus. In this thesis, we provide such focus by proposing two methods to prioritize

  13. Space Focus Lead Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, Geoffrey D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-10

    The Space Focus team is tasked with the definition of the Space Focused Science Topics, and with the review and ranking of the CSES proposals received in all the program areas. This is achieved by dedicated meetings or a series of informal discussions and/or e-mail reviews.

  14. Focus and VP Ellipsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Lyn; Clifton, Charles, Jr.; Carlson, Katy

    2007-01-01

    In spoken English, pitch accents can convey the focus associated with new or contrasted constituents. Two listening experiments were conducted to determine whether accenting a subject makes its predicate a more tempting antecedent for an elided verb phrase, presumably because the accent helps focus the subject of the antecedent clause, increasing…

  15. Reactor siting risk comparisons related to recommendations of NUREG-0625

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsell, A.W.; Dombek, F.S.; Orvis, D.D.

    1980-11-01

    This document evaluates how implementing the remote siting recommendations for nuclear reactors (NUREG-0625) made by the Siting Policy Task Force of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) can reduce potential public risk. The document analyzes how population density affects site-specific risk for both light water reactors (LWRs) and high-temperature gas-cooled reactors

  16. 15 CFR 1170.5 - Recommendations for agency organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recommendations for agency organization. 1170.5 Section 1170.5 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) TECHNOLOGY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE METRIC CONVERSION POLICY FOR FEDERAL...

  17. A Conceptual Framework for Evolving, Recommender Online Learning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiris, K. Dharini Amitha; Gallupe, R. Brent

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive conceptual framework is developed and described for evolving recommender-driven online learning systems (ROLS). This framework describes how such systems can support students, course authors, course instructors, systems administrators, and policy makers in developing and using these ROLS. The design science information systems…

  18. China Green Lights Program: A Review and Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jiang

    1999-06-10

    This report reviews the development of China's Green Lights Program in the last two years, and discusses the remaining barriers to the widespread adoption of efficient lighting technologies in China: chiefly quality, high initial costs, and lack of accurate information. A variety of policy options are recommended for the future expansion of China's Green Lights Program.

  19. China Green Lights Program: A Review and Recommendations; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Jiang

    1999-01-01

    This report reviews the development of China's Green Lights Program in the last two years, and discusses the remaining barriers to the widespread adoption of efficient lighting technologies in China: chiefly quality, high initial costs, and lack of accurate information. A variety of policy options are recommended for the future expansion of China's Green Lights Program

  20. Recommendation Sets and Choice Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viappiani, Paolo Renato; Boutilier, Craig

    2011-01-01

    Utility elicitation is an important component of many applications, such as decision support systems and recommender systems. Such systems query users about their preferences and offer recommendations based on the system's belief about the user's utility function. We analyze the connection between...... the problem of generating optimal recommendation sets and the problem of generating optimal choice queries, considering both Bayesian and regret-based elicitation. Our results show that, somewhat surprisingly, under very general circumstances, the optimal recommendation set coincides with the optimal query....

  1. Examining the policy climate for HIV prevention in the Caribbean tourism sector: a qualitative study of policy makers in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Mark B; Reyes, Armando Matiz; Connolly, Maureen; Natsui, Shaw; Puello, Adrian; Chapman, Helena

    2012-05-01

    The Caribbean has the highest prevalence rates of HIV/AIDS outside sub-Saharan Africa, and a broad literature suggests an ecological association between tourism areas and sexual vulnerability. Tourism employees have been shown to engage in high rates of sexual risk behaviours. Nevertheless, no large-scale or sustained HIV prevention interventions have been conducted within the tourism industry. Policy barriers and resources are under-studied. In order to identify the policy barriers and resources for HIV prevention in the tourism sector, our research used a participatory approach involving a multisectoral coalition of representatives from the tourism industry, government, public health and civil society in the Dominican Republic. We conducted 39 in-depth semi-structured interviews with policy makers throughout the country focusing on: prior experiences with HIV prevention policies and programmes in the tourism sector; barriers and resources for such policies and programmes; and future priorities and recommendations. Findings suggest perceptions among policy makers of barriers related to the mobile nature of tourism employees; the lack of centralized funding; fear of the 'image problem' associated with HIV; and the lack of multisectoral policy dialogue and collaboration. Nevertheless, prior short-term experiences and changing attitudes among some private sector tourism representatives suggest emerging opportunities for policy change. We argue that the time is ripe for dialogue across the public-private divide in order to develop regulatory mechanisms, joint responsibilities and centralized funding sources to ensure a sustainable response to the HIV-tourism linkage. Policy priorities should focus on incorporating HIV prevention as a component of occupational health; reinforcing workers' health care rights as guaranteed by existing law; using private sector tourism representatives who support HIV prevention as positive role models for national campaigns; and

  2. Policy Innovation in Innovation Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borras, Susana

    as with national and sub-national governments in Europe, all of them introducing interesting novelties in their innovation policy. These changes refer to different aspects of policy, mainly the content of policy initiatives towards science, technology and innovation; the instruments governments are using...... to achieve their goals; and the actors in the policy system that are being mobilised in pursuing these goals. This paper deals with these policy changes, paying special attention to the novelties introduced since the early 1990s in Europe. The perspective of this paper deals mainly on the changes introduced...... at the EU level, and mentions similar trends taking place at national and sub-national levels. The questions that guide the contents here are essentially three, namely, what are the main traits of innovation policies in Europe since the 1990s and how have the EU and different national governments approached...

  3. Classification of Recommender Expertise in the Wikipedia Recommender System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian D.; Pilkauskas, Povilas; Lefévre, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    to the quality of articles. The Wikipedia Recommender System (WRS) was developed to help users determine the credibility of articles based on feedback from other Wikipedia users. The WRS implements a collaborative filtering system with trust metrics, i.e., it provides a rating of articles which emphasizes...... an evaluation of four existing knowledge classification schemes with respect to these requirements. This evaluation helped us identify a classification scheme, which we have implemented in the current version of the Wikipedia Recommender System....... feedback from recommenders that the user has agreed with in the past. This exposes the problem that most recommenders are not equally competent in all subject areas. The first WRS prototype did not include an evaluation of the areas of expertise of recommenders, so the trust metric used in the article...

  4. Classification of Recommender Expertise in the Wikipedia Recommender System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian D.; Pilkauskas, Povilas; Lefevre, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    to the quality of articles. The Wikipedia Recommender System (WRS) was developed to help users determine the credibility of articles based on feedback from other Wikipedia users. The WRS implements a collaborative filtering system with trust metrics, i.e., it provides a rating of articles "which emphasizes...... an evaluation of four existing knowledge classification schemes with respect to these requirements. This evaluation helped us identify a classification scheme, which we have implemented in the current version of the Wikipedia Recommender System....... feedback from recommenders that the user has agreed with in the past. This exposes the problem that most recommenders are not equally competent in all subject areas. The first WRS prototype did not include an evaluation of the areas of expertise of recommenders, so the trust metric used in the article...

  5. [Antibiotic use in Mexico: review of problems and policies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreser, Anahí; Wirtz, Veronika J; Corbett, Kitty K; Echániz, Gabriela

    2008-01-01

    The inappropriate use of antibiotics signifies a risk for individual health and a waste of health resources. It triggers the development of antibiotic resistance, which increases expenditures and mortality related to infectious disease, and is hence considered a serious public health problem. The World Health Organization has thus recommended a series of strategies to be included within national pharmaceutical policies. In Mexico, diverse factors related to the inappropriate use of antibiotics have been documented. While the response has been mainly in the form of educational and managerial interventions directed toward physicians in public health services, as well as epidemiological surveillance, there is a paucity of research and interventions focused on consumers, pharmacies, and the private sector. Fundamentally, a comprehensive national strategy for antibiotics is not incorporated into health and pharmaceutical policies.

  6. Enterprise systems backup and recovery a corporate insurance policy

    CERN Document Server

    de Guise, Preston

    2008-01-01

    The success of information backup systems does not rest on IT administrators alone. Rather, a well-designed backup system comes about only when several key factors coalesce-business involvement, IT acceptance, best practice designs, enterprise software, and reliable hardware. Enterprise Systems Backup and Recovery: A Corporate Insurance Policy provides organizations with a comprehensive understanding of the principles and features involved in effective enterprise backups.Instead of focusing on any individual backup product, this book recommends corporate procedures and policies that need to be established for comprehensive data protection. It provides relevant information to any organization, regardless of which operating systems or applications are deployed, what backup system is in place, or what planning has been done for business continuity. It explains how backup must be included in every phase of system planning, development, operation, and maintenance. It also provides techniques for analyzing and impr...

  7. Informed policies

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    cation technology (ICT) and now. Minister of Science and Technology, was one of the architects of Mozam- bique's ICT policy in 2000 — the first in Africa. Nationwide access to these technologies is one of the pillars of the government's science and technology policy. “We don't believe in politicians, but we believe in politics.

  8. Mobile Learning Research: The Focus for Policy-Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traxler, John

    2016-01-01

    Mobile learning has moved in the last decade from being a small, scattered research interest to being viewed by many international agencies as a way of delivering their humanitarian missions to the developing contexts of the global South. This paper explores and documents fundamental concepts and concerns that characterize or perhaps jeopardise…

  9. Innovation in Tourism: A New Focus for Research and Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Innovation is imperative for the competitiveness and growth of firms, tourism systems and the national tourism economy. As indicated in this article, services and tourism are of growing importance for the economy of South Africa, and a fair proportion of local firms engage in innovative activities. However, innovation in ...

  10. Beyond free education policy: a focus on psychosocial correlates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Behavioural problems associated with school attendance have become a major concern to government and stakeholders in the education sector. Therefore, this study investigated some psychosocial variables (Selfefficacy, School Connectedness, Parents' Attitude towards School, Parental Involvement and Peer Influence) ...

  11. International retrospective cohort study of neural tube defects in relation to folic acid recommendations : are the recommendations working?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botto, LD; Lisi, A; Robert-Gnansia, E; Erickson, JD; Vollset, SE; Mastroiacovo, P; Botting, B; Cocchi, G; de Vigan, C; de Walle, H; Feijoo, M; Irgens, LM; McDonnell, B; Merlob, P; Ritvanen, A; Scarano, G; Siffel, C; Metneki, J; Stoll, C; Smithells, R; Goujard, J

    2005-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of policies and recommendations on folic acid aimed at reducing the occurrence of neural tube defects. Design Retrospective cohort study of births monitored by birth defect registries. Setting 13 birth defects registries monitoring rates of neural tube defects

  12. Beyond excise taxes: a systematic review of literature on non-tax policy approaches to raising tobacco product prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Shelley D; Smith, Margaret Holt; Feighery, Ellen C; Roeseler, April; Rogers, Todd; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2016-07-01

    Raising the price of tobacco products is considered one of the most effective ways to reduce tobacco use. In addition to excise taxes, governments are exploring other policies to raise tobacco prices and minimise price dispersion, both within and across price tiers. We conducted a systematic review to determine how these policies are described, recommended and evaluated in the literature. We systematically searched six databases and the California Tobacco Control library for English language studies or reports, indexed on or before 18 December 2013, that included a tobacco keyword (eg, cigarette), policy keyword (eg, legislation) and a price keyword (eg, promotion). We identified 3067 abstracts. Two coders independently reviewed all abstracts and identified 56 studies or reports that explicitly described a public policy likely to impact the retail price of tobacco products through non-tax means. Two coders independently identified tobacco products targeted by policies described, recommendations for implementing policies and empirical assessments of policy impacts. The most prevalent non-tax price policies were price promotion restrictions and minimum price laws. Few studies measured the impact of non-tax policies on average prices, price dispersion or disparities in tobacco consumption, but the literature includes suggestions for crafting policies and preparing for legal challenges or tobacco industry opposition. Price-focused evaluations of well-implemented non-tax price policies are needed to determine whether they can deliver on their promise to raise prices, reduce price dispersion and serve as an important complement to excise taxes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. Gender and Public Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Ferreira Santos Farah

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper consists on an analysis of the incorporation of the gender perspective by public policies at the subnational level of government in Brazil. The article begins with a reconstitution of the gender agenda and its relations with the State reform agenda and the public policies reform agenda, since the 80s. Taking as reference the proposals that came from the women movement and from feminist entities, the article analyses programs from three sectors – health, violence against women and employment and income generation. The analysis focuses on the adherence of these programs to the gender agenda.

  14. Improved collaborative filtering recommendation algorithm of similarity measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baofu; Yuan, Baoping

    2017-05-01

    The Collaborative filtering recommendation algorithm is one of the most widely used recommendation algorithm in personalized recommender systems. The key is to find the nearest neighbor set of the active user by using similarity measure. However, the methods of traditional similarity measure mainly focus on the similarity of user common rating items, but ignore the relationship between the user common rating items and all items the user rates. And because rating matrix is very sparse, traditional collaborative filtering recommendation algorithm is not high efficiency. In order to obtain better accuracy, based on the consideration of common preference between users, the difference of rating scale and score of common items, this paper presents an improved similarity measure method, and based on this method, a collaborative filtering recommendation algorithm based on similarity improvement is proposed. Experimental results show that the algorithm can effectively improve the quality of recommendation, thus alleviate the impact of data sparseness.

  15. Doing focus group research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Laura Bang

    2014-01-01

    Scholars of ethnomethodologically informed discourse studies are often sceptical of the use of interview data such as focus group data. Some scholars quite simply reject interview data with reference to a general preference for so-called naturally occurring data. Other scholars acknowledge......, not as something that pre-exists or goes beyond the situated interaction. This article, however, challenges not only the first, but also the second position and suggests that it is, after all, possible to do committedly ethnomethodological studies of focus group data that demonstrate how members of a focus group...

  16. Influencing Policy with Social Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Thomas F.

    1988-01-01

    According to this acceptance speech delivered by the recipient of the 1987 Kurt Lewin Award, social psychological contributions should be placed within an interdisciplinary framework and an institutional structure in order to make it more relevant for public policy. Recommendations for doing this are offered. (BJV)

  17. PACS policies and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knepper, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Documentation of policies and procedures are critical for the proper operation and management of a picture archival and communication system (PACS). Policies, procedures, and site specific documentation may be organized in several categories. Through the use of broad categories one can easily begin to break down the specific areas which require attention and prioritize them as necessary. One way to categorize them is: administration, maintenance, support, architecture and integration, and disaster recovery/business continuity. One area that requires a great deal of focus and discipline is a policy for "change management." It is essential to have a policy in place for making changes to the information system. This would include not only changes to the system such as software upgrades, but changes to workflows such as how images are being distributed, compression settings, network settings, monitor settings, locations of workstations, integration, and disaster recovery/ business continuity. Modifying existing information technology (IT) policies and using published resources can largely simplify the development of organization specific policies and procedures.

  18. Urban photovoltaic electricity policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 10 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at urban photovoltaic electricity policies. The mission of the Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme is to enhance the international collaboration efforts which accelerate the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy as a significant and sustainable renewable energy option. The objective of Task 10 is stated as being to enhance the opportunities for wide-scale, solution-oriented application of photovoltaics in the urban environment. The goal of the study presented was to evaluate a standardised basis for urban policies regarding photovoltaic integration in a set of cities in the countries participating in the IEA's Task 10, Urban Scale PV. The investigation was focused on three topics: the present state of the policies, the prospects for future policies fostering photovoltaic deployment and the prospects for future policies to cope with large-scale photovoltaic integration. The first section analyses the state of the policies; this analysis is then confirmed in section 2, which deals with present obstacles to PV deployment and solutions to overcome them. The third section investigates future prospects for PV deployment with the question of mastering large scale integration. The report concludes that cities could formulate urban solutions by developing integrated, specific provisions for PV deployment in their urban infrastructure planning.

  19. Focus on nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahlert, J.

    1982-01-01

    The conditions of political education at school are discussed and illustrated by a teaching lesson on nuclear power. The book is detailed enough to enable also non-expert teachers to discuss the following subjects in their teaching lessons: Boundary conditions in energy policy - scientific and technical fundamentals - radiological activities of nuclear power plants - safety engineering and its consequences. Worksheets and transparencies will be published separately. (orig./HP) [de

  20. Assistance Focus: Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-29

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center, an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, helps countries throughout the world create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. Through the Solutions Center's no-cost 'Ask an Expert' service, a team of international experts has delivered assistance to countries in all regions of the world. High-impact examples from Africa are featured here.