WorldWideScience

Sample records for policy questions descriptive

  1. Environment based innovation: policy questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Rui Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural resources and physical cultural resources, referred to in this paper as “Environmental Resources”, can be important assets for regional competitiveness and innovation. In recent years, these types of assets have been increasingly taken into consideration in the design and implementation of regional development strategies, as a consequence of their potential role as a source of differentiation and of new competitive advantages. However, in contrast to environmental policies, which usually focus on the protection of the environment, innovation policies and their instruments are largely shaped by, and geared towards, knowledge-based innovation.In this paper, we discuss the role played by environmental resources in the context of regional innovation policies. We begin by discussing the relationship between environmental resources and regional development, and by emphasizing some contrasting views with regard to the function of environmental resources in regional development. Then, we address the relationship between regional competitive advantages and innovation strategies. The specific issues and problems that arise whenever the aim is to attain competitive advantages through the valorisation of environmental resources constitute the core of section III. In that section, we highlight the specific characteristics of environmental resources and we discuss the applicability of the “natural resource curse” argument to the dynamics based on the valorisation of environmental resources. The reasons that justify public interventionas well as the difficulties concerning the adequate level of intervention (local / regional / national are also examined. The paper ends with some conclusions and policy implications.

  2. Unanswered Questions in Colombia’s Foreign Language Education Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Andrés Bonilla Carvajal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the trend of much of the Western, non-English speaking world, Colombia has tirelessly strived for spreading English education in an effort to augment economic benefits. This paper aims at providing a critical account of foreign language education policy in Colombia, with special attention to English. It outlines the impact of its multiple transitions over the past decades through a historical description that overviews all previous policies, the critical reception by scholars, and present-day initiatives. We then move on to analysing the choice of English as a synonym for bilingualism and conclude with emerging questions that are to be considered for future debates and reassessments of Colombia’s English-Spanish bilingual education policy.

  3. Review: Questioning Ireland: debates in political philosophy and public policy

    OpenAIRE

    Sheehan, Helena

    2000-01-01

    This is a review of a collection of essays entitled Questioning Ireland: debates in political philosophy and public policy, edited by Joseph Dunne, Attracta Ingram and Frank Litton, published in Dublin by the Institute of Public Administration in 2000.

  4. [Men, health and public policies: gender equality in question].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Marcia Thereza; Gomes, Romeu

    2012-10-01

    The scope of this article is to pose questions on the theme of Men, Health and Public Policies to render debate on the subject viable, based on theoretical and empirical references related to these issues. Initially, some historical landmarks on the theme are presented to provide guidelines for debate. An overview of the gender agenda in public policies is then presented to introduce the discussion about the inclusion of a gender perspective in healthcare policies. After this discussion, queries are raised about whether or not policies geared to men's health promote gender equality. In the closing remarks, the complexity involved in the development, implementation and evaluation of health policies aimed at gender equality is highlighted. The need for the Brazilian policy geared towards men's health to be implemented with other policies such that the gender matrix is transversal in the healthcare field is also stressed.

  5. Managing for biodiversity unresolved science and policy questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westman, W.E. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    A discussion is presented of efficient strategies for species preservationin spite of continued human alteration of the environment. Current policy and unresolved questions are included in the discussion. Incentives to maintain seminatural areas as a conservation strategy are recommended: planting of hedgerows or windbreaks to provide corridors for migration of species during climate change; purchase of development rights of natural and seminatural land for conversion to park reserves when climate stabilizes; use of intercropping, traditional forest gardens and crop plantings in the tropics; and maintenance of seminatural habitats on public and private lands.

  6. Analyzing student conceptual understanding of resistor networks using binary, descriptive, and computational questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujtaba, Abid H.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents a case study assessing and analyzing student engagement with and responses to binary, descriptive, and computational questions testing the concepts underlying resistor networks (series and parallel combinations). The participants of the study were undergraduate students enrolled in a university in Pakistan. The majority of students struggled with the descriptive question, and while successfully answering the binary and computational ones, they failed to build an expectation for the answer, and betrayed significant lack of conceptual understanding in the process. The data collected was also used to analyze the relative efficacy of the three questions as a means of assessing conceptual understanding. The three questions were revealed to be uncorrelated and unlikely to be testing the same construct. The ability to answer the binary or computational question was observed to be divorced from a deeper understanding of the concepts involved.

  7. A diaper bank and home visiting partnership: Initial exploration of research and policy questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Lois S; Condon, Eileen M; Deng, Shirley Z; Ordway, Monica Roosa; Marchesseault, Crista; Miller, Andrea; Alfano, Janet Stolfi; Weir, Alison M

    2018-03-01

    The cost of diapering an infant can place a significant financial strain on families living in poverty. Partnerships between diaper banks and home visiting programs for young families may offer an innovative solution to expanding the reach and impact of diaper banks in low-income communities. The purpose of this pilot study was to uncover preliminary information about the functions of diaper distribution through home visiting programs, and to inform future research and policy questions regarding diaper distribution to families in need. In this descriptive qualitative pilot study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 6 home visitors from Minding the Baby ® (MTB), a home visiting intervention for young parents. MTB clinicians routinely distribute diapers in partnership with The Diaper Bank in Connecticut. We used directed content analysis to code and analyze interview transcripts. These preliminary findings indicate that partnerships between home visiting programs and diaper banks may benefit families by improving diaper access, reducing stigma, and fostering trusting relationships with home visitors. Home visiting program benefits including engagement or re-engagement with families may need to be balanced with potential effects on clinical and therapeutic relationships. Recommendations for next steps in research and related policy questions are discussed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. THE SHEFFIELD ALCOHOL POLICY MODEL - A MATHEMATICAL DESCRIPTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Alan; Meier, Petra; Purshouse, Robin; Rafia, Rachid; Meng, Yang; Hill-Macmanus, Daniel; Angus, Colin; Holmes, John

    2014-09-30

    This methodology paper sets out a mathematical description of the Sheffield Alcohol Policy Model version 2.0, a model to evaluate public health strategies for alcohol harm reduction in the UK. Policies that can be appraised include a minimum price per unit of alcohol, restrictions on price discounting, and broader public health measures. The model estimates the impact on consumers, health services, crime, employers, retailers and government tax revenues. The synthesis of public and commercial data sources to inform the model structure is described. A detailed algebraic description of the model is provided. This involves quantifying baseline levels of alcohol purchasing and consumption by age and gender subgroups, estimating the impact of policies on consumption, for example, using evidence on price elasticities of demand for alcohol, quantification of risk functions relating alcohol consumption to harms including 47 health conditions, crimes, absenteeism and unemployment, and finally monetary valuation of the consequences. The results framework, shown for a minimum price per unit of alcohol, has been used to provide policy appraisals for the UK government policy-makers. In discussion and online appendix, we explore issues around valuation and scope, limitations of evidence/data, how the framework can be adapted to other countries and decisions, and ongoing plans for further development. © 2014 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2014 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The Question of Sustainability of Green Electricity Policy Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Bigerna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyse the financial viability and economic sustainability implications of government programs for the development of renewable energy sources, explicitly considering that consumers take environmental issues into account. We envisage a broad policy strategy for the future, which we label the “World Sustainable Scenario”, and we quantify the inter-temporal resource requirement in terms of investment necessary to achieve it. We perform an empirical meta-analysis to quantify the willingness to pay for green electricity worldwide. Subsequently, we compare the amount of resources required according to policy programs and the populations’ willingness to sacrifice current resources for future benefits (i.e., willingness to finance future investments to assess the plausibility of current policies. The main empirical findings show that the population’s attitude toward green electricity will support, on average, 50% of the total investment required. We conclude that this is a positive result, which will make possible the success of the renewable energy sources development policy.

  10. Rights questioned. Limitations of poverty-reduction policies in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faur, Eleonor; Campos, Luis; Pautassi, Laura; Zimerman, Silvina

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses, from a human rights' approach, a group of social programmes implemented in Argentina from the year 2002, at the time of the biggest socioeconomic crisis that the country has suffered in the last decades. The main characteristics of the programmes are reviewed, and their anti-poverty strategy, along with design and implementation, are evaluated in relation to human rights. An assessment is also made of the existence of mechanisms for citizens to present claims. Finally, a set of recommendations are made to facilitate the adaptation of the programmes analysed to the duties the State of Argentina has as result of its adherence to international laws on human rights. The analytical methodology proposed by this article could be applied to other policy areas.

  11. Analytical methodology and facility description spent fuel policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-08-01

    Three generic environmental impact statements (GEISs) on domestic fuels, foreign fuels, and storage charges are being prepared to provide environmental input into decisions on whether, and if so how the 1977 Presidential policy on spent fuel storage should be implmented. This report provides background information for two of these environmental impact statements: Storage of U.S. Spent Power Reactor Fuel and Storage of Foreign Spent Power Reactor Fuel. It includes the analytical methodology used in GEISs to assess the environmental effects and a description of the facilities used in the two GEISs

  12. Analytical methodology and facility description spent fuel policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-08-01

    Three generic environmental impact statements (GEISs) on domestic fuels, foreign fuels, and storage charges are being prepared to provide environmental input into decisions on whether, and if so how the 1977 Presidential policy on spent fuel storage should be implmented. This report provides background information for two of these environmental impact statements: Storage of U.S. Spent Power Reactor Fuel and Storage of Foreign Spent Power Reactor Fuel. It includes the analytical methodology used in GEISs to assess the environmental effects and a description of the facilities used in the two GEISs.

  13. 78 FR 63203 - Policy Statement Regarding a Program for Requesting Consideration of Legal Questions by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... Consideration of Legal Questions by the Commission AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Policy statement... notification to the Commissioners of a request for consideration of a legal question, if two or more... business days of the filing of a request for consideration, the Commission has not resolved the issue or...

  14. 76 FR 45798 - Policy Statement Regarding a Program for Requesting Consideration of Legal Questions by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... Consideration of Legal Questions by the Commission AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Policy Statement... consideration of a legal question, if two or more Commissioners agree that the Commission should consider the... regulations, 11 CFR part 2. However, if within 60 business days of the filing of a request for consideration...

  15. Viewpoint – Swimming against the Current: Questioning Development Policy and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Mørck Jensen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The water world is dominated by normative policies prescribing what 'good development' is all about. It is a universe of its own where policies live their own lives and feed in and out of each other. As new buzzwords continue to be invented or reinvented, policies continue to maintain their shiny images of how water resources or water supply should be managed. There are many water professionals acting as missionaries in the service of policies but probably fewer professionals acting up against blindfolded policy promotion. It is when water policies are being implemented in the real world that the trouble starts. In spite of their well-intended mission, water policies often suffer shipwreck on the socio-economic and political realities in developing countries. Through cases from India and the Mekong, the author demonstrates what happens when normative water polices are forced out of their comfort zone and into social and political realities. Although policies are made of stubborn material they need to be questioned through continuous analytical insight into developing country realities. But undertaking critical analysis and questioning the wisdom of water policies are easier said than done. It takes a lot of effort to swim against the policy current.

  16. A Descriptive Study of Music Teacher Educators' Beliefs about Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Carla E.; Richerme, Lauren Kapalka

    2016-01-01

    While policies at all levels affect music educators, and music education researchers have called for increased attention to policy issues, few have explored preservice music teacher educators' beliefs about policy. This study examined music teacher educators' (N = 81) familiarity with and attitudes toward contemporary education and music education…

  17. Smartphone use to answer clinical questions: a descriptive study of APNs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowsky, Adelia

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the use of smartphones by Alabama Advanced Practice Nurses to find information to address clinical questions and seeks to describe the types of questions answered using smartphones; barriers to information seeking; apps and online resources perceived as most helpful; and training/resource needs. Information collected in this study can be used by libraries that serve nursing students to develop training and resources to assist both nursing students and practicing nurses to become more efficient and effective information seekers.

  18. A medical consultation service on Facebook: descriptive analysis of questions answered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helve, Otto

    2014-09-04

    Social media is used increasingly by the general public to access health information. However, a lack of models for health information distribution limits the presence of publicly funded services on social media sites. The goal of the study was to present a model for delivering child health information to parents through a social media site. A Facebook site was launched for 11 months based on a question-and-answer service produced by a pediatrician and open to Facebook users over 18 years old. If the answer did not include a further referral to a health care service provider, the question was considered comprehensively answered. The site was funded by a pharmaceutical company, and it included an advertisement of a pharmaceutical product for children's fever and pain. During the study, 768 questions were submitted: an average of 69.8 (SD 31.7) per month. There were 245,533 independent Facebook users on the site, with an average of 727.0 (SD 2280.6) per day. Infections were the most common theme in questions (355/768, 46.2%). Questions were more likely to be comprehensively answered if they were related to infections (279/355, 78.6%) than questions related to non-infectious symptoms (265/423, 64.2%, P=.003). On this site aimed at parents of small children, personalized answers were an effective way of delivering information. The service is likely to have reduced the need for further contacts with a health care service provider in more than half of the cases. The site could serve as a model for publicly funded health information distribution.

  19. Priority questions for the science, policy and practice of cultural landscapes in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Morcillo, Monica; Bieling, Claudia; Bürgi, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    , a joint research–action agenda is still lacking. Objectives and methods: We respond to this challenge by identifying common priority questions for the sustainable management of cultural landscapes in Europe. To this end, we gathered, in a first phase, the most relevant research questions through a Delphi......-like process with the research community in this field. In a second phase, the questions were prioritized by three stakeholder groups: scientists (Ss), policy-makers (PMs) and practitioners (Ps). The importance ranks and the similarity between groups’ priorities were calculated and analyzed. Results: We found...... between Ss and PMs. Conclusions: Our exercise can assist the implementation of the ELC by outlining the potential direction of future applied research and by strengthening the ties between the multiple stakeholders involved in the stewardship of European cultural landscapes....

  20. [Population, reproduction and health: notes on the question of a social policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Rocha, M I

    1988-01-01

    During the 1980s the creation of the Program of Assistance to the Health of Women (PAISM) in 1983 and the policy of the Ministry of Welfare and Social Assistance initiated in 1986 to increase services to the female population changed the public policy regarding human reproduction in Brazil. The question of reproductive rights and protection of the health of the woman throughout her life was the focus of this policy. A commission constituted in 1985 set out to investigate the control of fertility, the increased number of sterilizations, induced abortions, new contraceptives, and the increasing number of medical interventions in the reproductive process to ascertain economic, social, and political ramifications. A neo-Malthusian view was asserting itself in the Third World countries aiming at the conservation of social development vis-a-vis the pressure of demographic explosion. By the mid-1980s the debate shifted toward the need to reduce the fertility rate by a family planning campaign, since the previous military government limited public participation in social policy decisions. The fertility rate was 6.2 children/women in the 1940s and 1950s, 6.3 in the 1960s, declining by 5.6 by 1970 and to 4.2 by the early 1980s. At several international conferences on population policy neo-Malthusian approaches were rejected in favor of family planning programs and health care assistance to women. The penal code was modified to ease abortion in high risk pregnancies. Finally, the increasing demand for contraceptives aided by the interests of the pharmaceutical industry, the women's movement in the late 1970s, and the dissemination of birth control information to low income people have brought about change in fertility control, but the vagaries of the Ministry of Health have not led to full implementation of policies.

  1. THE UNILATERAL DETERMINATION OF PRICE – A QUESTION OF CERTAINTY OR PUBLIC POLICY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanri M du Plessis

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The unilateral determination of price has been a controversial issue for an extended period of time. During the 1990s the Supreme Court of Appeal asked if the rule should still form part of South African law. Specifically, the court raised a few questions in respect of the rule and commented that the rule as applied in South African law is illogical. The court also remarked that public policy, bona fides and contractual equity might also be employed when considering such issues. Despite the criticisms of the Supreme Court of Appeal, it would seem that the rule still forms part of our law. This article investigates whether or not the rule should be retained in the South African common law. The answer will depend on two separate questions: Is the rule a manifestation of the requirement of certainty of price? If not, does public policy require that the rule be retained? The article shows that the rule prohibiting the unilateral determination of price should not be seen as a manifestation of the requirement of certainty of price. This is because there are various circumstances where the unilateral determination of the price results in certainty of price or can be applied in such a way as to arrive at certainty of price. Most of these arguments require that the discretion to determine the price should not be unfettered and should be subject to some objective standard. This can be done expressly or tacitly in the contract, or an objective standard (in the form of reasonableness will be implied by law. Thereafter, the article considers various public policy considerations that could be used to determine if a discretion to determine the price should be enforced. The article argues that public policy may dictate that such a discretion should be valid and enforceable provided that it is not unfettered and subject to an external objective standard or reasonableness. However, in cases where an unfair bargaining position is present, public policy may dictate

  2. Wave of Middle East migration raises questions of policy in many countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerakis, A S; Thayanithy, S

    1978-09-04

    Since 1973 the increase in revenues from petroleum has resulted in a substantial migration of workers to the oil exporting countries of the Middle East. Discussion focuses on the policies being used to minimize the costs and maximize the advantages of emigration, including description and evaluation of measures and proposals for further action. No action seems to have been taken to regulate the present wave of Middle Eastern emigration, probably because in its initial stages it proved an unmixed blessing for the labor exporting countries. Steps should have been taken to protect the emigrants. Their living conditions are unsatisfactory in some host countries, and frequently they are exploited by the unscrupulous middlemen who arranged their employment and wages. No effective international agreements, multilateral or bilateral, have been concluded to deal with these problems. A policy response is required as labor shortages emerge in the later phases of emigration, especially as the balance of payments situation improves and reserves rise. An appropriate strategy should combine both supply and demand management measures. It should avoid overambitious antiinflationary objectives. For the majority of the labor exporting countries discussed here, foreign exchange earnings from migrants have reached sizable amounts, exceeding, for example, $1 billion in Egypt, India, Pakistan, and the Yemen Arab Republic. Countries are maximizing those receipts by resorting to compulsion and surrender requirements. Emigrants should be coaxed and not compelled to remit currently a high proportion of savings and to invest a low percentage in the country where they work or in 3rd countries. Remittances by workers during the period of their stay in foreign countries are made for family maintenance and for investment. The most effective way to satisfy emigrants that they will be able to reexport their assets is to remove all restrictions on payments. Going beyond general policies to create a

  3. Corporal Punishment in the State of Louisiana: A Descriptive Study of Policies and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, Mary R.

    2014-01-01

    Louisiana is currently one of the 19 states in the United States that still allow the use of corporal punishment in public schools. The research questions that drove this study explored Louisiana-published court cases involving corporal punishment in public schools, district policies regarding the use of corporal punishment, reported instances of…

  4. A descriptive analysis of state legislation and policy addressing clinical trials participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquet, Claudia R; Mishra, Shiraz I; Weinberg, Armin D

    2009-05-01

    This report describes state policy and legislation related to clinical trials participation and Maryland's model to enhance clinical trial availability and participation. Descriptive review of state policy and legislation related to coverage for clinical trials costs based on data from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) State Cancer Legislative Database, the American Cancer Society, and NCI; additionally, discussion of Maryland's comprehensive multilevel clinical trial model comprising policy initiatives, community engagement, research, education, and infrastructure support. Twenty-four states have mandated clinical trial coverage through specific legislation or agreements since 1994. Covered benefits varied among the states. Besides cost and insurance barriers, there is a need to address important patient, physician and researcher, and structural barriers to clinical trial participation. Maryland provides a comprehensive model to address the multi-faceted clinical trial participation determinants as it tracks state and federal policy, documents trial barriers, and conducts community education.

  5. Flood Risk Management Policy in Scotland: Research Questions Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Mark; Hastings, Emily; MacDonald, Jannette

    2016-04-01

    Scotland's Centre of Expertise for Waters (CREW) delivers accessible research and expert opinion to support the Scottish Government and its delivery partners in the development and implementation of water policy. It was established in 2011 by the Scottish Government (Rural and Environmental Science and Analytical Services) in recognition of a gap in the provision of short term advice and research to policy (development and implementation). Key policy areas include the Water Framework Directive, Floods Directive, Drinking Water Directive, Habitats Directive and Scotland's Hydro Nation Strategy. CREW is unique in its demand-driven and free service for policy makers and practitioners, managing the engagement between scientists, policy makers and practitioners to work effectively across this interface. The users of CREW are the Scottish Government, Scottish Environment Protection Agency, Scottish Natural Heritage and Scottish Water. CREW has funded around 100 projects relating to water policy since its inception in 2011. Of these, a significant number relate to flood risk management policy. Based on a review of work to date, this poster will give an overview of these projects and a forward look at the challenges that remain. From learning from community led flood risk management to surface water flood forecasting for urban communities, links will be made between sustainable and traditional flood risk management while considering the perceptions of stakeholders to flood risk management. How can we deliver fully integrated flood risk management options? How policy makers, scientists and land managers can better work together will also be explored.

  6. Questions about fiscal policy: Implications from the financial crisis of 2008-2009

    OpenAIRE

    N. Gregory Mankiw

    2010-01-01

    This article is a modified version of remarks given at the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia’s policy forum “Policy Lessons from the Economic and Financial Crisis,” December 4, 2009. The presentation was made during a panel discussion that also included James Bullard and John Taylor.

  7. Ask These Key Questions When You Review Child Abuse Reporting Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Joy J.

    1988-01-01

    Urges policymakers to examine and update their school system's child abuse reporting policy. Such policies must be adequate to help endangered children, protect their right to privacy, and avoid overprotection. Advises on ways to protect staff against unnecessary accusations and develop inservice training programs discussing child abuse, state…

  8. A question-answer pair (QAP) database integrated with websites to answer complex questions submitted to the Regional Medicines Information and Pharmacovigilance Centres in Norway (RELIS): a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schjøtt, Jan; Reppe, Linda A; Roland, Pål-Didrik H; Westergren, Tone

    2012-01-01

    To assess a question-answer pair (QAP) database integrated with websites developed for drug information centres to answer complex questions effectively. Descriptive study with comparison of two subsequent 6-year periods (1995-2000 and 2001-2006). The Regional Medicines Information and Pharmacovigilance Centres in Norway (RELIS). A randomised sample of QAPs from the RELIS database. Answer time in days compared with Mann-Whitney U test. Number of drugs involved (one, two, three or more), complexity (judgemental and/or patient-related or not) and literature search (none, simple or advanced) compared with χ(2) tests. 842 QAPs (312 from 1995 to 2000 and 530 from 2001 to 2006) were compared. The fraction of judgemental and patient-related questions increased (66%-75% and 54%-72%, respectively, p50% advanced) was similar in the two periods, but the fraction of answers referring to the RELIS database increased (13%-31%, p<0.01). Median answer time was reduced from 2 days to 1 (p<0.01), although the fraction of complex questions increased from the first to the second period. Furthermore, the mean number of questions per employee per year increased from 66 to 89 from the first to the second period. The authors conclude that RELIS has a potential to efficiently answer complex questions. The model is of relevance for organisation of drug information centres.

  9. Beyond the Prevention of Harm: Animal Disease Policy as a Moral Question

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijboom, F.L.B.; Cohen, N.E.; Stassen, E.N.; Brom, F.W.A.

    2009-01-01

    European animal disease policy seems to find its justification in a “harm to other” principle. Limiting the freedom of animal keepers—e.g., by culling their animals—is justified by the aim to prevent harm, i.e., the spreading of the disease. The picture, however, is more complicated. Both during the

  10. Alternative Approaches in Evaluating the EU SME Policy: Answers to the Question of Impact and Legitimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K. GRUENWALD

    2014-08-01

    Findings:  OECD  and  EU  evaluations  do  not  determine  causal  relationships  between funding allocation and effects. The evaluations of the KfW and the German Ministry of Economics  use  an  empirical  quantitative  approach  and  determine  direct  causal relations. In  order to fulfil the requirements of legitimizing functions  for  the  SME  policy,  it  is  recommended  to  further  develop  the  EU  funding policy  and  evaluation  according  to  the  “German  model”  both  in  terms  of  the institutional  framework  and  in  terms  of  the  evaluation  of  impacts  through  funding policy measures. Definition  of  minimum  requirements  and  alternative possibilities  for  EU  SME  policy  evaluation  in  order  to  close  the  legitimisation  gap between the allocation of tax money and impact proof (cost-benefit ratio.

  11. In Retirement Migration, Who Counts? A Methodological Question with Economic Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, William H., III; Bradley, Don E.; Longino, Charles F., Jr.; Stoller, Eleanor P.; Serow, William J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: We examine the methodological and economic policy implications of three operationalizations of retirement migration. Design and Methods: We compared the traditional age-based definition of retirement migration and two retirement-based definitions, based on degree of labor-force participation and retirement income, by using the 2000 U.S.…

  12. A Question of Autonomy: Bourdieu's Field Approach and Higher Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maton, Karl

    2005-01-01

    The concept of field forms the centre of Pierre Bourdieu's relational sociology and the notion of "autonomy" is its keystone. This article explores the usefulness of these underexamined concepts for studying policy in higher education. It begins by showing how Bourdieu's "field" approach enables higher education to be examined…

  13. 75 FR 42088 - Policy Statement Establishing a Pilot Program for Requesting Consideration of Legal Questions by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-20

    ... Requesting Consideration of Legal Questions by the Commission AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION.... However, if within 60 business days of the filing of a request for consideration, the Commission has not.... Accordingly, any legal issues that qualify for consideration under the Advisory Opinion process are not...

  14. Neuroscience cannot answer these questions: a response to G. and R. Murrow's essay hypothesizing a link between dehumanization, human rights abuses and public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Morris B

    2016-04-01

    The Murrows' paper, 'A hypothetical link between dehumanization and human rights abuses', in which they propose that neuroscience may answer some difficult public policy questions, including questions about the First Amendment, is an unfortunate foray into law and public policy unjustified by the current state of neuroscience. Neuroscientific insights may one day have important implications for the law, and for some of the folk psychological assumptions embedded in the law, but they will never change the words of the written Constitution, or answer difficult policy questions in the interstices of those words. Suggesting that neuroscience can today inform these questions does a disservice to science, law and the complexity of the human condition.

  15. Between participation and consultation: The nuclear question in the Alliance policy of Germany between 1959 and 1966

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoppe, C.

    1993-01-01

    The study examines the leeway for action - with respect to both foreign and domestic policy available to the government of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) in the nuclear question in the period from 1959 to 1966. This issue had, after the political and strategic changes occurring at the end of the 1950s, come increasingly to the fore of the Alliance policy pursued by the FRG. Thus the growing doubts as to the American nuclear guarantee exacerbated the strategic insecurity of the Germans, while the - both political and arms control related - cooperation with the Soviet Union demanded by the USA appeared to further remove the prospect of reunification. At the same time, the FRG saw itself, in view of the independent British and French nuclear programmes, placed in an inferior position, and its goal endangered of achieving more equality in foreign policy, which it had pursued by means of developing its armed forces and acceding to NATO. In the domestic arena, the nuclear question was linked to a controversy that placed the internal cohesion of the CDU/CSU coalition under great strain in the middle of the 1960s: the debate between those oriented to the ''Atlantic'' and the ''Gaullists''. (orig.) [de

  16. NIH initiative to balance sex of animals in preclinical studies: generative questions to guide policy, implementation, and metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    In May of 2014, the NIH Director together with the Director of the Office of Research on Women’s Health announced plans to take a multi-dimensional approach to address the over reliance on male cells and animals in preclinical research. The NIH is engaging the scientific community in the development of policies to improve the sex balance in research. The present, past, and future presidents of the Organization for the Study of Sex Differences, in order to encourage thoughtful discussion among scientists, pose a series of questions to generate ideas in three areas: 1. research strategies, 2. educational strategies, and 3. strategies to monitor effectiveness of policies to improve the sex balance in research. By promoting discussion within the scientific community, a consensus will evolve that will move science forward in a productive and effective manner. PMID:25780556

  17. Can public policies sustain fertility in the Nordic countries?: Lessons from the past and questions for the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marit Rønsen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The collective evidence of past research indicates that Nordic social welfare policies have had positive impacts on fertility. Yet, some patterns cause concern. One concern is that the good recuperation at cohort level partly is explained by relatively high fertility levels among women educated for female-dominated jobs with extensive part-time work. One may therefore question whether the present development is compatible with gender equality. Another concern is a more socially selective entry into fatherhood. Based on updated analyses of female as well as male fertility trends in Norway we address these issues, focussing especially on associations with educational level and field.

  18. Alternative Approaches in Evaluating the EU SME Policy: Answers to the Question of Impact and Legitimization

    OpenAIRE

    Robert K. GRUENWALD

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the paper is the determination and criticism of existing EU SME Policy evaluation standards and of existing alternatives enabling the discussion of improvements. The  paper  uses  a  comparison  of  different  evaluation methods  applied  by  the  OECD,  the  EU  and  Sweden  and  of  funding  programmes provided by KfW and the German Ministry of Economics; therefore, the paper is an explorative case study. Findings:  OECD  and  EU  evaluations  do  not  determine ...

  19. To the Question of Personnel Policy in Divisions of Prosecutor's Office of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga L. Chechko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Present article is devoted to the actual questions of human rights management at the Prosecutor's Office of Russian Federation. Main content of this research is analysis of the human resource management characteristics at the present stage. Author pays special attention to research issues of relevant training courses for prosecutors. Author substantiates the view that skilled personnel are the basis of the successful functioning of prosecutorial unit. Requirement for candidates for job in the prosecutor’s office is to have high moral standards, namely, honesty, objectivity, self-critical and demanding of themselves and others, integrity and responsible attitude toward human rights and freedoms, legal culture as the highest social values, poise, tact, humility and moral purity, realities of profession require careful attention to the person’s ability to resist any form of pressure on them. Author examines key requirements for individuals to serve in the prosecution. Author's opinion, based on the experience of working in the as prosecutor’s office may be of interest to human resources specialists and applicants for the position of the Prosecutor's Office of the Russian Federation.

  20. The SPARK Tool to prioritise questions for systematic reviews in health policy and systems research: development and initial validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akl, Elie A; Fadlallah, Racha; Ghandour, Lilian; Kdouh, Ola; Langlois, Etienne; Lavis, John N; Schünemann, Holger; El-Jardali, Fadi

    2017-09-04

    Groups or institutions funding or conducting systematic reviews in health policy and systems research (HPSR) should prioritise topics according to the needs of policymakers and stakeholders. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a tool to prioritise questions for systematic reviews in HPSR. We developed the tool following a four-step approach consisting of (1) the definition of the purpose and scope of tool, (2) item generation and reduction, (3) testing for content and face validity, (4) and pilot testing of the tool. The research team involved international experts in HPSR, systematic review methodology and tool development, led by the Center for Systematic Reviews on Health Policy and Systems Research (SPARK). We followed an inclusive approach in determining the final selection of items to allow customisation to the user's needs. The purpose of the SPARK tool was to prioritise questions in HPSR in order to address them in systematic reviews. In the item generation and reduction phase, an extensive literature search yielded 40 relevant articles, which were reviewed by the research team to create a preliminary list of 19 candidate items for inclusion in the tool. As part of testing for content and face validity, input from international experts led to the refining, changing, merging and addition of new items, and to organisation of the tool into two modules. Following pilot testing, we finalised the tool, with 22 items organised in two modules - the first module including 13 items to be rated by policymakers and stakeholders, and the second including 9 items to be rated by systematic review teams. Users can customise the tool to their needs, by omitting items that may not be applicable to their settings. We also developed a user manual that provides guidance on how to use the SPARK tool, along with signaling questions. We have developed and conducted initial validation of the SPARK tool to prioritise questions for systematic reviews in HPSR, along with

  1. Equality at home - A question of career? Housework, norms, and policies in a European comparative perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Fahlén

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dual-earner families are widespread in contemporary Europe, yet the division of housework is highly gendered, with women still bearing the lion's share. However, women in dual-career couples and in other types of non-traditional couples, across and within different European countries, appear to handle the division of housework differently. Objective: The objective of this study is to examine the division of housework among various couple-earner types, by determining i whether relative resources, time spent on paid work, gender attitudes, and family structure reduce variations in housework between different couple types, and ii whether the division of housework varies between countries with different work‒family policies and gender norms. Methods: The study uses data from ten countries, representing different welfare regime types, extracted from the European Social Survey (2010/11, and employs multivariate regressions and aggregated analysis of the association between the division of housework and the contextual indices. Results: The results show that dual-career couples divide housework more equally than dual-earner couples, relating more to the fact that the former group of women do less housework in general, rather than that men are doing more. The cross-national analysis shows tangible differences between dual-earner and dual-career couples; however, the difference is less marked with respect to the division of housework in countries with more institutional support for work‒family reconciliation and less traditional gender norms. Contribution: By combining conventional economic and gender-based approaches with an institutional framework, this study contributes to the research field by showing that the division of housework within different couple-earner types is contextually embedded.

  2. Volume-outcome relationship in colon cancer surgery: another biased logical short cut towards questionable centralization policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violi, Vincenzo; Costi, Renato; De Bernardinis, Massimo; Roncoroni, Luigi

    2014-01-23

    The association between hospital high volumes and good outcomes after complex surgery has given rise to a worldwide controversial debate. Important and unsolved questions have followed, both theoretical and practical, which could have repercussions on health care and health economic policies, such as the centralization/regionalization of major surgical procedures.We read a recent study on the impact of surgery volumes on short-term outcomes after colon cancer resection in Emilia Romagna, Italy, the same geographic area where we operate. Ten issues were submitted to critical analysis and many sources of planning and methodology bias were identified, which, in our opinion, paradigmatically led to unreliable results, inadequate statistical analysis and deceptive conclusions. Despite the authors' admitted awareness of their study's limits, their conclusive message was, surprisingly, that centralization of colon cancer surgery should be substantially encouraged.Unrecognized, systemic biases may easily turn into cognitive biases, into logical short cuts which could confuse healthcare policy-makers. The volume-outcome relationship, in which a direct causal link has never been demonstrated, should not be used as a reliable measure of quality, rather  than less implementable process indicators, to address centralization policies.A disregarded negative consequence of centralization could be that non-high-volume centres, after a further progressive workload decrease and depletion in resources and surgical skills, will have to cope with patients in bad general condition and at high risk, who must be treated in emergency or cannot anyway afford the move for age, indigence or severe co-morbidities. Thus, centralization policies might disadvantage the weak segments of the population, thereby moving towards an iniquitous health service.

  3. Feature description with SIFT, SURF, BRIEF, BRISK, or FREAK? A general question answered for bone age assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashif, Muhammad; Deserno, Thomas M; Haak, Daniel; Jonas, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Solving problems in medical image processing is either generic (being applicable to many problems) or specific (optimized for a certain task). For example, bone age assessment (BAA) on hand radiographs is a frequent but cumbersome task for radiologists. For this problem, many specific solutions have been proposed. However, general-purpose feature descriptors are used in many computer vision applications. Hence, the aim of this study is (i) to compare the five leading keypoint descriptors on BAA, and, in doing so, (ii) presenting a generic approach for a specific task. Two methods for keypoint selection were applied: sparse and dense feature points. For each type, SIFT, SURF, BRIEF, BRISK, and FREAK feature descriptors were extracted within the epiphyseal regions of interest (eROI). Classification was performed using a support vector machine. Reference data (1101 radiographs) of the University of Southern California was used for 5-fold cross-validation. The data was grouped into 30 classes representing the bone age range of 0-18 years. With a mean error of 0.605 years, dense SIFT gave best results and outperforms all published methods. The accuracy was 98.36% within the range of 2 years. Dense SIFT represents a generic method for a specific question. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Photovoltaic policy is questioned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piro, P.; Cessac, M.

    2011-01-01

    The French government has decided a freeze and a reassessment of the measures taken to support the photovoltaic sector. Only the installations with a power output over 3 kWc are concerned so the market of solar roofs for homes is spared. The main reasons for this reversal is the quick and chaotic development of photovoltaic projects, a lot of projects are only motivated by the lure of high purchase prices of the electricity produced imposed by the law on EDF. Another reason is that 90% of the solar panels installed in France come from China, the photovoltaic sector retorts that 75% of the price of a complete installation pays for services produced in France. (A.C.)

  5. Is there a need for a '100 questions exercise' to enhance fisheries and aquatic conservation, policy, management and research? Lessons from a global 100 questions exercise on conservation of biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, S J; Danylchuk, A J; Kaiser, M J; Rudd, M A

    2010-06-01

    Recent global and regional exercises have been undertaken to identify 100 questions of relevance to policy makers that, if answered, would improve decision making and conservation actions. These were intentionally broad, but all included themes and questions of relevance to aquatic and fisheries professionals (e.g. exploitation, habitat alteration, effectiveness of protected areas, migratory connectivity and environmental effects of aquaculture). Here, the content of the global 100 question exercise relevant to aquatic and fisheries issues is summarized and a critical analysis is provided. Many of the questions addressed in apparently unrelated themes and topics (e.g. terrestrial, agriculture and energy policy) have potential relevance to fisheries and aquatic habitats, which underlines the connectivity between terrestrial and aquatic realms. Given the intimate link between aquatic environmental problems and human activities (including culture and economics), greater understanding of the human dimension is required to inform decision making. Stakeholder perspectives need to be included as a core component of the fisheries management triangle (i.e. managing fish, habitat and people). The benefits and risks of conducting a global 100 questions exercise with an exclusive focus on questions of relevance to fisheries and aquatic practitioners are also considered. There is no question that evidence-based approaches to conservation are essential for addressing the many threats that face aquatic ecosystems and reverse the imperilment trends among ichthyofauna. It is still unclear, however, as to the extent to which 100 questions exercises will help to achieve conservation and management targets for aquatic resources. A global 100 questions exercise that focused on fisheries and aquatic issues would certainly help to generate interest and awareness sufficient to justify such an exercise.

  6. Descriptive Statistics: Reporting the Answers to the 5 Basic Questions of Who, What, Why, When, Where, and a Sixth, So What?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Thomas R

    2017-11-01

    of the association between the exposure and the outcome (eg, the risk ratio or odds ratio) in the population likely resides. There are many possible ways to graphically display or illustrate different types of data. While there is often latitude as to the choice of format, ultimately, the simplest and most comprehensible format is preferred. Common examples include a histogram, bar chart, line chart or line graph, pie chart, scatterplot, and box-and-whisker plot. Valid and reliable descriptive statistics can answer basic yet important questions about a research data set, namely: "Who, What, Why, When, Where, How, How Much?"

  7. Deciding Who Decides Questions at the Intersection of School Finance Reform Litigation and Standards-Based Accountability Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Superfine, Benjamin Michael

    2009-01-01

    Courts hearing school finance reform cases have recently begun to consider several issues related to standards-based accountability policies. This convergence of school finance reform litigation and standards-based accountability policies represents a chance for the courts to reallocate decision-making authority for each type of reform across the…

  8. IALS and Essential Skills in Canadian Literacy Policy and Practice: A Descriptive Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centre for Literacy, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This paper gathers descriptions on the use of the International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS) and essential skills cross Canada. IALS was developed as a population measure to lay out the distribution of skills and their relationship to other social and economic attributes. The information was taken from federal, provincial, and territorial…

  9. Privacy Policies for Apps Targeted Toward Youth: Descriptive Analysis of Readability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Gitanjali; Cheung, Cynthia; Nebeker, Camille; Bietz, Matthew; Bloss, Cinnamon

    2018-01-04

    Due to the growing availability of consumer information, the protection of personal data is of increasing concern. We assessed readability metrics of privacy policies for apps that are either available to or targeted toward youth to inform strategies to educate and protect youth from unintentional sharing of personal data. We reviewed the 1200 highest ranked apps from the Apple and Google Play Stores and systematically selected apps geared toward youth. After applying exclusion criteria, 99 highly ranked apps geared toward minors remained, 64 of which had a privacy policy. We obtained and analyzed these privacy policies using reading grade level (RGL) as a metric. Policies were further compared as a function of app category (free vs paid; entertainment vs social networking vs utility). Analysis of privacy policies for these 64 apps revealed an average RGL of 12.78, which is well above the average reading level (8.0) of adults in the United States. There was also a small but statistically significant difference in word count as a function of app category (entertainment: 2546 words, social networking: 3493 words, and utility: 1038 words; P=.02). Although users must agree to privacy policies to access digital tools and products, readability analyses suggest that these agreements are not comprehensible to most adults, let alone youth. We propose that stakeholders, including pediatricians and other health care professionals, play a role in educating youth and their guardians about the use of Web-based services and potential privacy risks, including the unintentional sharing of personal data. ©Gitanjali Das, Cynthia Cheung, Camille Nebeker, Matthew Bietz, Cinnamon Bloss. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (http://mhealth.jmir.org), 04.01.2018.

  10. Privacy Policies for Apps Targeted Toward Youth: Descriptive Analysis of Readability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Gitanjali; Cheung, Cynthia; Nebeker, Camille; Bietz, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Background Due to the growing availability of consumer information, the protection of personal data is of increasing concern. Objective We assessed readability metrics of privacy policies for apps that are either available to or targeted toward youth to inform strategies to educate and protect youth from unintentional sharing of personal data. Methods We reviewed the 1200 highest ranked apps from the Apple and Google Play Stores and systematically selected apps geared toward youth. After applying exclusion criteria, 99 highly ranked apps geared toward minors remained, 64 of which had a privacy policy. We obtained and analyzed these privacy policies using reading grade level (RGL) as a metric. Policies were further compared as a function of app category (free vs paid; entertainment vs social networking vs utility). Results Analysis of privacy policies for these 64 apps revealed an average RGL of 12.78, which is well above the average reading level (8.0) of adults in the United States. There was also a small but statistically significant difference in word count as a function of app category (entertainment: 2546 words, social networking: 3493 words, and utility: 1038 words; P=.02). Conclusions Although users must agree to privacy policies to access digital tools and products, readability analyses suggest that these agreements are not comprehensible to most adults, let alone youth. We propose that stakeholders, including pediatricians and other health care professionals, play a role in educating youth and their guardians about the use of Web-based services and potential privacy risks, including the unintentional sharing of personal data. PMID:29301737

  11. A Descriptive Analysis of Louisiana Public School Districts' Anti-Bullying Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Brandy Elise Robinson

    2013-01-01

    The researcher proposed to determine the expansiveness of Louisiana's public school districts' anti-bullying policies. Specifically, student codes of conduct and board polices were analyzed to determine the extent to which schools define, outline reporting procedures, keep written records of, investigate, and render disciplinary sanctions against…

  12. Evidence-informed health policy 4 – Case descriptions of organizations that support the use of research evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxman Andrew D

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous efforts to produce case descriptions have typically not focused on the organizations that produce research evidence and support its use. External evaluations of such organizations have typically not been analyzed as a group to identify the lessons that have emerged across multiple evaluations. Case descriptions offer the potential for capturing the views and experiences of many individuals who are familiar with an organization, including staff, advocates, and critics. Methods We purposively sampled a subgroup of organizations from among those that participated in the second (interview phase of the study and (once from among other organizations with which we were familiar. We developed and pilot-tested a case description data collection protocol, and conducted site visits that included both interviews and documentary analyses. Themes were identified from among responses to semi-structured questions using a constant comparative method of analysis. We produced both a brief (one to two pages written description and a video documentary for each case. Results We conducted 51 interviews as part of the eight site visits. Two organizational strengths were repeatedly cited by individuals participating in the site visits: use of an evidence-based approach (which was identified as being very time-consuming and existence of a strong relationship between researchers and policymakers (which can be challenged by conflicts of interest. Two organizational weaknesses – a lack of resources and the presence of conflicts of interest – were repeatedly cited by individuals participating in the site visits. Participants offered two main suggestions for the World Health Organization (and other international organizations and networks: 1 mobilize one or more of government support, financial resources, and the participation of both policymakers and researchers; and 2 create knowledge-related global public goods. Conclusion The findings from

  13. SOME QUESTIONS OF INSTITUTIONAL CHANGES IN THE STRUCTURAL POLICY IN THE TRANSITIONAL ECONOMY OF THE REPUBLIC OF TAJIKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vakhobov A. A.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article examines patterns of structural change in the transformation to ensure the sustainability of economic growth as the base address socio-economic problems in the national economy. Author, classified and disclosed the concept of structural policies outlined in the article. And theoretically analyzed the problem of macroeconomic policies and institutional reforms in the current stage of market reforms in the Republic of Tajikistan. The main factors to reform laws and achieve economic independence of the state, through the creation of a favorable investment climate.

  14. The Parallel Language Use of Swedish and English: The Question of "Nativeness" in University Policies and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuteeva, Maria

    2014-01-01

    As a result of internationalisation, many universities in northern Europe have adopted English as a medium of instruction. At the same time, recent language policies have reinforced the importance of the national language(s) in the academic domain. Parallel language use was introduced and institutionalised in order to ensure students' right to…

  15. School-Public Library Services within a Community; Problems & Questions on Consolidation. A Policy Statement. Bulletin No. 6539.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison. Div. of Library Services.

    Wisconsin state library, school library, and public school agencies advise against the consolidation of school and public libraries as a response to budget pressures. Adult library use generally declines under such arrangements. Inequity of support for various geographical areas could result. In addition, legal questions concerning the use of…

  16. Using New Mode Choice Model Nesting Structures to Address Emerging Policy Questions: A Case Study of the Pittsburgh Central Business District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulqarnain H. Khattak

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As transportation activities affect a region’s environmental quality, knowing why individuals prefer certain modes can help a region make judicious transportation investments. Using a nested logit model, this paper studies the behavior of commuters to downtown Pittsburgh who use auto, bus, light rail, walking, and biking. Although statistical measures influence the selection of a nesting structure, another criterion for model selection is the policy questions such models inform. Hence this paper demonstrates how an alternative model structure allows planners to consider new policy questions. For example, how might a change in parking fee affect greenhouse gas emission (GHGs? The proposed model showed that a 5%, 10% and 15% increase in parking cost reduces GHGs by 7.3%, 9% and 13.2%, respectively, through increasing carpoolers’ mode share. Because the proposed model forecasts mode choices of certain groups of travelers with higher accuracy (compared to an older model that did not consider the model selection criteria presented here, the proposed model strengthens policymakers’ ability to consider environmental impacts of interest to the region (in this case, GHGs. The paper does not suggest that one nesting structure is always preferable; rather the nesting structure must be chosen with the policy considerations in mind.

  17. Questions about complementary and alternative medicine to the Regional Medicines Information and Pharmacovigilance Centres in Norway (RELIS): a descriptive pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Provision of clinically relevant information about complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) to health care professionals is not well described. The aim of the study was to assess questions about CAM to the Regional Medicines Information and Pharmacovigilance Centres in Norway (RELIS). Methods All question-answers pairs (QAPs) in the RELIS database indexed with alternative medicine from 2005-2010 constituted the study material. A randomly selected sample of 100 QAPs was characterized with regard to type of question (category, patient-specific or general), occupation and workplace of enquirer, the type of information search performed (simple or advanced), and if the answers contained information to provide factual or consultative replies (facts about or advice on clinical use of CAM, respectively). Proportions were compared with Fisher’s exact test with significance at the 0.05 level. Results One thousand and thirty-eight (7.7%) out of 13 482 questions involved CAM. Eighty-two out of 100 questions concerned products containing one or more herbs, vitamins and minerals as well as other substances. Thirty-eight out of 100 questions concerned the category documentation (substance identification and/or literature reports about clinical effects), 36 interactions, 16 adverse effects, 9 pregnancy and lactation, and 1 question concerned contraindications. Sixty-three questions were patient-specific and 37 general. Fifty-four questions came from physicians, 33 from pharmacists and 13 from others (including nurses, midwives, students, CAM practitioners, and the public). Pharmacists asked more frequently about interactions while physicians asked more frequently about adverse effects (p < 0.05). Seventy-six of the questions came from outside hospital, mainly general practice and community pharmacies. Fifty-nine answers were based on a simple and 41 on an advanced information search. Thirty-three factual and 38 consultative answers were provided. In 29 answers

  18. Compliance with smoke-free policies in korean bars and restaurants in california: a descriptive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvin, Veronica L; Hofstetter, C Richard; Nichols, Jeanne F; Chambers, Christina D; Usita, Paula M; Norman, Gregory J; Kang, Sunny; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2015-01-01

    Compliance with California's smoke-free restaurant and bar policies may be more a function of social contingencies and less a function of legal contingencies. The aims of this study were: 1) to report indications of compliance with smoke-free legislation in Korean bars and restaurants in California; 2) to examine the demographic, smoking status, and acculturation factors of who smoked indoors; and 3) to report social cues in opposition to smoking among a sample of Koreans in California. Data were collected by telephone surveys administered by bilingual interviewers between 2007-2009, and included California adults of Korean descent who visited a Korean bar or restaurant in a typical month (N=2,173, 55% female). 1% of restaurant-going participants smoked inside while 7% observed someone else smoke inside a Korean restaurant. Some 23% of bar-going participants smoked inside and 65% observed someone else smoke inside a Korean bar. Presence of ashtrays was related to indoor smoking in bars and restaurants. Among participants who observed smoking, a higher percentage observed someone ask a smoker to stop (17.6%) or gesture to a smoker (27.0%) inside Korean restaurants (N=169) than inside Korean bars (n=141, 17.0% observed verbal cue and 22.7% observed gesture). Participants who smoked inside were significantly younger and more acculturated than participants who did not. Less acculturated participants were significantly more to likely to be told to stop smoking. Ten years after implementation of ordinances, smoking appears to be common in Korean bars in California.

  19. Compliance with smoke-free policies in Korean bars and restaurants: A descriptive analysis in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvin, Veronica L.; Hofstetter, C. Richard; Nichols, Jeanne F.; Chambers, Christina D.; Usita, Paula M.; Norman, Gregory J.; Kang, Sunny; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Compliance with California's smoke-free restaurant and bar policies may be more a function of social contingencies and less a function of legal contingencies. The aims of this study are: 1) to report indications of compliance with smoke-free legislation in Korean bars and restaurants in California; 2) to examine the demographic, smoking status, and acculturation factors of who smoked indoors; and 3) to report social cues in opposition to smoking among a sample of Koreans in California. Method Data were collected by telephone surveys administered by bilingual interviewers between 2007– 2009, and included California adults of Korean descent who visited a Korean bar or restaurant in a typical month (N=2,173, 55% female). Results 1% of restaurant-going participants smoked inside while 7% observed someone else smoke inside a Korean restaurant. 23% of bar-going participants smoked inside and 65% observed someone else smoke inside a Korean bar. Presence of ashtrays was related to indoor smoking in bars and restaurants. Among participants who observed smoking, a higher percentage observed someone ask a smoker to stop (17.6%) or gesture to a smoker (27.0%) inside Korean restaurants (N=169) than inside Korean bars (n=141, 17.0% observed verbal cue and 22.7% observed gesture). Participants who smoked inside were significantly younger and more acculturated than participants who did not. Less acculturated participants were significantly more to likely to be told to stop smoking. Conclusions Ten years after implementation of ordinances, smoking was common in Korean bars in California. PMID:25735336

  20. The Challenges of Digital Literacy in the Context of the Spanish Government Educational Policies: The Statement of the Question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Carmen Guillén; Quílez, Mariá Teresa Blasco

    The "(r)evolution" of the literacy concept and our duty as Languages' Teachers' Trainers at the Faculty of Education and Social Work in Valladolid's University (Spain), guides this research in progress. Our research develops in the framework of the Spanish Higher Education System, within the development of the eight key competences established by the European Council, for the Education and Training of the European citizens for lifelong learning in the knowledge society. We focus on the competences 1, 2 and 4: Communication in the mother tongue, Communication in foreign languages and Digital competence, both as essential competences in the professional language's teacher's profile and as a challenge in the Teacher's Education and Training in the Spanish government policies context.

  1. A question–answer pair (QAP) database integrated with websites to answer complex questions submitted to the Regional Medicines Information and Pharmacovigilance Centres in Norway (RELIS): a descriptive study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reppe, Linda A; Roland, Pål-Didrik H; Westergren, Tone

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess a question–answer pair (QAP) database integrated with websites developed for drug information centres to answer complex questions effectively. Design Descriptive study with comparison of two subsequent 6-year periods (1995–2000 and 2001–2006). Setting The Regional Medicines Information and Pharmacovigilance Centres in Norway (RELIS). Participants A randomised sample of QAPs from the RELIS database. Primary outcome measure Answer time in days compared with Mann–Whitney U test. Secondary outcome measure Number of drugs involved (one, two, three or more), complexity (judgemental and/or patient-related or not) and literature search (none, simple or advanced) compared with χ2 tests. Results 842 QAPs (312 from 1995 to 2000 and 530 from 2001 to 2006) were compared. The fraction of judgemental and patient-related questions increased (66%–75% and 54%–72%, respectively, p50% advanced) was similar in the two periods, but the fraction of answers referring to the RELIS database increased (13%–31%, p<0.01). Median answer time was reduced from 2 days to 1 (p<0.01), although the fraction of complex questions increased from the first to the second period. Furthermore, the mean number of questions per employee per year increased from 66 to 89 from the first to the second period. Conclusions The authors conclude that RELIS has a potential to efficiently answer complex questions. The model is of relevance for organisation of drug information centres. PMID:22422916

  2. TEACHING DESCRIPTIVE READING BY USING SURVEY, QUESTION, READ, WRITE AND (SQRW STRATEGY TO THE TENTH GRADE STUDENTS OF SMA MUHAMMADIYAH 1 PALEMBANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    marlen rahmawati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to find out whether or not there is a significant improvement before and after the treatment on the tenth grade students’ reading comprehension scores of SMA Muhammadiyah 1 Palembang by using SQRW strategy and to find out whether or not there is a significant difference on the tenth grade students’ reading comprehension scores of SMA Muhammadiyah 1 Palembang between the students who are taught by using SQRW strategy and those who are not. This study used quasi-experimental design using nonequivalent pretest-posttest design. There were 68 students from class X MIPA 4 and X MIPA 6 chosen as the sample. In collecting the data, test was used. The test was given twice to experimental and control groups, for pretest and posttest. To verify the hypotheses, the data of pretest and posttest were analyzed by using independent sample t-test and paired sample t-test in SPSS 18 program. The findings showed that the p-output from paired sample t-test (sig2-tailed was 0.000 which was lower than 0.05, and t-value 11.294 was higher than t-table (34-1 with df=33 (2.034. The result of p-output from independent sample t-test was 0.003 which was lower that 0.05 and the t-value 3.104 was higher than t-table (68-2 with df=66 (1.996. Therefore it could be stated that teaching reading descriptive text by using SQRW strategy had significant improvement and showed significant difference on the students’ reading comprehension scores.

  3. Invalidating Policies using Structural Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammuller, Florian; Probst, Christian W.

    2014-01-01

    by invalidating policies using structural information of the organisational model. Based on this structural information and a description of the organisation’s policies, our approach invalidates the policies and identifies exemplary sequences of actions that lead to a violation of the policy in question. Based...... on these examples, the organisation can identify real attack vectors that might result in an insider attack. This information can be used to refine access control systems or policies. We provide case studies showing how mechanical verification tools, i.e. modelchecking with MCMAS and interactive theorem proving...

  4. Water data to answer urgent water policy questions: Monitoring design, available data and filling data gaps for determining the effectiveness of agricultural management practices for reducing tributary nutrient loads to Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentanzo, Elin A.; Choquette, Anne F.; Reckhow, Kenneth H.; Hayes, Laura; Hagan, Erik R; Argue, Denise M.; Cangelosi, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Throughout its history, the United States has made major investments in assessing natural resources, such as soils, timber, oil and gas, and water. These investments allow policy makers, the private sector and the American public to make informed decisions about cultivating, harvesting or conserving these resources to maximize their value for public welfare, environmental conservation and the economy. As policy issues evolve, new priorities and challenges arise for natural resource assessment, and new approaches to monitoring are needed. For example, informed conservation and use of the nation’s finite fresh water resources in the context of increasingly intensive land development is a priority for today’s policy decisionmakers. There is a need to evaluate whether today’s water monitoring programs are generating the information needed to answer questions surrounding these new policy priorities. The Northeast-Midwest Institute (NEMWI), in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program, initiated this project to explore the types and amounts of water data needed to address water-quality related policy questions of critical concern to today’s policy makers. The collaborating entities identified two urgent water policy questions and conducted case studies in the Northeast-Midwest region to determine the water data needed, water data available, and the best ways to fill the data gaps relative to those questions. This report details the output from one case study and focuses on the Lake Erie drainage basin, a data-rich area expected to be a best-case scenario in terms of water data availability.

  5. Legacy question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    The legacy question discussed refers to the definition of appropriate actions in this generation to provide a world that will allow future generations to use the earth without excessive limitations caused by our use and disposal of potentially hazardous materials

  6. Experiences with a novel policy for managing conflicts of interest of guideline developers: a descriptive qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Ignacio; Karl, Renee; Rajpal, Aman; Akl, Elie A; Guyatt, Gordon H

    2013-08-01

    The executive committee of the Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines (AT9) developed a novel policy for managing conflicts of interest (COIs): Methodologists bore primary responsibility for each chapter, there was equal emphasis on intellectual and financial COI, and content experts with COIs participated, but with restrictions for recommendations on which they had conflicts. The objective of this study was to explore the experiences of the methodologists and content experts with the COI policy after its implementation. One investigator conducted two rounds of semistructured interviews with the methodologist and the leading content expert of each chapter until data saturation was achieved. Two investigators analyzed the transcripts of the interviews in duplicate using an immersion-crystallization approach. We also conducted member checking. We interviewed 15 participants and presented the results to the remaining four for verification. In comparison with their views expressed prior to AT9 development, methodologists remained more positive about the policy than content experts. Six of 10 content experts expressed a more positive view than prior to participation in the AT9 process. The other four content experts remained skeptical, especially regarding the emphasis on intellectual COI. The restrictions of the policy on conflicted individuals were not fully implemented. After its implementation, some content experts were more favorable to the policy, but some retained major reservations. The influence of the policy on recommendations may have been more through the leading role of the methodologists than exclusion of conflicted participants in making recommendations.

  7. Water data to answer urgent water policy questions: Monitoring design, available data, and filling data gaps for determining whether shale gas development activities contaminate surface water or groundwater in the Susquehanna River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betanzo, Elin A.; Hagen, Erik R.; Wilson, John T.; Reckhow, Kenneth H.; Hayes, Laura; Argue, Denise M.; Cangelosi, Allegra A.

    2016-01-01

    Throughout its history, the United States has made major investments in assessing natural resources, such as soils, timber, oil and gas, and water. These investments allow policy makers, the private sector and the American public to make informed decisions about cultivating, harvesting or conserving these resources to maximize their value for public welfare, environmental conservation and the economy. As policy issues evolve, new priorities and challenges arise for natural resource assessment, and new approaches to monitoring are needed. For example, new technologies for oil and gas development or alternative energy sources may present new risks for water resources both above and below ground. There is a need to evaluate whether today’s water monitoring programs are generating the information needed to answer questions surrounding these new policy priorities. The Northeast-Midwest Institute (NEMWI), in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program, initiated this project to explore the types and amounts of water data needed to address water-quality related policy questions of critical concern to today’s policy makers and whether those data are currently available. The collaborating entities identified two urgent water policy questions and conducted case studies in the Northeast-Midwest region to determine the water data needed, water data available, and the best ways to fill the data gaps relative to those questions. This report details the output from one case study and focuses on the Susquehanna River Basin, a data-rich area expected to be a best-case scenario in terms of water data availability.

  8. The New Policy on Higher Education of the Government of the Dominican Republic: Some Descriptive and Evaluative Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escala, Miguel Jose

    The purpose of this report is to analyze a new higher education policy adoped by the Dominican Republic in Decree 1255 of 1983, "Regulations for Private Higher Education." Geographical, historical, and political characteristics of the Dominican Republic are described, and theoretical and methodological considerations in the study of…

  9. Thousand Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    (perhaps as an expanded Turing test) on its listeners. These questions are extracted in real-time from Twitter with the keyword search of the ‘?’ symbol to create a spatio-temporal experience. The computerized voice the audience hears is a collective one, an entanglement of humans and non...

  10. Distraction by smartphone use during clinical practice and opinions about smartphone restriction policies: A cross-sectional descriptive study of nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sumi; Lee, Eunjoo

    2016-05-01

    Smartphone use in healthcare settings may distract healthcare providers and disrupt patient care. Moreover, it may lead to adverse events, thereby threatening patient safety. This study assessed nursing students' smartphone use as a source of distraction in clinical practice and identified their opinions about policies restricting smartphone use during patient care. A cross-sectional descriptive design was used with convenience sampling. Third-year nursing students (n=312) from two nursing schools in the Republic of Korea completed the survey in 2012. A self-report questionnaire-based on addiction theories for problem behaviors and literature on the distraction caused by cellular phone use-was used to assess smartphone use, experiences of distraction caused by smartphone use, and opinions about restriction policies on smartphone use during clinical practice. Nearly half (46.2%) of the nursing students used smartphones at least sometimes during clinical practice and about a quarter of the respondents (24.7%) were at least sometimes distracted by smartphones during clinical practice. The majority of the respondents (83.7%) had witnessed nurses using smartphones at least sometimes during their work. A few respondents (15.7%) agreed or strongly agreed with the policy for restricting smartphone use in hospitals. Students who used smartphones more often tended to disagree with restriction policies for smartphone use in hospitals. Awareness about the risks of smartphone use, especially regarding patient safety, is necessary for nursing students in school and hospital settings. Educators and faculty of nursing schools need to develop policies that encourage intelligent and safe use of smartphones during clinical practice. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Traveling questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I argue that uncertainty and nonknowledge, and not just research results, can be important vehicles of translation through which genetic research participation comes to affect the lives of research participants. Based on interviews with participants in a genetic research project, I....... Research questions, and not just results, may serve as a generative form of knowledge that can travel as fast as any answer....

  12. Failure of hospital employees to comply with smoke-free policy is associated with nicotine dependence and motives for smoking: a descriptive cross-sectional study at a teaching hospital in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner Kenrick

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoke-free policy aims to protect the health of the population by reducing exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, and World Health Organisation (WHO guidance notes that these policies are only successful if there is full and proper enforcement. We aimed to investigate the problem of resistance to smoking restrictions and specifically compliance with smoke-free policy. We hypothesised that an explanation for non-compliance would lie in a measurable difference between the smoking behaviours of compliant and non-compliant smokers, specifically that non-compliance would be associated with nicotine dependence and different reasons for smoking. Methods We conducted a questionnaire-based, descriptive, cross-sectional study of hospital employees. Seven hundred and four members of staff at Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK, completed the questionnaire, of whom 101 were smokers. Comparison between compliant and non-compliant smokers was made based on calculated scores for the Fagerström test and the Horn-Waingrow scale, and level of agreement with questions about attitudes. For ordinal data we used a linear-by-linear association test. For non-parametric independent variables we used the Mann-Whitney test and for associations between categorical variables we used the chi-squared test. Results The demographic composition of respondents corresponded with the hospital's working population in gender, age, job profile and ethnicity. Sixty nine smokers reported they were compliant while 32 were non-compliant. Linear-by-linear association analysis of the compliant and non-compliant smokers' answers for the Fagerström test suggests association between compliance and nicotine dependence (p = 0.049. Mann-Whitney test analysis suggests there is a statistically significant difference between the reasons for smoking of the two groups: specifically that non-compliant smokers showed habitual smoking behaviour (p = 0.003. Overall

  13. Une question

    OpenAIRE

    Resweber, Jean-Paul

    2005-01-01

    Dans deux conférences consacrées à une analyse critique du discours de Freud, L. Althusser, pose, semble-t-il, la bonne question , quoique d’une manière quelque peu embarrassée et péremptoire. Le rapport de Freud à la philosophie, qu’il soit examiné au travers d’une confrontation problématique entre celle-ci et psychanalyse naissante, ou bien au travers d’un dialogue entre les postulats nouveaux et les thèses classiques défendues par Platon, Kant, Nietzsche, Schopenhauer ou Wittgenstein, ne s...

  14. Machinery Question

    OpenAIRE

    Meacci, Ferdinando

    2008-01-01

    The “machinery question” was developed by the economist David Ricardo (1772–1823) in the chapter “On Machinery” added to the third edition of his Principles of Political Economy and Taxation (1821). This question related, in his words, to the “influence of machinery on the interests of the different classes of society” and particularly to the “opinion entertained by the labouring class, that the employment of machinery is frequently detrimental to their interests”. Ricardo’s argument was pres...

  15. Policies and procedures related to testing for weak D phenotypes and administration of Rh immune globulin: results and recommendations related to supplemental questions in the Comprehensive Transfusion Medicine survey of the College of American Pathologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, S Gerald; Roseff, Susan D; Domen, Ronald E; Shaz, Beth; Gottschall, Jerome L

    2014-05-01

    Advances in RHD genotyping offer an opportunity to update policies and practices for testing weak D phenotypes and administration of Rh immune globulin to postpartum women. To repeat questions from a 1999 College of American Pathologists proficiency test survey, to evaluate current practices for testing for weak D and administration of Rh immune globulin, and to determine whether there is an opportunity to begin integrating RHD genotyping in laboratory practice. The College of American Pathologists Transfusion Medicine Resource Committee sent questions from the 1999 survey to laboratories that participated in the 2012 proficiency test survey. The results of the 2012 survey were compared with those from 1999. Results from published RHD genotyping studies were analyzed to determine if RHD genotyping could improve current policies and practices for serological Rh typing. More than 3100 survey participants responded to the 2012 questions. The most significant finding was a decrease in the number of transfusion services performing a serological weak D test on patients as a strategy to manage those with a weak D as Rh negative (from 58.2% to 19.8%, P policies and practices could improve the accuracy of Rh typing results, reduce unnecessary administration of Rh immune globulin in women with a weak D, and decrease transfusion of Rh-negative red blood cells in most recipients with a serological weak D phenotype.

  16. Promoting Policy and Environmental Change in Faith-Based Organizations: Description and Findings From a Mini-Grants Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriola, Kimberly R Jacob; Hermstad, April; Flemming, Shauna St Clair; Honeycutt, Sally; Carvalho, Michelle L; Cherry, Sabrina T; Davis, Tamara; Frazier, Sheritta; Escoffery, Cam; Kegler, Michelle C

    2017-05-01

    The Emory Prevention Research Center's Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network mini-grant program funded faith-based organizations to implement policy and environmental change to promote healthy eating and physical activity in rural South Georgia. This study describes the existing health promotion environment and its relationship to church member behavior. Cross-sectional. Data were obtained from parishioners of six churches in predominantly rural South Georgia. Participants were 319 church members with average age of 48 years, of whom 80% were female and 84% were black/African-American. Questionnaires assessed perceptions of the existing church health promotion environment relative to nutrition and physical activity, eating behavior and intention to use physical activity facilities at church, and eating and physical activity behaviors outside of church. Multiple regression and ordinal logistic regression using generalized estimating equations were used to account for clustered data. Results indicate that delivering messages via sermons and church bulletins, having healthy eating programs, and serving healthy foods are associated with participants' self-reported consumption of healthy foods at church (all p values ≤ .001). Serving more healthy food and less unhealthy food was associated with healthier eating in general but not to physical activity in general (p values ≤ .001). The church environment may play an important role in supporting healthy eating in this setting and more generally.

  17. Unanswered Questions in Colombia's Foreign Language Education Policy (Preguntas por responder en la política educativa de lenguas extranjeras en Colombia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla Carvajal, Camilo Andrés; Tejada-Sánchez, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Following the trend of much of the Western, non-English speaking world, Colombia has tirelessly strived for spreading English education in an effort to augment economic benefits. This paper aims at providing a critical account of foreign language education policy in Colombia, with special attention to English. It outlines the impact of its…

  18. The social question revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenneth, Petersson; Olsson, Ulf; Krejsler, John B.

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this chapter is the re-installation of the social question as a historical practice. The purpose is to investigate how historic figures return and are applied in contemporary political discourses, more precisely in the context of education, education policy and teacher education....... Contemporary as well as the 19th century debates about the social dimension and the social question deal with social integration. The recent London Communiqué of Ministers emphasizes the importance of the social dimension in higher education in terms of fostering social cohesion, reducing inequalities...... the diversity of relevant populations “without obstacles related to their social and economic background”. In the 19th century the social question was raised in a context of industrialization of societies. It dealt with suggestions about disintegration of predominant social structures and the management...

  19. Question time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jennifer

    Choosing to train as a nurse is a major decision, rife with different emotions and considerations. Regardless of what point you have reached in your studies, whether you are studying towards a degree or diploma, whatever your age and whether you are from the UK or overseas, you face common challenges. These include surviving financially, juggling study and clinical placements, learning new information and addressing patients' needs. While the profession certainly offers exciting opportunities, nursing students in 2006 face a range of uncertainties. There have been cuts and freezes to existing and vacant posts across NHS trusts, while students from overseas face the additional problem that band 5 and 6 nursing posts have been removed from the Home Office's shortage occupation list. Will there be enough mentors to teach students? Will there be jobs when they qualify? How can students survive financially? Will overseas students be able to stay once qualified? NT put students' key questions to a panel of experts and influential figures.

  20. Política de saúde do trabalhador no Brasil: muitas questões sem respostas National worker's health policy: many questions without answers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena B. de Oliveira

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo enfoca a Política Nacional de Saúde do Trabalhador, na perspectiva da expressão do descaso que esta representa frente ao quadro dramático de morbi-mortalidade da classe trabalhadora brasileira. Indica os principais problemas que a política apresenta, destacando questões como a subnotificação das doenças profissionais e dos acidentes de trabalho; a competência das ações, denunciando a fragmentação de responsabilidades a partir da existência de diversas instituições e órgãos com atribuições de intervenção na área; a forma marginal, historicamente estabelecida, como é tratada a Política de Saúde do Trabalhador no contexto da Política Nacional de Saúde; as dificuldades na formação de recursos humanos, entre outras. Aponta para a necessidade de uma política que assegure aos trabalhadores brasileiros a transformação real do grave quadro de mortes e doenças em que encontram-se submetidos, desencadeando processos preventivos de fato, a partir da reestruturação dos processos produtivos e tendo os trabalhadores como condutores desta política. Finalmente, levanta uma série de questões, ainda sem resposta, que possam servir de matéria para investigações, estudos e pesquisas na área.The National Worker's Health Policy is analysed, pointing to such problems as undernotification of occupational diseases and work-related accidents, accountability fragmentation among various organizations, the importance worker's health policy in the context of the National Health Policy, and the lack of trained personnel. This extremely serious situation should be reverted by structural changes in the productive processes, with the active participation of workers both in the stablishment and conduction of this policy. Finally, this paper points to several issues that can contribute to future investigations, research and studies in this area.

  1. A full description of the Three-ME model: Multi-sector macro-economic Model for the Evaluation of Environmental and Energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callonnec, Gael; Landa, Gissela; Malliet, Paul; Yeddir-Tamsamani, Yasser; Reynes, Frederic

    2013-01-01

    Since 2008, the ADEME and the OFCE are involved in a research convention to develop the model Three-ME. This document provides a full description of new version of the model. Three-ME is a new model of the French economy especially designed to evaluate the medium and long term impact of environmental and energy policies at the macro-economic and sector levels. To do so Three-ME combines two important features. Firstly, it has the main characteristics of neo-Keynesian models by assuming a slow adjustment of effective quantities and prices to their notional level, an endogenous money supply, a Taylor rule and a Philips curve. Compared to standard multi-sector CGEM, this has the advantage to allow for the existence of under-optimum equilibria such as the presence of involuntary unemployment. Secondly, Three-ME is a hybrid model in the sense that it combines the top-down approach of general equilibrium macro-economic models with elements of bottom-up models of energy models developed by engineers. As in bottom-up models, the amount of energy consumed is related to their use, that is the number of buildings or cars, and the energy class to which they belong. This hypothesis is more realistic compared to the assumption made in the majority of top-down models where energy consumption is usually directly related to income through a nested structure of utility function. (authors)

  2. VQABQ: Visual Question Answering by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong

    2017-03-19

    Taking an image and question as the input of our method, it can output the text-based answer of the query question about the given image, so called Visual Question Answering (VQA). There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the basic questions of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization problem, and also propose a criterion about how to exploit these basic questions to help answer main question. Our method is evaluated on the challenging VQA dataset and yields state-of-the-art accuracy, 60.34% in open-ended task.

  3. Homens, saúde e políticas públicas: a equidade de gênero em questão Men, health and public policies: gender equality in question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Thereza Couto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available O artigo tem por objetivo estabelecer questões acerca do tema Homens, Saúde e Políticas Públicas para a viabilização do debate sobre o assunto, com base em referências teóricas e empíricas relacionadas a essas questões. Inicialmente, alguns marcos históricos de temática são apresentados para que melhor se situe o debate. Em seguida, apresenta-se panorama da agenda de gênero nas políticas públicas para se introduzir a discussão acerca da inserção dessa perspectiva no âmbito das políticas de saúde. Após essa discussão, aborda-se o questionamento sobre o fato de as políticas de saúde dos homens promoverem ou não a equidade de gênero. Nas considerações finais, aponta-se para a complexidade que envolve a elaboração, a implementação e a avaliação das políticas de saúde que visam à equidade de gênero, bem como se destaca a necessidade de a política brasileira voltada para a saúde dos homens articular-se com outras políticas para que a matriz de gênero seja transversal no campo da saúde.The scope of this article is to pose questions on the theme of Men, Health and Public Policies to render debate on the subject viable, based on theoretical and empirical references related to these issues. Initially, some historical landmarks on the theme are presented to provide guidelines for debate. An overview of the gender agenda in public policies is then presented to introduce the discussion about the inclusion of a gender perspective in healthcare policies. After this discussion, queries are raised about whether or not policies geared to men's health promote gender equality. In the closing remarks, the complexity involved in the development, implementation and evaluation of health policies aimed at gender equality is highlighted. The need for the Brazilian policy geared towards men's health to be implemented with other policies such that the gender matrix is transversal in the healthcare field is also stressed.

  4. Priority Questions and Horizon Scanning for Conservation: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kark, Salit; Sutherland, William J.; Shanas, Uri; Klass, Keren; Achisar, Hila; Dayan, Tamar; Gavrieli, Yael; Justo-Hanani, Ronit; Mandelik, Yael; Orion, Nir; Pargament, David; Portman, Michelle; Reisman-Berman, Orna; Safriel, Uriel N.; Schaffer, Gad; Steiner, Noa; Tauber, Israel; Levin, Noam

    2016-01-01

    Several projects aimed at identifying priority issues for conservation with high relevance to policy have recently been completed in several countries. Two major types of projects have been undertaken, aimed at identifying (i) policy-relevant questions most imperative to conservation and (ii) horizon scanning topics, defined as emerging issues that are expected to have substantial implications for biodiversity conservation and policy in the future. Here, we provide the first overview of the outcomes of biodiversity and conservation-oriented projects recently completed around the world using this framework. We also include the results of the first questions and horizon scanning project completed for a Mediterranean country. Overall, the outcomes of the different projects undertaken (at the global scale, in the UK, US, Canada, Switzerland and in Israel) were strongly correlated in terms of the proportion of questions and/or horizon scanning topics selected when comparing different topic areas. However, some major differences were found across regions. There was large variation among regions in the percentage of proactive (i.e. action and response oriented) versus descriptive (non-response oriented) priority questions and in the emphasis given to socio-political issues. Substantial differences were also found when comparing outcomes of priority questions versus horizon scanning projects undertaken for the same region. For example, issues related to climate change, human demography and marine ecosystems received higher priority as horizon scanning topics, while ecosystem services were more emphasized as current priority questions. We suggest that future initiatives aimed at identifying priority conservation questions and horizon scanning topics should allow simultaneous identification of both current and future priority issues, as presented here for the first time. We propose that further emphasis on social-political issues should be explicitly integrated into future

  5. Invalidating Policies using Structural Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammuller, Florian; Probst, Christian W.

    2013-01-01

    Insider threats are a major threat to many organisations. Even worse, insider attacks are usually hard to detect, especially if an attack is based on actions that the attacker has the right to perform. In this paper we present a step towards detecting the risk for this kind of attacks by invalida...... on these examples, the organisation can identify real attack vectors that might result in an insider attack. This information can be used to refine access control system or policies....... by invalidating policies using structural information of the organisational model. Based on this structural information and a description of the organisation's policies, our approach invalidates the policies and identifies exemplary sequences of actions that lead to a violation of the policy in question. Based...

  6. Ten Questions about Language Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolitho, R.; Carter, R.; Hughes, R.; Ivanic, R.; Masuhara, H.; Tomlinson, B.

    2003-01-01

    This article was written interactively over an extended period of consultation and explores questions concerning the theory and practice of language awareness, its descriptive orientations, its relationship with critical social dimensions, and its connections with current theories of language teaching and learning. (Author/VWL)

  7. A District's Use of Data and Research to Inform Policy Formation and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seager, Andrew; Madura, John P.; Cox, Joshua; Carey, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    This descriptive study of a change initiative by the Syracuse (NY) City School District informs the question, "How do school boards and districts better use research and data to inform policy decisions?" Researchers used interviews and artifacts to describe how the district developed and implemented a new discipline policy, the Syracuse…

  8. Creative cities: Conceptual issues and policy questions

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Allen J

    2006-01-01

    This article represents a broad and occasionally polemical meditation on the nature and significance of creative cities. I seek to situate the concept of creative cities within the context of the so-called new economy and to trace out the connections of these phenomena to recent shifts in technologies, structures of production, labor markets, and the dynamics of locational agglomeration. I try to show, in particular, how the structures of the new economy unleash historically specific forms of...

  9. Food policy an ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian Eyde; Kemp, Peter

    2014-01-01

    makes of food policy a highly complex and diverse area. The entry opens with at description of the concept of policy and food policy and how it relates to ethical principles and values. The fourth section discusses some influental definitions of food policy. The final section contains a description......This entry gives an overview of food policy and major ethical principles that in the last decades have been proposed and advocated for in debates on food policy. Food policies touch upon a vast area of interrelated policies (like health, transport, environment, poverty, animal welfare etc.) which...... of ethical principles and ideas of relevance to food policy....

  10. Food policy an ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian Eyde; Kemp, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This entry gives an overview of food policy and major ethical principles that in the last decades have been proposed and advocated for in debates on food policy. Food policies touch upon a vast area of interrelated policies (like health, transport, environment, poverty, animal welfare etc.) which...... makes of food policy a highly complex and diverse area. The entry opens with at description of the concept of policy and food policy and how it relates to ethical principles and values. The fourth section discusses some influental definitions of food policy. The final section contains a description...... of ethical principles and ideas of relevance to food policy....

  11. A questioning environment for scaffolding learners' questioning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Given that questioning is one of the most important learning-teaching tools available to both learner and educator, we have created a computer-based scaffolding environment in which students are required to generate questions to interrogate academic texts. Learners have been using this new scaffolding tool this year, and ...

  12. 101 questions about energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furfari, S.

    2009-01-01

    Today, energy in the center of the world events. People get swamped with information about energy, environment, energy saving or renewable energy sources. However, the solutions proposed are still in the centre of debates and no consensus exists which allows to define a clear policy: nuclear energy or wind power? Solar energy or biomass fuels? And what about the meaning of the expression 'clean coal'? And why oil prices go up and down while it is said that the resource is close to exhaustion? Mass media are trying to tell us that 'urgency is here', mainly because of the climatic threat of greenhouse gases and because of a world economy totally dependent of politically unstable areas, like Middle East, Africa or Caucasus, but with huge oil and gas resources. And what about Europe, and what about all this gas in Russia? It is hard for a non-specialist to find his way in this complex domain. This is the aim of this book which has opted for the non-politically correct attitude to answer 101 key-questions about the energy topic: Europe's security of supply, energy geopolitics, oil future, energy crises, sustainable development etc. (J.S.)

  13. Tough Policies, Incredible Policies?

    OpenAIRE

    Andres Velasco; Alejandro Neut

    2003-01-01

    We revisit the question of what determines the credibility of macroeconomic policies here, of promises to repay public debt. Almost all thinking on the issue has focused on governments' strategic decision to default (or erode the value of outstanding debt via inflation/devaluation). But sometimes governments default not because they want to, but because they cannot avoid it: adverse shocks leave them no option. We build a model in which default/devaluation can occur deliberately (for strategi...

  14. La quête du sens. Repenser la question de l’interprétation dans l’analyse des politiques publiques The quest for meaning. Rethinking the notion of interpretation in the analysis of public policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Rumpala

    2008-09-01

    appréhension du rôle des interventions institutionnelles par rapport à des évolutions sociales de fond. Cette fertilité analytique peut même s’avérer d’autant plus nécessaire que la période actuelle donne fréquemment une image d’immersion dans un mouvement de changements profonds.This contribution proposes to take an interest in the interpretive dimension of policy analysis. This dimension has been put forward by a current of research which seems to have enjoyed less notoriety in French-speaking circles than in Anglo-Saxon ones. In various forms, this current is defended by influential authors like Frank Fischer, Dvora Yanow, Mark Bevir, and R.A.W. Rhodes. It can be distinguished from French research work which claims to integrate the question of meaning with an approach generally described as “cognitive”. By putting into perspective this research trend, which claims to extend an “interpretive turn”, this contribution aims in particular at seizing the possible nature of analytic research on public policies, by underscoring the possible pitfalls stemming from a lack of interpretive understanding. As a matter of fact, most recent studies concerning what is commonly called “public policy analysis” or “sociology of public action”, show a great sociological refinement in their analyses. Interplay between actors is often thoroughly studied, but lacks are nonetheless manifest insofar as the reader is provided with hardly any elements to seize the meaning of these activities. The question that can thus be asked is that of a different positioning in the way of working out the analysis from the collection of information. Bringing out reasons or causes does not concern the same nature of thought than seizing meaning. An interpretive approach can reduce the risks of limiting research to the sophistication of a micro-analysis. By avoiding to transform the processes that are studied into particular episodes almost independent from their original context, such an

  15. Descriptive Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigram, Anthony Lewis

    2003-01-01

    Descriptive research is described by Lathom-Radocy and Radocy (1995) to include Survey research, ex post facto research, case studies and developmental studies. Descriptive research also includes a review of the literature in order to provide both quantitative and qualitative evidence of the effect...... starts will allow effect size calculations to be made in order to evaluate effect over time. Given the difficulties in undertaking controlled experimental studies in the creative arts therapies, descriptive research methods offer a way of quantifying effect through descriptive statistical analysis...

  16. Statements on questions concerning nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, H.; May, H.

    1978-04-01

    Questions and answers compiled in this publication are excerpts from correspondence with citizens during the licensing procedure for the planned nuclear power plant. Subjects: Environmental impacts, environmental monitoring, earthquake safety, aircraft crashes, disaster control, questions concerning liability, waste management, energy and economy policies, and planning procedure. (HP) [de

  17. Burning Questions about Calories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, J. David; Berry, Kimberly A.

    2001-01-01

    Uses questioning techniques to teach about caloric consumption and weight gain. Starts with defining questions about calories and includes the stages of measuring calories, analyzing data, and conducting inquiry research. Includes directions for the experiment. (YDS)

  18. Asking Questions in Academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2014-01-01

    Motivation for the activity In academia the most important skill is to ask academically relevant and sound questions. This is not easy and students need to practice asking questions orally and in writing before they write research papers.......Motivation for the activity In academia the most important skill is to ask academically relevant and sound questions. This is not easy and students need to practice asking questions orally and in writing before they write research papers....

  19. The Questions of Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, J. T.

    2009-01-01

    What are the basic things that compose curriculum, and what are the questions that may be posed about these things? Joseph Schwab's conception of curriculum is used to introduce a scheme of questions concerning the nature, elements, and practice of curriculum. Formulations of questions by other curriculum theorists are reviewed and analysed in…

  20. Interfacing with questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soon, Winnie

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses an artistic project entitled If I wrote you a love letter would you write back (and thousands of other questions): a piece of software that utilizes Twitter web API to query questions, drawing unpredictable questions in real-time from the distributed database of Twitter...

  1. A Descriptive Longitudinal Study of Changes in Vape Shop Characteristics and Store Policies in Anticipation of the 2016 FDA Regulations of Tobacco Products, Including E-Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sheila; Escobedo, Patricia; Garcia, Robert; Cruz, Tess Boley; Unger, Jennifer B; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Meza, Leah; Sussman, Steve

    2018-02-11

    After proposing the "Deeming Rule" in 2014, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) began regulating the manufacturing, marketing, and sales of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) products as tobacco products in 2016. The current study conducted vape shop store observations and surveyed Los Angeles-area shop employees (assessing their beliefs, awareness, and perceptions of e-cigarettes and related FDA regulations) at two time points one year apart to better understand what vape shop retailers would do given FDA's soon-to-be-enacted Deeming Rule. The study also compared retailer beliefs/awareness/actions and store characteristics immediately after the Deeming Rule proposal versus a year after the Rule had been proposed, right before its enactment. Two data collection waves occurred before the Deeming Rule enactment, with Year 1 surveying 77 shops (2014) and Year 2 surveying 61 shops (2015-2016). Between the data collection points, 16 shops had closed. Among the shops that were open at both time points, the majority (95% in Year 1; 74% in Year 2) were aware of some FDA regulations or other policies applying to vape shops. However, overall awareness of FDA regulations and state/local policies governing e-cigarettes significantly decreased from Year 1 to Year 2. At both time points, all shops offered customers free puffs of nicotine-containing e-liquids (prohibited by the then upcoming Deeming Rule). Perceptions of e-cigarette safety also significantly decreased between the years. Exploring vape shop retailer perceptions and store policies (i.e., free puffs/samples displays, perceptions of e-cigarette safety, etc.) over time will help the FDA assess the needs of the vape shop community and develop more effective retailer education campaigns and materials targeted to increase compliance with the newly enacted regulations.

  2. A Descriptive Longitudinal Study of Changes in Vape Shop Characteristics and Store Policies in Anticipation of the 2016 FDA Regulations of Tobacco Products, Including E-Cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Yu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available After proposing the “Deeming Rule” in 2014, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA began regulating the manufacturing, marketing, and sales of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette products as tobacco products in 2016. The current study conducted vape shop store observations and surveyed Los Angeles–area shop employees (assessing their beliefs, awareness, and perceptions of e-cigarettes and related FDA regulations at two time points one year apart to better understand what vape shop retailers would do given FDA’s soon-to-be-enacted Deeming Rule. The study also compared retailer beliefs/awareness/actions and store characteristics immediately after the Deeming Rule proposal versus a year after the Rule had been proposed, right before its enactment. Two data collection waves occurred before the Deeming Rule enactment, with Year 1 surveying 77 shops (2014 and Year 2 surveying 61 shops (2015–2016. Between the data collection points, 16 shops had closed. Among the shops that were open at both time points, the majority (95% in Year 1; 74% in Year 2 were aware of some FDA regulations or other policies applying to vape shops. However, overall awareness of FDA regulations and state/local policies governing e-cigarettes significantly decreased from Year 1 to Year 2. At both time points, all shops offered customers free puffs of nicotine-containing e-liquids (prohibited by the then upcoming Deeming Rule. Perceptions of e-cigarette safety also significantly decreased between the years. Exploring vape shop retailer perceptions and store policies (i.e., free puffs/samples displays, perceptions of e-cigarette safety, etc. over time will help the FDA assess the needs of the vape shop community and develop more effective retailer education campaigns and materials targeted to increase compliance with the newly enacted regulations.

  3. A Hybrid Approach to Clinical Question Answering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    participation in TREC, we submitted a single run using a hybrid Natural Language Processing ( NLP )-driven approach to accomplish the given task. Evaluation re...for the CDS track uses a variety of NLP - based techniques to address the clinical questions provided. We present a description of our approach, and...discuss our experimental setup, results and eval- uation in the subsequent sections. 2 Description of Our Approach Our hybrid NLP -driven method presents a

  4. Policy Innovation in Innovation Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borras, Susana

    as with national and sub-national governments in Europe, all of them introducing interesting novelties in their innovation policy. These changes refer to different aspects of policy, mainly the content of policy initiatives towards science, technology and innovation; the instruments governments are using...... to achieve their goals; and the actors in the policy system that are being mobilised in pursuing these goals. This paper deals with these policy changes, paying special attention to the novelties introduced since the early 1990s in Europe. The perspective of this paper deals mainly on the changes introduced...... at the EU level, and mentions similar trends taking place at national and sub-national levels. The questions that guide the contents here are essentially three, namely, what are the main traits of innovation policies in Europe since the 1990s and how have the EU and different national governments approached...

  5. Asking the Right Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Line

    Based on fieldwork in Mali this paper discusses the role of anthropology (and the anthropologist) in a large public health research project on children's health. In the uncertainty and disquiet that comes with the battle to combat and avoid diseases in a setting where poverty and abysmal diseases......, is the ability to move beyond even the best hidden assumptions and question our own questions, thereby enabling us to ask the right questions....

  6. Live your questions now

    OpenAIRE

    Brownrigg, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    'Live Your Questions Now' is a case study for Cubitt Education's publication 'Aging in Public: creative practice in ageing and the public realm from across the UK', edited by Daniel Baker and published by Cubitt Gallery, Studios and Education, London in 2016. The publication was linked to Cubitt's programme 'Public Wisdom' (2011-2015). My case study is about 'Live your questions now', a group exhibition I curated in 2011 for Mackintosh Museum, The Glasgow School of Art. 'Live your questions n...

  7. From Description to prescription

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Anders Riel; Doucette, Jamie

    the Weberian foundations on which much developmental state theory is based, the policy version of the developmental state promoted by the KSP and cognate initiatives risks conflating Korea’s developmental expertise to a value-based mentalité that obscures social-spatial processes of authoritarian social...... produced and applied in problematic and decontextualized fashion that raises questions about just how ‘alternative’ Korea’s developmental expertise might be compared to other, market-oriented forms of development....

  8. Insights following change in drug policy: a descriptive study for antimalarial prescription practices in children of public sector health facilities in Jharkhand state of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Neelima; Gupta, Ruchi; Singh, Sagya; Rana, Roma; Shahi, Bhartendu; Das, Manoj Kumar; Anvikar, Anupkumar R; Valecha, Neena

    2013-12-01

    Widespread resistance to chloroquine was the mainstay to implement artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in the year 2007 in few malaria endemic states in India including Jharkhand as the first line of treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. This study was conducted in Jharkhand state of the country just after the implementation of ACT to assess the prevailing antimalarial drug prescribing practices, availability of antimalarial drugs and the acceptability of the new policy by the health professionals for the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria patients particularly in children ≤ 15 yr of age. This is a cross-sectional study in children aged ≤ 15 yr with malaria or to whom antimalarial drug was prescribed. Main outcome measure was prescription of recommended ACT in children aged ≤ 15 yr with malaria in the selected areas of Jharkhand. In the year 2008, artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) was implemented in 12 districts of the studied state; however, the availability of ACT was confirmed only in five districts. Antimalarial prescription was prevalent amongst the undiagnosed (8.4%), malaria negative (64.3%) and unknown blood test result (1.2%) suggesting the prevalence of irrational treatment practices. ACT prescription was very low with only 3.2% of confirmed falciparum malaria patients receiving it while others received either non-artesunate (NA) treatment (88.1%) including chloroquine (CQ) alone, CQ + Primaquine (PQ)/other drugs, sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) alone, SP + other drugs or artemisinin monotherapy (AM) treatment (6.3%). Still others were given non-antimalarial treatment (NM) in both malaria positive (0.3%) and malaria negative (2.1%) cases. Despite the change in drug policy in the studied state the availability and implementation of ACT was a major concern. Nevertheless, the non-availability of blister packs for children aged ≤ 15 yr was the main hindrance in the implementation of the recommended

  9. Fundamental questions before recording or measuring functioning and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Ros; Fortune, Nicola; Cheeseman, Danielle; Mpofu, Elias; Bundy, Anita

    2013-06-01

    This paper seeks to contribute to thoughtful description, recording and measurement of functioning, by discussing some fundamental questions to consider before starting, framed as: why, what, how and who. Generic literature on measurement methods and the more specialised literature on application of the ICF over the last decade inform the consideration of these questions. The context of recording or measurement is examined, including the moral and legal framework of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) and the technical framework of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Whatever the setting in which describing, recording or measuring is being undertaken - in policy development, service planning and management, clinical management or population health monitoring - determining the purpose is the key starting point. Purpose (why) frames the consideration of content (what), method (how) and source (who). Many generic measurement methods can be applied in the disability field, but there are challenges particular to the field. The perspectives of people with disabilities and "patients" require consideration, especially with the trend to person-centred care and the social justice principles emanating from the UNCRPD. Considering these basic questions is a pre-requisite to meaningful recording and measurement of functioning and disability. Future challenges include: incorporating environmental factors into measurement; setting thresholds on the disability spectrum; and combining the views of the person concerned with those of various professionals.

  10. Legal Philosophy - Five Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential.......This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential....

  11. Epistemology: 5 Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epistemology: 5 Questions is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in epistemology. We hear their views on epistemology with particular emphasis on the intersection between mainstream and formal approaches to the field......; the aim, scope, the future direction of epistemology and how their work fits in these respects...

  12. Exam Question Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, John J., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Describes three examination questions which could be used in college chemistry courses. Discusses each problem and gives acceptable solutions. Problems include: "A Multi-Topic Problem for General Chemistry"; "Consumption of Air by Biuret Reagent--a Question Involving Experimental Design"; and "An Instructive Problem in Heterogeneous Equilibrium."…

  13. Probation, 12 essential questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fergus McNeill; Rene Butter; Ioan Durnescu

    2016-01-01

    This volume poses a series of key questions about the practice of probation as an integral part of the European criminal justice system. The contributors are established experts in their respective fields of study and together their questions address the legitimacy, and perhaps continued existence,

  14. New scenes and houses for literature - a challenge for cultural and public library policy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Niels D.

    2012-01-01

    The paper focuses on the emergence of new initiatives and undertakings in the field of promotion and use of literature in comparison with the possibilities and practices of the traditional public library institutions and of public cultural policy. First a description of a dual development of the ...... questions of subsiding and relations to libraries and civil society....

  15. Descriptive research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lans, W; van der Voordt, Theo; de Jong, T.M.; van der Voordt, D.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    A lot of knowledge is needed for a good design; one that is functional, affordable, with architectonic interest etc. The same applies to a wealth of other activities within the architectural discipline; as there are policy development, spatial planning, formulating programmes of requirement,

  16. Cyber security policy guidebook

    CERN Document Server

    Bayuk, nifer L; Rohmeyer, l; Sachs, cus; Schmidt, frey; Weiss, eph

    2012-01-01

    This book is a taxonomy and thesaurus of current cybersecurity policy issues, including a thorough description of each issue and a corresponding list of pros and cons with respect to identified stances on each issue. It documents policy alternatives for the sake of clarity with respect to policy alone, and dives into organizational implementation issues. Without using technical jargon, the book emphasizes the importance of critical and analytical thinking when making policy decisions.  It also equips the reader with descriptions of the impact of specific policy ch

  17. Informed Questions on Malaysia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heng, Lim; Tay, BG

    2003-01-01

    While Indonesia gets the attention of policy makers on South East (SE) Asia because of its size and population, Malaysia has increasingly been courted as an example of an Islamic country that is moderate and progressive...

  18. Cosmetic Procedure Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Cosmetic Procedure Questions Want to look younger? Start ...

  19. CAT questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    This document, prepared in February 1993, addresses the most common questions asked by APS Collaborative Access Teams (CATs). The answers represent the best judgment on the part of the APS at this time. In some cases, details are provided in separate documents to be supplied by the APS. Some of the answers are brief because details are not yet available. The questions are separated into five categories representing different aspects of CAT interactions with the APS: (1) Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), (2) CAT Beamline Review and Construction, (3) CAT Beamline Safety, (4) CAT Beamline Operations, and (5) Miscellaneous. The APS plans to generate similar documents as needed to both address new questions and clarify answers to present questions

  20. Rabies: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabies: Questions and Answers Information about the disease and vaccines What causes rabies? Rabies is caused by a virus. The virus invades ... nervous system and disrupts its functioning. How does rabies spread? The rabies virus is transmitted in the ...

  1. Tetanus: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetanus: Questions and Answers Information about the disease and vaccines What causes tetanus? Tetanus is caused by a toxin (poison) produced by ... to heat and many chemical agents. How does tetanus spread? C. tetani spores can be found in ...

  2. Pertussis Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IAC) Parents of Kids with Infectious Diseases (PKIDs) Pertussis Frequently Asked Questions Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... frecuentes sobre la tosferina Q: Can vaccines prevent pertussis? A: Yes. Vaccines can prevent pertussis, or whooping ...

  3. Repetitive Questioning II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Hamdy MD

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive questioning is a major problem for caregivers, particularly taxing if they are unable to recognize and understand the reasons why their loved one keeps asking the same question over and over again. Caregivers may be tempted to believe that the patient does not even try to remember the answer given or is just getting obnoxious. This is incorrect. Repetitive questioning is due to the underlying disease: The patient’s short term memory is impaired and he is unable to register, encode, retain and retrieve the answer. If he is concerned about a particular topic, he will keep asking the same question over and over again. To the patient each time she asks the question, it is as if she asked it for the first time. Just answering repetitive questioning by providing repeatedly the same answer is not sufficient. Caregivers should try to identify the underlying cause for this repetitive questioning. In an earlier case study, the patient was concerned about her and her family’s safety and kept asking whether the doors are locked. In this present case study, the patient does not know how to handle the awkward situation he finds himself in. He just does not know what to do. He is not able to adjust to the new unexpected situation. So he repeatedly wants to reassure himself that he is not intruding by asking the same question over and over again. We discuss how the patient’s son-in-law could have avoided this situation and averted the catastrophic ending.

  4. Interesting Questions in Freakonomics

    OpenAIRE

    John DiNardo

    2007-01-01

    Freakonomics is more about "entertainment" than it is a serious attempt at popularization. Consequently, rather than conduct a comprehensive fact check, I use the book as a springboard for a broader inquiry into social science research and take issue with the book's surprising premise that "Economics is a science with excellent tools for gaining answers but a serious shortage of interesting questions." Using examples from Freakonomics , I argue that some of the questions the book addresses ar...

  5. Panspermia asks new questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyce, Brig

    2001-08-01

    There is a widespread sentiment that panspermia is uninteresting is because it does not answer fundamental questions about the origin of life. The strongest version of panspermia asks entirely new questions. While barriers to the acceptance of panspermia are falling and evidence supporting it is accumulating, the mere possibility of panspermia unhinges the Darwinian account of evolutionary progress. The new theory removes an issue dividing science and religion, but it requires an amendment to the big bang theory.

  6. Business Education: Addressing the "What" Question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almoharby, Darwish

    2008-01-01

    In an attempt to diversify the economy and stimulate private enterprise development, government agencies and private institutions in many countries have emphasized the importance of setting up and developing small and medium-size enterprises and promoting entrepreneurship. An important question confronting policy makers, however, is how they can…

  7. Question Their Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royce, Brenda

    2004-10-01

    Brenda Royce has been teaching high school chemistry and physics for nine years, and is currently science department chair at University High School in Fresno, CA, a college prep charter school on the CSU Fresno campus. She also enjoys coaching Science Olympiad, and working with science and math student teachers as a workshop leader and mentor teacher through the Science and Math Education Center at CSUF. Prior to teaching, she worked in analytical and environmental chemistry for several years. Brenda shares with us her strategy of answering students' questions by "questioning their answers."

  8. A question of emphasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Morgall, Janine Marie; Björnsdóttir, I

    2000-01-01

    The reported results are part of the overall evaluation of the new drug distribution legislation that went into effect in March 1996, liberalising ownership of community pharmacies in Iceland. We addressed the following question: What impact did the legislation have on users' access to and costs...

  9. A freedom to question...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lawrence

    the family about things he had read and studied opened up the entire world of academia to me. Here, it seemed that one could as an adult pursue one's interests single-mindedly, without worries about earning a living! Until class ten, I also had very good teach- ers who encouraged questioning. I enjoyed listening to and re-.

  10. Transportation questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This document summarizes the transport and handling of radioactive materials in a ''question'' and ''answer'' form. It explains what is radioactive material, how it is shipped, and in case there is a spill, who is responsible for it. It also provides safeguard measures for radioactive materials. (TC)

  11. Triglycerides : Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Questions Why are triglycerides important? The amount of triglycerides (or blood fats) in blood are one important barometer of metabolic health; high levels are associated with coronary heart disease, diabetes and fatty liver disease. Metabolism refers to the chemical process that converts the ...

  12. Kenya's Foreign Policy and Geopolitical

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (i) Are Kenya's foreign policy interests vis-a-vis the Nile River question influenced by her internal demand for water? g ... This article examines Kenya's foreign policy interests on the Nile water question and the implications of the ...... Okodi, C. Odidi, 1980, 'Legal and Policy Regime of Lake Victoria and Nile Basins', Indian.

  13. Questions about elastic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Engelbrecht, Jüri

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses the modelling of mechanical waves by asking the right questions about them and trying to find suitable answers. The questions follow the analytical sequence from elementary understandings to complicated cases, following a step-by-step path towards increased knowledge. The focus is on waves in elastic solids, although some examples also concern non-conservative cases for the sake of completeness. Special attention is paid to the understanding of the influence of microstructure, nonlinearity and internal variables in continua. With the help of many mathematical models for describing waves, physical phenomena concerning wave dispersion, nonlinear effects, emergence of solitary waves, scales and hierarchies of waves as well as the governing physical parameters are analysed. Also, the energy balance in waves and non-conservative models with energy influx are discussed. Finally, all answers are interwoven into the canvas of complexity.

  14. After sympathy, a question

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgård, Anne Line

    2018-01-01

    in particular one young woman's telling of a likewise fictional romantic ending to Dalsgård's piece. The argument developed in the chapter leads to a definition of friendship, which is based on the mutual recognition of difference. It also leads to a question of responsi-bility, which transcends the framework......Within a discussion of fieldwork, friendship and ethics Dalsgård describes how a piece of fictional writing worked as a sympathetic experiment and both changed her understanding of a young woman's situation and deepened her relationship to her. She employs Adam Smith’s concept of sympathy...... excites it. The precondition for sympathy is thus a willingness to let oneself be moved by the situation of the other, which implies a thorough insight into all that this situation consists of. However, Dalsgård argues, sympathy may lead to a question about the proper response to the distress of another...

  15. The energy question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    In April 1987, Energy, Mines and Resources Minister Marcel Masse launched a public review of Canada's energy options into the twenty-first century. He appointed a national advisory committee to preside over the process and he made clear his desire that there be full public participation. In Canada energy is everybody's business. We are rich in resources, but factors such as geography, climate, regional imbalance and provincial ownership ensure that this is among the most stressful and national issues. Energy is about Canadians, about our dealings with each other, directly and through our institutions. Our management of this issue speaks tellingly of our respect for each other's rights, as well as our willingness to coalesce for mutual support. Canada's energy policy should reflect our sense of self and our collective vision of the nation. History tells us that we strain the bonds of our federation when we fail to formulate policies that meet these standards. Perhaps we have relied too heavily on institutions, instead of on an informed and thoughtful public, to set the framework for policy making. This booklet is directed at interested Canadians who want to be involved in this process. It is not an interim report - no consensus yet exists; it is an invitation to participate and a stimulus for discussion. The Advisory Committee believes that individual contributions are essential to its deliberations. It hopes that many will take the time to submit their ideas. Perspectives offered will be gratefully received and shall be respectfully considered

  16. Energy - a vital question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakkenbuell, J.N.

    1980-01-01

    The DAG has become involved with the topics and problems of energy policy very early and has already pointed on the necessity of an overall plan for energy policy for the Federal Republic of Germany in the sixties. The claim directed to the legislative bodies in the F. R. of Germany had sprung from the conclusion that endangering energy supply in the medium or long term would lead to a serious disorder within economic and thus social life. In order to meet the risks for industry and society which are related to an endangering of energy supply at an early stage and with regard to the future the DAG think it indispensable to further update the existing political energy programme of the Federal Government. The DAG hope that the political claims which are included in this brochure and which were worked out at the 8th Energiepolitische Bundestagung of the DAG might influence the German programme for energy policy. At the same time this brochure is meant to provide a factual contribution to the present energy discussion which, in general, is still based on emotional arguments. (orig./UA) [de

  17. 501 reading comprehension questions

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This updated edition offers the most extensive and varied practice for all types of questions students might face on standardized and in-class tests. With this guide, students will learn to develop expert reading strategies, understand how to read faster and with greater comprehension, overcome reading anxiety, and increase appreciation of reading for pleasure. This book's step-by-step approach provides graduated coverage that moves from the basics to more advanced reading.

  18. Eight Questions about Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Jakob Svensson

    2005-01-01

    This paper will discuss eight frequently asked questions about public corruption: (1) What is corruption? (2) Which countries are the most corrupt? (3) What are the common characteristics of countries with high corruption? (4) What is the magnitude of corruption? (5) Do higher wages for bureaucrats reduce corruption? (6) Can competition reduce corruption? (7) Why have there been so few (recent) successful attempts to fight corruption? (8) Does corruption adversely affect growth?

  19. The Question Concerning Thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Martin Heidegger's thought-provoking essay "The Question Concerning Technology" (1977a) placed technology at the heart of philosophy. Heidegger tried to show that the essence of technology provokes humans to think about the world in a very dangerous way. Yet if we follow Heidegger's analysis of t...... concerning thinking reflects these consequences and finally strives to find another way to think about thinking - a way that brings us back to another of Heidegger's thoughts and that makes it possible to appreciate the work of thought......Martin Heidegger's thought-provoking essay "The Question Concerning Technology" (1977a) placed technology at the heart of philosophy. Heidegger tried to show that the essence of technology provokes humans to think about the world in a very dangerous way. Yet if we follow Heidegger's analysis...... of technology, what role does that ascribe to philosophy? To be able to understand the programmatic scope of Heidegger's question ‘concerning' technology, we need to see it as inseparable from his famous thesis about the end of philosophy (1977c) and what he considers to be the ideal kind of thinking. However...

  20. It Is Not That Simple nor Compelling!; Comment on “Translating Evidence Into Healthcare Policy and Practice: Single Versus Multi-faceted Implementation Strategies – Is There a Simple Answer to a Complex Question?”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey Bucknall

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare decisions are often made under pressure, with varying levels of information in a changing clinical context. With limited resources and a focus on improving patient outcomes, healthcare managers and health professionals strive to implement both clinical and cost-effective care. However, the gap between research evidence and health policy/clinical practice persists despite our best efforts. In an attempt to close the gap through behaviour change interventions, there has been a strong held belief that ‘more is better,’ without understanding the mechanisms and circumstances of knowledge translation (KT. We argue that even a singleintervention or strategy in translating evidence into healthcare policy or practice is rarely simple to implement. Nor is the evidence compelling on the best approach. As Harvey and Kitson argued, designing and evaluating KT interventions requires flexibility and responsiveness. If we are to move forward in translation science then we need to use rigorous designs such as randomised controlled trials to test effectiveness of interventions or strategies with embedded process evaluations to understand the reason interventions do or do not work!

  1. PSD Increment Consumption Question

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  2. The question about paleoinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartic, Andrei

    2006-12-01

    The author is treating questions about development of informatics in ancient Dacia during Y-th Century B.C. - 2-nd Century A.C. He is introducing a new terminology (paleoinformatics) in view of defining the interests of Daces in numbering, the elementary numbers theory and various aspects of numbers representation. A relation between elementary numbers theory and informatisation has been discussed. A particular interest has been given to calculation of the Circle length/Diameter ratio (number Pi), its calculation by Daces.

  3. Questioning Danish Cartoon Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, Heidi

    2007-01-01

    The article discusses the language and satirical cartoons that describe African Danes in the Danish media. Starting with a brief historical overview of the social fonction of satirical cartoons in Denmark since the Reformation, it is discussed whether satire and satirical cartoons actually have s...... Danes today when it is considered demeaning and racist in most other countries. The conclusion does emphatically not plead in favour of law enforced limitations of the freedom of expression, but does question the prevalent "freedom of ignorance" concerning black identities which means...

  4. Generating ethnographic research questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Torbjörn

    2015-01-01

    As part of recent complex transformations, it seems that higher educational organisations are being forced to reorganise, standardise and streamline in order to survive in the new political and economic context. How are ethnographers in general going to approach these contemporary phenomena......? By drawing on the conceptual history of anthropology, the aim of this article is to generate ethnographic-oriented research questions concerned with higher education. The first part of the article provides an ethnographic background, while the second part focuses on Paul Willis's reasoning on ethnographic...

  5. The question of caution in professional medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godard, O.

    2006-01-01

    Contrived in Europe to tackle the environment protection policies and management of natural resources, the principle of caution has seen since 1990 its interest developed towards the fields of food safety and public health. The importance and the relevance of questions have lead the national institute of research and safety to constitute a working group to explore the problems and the potentialities that could be linked to the explicit introduction of this principle and this in the field of the prevention of professional risks. This work tackles several aspects of the question of caution in professional medium such history, concepts, evolution...as well as cases judged exemplary ones. (N.C.)

  6. Trick questions: cosmopolitan hospitality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Byrne

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Byrne’s paper consists of two parallel texts. The first explores the limits of cosmopolitanism in practice, taking as its subject the Life in the UK Citizenship Test, inaugurated under the Labour Government in 2005. It argues that the test exemplifies the predicament of all attempts at cosmopolitan hospitality as unconditional welcoming, through a discussion of the relation between questioning and welcoming the stranger. Establishing the relationship between cosmopolitanism and hospitality as envisaged in Derrida’s reading of Kant it asks what kind of cosmopolitan hospitality is either possible or desirable by exploring what Derrida calls the ‘perversions’ inherent in the structures of hospitality. It focuses on the concept of the ‘trick questions’ that the state asks the foreigner observed by Derrida in his reading of The Apology of Socrates; questions that seem to invite answers but foreclose the possibilities of a free response. The second text asks how this logic that Derrida identifies can be pushed or coaxed into new ways of addressing the perceived threats of ‘unconditional’ hospitality through a reading of ‘unconditional hospitality’ as queer in the work of Tove Jansson.

  7. Questions and Answers about Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Glossary RAISE Questions and Answers Questions & Answers about Psychosis What is psychosis? What causes psychosis? How common ... we learn from RAISE-IES? Questions & Answers About Psychosis Q: What is psychosis? A: The word psychosis ...

  8. QTIPs: Questionable theoretical and interpretive practices in social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Mark J; Proulx, Travis

    2015-01-01

    One possible consequence of ideological homogeneity is the misinterpretation of data collected with otherwise solid methods. To help identify these issues outside of politically relevant research, we name and give broad descriptions to three questionable interpretive practices described by Duarte et al. and introduce three additional questionable theoretical practices that also reduce the theoretical power and paradigmatic scope of psychology.

  9. Grant recipients' rights in question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, P D

    1984-01-01

    Although organizations that provide privately funded abortions or abortion referral and counseling are engaging in constitutionally protected activities, opponents of legal abortion are seeking to deny eligibility for federal family planning funding to them. The issue of the rights of organizations receiving federal funds has been simmering for several years, but in 1984 the US Congress must renew the key federal funding authorization for domestic and international family planning services. The question is an abortion issue but a much larger issue as well, involving the limits of the conditions any government agency can put on activities of organizations it helps to fund. Political activity regarding the question has increased, and includes attempts by 4 states to block award of state family planning funds to organizations using private funds for abortion activities, passage of the Adolescent Family Act which permits funding only to programs that do not advocate abortion, attempts to add antiabortion amendments to the Foreign Assistance Act, termination of US Agency for International Development (AID) funding of the scientific journal International Family Planning Perspectives because it reported the findings of research on the health consequences of illegal abortions, attempts to block USAID funds to the Pathfinder Fund because it used nonfederal funds for abortion-related services, and attempts to exclude the Planned Parenthood Federation of America from the annual Combined Federal Campaign, the federal employee's charitable contributions drive. If new restrictions on government funding of family planning organizations become law in 1984, they could undermine the US commitment to family planning. Only 74 of the 5000 US family planning clinics receiving Title X family planning funds perform abortions, and they use state or private funds. Efforts to block Title X funding to agencies involved in abortion would run counter to the laws and policies of 15 states that

  10. Evaluating Visual Information Provided by Audio Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peli, E.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The video and standard audio portions of 2 television programs were presented to 25 adults with low vision and 24 adults with normal vision; 29 additional subjects only heard the standard audio portions. Subjects then answered questions based on audio descriptions (AD) provided by Descriptive Video Service. Results indicated that some AD…

  11. How Do College Students Solve Logarithm Questions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Abdul Aziz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate college students’ work with logarithm questions. Qualitative descriptive research is chosen to reach the research goal. The participants of the study were fourteen Indonesian students who were enrolled at different universities in Ankara, Turkey. They worked to solve ten logarithm questions which were classified according to the contents. After analysing their written responses, interviews were conducted to obtain further explanation about their strategies and common mistakes. The study found that participants’ works in dealing with logarithm questions comprised of (a processing base, (b holding the rule, (c separating, (d jumping, and (e conditioning. Therewith, several participants made common mistake because of misconception about logarithm, arithmetical problems, and misuse of algebra concept. Implication of the finding of the study for teaching and learning logarithm were presented.

  12. Questioning minimal deterrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, Y.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear deterrence has yet to be adapted to the geo-strategic context of the aftermath of the Cold War. While nuclear weapons continue to play a vital role in the military policy of the five officially recognized nuclear Powers, an unprecedent reduction of their stocks o weapons is taking shape. Hidden behind the idea and the notion of minimum deterrence are a number of ambiguities or misunderstandings. It is easy to conceive of minimum deterrence in relation to previous state of affairs, namely that of the Cold War, which was noteworthy for the arms race. Alternatively, minimum deterrence could be approached solely from the point of view of the number of devices on which it was intended to be based

  13. From Questions to Queries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Drlík

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The extension of (Internet databases forceseveryone to become more familiar with techniques of datastorage and retrieval because users’ success often dependson their ability to pose right questions and to be able tointerpret their answers. University programs pay moreattention to developing database programming skills than todata exploitation skills. To educate our students to become“database users”, the authors intensively exploit supportivetools simplifying the production of database elements astables, queries, forms, reports, web pages, and macros.Videosequences demonstrating “standard operations” forcompleting them have been prepared to enhance out-ofclassroomlearning. The use of SQL and other professionaltools is reduced to the cases when the wizards are unable togenerate the intended construct.

  14. 1. Methodological Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Arcari (a cura di

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this monographic section aims at analysing some methodological questions concerning identities, ethnicities, collectivities and religions, starting from the academic debate occurred between historians and anthropologists since the last decades of Twentieth Century, considering its reception especially for the study of ethnicity and collective and/or (so-called religious identities in the cultural context of ancient Greece. Another aspect of such a methodological section deals with the innovative approach inaugurated by the so-called “School of Wien” in the study of ethnic identity-constructions, especially analysing the relationships with Biblical texts as well as their multiform receptions between late-antiquity and early medieval period.

  15. Biofuels - 5 disturbing questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legalland, J.P.; Lemarchand, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Initially considered as the supreme weapon against greenhouse gas emissions, biofuels are today hold responsible to all harms of the Earth: leap of agriculture products price, deforestation, food crisis. Considered some time ago as the perfect clean substitute to petroleum, biofuels are now suspected to have harmful effects on the environment. Should it be just an enormous technical, environmental and human swindle? Should we abandon immediately biofuels to protect the earth and fight the threatening again starvation? Should we wait for the second generation of efficient biofuels, made from non food-derived products and cultivation wastes? This book analyses this delicate debate through 5 main questions: do they starve the world? Are they a clean energy source? Do they contribute to deforestation? Are they economically practicable? Is the second generation ready? (J.S.)

  16. Questions and Questioning Techniques: A View of Indonesian Students’ Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Tri Ragawanti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated students’ preference on teacher’s questions and questionings techniques and more importantly on how they could facilitate or impede their learning. The results on teacher’s questioning techniques showed that random nomination was more preferred than pre-arranged format nomination. In addition, techniques of nominating volunteering students and of giving wait-time were disliked by most student-respondents. As for types of question, the yes/no question was favored by most of the respondents. Different from the yes/no question, the number of respondents leaning forward to the analysis question, questions about fact of life, and questions to state opinion did not show a significant difference from the number of those leaning against the same questions.

  17. Guiding principles for energy policy in Schleswig-Holstein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The principles of energy policy in Schleswig-Holstein set forward in this brochure are neither an energy programme nor a descriptive report on the policy of the day. Rather, they are intended to mark the energy-political frame of action within which the government of the Land will more. At the same time their purpose is to provide a medium-term orientation for politics and the power economy, consumers and producers. They are thus consciously made to contrast with political trends conceiving energy policy first of all as a plan-dependent activity. With these guiding principles the government of the Land consistantly continues an energy policy it has exposed in detail in its answer to the Question submitted by the CDU parliamentary party on December 8, 1980. (orig./UA) [de

  18. Corporate Language Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    This paper offers a review of literature dealing with language policies in general and corporate language policies in particular. Based on a discussion of various definitions of these concepts within two research traditions, i.e. sociolinguistics and international management, a three......-level definition of corporate language policies is presented, emphasising that a corporate language policy is a context-specific policy about language use. The three-level definition is based on the argument that in order to acquire a complete understanding of what corporate language policies involve, one needs...... to consider three progressive questions; 1) what is a policy? 2) what is a language policy?, and ultimately, 3) what is a corporate language policy?...

  19. Corporate Language Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a review of literature dealing with language policies in general and corporate language policies in particular. Based on a discussion of various definitions of these concepts within two research traditions, i.e. sociolinguistics and international management, a three......-level definition of corporate language policies is presented, emphasising that a corporate language policy is a context-specific policy about language use. The three-level definition is based on the argument that in order to acquire a complete understanding of what corporate language policies involve, one needs...... to consider three progressive questions; 1) what is a policy? 2) what is a language policy?, and ultimately, 3) what is a corporate language policy?...

  20. Assessing Question Quality Using NLP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Kristopher J.; Johnson, Amy M.; Crossley, Scott A.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2017-01-01

    An NLP algorithm was developed to assess question quality to inform feedback on questions generated by students within iSTART (an intelligent tutoring system that teaches reading strategies). A corpus of 4575 questions was coded using a four-level taxonomy. NLP indices were calculated for each question and machine learning was used to predict…

  1. Questioning Stakeholder Legitimacy: A Philanthropic Accountability Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraeger, Patsy; Robichau, Robbie

    2017-01-01

    Philanthropic organizations contribute to important work that solves complex problems to strengthen communities. Many of these organizations are moving toward engaging in public policy work, in addition to funding programs. This paper raises questions of legitimacy for foundations, as well as issues of transparency and accountability in a pluralistic democracy. Measures of civic health also inform how philanthropic organizations can be accountable to stakeholders. We propose a holistic model for philanthropic accountability that combines elements of transparency and performance accountability, as well as practices associated with the American pluralistic model for democratic accountability. We argue that philanthropic institutions should seek stakeholder and public input when shaping any public policy agenda. This paper suggests a new paradigm, called philanthropic accountability that can be used for legitimacy and democratic governance of private foundations engaged in policy work. The Philanthropic Accountability Model can be empirically tested and used as a governance tool.

  2. Une question interdite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Legendre

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Is legal history a left-over or is it waiting for a takeover bid (just like a company in serious trouble which would allow the expression of new analyses and outlines for a better understanding of the contemporary western world? Its propositions of erudition, are they just interesting for small academic circles, or could they open a new pathway for fundamental reflections on the phenomenon of norms in general and the structure of its evolution in the special case of norm-production coming from Roman Christianity? And what is the significance of the idea of »legal tradition«, an idea forged in Western Europe, within the framework of a presumed global westernization without any counter-balance? The essay discusses the illegibility of legal history in today’s culture. Under the well reflected motto »The Forbidden Question« it concludes firmly: To renovate itself, this discipline has to perform its work in a new way, guided by a very precise and distinct vision on theory. The author examines the conditions for this.

  3. Cosmic questions: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primack, J R; Abrams, N E

    2001-12-01

    This introductory talk at the Cosmic Questions conference sponsored by the AAAS summarizes some earlier pictures of the universe and some pictures based on modern physics and cosmology. The uroboros (snake swallowing its tail) is an example of a traditional picture. The Biblical flat-earth picture was very different from the Greek spherical earth-centered picture, which was the standard view until the end of the Middle Ages. Many people incorrectly assume that the Newtonian picture of stars scattered through otherwise empty space is still the prevailing view. Seeing Earth from space shows the power of a new picture. The Hubble Space Telescope can see all the bright galaxies, all the way to the cosmic Dark Ages. We are at the center of cosmic spheres of time: looking outward is looking backward in time. All the matter and energy in the universe can be represented as a cosmic density pyramid. The laws of physics only allow the material objects in the universe to occupy a wedge-shaped region on a diagram of mass versus size. All sizes--from the smallest size scale, the Planck scale, to the entire visible universe--can be represented on the Cosmic Uroboros. There are interesting connections across this diagram, and the human scale lies in the middle.

  4. Nanodesign: some basic questions

    CERN Document Server

    Schommers, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    There is no doubt that nanoscience will be the dominant direction for technology in this century, and that this science will influence our lives to a large extent as well as open completely new perspectives on all scientific and technological disciplines. To be able to produce optimal nanosystems with tailor-made properties, it is necessary to analyze and construct such systems in advance by adequate theoretical and computational methods. Since we work in nanoscience and nanotechnology at the ultimate level, we have to apply the basic laws of physics. What methods and tools are relevant here? The book gives an answer to this question. The background of the theoretical methods and tools is critically discussed, and also the world view on which these physical laws are based. Such a debate is not only of academic interest but is of highly general concern, and this is because we constantly move in nanoscience and nanotechnology between two extreme poles, between infinite life and total destruction . On the one ...

  5. A question of authority

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, Earl W.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2003-10-15

    A Question of Authority. This article deals with a certain scenario and several reviewers are to give their opinion. This one is in regards to - Suspending an IACUC approved animal use activity is about the last thing a research institution wants to do. Consider the predicament that the Great Eastern University IACUC faced when Dr. Janet Jenkins, the Attending Veterinarian, suspended all animal use activity on an approved protocol of Dr. Roy Maslo. Jenkins had the IACUCs authority to temporarily suspend a protocol, subject to review by a quorum of the full committee. She alleged that Maslo used mice from his breeding colony, not purchased rats, to begin a new study. Jenkins saw Maslos technicians bringing mouse cages to a procedure room and setting up for a minor survival surgery. She asked them to wait until she clarified things as she felt confident that the protocol called for rats. She called Maslo and asked him if the study had been approved for mice, to which he responded affirmatively. Still not feeling quite assured, she went to her office, reviewed the protocol, and found only rat studies described. She also called the IACUC office to see if there were any approved amendments which she may not have received, and was told that there were none. By the time she returned, one procedure was completed. Understandably upset, she informed the technicians and Maslo that any further activity on the protocol was suspended until the issue was resolved. Jenkins informed the IACUC chairman who in turned called an emergency meeting of the committee.

  6. Questioning Questions: Elementary Teachers' Adaptations of Investigation Questions across the Inquiry Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggers, Mandy

    2018-01-01

    Questioning is a central practice in science classrooms. However, not every question translates into a "good" science investigation. Questions that drive science investigations can be provided by many sources including the teacher, the curriculum, or the student. The variations in the source of investigation questions were explored in…

  7. Shaping Policy Curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broome, André; Seabrooke, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    provide a conceptual framework for understanding how IOs seek to use their own cognitive authority to foster ‘diagnostic coordination’ across technocratic economic policy communities. This encourages officials to adapt to a common policy language and delimits the policy space within which they identify......International organizations (IOs) such as the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank are assumed to rely on ‘sympathetic interlocutors’ at the national level to drive through economic reforms that conform to global policy norms. In this article we answer the following question: How do...... sympathetic interlocutors for IOs emerge in the first place? We address this question by examining how IOs engage in teaching norms to national officials via transnational policy training in order to increase the number of domestic reformers who are sympathetic to their prescriptions for policy change. We...

  8. Question Quality in Community Question Answering Forums : A survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltadzhieva, Antoaneta; Chrupala, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Community Question Answering websites (CQA) offer a new opportunity for users to provide, search and share knowledge. Although the idea of receiving a direct, targeted response to a question sounds very attractive, the quality of the question itself can have an important effect on the likelihood of

  9. Some of the unanswered questions in finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić Dragana M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A very dynamic development of finance in the last 50 years is inter alia probably due to experiments and innovations in this field. Previously theoretical base could not explain and predict movements especially in volatile times. "The new finance" appeared 50 years ago (portfolio theory CAPM, the efficient market theory, M&M theorem and made substantial progress in understanding movements in globalized and internationalized financial markets. However, many questions remain open. The author tries to put emphasis on some of these questions, perfectly aware that these are not the only ones. Unresolved questions are related to company's aims, project's risks, degree of portfolio optimization, importance of liquidity, dividend policy, as well as factors that determine M&A. As the "new finance" is not able to predict and explain volatile movements, a question that should be posed is whether it is appropriate to add some non-economic factors as the behaviorist theory suggests. Although the behaviorist theory is an important part of "new finance", it is unfortunately the only theory able to explain movements in volatile times. In conclusion, many questions still remain unanswered and wait for appropriate theoretical explanations.

  10. Fifty important research questions in microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antwis, Rachael E; Griffiths, Sarah M; Harrison, Xavier A; Aranega-Bou, Paz; Arce, Andres; Bettridge, Aimee S; Brailsford, Francesca L; de Menezes, Alexandre; Devaynes, Andrew; Forbes, Kristian M; Fry, Ellen L; Goodhead, Ian; Haskell, Erin; Heys, Chloe; James, Chloe; Johnston, Sarah R; Lewis, Gillian R; Lewis, Zenobia; Macey, Michael C; McCarthy, Alan; McDonald, James E; Mejia-Florez, Nasmille L; O'Brien, David; Orland, Chloé; Pautasso, Marco; Reid, William D K; Robinson, Heather A; Wilson, Kenneth; Sutherland, William J

    2017-05-01

    Microbial ecology provides insights into the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of microbial communities underpinning every ecosystem on Earth. Microbial communities can now be investigated in unprecedented detail, although there is still a wealth of open questions to be tackled. Here we identify 50 research questions of fundamental importance to the science or application of microbial ecology, with the intention of summarising the field and bringing focus to new research avenues. Questions are categorised into seven themes: host-microbiome interactions; health and infectious diseases; human health and food security; microbial ecology in a changing world; environmental processes; functional diversity; and evolutionary processes. Many questions recognise that microbes provide an extraordinary array of functional diversity that can be harnessed to solve real-world problems. Our limited knowledge of spatial and temporal variation in microbial diversity and function is also reflected, as is the need to integrate micro- and macro-ecological concepts, and knowledge derived from studies with humans and other diverse organisms. Although not exhaustive, the questions presented are intended to stimulate discussion and provide focus for researchers, funders and policy makers, informing the future research agenda in microbial ecology. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Financial globalization and monetary policy

    OpenAIRE

    Devereux, Michael B.; Sutherland, Alan

    2008-01-01

    The process of financial globalization has significantly altered the environment in which national monetary policy authorities operate. What implications does this have for the design of monetary policy? The question can be properly addressed only in the context of a model where monetary policy interacts with financial market efficiency. This paper is concerned with the effects of monetary policy when international portfolio choice is endogenous. We analyze the link between monetary policy an...

  12. Descriptive analysis of immunization policy decision making in the Americas Análisis descriptivo de la toma de decisión sobre políticas de vacunación en las Américas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianne E. Burns

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Reducing and eliminating vaccine-preventable diseases requires evidence-based and informed policy decision making. Critical to determining the functionality of the decision-making process for introduction of a new vaccine is understanding the role of the national immunization technical advisory group (ITAG in each country. The aim of this study is to document the current situation of national level immunization policy decision making for use in the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO ProVac Initiative. METHODS: A structured 66-variable questionnaire developed by the World Health Organization (WHO in collaboration with the University of Ottawa was distributed to all WHO regions; it was composed of dichotomous, multiple-choice, and open-ended questions. Questionnaires were e-mailed or faxed to the six WHO regional offices and the offices distributed them to all member states. This paper analyzes surveys from the Americas as part of PAHO's ProVac Initiative. RESULTS: Twenty-nine countries of the Americas answered the survey. They conveyed that immunization policy making needed to be improved and further supported by organizations such as PAHO. Areas of improvement ranged from organization and technical support to strengthening capacity and infrastructure to improved coordination among stakeholders. This survey also highlighted a variety of ITAG processes that need further investigation. CONCLUSION: This survey supports the efforts of PAHO's ProVac Initiative to disseminate knowledge and best practices for an immunization policy decision-making framework through the development of clear definitions and guidelines. By highlighting each problem noted in this study, ProVac will assist countries in Latin America and the Caribbean to build national capacity for making evidence-based decisions about introduction of new vaccines.OBJETIVOS: Para reducir y eliminar las enfermedades prevenibles por vacunación se requiere tomar decisiones

  13. Generic Drugs: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Drugs Home Drugs Resources for You Information for Consumers (Drugs) Questions & Answers Generic Drugs: Questions & Answers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  14. Can we share questions? Performance of questions from different question banks in a single medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Adrian; Nicholls, Anthony; Ricketts, Chris; Coombes, Lee

    2010-01-01

    To use progress testing, a large bank of questions is required, particularly when planning to deliver tests over a long period of time. The questions need not only to be of good quality but also balanced in subject coverage across the curriculum to allow appropriate sampling. Hence as well as creating its own questions, an institution could share questions. Both methods allow ownership and structuring of the test appropriate to the educational requirements of the institution. Peninsula Medical School (PMS) has developed a mechanism to validate questions written in house. That mechanism can be adapted to utilise questions from an International question bank International Digital Electronic Access Library (IDEAL) and another UK-based question bank Universities Medical Assessment Partnership (UMAP). These questions have been used in our progress tests and analysed for relative performance. Data are presented to show that questions from differing sources can have comparable performance in a progress testing format. There are difficulties in transferring questions from one institution to another. These include problems of curricula and cultural differences. Whilst many of these difficulties exist, our experience suggests that it only requires a relatively small amount of work to adapt questions from external question banks for effective use. The longitudinal aspect of progress testing (albeit summatively) may allow more flexibility in question usage than single high stakes exams.

  15. Robustness Analysis of Visual Question Answering Models by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong

    2017-11-01

    Visual Question Answering (VQA) models should have both high robustness and accuracy. Unfortunately, most of the current VQA research only focuses on accuracy because there is a lack of proper methods to measure the robustness of VQA models. There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the ranked basic questions, with similarity scores, of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question about the given image. We claim that a robust VQA model is one, whose performance is not changed much when related basic questions as also made available to it as input. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization, and also propose a large scale Basic Question Dataset (BQD) and Rscore (novel robustness measure), for analyzing the robustness of VQA models. We hope our BQD will be used as a benchmark for to evaluate the robustness of VQA models, so as to help the community build more robust and accurate VQA models.

  16. Questioning as a teaching tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Michele; Blankenburg, Rebecca; Butani, Lavjay

    2015-03-01

    The Dreyfus and Bloom frameworks can help the great clinical teacher craft questions that are learner-centric and appropriately challenging.Employing strategies to ask the right questions in the right way can further add to the effectiveness of using questions as a valuable teaching,learning, and assessment tool.

  17. Which Are Our Next Questions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Manuel Joao

    2013-01-01

    The importance of posing the best questions in research studies in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (BMB) is undisputed. Researchers may spend long hours reflecting and discussing with colleagues how to improve a certain question they have in mind. The best questions are always original,

  18. 48 CFR 14.202-5 - Descriptive literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Descriptive literature. 14... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 14.202-5 Descriptive literature. (a) Policy. Contracting officers must not require bidders to furnish descriptive literature unless it is...

  19. Can multiple-choice questions simulate free-response questions?

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a study to evaluate the extent to which free-response questions could be approximated by multiple-choice equivalents. Two carefully designed research-based multiple-choice questions were transformed into a free-response format and administered on the final exam in a calculus-based introductory physics course. The original multiple-choice questions were administered in another similar introductory physics course on final exam. Findings suggest that carefully designed multiple-choice...

  20. Questioning the Patient, Questioning Hippocrates: Rufus of Ephesus and the Pursuit of Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letts, Melinda

    2016-01-01

    Rufus of Ephesus' short treatise, Quaestiones Medicinales, the only ancient medical work that takes as its topic the dialogue between doctor and patient, has usually been seen as a procedural practical handbook serving an essentially operational purpose. In this paper I argue that the treatise, with its insistent message that doctors cannot properly understand and treat illnesses unless they supplement their own knowledge by questioning patients, and its remarkable appreciation of the singularity of each patient's experience, shows itself to be no mere handbook but a work addressing the place of questioning in the clinical encounter. I illustrate some of the differences between Rufus' conceptualisation of the relevance and use of questioning and that which can be seen in the theoretical and descriptive writings of Galen and in the Hippocratic corpus, and show how apparent resonances with some of the preoccupations of modern Western healthcare can be used judiciously to elucidate the significance of those differences.

  1. Implementing public employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Flemming; Bredgaard, Thomas

    . But there is an interesting question to investigate here: whether and if so how, NPM-inspired reforms are related to changes in employment policy towards a work-first approach? Are changes in public management systems created as deliberate policy changes, or do they bring about more indirect and unintended policy changes......Like most other areas within welfare policy, the employment and social policy areas are undergoing far-reaching changes in many countries. Partly in the shape of new forms of governance inspired by New Public Management (NPM), partly through new policies oriented towards activation and stronger...... disciplining of the unemployed (work first) (cf.Bredgaard & Larsen, 2005; Sol & Westerweld, 2005). It is, however, remarkable that in the research field there seems to be a division of labour so that changes in public administration and changes in the substance of employment policies are dealt with separately...

  2. Counselling and Nigeria National Policy on Education: The question ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Even in the vicarious non formal indigenous education system, counseling still took the pride of place. It is therefore an issue of great concern to observe the terse provision made for counseling in organized formal education settings in Nigeria. The paper interrogates these concerns, investigating especially the relevance of ...

  3. Global Scientific Communication: Open Questions and Policy Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammon, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    This volume is about the role of different languages in science and scientific communication, with the focus on the status and function of entire languages like English, Chinese, Russian, etc. and not on structural details of these languages--following the distinction between status and corpus in language planning. However, the latter, i.e. corpus…

  4. Instance-Based Question Answering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    included factoid questions grouped around a set of target entities. For example, for the target entity “ Franz Kafka ”, associated questions included: “Where...from Franz Schubert. A year later he did on Dec 5th.”). Depending on the task, an answer extractor may identify very small, factoid candidates which...IWP): Paraphrase Ac- quisition and Applications, 2003. [55] A. Ittycheriah, M. Franz , and S. Roukos. Ibm’s statistical question answering system - trec

  5. Commonly Asked Questions in Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Assael, Marc J

    2011-01-01

    Have you ever had a question that keeps persisting and for which you cannot find a clear answer? Is the question seemingly so "simple" that the problem is glossed over in most resources, or skipped entirely? CRC Press/Taylor and Francis is pleased to introduce Commonly Asked Questions in Thermodynamics, the first in a new series of books that address the questions that frequently arise in today's major scientific and technical disciplines. Designed for a wide audience, from students and researchers to practicing professionals in related areas, the books are organized in a user friend

  6. Analysis of selected policies towards universal health coverage in Uganda: the policy implementation barometer protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongoro, Charles; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus; Twalo, Thembinkosi; Mwendera, Chikondi; Douglas, Mbuyiselo; Mukuru, Moses; Kasasa, Simon; Ssengooba, Freddie

    2018-01-01

    Policy implementation remains an under researched area in most low and middle income countries and it is not surprising that several policies are implemented without a systematic follow up of why and how they are working or failing. This study is part of a larger project called Supporting Policy Engagement for Evidence-based Decisions (SPEED) for Universal Health Coverage in Uganda. It seeks to support policymakers monitor the implementation of vital programmes for the realisation of policy goals for Universal Health Coverage. A Policy Implementation Barometer (PIB) is proposed as a mechanism to provide feedback to the decision makers about the implementation of a selected set of policy programmes at various implementation levels (macro, meso and micro level). The main objective is to establish the extent of implementation of malaria, family planning and emergency obstetric care policies in Uganda and use these results to support stakeholder engagements for corrective action. This is the first PIB survey of the three planned surveys and its specific objectives include: assessment of the perceived appropriateness of implementation programmes to the identified policy problems; determination of enablers and constraints to implementation of the policies; comparison of on-line and face-to-face administration of the PIB questionnaire among target respondents; and documentation of stakeholder responses to PIB findings with regard to corrective actions for implementation. The PIB will be a descriptive and analytical study employing mixed methods in which both quantitative and qualitative data will be systematically collected and analysed. The first wave will focus on 10 districts and primary data will be collected through interviews. The study seeks to interview 570 respondents of which 120 will be selected at national level with 40 based on each of the three policy domains, 200 from 10 randomly selected districts, and 250 from 50 facilities. Half of the respondents at

  7. Implementing a Description Grammar Interpreter : A Notation for Descriptions and Description Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stouffs, R.M.F.

    2015-01-01

    Description grammars represent a formalism for generating verbal descriptions of designs, used in conjunction with shape grammars. A description grammar constitutes a set of description rules that define a language of descriptions. A description grammar interpreter implements the mechanisms to

  8. [Energy policy rather than climate policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroonenberg, Salomon B

    2009-01-01

    Energy policy and climate policy are two different issues and should not be treated as if they were the same. Whether the climate gets warmer or colder, saving energy and developing sustainable forms of energy production remain of paramount importance because fossil hydrocarbons are likely to be exhausted soon. But climate policy is a fallacy: it is human arrogance to think we can control the climate by reducing emissions and by storing CO2 underground. In spite of rising CO2 levels, the climate has cooled down slightly over the past decade. Since the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) did not predict this, it is questionable whether they can reliably predict warming. Other factors such as solar activity are probably more important for climate than greenhouse gases. The danger of coupling energy policy to climate policy is evident: if the climate cools down, people will lose belief in the greenhouse effect and therefore also lose interest in saving energy.

  9. Moral Judgments as Descriptions of Institutional Facts

    OpenAIRE

    Ferber, Rafael

    1994-01-01

    It deals with the question of what a moral judgment is. On the one hand, a satisfactory theory of moral judgments must take into account the descriptive character of moral judgments and the realistic language of morals. On the other hand, it must also meet the non-descriptive character of moral judgments that consists in the recommending or condemning element and in the fact that normative statements are derived from moral judgments. However, cognitivism and emotivism or “normativism” are...

  10. What Makes a Good App Description?

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, He; Ma, Hongjing; Ren, Zhilei; Zhang, Jingxuan; Li, Xiaochen

    2017-01-01

    In the Google Play store, an introduction page is associated with every mobile application (app) for users to acquire its details, including screenshots, description, reviews, etc. However, it remains a challenge to identify what items influence users most when downloading an app. To explore users' perspective, we conduct a survey to inquire about this question. The results of survey suggest that the participants pay most attention to the app description which gives users a quick overview of ...

  11. Questioning Questions: Elementary Teachers' Adaptations of Investigation Questions Across the Inquiry Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggers, Mandy

    2018-02-01

    Questioning is a central practice in science classrooms. However, not every question translates into a "good" science investigation. Questions that drive science investigations can be provided by many sources including the teacher, the curriculum, or the student. The variations in the source of investigation questions were explored in this study. A dataset of 120 elementary science classroom videos and associated lesson plans from 40 elementary teachers (K-5) across 21 elementary school campuses were scored on an instrument measuring the amount of teacher-direction or student-direction of the lessons' investigation questions. Results indicated that the investigation questions were overwhelmingly teacher directed in nature, with no opportunities for students to develop their own questions for investigation. This study has implications for researchers and practitioners alike, calling attention to the teacher-directed nature of investigation questions in existing science curriculum materials, and the need for teacher training in instructional strategies to adapt their existing curriculum materials across the continuum of teacher-directed and student-directed investigation questions. Teachers need strategies for adapting the teacher-directed questions provided in their existing curriculum materials in order to allow students the opportunity to engage in this essential scientific practice.

  12. Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen Nepper

    2012-01-01

    Bidrag til festskrift til Jesper Hoffmeyer i anledning af hans 70 års dag i Don Favineau, Paul Cobley & Kalevi Kull (eds.): "A More Developed Sign. Interpreting the Work of Jesper Hoffmeyer". Antologien udg. som særnummer af Tartu Semiotics Library Nr. 10 og mit bidrag forefindes på p. 217-220....

  13. Questions of Representations in Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Questions of Representations in Architecture is the first major Danish contribution to the current international discussion on architects' use of representations and the significance of visual media for architecture.......Questions of Representations in Architecture is the first major Danish contribution to the current international discussion on architects' use of representations and the significance of visual media for architecture....

  14. The Value Question in Metaphysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahane, Guy

    2012-07-01

    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit-how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes.

  15. The Value Question in Metaphysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahane, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit—how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes. PMID:23024399

  16. Carcinoid Tumor: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... P, Pancreatic Polypeptide and Atrial Naturetic Hormone (ANH) (fasting). The later (ANH) helps indicate development of carcinoid ... brief description of Creon and Pancrease, and the benefits of each? They are both pancreatic extracts of ...

  17. Questions and Answers about TB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Studies Consortium Research Projects Publications TB Trials Consortium Study Descriptions Background Behavioral & Social Science Research Infection Control TB in Specific Populations African-American Community Stop TB in the African-American ...

  18. Evalutive Descriptions of Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Lah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the fact that, throughout history, certain artworks have been considered as “worth of watching” (according to the Greek etymon ἀξιοϑέατος / aksioteatos, preservation, or theorizing, while others were not, one is led to investigate the various types of evaluative descriptions. Those artworks that are more valuable than others, or simply valuable in themselves on the basis of rather specific features, have always represented the paradigmatic model for the evaluator, thus revealing the identitary nature of value as different from one epoch to another. Our aim has been to discern, with regard to this starting point, the way in which the process of evaluating artworks fits the general matrix of the universal theory of value, with its clearly distinguished levels of evaluation, beginning with value descriptions, continuing through the features of evaluation or abstract qualities of values extracted from these descriptions, and ending with value norms or systems of accepted generalizations in evaluation. Value standpoints in such an evaluation matrix represent dispositions or preferences in procedures, which reflect the norms or signifying concepts of the time. Corresponding procedures, or applications of the hierarchicized signification of artworks, are manifested in all known forms of artwork assessment: attribution, institutionalization, and setting of priorities in terms of exhibition, conservation, acquisition, restoration, and so on. Research in the history of European art-historical ideas has corroborated the hypothesis that, prior to the late 18th century, clear normative patterns were applied when it came to the evaluation of artworks. However, with the emergence of early Romanticism, this could no longer be done in the traditional way. Before the period in question, visual art was created (regardless of some stylistic discrepancies between individual authors and classified according to well-defined thematic

  19. Qcorp: an annotated classification corpus of Chinese health questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Haihong; Na, Xu; Li, Jiao

    2018-03-22

    Health question-answering (QA) systems have become a typical application scenario of Artificial Intelligent (AI). An annotated question corpus is prerequisite for training machines to understand health information needs of users. Thus, we aimed to develop an annotated classification corpus of Chinese health questions (Qcorp) and make it openly accessible. We developed a two-layered classification schema and corresponding annotation rules on basis of our previous work. Using the schema, we annotated 5000 questions that were randomly selected from 5 Chinese health websites within 6 broad sections. 8 annotators participated in the annotation task, and the inter-annotator agreement was evaluated to ensure the corpus quality. Furthermore, the distribution and relationship of the annotated tags were measured by descriptive statistics and social network map. The questions were annotated using 7101 tags that covers 29 topic categories in the two-layered schema. In our released corpus, the distribution of questions on the top-layered categories was treatment of 64.22%, diagnosis of 37.14%, epidemiology of 14.96%, healthy lifestyle of 10.38%, and health provider choice of 4.54% respectively. Both the annotated health questions and annotation schema were openly accessible on the Qcorp website. Users can download the annotated Chinese questions in CSV, XML, and HTML format. We developed a Chinese health question corpus including 5000 manually annotated questions. It is openly accessible and would contribute to the intelligent health QA system development.

  20. Frequently Asked Questions about Chiropractic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NCLC 2018 Schedule at a Glance Educational Program Hotel & Travel Exhibitors & Sponsors Conference Policies FAQs 2018 Advocacy ... and Chiropractic Neck Pain and Chiropractic Posture Backpack Safety Spinal Health Winter Activities Kids and Sports Exercising ...

  1. Questions to Ask Your Doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rockville, MD. http://www.ahrq.gov/patients-consumers/patient-involvement/ask-your-doctor/index.html Back to top Accessibility Disclaimers EEO Electronic Policies FOIA HHS Digital Strategy HHS Nondiscrimination Notice ...

  2. Deep Question Answering for protein annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobeill, Julien; Gaudinat, Arnaud; Pasche, Emilie; Vishnyakova, Dina; Gaudet, Pascale; Bairoch, Amos; Ruch, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical professionals have access to a huge amount of literature, but when they use a search engine, they often have to deal with too many documents to efficiently find the appropriate information in a reasonable time. In this perspective, question-answering (QA) engines are designed to display answers, which were automatically extracted from the retrieved documents. Standard QA engines in literature process a user question, then retrieve relevant documents and finally extract some possible answers out of these documents using various named-entity recognition processes. In our study, we try to answer complex genomics questions, which can be adequately answered only using Gene Ontology (GO) concepts. Such complex answers cannot be found using state-of-the-art dictionary- and redundancy-based QA engines. We compare the effectiveness of two dictionary-based classifiers for extracting correct GO answers from a large set of 100 retrieved abstracts per question. In the same way, we also investigate the power of GOCat, a GO supervised classifier. GOCat exploits the GOA database to propose GO concepts that were annotated by curators for similar abstracts. This approach is called deep QA, as it adds an original classification step, and exploits curated biological data to infer answers, which are not explicitly mentioned in the retrieved documents. We show that for complex answers such as protein functional descriptions, the redundancy phenomenon has a limited effect. Similarly usual dictionary-based approaches are relatively ineffective. In contrast, we demonstrate how existing curated data, beyond information extraction, can be exploited by a supervised classifier, such as GOCat, to massively improve both the quantity and the quality of the answers with a +100% improvement for both recall and precision. Database URL: http://eagl.unige.ch/DeepQA4PA/. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  3. How to cement a diversity policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballafkih, A.H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose - Highlights common pitfalls managers face when introducing diversity policies. Design/methodology/approach - Examines some questions that have to be answered and steps that have to be taken before thoroughgoing diversity policies can be developed. Findings - Urges organizations to

  4. HPV Vaccine - Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Immunization Partners Sexually Transmitted Diseases HPV-Associated Cancers Gynecologic Cancers Questions and Answers Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Immunization Partners Sexually Transmitted Diseases HPV-Associated Cancers Gynecologic Cancers File Formats Help: How do I view ...

  5. Question Inventory on Tobacco (QIT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1965, 1966, 1970, 1974-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH). Tobacco-Related Survey Questions. The QIT is a...

  6. Climate Leadership Awards Frequent Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides answers to frequently asked questions regarding the Climate Leadership Awards, sponsored by EPA's Center for Corporate Climate Leadership with co-sponsorship from the Center for Climate and Energy Solutions and The Climate Registry.

  7. Frequently Asked Questions about Rotavirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Herpes Zoster) Tetanus (Lockjaw) Frequently Asked Questions About Rotavirus What is Rotavirus? Why can dehydration be serious ... I find information about the vaccine? What is Rotavirus? Rotavirus is a highly contagious virus that infects ...

  8. LGBT Caregiving: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FCA - A A + A You are here Home LGBT Caregiving: Frequently Asked Questions Order this publication Printer- ... service or organization is open to working with LGBT families? Kudos to you for managing to “go ...

  9. Questioning context: a set of interdisciplinary questions for investigating contextual factors affecting health decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charise, Andrea; Witteman, Holly; Whyte, Sarah; Sutton, Erica J.; Bender, Jacqueline L.; Massimi, Michael; Stephens, Lindsay; Evans, Joshua; Logie, Carmen; Mirza, Raza M.; Elf, Marie

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective  To combine insights from multiple disciplines into a set of questions that can be used to investigate contextual factors affecting health decision making. Background  Decision‐making processes and outcomes may be shaped by a range of non‐medical or ‘contextual’ factors particular to an individual including social, economic, political, geographical and institutional conditions. Research concerning contextual factors occurs across many disciplines and theoretical domains, but few conceptual tools have attempted to integrate and translate this wide‐ranging research for health decision‐making purposes. Methods  To formulate this tool we employed an iterative, collaborative process of scenario development and question generation. Five hypothetical health decision‐making scenarios (preventative, screening, curative, supportive and palliative) were developed and used to generate a set of exploratory questions that aim to highlight potential contextual factors across a range of health decisions. Findings  We present an exploratory tool consisting of questions organized into four thematic domains – Bodies, Technologies, Place and Work (BTPW) – articulating wide‐ranging contextual factors relevant to health decision making. The BTPW tool encompasses health‐related scholarship and research from a range of disciplines pertinent to health decision making, and identifies concrete points of intersection between its four thematic domains. Examples of the practical application of the questions are also provided. Conclusions  These exploratory questions provide an interdisciplinary toolkit for identifying the complex contextual factors affecting decision making. The set of questions comprised by the BTPW tool may be applied wholly or partially in the context of clinical practice, policy development and health‐related research. PMID:21029277

  10. Unemployment Policy in Slovakia

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Hergezelová

    2016-01-01

    Purpose and Originality: Goal of the study is analysis of the unemployment policy in Slovakia and policy measures to increase the employment rate. Research question: What was the development of unemployment in the period from 2006 to September 2016 and what measures were taken by the Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Family to reduce the unemployment rate in Slovakia? Method: Comparison of the unemployment rate in period between 2006 to 2016. Information was gathered from online ...

  11. Nuclear safeguards policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    Claims have been made that Australia's nuclear safeguards policy, announced in 1977, has changed. However, examination of the texts of nuclear safeguards agreements negotiated by Australia shows that the policy has been implemented and adhered to. The purpose of these agreements is to obtain assurance that uranium exported is used exclusively for peaceful purposes. The questions of reprocessing, transfer to third countries and the application of IAEA safeguards are discussed

  12. Answers to Health Questions: Internet Search Results Versus Online Health Community Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanthawala, Shaheen; Vermeesch, Amber; Given, Barbara; Huh, Jina

    2016-04-28

    About 6 million people search for health information on the Internet each day in the United States. Both patients and caregivers search for information about prescribed courses of treatments, unanswered questions after a visit to their providers, or diet and exercise regimens. Past literature has indicated potential challenges around quality in health information available on the Internet. However, diverse information exists on the Internet-ranging from government-initiated webpages to personal blog pages. Yet we do not fully understand the strengths and weaknesses of different types of information available on the Internet. The objective of this research was to investigate the strengths and challenges of various types of health information available online and to suggest what information sources best fit various question types. We collected questions posted to and the responses they received from an online diabetes community and classified them according to Rothwell's classification of question types (fact, policy, or value questions). We selected 60 questions (20 each of fact, policy, and value) and the replies the questions received from the community. We then searched for responses to the same questions using a search engine and recorded the Community responses answered more questions than did search results overall. Search results were most effective in answering value questions and least effective in answering policy questions. Community responses answered questions across question types at an equivalent rate, but most answered policy questions and the least answered fact questions. Value questions were most answered by community responses, but some of these answers provided by the community were incorrect. Fact question search results were the most clinically valid. The Internet is a prevalent source of health information for people. The information quality people encounter online can have a large impact on them. We present what kinds of questions people ask

  13. Australian health policy on access to medical care for refugees and asylum seekers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Velez, Ignacio; Gifford, Sandra M; Bice, Sara J

    2005-01-01

    Since the tightening of Australian policy for protection visa applicants began in the 1990s, access to health care has been increasingly restricted to asylum seekers on a range of different visa types. This paper summarises those legislative changes and discusses their implications for health policy relating to refugees and asylum seekers in Australia. Of particular concern are asylum seekers on Bridging Visas with no work rights and no access to Medicare. The paper examines several key questions: What is the current state of play, in terms of health screening and medical care policies, for asylum seekers and refugees? Relatedly, how has current policy changed from that of the past? How does Australia compare with other countries in relation to health policy for asylum seekers and refugees? These questions are addressed with the aim of providing a clear description of the current situation concerning Australian health policy on access to medical care for asylum seekers and refugees. Issues concerning lack of access to appropriate health care and related services are raised, ethical and practical issues are explored, and current policy gaps are investigated. PMID:16212674

  14. A definition, description, and framework for advanced practice in dietetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildish, Deborah Ellen Boyko; Evers, Susan

    2010-01-01

    We explored advanced practice (AP) across the diversity of dietetics to develop a definition, description, and framework for guiding future education, research agendas, and policy development. The process began with a literature review and discussion with dietitians exploring AP in other countries. Various concepts were identified, and these informed the phase 1 survey questions. Phase 1 was a 36-item survey created in SurveyMonkey, engaging a purposeful sample of key stakeholders (n=136). A modified Delphi approach, involving seven dietitians from different geographical locations and practice areas, finalized the phase 2 survey. An e-mail link to this 50-item survey was sent to a random sample of dietitians (n=885). The proposed AP framework entailed an iterative approach, integrating survey results with AP literature. Response rates were 40% for phase 1 and 35% for phase 2. In phase 1, 83% of respondents agreed that a depth and breadth definition captured all dietetic job roles, and 95% agreed that it differentiated AP from entry-level practice. Descriptive statistics are presented to provide demographic information and level of agreement with themes relevant to AP. A framework is presented, and discrepancies with phase 2 results indicate areas for professional development, such as leadership, mentorship, and outcome measurement.

  15. 'Any questions?'--Clinicians' usage of invitations to ask questions (IAQs) in outpatient plastic surgery consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristowe, Katherine; Patrick, Peter L

    2014-12-01

    To explore use of 'Invitations to Ask Questions' (IAQs) by plastic surgeons in outpatient consultations, and consider how type of IAQ impacts on patients' responses to, and recollection of, IAQs. Descriptive study: 63 patients were audio recorded in consultation with 5 plastic surgeons, and completed a brief questionnaire immediately after the consultation. Consultation transcripts were analyzed using inductive qualitative methods of Discourse Analysis and compared with questionnaire findings. A taxonomy of IAQs was developed, including three types of IAQ (Overt, Covert, and Borderline). Overt IAQs were rarely identified, and almost all IAQs occurred in the closing stages of the consultation. However, when an overt IAQ was used, patients always recollected being asked if they had any questions after the consultation. Patients are rarely explicitly offered the opportunity to ask questions. When this does occur, it is often in the closing stages of the consultation. Clinicians should openly encourage patients to ask questions frequently throughout the consultation, and be mindful that subtle differences in construction of these utterances may impact upon interpretation. Clear communication, of message and intention, is essential in clinical encounters to minimize misunderstanding, misinterpretation, or missed opportunities for patients to raise concerns. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  16. A estutura fatorial dos atributos valorativos e descritivos do trabalho: um estudo empírico de aperfeiçoamento e validação de um questionário The factor structure of descriptive and value attributes of work: an empirical study of validation and improvement of a questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia de Oliveira Borges

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou aprofundar a compreensão da estrutura fatorial dos atributos valorativos (o que deve ser e descritivos (o que é do trabalho e aperfeiçoar o instrumento de medida destas facetas do significado do trabalho. Foi desenvolvido com 622 trabalhadores de uma construtora habitacional e duas redes de supermercado, no Distrito Federal, através da aplicação do Inventário do Significado do Trabalho (IST e de entrevistas. Os resultados consistem em duas estruturas fatoriais distintas para os atributos valorativos e descritivos. A primeira, com cinco fatores, "Exigências Sociais", "Justiça no Trabalho", "Esforço Corporal e Desumanização", "Realização Pessoal" e "Sobrevivência Pessoal e Familiar". A segunda, com quatro fatores, "Êxito e Realização Pessoal", "Justiça no Trabalho", "Sobrevivência Pessoal e Familiar" e "Carga Mental'. As análises fatoriais secundárias apontaram que a principal idéia aglutinadora, entre os atributos valorativos, é a função social do trabalho, enquanto entre os atributos descritivos é a dureza do trabalho.The study aims at improving the comprehension of the factor structure of value (what it must be and descriptive (what it is attributes of work, and the betterment of the measuring instrument of these facets of the meaning of work. It was de developed with 622 workers, in a dwelling building firm and two supermarket chains in the Federal District of Brazil. These workers took part in the study, submitted to the application of the Work Meaning Inventory and interviews. The results consist of two distinct factor structures of the attributes of values and description. The first with five factors: "Social Exigencies", "Work Justice", "Physical Effort and No-Humanization", "Personal Realization", and "Familiar and Personal Survival'. The second, with four factors: "Success and Personal Realization", "Work Justice", "Familiar and Personal Survival", and "Mental Load". Second order factor

  17. Attitudes towards drug policies in Latin America: Results from a Latin-American Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiburo-Seguel, Andrés; Vargas, Salvador; Oyanedel, Juan C; Torres, Francisca; Vergara, Eduardo; Hough, Mike

    2017-03-01

    In recent years Latin American countries have increasingly rejected the traditional prohibitionist paradigm of drug policy, reflecting its failure to reduce either consumption or trafficking. The extent to which these policy trends currently command pubic support is unclear, however. This article goes some way to filling this gap, providing a snapshot of public attitudes towards drug policies in nine Latin American countries. The 2014 Annual Survey of the Observatory of Drug Policies and Public Opinion, which has representative population samples, was used to measure public opinion. Country comparisons are made using descriptive and inferential statistics. Countries fall into three groups: Peru, Bolivia and El Salvador are the most conservative countries on drug policy and perceptions of risks of cannabis use; they also score lowest on Human Development Index. On the other hand, the public in Chile and Uruguay are more likely to support drug policy reform. The remaining four countries (Argentina, Colombia, Mexico and Peru) tend to occupy the middle ground between these extremes. In addition, cannabis legalization is explained by its recreational use, being this the main meaning attached to cannabis policy among Latin American citizens. There is a significant heterogeneity in attitudes towards drug policies in Latin American countries, which suggests that people are questioning the policies that set the norm in Latin America without achieving any consensus regarding future measures for each country. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Science and technology policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Who is responsible for environmental and technological policy in Denmark? And how are those "policy-makers" made accountable to the public for their decisions?   This report attempts to answer these important questions by presenting the Danish contribution to the EU-funded project, Analysing Public...... Accountability Procedures in Europe.   The first chapter presents Danish public accountability procedures and places them in historical perspective. The other chapters are case studies of genetically modified food, transport policy in the Copenhagen area with a focus on the Metro, and local waste management...

  19. The central question in superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, J. E.

    I will argue that the most basic and fundamental question in superconductivity is: when a superconductor in a magnetic field goes normal, how does the supercurrent stop? The supercurrent has to stop before the material becomes resistive because the transition is reversible in an ideal situation, with no Joule heat dissipated. I will argue that the conventional BCS-London theory of superconductivity cannot answer this question. I will propose an answer to this question that requires that there is flow and counterflow of charge across the normal-superconductor phase boundary, and requires that the normal state current carriers have hole-like character. The conventional BCS-London theory of superconductivity does not have these physical elements, the theory of hole superconductivity does.

  20. Reflective Questioning in Management Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge C. M. van Seggelen-Damen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Reflective questioning is a critical activity in management learning and education. This article describes research on the nature of reflective questioning in groups of management students working on final MSc projects. Drawing on content analysis of recorded meetings, we identify the following key dimensions of reflective questioning: provocation, need for cognition, epistemology, locus of cognition, logic, heuristics, level of abstraction, and cognitive complexity. The data suggest that individual reflection by students and collective reflection in group meetings are highly complementary in management education. In particular, individual reflection by students combined with meetings that support and provoke collective reflection may create substantial synergies between individual and collective learning. We also discuss the implications of these findings for management education.

  1. Probability and Statistics: 5 Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probability and Statistics: 5 Questions is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in probability and statistics. We hear their views on the fields, aims, scopes, the future direction of research and how their work fit...... in these respects. Interviews with Nick Bingham, Luc Bovens, Terrence L. Fine, Haim Gaifman, Donald Gillies, James Hawthorne, Carl Hoefer, James M. Joyce, Joseph B. Kadane Isaac Levi, D.H. Mellor, Patrick Suppes, Jan von Plato, Carl Wagner, Sandy Zabell...

  2. MedlinePlus FAQ: Is audio description available for videos on MedlinePlus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/faq/audiodescription.html Question: Is audio description available for videos on MedlinePlus? To use ... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Answer: Audio description of videos helps make the content of ...

  3. Donating Blood Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 語 | فارسی | English FDA Accessibility Careers FDA Basics FOIA No FEAR Act Site Map Nondiscrimination Website Policies U.S. Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver ...

  4. Spinning top—the question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Featonby, David

    2017-11-01

    The motion of a spinning top can be mystifying at times until some basic principles are understood. In this question the key to understanding what happens is the nature of the bottom tip of the top in contact with the surface on which it spins.

  5. Understanding Bitcoins: Facts and Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Saboia de Albuquerque

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to do a research challenge about the digital currency named Bitcoins, as well as exploit the general concept behind digital currencies and cryptocurrencies, and enumerate some of its current criticism and problems. Such currencies usage and public knowledge is increasing hastily on the last few months, and many questions arise with its popularity.

  6. The Language Question in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echu, George

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In multilingual Cameroon, 247 indigenous languages live side by side with English and French (the two official languages and Cameroon Pidgin English (the main lingua franca. While the two official languages of colonial heritage dominate public life in the areas of education, administration, politics, mass media, publicity and literature, both the indigenous languages and Cameroon Pidgin English are relegated to the background. This paper is a critique of language policy in Cameroon revealing that mother tongue education in the early years of primary education remains a distant cry, as the possible introduction of an indigenous language in the school system is not only considered unwanted by educational authorities but equally combated against by parents who believe that the future of their children lies in the mastery of the official languages. This persistent disregard of indigenous languages does not only alienate the Cameroonian child culturally, but further alienates the vast majority of Cameroonians who are illiterate (in English and French since important State business is carried out in the official languages. As regards the implementation of the policy of official language bilingualism, there is clear imbalance in the use of the two official languages as French continues to be the dominant official language while English is relegated to a second place within the State. The frustration that ensues within the Anglophone community has led in recent years to the birth of Anglophone nationalism, a situation that seems to be widening the rift between the two main components of the society (Anglophones and Francophones, thereby compromising national unity. The paper is divided into five major parts. After a brief presentation of the country, the author dwells on multilingualism and language policy since the colonial period. The third, fourth and last parts of the paper focus on the critique of language policy in Cameroon with emphasis first on

  7. How do researchers influence decision-makers? Case studies of Mexican policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trostle, J; Bronfman, M; Langer, A

    1999-06-01

    Though the problems translating or applying research in policy-making are legion, solutions are rare. As developing countries increase their capacities to develop effective local solutions to their health problems, they confront the research/policy dilemma. Yet few descriptive studies of research-policy links can be found from developing countries, and the relevance of European and North American models and data is questionable. We report the results of a descriptive study from Mexico of the relationship between health research and policy in four vertical programmes (AIDS, cholera, family planning, immunization). We interviewed 67 researchers and policy-makers from different institutions and levels of responsibility. We analyzed interviewee responses looking for factors that promoted or impeded exchanges between researchers and policy-makers. These were, in turn, divided into emphases on content, actors, process, and context. Many of the promoting factors resembled findings from studies in industrialized countries. Some important differences across the four programmes, which also distinguish them from industrialized country programmes, included extent of reliance on formal communication channels, role of the mass media in building social consensus or creating discord, levels of social consensus, role of foreign donors, and extent of support for biomedical versus social research. We recommend various ways to increase the impact of research on health policy-making in Mexico. Some of the largest challenges include the fact that researchers are but one of many interest groups, and research but one input among many equally legitimate elements to be considered by policy-makers. Another important challenge in Mexico is the relatively small role played by the public in policy-making. Further democratic changes in Mexico may be the most important incentive to increase the use of research in policy-making.

  8. Activities of the Enquiry Commission on Future Nuclear Policy and its contribution to today's parliamentary policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueberhorst, R.

    1989-01-01

    Positions on the necessity of technology policy, the cooperative conceptualization of controversial concepts and the question of political style are taken up. The precondition for this policy is the elaboration of alternatives. (DG) [de

  9. Supplementary feeding for refugees and other displaced communities - questioning current orthodoxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, B

    1986-03-01

    Supplementary feeding programmes of one sort or another are an almost universal response to refugee displacements, particularly in Africa. The aim of this paper is to question some of the assumptions which underlie current approaches to providing this additional food. First, there is a brief description of recent general policy developments relating to refugee health care and an outline of the two main factors that are likely to affect the objectives of supplementary feeding programmes: the adoption of either the medical or the epidemiological model of malnutrition, and the identification of the major differences between refugees and stable communities in developing countries. The characteristics of vulnerable groups are then discussed, as is the need to place food supplements within a much broader context of appropriate interventions directed towards improving and maintaining the health and nutritional status of these vulnerable groups. At the same time, emphasis is placed on the non-nutritional value of food and the importance of allowing refugees to determine their own priorities and to use the available resources accordingly. Several unresolved questions about nutrition programmes are identified, in particular whether the focus of supplementary food should be high risk individuals or families, and whether supplements should be provided on a supervised or take home basis - or if they should merely be included as part of a basic ration determined by "need." Eight axioms of supplementary feeding programmes for refugees are stated and the implications of these for planning, training and research are discussed.

  10. Description logics of context

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Klarman, S

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We introduce Description Logics of Context (DLCs) - an extension of Description Logics (DLs) for context-based reasoning. Our approach descends from J. McCarthy's tradition of treating contexts as formal objects over which one can quantify...

  11. Physics 3204. Course Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newfoundland and Labrador Dept. of Education.

    A description of the physics 3204 course in Newfoundland and Labrador is provided. The description includes: (1) statement of purpose, including general objectives of science education; (2) a list of six course objectives; (3) course content for units on sound, light, optical instruments, electrostatics, current electricity, Michael Faraday and…

  12. Descriptive set theory

    CERN Document Server

    Moschovakis, YN

    1987-01-01

    Now available in paperback, this monograph is a self-contained exposition of the main results and methods of descriptive set theory. It develops all the necessary background material from logic and recursion theory, and treats both classical descriptive set theory and the effective theory developed by logicians.

  13. Opening up closed policy communities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Termeer, C.J.A.M.; Werkman, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural policy networks have served as classic cases of closed policy communities, facing pressure to open up. However attempts to involve new stakeholders slowly move forward. This paper addresses the question why it is so difficult to open up agricultural communities and what might help to

  14. Exploring Teacher Strategies in Teaching Descriptive Writing in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriyanti, Sufatmi; Yaacob, Aizan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper is the outcome of a study which examined teacher strategies in teaching descriptive writing to junior high school students in Delitua, North Sumatra, Indonesia. The study was based on two questions: 1) What are the teaching strategies used by EFL teachers in teaching descriptive writing? 2) To what extent did the descriptive…

  15. Cross-linguistic differences and similarities in image descriptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Miltenburg, C.W.J.; Elliott, Desmond; Vossen, P.T.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Automatic image description systems are commonly trained and evaluated on large image description datasets. Recently, researchers have started to collect such datasets for languages other than English. An unexplored question is how different these datasets are from English and, if there are any

  16. Employing a Qualitative Description Approach in Health Care Research

    OpenAIRE

    Bradshaw, Carmel; Atkinson, Sandra; Doody, Owen

    2017-01-01

    A qualitative description design is particularly relevant where information is required directly from those experiencing the phenomenon under investigation and where time and resources are limited. Nurses and midwives often have clinical questions suitable to a qualitative approach but little time to develop an exhaustive comprehension of qualitative methodological approaches. Qualitative description research is sometimes considered a less sophisticated approach for epistemological reasons. A...

  17. ADVERSARIAL QUESTIONING AND ANSWERING STRATEGIES IN CHINESE GOVERNMENT PRESS CONFERENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Sun

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Studying political interviews and press conferences is significant as it may provide a special insight into the change in the policy of a country, and perhaps even the well-being of a society as a whole. Previous studies on broadcast interviews have identified adversarial questioning as an increasing and pervasive style in journalistic practice in the western world (Clayman and Heritage 2002a/b. The use of such adversarial style has emerged in Hong Kong — a metropolitan city deeply influenced by both Chinese and western cultures (Yip 2003. However, the general knowledge of how journalists treat public figures in other parts of the Chinese-speaking world remains relatively unknown. This study attempts to investigate the questioning and answering patterns, in particular adversarial questioning, in Chinese government press conferences which has thus far received little scholarly attention. Drawing on Clayman and Heritage’s coding system for measuring adversarial questioning in U.S. press conferences (2002b, the current study examines the question-answer sequences based on a corpus of ten government press conferences held in mainland China, and aims to present a questioning format by showing any differences in the design of questions by Chinese journalists and their foreign counterparts. The study further explores the format of the response of Chinese officials typical of these events and some possible correlation between government officials’ question-taking and their setting of the political agenda.

  18. Securitization: Conceptualizing Qatari Foreign Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Dogan, Betul

    2017-01-01

    The role of security in Qatari foreign policy is one of the central discussions in the literature on the Gulf security. This thesis represents Qatari foreign policy strategies through lenses of the Copenhagen School for security studies, established by seminal publications of Barry Buzan, Ole Waever and Jaap de Wilde. The research highlights the question of how can the dynamics of Qatari foreign policy be evaluated within the context of Copenhagen School's security sectors in seven chapters. ...

  19. The Language Question in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Echu, George

    2004-01-01

    In multilingual Cameroon, 247 indigenous languages live side by side with English and French (the two official languages) and Cameroon Pidgin English (the main lingua franca). While the two official languages of colonial heritage dominate public life in the areas of education, administration, politics, mass media, publicity and literature, both the indigenous languages and Cameroon Pidgin English are relegated to the background. This paper is a critique of language policy in Cameroon reveali...

  20. JAVA Interview Questions with Answers

    OpenAIRE

    Mikky, James

    2014-01-01

    JAVA Interview Questions with Answers from ComputerTrainingsOnline.com is n interactive java online training provider to establish a standard present in programming languages training. It is a great opportunity to the people who wants to learn object oriented programming languages like java at their own pace as per the flexible schedules. Here you can share your views and thought procedures with our online community and clarify the queries in java with our core professional team. You can lear...

  1. Understanding Bitcoins: Facts and Questions

    OpenAIRE

    Albuquerque,Bruno Saboia de; Callado,Marcelo de Castro

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work is to do a research challenge about the digital currency named Bitcoins, as well as exploit the general concept behind digital currencies and cryptocurrencies, and enumerate some of its current criticism and problems. Such currencies usage and public knowledge is increasing hastily on the last few months, and many questions arise with its popularity. O objetivo deste trabalho é promover um desafio de investigação sobre a moeda digital chamada Bitcoins, bem como e...

  2. Students’ views on the block evaluation process: A descriptive analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ntefeleng E. Pakkies

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Higher education institutions have executed policies and practices intended to determine and promote good teaching. Students’ evaluation of the teaching and learning process is seen as one measure of evaluating quality and effectiveness of instruction and courses. Policies and procedures guiding this process are discernible in universities, but it isoften not the case for nursing colleges. Objective: To analyse and describe the views of nursing students on block evaluation, and how feedback obtained from this process was managed.Method: A quantitative descriptive study was conducted amongst nursing students (n = 177 in their second to fourth year of training from one nursing college in KwaZulu-Natal. A questionnaire was administered by the researcher and data were analysed using the Statistical Package of Social Sciences Version 19.0. Results: The response rate was 145 (81.9%. The participants perceived the aim of block evaluation as improving the quality of teaching and enhancing their experiences as students.They questioned the significance of their input as stakeholders given that they had never been consulted about the development or review of the evaluation tool, or the administration process; and they often did not receive feedback from the evaluation they participated in. Conclusion: The college management should develop a clear organisational structure with supporting policies and operational guidelines for administering the evaluation process. The administration, implementation procedures, reporting of results and follow-up mechanisms should be made transparent and communicated to all concerned. Reports and actions related to these evaluations should provide feedback into relevant courses or programmes. Keywords: Student evaluation of teaching; perceptions; undergraduate nursing students; evaluation process

  3. On Meanings and Descriptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieke Bal

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available Although descriptive passages would appear to be of marginal importance in narrative texts, they are, in fact, of both logical and semantic necessity. Narratology, therefore, must take these segments into account. In this article, I shall survey the present situation in this field and compare rival points of view. I shall also offer several suggestions for analyzing descriptions. The following topics will be discussed: the nature of description as a specific type of discourse which makes it recognizable as such; the internal structure of description; the place and function of descriptions in the text as a whole. In the latter section, the semantic impact of descriptions in the overall meaning of narrative texts will be accounted for. This article is intended as a contribution to the theory of description as a part of narratology. It also has a didactic purpose, since it proposes a model for the analysis of texts which can be used for systematic text-study, both in a historical and a comparative perspective.

  4. Intonational Structures in Romanian Yes-No Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Apopei

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the conclusions resulted from an intonational analysis of Romanian Yes-No questions. The recent analysis results consist in dividing and structuring the F0 curves into intonational units. Each intonational unit is described by a tone sequence using ToBI labels used in annotation of the most important phonetic events: pitch accents and boundary tones. The authors of the present study propose a description of the resulted patterns for F0 contour in terms of intonational units structures described by their tone sequence. We consider this description suitable for the variety of melodic contours resulted from different speakers and different focalizations in their utterances. In paragraph 3, the paper presents the intonational variants resulted from our speech corpus analysis. The conclusions of Yes-No question analysis are important for linguistic studies and in Romanian speech synthesis.

  5. The argument for pharmaceutical policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traulsen, Janine Morgall; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna

    2005-01-01

    of pharmacy and it is therefore imperative that it be understood, discussed and debated within the pharmacy profession and included in the curriculum of schools of pharmacy. This, the first article in a series, argues for the importance of the academic discipline of pharmaceutical policy analysis...... pharmaceutical policy is made; pharmaceutical policy as a dynamic process; and the new public health as a global issue. The article ends with a short description of the remaining five articles in the series which will deal with important aspects of pharmaceutical policy. The topics include: economic pressures...

  6. Open forum: Question and responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, R.H.; Krupa, S.; Shen, T.T.

    1993-01-01

    The question addressed in this section is: With the end of the Cold War and the exchange of information improving between East and West, what roles should government agencies and non-government organizations from developed countries play in assisting less developed countries in developing a stronger environmental protection program? Responses presented here were obtained from Richard H. Schulze (President of Trinity Consultants, Inc.), Sagar Krupa (Professor, Department of Plant Pathology, University of Minnesota), and Thomas T. Shen (Ph.D., D.AAEE, Retiree of the New York Department of Environmental Conservation)

  7. Nuclear power: Questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    In 1988, the Uranium Institute, a London-based international association of industrial enterprises in the nuclear industry, published a report entitled The Safety of Nuclear Power Plants. Based on an assessment by an international group of senior nuclear experts from eight countries, the report provides an authoritative explanation, for non-specialists of the basic principles of reactor safety, their application, and their implications. Some questions and answers are selected from that report; they address only a few of the subjects that the report itself examines in greater detail

  8. Ten questions about systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joyner, Michael J; Pedersen, Bente K

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we raise 'ten questions' broadly related to 'omics', the term systems biology, and why the new biology has failed to deliver major therapeutic advances for many common diseases, especially diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We argue that a fundamentally narrow and reductionist...... to understand how whole animals adapt to the real world. We argue that a lack of fluency in these concepts is a major stumbling block for what has been narrowly defined as 'systems biology' by some of its leading advocates. We also point out that it is a failure of regulation at multiple levels that causes many...

  9. Evaluation and Policy Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Højlund, Steven

    2015-01-01

    emanating from them are examined. The findings are that only two types of actors involved in the evaluation are actually learning (programme units and external evaluators), that learners learn different things (programme overview, small-scale programme adjustments, policy change and evaluation methods......This article examines how evaluation induces policy learning – a question largely neglected by the scholarly literature on evaluation and policy learning. Following a learner's perspective, the article attempts to ascertain who the learners are, and what, and how, learners actually learn from...... evaluations. In so doing, it focuses on what different types of learners actually learn within the context of the evaluation framework (the set of administrative structures defining the evaluation goals and process). Taking the empirical case of three EU programme evaluations, the patterns of policy learning...

  10. Addressing the Language Description Deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ali Bolgiin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Well-described language features are key to successful teaching and learning, especially for achieving advanced levels of proficiency. Other measures, such as simply increasing the number of reading and listening passages in a language program alone are not enough to bring the student to a higher level in a given skill. In fact, even being present in the target culture does not suffice. Angelelli and Degueldre (2002 argue that at advanced levels, even spending time in a country where the language is spoken is not necessarily sufficient for learners: "They do not need just exposure; they need answers to questions and explanations that they can rarely get by simply being immersed in a language/ culture." Less commonly taught languages (LCTLs lack descriptions that have such answers and explanations (cf. Fotos, 2002. It is argued in this paper that corpuslinguistic analyses help to provide actual usage-based, rather than intuition-based, descriptions and explanations of language features. Such approach is illustrated through English and Turkish examples.

  11. Museum audio description

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Cláudia Susana Nunes

    2011-01-01

    Audio description for the blind and visually impaired has been around since people have described what is seen. Throughout time, it has evolved and developed within different media, starting with reality and daily life, moving into the cinema and television, then across other performing arts, museums and art galleries, and public places. Thus, academics and entertainment providers have developed a growing interest for audio description, especially in what concerns the best methods and strateg...

  12. Subject categories and scope descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document is one in a series of publications known as the ETDE/INIS Joint Reference Series. It defines the subject categories and provides the scope descriptions to be used for categorization of the nuclear literature for the preparation of INIS and ETDE input by national and regional centres. Together with the other volumes of the INIS Reference Series it defines the rules, standards and practices and provides the authorities to be used in the International Nuclear Information System and ETDE. A complete list of the volumes published in the INIS Reference Series may be found on the inside front cover of this publication. This INIS/ETDE Reference Series document is intended to serve two purposes: to define the subject scope of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) and the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and to define the subject classification scheme of INIS and ETDE. It is thus the guide to the inputting centres in determining which items of literature should be reported, and in determining where the full bibliographic entry and abstract of each item should be included in INIS or ETDE database. Each category is identified by a category code consisting of three alphanumeric characters. A scope description is given for each subject category. The scope of INIS is the sum of the scopes of all the categories. With most categories cross references are provided to other categories where appropriate. Cross references should be of assistance in finding the appropriate category; in fact, by indicating topics that are excluded from the category in question, the cross references help to clarify and define the scope of the category to which they are appended. A Subject Index is included as an aid to subject classifiers, but it is only an aid and not a means for subject classification. It facilitates the use of this document, but is no substitute for the description of the scope of the subject categories

  13. Biofuels - 5 disturbing questions; Biocarburants - 5 questions qui derangent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legalland, J.P.; Lemarchand, J.L

    2008-07-01

    Initially considered as the supreme weapon against greenhouse gas emissions, biofuels are today hold responsible to all harms of the Earth: leap of agriculture products price, deforestation, food crisis. Considered some time ago as the perfect clean substitute to petroleum, biofuels are now suspected to have harmful effects on the environment. Should it be just an enormous technical, environmental and human swindle? Should we abandon immediately biofuels to protect the earth and fight the threatening again starvation? Should we wait for the second generation of efficient biofuels, made from non food-derived products and cultivation wastes? This book analyses this delicate debate through 5 main questions: do they starve the world? Are they a clean energy source? Do they contribute to deforestation? Are they economically practicable? Is the second generation ready? (J.S.)

  14. A Reflection on Teacher Questioning Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasih Elisabeth Roostini

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This small-scale research is expected to serve as a reflective means for teachers so that they can explore their questioning types in their own classroom. It analyzed questioning types used by three teachers of general English classes. The questioning types were classified based on three dimensions—purpose, form, and function. The purpose-based questioning types, based on Long and Sato’s findings (1983, were classified into two: referential and display. The form-based questioning types, based on the classification of question types by Celce-Murcia and Larsen-Freeman (1999 and Biber et al. (1999, were classified into four major types: yes/no-questions, wh-questions, tag questions, and alternative questions. The function-based questioning types, based on Long and Sato’s findings (1983, were classified into three sub-types: comprehension checks, confirmation checks, and clarification requests.           The data, obtained from three recorded class meetings, were transcribed and analyzed to see what questioning types each teacher employed and to obtain the number and percentage distribution of questioning types each teacher used. The results showed that referential questions were more frequently used than display questions at higher levels. There were a substantial number of incomplete questions, a form-based questioning type that did not belong to the classification of form-based questioning types employed in this study. The predominant use of incomplete questions in a communicative classroom should be reviewed as this questioning type required accuracy, rather than promoting language practice. The third type, the function-based questioning types, did not occur frequently at all the three stages. This study suggests that teachers use incomplete questions less frequently and try to use other form-based questioning types. It also encourages teachers to reflect on their own teaching and pursue their professional development.

  15. Employing a Qualitative Description Approach in Health Care Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Carmel; Atkinson, Sandra; Doody, Owen

    2017-01-01

    A qualitative description design is particularly relevant where information is required directly from those experiencing the phenomenon under investigation and where time and resources are limited. Nurses and midwives often have clinical questions suitable to a qualitative approach but little time to develop an exhaustive comprehension of qualitative methodological approaches. Qualitative description research is sometimes considered a less sophisticated approach for epistemological reasons. Another challenge when considering qualitative description design is differentiating qualitative description from other qualitative approaches. This article provides a systematic and robust journey through the philosophical, ontological, and epistemological perspectives, which evidences the purpose of qualitative description research. Methods and rigor issues underpinning qualitative description research are also appraised to provide the researcher with a systematic approach to conduct research utilizing this approach. The key attributes and value of qualitative description research in the health care professions will be highlighted with the aim of extending its usage.

  16. Pisa Question and Reasoning Skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersoy Esen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to determine the level of the reasoning skills of the secondary school students. This research has been conducted during the academic year of 2015-2016 with the participation of 51 students in total, from a province in the Black Sea region of Turkey by using random sampling method. Case study method has been used in this study, since it explains an existing situation. In this study, content analysis from the qualitative research methods was carried out. In order to ensure the validity of the scope, agreement percentage formula was used and expert opinions were sought.The problem named Holiday from the Chapter 1 of the normal units in Problem Solving Questions from PISA (Program for International Student Assessments [35] are used as the data collection tool for the study. The problem named Holiday consists of two questions. Applied problems were evaluated according to the mathematical reasoning stages of TIMSS (2003. The findings suggest that the students use proportional reasoning while solving the problems and use the geometric shapes to facilitate the solution of the problem. When they come across problems related to each other, it is observed that they create connections between the problems based on the results of the previous problem. In conclusion, the students perform crosscheck to ensure that their solutions to the problems are accurate.

  17. Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, S.J.; Dixon, B.W.; Bennett, R.G.; Smith, J.D.; Hill, R.N.

    2004-01-01

    Given the range of fuel cycle goals and criteria, and the wide range of fuel cycle options, how can the set of options eventually be narrowed in a transparent and justifiable fashion? It is impractical to develop all options. We suggest an approach that starts by considering a range of goals for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) and then posits seven questions, such as whether Cs and Sr isotopes should be separated from spent fuel and, if so, what should be done with them. For each question, we consider which of the goals may be relevant to eventually providing answers. The AFCI program has both ''outcome'' and ''process'' goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geologic repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are rea diness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties

  18. Les questions de migrations internationales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samman, Mouna Liliane

    1993-03-01

    International migrations have growing implications for both countries of origin and countries of destination. In the latter, the presence of foreigners and of members of their families today creates problems of integration, causes argument and brings mounting xenophobia. Paralleling political, economic and social measures taken by public authorities to respond to these difficulties, education needs to assist in defusing the resulting social tensions by preparing the minds of learners and helping to develop new attitudes. In particular, when educational programmes address questions of international migration, these should be treated in the framework of historical evolution so that their real significance and their true temporal and spatial dimensions become apparent. It is also important that the growing interdependence between countries should be made plain, that national history should be placed in its international context, and that the true consequences of these developments should be made clear. In this context, learners need to be acquainted with Human Rights, thereby stressing universal moral values and the role of the individual. Lastly, questions relating to international migration are usually presented in the media in a selective and partial manner, and the young people who take in this information often accept the hasty judgments which are made of situations as proven facts. This is why all teaching about international migration needs to be considered or reconsidered in the light of the complementary or competing actions of the media.

  19. Are Quantum Theory Questions Epistemic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Yaccuzzi Polisena

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available How to displace-move quantum theory [Ǭ] questions-problems to philosophy? Seeing the collapse of our society’s cultural-intellectual-morals, the philosophy of the 21st century has to contribute to the formation of new principles-formalisms: the big task of the contemporary philosophy ©] is to innovate, to transform the building of the knowledge! Which is the role of the contemporary philosopher? (Noam Chomsky. Building science so that it is more human, out of the scientific mercantilism so that it does not continue transgressing that which is most precious: the thought-life. The ideas that I propose demand a deep cultural-epistemiologicscientific-philosophical-ethical rethinking that goes from quantum entities up to life in society. The starting idea is «the quantum [Ǭ], the paradigm of the contemporary science ©]» (Bernard D’Espagnat. I propose to displace-move questions of the quantum theory [Ǭ]: spin, measure, layering to the field of philosophy (φ to build generic symbols. Can the contemporary episteme model the collapse of the ? For a philosopher, can understanding the importance and the behaviour of the spin bring something new to philosophy ? Can information of the states of the spin be used to observe in a holographic way the pattern energy-information contained in the quantum entities? Is quantum [Ǭ] physics mechanical?

  20. Analyzing the Curriculum of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Gezira using Harden's 10 questions framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Yasar Albushra; Alneel, Salma

    2017-04-01

    Despite the importance of curriculum analysis for internal refinement of a programme, the approach for such a step in under-described in the literature. This article describes the analysis of the medical curriculum at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Gezira (FMUG). This analysis is crucial in the era of innovative medical education since introducing new curricula and curricular changes has become a common occurrence in medical education worldwide. The curriculum analysis was qualitatively approached using descriptive analysis and adopting Harden's 10 Questions of curriculum development framework approach. Answering Harden's questions reflects the fundamental curricular components and how the different aspects of a curriculum framework fit together. The key features highlighted in the curriculum-related material and literature have been presented. The analysis of the curriculum of FMUG reveals a curriculum with interactive components. Clear structured objectives and goals reflect the faculty's vision. The approach for needs assessment is based on a scientific ground, and the curriculum integrated contents have been set to meet national and international requirements. Adopting SPICES strategies helps FMUG and students achieve the objectives of the curriculum. Multiple motivated instructional methods are adopted, fostering coping with the programme objectives and outcomes. A wide range of assessment methods has been adopted to assess the learning outcomes of the curriculum correctly, reliably, and in alignment with the intended outcomes. The prevailing conducive educational environment of FMUG is favourable for its operation and profoundly influences the outcome of the programme. And there is a well-defined policy for curriculum management, monitoring and evaluation. Harden's 10 questions are satisfactorily addressed by the multi-disciplinary and well-developed FMUG curriculum. The current curriculum supports the well-written faculty missions and educational

  1. Research on policy implementation: Assessment and prospect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Toole, Laurence J.

    2000-01-01

    While policy implementation no longer frames the core question of public management and public policy, some scholars have debated appropriate steps for revitalization. And the practical world stands just as much in need now of valid knowledge about policy implementation as ever. Where has all the

  2. State-Level Point-of-Sale Tobacco News Coverage and Policy Progression Over a 2-Year Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Allison E; Southwell, Brian G; Ribisl, Kurt M; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Bowling, J Michael; Lytle, Leslie A

    2018-01-01

    Mass media content may play an important role in policy change. However, the empirical relationship between media advocacy efforts and tobacco control policy success has rarely been studied. We examined the extent to which newspaper content characteristics (volume, slant, frame, source, use of evidence, and degree of localization) that have been identified as important in past descriptive studies were associated with policy progression over a 2-year period in the context of point-of-sale (POS) tobacco control. We used regression analyses to test the relationships between newspaper content and policy progression from 2012 to 2014. The dependent variable was the level of implementation of state-level POS tobacco control policies at Time 2. Independent variables were newspaper article characteristics (volume, slant, frame, source, use of evidence, and degree of localization) and were collected via content analysis of the articles. State-level policy environment contextual variables were examined as confounders. Positive, significant bivariate relationships exist between characteristics of news content (e.g., high overall volume, public health source present, local quote and local angle present, and pro-tobacco control slant present) and Time 2 POS score. However, in a multivariate model controlling for other factors, significant relationships did not hold. Newspaper coverage can be a marker of POS policy progression. Whether media can influence policy implementation remains an important question. Future work should continue to tease out and confirm the unique characteristics of media content that are most associated with subsequent policy progression, in order to inform media advocacy efforts.

  3. Teaching sciences: The multicultural question revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, William B.; Brickhouse, Nancy W.

    2001-01-01

    We contend that science education should be multicultural. We do not believe a universalist view of science is either compatible with a multicultural approach or fully coherent as a foundation for the science curriculum. We begin by summarizing the case for a universalist approach to science education. We then show weaknesses of universalism in accounting for the following: 1. the limits of human cognitive capabilities in constraining what we can understand about nature; 2. a description of reality as a flux; 3. the disunity of science and the role of culturally different forms and social organization of research in shaping the cognitive content of the sciences. We argue that it would be valuable for students to understand the nature of the debates regarding multicultural and universalist perspectives on science. For example, what questions is contemporary molecular biology good at answering? What kinds of problems do other sciences solve? What historical conditions may explain why western sciences arose primarily out of Western European culture rather than elsewhere in the world? How do other belief systems (e.g., religion) interact with indigenous sciences, Chinese science, and Western science?

  4. Relativity and the question of discretization in astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Edelen, Dominic G B

    1970-01-01

    Theoretical researches in general relativity and observational data from galactic astronomy combine in this volume in contributions to one of the oldest questions of natural philosophy: Is the structure of the physical world more adequately described by a continuous or a discrete mode of representation? Since the days of the Pythagoreans, this question has surfaced from time to time in various guises in science as well as in philosophy. One of the most bitterly contested and illuminating controversies between the continuous and the discrete viewpoints is to be found in the wave versus corpuscular description of optical phenom­ enae. This controversy was not resolved to the satisfaction of most of its protaganists until the development of the quantum theory. However, several obscurities that still becloud the question suggest that some deeper formulation may be necessary before more satisfactory answers can be given 1. The firm establishment of the validity of quantized structure and discrete energy distribut...

  5. Biology Question Generation from a Semantic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lishan

    Science instructors need questions for use in exams, homework assignments, class discussions, reviews, and other instructional activities. Textbooks never have enough questions, so instructors must find them from other sources or generate their own questions. In order to supply instructors with biology questions, a semantic network approach was developed for generating open response biology questions. The generated questions were compared to professional authorized questions. To boost students' learning experience, adaptive selection was built on the generated questions. Bayesian Knowledge Tracing was used as embedded assessment of the student's current competence so that a suitable question could be selected based on the student's previous performance. A between-subjects experiment with 42 participants was performed, where half of the participants studied with adaptive selected questions and the rest studied with mal-adaptive order of questions. Both groups significantly improved their test scores, and the participants in adaptive group registered larger learning gains than participants in the control group. To explore the possibility of generating rich instructional feedback for machine-generated questions, a question-paragraph mapping task was identified. Given a set of questions and a list of paragraphs for a textbook, the goal of the task was to map the related paragraphs to each question. An algorithm was developed whose performance was comparable to human annotators. A multiple-choice question with high quality distractors (incorrect answers) can be pedagogically valuable as well as being much easier to grade than open-response questions. Thus, an algorithm was developed to generate good distractors for multiple-choice questions. The machine-generated multiple-choice questions were compared to human-generated questions in terms of three measures: question difficulty, question discrimination and distractor usefulness. By recruiting 200 participants from

  6. Factors that act as facilitators and barriers to nurse leaders' participation in health policy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Nilufa

    2014-01-01

    Health policies impact on nursing profession and health care. Nurses' involvement in health policy development ensures that health care is safe, of a high quality, accessible and affordable. Numerous factors influence nurse leaders' ability to be politically active in influencing health policy development. These factors can be facilitators or barriers to their participation. There is scant research evidence from Eastern African region that draws attention to this topic. This paper reports part of the larger study. The objectives reported in this paper were those aimed to: build consensus on factors that act as facilitators and barriers to nurse leaders' participation in health policy development in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. A DELPHI SURVEY WAS APPLIED WHICH INCLUDED: expert panelists, iterative rounds, statistical analysis, and consensus building. The expert panelists were purposively selected and included national nurse leaders in leadership positions in East Africa. Data collection was done, in three iterative rounds, and utilized a questionnaire with open and closed ended questions. 78 expert panelists were invited to participate in the study; the response rate was 47% of these 64.8% participated in the second round and of those 100% participated in the third round. Data analysis was done by examining the data for the most commonly occurring categories for the open ended questions and descriptive statistics for structured questions. The findings of the study indicate that both facilitators and barriers exist. The former include: being involved in health policy development, having knowledge and skills, enhancing the image of nursing and enabling structures and processes. The latter include: lack of involvement, negative image of nursing and structures and processes which exclude them. There is a window of opportunity to enhance national nurse leaders' participation in health policy development. Nurse leaders have a key role in mentoring, supporting and

  7. Factors that act as facilitators and barriers to nurse leaders’ participation in health policy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Health policies impact on nursing profession and health care. Nurses' involvement in health policy development ensures that health care is safe, of a high quality, accessible and affordable. Numerous factors influence nurse leaders' ability to be politically active in influencing health policy development. These factors can be facilitators or barriers to their participation. There is scant research evidence from Eastern African region that draws attention to this topic. This paper reports part of the larger study. The objectives reported in this paper were those aimed to: build consensus on factors that act as facilitators and barriers to nurse leaders' participation in health policy development in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. Methods A Delphi survey was applied which included: expert panelists, iterative rounds, statistical analysis, and consensus building. The expert panelists were purposively selected and included national nurse leaders in leadership positions in East Africa. Data collection was done, in three iterative rounds, and utilized a questionnaire with open and closed ended questions. 78 expert panelists were invited to participate in the study; the response rate was 47% of these 64.8% participated in the second round and of those 100% participated in the third round. Data analysis was done by examining the data for the most commonly occurring categories for the open ended questions and descriptive statistics for structured questions. Results The findings of the study indicate that both facilitators and barriers exist. The former include: being involved in health policy development, having knowledge and skills, enhancing the image of nursing and enabling structures and processes. The latter include: lack of involvement, negative image of nursing and structures and processes which exclude them. Conclusion There is a window of opportunity to enhance national nurse leaders' participation in health policy development. Nurse leaders have a key role

  8. Protective orders: questions and conundrums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, T K; Shannon, Lisa; Walker, Robert; Faragher, Teri Marie

    2006-07-01

    Current media portrayal of protective orders is often negative, focusing on weaknesses in how protective orders are obtained and enforced. This review of research findings on protective orders examines issues and suggests areas in need of future research to clarify and improve public policy. More specifically, this review has five main objectives: (a) to provide background information about partner violence and the need for protective orders; (b) to describe what protective orders are, how many women obtain them, and the advantages and disadvantages of obtaining protective orders; (c) to examine characteristics of women who seek protective orders; (d) to explore research on whether protective orders actually increase women's safety; and (e) to highlight opportunities and gaps in the practice and research literature regarding the use of protective orders for women with violent partners or ex-partners.

  9. Big questions about the universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavinschi, Magda

    2011-06-01

    Astronomy is not only a branch of science but also an important part of the culture and civilisations of peoples. Starting with archeoastronomy to the present day, it has always contributed to a better understanding of life, of humanity. After 400 years of modern astronomy, it still addresses major problems such as: Why there is something rather than nothing? Why is nature comprehensible to humans? How is cosmos related to humanity? Do multiverses exist? Is there life on other planets? Are we alone in the universe? Does the universe have a beginning? If so, what does it mean? How did the universe originate? All these questions are a challenge for interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary investigations, for philosophers, physicists, cosmologists, mathematicians, theologians. The new insights gained by pursuing in depth these common investigations will shape the society we live in and have important consequences on the future we are creating.

  10. Statistical questions in experimental evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, Michael M

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in the mathematical analysis of models describing evolutionary dynamics are rapidly increasing our ability to make precise quantitative predictions. These advances have created a growing need for corresponding improvements in our ability to observe evolutionary dynamics in laboratory evolution experiments. High-throughput experimental methods are particularly crucial, in order to maintain many replicate populations and measure statistical differences in evolutionary outcomes at both phenotypic and genomic levels. In this paper, I describe recent technical developments which have greatly increased the throughput of laboratory evolution experiments, and outline a few promising directions for further improvements. I then highlight a few ways in which these new experimental methods can help to answer simple statistical questions about evolutionary dynamics, and potentially guide future theoretical work

  11. Still asking the wrong questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø

    by setting up a chase for the heffalump entrepreneur. There has however been a break with this approach. Most commonly referenced is William B. Gartner who presents a critique of the field of entrepreneurship, wherein he questions the general investigative trend of charting the psychological make......-up of the entrepreneur (Gartner, 1988). Building on this critique I will use the presentation to show, through the use of a historical case, how much we need new conceptualizations in order to highlight the collective development of ideas, which would also open for a discussion about the values guiding entrepreneurship......The psychological discipline has contributed to an increasingly individualized focus on the entrepreneur. When psychology entered the field of entrepreneurship the main focus was on mapping the different personality traits of the entrepreneur following McClelland, leading researchers astray...

  12. Ten questions about systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joyner, Michael J; Pedersen, Bente K

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we raise 'ten questions' broadly related to 'omics', the term systems biology, and why the new biology has failed to deliver major therapeutic advances for many common diseases, especially diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We argue that a fundamentally narrow and reductionist...... perspective about the contribution of genes and genetic variants to disease is a key reason 'omics' has failed to deliver the anticipated breakthroughs. We then point out the critical utility of key concepts from physiology like homeostasis, regulated systems and redundancy as major intellectual tools...... common diseases. Finally, we attempt to integrate our critique of reductionism into a broader social framework about so-called translational research in specific and the root causes of common diseases in general. Throughout we offer ideas and suggestions that might be incorporated into the current...

  13. Fundamental Questions of Practical Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baryshev, Yurij; Teerikorpi, Pekka

    The book guides the reader (astronomer, physicist, university student) through central questions of Practical Cosmology, a term used by the late Allan Sandage to denote the modern scientific enterprise to find out the cosmological model best describing the universe of galaxies, its geometry, size, age, and material contents. The authors draw from their personal experience in astrophysics and cosmology to explain key concepts of cosmology, both observational and theoretical, and to highlight several items which give cosmology its special character: - idiosyncratic features of the "cosmic laboratory" - Malmquist bias in determination of cosmic distances - theory of gravitation as a cornerstone of cosmological models - crucial tests checking the reality of space expansion - methods of analyzing the structures of the universe as mapped by galaxies - usefulness of fractal as a model to describe the large-scale structure - new cosmological physics inherent in the Friedmann world model

  14. Cycle downstream: the plutonium question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zask, G.; Rome, M.; Delpech, M.

    1998-01-01

    This day, organized by the SFEN, took place at Paris the 4 june 1998. Nine papers were presented. They take stock on the plutonium physics and its utilization as a nuclear fuel. This day tried to bring information to answer the following questions: do people have to keep the plutonium in the UOX fuel or in the MOX fuel in order to use it for future fast reactors? Do people have to continue obstinately the plutonium reprocessing in the MOX for the PWR type reactors? Will it be realized a underground disposal? Can it be technically developed plutonium incinerators and is it economically interesting? The plutonium physics, the experimental programs and the possible solutions are presented. (A.L.B.)

  15. Reliability of semiology description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jae-Hyeok; Kim, Dong Wook; Lee, Seo-Young; Cho, Jinwhan; Lee, Sang-Kun; Nam, Hyunwoo

    2008-01-01

    Seizure semiology is important for classifying patients' epilepsy. Physicians usually get most of the seizure information from observers though there have been few reports on the reliability of the observers' description. This study aims at determining the reliability of observers' description of the semiology. We included 92 patients who had their habitual seizures recorded during video-EEG monitoring. We compared the semiology described by the observers with that recorded on the videotape, and reviewed which characteristics of the observers affected the reliability of their reported data. The classification of seizures and the individual components of the semiology based only on the observer-description was somewhat discordant compared with the findings from the videotape (correct classification, 85%). The descriptions of some ictal behaviors such as oroalimentary automatism, tonic/dystonic limb posturing, and head versions were relatively accurate, but those of motionless staring and hand automatism were less accurate. The specified directions by the observers were relatively correct. The accuracy of the description was related to the educational level of the observers. Much of the information described by well-educated observers is reliable. However, every physician should keep in mind the limitations of this information and use this information cautiously.

  16. Olkiluoto site description 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    This fourth version of the Olkiluoto Site Report, produced by the OMTF (Olkiluoto Modelling Task Force), updates the Olkiluoto Site Report 2008 with the data and knowledge obtained up to December 2010. A descriptive model of the site (the Site Descriptive Model, SDM), i.e. a model describing the geological and hydrogeological structure of the site, properties of the bedrock and the groundwater and its flow, and the associated interacting processes and mechanisms. The SDM is divided into six parts: surface system, geology, rock mechanics, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry and transport properties

  17. CRAC2 model description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, L.T.; Alpert, D.J.; Burke, R.P.; Johnson, J.D.; Ostmeyer, R.M.; Aldrich, D.C.; Blond, R.M.

    1984-03-01

    The CRAC2 computer code is a revised version of CRAC (Calculation of Reactor Accident Consequences) which was developed for the Reactor Safety Study. This document provides an overview of the CRAC2 code and a description of each of the models used. Significant improvements incorporated into CRAC2 include an improved weather sequence sampling technique, a new evacuation model, and new output capabilities. In addition, refinements have been made to the atmospheric transport and deposition model. Details of the modeling differences between CRAC2 and CRAC are emphasized in the model descriptions

  18. Olkiluoto site description 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    This fourth version of the Olkiluoto Site Report, produced by the OMTF (Olkiluoto Modelling Task Force), updates the Olkiluoto Site Report 2008 with the data and knowledge obtained up to December 2010. A descriptive model of the site (the Site Descriptive Model, SDM), i.e. a model describing the geological and hydrogeological structure of the site, properties of the bedrock and the groundwater and its flow, and the associated interacting processes and mechanisms. The SDM is divided into six parts: surface system, geology, rock mechanics, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry and transport properties.

  19. BIOCHEMISTRY QUESTIONS ANALYSIS FROM NATIONAL EXAM OF STUDENT PERFORMANCE (ENADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Paiva Dos Santos

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The Brazilian National Exam of Student Performance (ENADE is part of the National System of Higher Education Assessment (SINAES, that was created to evaluate the quality of undergraduate courses and higher education institutions throughout Brazil. Biochemistry is a discipline present in the basic curriculum of the health courses and many students complete their courses without a belief that the basic sciences they have studied will have much relevance to their day-to-day clinical practice. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work was to analyze the Biochemistry questions from ENADE of the health area courses and to propose an integrated approach that prepares students for lifelong learning. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This work was an exploratory research with a descriptive analysis of the Biochemistry questions of ENADE (2004, 2006, 2007, 2010 and 2013 applied for the courses of Physiotherapy, Medicine, Nutrition, Biomedicine, Physical Education, Nursing, and Pharmacy. Twenty-one tests were analyzed and the Biochemistry questions separated by course and according to their integrative view. DISCUSSION AND RESULTS: 28 exams were analysed, It was selected 857 questions from specific component, from which 8.05% (69 questions were based on Biochemistry contents. Higher percentage of Biochemistry questions was found in exams of courses Nutrition (30.43%, followed by Biomedicine (28.98%, Pharmacy (20.28%, Physical Education (7.24%, Medicine (5.79%, Physiotherapy (4.34% and Nursing (2.89%. Forty-one percent of the questions analysed presented only basic concepts in Biochemistry, 26% were contextualized, and 33% were interdisciplinary. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrated the relevance of Biochemistry for the assessment of the quality of undergraduate courses in the health area in Brazil and suggested a profile questions that could be used in Biochemistry classes to introduce an active methodology approach.

  20. The policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laruelle, Ph.; Snegaroff, Th.; Moreau, S.; Tellenne, C.; Brunel, S.

    2005-01-01

    Fourth chapter of the book on the geo-policy of the sustainable development, this chapter deal with the different and international policies concerned by the problem. The authors analyze the american energy attitude and policy, the economical equilibrium facing the environmental equilibrium for the european policy, the sanctified and sacrificed nature and the japanese attitude, India and China, the great fear of the 21 century and the sustainable development in Africa. (A.L.B.)

  1. Risk Implications of Energy Policy Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitzing, Lena

    papers and a working paper), based on a combination of micro-economic and policy analysis. Financial theory is used for the quantitative analysis of investment problems under uncertainty, including mean-variance portfolio theory, real option analysis, Monte Carlo simulations and time series analysis...... show, both qualitatively and quantitatively, that policy makers cannot neglect risk implications when designing RES support instruments without compromising either on effectiveness or cost-efficiency of energy policy. The central research questions are: how can risk implications of RES policy...... instruments be integrated into policy design, so that the policies provide adequate investment incentives? And can the consideration of such risk implications in policy design make overall energy policy more successful? These questions are answered in seven research papers (four journal papers, two conference...

  2. Key research questions of global importance for cetacean conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, E. C. M.

    2016-02-01

    Limited resources and increasing environmental concerns have prompted calls to identify the critical questions that most need to be answered to advance conservation, thereby providing an agenda for scientific research priorities. Cetaceans are often keystone indicator species but also high profile, charismatic flagship taxa that capture public and media attention as well as political interest. A dedicated workshop was held at the conference of the Society for Marine Mammalogy (December 2013, New Zealand) to identify where lack of data was hindering cetacean conservation and which questions need to be addressed most urgently. This paper summarizes 15 themes and component questions prioritized during the workshop. We hope this list will encourage cetacean conservation-orientated research and help agencies and policy makers to prioritize funding and future activities. This will ultimately remove some of the current obstacles to science-based cetacean conservation.

  3. Areva: questions about a champion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottois, P.

    2009-01-01

    Siemens announced in January 26, 2009 its decision to leave Areva NP, i.e. the Areva/Siemens common daughter company for reactors. This news re-launches the questions about the long-term financing strategy of the Areva group, of its capitalistic partnerships and of its position in the world nuclear market. Siemens on its side wishes to preserve its position in this market and a possible cooperation with the Russian AtomEnergoProm is under discussion. Areva, the world leader of nuclear industry, integrates a mining activity as well and is the world number 3 of uranium exploitation (15% of the world offer). It wishes to double its production by 2012 thanks to big investments in Niger, Namibia and Canada. Areva is developing its enrichment capacities as well thanks to the future Georges-Besse II ultracentrifugation facility which is under construction at Tricastin (Drome, France) and which should be put into service in 2009. And finally, a second EPR (European pressurized reactor), the new generation of Areva reactors, is to be built at Penly (Haute Normandie, France) between 2012 and 2017 and will generate 1400 employments in the region. (J.S.)

  4. Verum focus and polar questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Giurgea

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We argue that some word order phenomena in Romanian and Sardinian are the result of a checking operation in the left periphery involving verum focus (i.e. focus on the polarity component of the sentence. In particular, this operation accounts for some word order patterns found in polar questions. In Romanian, polarity fronting is realized as head-movement of (V+T to a higher peripheral head which bears a Focus-probe. This licenses VS orders for predications in which VS is not allowed as a neutral order (i-level predicates, iteratives, generics. In Sardinian, an entire phrase headed by the lexical predicate (verbal non-finite form or non-verbal predicate is fronted before the auxiliary. We argue that this order is obtained by two movement operations, head-raising of Aux to Foc and movement of the predicate phrase to SpecFoc. We also present the semantics of polarity focus, distinguishing several types of focus (informational, emphatic, contrastive.

  5. Verum focus and polar questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Giurgea

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We argue that some word order phenomena in Romanian and Sardinian are the result of a checkingoperation in the left periphery involving verum focus (i.e. focus on the polarity component of the sentence.In particular, this operation accounts for some word order patterns found in polar questions. In Romanian,polarity fronting is realized as head-movement of (V+T to a higher peripheral head which bears a Focusprobe.This licenses VS orders for predications in which VS is not allowed as a neutral order (i-levelpredicates, iteratives, generics. In Sardinian, an entire phrase headed by the lexical predicate (verbal nonfiniteform or non-verbal predicate is fronted before the auxiliary. We argue that this order is obtained bytwo movement operations, head-raising of Aux to Foc and movement of the predicate phrase to SpecFoc. Wealso present the semantics of polarity focus, distinguishing several types of focus (informational, emphatic,contrastive.

  6. Frequently Asked Questions: The Higgs!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2012-01-01

    Why have we tried so hard to find the Higgs particle? How does the Higgs mechanism work? What is the difference in physics between strong evidence and a discovery? Why do physicists speak in terms of "sigmas"? Find out here!   Why have we tried so hard to find the Higgs particle? Because it could be the answer to the question: how does Nature decide whether or not to assign mass to particles? All the fundamental particles making up matter – the electron, the quarks, etc. – have masses. Moreover, quantum physics requires that forces are also carried by particles. The W and Z particles that carry the weak force responsible for radioactivity must also have masses, whereas the photon, the carrier of the electromagnetic force, has no mass at all. This is the root of the “Higgs problem”: how to give masses to the fundamental particles and break the symmetry between the massive W and Z and the massless photon? Just assigning masses by hand...

  7. EPAct Alternative Fuel Transporation Program - State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets: Frequently Asked Questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-03-01

    Factsheet answering frequently asked questions about the U.S. Department of Energy's Alternative Fuel Transportation Program (the Program) that implements provisions of Titles III–V of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct). Answers to questions that are frequently asked about the Program by managers of state government and alternative fuel provider fleets are provided in the factsheet.

  8. Probabilistic modeling of dietary intake of substances - The risk management question governs the method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters MN; Ossendorp BC; Bakker MI; Slob W; SIR

    2005-01-01

    In this report the discussion on the use of probabilistic modeling in relation to pesticide use in food crops is analyzed. Due to different policy questions the current discussion is complex and considers safety of an MRL as well as probability of a health risk. The question regarding the use of

  9. A statistical analysis of student questions in a cell biology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Elena L; Polacek, Kelly M; Ingram, Ella L

    2009-01-01

    Asking questions is an essential component of the practice of science, but question-asking skills are often underemphasized in science education. In this study, we examined questions written by students as they prepared for laboratory exercises in a senior-level cell biology class. Our goals were to discover 1) what types of questions students asked about laboratory activities, 2) whether the types or quality of questions changed over time, and 3) whether the quality of questions or degree of improvement was related to academic performance. We found a majority of questions were about laboratory outcomes or seeking additional descriptive information about organisms or processes to be studied. Few questions earned the highest possible ranking, which required demonstration of extended thought, integration of information, and/or hypotheses and future experiments, although a majority of students asked such a question at least once. We found no correlation between types of student questions or improvement in questions and final grades. Only a small improvement in overall question quality was seen despite considerable practice at writing questions about science. Our results suggest that improving students' ability to generate higher-order questions may require specific pedagogical intervention.

  10. Generalizing: The descriptive struggle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, Ph.D.; Hon Ph.D.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The literature is not kind to the use of descriptive generalizations. Authors struggle and struggle to find and rationalize a way to use them and then fail in spite of trying a myriad of work-arounds. And then we have Lincoln and Guba’s famous statement: “The only generalization is: there is no generalization” in referring to qualitative research. (op cit, p. 110 They are referring to routine QDA yielding extensive descriptions, but which tacitly include conceptual generalizations without any real thought of knowledge about them. In this chapter I wish to explore this struggle for the purpose of explaining that the various contra arguments to using descriptive generalizations DO NOT apply to the ease of using conceptual generalizations yielded in SGT and especially FGT. I will not argue for the use of descriptive generalization. I agree with Lincoln and Guba with respect to QDA, “the only generalization is: there is no generalization.” It is up to the QDA methodologists, of whom there are many; to continue the struggle and I wish them well.

  11. Tore Supra: technical description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This report is aimed, after a brief recall of physics and technologic perspectives of Tore Supra, at giving a detailed description of the basic machine; details of each component are defined. Volume 1 is specifically concerned with the general aspects of Tore Supra and the toroidal field system [fr

  12. Systematic Description of Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regtien, Paulus P.L.; Sydenham, Peter H.; Thorn, Richard

    A sensor performs the exchange of information (thus energy) from one domain to another and therefore it operates on the interface between different physical domains. Several frameworks have been developed for a systematic description of sensors. Basically, they are based on either of two different

  13. Fractal description of fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung, C.W.

    1991-06-01

    Recent studies on the fractal description of fractures are reviewed. Some problems on this subject are discussed. It seems hopeful to use the fractal dimension as a parameter for quantitative fractography and to apply fractal structures to the development of high toughness materials. (author). 28 refs, 7 figs

  14. MCFire model technical description

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Conklin; James M. Lenihan; Dominique Bachelet; Ronald P. Neilson; John B. Kim

    2016-01-01

    MCFire is a computer program that simulates the occurrence and effects of wildfire on natural vegetation, as a submodel within the MC1 dynamic global vegetation model. This report is a technical description of the algorithms and parameter values used in MCFire, intended to encapsulate its design and features a higher level that is more conceptual than the level...

  15. Dry Cleaning, Course Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Albert J.; Anderson, Floyd L.

    This course description was developed by educators for use at the Work Opportunity Center which was established to teach high school dropouts and/or hard-core unemployed youth. The ultimate objectives of this course are to prepare students for employment in dry cleaning occupations and to assist them in completing their high school graduation…

  16. Business Education, Course Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Robert; Anderson, Floyd L.

    This course description was developed by educators for use at the Work Opportunity Center in teaching high school dropouts and hard-core unemployed youth. The ultimate objectives of the business education curriculum at the Center are to prepare students for employment in clerical occupations and to assist them in completing their high school…

  17. Communications, Course Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickstrom, Sandra E.; Anderson, Floyd L.

    This course description was developed by educators for use at the Work Opportunity Center which was established to teach high school dropouts and/or hardcore unemployed youth. The ultimate objectives of this curriculum are to develop communicative skills necessary for social interaction and to help the student complete high school graduation…

  18. Reading, Course Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, George; Anderson, Floyd L.

    This course description was developed by educators for use at the Work Opportunity Center which was established to teach high school dropouts and hard-core unemployed youth. The objectives of this reading curriculum are to develop skills of retarded readers, further develop skills of adequate readers, and develop an appreciation for reading.…

  19. Updating action domain descriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiter, Thomas; Erdem, Esra; Fink, Michael; Senko, Ján

    2010-10-01

    Incorporating new information into a knowledge base is an important problem which has been widely investigated. In this paper, we study this problem in a formal framework for reasoning about actions and change. In this framework, action domains are described in an action language whose semantics is based on the notion of causality. Unlike the formalisms considered in the related work, this language allows straightforward representation of non-deterministic effects and indirect effects of (possibly concurrent) actions, as well as state constraints; therefore, the updates can be more general than elementary statements. The expressivity of this formalism allows us to study the update of an action domain description with a more general approach compared to related work. First of all, we consider the update of an action description with respect to further criteria, for instance, by ensuring that the updated description entails some observations, assertions, or general domain properties that constitute further constraints that are not expressible in an action description in general. Moreover, our framework allows us to discriminate amongst alternative updates of action domain descriptions and to single out a most preferable one, based on a given preference relation possibly dependent on the specified criteria. We study semantic and computational aspects of the update problem, and establish basic properties of updates as well as a decomposition theorem that gives rise to a divide and conquer approach to updating action descriptions under certain conditions. Furthermore, we study the computational complexity of decision problems around computing solutions, both for the generic setting and for two particular preference relations, viz. set-inclusion and weight-based preference. While deciding the existence of solutions and recognizing solutions are PSPACE-complete problems in general, the problems fall back into the polynomial hierarchy under restrictions on the additional

  20. Urban photovoltaic electricity policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 10 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at urban photovoltaic electricity policies. The mission of the Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme is to enhance the international collaboration efforts which accelerate the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy as a significant and sustainable renewable energy option. The objective of Task 10 is stated as being to enhance the opportunities for wide-scale, solution-oriented application of photovoltaics in the urban environment. The goal of the study presented was to evaluate a standardised basis for urban policies regarding photovoltaic integration in a set of cities in the countries participating in the IEA's Task 10, Urban Scale PV. The investigation was focused on three topics: the present state of the policies, the prospects for future policies fostering photovoltaic deployment and the prospects for future policies to cope with large-scale photovoltaic integration. The first section analyses the state of the policies; this analysis is then confirmed in section 2, which deals with present obstacles to PV deployment and solutions to overcome them. The third section investigates future prospects for PV deployment with the question of mastering large scale integration. The report concludes that cities could formulate urban solutions by developing integrated, specific provisions for PV deployment in their urban infrastructure planning.

  1. Introduction strategies raise key questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, W R; Keller, S

    1995-09-01

    Key issues that must be considered before a new contraceptive is introduced center on the need for a trained provider to begin or terminate the method, its side effects, duration of use, method's ability to meet users' needs and preferences, and extra training or staff requirements. Logistics and economic issues to consider are identifying a dependable way of effectively supplying commodities, planning extra services needed for the method, and cost of providing the method. Each contraceptive method presents a different side effect pattern and burdens the service delivery setting differently. The strategy developed to introduce or expand the 3-month injectable Depo-Provera (DMPA) can be used for any method. It includes a needs assessment and addresses regulatory issues, service delivery policies and procedures, information and training, evaluation, and other concerns. Viet Nam's needs assessment showed that Norplant should not be introduced until the service delivery system becomes stronger. Any needs assessment for expansion of contraceptive services should cover sexually transmitted disease/HIV issues. A World Health Organization strategy helps officials identify the best method mix for local situations. Introductory strategies must aim to improve the quality of family planning programs and expand choices. Many begin by examining existing data and conducting interviews with policymakers, users, providers, and women's health advocates. Introductory programs for Norplant focus on provider training, adequate counseling and informed consent for users, and ready access to removal. They need a well-prepared service delivery infrastructure. The first phase of the DMPA introductory strategy for the Philippines comprised a social marketing campaign and DMPA introduction at public clinics in 10 pilot areas with strong service delivery. Successful AIDS prevention programs show that people tend to use barrier methods when they are available. USAID is currently studying

  2. Evaluating Pragmatic Competence in Nigerian Undergraduates' Language Errors within Descriptive ESL Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Anas Sa'idu; Nair, Subadrah Madhawa

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the level of pragmatic competence for ESL writing skills among Nigerian undergraduates. Methodologically, it adopts descriptive research design within the explanatory framework of the QUAN-Qual model. The instruments used are descriptive essay text and focus group interview questions. In writing the descriptive essays, a…

  3. Three growing questions about Masonry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Crimi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Through three capital questions, this short essay tries to offer a general panorama and a better understanding of the proteiform complex body or Masonry. Through by a multi-level hermeneutic, this study get the ambition to be comprehensible both to Readers who are not used to this kind of literature and to the ones advanced and skilled in symbolic thought. The main important conclusion owes the quality of the symbolic level, which is the property to refuse a single interpretation: notwithstanding, this does not prevent from a clear historical and political evaluation of the phenomena under analysis, according the methodologies of social sciences. This political evaluability drives to the main valuable output of the essay, which concerns the anthropological statement that the logical label of Masonry, with this name or many others, it exists since always. Under the category of initiatory institution, we may consider the step between individual and society, and a society inside a larger one. Evolving from the needs of the individuals to the ones of social groups, the matter joins to the land of political sciences. The sociological meaning can be posed under analytic view in reason of the functionalist meaning emerging from the alternative couples status-quo/emancipation and conservatism/progressivism. Through by this perspective, anyway the theme seems not to reveal much more, because this “proteiform complex body” manifest itself as something too much complex in its inner core to be considered in a way or in another. What remains is strictly symbolic, with some theological and eschatological points that refuse to be posed under restrain.

  4. Assessing the psychometric questioner for students rating teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razaghi Reza Sharif

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Educational institutions use different ways to evaluate their teachers. Asking students to rate their teachers is common practice. The purpose of this research was to examine the reliability of the instruments used to evaluate the instructors in a college of medicine. This cross-sectional descriptive research used questioners that evaluated instructors. The questioner was targeting different dimensions of instructors. Item analysis in addition to exploratory factor analysis was performed on 1040questioners answered by the students of the College of Medicine of Kashan University of Medical Sciences. SPSS software was used to perform the analysis. The psychometric properties of questionnaires including Cronbach alpha was determined. The result of exploratory factor analysis and item analysis indicated that three of the subscales of the questioner showed sufficient reliability to evaluate the instructors and two subscales needed further examination. This type of evaluations is necessary to ensure quality of instructors working in an institution as well as providing reliable feedback to the instructors. The result showed that while some subscales of the questioner seems to target the concept of interest; a re-evaluation of the instrument would be valuable to increase its reliability for the administrators in the colleges.

  5. Clinical research ethics review process in Lebanon: efficiency and functions of research ethics committees - results from a descriptive questionnaire-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atallah, David; Moubarak, Malak; El Kassis, Nadine; Abboud, Sara

    2018-01-11

    Clinical trials conducted in Lebanon are increasing. However, little is known about the performance of research ethics committees (RECs) in charge of reviewing the research protocols. This study aimed to assess the level of adherence to the ethics surrounding the conduct of clinical trials and perceptions of team members regarding roles of the RECs during the conduct of clinical trials in Lebanon. The research question was: Are RECs adherent to the ethics surrounding the conduct of clinical trials (chapters II and IV in 'Standards and Operational Guidance for Ethics Review of Health-related Research with Human Participants' in Lebanon?' This was a quantitative and descriptive questionnaire-based study conducted among RECs of university hospitals in Lebanon. The questionnaire had to be completed online and included general questions in addition to items reflecting the different aspects of a REC performance and effectiveness. All the questionnaire was assigned a total score of 175 points. General information and questions assigned point values/scores were analysed using descriptive statistics: frequency and percentage, mean score ± standard deviation. Ten RECs participated in the study (52 persons: four chairs, one vice-president, 47 ordinary members). Forty-seven (90.4%) had previous experience with clinical research and 30 (57.7%) had a diploma or had done a training in research ethics. Forty-one percent confirmed that they were required to have a training in research ethics. All RECs had a policy for disclosing and managing potential conflicts of interest for its members, but 71.8% of participants reported the existence of such a policy for researchers. Thirty-three point three percent reported that the RECs had an anti-bribery policy. The questionnaire mean score was 129.6 ± 22.3/175 points reflecting thus an excellent adherence to international standards. Inadequate training of REC members and the lack of anti-bribery policies should be resolved to

  6. People's opinion of climate policy. Popular support for climate policy alternatives in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, Sjoevaag Marit; Bjoerge, Nils Erik; Ericson, Torgeir; Garnaasjordet, Per Arild; Karlsen, Haakon T.; Randers; Joergen; Rees, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    How can we evaluate whether national climate policies are sufficient? Which moral principles should be the basis of our policy efforts? The answers to these questions are central to the development of any climate policy framework, but not always made explicit in daily political discourse. In this article we seek to redress this imbalance through a survey of popular opinion in Norway.(Author)

  7. People's opinion of climate policy. Popular support for climate policy alternatives in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marino, Sjoevaag Marit; Bjoerge, Nils Erik; Ericson, Torgeir; Garnaasjordet, Per Arild; Karlsen, Haakon T.; Randers; Joergen; Rees, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    How can we evaluate whether national climate policies are sufficient? Which moral principles should be the basis of our policy efforts? The answers to these questions are central to the development of any climate policy framework, but not always made explicit in daily political discourse. In this article we seek to redress this imbalance through a survey of popular opinion in Norway.(Author)

  8. Quality Assurance Program Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halford, Vaughn Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ryder, Ann Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Effective May 1, 2017, led by a new executive leadership team, Sandia began operating within a new organizational structure. National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia (Sandia’s) Quality Assurance Program (QAP) was established to assign responsibilities and authorities, define workflow policies and requirements, and provide for the performance and assessment of work.

  9. Thick-Big Descriptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Signe Sophus

    to a commercial logic (boyd & Crawford 2011) and is as such directed by motives that call for specific types of sellable user data and specific segmentation strategies. In combining big data and ‘thick descriptions’ (Geertz 1973) scholars need to question how ethnographic fieldwork might map the ‘data not seen...

  10. Multidimensional nonlinear descriptive analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Nishisato, Shizuhiko

    2006-01-01

    Quantification of categorical, or non-numerical, data is a problem that scientists face across a wide range of disciplines. Exploring data analysis in various areas of research, such as the social sciences and biology, Multidimensional Nonlinear Descriptive Analysis presents methods for analyzing categorical data that are not necessarily sampled randomly from a normal population and often involve nonlinear relations. This reference not only provides an overview of multidimensional nonlinear descriptive analysis (MUNDA) of discrete data, it also offers new results in a variety of fields. The first part of the book covers conceptual and technical preliminaries needed to understand the data analysis in subsequent chapters. The next two parts contain applications of MUNDA to diverse data types, with each chapter devoted to one type of categorical data, a brief historical comment, and basic skills peculiar to the data types. The final part examines several problems and then concludes with suggestions for futu...

  11. Descriptive sensory evaluations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehlholm, Christian

    in projective mapping frame geometry and restrictions on the reported semantics. Two rapid descriptive evaluation techniques were proposed to represent a consensus evaluation. One of the approaches, ‘consensus attribute rating’ (CAR), allows a group of assessors to rate products on a list of pre......-selected attributes. The other approach, ‘consensus Napping’, allows a group of assessors to project products according to an agreed consensus placement on a paper sheet. Evaluations were performed either by groups of experienced sensory assessors or by product experts. Compared with conventional profiling techniques......, the evaluations showed significant correlations between some product configurations, but no consistent and systematic similarities. On average, product expert groups had less in common with the reference profiles than the trained panellist groups and the semantic descriptions of products varied to a large degree...

  12. Descriptive sensory evaluations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehlholm, Christian

    A recent trend in descriptive sensory evaluation methodology has been the application of rapid evaluation techniques. The ease in use makes the techniques extremely easy to implement by industry and university environments. Thus, one might not consider validity in the choice of method. The overall...... in projective mapping frame geometry and restrictions on the reported semantics. Two rapid descriptive evaluation techniques were proposed to represent a consensus evaluation. One of the approaches, ‘consensus attribute rating’ (CAR), allows a group of assessors to rate products on a list of pre...... for all groups. Hence, consensus profiling with untrained assessors should not be used for the purpose of considering consistency between panels, while assessors trained in the product may perform more reliably. As for projective mapping variations of frame geometry, evaluations in a rectangular...

  13. Resource Description Framework (RDF)

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbins, Nicholas; Shadbolt, Nigel

    2009-01-01

    The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is the standard knowledge representation language for the Semantic Web, an evolution of the World Wide Web that aims to provide a well-founded infrastructure for publishing, sharing and querying structured data. This article provides an introduction to RDF and its related vocabulary definition language RDF Schema, and explains its relationship with the OWL Web Ontology Language. Finally, it provides an overview of the historical development of RDF and ...

  14. TMACS system description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaief, C.C.

    1995-01-01

    This document provides a description of the Tank Monitor and Control System (TMACS). It is intended as an introduction for those persons unfamiliar with the system as well as a reference document for the users, maintenance personnel, and system designers. In addition to describing the system, the document outlines the associated drawing documentation, provides maintenance and spare parts information, and discusses other TMACS documents that provide additional detail

  15. Analysis of maternal and child health policies in Malawi: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of maternal and child health policies in. Malawi: The methodological perspective. Abstract. The question of why most health policies do not achieve their intended results continues to receive a considerable attention in the literature. This is in the light of the recognized gap between policy as intent and policy.

  16. XML Diagnostics Description Standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neto, A.; Fernandes, H.; Varandas, C.; Lister, J.; Yonekawa, I.

    2006-01-01

    A standard for the self-description of fusion plasma diagnostics will be presented, based on the Extensible Markup Language (XML). The motivation is to maintain and organise the information on all the components of a laboratory experiment, from the hardware to the access security, to save time and money when problems arises. Since there is no existing standard to organise this kind of information, every Association stores and organises each experiment in different ways. This can lead to severe problems when the organisation schema is poorly documented or written in national languages. The exchange of scientists, researchers and engineers between laboratories is a common practice nowadays. Sometimes they have to install new diagnostics or to update existing ones and frequently they lose a great deal of time trying to understand the currently installed system. The most common problems are: no documentation available; the person who understands it has left; documentation written in the national language. Standardisation is the key to solving all the problems mentioned. From the commercial information on the diagnostic (component supplier; component price) to the hardware description (component specifications; drawings) to the operation of the equipment (finite state machines) through change control (who changed what and when) and internationalisation (information at least in the native language and in English), a common XML schema will be proposed. This paper will also discuss an extension of these ideas to the self-description of ITER plant systems, since the problems will be identical. (author)

  17. Top Questions About HIV Prevention and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... THE OFFICE ON WOMEN’S HEALTH Top Questions About HIV Prevention and Women The human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV, ... entry of HIV. This is Top Questions About HIV Prevention and Women 2 especially true for girls and ...

  18. Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

  19. IMS Learning Design Frequently Asked Questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tattersall, Colin; Manderveld, Jocelyn; Hummel, Hans; Sloep, Peter; Koper, Rob; De Vries, Fred

    2004-01-01

    This list of frequently asked questions was composed on the basis of questions asked of the Educational Technology Expertise Centrum. The questions addessed are: Where can I find the IMS Learning Design Specification? What is meant by the phrase “Learning Design”? What is the IMS LD Specification

  20. Questions That Science Teachers Find Difficult (II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Alan

    2003-01-01

    Presents some questions that science teachers find difficult. Focuses on three further questions relating to "simple" everyday situations that are normally explained in terms of the kinetic theory of matter. Identifies looking at the difference between chemical and physical changes as the most problematic question. (Author/YDS)

  1. Adaptive Review of Three Fundamental Questions in Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Hossein; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Daei Kasmaei, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    principle. Included in the sub quantum scale, where quantum interactions between photons and gravitons done. Hidden and dark side of modern physics is also a place where charged particles absorb and emit energy quanta, without any description of the mechanism of absorption and emission by charged particles....... Perhaps it is only a part of a bigger picture of the modern physics which includes the deeper and hidden layer of subatomic world that has been dipped into the darkness of the universe. The question is, where is the hidden part of modern physics? Hidden part of modern physics lies beyond the uncertainty...

  2. Environment, sustainability, and education policy research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenzie, Marcia; Rickinson, Mark; Bengtssen, Stefan

    Introduction: This session is a two part symposium on the topic of environment and sustainability in relation to educational policy development, enactment, and analysis. This format is modeled on similar formats used in other international conferences, such as the Association of American...... and methodological approaches to policy and policy research. Some key questions to be addressed include:- What kinds of understandings of policy and policy research are informing work in environmental and sustainability education?- Are there interdisiplinary approaches to policy research that can be useful...... for furthering critical education policy analysis?- What are the relationships between policy development and its enactment or implementation? - To what extent has the environmental education field researched policy development and/or enactment?- What might environmental education research have to offer...

  3. Policy Diffusion and Policy Transfer in Comparative Welfare State Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obinger, Herbert; Schmitt, Carina; Starke, Peter

    2013-01-01

    existing theoretical concepts and quantitative and qualitative methodological approaches that enable the analysis of interdependencies between countries. Moreover, we summarize the empirical findings of quantitative and qualitative studies on the diffusion and transfer of social policy, from some...... witnessing a growing interest in questions about interdependencies and policy diffusion between countries. In this article, we provide a structured overview of the state of the art in the policy diffusion and transfer literature that deals specifically with social policy. We present and critically evaluate...... pioneering studies to the latest findings. Against this background we point out what we believe to be promising avenues for future research. We focus on five areas: theoretical work on the mechanisms underlying diffusion and transfer; methodological approaches; the impact of domestic institutions and policy...

  4. The Greenhouse Effect: Science and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Stephen H.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses many of the scientific questions surrounding the greenhouse effect debate and the issue of plausible responses. Discussion includes topics concerning projecting emissions and greenhouse gas concentrations, estimating global climatic response, economic, social, and political impacts, and policy responses. (RT)

  5. Heidegger and Derrida on the Nature of Questioning: Towards the Rehabilitation of Questioning in Contemporary Philosophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, V.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the Heidegger and Derrida controversy about the nature of questioning is revisited in order to rehabilitate questioning as an essential characteristic of contemporary philosophy. After exploring Heidegger's characterization of philosophy as questioning and Derrida's criticism of the

  6. Formative questioning in computer learning environments: a course for pre-service mathematics teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkoç, Hatice

    2015-11-01

    This paper focuses on a specific aspect of formative assessment, namely questioning. Given that computers have gained widespread use in learning and teaching, specific attention should be made when organizing formative assessment in computer learning environments (CLEs). A course including various workshops was designed to develop knowledge and skills of questioning in CLEs. This study investigates how pre-service mathematics teachers used formative questioning with technological tools such as Geogebra and Graphic Calculus software. Participants are 35 pre-service mathematics teachers. To analyse formative questioning, two types of questions are investigated: mathematical questions and technical questions. Data were collected through lesson plans, teaching notes, interviews and observations. Descriptive statistics of the number of questions in the lesson plans before and after the workshops are presented. Examples of two types of questions are discussed using the theoretical framework. One pre-service teacher was selected and a deeper analysis of the way he used questioning during his three lessons was also investigated. The findings indicated an improvement in using technical questions for formative purposes and that the course provided a guideline in planning and using mathematical and technical questions in CLEs.

  7. MCO Monitoring activity description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SEXTON, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    Spent Nuclear Fuel remaining from Hanford's N-Reactor operations in the 1970s has been stored under water in the K-Reactor Basins. This fuel will be repackaged, dried and stored in a new facility in the 200E Area. The safety basis for this process of retrieval, drying, and interim storage of the spent fuel has been established. The monitoring of MCOS in dry storage is a currently identified issue in the SNF Project. This plan outlines the key elements of the proposed monitoring activity. Other fuel stored in the K-Reactor Basins, including SPR fuel, will have other monitoring considerations and is not addressed by this activity description

  8. Description logic rules

    CERN Document Server

    Krötzsch, M

    2010-01-01

    Ontological modelling today is applied in many areas of science and technology,including the Semantic Web. The W3C standard OWL defines one of the most important ontology languages based on the semantics of description logics. An alternative is to use rule languages in knowledge modelling, as proposed in the W3C's RIF standard. So far, it has often been unclear how to combine both technologies without sacrificing essential computational properties. This book explains this problem and presents new solutions that have recently been proposed. Extensive introductory chapters provide the necessary

  9. Informed policies

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    cation technology (ICT) and now. Minister of Science and Technology, was one of the architects of Mozam- bique's ICT policy in 2000 — the first in Africa. Nationwide access to these technologies is one of the pillars of the government's science and technology policy. “We don't believe in politicians, but we believe in politics.

  10. The European Union's Africa Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Gorm Rye

    2013-01-01

    -brokers. The paper puts forward the hypothesis that the Nordic countries as small states have had a considerable influence on the EU's policies towards Africa in the current century. The ‘Nordicization' is the result of the fact that the Nordics traditionally have had a high moral profile in international affairs...... including North–South and specifically Africa policies. Five separate analyses are carried out addressing the question of Nordicization and Europeanization. Based on the empirical analyses, it is not possible to confirm the hypothesis that a Nordicization of the European Union's Africa policy has taken...... place. Rather, it appears adequate to talk about convergence of policies between the Nordics and the EU and therefore, the Africa policies of both actors are basically the result of Europeanization....

  11. From policy to reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Kia; Reventlow, Susanne; Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh

    2016-01-01

    visitors and which complicate implementation of the policies of the Danish health authorities. Findings show that the current system is not well equipped to treat early overweight. A gap in primary preventive health care for children at age 3–5, indistinct lines of responsibility, inadequate cooperation......, and lack of resources together make it difficult for health care professionals to initiate interventions and reach the children in need of support. By analyzing the policy implementation process in a theoretical framework that discloses the discursive allocation of responsibilities, the study is able...... to provide a deeper description and analysis of the problem. The study makes it clear how preventive health care for overweight children rests on the negotiation of formal and performed responsibilities among health practitioners within a framework of scarce resources and communication deficit....

  12. Semantic annotation of consumer health questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilicoglu, Halil; Ben Abacha, Asma; Mrabet, Yassine; Shooshan, Sonya E; Rodriguez, Laritza; Masterton, Kate; Demner-Fushman, Dina

    2018-02-06

    Consumers increasingly use online resources for their health information needs. While current search engines can address these needs to some extent, they generally do not take into account that most health information needs are complex and can only fully be expressed in natural language. Consumer health question answering (QA) systems aim to fill this gap. A major challenge in developing consumer health QA systems is extracting relevant semantic content from the natural language questions (question understanding). To develop effective question understanding tools, question corpora semantically annotated for relevant question elements are needed. In this paper, we present a two-part consumer health question corpus annotated with several semantic categories: named entities, question triggers/types, question frames, and question topic. The first part (CHQA-email) consists of relatively long email requests received by the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) customer service, while the second part (CHQA-web) consists of shorter questions posed to MedlinePlus search engine as queries. Each question has been annotated by two annotators. The annotation methodology is largely the same between the two parts of the corpus; however, we also explain and justify the differences between them. Additionally, we provide information about corpus characteristics, inter-annotator agreement, and our attempts to measure annotation confidence in the absence of adjudication of annotations. The resulting corpus consists of 2614 questions (CHQA-email: 1740, CHQA-web: 874). Problems are the most frequent named entities, while treatment and general information questions are the most common question types. Inter-annotator agreement was generally modest: question types and topics yielded highest agreement, while the agreement for more complex frame annotations was lower. Agreement in CHQA-web was consistently higher than that in CHQA-email. Pairwise inter-annotator agreement proved most

  13. Dynamic Question Ordering in Online Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Early Kirstin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Online surveys have the potential to support adaptive questions, where later questions depend on earlier responses. Past work has taken a rule-based approach, uniformly across all respondents. We envision a richer interpretation of adaptive questions, which we call Dynamic Question Ordering (DQO, where question order is personalized. Such an approach could increase engagement, and therefore response rate, as well as imputation quality. We present a DQO framework to improve survey completion and imputation. In the general survey-taking setting, we want to maximize survey completion, and so we focus on ordering questions to engage the respondent and collect hopefully all information, or at least the information that most characterizes the respondent, for accurate imputations. In another scenario, our goal is to provide a personalized prediction. Since it is possible to give reasonable predictions with only a subset of questions, we are not concerned with motivating users to answer all questions. Instead, we want to order questions to get information that reduces prediction uncertainty, while not being too burdensome. We illustrate this framework with two case studies, for the prediction and survey-taking settings. We also discuss DQO for national surveys and consider connections between our statistics-based question-ordering approach and cognitive survey methodology.

  14. Methodological questions for the post-2015 development agenda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacopo Bonan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2015, the Millennium Development Goals are due to end. Academics, practitioners and the general public are eager to see which development agenda will take their place and a variety of different organizations are currently elaborating proposals for the next “round” of goals and targets. Instead of investigating possible topics of the upcoming agenda, we focus on methodological questions that – according to our view – will play a major role in the definition and implementation of future development goals. We focus on the elaboration of some key questions that should be addressed in the realm of poverty and inequality measurement, the definition of targets, the ability to consider complexity and evidence-based policy making.

  15. Multiple Descriptions Using Sparse Decompositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Østergaard, Jan; Dahl, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the design of multiple descriptions (MDs) using sparse decompositions. In a description erasure channel only a subset of the transmitted descriptions is received. The MD problem concerns the design of the descriptions such that they individually approximate the source...... first-order method to the proposed convex problem such that we can solve large-scale instances for image sequences....

  16. Energy and the greenhouse effect. Answers to 60 questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, H.; De Wolff, J.J.; Folkert, R.J.M.; Hoekstra, J.; Ruijgrok, W.; Stortelder, B.J.M.; Vosbeek, M.E.J.P.; Ruiter, J.P.

    1997-11-01

    The aim of this report is to clarify the complex interaction between the greenhouse effect and the energy sector in the Netherlands, focusing on the future of the energy supply and how changes in policies with respect to energy consumption can influence climatic change. The relation between energy sector and greenhouse effect is dealt with on the basis of 60 questions on the greenhouse effect, emission of greenhouse gases and energy scenarios, and concise answers. Calculations of consequences of future scenarios for the climate are executed by means of the KEMA-developed integrated scenario model for climatic change DIALOOG. 27 refs

  17. Anthropological contributions to historical ecology: 50 questions, infinite prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKechnie, Iain; Ekblom, Anneli; Szabó, Péter; Lane, Paul J.; McAlvay, Alex C.; Boles, Oliver J.; Walshaw, Sarah; Petek, Nik; Gibbons, Kevin S.; Quintana Morales, Erendira; Anderson, Eugene N.; Ibragimow, Aleksandra; Podruczny, Grzegorz; Vamosi, Jana C.; Marks-Block, Tony; LeCompte, Joyce K.; Awâsis, Sākihitowin; Nabess, Carly; Sinclair, Paul; Crumley, Carole L.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a consensus-driven process identifying 50 priority research questions for historical ecology obtained through crowdsourcing, literature reviews, and in-person workshopping. A deliberative approach was designed to maximize discussion and debate with defined outcomes. Two in-person workshops (in Sweden and Canada) over the course of two years and online discussions were peer facilitated to define specific key questions for historical ecology from anthropological and archaeological perspectives. The aim of this research is to showcase the variety of questions that reflect the broad scope for historical-ecological research trajectories across scientific disciplines. Historical ecology encompasses research concerned with decadal, centennial, and millennial human-environmental interactions, and the consequences that those relationships have in the formation of contemporary landscapes. Six interrelated themes arose from our consensus-building workshop model: (1) climate and environmental change and variability; (2) multi-scalar, multi-disciplinary; (3) biodiversity and community ecology; (4) resource and environmental management and governance; (5) methods and applications; and (6) communication and policy. The 50 questions represented by these themes highlight meaningful trends in historical ecology that distill the field down to three explicit findings. First, historical ecology is fundamentally an applied research program. Second, this program seeks to understand long-term human-environment interactions with a focus on avoiding, mitigating, and reversing adverse ecological effects. Third, historical ecology is part of convergent trends toward transdisciplinary research science, which erodes scientific boundaries between the cultural and natural. PMID:28235093

  18. Trustee Accountability and National Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Frank

    1973-01-01

    Two trends that from the national point of view of the role of trustees demand attention are: (1) that higher education is in the process of reorganization and (2) that higher education must now answer questions concerning objectives and whether or not these objectives are paying off. Four responses to these issues in terms of national policy are:…

  19. A Primer on Macroprudential Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poutineau, Jean-Christophe; Vermandel, Gauthier

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces macroprudential policy using a static New Keynesian Macroeconomics model with financial frictions. The authors analyze two related questions: First, they show how the procyclicality of financial factors, captured by the financial accelerator, amplifies the transmission of supply and demand shocks and impacts the intuition…

  20. Multinationals and international environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dam, L.; Scholtens, B.

    2009-01-01

    Multinationals with relatively poor environmental policy establish themselves in countries with weak environmental regulation. These activities are not undertaken in the poorest or most corrupt countries though. The question arises if multinationals with relatively developed environmental behavior settle less or more often in countries with environmental legislation. [mk] [nl

  1. School leadership for equity and learning and the question of school autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlos Hatzopoulos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article draws from the work conducted in the context of the European Policy Network on School Leadership (EPNoSL. In particular, it is based on an in-depth review of school leadership policies in 21 European countries and the discourse that is taking place in EPNoSL’s webinars, national workshops and peer learning activities organised in several EU countries with the participation of a variety of school leadership stakeholders (including policy makers at European, national, and local levels, school leaders, teachers and other professionals, academics, researchers, parents and students. EPNoSL is a network of 42 European institutions that aims at improving policy on, and practice in, school leadership in Europe. The article discusses the question of school autonomy in the context of school leadership policy development in Europe. School autonomy is considered as a critical precondition for the development of comprehensive school leadership policies. Based on the comprehensive framework of school leadership policy development that has been developed in the context of this project, the article undertakes two main tasks. Firstly, it attempts to show that instead of searching for universal solutions on the question of school autonomy, it is important to reflect on context-specific policies on autonomy that aim at the attainment of concrete learning and equity goals. Secondly, it specifies seven general directions for policies on school autonomy that are adaptive to the divergent experiences of European education systems.

  2. Market failures and government policies in gas markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, M; Zwart, G.

    2006-02-01

    This memorandum analyses the fundamental characteristics of the natural gas market and its consequences for government policies. In the past, the European gas market was dominated by state-owned monopolists but since the start of the liberalisation, privatisation and re-regulation in the early 1990s, the market has fundamentally changed. Nevertheless, governments are still involved in the gas industry, not only in gas exporting countries such as Russia, but also in a country like the Netherlands where the government has imposed a cap on production from the main gas field (Groningen) as well as owns shares in the main wholesale trader (Gasunie Trade and Supply) which has the obligation to accept all gas offered by producers on the small fields. In the main report of this project we present a cost-benefit analysis of the Dutch gas-depletion policy. In this memorandum we explore the natural-gas market more broadly, looking for factors why government intervention may be needed using the welfare-economic approach according to which government intervention should be based on the presence of market failures. After a brief description of the main characteristics of the gas industry, we systematically analyse sources of market failures, such as geopolitical factors, economies of scale and externalities, and finally go into the question which policy options may be chosen to address those market failures

  3. Policy stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Carina Bregnholm; Rasmussen, Rasmus Kjærgaard

    planning and execution and of event outcomes beyond the narrow confines of bed nights and legacies. Second, we introduce policies as an entry point to unlock discussions and manifestations of value and futures which connect to AWG. In order to exemplify the workings of the AWG event in these domains, we...... present three central policy stories from the field. The stories tell of how the event was first interested, then activated and finally evaluated. Besides adding a new understanding to policy-driven events as a locus of value creation, we also argue that the AWG 2016 offer speculative bets for new...

  4. Annotating Logical Forms for EHR Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Kirk; Demner-Fushman, Dina

    2016-05-01

    This paper discusses the creation of a semantically annotated corpus of questions about patient data in electronic health records (EHRs). The goal is to provide the training data necessary for semantic parsers to automatically convert EHR questions into a structured query. A layered annotation strategy is used which mirrors a typical natural language processing (NLP) pipeline. First, questions are syntactically analyzed to identify multi-part questions. Second, medical concepts are recognized and normalized to a clinical ontology. Finally, logical forms are created using a lambda calculus representation. We use a corpus of 446 questions asking for patient-specific information. From these, 468 specific questions are found containing 259 unique medical concepts and requiring 53 unique predicates to represent the logical forms. We further present detailed characteristics of the corpus, including inter-annotator agreement results, and describe the challenges automatic NLP systems will face on this task.

  5. Polemic and Descriptive Negations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horslund, Camilla Søballe

    2011-01-01

    as such may be more or less central to the meaning of the utterance. The present paper investigates the role of morphosyntactic and prosodic prominence as well as register and social setting on the interpretation of negations. It seems plausible to expect that if the negation as such is central to the meaning...... of the utterance (as in polemic negations), the negation will be articulated prominently in order to emphasise this importance. Likewise, if the negation is not central to the meaning of the utterance, it should not be articulated prominently. Moreover, it is plausible to expect descriptive negations to be more...... common in certain social context or genres, while polemic negations are more likely to come up in other genres and social settings. Previous studies have shown a relation between articulatory prominence and register, which may further inform the analysis. Hence, the paper investigates how articulatory...

  6. Task Description Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Reid; Apfelbaum, David

    2005-01-01

    Task Description Language (TDL) is an extension of the C++ programming language that enables programmers to quickly and easily write complex, concurrent computer programs for controlling real-time autonomous systems, including robots and spacecraft. TDL is based on earlier work (circa 1984 through 1989) on the Task Control Architecture (TCA). TDL provides syntactic support for hierarchical task-level control functions, including task decomposition, synchronization, execution monitoring, and exception handling. A Java-language-based compiler transforms TDL programs into pure C++ code that includes calls to a platform-independent task-control-management (TCM) library. TDL has been used to control and coordinate multiple heterogeneous robots in projects sponsored by NASA and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). It has also been used in Brazil to control an autonomous airship and in Canada to control a robotic manipulator.

  7. Structured Attentions for Visual Question Answering

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Chen; Zhao, Yanpeng; Huang, Shuaiyi; Tu, Kewei; Ma, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Visual attention, which assigns weights to image regions according to their relevance to a question, is considered as an indispensable part by most Visual Question Answering models. Although the questions may involve complex relations among multiple regions, few attention models can effectively encode such cross-region relations. In this paper, we demonstrate the importance of encoding such relations by showing the limited effective receptive field of ResNet on two datasets, and propose to mo...

  8. Question Wording (Version 2.0)

    OpenAIRE

    Lenzner, Timo; Menold, Natalja

    2016-01-01

    This contribution provides an overview of the basic rules that should be observed when formulating survey questions. The structure of the chapter is oriented towards the cognitive response process that respondents undergo when answering survey questions. This process involves a total of four tasks: understanding the question text, retrieving information from memory, forming a judgment, and formulating a response in the format provided. Using practical examples, the authors demonstrate how que...

  9. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.M. Simmons

    2004-04-16

    The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.

  10. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel

  11. Olkiluoto site description 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-05-01

    This Olkiluoto Site Description 2004 is a description of the Olkiluoto site, in which the various disciplines have been integrated to produce a coherent picture, and is based on the data available prior to the start of the underground excavation of the ONKALO facility. This report is the first version of such a Site Report and supplements the site syntheses that have already been published. Further Site Reports will be produced on a regular basis and it is planned that the Site Report should form the geoscientific basis of the Safety Case in a future licence application. The report updates the Baseline report published in 2003 and is designed to produce an integrated site model, by focusing on interdisciplinary interactions, and also by including new data obtained during 2003 and 2004. The report has been produced by the OMTF (Olkiluoto Modelling Task Force), which covers the areas of geology, rock mechanics, hydrogeology and hydrogeochemistry. In addition to discussing the input from these four disciplines, the Site Report also includes a description of the surface conditions. Formally, the surface conditions are not within the remit of the OMTF, which is concentrating on modelling the bedrock around the ONKALO and the future repository. The influence of the surface conditions to the overall system and to the conditions at depth is recognised, however, and thus a summary of climate, ecosystems and overburden properties is also included in this report. Chapter 1 sets out the methodology to be used in the modelling, describes the various discipline-specific models which are developed and the modelled areas which are used, and also describes two important processes - the prediction/outcome studies and the uncertainty and confidence assessment. The difference between the estimate (the prediction) and the result (the outcome) indicates the level of knowledge and the prevailing uncertainties in the models. Chapter 2 presents the applied investigation data, which are

  12. Question Classification Taxonomies as Guides to Formulating Questions for Use in Chemistry Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festo, Kayima

    2016-01-01

    Teacher questions play an important role in facilitating classroom discourse. Using appropriate question types and proper questioning techniques help to create reflective-active learners. Teacher questions can elicit students' explanations, elaboration of their ideas and thinking, and they can be used to disclose students' misconceptions. Despite…

  13. Monetary Policy and Excessive Bank Risk Taking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agur, I.; Demertzis, M.

    2010-01-01

    If monetary policy is to aim at financial stability, how would it change? To analyze this question, this paper develops a general-form model with endogenous bank risk profiles. Policy rates affect both bank incentives to search for yield and the cost of wholesale funding. Financial stability

  14. Water Demand Management Policy Brief No

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Bob Stanley

    Water Demand Management. Policy Brief No.2. Fair share: Water Demand Management can help provide fair access to water for the poor. Water Policy. Brief no.2. The Millennium Development Goals identify lack of clean water supply as a key factor in the lives of the poor. Eighty percent of poor people questioned in 20 ...

  15. Agricultural Productivity and Policy Interventions in Nyamagabe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improving agricultural productivity has received considerable policy intervention in many African countries and particularly in Rwanda. The question remains to know the extent to which the policy contributes to the variation being upwards or downwards of the crop productivity. There are number of determinant factors some ...

  16. A Descriptive Analysis of Instructional Coaches' Data Use in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodgrass Rangel, Virginia; Bell, Elizabeth R.; Monroy, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    A key assumption of accountability policies is that educators will use data to improve their instruction. In practice, however, data use is quite hard, and more districts are looking to instructional coaches to support their teachers. The purpose of this descriptive analysis is to examine how instructional coaches in elementary and middle school…

  17. servicom policy intervention: improving service quality in nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    SERVICOM policy, in which we examine descriptively the nature and implementation process of the policy, against a theoretical background depicting the nature of public services, quality and quality improvement, problems in the. Nigerian public sector, earlier policy prescriptions for an efficiently functioning service, and an.

  18. Danish Energy Efficiency Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togeby, Mikael; Larsen, Anders; Dyhr-Mikkelsen, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    Ten groups of policy instruments for promoting energy efficiency are actively used in Denmark. Among these are the EU instruments such as the CO2 emissions trading scheme and labelling of appliances, labelling of all buildings, combined with national instruments such as high taxes especially...... of the entire Danish energy efficiency policy portfolio must be carried out before end 2008 and put forward for discussion among governing parties no later than February 2009. A consortium comprising Ea Energy Analyses, Niras, the Department of Society and Globalisation (Roskilde University) and 4-Fact...... was assigned with this task. The evaluation aimed to answer the crucial questions: Is the overall design of the portfolio of instruments appropriate? Does the impact of the instruments justify the costs, so that we reach the national goals in a cost efficient way? Will the current instrument portfolio be able...

  19. From Description to prescription

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Anders Riel; Doucette, Jamie

    the 2008 global economic downturn. From Africa to Latin American, and from Central to Southeast Asia, the developmental state is increasingly seen as an alternative to the Washington Consensus and there is deliberate effort to learn from the Korean development experience as a hallmark example...... of a developmental state. Thus, Korea has attempted to both stimulate and satisfy demand for knowledge of its developmental history through a range of initiatives including its Knowledge Sharing Project: a program overseen by the Korean Development Institute and Ministry of Strategy and Finance...... regimentation, labour subordination, and state-led mobilization that have accompanied Korean development. This problem is apparent in the KSP and affiliated policy literature that promotes several ‘hallmarks’ of the Korean developmental experience such as Park Chung-hee’s New Village Movement (Saemaul Undong...

  20. Analyzing the curriculum of the faculty of medicine, University of Gezira using Harden’s 10 questions framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YASAR ALBUSHRA AHMED

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite the importance of curriculum analysis for internal refinement of a programme, the approach for such a step in under-described in the literature. This article describes the analysis of the medical curriculum at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Gezira (FMUG. This analysis is crucial in the era of innovative medical education since introducing new curricula and curricular changes has become a common occurrence in medical education worldwide. Methods: The curriculum analysis was qualitatively approached using descriptive analysis and adopting Harden’s 10 Questions of curriculum development framework approach. Answering Harden’s questions reflects the fundamental curricular components and how the different aspects of a curriculum framework fit together. The key features highlighted in the curriculum-related material and literature have been presented. Results: The analysis of the curriculum of FMUG reveals a curriculum with interactive components. Clear structured objectives and goals reflect the faculty’s vision. The approach for needs assessment is based on a scientific ground, and the curriculum integrated contents have been set to meet national and international requirements. Adopting SPICES strategies helps FMUG and students achieve the objectives of the curriculum. Multiple motivated instructional methods are adopted, fostering coping with the programme objectives and outcomes. A wide range of assessment methods has been adopted to assess the learning outcomes of the curriculum correctly, reliably, and in alignment with the intended outcomes. The prevailing conducive educational environment of FMUG is favourable for its operation and profoundly influences the outcome of the programme. And there is a well-defined policy for curriculum management, monitoring and evaluation. Conclusion: Harden’s 10 questions are satisfactorily addressed by the multi-disciplinary and well-developed FMUG curriculum. The current

  1. Children's questions: a mechanism for cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouinard, Michael M

    2007-01-01

    Preschoolers' questions may play an important role in cognitive development. When children encounter a problem with their current knowledge state (a gap in their knowledge, some ambiguity they do not know how to resolve, some inconsistency they have detected), asking a question allows them to get targeted information exactly when they need it. This information is available to them when they are particularly receptive to it, and because it comes as the result of their own disequilibrium, it may have depth of processing benefits. In that questions allow children to get information they need to move their knowledge structures closer to adult-like states, the ability to ask questions to gather needed information constitutes an efficient mechanism for cognitive development (referred to in this paper as the Information Requesting Mechanism [IRM]; this term is used because it includes question-asking and other information recruiting behaviors such as gestures, expressions, and vocalizations). However, the role of children's questions in their cognitive development has been largely overlooked. If questions are a force in cognitive development, the following must be true: (1) children must actually ask questions that gather information; (2) children must receive informative answers to their questions if they are able to be of use to cognitive development; (3) children must be motivated to get the information they request, rather than asking questions for other purposes such as attention; (4) the questions children ask must be relevant and of potential use to their cognitive development; (5) we must see evidence that children's questions help them in some way-that is, that they can ask questions for a purpose, and use the information they receive purposefully to successfully achieve some change of knowledge state. This monograph reports data on these points. Study 1 analyzed questions taken from four children's transcripts in the CHILDES database (age 1;2-5;1). This

  2. THE EVOLUTION OF THE POLITICAL QUESTION DOCTRINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    wits-user

    1995-02-22

    Feb 22, 1995 ... Israel, judiciaries have developed what is commonly referred to as the political question doctrine to ... The political question doctrine was first enunciated in Marbury by the United States. Supreme Court when it ..... of power from the then Government of Ghana was in conflict with the Constitution required an ...

  3. Three Key Questions on Measuring Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTighe, Jay

    2018-01-01

    The author examines three essential questions on educational assessment: What really matters in a contemporary education? How should we assess those things that matter? How might our assessments enhance learning that matters, not just measure it? In answering these question, he argues that schools need a broader collection of measures, with a…

  4. Environmental Ethics: Questions for Adult Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jenneth

    1993-01-01

    Presents a series of questions through which adult educators can explore controversial questions of environmental values and moral behavior in their programs. The subjects include geography, local history, natural history, economics, politics, business, labor education, world affairs, literature, women's studies, psychology, and courses for the…

  5. Michaelis' hundred Questions and the Royal Instructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2017-01-01

    Michaelis' 100 questions for the expedition is a remarkable document. It provides insight into the sources and methods of biblical research anno 1762, at the same time as highlighting the challenges the members of the expedition faced. As the scholarly foundation of the expedition, the questions ...

  6. Michaelis' Hundred Questions and the Royal Instruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2015-01-01

    Michaelis' 100 questions for the expedition is a remarkable document. It provides insight into the sources and methods of biblical research anno 1762, at the same time as highlighting the challenges the members of the expedition faced. As the scholarly foundation of the expedition, the questions ...

  7. The Effects of Questioning on Thinking Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiang, Ching-Pyng; McDaniel, Ernest

    This study investigated the effects of self-generated questions and external questions on thinking processes. Thirty-three college students acted as investigators in a computer simulation of a Congressional investigation into the Pearl Harbor attack. The simulation--known as "The Attack on Pearl Harbor: Cloud of Mystery?"--presented the…

  8. Questioning Techniques in the Gifted Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaunessy, Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    This article discusses using questioning techniques for encouraging purposeful inquiry among gifted students in elementary grades through college levels. A variety of questioning strategies is recommended, focusing primarily on the higher end of Bloom's taxonomy to engage students in higher level thinking. A classroom example is provided.…

  9. The beat-wave accelerator: Twenty questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Many questions in the field of accelerator physics, plasma physics and laser technology need to be addressed if a useful accelerator based on the beat-wave principle is to be constructed. Many of these must be considered together rather than sequentially. An attempt has been made to set out a number of the more important questions in a logical manner. (orig.)

  10. The ecological crisis: a question of justice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempf, H.

    2010-01-01

    The question of ecology has become a major issue for international relations in the next half-century. But it poses new problems of worldwide justice more than questions of power politics, and its solution will always be a reflection of internal social issues in the countries concerned. (author)

  11. Chapter 9: Questions from CNEN specific exams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2018-01-01

    The following are real questions from CNEN specific exams for obtaining the certification of RSO for gamma irradiators. These are questions that require essay answers, that are interpretative ones and therefore that may accept more than one interpretation, therefore more than one answer. For this reason, suggestions of answers will be presented in the second part of this chapter

  12. Preprocessing documents to answer Dutch questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jijkoun, V.; Mishne, G.A.; de Rijke, M.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a framework for offline extraction of certain types of information from a document collection, and discuss its usage for answering factoid questions. We implemented this approach as a part of the Dutch Question Answering System developed at the University of Amsterdam. The evaluation of

  13. "Wh"-Questions in the English Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowarin, Macaulay

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes "wh"-questions in the English Language based mainly on Chomsky's Minimalist Programme of transformational grammar as the theoretical model. The four main objectives of this paper are as follows: first, it undertakes a cross linguistic typological analysis of "wh"-questions and it then discusses the derivation of…

  14. US fertility prevention as poverty prevention: an empirical question and social justice issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Diana; Agénor, Madina

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of the US welfare reform family-cap policy on the childbearing decisions of poor and low-income women by posing two complementary questions, both placed within a broader historical context. Specifically, it raises an empirical question pertaining to the family cap's effectiveness and a social justice question pertaining to the policy's ethical and legal justification in terms of human and reproductive rights. To address the first question, a thorough review of past and current research pertaining to the family cap at both the state and national levels is provided. The second question is addressed with an overview of international human and reproductive rights documents of relevance to the family-cap policy, as well as an analysis of the covenants' numerous components with which the family cap is in conflict. Finally, this paper situates the family cap in its historical context by investigating previous governmental attempts to control and regulate the reproductive health and rights of poor women and women of color in the United States. The majority of empirical analyses of the family cap have found that the policy has not had an impact on poor women's reproductive health behaviors. In addition, the exclusive application of this policy to poor women receiving cash assistance is demonstrated to be in violation of eight international human and reproductive rights documents, several of which the US is a signatory. These two findings make a strong case that policy makers and social and health researchers alike critically reexamine whether a policy that has not achieved its ostensible goal and is applied in a disparate manner-primarily to poor women and families and women of color-should continue to be implemented by the states.

  15. Avaliação do Plano Nacional de Educação 2001-2009: questões estruturais e conjunturais de uma política EValuation of the 2001-2009 national plan for education: structural and short-term questions in a policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernandes Dourado

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo avalia o Plano Nacional de Educação (PNE em vigor, a lógica política de sua tramitação e sua aprovação pelo Congresso Nacional, ressaltando as concepções de educação e de Estado em disputa, os seus limites estruturais e conjunturais como política pública, bem como os contornos assumidos no enfrentamento das questões da educação básica e superior. Apresenta, ainda, reflexões e indicações sobre a temática, e enfatiza a necessidade histórica da proposição e construção coletiva do novo PNE (2011-2020, a fim de que se constitua uma efetiva política de Estado para a educação.This paper assesses the current National Plan for Education (NPE, the political logic of its progress and its approval by the National Congress. It emphasizes the conceptions of education and of State in dispute, its structural and short-term limits as a public policy, as well as the outlines referring to basic and higher education. It also presents reflections and indications on this theme and highlights the historical need for the proposition and collective construction of the new 2011-2020 NPE, so that it constitutes an effective state policy for education.

  16. The social policies of Lula's administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Hermínia Tavares de Almeida

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the initiatives taken by the Lula administration regarding social policies. To begin with, we describe the social reform process implemented by the governments that followed the redemocratization of Brazil. Then, we examine some indices showing the evolution of social conditions due to social policies practiced during the democratic period. Finally, we analyze the views about the social question predominant in the PT government, as well as the most appropriate policies to tackle such a question. We also discuss the present government's proposals and initiatives regarding the social area.

  17. Policy entrepreneurs and change strategies : Lessons from sixteen case studies of water transitions around the globe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijerink, Sander; Huitema, Dave

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the role of policy entrepreneurs in realizing water policy transitions. The central questions are to what extent have policy entrepreneurs played a role in realizing major change in water policies, who are these policy entrepreneurs, and what strategies have they used to bring

  18. A question driven socio-hydrological modeling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M.; Portney, K.; Islam, S.

    2016-01-01

    Human and hydrological systems are coupled: human activity impacts the hydrological cycle and hydrological conditions can, but do not always, trigger changes in human systems. Traditional modeling approaches with no feedback between hydrological and human systems typically cannot offer insight into how different patterns of natural variability or human-induced changes may propagate through this coupled system. Modeling of coupled human-hydrological systems, also called socio-hydrological systems, recognizes the potential for humans to transform hydrological systems and for hydrological conditions to influence human behavior. However, this coupling introduces new challenges and existing literature does not offer clear guidance regarding model conceptualization. There are no universally accepted laws of human behavior as there are for the physical systems; furthermore, a shared understanding of important processes within the field is often used to develop hydrological models, but there is no such consensus on the relevant processes in socio-hydrological systems. Here we present a question driven process to address these challenges. Such an approach allows modeling structure, scope and detail to remain contingent on and adaptive to the question context. We demonstrate the utility of this process by revisiting a classic question in water resources engineering on reservoir operation rules: what is the impact of reservoir operation policy on the reliability of water supply for a growing city? Our example model couples hydrological and human systems by linking the rate of demand decreases to the past reliability to compare standard operating policy (SOP) with hedging policy (HP). The model shows that reservoir storage acts both as a buffer for variability and as a delay triggering oscillations around a sustainable level of demand. HP reduces the threshold for action thereby decreasing the delay and the oscillation effect. As a result, per capita demand decreases during

  19. Plant species descriptions show signs of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Michael E; Antonovics, Janis

    2003-11-07

    It is well known that diseases can greatly influence the morphology of plants, but often the incidence of disease is either too rare or the symptoms too obvious for the 'abnormalities' to cause confusion in systematics. However, we have recently come across several misinterpretations of disease-induced traits that may have been perpetuated into modern species inventories. Anther-smut disease (caused by the fungus Microbotryum violaceum) is common in many members of the Caryophyllaceae and related plant families. This disease causes anthers of infected plants to be filled with dark-violet fungal spores rather than pollen. Otherwise, their vegetative morphology is within the normal range of healthy plants. Here, we present the results of a herbarium survey showing that a number of type specimens (on which the species name and original description are based) in the genus Silene from Asia are diseased with anther smut. The primary visible disease symptom, namely the dark-violet anthers, is incorporated into the original species descriptions and some of these descriptions have persisted unchanged into modern floras. This raises the question of whether diseased type specimens have erroneously been given unique species names.

  20. Approaches to Exploring Category Information for Question Retrieval in Community Question-Answer Archives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xin; Cong, Gao; Cui, Bin

    2012-01-01

    Community Question Answering (CQA) is a popular type of service where users ask questions and where answers are obtained from other users or from historical question-answer pairs. CQA archives contain large volumes of questions organized into a hierarchy of categories. As an essential function......, and it applies these approaches to existing question retrieval models, including a state-of-the-art question retrieval model. Experiments conducted on real CQA data demonstrate that the proposed techniques are effective and efficient and are capable of outperforming a variety of baseline methods significantly...

  1. Descriptive assessment for physical education

    OpenAIRE

    Pirih Tavčar, Ksenija

    2016-01-01

    Descriptive grading is a type of grading in which opinions about children’s knowledge or products are expressed in sentences. This opinion highlights what individual children know or have mastered, what they have not mastered, and what they should do to improve. In descriptive grading, the pupil’s work is assessed in terms of learning objectives. In their descriptive grades, physical education (PE) teachers write down everything that they have taught and reviewed with their pupils during t...

  2. Olkiluoto biosphere description 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapanen, R.; Aro, L.; Ilvesniemi, H.; Kareinen, T.; Kirkkala, T.; Mykrae, S.; Turkki, H.; Lahdenperae, A.-M.; Ikonen, A.T.K.

    2007-02-01

    This report summarises the current knowledge of the biosphere of Olkiluoto, and it is the first Biosphere Description Report. The elements considered were climate, topography, land use, overburden, terrestrial vegetation and fauna and sea flora, fauna and water. The principal aim was to present a synthesis of the present state (now to 2020) and the main features of past evolution of the biosphere at the site using currently available data. The lack of site specific parameters and their importance was discussed. Conceptual ecosystem models are presented for land and sea. Currently available data made it possible to calculate the biomass of the terrestrial vegetation and further convert it to carbon. In the case of terrestrial animals, preliminary figures are given for moose alone due to lack of sitespecific data. For the same reason, the sea ecosystem model was not quantified within this work. The ecosystems on Olkiluoto do not deviate from the surrounding areas. Since mires are few on Olkiluoto, forests are the most important land ecosystem. However, coastal areas are the transition zones between land and sea, and also potential sites for deep groundwater discharge. The major interest concerning aquatic ecosystems was laid on four future lakes potentially developing from the sea due to the land up-lift. Current sea sediments near Olkiluoto are future land areas, and thus very important. Spatially, the forest ecosystems of Olkiluoto are now most comprehensively covered, while the temporal coverage is highest in sea ecosystems. Lack of data is greatest in terrestrial fauna and sea sediments. During this work, the system boundaries were crossed and the use of data over disciplines was started. The data were mostly in agreement, but some discrepancies were detected. To solve these, and to supplement the existing data, some recommendations were given. (orig.)

  3. Meaningless questions in cosmology and relativistic astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, M.; Reinhardt, M.

    1976-01-01

    After a general classification of meaningless questions in science we concentrate on empirically meaningless questions. Introducing the concepts of informationally connected, semiconnected and disconnected observers, a formalism for the analysis of the informational structure of space-time is developed. We discuss some problems of epistemological nature in cosmology and black hole physics. A number of questions like 'What was 'before' the initial singularity of the universe' or 'What is the fate of matter in gravitational collapse inside the event horizon' turn out to be empirically meaningless. We also show that a 'wormhole' does not violate causality for the set of informationally connected observers who do not enter it. (orig.) [de

  4. Policy Reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    This policy reader comprises: Correspondence; Memorandum of Understanding between the US Department of Transportation and the US Department of Energy for the Transportation of Radioactive Materials under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act; Internal Guidelines for Interactions with Communities and Local Governments; Statement by Ben C. Rusche before the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, Subcommittee on Energy and the Environment, US House of Representatives, September 13, 1985; Speech presented by Ben C. Rusche before the ANS/CNS/AESJ/ENS Topical Meeting, Pasco, Washington, September 24, 1985 - ''Status of the United States' High-Level Nuclear Waste Disposal Program''; and ''DOE Seeks Comments on Nuclear Transportation Planning,'' DOE News, September 30, 1985

  5. Population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    Participants in the Seminar on Population Policies for Top-level Policy Makers and Program Managers, meeting in Thailand during January 1987, examined the challenges now facing them regarding the implementation of fertility regulation programs in their respective countries -- Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. This Seminar was organized to coincide with the completion of an Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) study investigating the impact and efficiency of family planning programs in the region. Country studies were reviewed at the Seminar along with policy issues about the status of women, incentive and disincentive programs, and socioeconomic factors affecting fertility. In Bangladesh the government recognizes population growth as its top priority problem related to the socioeconomic development of the country and is working to promote a reorientation strategy from the previous clinic-oriented to a multidimensional family welfare program. China's family planning program seeks to postpone marraige, space the births of children between 3-5 years, and promote the 1-child family. Its goal is to reduce the rate of natural increase from 12/1000 in 1978 to 5/1000 by 1985 and 0 by 2000. India's 7th Five-Year-Plan (1986-90) calls for establishing a 2-child family norm by 2000. In Indonesia the government's population policy includes reducing the rate of population growth, achieving a redistribution of the population, adjusting economic factors, and creating prosperous families. The government of Indonesia reversed its policy to reduce the population growth rate in 1984 and announced its goal of achieving a population of 70 million by 2100 in order to support mass consumption industries. It has created an income tax deduction system favoring large families and maternity benefits for women who have up to 5 children as incentives. Nepal's official policy is to

  6. Language Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.

    2008-01-01

    Like any other text, instructive texts function within a given cultural and situational setting and may only be available in one language. However, the end users may not be familiar with that language and therefore unable to read and understand the instructions. This article therefore argues...... that instructive texts should always be available in a language that is understood by the end users, and that a corporate communication policy which includes a language policy should ensure that this is in fact the case for all instructive texts....

  7. QUESTION ANSWERING SYSTEM DAN PENERAPANNYA PADA ALKITAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawan Gunawan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Question answering system is a system that allows user to state his or her information need in the form of natural language question, and return short text excerpts or even phrases as an answer. The availability of a wide and various information source and improvements in the techniques of natural language processing, information extraction (wrapper, and information retrieval give a big effect on the development of question answering system, from just answering questions in a specific domain by consulting to structured information source such as database, and like in this research, answering any questions based on information stored in an unstructured text collection. A general architecture of question answering system based on text consists of six processing stages, i.e. question analysis, document collection preprocessing, candidate document selection, candidate document analysis, answer extraction, and response generation. Application of question answering system like AnswerBus, Mulder, and Webclopedia that are developed with its own characteristics has similar processing steps as in the general architecture. Answers returned by a question answering system need to be evaluated for performance measure. This research completed with a simple question answering system application using english Bible in World English Bible (WEB version as the source of information to answer some questions. Because specific domain is selected: Bible, questions that can be posed by user could ask about information in the Bible itself only. Question is also limited to three types of answers that can be supported by the application: person (who, location (where, and date (when. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Question answering system (QA system adalah sistem yang mengijinkan user menyatakan kebutuhan informasinya dalam bentuk natural language question (pertanyaan dalam bahasa alami, dan mengembalikan kutipan teks singkat atau bahkan frase sebagai jawaban. Ketersediaan

  8. Water-energy-food nexus: concepts, questions and methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Chen, X.; Ding, W.; Zhang, C.; Fu, G.

    2017-12-01

    The term of water-energy -food nexus has gained increasing attention in the research and policy making communities as the security of water, energy and food becomes severe under changing environment. Ignorance of their closely interlinkages accompanied by their availability and service may result in unforeseeable, adverse consequences. This paper comprehensively reviews the state-of-the-art in the field of water-energy-food, with a focus on concepts, research questions and methodologies. First, two types of nexus definition are compared and discussed to understand the essence of nexus research issues. Then, three kinds of nexus research questions are presented, including internal relationship analysis, external impact analysis, and evaluation of the nexus system. Five nexus modelling approaches are discussed in terms of their advantages, disadvantages and application, with an aim to identify research gaps in current nexus methods. Finally, future research areas and challenges are discussed, including system boundary, data uncertainty and modelling, underlying mechanism of nexus issues and system performance evaluation. This study helps bring research efforts together to address the challenging questions in the nexus and develop the consensus on building resilient water, energy and food systems.

  9. Management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) questions ampersand answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This open-quotes Management of PCBs Questions and Answersclose quotes has been developed from a presentation given by Dr. John Smith of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the transcribed question and answer session which followed the presentation. Dr. Smith was featured at the first DOE complex-wide PCB Focus Group meeting held in San Francisco, California in December 1992. The meeting was attended by representatives from field elements who were actively involved in the management of PCBs. The meeting served as a forum for the exchange of information and discussion of PCB management issues. This document has been prepared as one of several guidance documents developed by the Department of Energy Office of Environmental Policy and Assistance (EH-41) (formerly the Office of Environmental Guidance, EH-23) to assist DOE elements in their PCB management programs. This document is organized into three parts: (1) an introduction describing the conception and development of this document, (2) a summary of Dr. Smith's presentation, and (3) the question and answer session

  10. Trusting Description: Authenticity, Accountability, and Archival Description Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeil, Heather

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that one of the purposes of archival description is to establish grounds for presuming the authenticity of the records being described. The article examines the implications of this statement by examining the relationship between and among authenticity, archival description, and archival accountability, assessing how this…

  11. Reading Words and Images in the Description(s of Sir John Soane’s Museum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle S. Willkens

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the 18th and early 19th centuries, London was a city filled with cabinets of curiosity, 'lusus naturae', and bourgeoning public museums. Most of these institutions publicized their holdings through newspaper advertisements, leaflets, and self-published, descriptive catalogs that were available for purchase on-site and through booksellers. Using Soane’s Museum as a case study, this paper will move beyond historiographical analysis of individual objects in collections catalogs to probe how the museum-produced guidebooks depicted spatial arrangements. Citing examples from the 19th to twenty-first centuries, this paper will examine how the curator-produced descriptions of Soane’s Museum manipulated text and graphics to guide visitors through a constructed narrative, recreated the ephemeral experiences of the museum, and advertise the site’s unparalleled union of painting, sculpture, and architecture to audiences abroad. Soane’s 'Description of the House and Museum, on the North Side of Lincoln‘s Inn-Fields, the Residence of Sir John Soane' (privately printed 1830, 1832; revised 1835 paired spatial narratives with the architectural language of orthographic projection and perspective engravings. His 'Description' set forth an agenda about the museum’s arrangement and established a compositional strategy for subsequent editions of the guidebook, renamed the 'General Description' in the editions printed between 1840 and 1930 then rebranded as the 'New Description' by Summerson in 1955. Through the study of the changing written and visual language published in the guides by the curators of Soane’s Museum, this article will examine the changing character of the visitor experience at the museum and question the form of future editions.

  12. Frequently Asked Questions about Genetic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... New Horizons and Research Patient Management Policy and Ethics Issues Quick Links for Patient Care Education All ... from discrimination by their health insurance provider or employer. GINA does not apply to long-term care, ...

  13. Frequently Asked Questions about Digital Mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at www.fda.gov/findmammography . Do private insurance companies, Medicare and Medicaid pay for digital mammography exams, ... Map Nondiscrimination Website Policies U.S. Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 ...

  14. Strategic science for eating disorders research and policy impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Christina A; Brownell, Kelly D

    2017-03-01

    Scientific research often fails to have relevance and impact because scientists do not engage policy makers and influencers in the process of identifying information needs and generating high priority questions. To address this scholarship-policy gap, we have developed a model of Strategic Science. This research approach involves working with policy makers and influencers to craft research questions that will answer important and timely policy-related questions. The goal is to create tighter links between research and policy and ensure findings are communicated efficiently to change agents best positioned to apply the research to policy debates. In this article, we lay out a model for Strategic Science and describe how this approach may help advance policy research and action for eating disorders. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Questions for Your Prospective Massage Therapist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Prospective Massage Therapist Questions for Your Prospective Massage Therapist Searching for a massage therapist? Get the ... 1. Are you a member of the American Massage Therapy Association (AMTA)? AMTA members commit to the ...

  16. Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor Updated:May 9, ... you? This content was last reviewed May 2017. Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure • Causes and Risks for ...

  17. Inferring Domain Plans in Question-Answering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pollack, Martha E

    1986-01-01

    The importance of plan inference in models of conversation has been widely noted in the computational-linguistics literature, and its incorporation in question-answering systems has enabled a range...

  18. Olympics: Questions & Answers on the Major Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbon, Alan

    This book presents background information on the major Olympic events with a question-answer format. Events considered include track and field, swimming, diving, boxing, weightlifting, the equestrian events, and gymnastics. Line drawings illustrate the text. (MM)

  19. 101 questions on corals: Towards awareness

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wafar, M.V.M.; Wafar, S.

    to nature and man-made changes, in every stakeholder, from local population through tourists to managers. This book serves such a purpose by answering most of the questions we ask everyday about corals and reefs....

  20. Prader-Willi Syndrome: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always seek the advice of ... questions regarding a medical condition. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something ...

  1. Questions and answers on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    Leading questions about nuclear power are posed. These include questions about how much extra radioactivity in the environments is due to the nuclear industry, the risk of a nuclear accident, radioactive wastes, nuclear power as a solution to the greenhouse effect, alternative energy sources, and the economics of nuclear power. The answers are presented from the view point of the authors, members of Greenpeace. A glossary, notes and references are included. (UK)

  2. On the intonation of German intonation questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrone, Caterina; Niebuhr, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    German questions and statements are distinguished not only by lexical and syntactic but also by intonational means. This study revisits, for Northern Standard German, how questions are signalled intonationally in utterances that have neither lexical nor syntactic cues. Starting from natural......, but represents a separate attitudinal meaning dimension. Moreover, the findings support that both prenuclear and nuclear fundamental frequency (F0) patterns must be taken into account in the analysis of tune meaning....

  3. Statin intolerance: more questions than answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, John R; Campbell, Kristen B; Lakey, Wanda C

    2014-01-01

    The dramatic effectiveness of statins in improving the course of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease tends to overshadow questions of statin intolerance. Thus after more than 25 years of clinical statin use, intolerance remains a poorly understood, frustrating issue for patients and providers. It has been extraordinarily difficult to define statin intolerance and its implications for clinical practice. Here, we briefly summarize current knowledge and raise questions that need to be addressed.

  4. Four Principles for Selecting HCI Research Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil

    In this position paper, I present and explain the position that what we should study in HCI depends on the objective of the research and its political, social, cultural, technological, and historical context. I outline four principles for selecting research questions and give a personal account...... of how I have selected research questions using these four principles. The aim with the paper is to generate discussion and advance the understanding of what to study in HCI....

  5. Beginning EFL Teachers' Beliefs about Quality Questions and Their Questioning Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Ly Ngoc Khanh; Hamid, M. Obaidul

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the scarcity of research that examines the impact of teacher beliefs on their actual practices in Vietnam, this study investigated the relationship between teachers' beliefs about quality questions and their questioning behaviours in terms of questioning purposes, content focus, students' cognitive level, wording and syntax. Thirteen…

  6. Formative student-authored question bank: perceptions, question quality and association with summative performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jason L; Harris, Benjamin H L; Denny, Paul; Smith, Phil

    2018-02-01

    There are few studies on the value of authoring questions as a study method, the quality of the questions produced by students and student perceptions of student-authored question banks. Here we evaluate PeerWise, a widely used and free online resource that allows students to author, answer and discuss multiple-choice questions. We introduced two undergraduate medical student cohorts to PeerWise (n=603). We looked at their patterns of PeerWise usage; identified associations between student engagement and summative exam performance; and used focus groups to assess student perceptions of the value of PeerWise for learning. We undertook item analysis to assess question difficulty and quality. Over two academic years, the two cohorts wrote 4671 questions, answered questions 606 658 times and posted 7735 comments. Question writing frequency correlated most strongly with summative performance (Spearman's rank: 0.24, p=<0.001). Student focus groups found that: (1) students valued curriculum specificity; and (2) students were concerned about student-authored question quality. Only two questions of the 300 'most-answered' questions analysed had an unacceptable discriminatory value (point-biserial correlation <0.2). Item analysis suggested acceptable question quality despite student concerns. Quantitative and qualitative methods indicated that PeerWise is a valuable study tool. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Instructor Modeling and Online Question Prompts for Supporting Peer-Questioning During Online Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ikseon; Land, Susan M.; Turgeon, Alfred

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates how the combination of instructor modeling and question prompts for peer-questioning influences students' online questioning and answering activities. Fourteen students in a turfgrass management online class at a large land-grant university participated in two three-week sessions of online discussion. Two randomly selected…

  8. The Impact of Political Context on the Questions Asked and Answered: The Evolution of Education Research on Racial Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Amy Stuart; Roda, Allison

    2016-01-01

    This chapter examines how the larger political context and policies enacted at different points in American history have affected the questions education researchers asked and answered. The authors argue that while education researchers are often quick to consider how their research should shape policy, they are less likely to contemplate the…

  9. Connecting reason to power : Assessments, learning, and environmental policy integration in Swedish energy policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nilsson, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to contribute to understanding what makes a policymaking system better at integrating sustainability concerns into its processes. Three questions are in focus. First, how can policy integration be understood analytically and what is its actual status in sector policy?

  10. The Language System of Audio Description: An Investigation as a Discursive Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piety, Philip J.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the language used in a selection of films containing audio description and developed a set of definitions that allow productions containing it to be more fully defined, measured, and compared. It also highlights some challenging questions related to audio description as a discursive practice and provides a basis for future…

  11. Structural Workshop Paper --Descriptive, Structural, and Experimental Empirical Methods in Marketing Research

    OpenAIRE

    Peter C. Reiss

    2011-01-01

    What can be learned about marketing phenomena from descriptive, structural, and experimental empirical models? Is structure implicit in a descriptive empirical model? What is a "reduced-form model?" What is a natural experiment, and what can one infer from a study that uses experimental data? Having clear answers to these questions can improve empirical dialog. This paper defines descriptive, structural, and experimental empirical work, provides examples, discusses their similarities and diff...

  12. European electricity markets - policy deficiencies, design deficiencies, and opportunities for policy-makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettzuge, Marc Oliver

    2013-11-01

    Paraphrasing a well-known dictum, one can say that 'design follows policies'. Therefore, before discussing questions of market design, one has to clarify the policies which the desired market design is supposed to implement. Hence, this paper starts by briefly reviewing the status of current policies for the electricity sector. Specifically, it will discuss political objectives, the choice of the basic regulatory paradigm, and the issue of subsidiarity between the EU and the member states

  13. New directions in evidence-based policy research: a critical analysis of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Kathryn; Lorenc, Theo; Innvær, Simon

    2014-07-14

    Despite 40 years of research into evidence-based policy (EBP) and a continued drive from both policymakers and researchers to increase research uptake in policy, barriers to the use of evidence are persistently identified in the literature. However, it is not clear what explains this persistence - whether they represent real factors, or if they are artefacts of approaches used to study EBP. Based on an updated review, this paper analyses this literature to explain persistent barriers and facilitators. We critically describe the literature in terms of its theoretical underpinnings, definitions of 'evidence', methods, and underlying assumptions of research in the field, and aim to illuminate the EBP discourse by comparison with approaches from other fields. Much of the research in this area is theoretically naive, focusing primarily on the uptake of research evidence as opposed to evidence defined more broadly, and privileging academics' research priorities over those of policymakers. Little empirical data analysing the processes or impact of evidence use in policy is available to inform researchers or decision-makers. EBP research often assumes that policymakers do not use evidence and that more evidence - meaning research evidence - use would benefit policymakers and populations. We argue that these assumptions are unsupported, biasing much of EBP research. The agenda of 'getting evidence into policy' has side-lined the empirical description and analysis of how research and policy actually interact in vivo. Rather than asking how research evidence can be made more influential, academics should aim to understand what influences and constitutes policy, and produce more critically and theoretically informed studies of decision-making. We question the main assumptions made by EBP researchers, explore the implications of doing so, and propose new directions for EBP research, and health policy.

  14. Health Policy and Cost Containment Laws: Lessons for Public Health Education in Social and Behavioral Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jose Joel

    1986-01-01

    From a descriptive model of policy in health care delivery, the author theorizes that government has effectively attained economic and budgetary goals, but policy is creating displacements and attacking the national commitment to social welfare policy. Asserts that public health disciplines must collaborate to strengthen policy and empower…

  15. From Question Answering to Visual Exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McColgin, Dave W.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

    2006-08-11

    Research in Question Answering has focused on the quality of information retrieval or extraction using the metrics of precision and recall to judge success; these metrics drive toward finding the specific best answer(s) and are best supportive of a lookup type of search. These do not address the opportunity that users? natural language questions present for exploratory interactions. In this paper, we present an integrated Question Answering environment that combines a visual analytics tool for unstructured text and a state-of-the-art query expansion tool designed to compliment the cognitive processes associated with an information analysts work flow. Analysts are seldom looking for factoid answers to simple questions; their information needs are much more complex in that they may be interested in patterns of answers over time, conflicting information, and even related non-answer data may be critical to learning about a problem or reaching prudent conclusions. In our visual analytics tool, questions result in a comprehensive answer space that allows users to explore the variety within the answers and spot related information in the rest of the data. The exploratory nature of the dialog between the user and this system requires tailored evaluation methods that better address the evolving user goals and counter cognitive biases inherent to exploratory search tasks.

  16. Key questions and challenges in angiosperm macroevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauquet, Hervé; Magallón, Susana

    2018-03-25

    Contents Summary I. Introduction II. Six key questions III. Three key challenges IV. Conclusions Acknowledgements References SUMMARY: The origin and rapid diversification of angiosperms (flowering plants) represent one of the most intriguing topics in evolutionary biology. Despite considerable progress made in complementary fields over the last two decades (paleobotany, phylogenetics, ecology, evo-devo, genomics), many important questions remain. For instance, what has been the impact of mass extinctions on angiosperm diversification? Are the angiosperms an adaptive radiation? Has morphological evolution in angiosperms been gradual or pulsed? We propose that the recent and ongoing revolution in macroevolutionary methods provides an unprecedented opportunity to explore long-standing questions that probably hold important clues to understand present-day biodiversity. We present six key questions that explore the origin and diversification of angiosperms. We also identify three key challenges to address these questions: (1) the development of new integrative models that include diversification, multiple intrinsic and environmental traits, biogeography and the fossil record all at once, whilst accounting for sampling bias and heterogeneity of macroevolutionary processes through time and among lineages; (2) the need for large and standardized synthetic databases of morphological variation; and (3) continuous effort on sampling the fossil record, but with a revolution in current paleobotanical practice. © 2018 Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Framing health for land-use planning legislation: A qualitative descriptive content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Patrick; Kent, Jennifer; Sainsbury, Peter; Thow, Anne Marie

    2016-01-01

    Framing health as a relevant policy issue for other sectors is not well understood. A recent review of the New South Wales (Australia) land-use planning system resulted in the drafting of legislation with an internationally unprecedented focus on human health. We apply a political science approach to investigate the question 'how and to what extent were health and wider issues framed in submissions to the review?' We investigated a range of stakeholder submissions including health focussed agencies (n = 31), purposively identified key stakeholders with influence on the review (n = 24), and a random sample of other agencies and individuals (n = 47). Using qualitative descriptive analysis we inductively coded for the term 'health' and sub-categories. We deductively coded for 'wider concerns' using a locally endorsed 'Healthy Urban Development Checklist'. Additional inductive analysis uncovered further 'wider concerns'. Health was explicitly identified as a relevant issue for planning policy only in submissions by health-focussed agencies. This framing concerned the new planning system promoting and protecting health as well as connecting health to wider planning concerns including economic issues, transport, public open space and, to a slightly lesser extent, environmental sustainability. Key stakeholder and other agency submissions focussed on these and other wider planning concerns but did not mention health in detail. Health agency submissions did not emphasise infrastructure, density or housing as explicitly as others. Framing health as a relevant policy issue has the potential to influence legislative change governing the business of other sectors. Without submissions from health agencies arguing the importance of having health as an objective in the proposed legislation it is unlikely health considerations would have gained prominence in the draft bill. The findings have implications for health agency engagement with legislative change processes and beyond in

  18. Teachers, the State and Religious Symbols: A Question of Professional Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Kevin; Maxwell, Bruce; Waddington, David

    2015-01-01

    This article considers the question of whether policies that propose to forbid public officials, most notably teachers, from wearing religious clothing in the classroom can be justified by political principles of secularism--specifically, the principle of state neutrality and the principle of state autonomy from religious influence. Two prominent…

  19. Understanding health policy leaders' training needs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey Roth Bayer

    Full Text Available We assessed the training needs of health policy leaders and practitioners across career stages; identified areas of core content for health policy training programs; and, identified training modalities for health policy leaders.We convened a focus group of health policy leaders at varying career stages to inform the development of the Health Policy Leaders' Training Needs Assessment tool. We piloted and distributed the tool electronically. We used descriptive statistics and thematic coding for analysis.Seventy participants varying in age and stage of career completed the tool. "Cost implications of health policies" ranked highest for personal knowledge development and "intersection of policy and politics" ranked highest for health policy leaders in general. "Effective communication skills" ranked as the highest skill element and "integrity" as the highest attribute element. Format for training varied based on age and career stage.This study highlighted the training needs of health policy leaders personally as well as their perceptions of the needs for training health policy leaders in general. The findings are applicable for current health policy leadership training programs as well as those in development.

  20. Antibiotic policy

    OpenAIRE

    Gyssens, Inge

    2011-01-01

    There is a clear association between antibiotic use and resistance both on individual and population levels. In the European Union, countries with large antibiotic consumption have higher resistance rates. Antibiotic resistance leads to failed treatments, prolonged hospitalisations, increased costs and deaths. With few new antibiotics in the Research & Development pipeline, prudent antibiotic use is the only option to delay the development of resistance. Antibiotic policy consists of prescrib...

  1. Modelling object typicality in description logics - [Workshop on Description Logics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Britz, K

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The authors presents a semantic model of typicality of concept members in description logics that accords well with a binary, globalist cognitive model of class membership and typicality. The authors define a general preferential semantic framework...

  2. Context-descriptive Prototypes and Their Application to Medicine Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Claus; Jørgensen, Jens Bæk

    2004-01-01

    of the system, but also of the work processes, can be made explicitly and become subject for discussions and further elaboration. We describe a concrete context-descriptive prototype of the hospital work process medicine administration and its support by a new pervasive system. We discuss findings from...... processes, and context of use; (2) it is a formal description. Because of (1), designers, including users, are provided with a means to investigate the system in the context of the envisioned work processes. Because of (2), investigations into questions of formalisation and automation, not only...

  3. Internet Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, William H.; Pupillo, Lorenzo Maria

    The Internet is now widely regarded as essential infrastructure for our global economy and society. It is in our homes and businesses. We use it to communicate and socialize, for research, and as a platform for E-commerce. In the late 1990s, much was predicted about what the Internet has become at present; but now, we have actual experience living with the Internet as a critical component of our everyday lives. Although the Internet has already had profound effects, there is much we have yet to realize. The present volume represents a third installment in a collaborative effort to highlight the all-encompassing, multidisciplinary implications of the Internet for public policy. The first installment was conceived in 1998, when we initiated plans to organize an international conference among academic, industry, and government officials to discuss the growing policy agenda posed by the Internet. The conference was hosted by the European Commission in Brussels in 1999 and brought together a diverse mix of perspectives on what the pressing policy issues would be confronting the Internet. All of the concerns identified remain with us today, including how to address the Digital Divide, how to modify intellectual property laws to accommodate the new realities of the Internet, what to do about Internet governance and name-space management, and how to evolve broadcast and telecommunications regulatory frameworks for a converged world.

  4. Homelessness in Lithuania : policy and research

    OpenAIRE

    Snieškienė, Dalija; Dulinskienė, Inga

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews developments in social policy and services related to homelessness in Lithuania over the last 20 years. Using the form of a descriptive case study, it provides an overview of how homelessness is conceptualised, the organisation of homelessness services, the development of social policy related to homelessness, and the support services available within the provision and maintenance of housing, as well as a review of relevant research on homelessness in Lithuania. The paper d...

  5. On safety goals and related questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, S.

    1985-01-01

    The question of what safety goals should be established for nuclear power plants has been receiving a great deal of urgent attention and debate recently, both by those responsible for reactor licensing and by others interested in establishing a quantitative measure of reactor safety. The same question, phrased alternately in the forms: ''What is acceptable risk?'' and ''How safe is safe enough?,'' has been debated extensively for quite a long time. The purpose of the present paper, therefore, is to show that the above questions, taken at face value, exist within an unworkable context, which the authors shall call the Old Regulatory Context (ORC), and that within this context lead to several absurdities. They shall argue that this context needs to be replaced by another context, which they call the Decision Theory Context (DTC), and which the authors discuss here

  6. Continuing the Conversation: Questions about the Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan E. Dempsey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the prevalence of the Information Literacy Competency Standards in the library profession for the past 15 years, and the heated debate that took place regarding whether or not the Framework for Information Literacy and the Standards could harmoniously co-exist, the article raises questions about the future of information literacy in higher education. We do not necessarily have answers to these questions, but offer our own perspectives, some insight into how the Standards have served New Jersey academic librarians in the past, and how we envision using the Framework and the Standards together to further information literacy instruction at our institutions. Discussions of these questions have led us to the conclusion that the Framework and the Standards serve different purposes and have different intended audiences and are thus both valuable to the library profession.

  7. Diet, health and globalization: five key questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, T

    1999-05-01

    The present paper explores possible implications of the globalization of the food system for diet and health. The paper poses five key questions to clarify the relationship between food and globalization. The first question is what is globalization. The paper suggests that it is helpful to distinguish between economic, political, ideological and cultural processes. Globalization is also marked by internal oppositional dynamics: there are re-localization and regional tendencies which counter the global. The second question is whether there is anything new about globalization. Food has been a much traded commodity for millennia. The paper concludes that what is new about the current phases of globalization is the pace and scale of the change, and the fact that power is being concentrated into so few hands. New marketing techniques and supply-chain management consolidate these features. The third question is who is in control of the globalization era and who benefits and loses from the processes of globalization. It is argued that modern food economies are hypermarket rather than market economies, with power accruing to the distributor more than has been recognized. The fourth question concerns governance of the food system. Historically, systems of local and national government have regulated the food supply where appropriate. Now, new international systems are emerging, partly using existing bodies and partly creating new ones. The final question is of the future. Globalization is a value-laden area of study, yet its implications for dietary change and for health are considerable. The paper argues that dimensions of change can be discerned, although it would be rash to bet on which end of each dimension will emerge as dominant in the 21st century.

  8. Questioning the Universe concepts in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sadoff, Ahren

    2008-01-01

    UNITS AND POWERS OF TEN PHYSICS AND ITS METHODOLOGY  What Is Physics? Methodology The First Scientist Why Do You Believe? Back to the Questions How Do We Answer theQuestions? The Need to BeQuantitative Theories Models AestheticJudgments  MOTION Relating the Variables of Motion Graphs of One-Dimensional Motion Constant Speed Constant Acceleration Two-Dimensional Motion FORCES The Fundamental Forces A Specific Force Law: Newtonian Gravity Weight How Does Force Affect Motion? Newton's SecondLaw Newton, the Apple, and the Moon Combining Two Laws The Mass of the Earth Newton's Firs

  9. French nuclear dissuasion after the cold war: continuity, ruptures, questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tertrais, B.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear dissuasion is a slow and permanent process of adjustment to the strategic environment. French dissuasion adaptation to the new international environment covers a full decade, starting in the 1989-1992 era with a re-evaluation of defense programs. It has been followed by the 1994 defense white book which opens up the European perspective and reaches its peak in 1996 with a series of major decisions: renouncement of surface-to-surface missiles, launching of the M51 program, end of nuclear tests and shift towards simulation, dismantling of fissile materials production facilities etc. This process shows up two logics: the one of continuity with the confirmation of the bases of the French nuclear doctrine, and the one of discontinuity with significant changes in the general domain of the French nuclear policy. It also opens up questions about the field of application of dissuasion and the future of the nuclear consensus. (J.S.)

  10. Marketing foods to children: are we asking the right questions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Charlene

    2012-06-01

    The childhood obesity epidemic has prompted a range of regulatory initiatives that seek to reduce the impact of food marketing on children. Policy recommendations by government and public health organizations have suggested regulating the promotion of high-sugar, -fat, and/or -salt foods to children, while the food industry has created voluntary nutrition guidelines to channel child-targeted marketing toward only "better-for-you" products. This article argues that the overarching focus on the nutrient profile of foods (nutritionism) is wrong-headed: The slippage in terms from "better-for-you" foods to "healthy dietary choices" is problematic and also makes it difficult for children to identify the healthy choice. Nutritionism further works to sidestep important questions pertaining to the ethics of food marketing, not to mention the way that marketing foods as fun and entertainment works to encourage overeating in children.

  11. Legal questions surrounding hunger strikes by detainees and prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, S A

    1991-01-01

    The 'right to die' is not of an absolute character but is subject to definite qualification. There are legal and social interests reflecting profound ethical values which militate against an absolute right on the part of a prisoner to die by means of a hunger strike. The declared policy of the South African authorities is that a prisoner who resorts to a hunger strike may not be subjected to force-feeding. This is in accordance with the 1975 Tokyo Declaration. Unfortunately the Declaration is silent on the question of whether a doctor may provide medical treatment once a hunger striker has reached the point where he is no longer capable of rational thought. In this article it is submitted that a doctor would be legally entitled to do so.

  12. Policy responses to hepatitis C in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safreed-Harmon, Kelly; Hetherington, Kristina L; Aleman, Soo

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden), the prevalence of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is relatively low in the general population, but is much higher among people who inject drugs (PWID). We conducted an exploratory study to investig......BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden), the prevalence of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is relatively low in the general population, but is much higher among people who inject drugs (PWID). We conducted an exploratory study...... to investigate the extent to which these countries have policies supporting key elements of the public health response that is necessary to achieve the global goal of eliminating HCV as a public health threat. METHODS: Fourteen stakeholders representing government agencies, medical societies, and civil society...... organisations (CSOs) in the Nordic countries completed a cross-sectional online survey that included 21 policy questions related to national coordination, prevention, testing, linkage to care, and treatment. We summarised the findings in a descriptive analysis, and noted discrepant responses from stakeholders...

  13. The influence of globalization on medical regulation: a descriptive analysis of international medical graduates registered through alternative licensure routes in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Yen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing globalization of the medical profession has influenced health policy, health human resource planning, and medical regulation in Canada. Since the early 2000s, numerous policy initiatives have been created to facilitate the entry of international medical graduates (IMGs into the Canadian workforce. In Ontario, the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario (CPSO developed alternative licensure routes to increase the ability of qualified IMGs to obtain licenses to practice. The current study provides demographic and descriptive information about the IMGs registered through the CPSO’s alternative licensure routes between 2000 and 2012. An analysis of the characteristics and career trajectories of all IMGs practicing in the province sheds light on broader globalization trends and raises questions about the future of health human resource planning in Canada. As the medical profession becomes increasingly globalized, health policy and regulation will continue to be influenced by trends in international migration, concerns about global health equity, and the shifting demographics of the Canadian physician workforce. Implications for future policy development in the complex landscape of medical education and practice are discussed.

  14. The influence of globalization on medical regulation: a descriptive analysis of international medical graduates registered through alternative licensure routes in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Wendy; Hodwitz, Kathryn; Thakkar, Niels; Martimianakis, Maria Athina Tina; Faulkner, Dan

    2016-12-01

    The increasing globalization of the medical profession has influenced health policy, health human resource planning, and medical regulation in Canada. Since the early 2000s, numerous policy initiatives have been created to facilitate the entry of international medical graduates (IMGs) into the Canadian workforce. In Ontario, the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario (CPSO) developed alternative licensure routes to increase the ability of qualified IMGs to obtain licenses to practice. The current study provides demographic and descriptive information about the IMGs registered through the CPSO's alternative licensure routes between 2000 and 2012. An analysis of the characteristics and career trajectories of all IMGs practicing in the province sheds light on broader globalization trends and raises questions about the future of health human resource planning in Canada. As the medical profession becomes increasingly globalized, health policy and regulation will continue to be influenced by trends in international migration, concerns about global health equity, and the shifting demographics of the Canadian physician workforce. Implications for future policy development in the complex landscape of medical education and practice are discussed.

  15. Digital Skills in Perspective: A Critical Reflection on Research and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos de Haan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we will reflect on the evolving focus of research on digital skills over the past 15 years and discuss the outcomes of this research and their implications for policy. Policy issues regarding digital skills have shifted over time. The present focus on media literacy ties digital skills to the broader theme of citizenship and calls for a wide agenda to improve skills, knowledge of media systems and attitudes towards the media. It reaches into policy domains such as education, work and social participation. We will also reflect on the question as to just how far research is able to feed these policy discussions. The argument is organized in four sections, following more or less chronologically the stages of research on digital skills. We begin with the largely descriptive research on digital skills in the context of the digital divide. The second and third sections follow the theoretical turn in the research agenda with a focus on the causes and consequences of differences in digital skills. In the fourth section we discuss a more recent development, where digital skills are included in a broader research agenda of media literacy.

  16. Is Tax Policy Coordination Necessary?

    OpenAIRE

    Kollintzas, Tryphon; Philippopoulos, Apostolis; Vassilatos, Vanghelis

    2000-01-01

    The answer to this question is "yes". We re-examine noncooperative and cooperative equilibria under perfect capital mobility. To this end, we develop a two-country optimal growth model with endogenous national fiscal policies. The channel for interdependence is distortionary income taxes. We study both the Residence and Source principle of international taxation. National governments play Stackelberg vis-à-vis private agents, while they can play either Nash or cooperate vis-à-vis each other. ...

  17. International climate policy and trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuik, O.

    2000-01-01

    If a country takes steps to counter the greenhouse effect, it could influence the country's foreign trade. If a large group of countries consider such measures, e.g. the signatories to the Kyoto Protocol, that could possibly have major consequences for global trading patterns. How will the measures work out for countries, industries, and climate policy itself? Can countries mitigate any negative consequences for their trade balance? The results of a study to answer those questions are discussed

  18. Outstanding Questions In First Amendment Law Related To Food Labeling Disclosure Requirements For Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2015-11-01

    The federal and state governments are increasingly focusing on food labeling as a method to support good health. Many such laws are opposed by the food industry and may be challenged in court, raising the question of what is legally feasible. This article analyzes outstanding questions in First Amendment law related to commercial disclosure requirements and conducts legal analysis and policy evaluation for three current policies. These include the Food and Drug Administration's draft regulation requiring an added sugar disclosure on the Nutrition Facts panel, California's proposed sugar-sweetened beverage safety warning label bill, and Vermont's law requiring labels of genetically engineered food to disclose this information. I recommend several methods for policy makers to enact food labeling laws within First Amendment parameters, including imposing factual commercial disclosure requirements, disclosing the government entity issuing a warning, collecting evidence, and identifying legitimate governmental interests. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  19. Is world trade law a barrier to saving our climate? Questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernasconi-Osterwalder, N.; Norpoth, J.

    2009-09-01

    The present 'Questions and Answers' provide an overview of the various climate-related measures and policies that fall under the scope of the WTO (World Trade Organization) and offers an initial assessment of their WTO-compatibility. Is the WTO blocking progress in the fight against climate change? This was the question at the origin of this legal analysis. With this paper and its simple question and answer format, we hope to dispel some myths and shed some light on the reality of world trade rules in their relation with climate-friendly measures. In the end, we hope to encourage policy-makers in Europe and around the world not to see the WTO as an insurmountable barrier and not to use it as an excuse against strong action on climate change.

  20. The management of radioactive waste. A description of ten countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lidskog, Rolf; Andersson, Ann-Catrin [Oerebro Univ. (Sweden). Man-Technology-Environment Research Centre

    2002-07-01

    The aim of this report is to provide a description of how the responsible authorities/companies in ten EDRAM countries (International Association for Environmentally Safe Disposal of Radioactive Materials) deal with the management of radioactive waste. The focus is on how the responsible organisation currently handles this issue, including technical, economic and socio-political aspects. The material used was primarily produced by the companies/authorities themselves. The report describes the development and situation in each country up to the end of 2001, or later if noted as such in the country report. The scope of this report does not permit an evaluation of how successful and effective the companies and authorities have been in implementing their plans and ambitions. The report does not include the views of other national stakeholders concerning radwaste management, or their opinions of the way that the authorities/companies handle the issue of radwaste. The description is based on a series of questions that were drawn up and discussed at the initial stage of the EDRAM co-operation. Technological aspects: 1. What technology is used? How is research and development promoted and executed? 2. Where is the waste to be put? What criteria does each country search for? 3. How is security to be maintained? Who can obtain a license for handling nuclear waste? Economic aspects: 1. In what way do the countries in question discuss the time aspects as regards delays and similar? 2. How are the economic and financial aspects of the process dealt with? Where does the money come from? Socio-political aspects: 4. What role do politicians play and to what extent is social acceptance a part of the process? What part does public opinion play? 5. How flexible is the decision-making process and can decisions be revised? 6. Does the public have confidence in the industry and the decision-makers? 7. What kind of institutional problems arise? With regard to public involvement in

  1. The management of radioactive waste. A description of ten countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidskog, Rolf; Andersson, Ann-Catrin

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this report is to provide a description of how the responsible authorities/companies in ten EDRAM countries (International Association for Environmentally Safe Disposal of Radioactive Materials) deal with the management of radioactive waste. The focus is on how the responsible organisation currently handles this issue, including technical, economic and socio-political aspects. The material used was primarily produced by the companies/authorities themselves. The report describes the development and situation in each country up to the end of 2001, or later if noted as such in the country report. The scope of this report does not permit an evaluation of how successful and effective the companies and authorities have been in implementing their plans and ambitions. The report does not include the views of other national stakeholders concerning radwaste management, or their opinions of the way that the authorities/companies handle the issue of radwaste. The description is based on a series of questions that were drawn up and discussed at the initial stage of the EDRAM co-operation. Technological aspects: 1. What technology is used? How is research and development promoted and executed? 2. Where is the waste to be put? What criteria does each country search for? 3. How is security to be maintained? Who can obtain a license for handling nuclear waste? Economic aspects: 1. In what way do the countries in question discuss the time aspects as regards delays and similar? 2. How are the economic and financial aspects of the process dealt with? Where does the money come from? Socio-political aspects: 4. What role do politicians play and to what extent is social acceptance a part of the process? What part does public opinion play? 5. How flexible is the decision-making process and can decisions be revised? 6. Does the public have confidence in the industry and the decision-makers? 7. What kind of institutional problems arise? With regard to public involvement in

  2. Reflections on Descriptive Psychology: NASA, Media and Technology, Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucoin, Paschal J., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    At NASA, we have used methods of Descriptive Psychology (DP) to solve problems in several areas: Simulation of proposed Lunar/Mars missions at high level to assess feasibility and needs in the robotics and automation areas. How we would go about making a "person-like" robot. Design and implementation of Systems Engineering practices on behalf of future projects with emphasis on interoperability. Design of a Question and Answer dialog system to handle student questions about Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems - students learn biology by applying it to ALS projects.

  3. Detector Description Framework in LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Ponce, Sébastien

    2003-01-01

    The Gaudi architecture and framework are designed to provide a common infrastructure and environment for simulation, filtering, reconstruction and analysis applications. In this context, a Detector Description Service was developed in LHCb in order to also provide easy and coherent access to the description of the experimental apparatus. This service centralizes every information about the detector, including geometry, materials, alignment, calibration, structure and controls. From the proof of concept given by the first functional implementation of this service late 2000, the Detector Description Service has grown and has become one of the major components of the LHCb software, shared among all applications, including simulation, reconstruction, analysis and visualization. We describe here the full and functional implementation of the service. We stress the easiness of customization and extension of the detector description by the user, on the seamless integration with condition databases in order to handle ...

  4. Perspectives on NATO Nuclear Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunn, Simon; Larsen, Jeffrey; Yost, David; Kamp, Karl-Heinz; Edelman, Eric; Valasek, Tomas; Garcia Cantalapiedra, David

    2011-01-01

    NATO will shortly revisit the question of its nuclear policy and posture as part of the ongoing deterrence and defense posture review (DDPR). This assessment of its nuclear requirements will be take place against the background of two parallel and potentially competing commitments: first, the general support for the goal of reducing and eventually eliminating nuclear weapons with the related question of how NATO should contribute to this goal; second, the commitment that in considering the role of nuclear weapons the priority for NATO members is the maintenance of solidarity and cohesion and the consequent determination that decisions on nuclear policy will be taken by the Alliance collectively. There are forcefully expressed arguments on both sides of the debate over whether to maintain or eliminate the remaining arsenal of U.S. nuclear weapons assigned to NATO. On the one hand, they provide coupling, transatlantic links, military capabilities against an uncertain future, and risk and burden sharing. On the other, some allies see benefits to further reductions in the remaining arsenal in the cause of global disarmament. This study presents first the questions and issues for NATO and the future alternatives for NATO nuclear policy. Then, the views from United States, Germany, Turkey, Central and Eastern Europe, Italy and Spain are successively reviewed

  5. Perspectives on NATO Nuclear Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunn, Simon [Royal United Services Institute for Defense and Security Studies - RUSI, Whitehall, London, SW1A 2ET (United Kingdom); Larsen, Jeffrey [Larsen Consulting Group, 3710 Woodland Dr Ste 2100, Anchorage, AK 99517 (United States); Yost, David [Naval Postgraduate School, 1 University Circle, Monterey, CA 93943 (United States); Kamp, Karl-Heinz [NATO Defense College, Via Giorgio Pelosi 1, 00143, Roma (Italy); Edelman, Eric [Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments - CSBA, 1667 K Sreet NW, Suite 900, Washington, DC, 20006 (United States); Valasek, Tomas [Centre for European Reform - CER, 14 Great College Street, Westminster, London, SW1P 3RX (United Kingdom); Garcia Cantalapiedra, David [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-05-26

    NATO will shortly revisit the question of its nuclear policy and posture as part of the ongoing deterrence and defense posture review (DDPR). This assessment of its nuclear requirements will be take place against the background of two parallel and potentially competing commitments: first, the general support for the goal of reducing and eventually eliminating nuclear weapons with the related question of how NATO should contribute to this goal; second, the commitment that in considering the role of nuclear weapons the priority for NATO members is the maintenance of solidarity and cohesion and the consequent determination that decisions on nuclear policy will be taken by the Alliance collectively. There are forcefully expressed arguments on both sides of the debate over whether to maintain or eliminate the remaining arsenal of U.S. nuclear weapons assigned to NATO. On the one hand, they provide coupling, transatlantic links, military capabilities against an uncertain future, and risk and burden sharing. On the other, some allies see benefits to further reductions in the remaining arsenal in the cause of global disarmament. This study presents first the questions and issues for NATO and the future alternatives for NATO nuclear policy. Then, the views from United States, Germany, Turkey, Central and Eastern Europe, Italy and Spain are successively reviewed

  6. Environmental science-policy interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamelarczyk, Kewin Bach Friis

    In response to a history of contended and ineffective policy initiatives aimed at arresting environmental problems, scientific knowledge is increasingly called for to inform decision makers in their design of better policy solutions. Based on the rationale that scientific knowledge on the environ......In response to a history of contended and ineffective policy initiatives aimed at arresting environmental problems, scientific knowledge is increasingly called for to inform decision makers in their design of better policy solutions. Based on the rationale that scientific knowledge...... on the environment is indispensable in environmental policy making, significant human and financial resources are being allocated to activities that are able to generate the required scientific knowledge. However, for many involved in such activities, the question arises: when do policy makers actually listen...... by an epistemic community, which in a current situation of weak and contradictory empirical evidence is able to sustain a deforestation discourse centered on high forest loss and neo-Malthusian causal explanations. The third paper examines how knowing about deforestation is closely linked to issues of framing...

  7. Information Support of Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Melnikova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Informatization and modern information technologies cover the most various areas of social, spiritual and material human life and have become the dominating globalization factor with major impact on world events. Modern international relations present new challenges and threats ofcross-border nature, which fall within the area of information security. This brings issues of informational influence on international policy to the fore. In this context the question of improvement and modernization of policy instruments for more effective use of modern means of implementation of foreign policy priorities, including information support of international activities, achieves fundamental importance. Given the complexity of modern international relations and tasks facing foreign affairs departments, diplomatic success in many cases depends onthe efficiency of information support. The article analyses current objectives and methods of information support of foreign policy in the context of modern Russian legislation. The author examines the approach of the Information and Press Department of the Russian Ministryof Foreign Affairs,a subdivision responsible for information support and international cooperation in the media sphere. The article specifies the key role of new information technologies for informing the audience expeditiously and to the full extent in regard to Russian approaches to the solution of international problems, foreign policy initiatives and actions of the Russian Federation, and for counteracting attempts to discredit Russian foreign policy.

  8. The Investigation of Chemistry Questions Asked in Free Boarding and Scholarship Examination for High School Level in the Context of Algorithmic and Conceptual Question Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül DERMAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To conduct of the education programs, the most important resource is considered that textbooks but in national assesment tests, chemistry questions prepared according to chemistry curriculum they may be considered reflections of curriculum. The purpose of this study is to review the 140 chemistry questions “algoritmic or conceptual”, asked in “Free Boarding and Scholarship Examination”for 9,10,11 classes between 1998 and 2015 years. The study is a descriptive study. In data analysis, within the scope of the document analysis, qualitative research method was used. Crosstabs and Kappa statistic was used. The findings of this study revealed that the questions asked in “Free Boarding and Scholarship Examination”are 80% conceptual, 20% algorithmic in total. The distribution of question types according to the years indicates that most of questions are consisted of conceptual question types. By the findings are associated with the relevant literature and national chemistry curriculum, inferences and implications for conceptual chemistry teaching and learning have been made

  9. Dog Bite Reflections--Socratic Questioning Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Cheri A.

    2015-01-01

    In the online environment, the asynchronous discussion is an important tool for creating community, developing critical thinking skills, and checking for understanding. As students learn how to use Socratic questions for effective interactions, the discussion boards can become the most exciting part of the course. This sequel to the article…

  10. Aging and Depression: Some Unanswered Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvik, Lissy F.

    1976-01-01

    The subject of aging and depression leaves many unanswered questions which this author raises. Little is known regarding the differentiation of depressive illness from a melancholic response to the stressful aging process, and equally little regarding the natural history of depressions with onset in the teens, 20s, or 30s. (Author)

  11. Brain Training Draws Questions about Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2012-01-01

    While programs to improve students' working memory are among the hottest new education interventions, new studies are calling into question whether exercises to improve this foundational skill can actually translate into greater intelligence, problem-solving ability, or academic achievement. Working memory is the system the mind uses to hold…

  12. Philosophy, Human Development and National Question | Ekei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While the solution to this dilemma is still being sought, Socrates shifted the attention of philosophy (with obvious reasons) from nature to ethical-political question, that is, to the issue of human development. It interests this essay, to find out, what exactly is human development, and why philosophy after Socrates considers ...

  13. The "Volvo Effect"--Questioning Standardized Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, Kenneth A.

    2001-01-01

    Questions current emphasis on standardized tests and discusses several factors about the tests that should prompt reevaluation of their usefulness. Issues discussed include: development and design of standardized tests; the correlation between test scores and socioeconomic position; the discrepancy between test designs and accurate reflection of…

  14. WDM Questions and Answers-Eng

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    rsamir

    WDM Questions and Answers. Why is there growing concern about water issues in the MENA region? The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is the most water-scarce region in the world. The renewable water resources per capita is currently 1,100 m. 3 per person per year, compared to a global average of 8,900.

  15. Public Opinion Poll Question Databases: An Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    This paper evaluates five polling resource: iPOLL, Polling the Nations, Gallup Brain, Public Opinion Poll Question Database, and Polls and Surveys. Content was evaluated on disclosure standards from major polling organizations, scope on a model for public opinion polls, and presentation on a flow chart discussing search limitations and usability.

  16. Questions Students Ask: About Terminal Velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Earl R.; Nelson, Jim

    1984-01-01

    If a ball were given an initial velocity in excess of its terminal velocity, would the upward force of air resistance (a function of velocity) be greater than the downward force of gravity and thus push the ball back upwards? An answer to this question is provided. (JN)

  17. Treatment of Anthrax Disease Frequently Asked Questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Young, Joan E.; Lesperance, Ann M.; Malone, John D.

    2010-05-14

    This document provides a summary of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on the treatment of anthrax disease caused by a wide-area release of Bacillus anthracis spores as an act bioterrorism. These FAQs are intended to provide the public health and medical community, as well as others, with guidance and communications to support the response and long-term recovery from an anthrax event.

  18. 8 Questions About the Conscious Mind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dooremalen, A.J.P.W.

    Can the mind function separately from the brain? Can machines have conscious minds? Is Google Maps part of the conscious mind? Hans Dooremalen provides answers to these three and five other questions about the conscious mind in an easy to read introduction to the philosophy of mind.

  19. Transnational aspects of the Kurdish question

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinessen, M.M. van

    2000-01-01

    Simplifying a complex question, one may observe that the objectives of all Kurdish political movements of the past century have concerned two central issues, culture and territory. The Kurdish language and the region historically known as Kurdistan are the Kurds’ most important national symbols.

  20. Preposed Subjects in Questions: Some Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipski, John M.

    1977-01-01

    The preposing of subject pronouns in questions containing an interrogative word has become common in several Caribbean countries. Use of preposing with "tu,""usted" and "ustedes" is discussed, including its relation to final "s" aspirated or dropped, preservation of morphological oppositions, and increased use of subject pronouns. (CHK)

  1. Semantics-based Question Generation and Implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, X.; Bouma, G.; Zhang, Y.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a question generation system based on the approach of semantic rewriting. The state-of-the-art deep linguistic parsing and generation tools are employed to convert (back and forth) between the natural language sentences and their meaning representations in the form of Minimal

  2. Questions & Answers about...Marfan Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This fact sheet answers general questions about Marfan syndrome, a heritable condition that affects the connective tissue. It describes the characteristics of the disorder, the diagnostic process, and ways to manage symptoms. Characteristics include: (1) people with Marfan syndrome are typically very tall, slender, and loose jointed; (2) more than…

  3. Intellectuals, Tertiary Education and Questions of Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Peter

    2007-01-01

    In contemplating the roles and responsibilities of intellectuals in the 21st century, the notion of "difference" is significant in at least two senses. First, work on the politics of difference allows us to consider the question "For whom does the intellectual speak?" in a fresh light. Second, we can ask: "To what extent, and in what ways, might…

  4. Cooperative rhetoric question in contemporary Persian literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Dashti ahangar

    2016-09-01

    Finally some samples of cooperative rhetoric question in current literature will be presented. It should be noted that the goal of these samples is to be more familiar with the subject matter and not the analysis of current literal texts; because it needs more time and study.

  5. Computers into Classrooms: More Questions than Answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beynon, John, Ed.; Mackay, Hughie, Ed.

    This is one of a series of three books addressing the question of the nature of technological literacy. This volume, consisting of an introduction, an epilogue, and 12 chapters, focuses on classrooms and classroom processes involving computers and deals directly with teacher and student usage of microcomputers in teaching and learning. The 12…

  6. REPRODUCIBILITY OF CHILDHOOD RESPIRATORY SYMPTOM QUESTIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BRUNEKREEF, B; GROOT, B; RIJCKEN, B; HOEK, G; STEENBEKKERS, A; DEBOER, A

    The reproducibility of answers to childhood respiratory symptom questions was investigated by administering two childhood respiratory symptom questionnaires twice, with a one month interval, to the same population of Dutch school children. The questionnaires were completed by the parents of 410

  7. The Miracle Question & Therapy with College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa Rita, Emilio

    Solution-focused therapy is based on the premise that client goals and solutions are more important than problems the client depicts in sessions. The miracle question technique is used in the first session to help the client construct and consider a future without the problem: "Suppose that one night, while you were asleep, there was a…

  8. Key Questions in Marine Megafauna Movement Ecology

    KAUST Repository

    Hays, Graeme C.

    2016-03-12

    It is a golden age for animal movement studies and so an opportune time to assess priorities for future work. We assembled 40 experts to identify key questions in this field, focussing on marine megafauna, which include a broad range of birds, mammals, reptiles, and fish. Research on these taxa has both underpinned many of the recent technical developments and led to fundamental discoveries in the field. We show that the questions have broad applicability to other taxa, including terrestrial animals, flying insects, and swimming invertebrates, and, as such, this exercise provides a useful roadmap for targeted deployments and data syntheses that should advance the field of movement ecology. Technical advances make this an exciting time for animal movement studies, with a range of small, reliable data-loggers and transmitters that can record horizontal and vertical movements as well as aspects of physiology and reproductive biology.Forty experts identified key questions in the field of movement ecology.Questions have broad applicability across species, habitats, and spatial scales, and apply to animals in both marine and terrestrial habitats as well as both vertebrates and invertebrates, including birds, mammals, reptiles, fish, insects, and plankton. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. The Predictive Power of Subjective Probability Questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bresser, Jochem; van Soest, Arthur

    2017-01-01

    This paper evaluates the predictive validity of stated intentions for actual behaviour. In the context of the 2017 Dutch parliamentary election, we compare how well polls based on probabilistic and deterministic questions line up with subsequent votes. Our empirical strategy is built around a

  10. Questioning the Technical Quality of Performance Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Eva L.

    1993-01-01

    Ongoing research finds that alternatives to formal tests carry hidden costs and require trade-offs. National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST) is studying how performance assessments work so that they may be designed to help students reach their highest potential. This article raises priority questions,…

  11. Questions in Crocodilian Physiology | Gans | African Zoology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morphologists, physiologists, behaviourists and ecologists have traditionally asked different and often mutually exclusive questions within their different conceptual frameworks. Only the concept of natural selection and the idea that the animals have been modified for one or another mode of life history provide a common ...

  12. Interdisciplinarity and the Question of Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, James, IV

    2012-01-01

    The question of being adds another dimension to interdisciplinary theory and practice. The interdisciplinary approach to complex problems requires engaging with multiple perspectives from various disciplines, schools of thought, ideologies, and belief systems. All of these perspectives possess underlying and often unacknowledged ontological…

  13. Children Ask Questions about West African Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, Denice; Cochran, Mathilda; Mims, Margaret

    1997-01-01

    Presents a collection of questions that fifth-grade students asked about African artwork and answers provided by staff from the Museum of Fine Arts in Houston, Texas. Observes that students' interest in important visual aspects of the art creates lead-ins to more detailed discussions of West African art and culture. (DSK)

  14. Natural Language Question Answering in Open Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Tufis

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available With the ever-growing volume of information on the web, the traditional search engines, returning hundreds or thousands of documents per query, become more and more demanding on the user patience in satisfying his/her information needs. Question Answering in Open Domains is a top research and development topic in current language technology. Unlike the standard search engines, based on the latest Information Retrieval (IR methods, open domain question-answering systems are expected to deliver not a list of documents that might be relevant for the user's query, but a sentence or a paragraph answering the question asked in natural language. This paper reports on the construction and testing of a Question Answering (QA system which builds on several web services developed at the Research Institute for Artificial Intelligence (ICIA/RACAI. The evaluation of the system has been independently done by the organizers of the ResPubliQA 2009 exercise and has been rated the best performing system with the highest improvement due to the natural language processing technology over a baseline state-of-the-art IR system. The system was trained on a specific corpus, but its functionality is independent on the linguistic register of the training data.

  15. Input Enhancement and L2 Question Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lydia; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Investigated the extent to which form-focused instruction and corrective feedback (i.e., "input enhancement"), provided within a primarily communicative program, contribute to learners' accuracy in question formation. Study results are interpreted as evidence that input enhancement can bring about genuine changes in learners' interlanguage…

  16. French and european opinions about energy questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This paper presents a statistical study of french and european opinions in 1989 about energy questions. The main subjects studied are: qualities of different energy sources (coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear energy, renewable energies); perception in public opinion of nuclear industry; energy and environmental effects. 6 figs., 1 tab., 4 appendices

  17. Memorial Consequences of Answering SAT II Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Elizabeth J.; Agarwal, Pooja K.; Roediger, Henry L., III

    2009-01-01

    Many thousands of students take standardized tests every year. In the current research, we asked whether answering standardized test questions affects students' later test performance. Prior research has shown both positive and negative effects of multiple-choice testing on later tests, with negative effects arising from students selecting…

  18. Guiding Questions for Data Analysis, by Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wake County Public School System, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This document, which is provided by the Data and Accountability Department staff at Wake County Public School System (WCPSS), is to be used as a resource to help guide the review of student data. This document provides examples of questions to consider when reviewing frequently accessed reports located in Case21, Quickr, EVAAS®, mClass®, or…

  19. Questions of Value to this presentation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Questions of Value to this presentation. Does a self assembly of collagen act smart? Can man make collagen based smart biomaterials? To what beneficial uses smart collagen based biomaterials can be put to?

  20. Teaching Children with Autism to Ask Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Katie E.; Bickel, Alyssa

    2015-01-01

    Children with autism have impairments in communication that make it difficult for them to acquire the ability to ask appropriate wh- questions. This is a very important skill, and one that clinicians often do not know how to target. Search terms were entered into several databases to locate studies published in peer-reviewed journals. The studies…

  1. The prevalence of questionable occlusal caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makhija, Sonia K; Gilbert, Gregg H; Funkhouser, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Questionable occlusal caries (QOC) can be defined as clinically suspected caries with no cavitation or radiographic evidence of occlusal caries. To the authors' knowledge, no one has quantified the prevalence of QOC, so this quantification was the authors' objective in conducting this study...

  2. Response to Questions on Presentation to NAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, W R

    2011-03-17

    Response to questions on the presentation 'Overview to Chamber and Power Plant Designs for IFE' made at the 1/29-31 meeting of the National Academies Committee on the Prospects for Inertial Confinement Fusion Energy Systems.

  3. Questioning the Athlete's Right to Sue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubell, A

    1989-03-01

    The once-common doctrine that an athlete assumes the risks of the sport in which he or she competes almost disappeared in the 1970s. In the following interview, legal expert Gerald J. Todaro, JD, questions an athlete's right to sue for an injury that occurred in an inherently dangerous sport.

  4. Benedict Arnold: A Question of Honor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolosi, Annie; O'Connell, Libby Haight; Rust, Mead

    2003-01-01

    The spring 2003 The Idea Book for Educators highlights television programming from the Arts and Entertainment Network (A&E), the History Channel, and the Biography Channel, with a focus on an A&E original movie premiere, "Benedict Arnold: A Question of Honor." The booklet contains the following materials: "A&E Study…

  5. Question Word in the Mandarin Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Yunyu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In an interrogative sentence in Mandarin language, a question word can be placed in the beginning, middle or end of a sentence. Because of the different nation and culture, when a foreign student learns Mandarin, they find it difficult to understand the question words and the position of the question words in that language. Because of that, the writer proposes to explain such problems. This research aims to find out what are the types of question words in Mandarin, and also to explain the function and usage of question words in the Mandarin interrogative sentence. An interrogative sentence is a very important sentence. In Mandarin, the following question words: 谁(shuí “Who”,在哪里(zài nǎli “where”, 在哪儿(zài nǎ’er “where”,为什么(wèi shénme “why”, 怎么(zěnme “why”,多少(duō shǎo) “how many”,多久(duō jiǔ “how long”,什么时候 (shénme shíhòu “when”,什么(shénme “what”,做什么(zuò shénme “why”,干 什么(gàn shénme “why”,干嘛(gànma “why” and so on are used to ask “who”, “where”, “what”, “how much”, “when”, “what time”, and “why”. Those words have different functions and usage. Each sentence has a certain structure and word order. A question word can be placed in the beginning, middle, or end of a sentence. When the place is changed, there is a possibility of miscommunication.   DOI: https://doi.org/10.24071/llt.2013.160106

  6. Can a policy program influence policy change? The case of the Swiss EnergieSchweiz program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sager, Fritz; Bürki, Marietta; Luginbühl, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the interrelation of policy implementation and policy change by addressing the question of whether and how the Swiss energy program “EnergieSchweiz” influenced policy decisions. We discuss different ways in which a policy program may influence policy change: by negative and positive learning, by coalition building and by policy community building. Respective assumptions are tested in two case studies from the “EnergieSchweiz” program, which was in place from 2000 to 2010. We find that, while the policy program was not critical for the policy change itself, it nevertheless played a role as an agenda setter, as an initiator of learning processes as well as through its policy community. - Highlights: • We investigate how energy policy implementation impacts policy change. • We analyse the Swiss energy program “EnergieSchweiz” in place from 2000 to 2010. • Policy programs alone do not deliver policy change. • But they can influence it by agenda setting and by negative learning. • Expert networks have an influence if there are shared goals

  7. (How) does sectoral detail affect the robustness of policy insights from energy system models? The refining sector's example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolas, Claire; Saint-Antonin, Valerie; Tchung-Ming, Stephane

    2014-01-01

    In this research, we rekindle an old debate by questioning the impact on mitigating policy evaluation of detailing a sub-sector in a global energy-transportation model. We chose the refining sector because it is a relevant case of a sector for which representation widely differs across models and because it offers a unique set of complex joint production in the energy sector. To investigate whether the level of detail in the description of the refinery impacts optimal mitigation options, we take the example of a long-term, national, linear programming based, energy-transport system model (TIMES based). We found that the refinery description used in the energy system model matters when trying to evaluate energy or climate policy applied to the transportation sector. It impacts the policy costs but also the technology trajectories chosen at the optimum. Essentially, the balance between energy efficiency and carbon intensity of transport may be affected by the accuracy of the description of the pivotal refining sector. Consequently, increasing this sector accuracy level should not only be motivated by the wish to gain wider quantitative insights on potential evolution of the energy system but also by the wish to improve the robustness of the model outcomes. (authors)

  8. Media independence and dividend policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Dandoune, Salma

    2012-01-01

    independence and dividend policies in emerging markets. Using a dataset from twenty three emerging markets, we show a significantly negative relationship between dividend policies (payout ratio and decision to pay dividend) and media independence. We argue that independent media reduces information asymmetries...... for stock market participants. Consequently, stock market participants in emerging markets with more independent media do not demand as high and as much dividends as their counterparts in emerging markets with less independent media. We also show that press independence is more important in defining......Can media pressurize managers to disgorge excess cash to shareholders? Do firms in countries with more independent media follow different dividend policies than firms with less independent media? This paper seeks to answer these questions and aims to document the relationship between media...

  9. Frequently asked questions on seven rare adverse events following immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'alò, G L; Zorzoli, E; Capanna, A; Gervasi, G; Terracciano, E; Zaratti, L; Franco, E

    2017-03-01

    Routine mass immunization programs have contributed greatly to the control of infectious diseases and to the improvement of the health of populations. Over the last decades, the rise of antivaccination movements has threatened the advances made in this field to the point that vaccination coverage rates have decreased and outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases have resurfaced. One of the critical points of the immunization debate revolves around the level of risk attributable to vaccination, namely the possibility of experiencing serious and possibly irreversible adverse events. Unfortunately, the knowledge about adverse events, especially rare ones, is usually incomplete at best and the attribution of a causal relationship with vaccinations is subject to significant uncertainties. The aim of this paper is to provide a narrative review of seven rare or very rare adverse events: hypotonic hyporesponsive episode, multiple sclerosis, apnea in preterm newborns, Guillain-Barré syndrome, vasculitides, arthritis/ arthralgia, immune thrombocytopenic purpura. We have selected these adverse events based on our experience of questions asked by health care workers involved in vaccination services. Information on the chosen adverse events was retrieved from Medline using appropriate search terms. The review is in the form of questions and answers for each adverse event, with a view to providing useful and actionable concepts while not ignoring the uncertainties that remain. We also highlight in the conclusion possible future improvements to adverse event detection and assessment that could help identify individuals at higher risk against the probable future backdrop of ever-greater abandonment of compulsory vaccination policies.

  10. Renewable energy. From marginal to mainstream. Policy Brief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veum, K.C.; Uslu, A.; De Coninck, H.C. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-04-15

    This policy brief aims to instigate a debate on the broader enabling conditions required to move renewable energy from marginal shares in the European energy system to a mainstream role. It does so by posing seven key questions related to public movement, the political-industrial complex, resources and sustainability, grids and markets, finance, legal procedures and overall policy. These questions require short- to medium-term attention to keep a long-term renewable energy system within the realm of possibilities. This policy brief also provides ECN's initial reflections on how these key questions could be addressed, and indicates which relevant expertise it can bring to the table.

  11. Top 10 research questions related to children physical activity motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ang

    2013-12-01

    Physical activity is critical to healthy development of children. It is well documented that helping children develop and sustain a physically active lifestyle requires children to become motivated. Many studies have been conducted in the past 2.5 decades on determinants and correlates for children and adolescents' physical activity motivation. The findings have informed researchers and practitioners about motivation sources for children and effective strategies to motivate children in given physical activity settings. Built on the extensive knowledge base and theoretical platforms formed by these research studies, the purpose of this article is to take a look at the current research landscape and provide subjective thoughts about what we still need to know about children's physical activity motivation. The product of this subjective thinking process rendered 10 potential questions for future research on children's physical activity motivation in both in-school and out-of-school settings. These topics encompass those focusing on children's physical activity motivation as a mental dispositional process, those conceptualizing the motivation as an outcome of person-environment interactions, and those attempting to dissect the motivation as an outcome of social-cultural influences and educational policies. It is hoped that the topics can serve researchers interested in children's physical activity motivation as starting blocks from which they can extend their conceptual thinking and identify research questions that are personally meaningful. It is also hoped that the list of potential questions can be helpful to researchers in accomplishing the imperative and significant mission to motivate children to be physically active in the 21st century and beyond.

  12. Will Veterans Answer Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Questions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruben, Mollie A; Blosnich, John R; Dichter, Melissa E; Luscri, Lorry; Shipherd, Jillian C

    2017-09-01

    The Veterans Health Administration does not routinely collect and document sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) data, despite existing health disparities among sexual and gender minority Veterans. Because of the legacy of previous Department of Defense (DoD) policies that prohibited disclosure of sexual or gender minority identities among active duty personnel, Veterans may be reluctant to respond to SOGI questions. This population-based study assesses item nonresponse to SOGI questions by Veteran status. This is a secondary analysis of data from a population-based sample of adults in 20 US states that elected to administer a SOGI module in the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey. Prevalence of SOGI refusals and responses of "don't know" were compared for Veterans and non-Veterans. Veterans (n=22,587) and non-Veterans (n=146,475) were surveyed. Nearly all Veteran respondents (≥98%) completed the SOGI questions, with 95.4% identifying as heterosexual, 1.2% as gay or lesbian, 1.2% as bisexual, and 0.59% as transgender. A significantly lower proportion of Veterans than non-Veterans refuse to answer sexual orientation (1.5% vs. 1.9%). There was no difference between Veterans and non-Veterans in responses for gender identity. Veterans are just as likely as non-Veterans to complete SOGI items in survey research. Asking Veterans about SOGI is unlikely to yield significant nonresponse. These data suggest that future research should investigate Veterans' perspectives on being asked about SOGI in research settings and as part of routine clinical care.

  13. Pragmatics of policy: the compliance of dutch environmental policy instruments to European union standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruitwagen, Sonja; Reudink, Melchert; Faber, Albert

    2009-04-01

    Despite a general decrease in Dutch environmental emission trends, it remains difficult to comply with European Union (EU) environmental policy targets. Furthermore, environmental issues have become increasingly complex and entangled with society. Therefore, Dutch environmental policy follows a pragmatic line by adopting a flexible approach for compliance, rather than aiming at further reduction at the source of emission. This may be politically useful in order to adequately reach EU targets, but restoration of environmental conditions may be delayed. However, due to the complexity of today's environmental issues, the restoration of environmental conditions might not be the only standard for a proper policy approach. Consequently this raises the question how the Dutch pragmatic approach to compliance qualifies in a broader policy assessment. In order to answer this question, we adapt a policy assessment framework, developed by Hemerijck and Hazeu (Bestuurskunde 13(2), 2004), based on the dimensions of legitimacy and policy logic. We apply this framework for three environmental policy assessments: flexible instruments in climate policy, fine-tuning of national and local measures to meet air quality standards, and derogation for the Nitrate Directive. We conclude with general assessment notes on the appliance of flexible instruments in environmental policy, showing that a broad and comprehensive perspective can help to understand the arguments to put such policy instruments into place and to identify trade-offs between assessment criteria.

  14. U.S. Theater Nuclear Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    In the brief period between May 1978 and December 12, 1979, U.S. policy, and the policy of the NATO Alliance, toward theater nuclear forces (TNF) changed dramatically. The consequences of this change now dominate the political agenda in East-West (and West-West) relations. The ultimate outcome of the now renamed intermediate-range nuclear force (INF) debate will have far-reaching consequences for the future of the Atlantic Alliance. How did this issue emerge? Why did the US change its policy? How did it work with its Alliance to change NATO policy? These questions, among others, are now figuring in the debate. The answers to these questions are discussed in detail

  15. Now That's a Good Question! How to Promote Cognitive Rigor through Classroom Questioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Erik M.

    2016-01-01

    In this book, Erik M. Francis explores how one of the most fundamental instructional strategies--questioning--can provide the proper scaffolding to deepen student thinking, understanding, and application of knowledge. You'll learn: (1) Techniques for using questioning to extend and evaluate student learning experiences; (2) Eight different kinds…

  16. Difficult Questions of Difficult Questions: The Role of The Researcher and Transcription Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Holly

    2018-01-01

    This paper refracts a comparison of three distinct transcription styles through questions of researcher reflexivity. It uses the data from a single question asked by the researcher in multiple interviews for a small empirical project. These data are transcribed in three ways, and the resulting transcripts are discussed in relation to the analysis…

  17. Standarized input for Hanford environmental impact statements. Part II: site description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamison, J.D.

    1982-07-01

    Information is presented under the following section headings: summary description; location and physiography; geology; seismology; hydrology; meteorology; ecology; demography and land use; and radiological condition. Five appendixes are included on the 100N, 200 east, 200 west, 300, and 400 areas. This report is intended to provide a description of the Hanford Site against which the environmental impacts of new projects at Hanford can be assessed. It is expected that the summary description amplified with material from the appropriate appendix, will serve as the basic site description section of environmental impact statements prepared to address the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA).

  18. THE EXPLICIT COMPREHENSION-STRATEGY INSTRUCTION: QUESTION-ANSWER RELATIONSHIP VS SELF-QUESTIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalu Thohir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at examining and comparing the effectiveness of the Question-Answer Relationship (QAR and Self-Questioning (SQ strategies in improving the reading ability of the undergraduate students. This study was a quasi-experimental study in which two out of three classes of the third semester students at English department of Mataram University were selected randomly to receive either QAR strategy or SQ strategy instructions for ten weekly meetings. The findings of pre- and posttest with multiple-choice questions revealed that both comprehension strategies were effective in improving the undergraduate students‘ reading ability. The findings from the posttest with multiple-choice questions indicated the students who received SQ strategy instruction scored significantly higher than those students who received QAR strategy instruction. On the other hand, the students who received QAR strategy instruction scored slightly higher than those students who received SQ strategy instruction in the posttest with open-ended questions.

  19. Should Trade Agreements Include Environmental Policy?

    OpenAIRE

    Josh Ederington

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which environmental and trade policies should be treated equally, or symmetrically, in international negotiations. It reviews the recent economics literature on trade and the environment to address two questions. First, should trade negotiations include negotiations over environmental policies and the setting of binding environmental standards? Second, if there are grounds for international environmental negotiations, should environmental agreements b...

  20. Reserve Component Personnel Issues: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-18

    of one day of basic pay for each unit training assembly ( UTA ) they attend. A UTA is generally a four-hour period of instruction, and there are usually...training assembly ( UTA ), one point for each day of annual training (AT), and one point for each day of active duty. Points can also be earned for completing... on the vitality of the reserve components, such as funding, equipment, and personnel policy. This report is designed to provide an overview of key