WorldWideScience

Sample records for policy processes leading

  1. Do Policy Networks lead to Network Governing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Bodil

    This paper challenges the notion that creation of local policy networks necessarily leads to network governing. Through actor-centred case studies in the area of municipally implemented employment policy in Denmark it was found that the local governing mode is determined mainly by the municipality...

  2. Combined processing of lead concentrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubasov, V. L.; Paretskii, V. M.; Sidorin, G. N.; Travkin, V. F.

    2013-06-01

    A combined scheme of processing of lead concentrates with the production of pure metallic lead and the important components containing in these concentrates is considered. This scheme includes sulfating roasting of the lead concentrates and two-stage leaching of the formed cinder with the formation of a sulfate solution and lead sulfate. When transformed into a carbonate form, lead sulfate is used for the production of pure metallic lead. Silver, indium, copper, cadmium, nickel, cobalt, and other important components are separately extracted from a solution. At the last stage, zinc is extracted by either extraction followed by electrolytic extraction of a metal or the return of the forming solution of sulfuric acid to cinder leaching.

  3. Relational Leading and Dialogic Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Hersted

    The Ph.D. thesis contributes to a relational orientation to leading, emphasizing leadership as a shared, collaborative and co-creative activity. In this paradigm major emphasis is put on dialogue and interaction. Inspired by social constructionist ideas, the thesis considers approaches to learning...... with the thesis, dialogically based practices inspired by action research with the aim to enhance collaborative knowledge building, reflexivity and dialogical skills in groups and teams were carried out, analyzed and documented. Participants included school principals, leaders of kindergartens, teachers...

  4. ARM Lead Mentor Selection Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisterson, DL

    2013-03-13

    The ARM Climate Research Facility currently operates more than 300 instrument systems that provide ground-based observations of the atmospheric column. To keep ARM at the forefront of climate observations, the ARM infrastructure depends heavily on instrument scientists and engineers, also known as Instrument Mentors. Instrument Mentors must have an excellent understanding of in situ and remote-sensing instrumentation theory and operation and have comprehensive knowledge of critical scale-dependent atmospheric processes. They also possess the technical and analytical skills to develop new data retrievals that provide innovative approaches for creating research-quality data sets.

  5. The Politics of Educational Policy Studies: A Preliminary Analysis of Leading Educational Policy Journal Publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Ian

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that the content, analytical approaches and institutional affiliations of authors of articles published in the latest issues of two leading educational policy studies journals provide useful insights into the contested nature of educational policy studies. The paper draws upon a selection of articles published in 2007/08 issues…

  6. Ethnosocial processes and ethnonational policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri V. Popkov

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Article arises the issues of ethnicity in context of globalization, as well as axiological dominants of collective public consciousness, trends of Siberian people ethnosocial evolution, problems of actual national policy of government in Russia.

  7. Processes That Leading to Medical Malpractice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Yıldırım

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The new Turkish Penal Code which came into force in June 2005 has brought some changes in the definitions of the legal and penal responsibilities of physicians. On the other hand, the changing conditions of the current health practices and the commercial concerns taking the lead have brought serious doubts about a physician-patient relationship based on trust. As a result, in our country, medical malpractice claims against physicians have significantly increased in recent years. In the last 10 years, the subject has been discussed in various platforms and there is a dynamic process that continues the search for solutions. To date, considering the emerging cases of medical malpractice statistics, it is remarkable that the most frequent claim against both physicians and other health personnel is the complaint about "not fulfilling their obligation of duty of care". In this review, we examined the basic concepts and processes leading to medical malpractice, which has become a serious threat to physicians, in order to improve physicians' knowledge about this phenomenon. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: Supplement 78-81

  8. Simulating Policy Processes through Electronic Mail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, John P.

    1987-01-01

    Focuses on the use of electronic mail for teaching and learning about social welfare policy processes and compares electronic mail as a simulation medium to more structured computer applications. (Author)

  9. Do Co-operative Development Policies Really Lead to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article assesses how Kenyan co-operative policies contribute to the development of co-operatives as viable business enterprises and autonomous democratic organisations. The article identifies three policy phases that have guided co-operative development over four decades. Policy engagement with cooperatives ...

  10. Interests and Values in Obama's foreign Policy: Leading from Behind?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA HELENA DE CASTRO SANTOS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study will exam the relative importance of values and interests in Obama's foreign policy, focusing on crucial cases: the military actions related to Afghanistan, Iraq, Libya, Non-Syria, Al-Qaeda and ISIL. We will argue that his "leading from behind" strategy is not very distant from the foreign and defense strategies of his post-Cold War predecessors, by which democracy is seen as an assurance to security. According to Obama's strategy, Americans will only provide support for the building of democracy in the target countries, while this task should be performed by the locals themselves. Americans will provide military training to the new governments as well so they can be responsible for their own security, including preventing regrouping of terrorists in their soil. If Obama opposes the imposing of democracy by the use of force, empirical data shows that his administration is "not prepared to accept" any option that threats US security or American liberal-democratic values, bringing in this way values and interests very close to each other.

  11. Process for lead removal from rare earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollat, A.; Sabot, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    An aqueous solution of rare earth chlorides and lead chlorides, with a chloride concentration of at least 2 moles/liter and a pH between 2 and 4, is extracted by an alkylphosphonic acid ester and rare earth(s) is (are) recovered from the organic phase [fr

  12. An Automated Policy Refinement Process Supported by Expert Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Rochaeli, Taufiq

    2009-01-01

    In a policy-based system management, a policy refinement process is required to translate abstract policies, which are specified by human, into enforceable policies, which are enforced by machine. However, a manual policy refinement process imposes some problems. The first problem is that it requires expert knowledge to perform the policy refinement process. The second problem is that refining policies for complex systems is a tedious task. Manual refinement process may cause some negative co...

  13. Transforming Government's Policy-making Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Johnston

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We have seen a lot of very welcome progress in terms of making it easier for citizens to input their views into government policy-making processes. However, governments and citizens are now in a similar situation – after a burst of initial enthusiasm, they are not sure what to do next. Governments have struggled to get the mass participation they would like and where significant participation has occurred, have had difficulty integrating it effectively into existing decision-making processes. Citizens have been unsure what to make of this new apparent openness and where they have engaged, have found it hard to know what difference their input made. The solution is to focus on using technology to make existing policy processes more transparent and more participative rather than creating separate e-participation initiatives. The challenge for governments is to open up the whole of the policy process and be prepared to flag up very clearly and explicitly the difference citizen input made. The challenge for e-democracy advocates is to convince policymakers that their ideas can improve the existing policy process rather than simply generating more inputs into it.

  14. State health agencies and the legislative policy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Crowe, S M; Aultman, T V

    1994-01-01

    A new era of health care reform places increasing pressure on public health leaders and agencies to participate in the public policy arena. Public health professionals have long been comfortable in providing the scientific knowledge base required in policy development. What has been more recent in its evolution, however, is recognition that they must also play an active role in leading and shaping the debate over policy. A profile of effective State legislative policy "entrepreneurs" and their strategies has been developed to assist health agencies in developing such a leadership position. Based on the experiences of State legislative liaison officers, specific strategies for dealing with State legislatures have been identified and are organized into five key areas--agency organization, staff skills, communications, negotiation, and active ongoing involvement. A public health agency must be organized effectively to participate in the legislative policy process. Typically, effective agencies centralize responsibility for policy activities and promote broad and coordinated participation throughout the organization. Playing a key role in the agency's political interventions, the legislative liaison office should be staffed with persons possessing excellent interpersonal skills and a high degree of technical competence. Of central importance to effective legislative policy entrepreneurship is the ability to communicate the agency's position clearly. This includes setting forward a focused policy agenda, documenting policy issues in a meaningful manner, and reaching legislators with the proper information. Once a matter is on the legislative agenda, the agency must be prepared to negotiate and build broad support for the measure. Finally, public health agencies must be active policy players. To take advantage of new opportunities for action, the public health (policy) leader must monitor the political environment continually.By working to anticipate and formulate

  15. Finnish Superintendents: Leading in a Changing Education Policy Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risku, Mika; Kanervio, Pekka; Björk, Lars G.

    2014-01-01

    Finland's education system is regarded as one of the most effective in the world. Shared values of the Finnish welfare society continue to influence national education policies that determine how education is organized, governed, and led. Findings from a national study of the superintendency, however, suggest recent demographic and financial…

  16. Lead Policy and Academic Performance: Insights from Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Jessica Wolpaw

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Jessica Wolpaw Reyes investigates the link between lead exposure and student achievement in Massachusetts. Childhood exposure to even low levels of lead can adversely affect neurodevelopment, behavior, and cognitive performance. Using a panel dataset of cohorts of children born in the 1990s who were third and fourth graders in the…

  17. PROCESS INNOVATION: HOLISTIC SCENARIOS TO REDUCE TOTAL LEAD TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin POSTEUCĂ

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of markets requires continuous development of business holistic scenarios to ensure acceptable flexibility to satisfy customers. Continuous improvement of supply chain supposes continuous improvement of materials and products lead time and flow, material stocks and finished products stocks and increasing the number of suppliers close by as possible. The contribution of our study is to present holistic scenarios of total lead time improvement and innovation by implementing supply chain policy.

  18. The transition to non-lead rifle ammunition in Denmark: national obligations and policy considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, Niels; Thomas, Vernon G.; Krone, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    The issue of Denmark regulating use of lead-free rifle ammunition because of potential risks of lead exposure in wildlife and humans was examined from a scientific and objective policy perspective. The consequences of adopting or rejecting such regulation were identified. Denmark is obliged...... to examine this topic because of its national policy on lead reduction, its being a Party to the UN Bonn Convention on Migratory Species, and its role in protecting White-tailed Sea Eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla), a species prone to lead poisoning from lead ingestion. Lead-free bullets suited for deer hunting...... are available at comparable cost to lead bullets, and have been demonstrated to be as effective. National adoption of lead-free bullets would complete the Danish transition to lead-free ammunition use. It would reduce the risk of lead exposure to scavenging wildlife, and humans who might eat lead...

  19. Foreign policy of leading countries from the viewpoint of realism and imperial policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Be. B.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available according to the author Imperial and imperialist policy led to war. The first and Second world wars led to the disappearance of the classical empires – Austro-Hungarian, British, French, German, Ottoman, Japanese. The post-Second world war bipolar world because of the logic of confrontation between two world systems largely continued to develop in international relations the logic of empires, the logic of the strict antagonism. The collapse of world socialist system led to the emergence of a unilateral world and the dominant role of one superpower, which is by the logic of Imperial policy pursued a policy of forced democratization. But such a condition could not last long, for neither the resources nor the capacity of this hegemony was not enough to ensure the peaceful development of mankind. More and more countries demanded a policy of non-interference in the internal affairs of other States, peaceful coexistence and cooperation within the framework of the cooperative strategy. Most people call it the multi-polar world. The transition from a unilateral to a multipolar world will require greater effort and resolution of international and inter-state matters on the basis of principles of equal security, compromises, and mutually beneficial cooperation.

  20. Defending the scientific integrity of conservation-policy processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Carlos; Hartl, Brett; Goldman, Gretchen T; Rohlf, Daniel J; Treves, Adrian; Kerr, Jeremy T; Ritchie, Euan G; Kingsford, Richard T; Gibbs, Katherine E; Maron, Martine; Watson, James E M

    2017-10-01

    Government agencies faced with politically controversial decisions often discount or ignore scientific information, whether from agency staff or nongovernmental scientists. Recent developments in scientific integrity (the ability to perform, use, communicate, and publish science free from censorship or political interference) in Canada, Australia, and the United States demonstrate a similar trajectory. A perceived increase in scientific-integrity abuses provokes concerted pressure by the scientific community, leading to efforts to improve scientific-integrity protections under a new administration. However, protections are often inconsistently applied and are at risk of reversal under administrations publicly hostile to evidence-based policy. We compared recent challenges to scientific integrity to determine what aspects of scientific input into conservation policy are most at risk of political distortion and what can be done to strengthen safeguards against such abuses. To ensure the integrity of outbound communications from government scientists to the public, we suggest governments strengthen scientific integrity policies, include scientists' right to speak freely in collective-bargaining agreements, guarantee public access to scientific information, and strengthen agency culture supporting scientific integrity. To ensure the transparency and integrity with which information from nongovernmental scientists (e.g., submitted comments or formal policy reviews) informs the policy process, we suggest governments broaden the scope of independent reviews, ensure greater diversity of expert input and transparency regarding conflicts of interest, require a substantive response to input from agencies, and engage proactively with scientific societies. For their part, scientists and scientific societies have a responsibility to engage with the public to affirm that science is a crucial resource for developing evidence-based policy and regulations in the public interest.

  1. The Benin Experience: How Computational Modeling can lead to Major Vaccine Policy Changes in Low and Middle Income Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bruce Y.; Schreiber, Benjamin; Wateska, Angela R.; Connor, Diana L.; Dicko, Hamadou M.; Jaillard, Philippe; Mvundura, Mercy; Levin, Carol; Avella, Mélanie; Haidari, Leila A.; Brown, Shawn T.

    2015-01-01

    While scientific studies can show the need for vaccine policy or operations changes, translating scientific findings to action is a complex process that needs to be executed appropriately for change to occur. Our Benin experience provided key steps and lessons learned to help computational modeling inform and lead to major policy change. The key steps are: engagement of Ministry of Health, identifying in-country “champions,” directed and efficient data collection, defining a finite set of realistic scenarios, making the study methodology transparent, presenting the results in a clear manner, and facilitating decision-making and advocacy. Generating scientific evidence is one component of policy change. Enabling change requires orchestration of a coordinated set of steps that heavily involve key stakeholders, earn their confidence, and provide them with relevant information. Our Benin EVM+CCEM+HERMES Process led to a decision to enact major changes and could serve as a template for similar approaches in other countries. PMID:25900134

  2. Process Coordination & Policy Officer | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    When a policy requires updating, the applicable level of management will provide the incumbent with operational and other relevant information; the incumbent will provide Division management with information on current trends and the results of research. Together they will develop the parameters for the policy work that ...

  3. Mental health policy process: a comparative study of Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kigozi Fred

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental illnesses are increasingly recognised as a leading cause of disability worldwide, yet many countries lack a mental health policy or have an outdated, inappropriate policy. This paper explores the development of appropriate mental health policies and their effective implementation. It reports comparative findings on the processes for developing and implementing mental health policies in Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia as part of the Mental Health and Poverty Project. Methods The study countries and respondents were purposively selected to represent different levels of mental health policy and system development to allow comparative analysis of the factors underlying the different forms of mental health policy development and implementation. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and document analysis. Data analysis was guided by conceptual framework that was developed for this purpose. A framework approach to analysis was used, incorporating themes that emerged from the data and from the conceptual framework. Results Mental health policies in Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia are weak, in draft form or non-existent. Mental health remained low on the policy agenda due to stigma and a lack of information, as well as low prioritisation by donors, low political priority and grassroots demand. Progress with mental health policy development varied and respondents noted a lack of consultation and insufficient evidence to inform policy development. Furthermore, policies were poorly implemented, due to factors including insufficient dissemination and operationalisation of policies and a lack of resources. Conclusions Mental health policy processes in all four countries were inadequate, leading to either weak or non-existent policies, with an impact on mental health services. Recommendations are provided to strengthen mental health policy processes in these and other African countries.

  4. The Role of Interstate Policy Organizations in State Higher Education Policy Processes: Perceptions of Policymakers and Policy Shapers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelau, Demaree K.

    2010-01-01

    Political science offers rich explanations for how different types of organizations that are focused on public policy decisions (e.g., boundary organizations, interest groups, policy networks (or communities), and think tanks) influence public policy processes (Cash, Clark, Alcock, Dickson, Eckley, Guston, Jager, and Mitchell 2003; Guston 2001;…

  5. Leading Schools of Education in the Context of Academic Capitalism: Deans' Responses to State Policy Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Kevin R.; Teitelbaum, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    State education policy changes have contributed to a reduced interest in teaching and a decreased enrollment in education degree programs in North Carolina, USA. Pressure to cut budgets and generate revenue has added to a climate of academic capitalism influencing the ways in which deans lead schools of education. The purpose of this mixed-methods…

  6. Theories of State Analyzing the Policy Process,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-11-01

    Mean, early sociologists; William Graham Sumner; Kurt Lewin, the social psychologist who emphasized group cohesiveness in group dynamics; Wilfred ... Bion ; Leon Festinger, who studied "cognitive dissonance" Harold Kelley, Stanley Schachter and Dorwin Cartwright. 63 For application to policy-making in

  7. Fiscal policy lags and income adjustment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Cesare, Luigi; Sportelli, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► There are delays either in the government expenditure or in the tax system. ► Both delays affect fiscal policy outcomes. ► The system of differential equations with two delays may be chaotic. ► Fiscal policy outcomes might be inconsistent with their stabilization purposes. - Abstract: The interest in the impact of fiscal policy lags on economic stability increased in the last decade. Several studies have been made on delays either in the government expenditure or in the tax system, where lags exist between the accrual and the payment of taxes. Nevertheless there is in the literature no model where time delays in government expenditures and in tax revenues are considered together as it happens in the real world. In this paper we remedied this defect and proposed a macro-dynamic model where two delays appear: the first pertains to the public expenditure, the second, to the tax revenue. The resulting system of delayed differential equations is studied qualitatively and numerically. The analysis suggests that only particular combinations of the two delays make the system stable. Prevalently the system is unstable and chaotic motions may arise. This implies that the economy may need appropriate structural changes in the public sector to improve fiscal policy outcomes in such a way they may really be consistent with their stabilization purposes.

  8. Process Coordination and Policy Officer | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Job Summary This job encompasses the development and maintenance of financial and administrative policies and procedures that affect all aspects of IDRC operations at head office as well as in regional offices. The job bridges functional areas and management information systems. It constitutes a key lever for the ...

  9. Processes Leading to Beaded Channels Formation in Central Yakutia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarbeeva, A. M.; Lebedeva, L.; Efremov, V. S.; Krylenko, I. V.; Surkov, V. V.

    2017-12-01

    Beaded channels, consisting of deepened and widened pools and connecting narrow runs, are common fluvial forms in permafrost regions. Recent studies have shown that beaded channels are very important for connecting alluvial rivers with headwater lakes allowing fish passage and foraging habitats, as well as regulating river runoff. Beaded channels are known as typical thermokarst landforms; however, there is no evidence of their origin and formative processes. Geomorphological analyzes of beaded channels have been completed in several permafrost regions including field observations of Shestakovka River in Central Yakutia. The study aims to recognize the modern exogenic processes and formative mechanisms of beaded river channels. We show that beaded channel of Shestakovka River form in the perennially frozen sand with low ice content, leading us to hypothesize that thermokarst is not the main process of formation. Due to the significant volume of water, the pools don't freeze over entirely during winters, even under harsh climatic conditions. As a result, lenses of pressurized water remain under surface ice underlain by perennially thawed sediments. The presence of thawed sediments under the pools and frozen sediments under the runs leads to uneven thermoerosion of the riverbed during floods, providing the beaded form of the channel. In addition, freezing of pools during winter leads to pressure increasing under ice cover and formation of ice mounds, which crack several times during winter leading to disturbance of riverbanks. Many 1st to 3rd order streams have a specific transitional meandering-to-beaded form resembling the shape of unconfined meandering rivers, but consisting of pools and runs. However, such channels exhibit no evidences of present-day erosion of concave banks and sediment accumulation at the convex banks as typically being observed in normally meandering rivers. Such forms of channels indicates that their formation occurred by the greater channel

  10. The process leading to help seeking following childhood trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stige, Signe Hjelen; Træen, Bente; Rosenvinge, Jan H

    2013-10-01

    In this article we explore the process leading to help seeking following childhood trauma among women who were currently in treatment. We interviewed 13 participants from six treatment groups for clients exposed to human-inflicted traumas. Transcripts were analyzed using a hermeneutical-phenomenological approach. Help seeking was initiated after a prolonged period of time (13 to 58 years after first trauma exposure), during which participants relied heavily on a strategy of managing on their own. Self-management contributed to delays in help seeking, but was also an important resource. High levels of distress were reported prior to help seeking, often without help seeking being considered as an option. The participants sought help when encountering situational demands exceeding available resources, resulting in experiences of exhaustion and loss of control. We present a model of the help-seeking process, underlining the importance of respecting and exploring the individual process of seeking help when offering trauma-specific treatment.

  11. The solar energy based global economy. A policy leading to the ecological era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheer, H.

    1999-01-01

    Bound in its fossil energy and raw materials supply chains, the global economy is heading for a global ecological crisis and dramatically aggravating conflicts. Moreover, this exclusive dependence on fossil energy and materials resources forces a global concentration process increasingly undermining democratic and free market systems. But the will to survive is not the only reason to consider a new industrial revolution to be imperative. Such a sweeping change, from a fossil energy based regime to a system relying exclusively on renewable energy sources and raw materials, would open up unique opportunities for the evolution of a peaceful and democratic global economy fostering the development of superior technologies and sustainable regional economic systems. The author of the book elaborates the scenario permitting such a radical change, and explains the necessary basic approaches and appropriate policies relating to technology, the economy, ecology, and the social system. The ultimate goal is that the evolution of the solar energy based global economy will be accompanied by an intrinsic economic driving force eventually leading to an ecological era. (orig./CB) [de

  12. Policy Implementation beyond the Management of Change: A Case Study in Managing the Policy Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, John; Evans, Jennifer

    Using the 1981 Education Act of England and Wales as a case study, this paper develops a conceptual framework of education legislation as a significant reference point in the process of negotiation and bargaining that initiates legislation and continues throughout the period of policy implementation. A model of the policy process and the…

  13. Determination of lead 210 in scales from industrial processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Lígia S.; Moreira, Rubens M.; Kastner, Geraldo F.; Barbosa, João B.S., E-mail: ligsfaria@gmail.com, E-mail: rubens@cdtn.br, E-mail: gfk@cdtn.br, E-mail: jbsb@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Industrial processes such as oil and gas extraction and groundwater exploitation are examples of installations that can accumulate naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) during the extraction and production. Lead-210 deposits in the production can be formed by the same mechanisms that occur in the environment through the support of Radon-222, (where {sup 210}Pb is produced at {sup 222}Rn decay) or without support, as {sup 210}Pb. The objective of this work is to evaluate the mineralogical characteristics and determine the activity of lead-210 in the scales using the X-Ray Diffraction and Gamma Spectrometry techniques. Were analyzed fifteen samples, four scales from oil industry, ten scales from groundwater conductors and one for groundwater supply pipe. The highest activity found in the oil scale and groundwater conductors scale was 0.30 ± 0.06 Bq g{sup -1} and 3.80 ± 0.20 Bq g{sup -1}, respectively. (author)

  14. Determination of lead 210 in scales from industrial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, Lígia S.; Moreira, Rubens M.; Kastner, Geraldo F.; Barbosa, João B.S.

    2017-01-01

    Industrial processes such as oil and gas extraction and groundwater exploitation are examples of installations that can accumulate naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) during the extraction and production. Lead-210 deposits in the production can be formed by the same mechanisms that occur in the environment through the support of Radon-222, (where 210 Pb is produced at 222 Rn decay) or without support, as 210 Pb. The objective of this work is to evaluate the mineralogical characteristics and determine the activity of lead-210 in the scales using the X-Ray Diffraction and Gamma Spectrometry techniques. Were analyzed fifteen samples, four scales from oil industry, ten scales from groundwater conductors and one for groundwater supply pipe. The highest activity found in the oil scale and groundwater conductors scale was 0.30 ± 0.06 Bq g -1 and 3.80 ± 0.20 Bq g -1 , respectively. (author)

  15. Framing and the health policy process: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koon, Adam D; Hawkins, Benjamin; Mayhew, Susannah H

    2016-07-01

    Framing research seeks to understand the forces that shape human behaviour in the policy process. It assumes that policy is a social construct and can be cast in a variety of ways to imply multiple legitimate value considerations. Frames provide the cognitive means of making sense of the social world, but discordance among them forms the basis of policy contestation. Framing, as both theory and method, has proven to generate considerable insight into the nature of policy debates in a variety of disciplines. Despite its salience for understanding health policy debates; however, little is known about the ways frames influence the health policy process. A scoping review using the Arksey and O'Malley framework was conducted. The literature on framing in the health sector was reviewed using nine health and social science databases. Articles were included that explicitly reported theory and methods used, data source(s), at least one frame, frame sponsor and evidence of a given frame's effect on the health policy process. A total of 52 articles, from 1996 to 2014, and representing 12 countries, were identified. Much of the research came from the policy studies/political science literature (n = 17) and used a constructivist epistemology. The term 'frame' was used as a label to describe a variety of ideas, packaged as values, social problems, metaphors or arguments. Frames were characterized at various levels of abstraction ranging from general ideological orientations to specific policy positions. Most articles presented multiple frames and showed how actors advocated for them in a highly contested political process. Framing is increasingly an important, yet overlooked aspect of the policy process. Further analysis on frames, framing processes and frame conflict can help researchers and policymakers to understand opaque and highly charged policy issues, which may facilitate the resolution of protracted policy controversies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford

  16. Temporal processing deficit leads to impaired multisensory binding in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvyagintsev, Mikhail; Parisi, Carmen; Mathiak, Klaus

    2017-09-01

    Schizophrenia has been characterised by neurodevelopmental dysconnectivity resulting in cognitive and perceptual dysmetria. Hence patients with schizophrenia may be impaired to detect the temporal relationship between stimuli in different sensory modalities. However, only a few studies described deficit in perception of temporally asynchronous multisensory stimuli in schizophrenia. We examined the perceptual bias and the processing time of synchronous and delayed sounds in the streaming-bouncing illusion in 16 patients with schizophrenia and a matched control group of 18 participants. Equal for patients and controls, the synchronous sound biased the percept of two moving squares towards bouncing as opposed to the more frequent streaming percept in the condition without sound. In healthy controls, a delay of the sound presentation significantly reduced the bias and led to prolonged processing time whereas patients with schizophrenia did not differentiate between this condition and the condition with synchronous sound. Schizophrenia leads to a prolonged window of simultaneity for audiovisual stimuli. Therefore, temporal processing deficit in schizophrenia can lead to hyperintegration of temporally unmatched multisensory stimuli.

  17. Direct laser processing of bulk lead zirconate titanate ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Sheldon A.; Balla, Vamsi Krishna; Bose, Susmita [W.M. Keck Biomedical Materials Research Laboratory, School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States); Bandyopadhyay, Amit, E-mail: amitband@wsu.edu [W.M. Keck Biomedical Materials Research Laboratory, School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS{sup TM}) has been used to fabricate dense, net shape melt-cast structures of lead zirconate titanate (PZT), in a single step, directly on a metallic substrate by complete melting and resolidification of PZT powders. From our results, it appears that reasonable dielectric properties can be obtained in LENS{sup TM} processed PZT structures without post-fabrication heat treatments. Our results also demonstrate potential application of LENS{sup TM} towards direct fabrication of PZT based embedded sensors and transducers on structural components.

  18. Formation of lead dioxide electrodes by the Plante process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afifi, S.E.; Edwards, W.H.; Hampson, N.A.

    1976-03-01

    The effects of forming agents (aggressive ions) on the electro-oxidation of massive lead (the Plante electrode process) in sulfuric acid solution are reported. Linear sweep voltametric measurements corresponding to the most effective forming agents, ClO/sub 4//sup -/, NO/sub 3//sup -/, BF/sub 4//sup -/, and CH/sub 3/ COO/sup -/, are presented. Other methods of Plante electrode production involving ''ac/dc'' and ''immediate post-deposition oxidation'' are described.

  19. Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Center for Environmental Health , Division of Emergency and Environmental Health Services Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton ...

  20. Integration Processes of Migrants: Research Findings and Policy Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinus Penninx

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution discusses the integration processes of immigrants and minorities with a recent immigrant background, and the policies related to the process of settlement of these newcomers in European societies at all relevant levels: from the local level of municipalities and cities, to the national level of states, and the international level of the European Union. Within this general approach, however, a strong emphasis is put on the local level, since that is the level where such policies have to be implemented and are primarily felt, both by the immigrants themselves and by those parts of society that are most affected by immigration. To describe the current state of integration research and policies, this paper will explore in the first section the nature of integration processes, their conceptualisation and lessons from empirical studies. The reason for devoting some space to these topics is the assertion that any integration policy should be based on a thorough, scientifically-based knowledge of the processes of integration and exclusion: if a policy wants to steer such a process, it should have a clear idea of what instruments it can use possibly to intervene, in which part of the process, and at what particular moment. Such knowledge is a solid starting point for policy-making, but it is not enough. Processes of policy-making and implementation follow their own set course, which do not necessarily run parallel to the process of integration. That is why, in the following section, the author attempts to explain some of these processes. At the end of this paper he returns to the core questions of immigration and integration policies on the one hand, and the relationship between local, national and international integration policies on the other.

  1. Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about the health effects of lead in drinking water The law mandates no-lead products for drinking water after ... Waste, and Cleanup Lead Mold Pesticides Radon Science Water A-Z Index Laws & Regulations By Business Sector By Topic Compliance Enforcement ...

  2. Four decades of gasoline lead emissions and control policies in Europe. A retrospective assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Storch, Hans; Costa-Cabral, Mariza; Hagner, Charlotte; Feser, Frauke [Institute for Coastal Research, GKSS Research Centre, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Pacyna, Jozef; Pacyna, Elisabeth [Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU) (Norway); Kolb, Steffen [Institute for Journalism and Communication Research, University of Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany)

    2003-07-20

    Over decades, large amounts of the neurotoxin lead were released into the European environment, mostly from gasoline lead additives. Emissions were growing unabatedly until the 1970s, when a series of regulations on the allowed gasoline lead content were adopted. As a result, in the 1990s most gasoline contained only small amounts of lead. We have examined this case of environmental pollution and regulation, and performed a retrospective assessment of the extent of regional-scale lead pollution and the effects of gasoline lead regulations in Europe. With the help of a regional climate model, NCEP re-analyses, spatially disaggregated lead emissions from road traffic and point sources, and various local data, the airborne pathways and depositions of gasoline lead in Europe since 1958 were reconstructed. It turns out that this approach is successful in describing the time-variable, spatially disaggregated deposition of gasoline lead. Additional data from analyses of concentrations in biota, including plant leaves, mussels and human blood, allows an assessment about the impact of the lead phase-out on the quality of the environment. Demonstrating the success of the lead policies, concentrations in leaves and human blood have steadily declined since the early 1980s. At the same time, the economic repercussions that had been feared did not emerge. Instead, the affected mineral oil and car manufacturing industries in Germany (our case-study) were able to deal with the effort without incurring significant extra costs. We suggest that our method of quantitatively reconstructing and anticipating fluxes and depositions of substances can be applied to other relevant substances as well, such as, for example, Persistent Organic Pollutants, radioactive substances or pollens.

  3. Energy shocks, crises and the policy process: A review of theory and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, Peter Z.

    2015-01-01

    What motivates changes in energy policy? Typically, the process begins with a notable exogenous event, a shock. Often, the shock leads to what is perceived to be a crisis. This review essay surveys theories of crisis policymaking from the social science literature and considers their application to changes in energy policy. Two cases — one from the U.S., the other from Germany — are examined in more detail from the standpoint of the theories discussed. Suggestions are made for improving energy policy analysis in the future. - Highlights: • An analysis of the idea of “crisis” and its application to energy. • A review of theories and models of the policy process and of policy change. • Theory applied to two energy cases. • Suggestion as to how the analysis of energy policymaking might be approached in the future

  4. Aging in comparative perspective: processes and policies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cook, Ian G; Halsall, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    .... This timely volume analyzes the aging process in various countries, with special focus on the stresses placed on their economies as the numbers of elders increase with fewer young people available...

  5. Impact of policy game on insight and attitude to inter sectoral policy processes - EU country cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lau, C.; Glümer, Charlotte; Spitters, Hilde

    Background A policy game is a structured simulated role-play dealing with highly complex decision-making in real life network settings. Its impact on health enhancing physical activity (HEPA) policy making is unexplored. We aim to explore if an internationally developed and pilot tested policy game...... a policy game at local level, with 6 months intervals, including 18–19 policy makers in each game. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire one week after implementation of the games. Participants were asked if the game had changed their insight or attitude. Results: Response rate was 83%, 89......% and 89% in NL, DK and RO respectively. Across countries the majority of participants, 60%, enhanced their nderstanding of the local HEPA policy process, the roles in the organization network, and how stakeholders can collaborate as result of the game. Most participants perceived change in insight...

  6. Science-policy processes for transboundary water governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, Derek; de Loë, Rob C; Morris, Michelle; Edwards, Tom W D; Gerlak, Andrea K; Hall, Roland I; Huitema, Dave; Ison, Ray; Livingstone, David; MacDonald, Glen; Mirumachi, Naho; Plummer, Ryan; Wolfe, Brent B

    2015-09-01

    In this policy perspective, we outline several conditions to support effective science-policy interaction, with a particular emphasis on improving water governance in transboundary basins. Key conditions include (1) recognizing that science is a crucial but bounded input into water resource decision-making processes; (2) establishing conditions for collaboration and shared commitment among actors; (3) understanding that social or group-learning processes linked to science-policy interaction are enhanced through greater collaboration; (4) accepting that the collaborative production of knowledge about hydrological issues and associated socioeconomic change and institutional responses is essential to build legitimate decision-making processes; and (5) engaging boundary organizations and informal networks of scientists, policy makers, and civil society. We elaborate on these conditions with a diverse set of international examples drawn from a synthesis of our collective experiences in assessing the opportunities and constraints (including the role of power relations) related to governance for water in transboundary settings.

  7. Growth processes leading to a large or small adult size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, T; Sheehy, A; Molinari, L; Largo, R H

    2001-01-01

    The way in which a large size in anthropometric variables is achieved is a longstanding problem, since the pubertal spurt shows statistically and clinically little association with adult size (mostly studied for height). By analysing longitudinal growth of groups of subjects with a large or a small adult size separately for height, leg and sitting height, and bihumeral and biiliac width, we studied this problem in some detail. Of interest are growth patterns specific for these variables and for boys or girls. The data consist of 120 boys and 112 girls followed longitudinally from 4 weeks until adulthood. Statistically, structural average velocity curves were computed for each variable and each subgroup separately for comparison. This velocity curve represents the average intensity and the average tempo of growth. Since the area under the velocity curve is adult size, differences in the growth process can be visualized. Both sexes show similar patterns in reaching a small or large adult size. The different variables, however, show marked differences. Only for legs is the pubertal spurt delayed for the large groups (with additional gains in prepubertal years). For sitting height and biiliac width, a slightly elevated velocity all along development (after 2 years) leads to a larger size and for bihumeral width the size of the pubertal peak is decisive. The steering of growth to a certain target size is qualitatively similar for boys and girls, but quite different for different anthropometric variables. This leads to questions about endocrinological control for various parts of the body and differential bone growth in development.

  8. Public participation in the process of local public health policy, using policy network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yukyung; Kim, Chang-Yup; You, Myoung Soon; Lee, Kun Sei; Park, Eunyoung

    2014-11-01

    To assess the current public participation in-local health policy and its implications through the analysis of policy networks in health center programs. We examined the decision-making process in sub-health center installations and the implementation process in metabolic syndrome management program cases in two districts ('gu's) of Seoul. Participants of the policy network were selected by the snowballing method and completed self-administered questionnaires. Actors, the interactions among actors, and the characteristics of the network were analyzed by Netminer. The results showed that the public is not yet actively participating in the local public health policy processes of decision-making and implementation. In the decision-making process, most of the network actors were in the public sector, while the private sector was a minor actor and participated in only a limited number of issues after the major decisions were made. In the implementation process, the program was led by the health center, while other actors participated passively. Public participation in Korean public health policy is not yet well activated. Preliminary discussions with various stakeholders, including civil society, are needed before making important local public health policy decisions. In addition, efforts to include local institutions and residents in the implementation process with the public officials are necessary to improve the situation.

  9. Alcohol policy in South Africa: a review of policy development processes between 1994 and 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Charles D H

    2010-08-01

    Implementation of effective policies to reduce harmful alcohol consumption requires both a good understanding of the policy development process and which strategies are likely to work. To contribute to this understanding by reviewing four specific policy development initiatives that have taken place in South Africa between 1994 and 2009: restrictions on alcohol advertising and counter-advertising, regulation of retail sales of alcohol, alcohol taxation and controls on alcohol packaging. Material was drawn from a record of meetings and conferences held between 1994 and 2009 and a database of reports, newspaper clippings and policy documentation. When the policy process resulted in a concrete outcome there was always a clear recognition of the problem and policy alternatives, but success was more likely if there was an alignment of 'political' forces and/or when there was a determined bureaucracy. The impact of the other factors such as the media, community mobilization, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), the liquor industry and research are also discussed. Future avenues for policy research are identified, including the need for more systematic studies that give greater consideration to economic factors. Alcohol policy development in South Africa takes place in a piecemeal fashion and is the product of various competing influences. Having a comprehensive national alcohol strategy cutting across different sectors may be a better way for other developing countries to proceed.

  10. Why UFI nudges will get stuck in the policy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Joshua; Howard, Brendan

    2012-01-01

    User financial incentives (UFI), in the context of behavioural public policy, have the potential to shape Canadian health policy by replacing or augmenting traditional information-based mechanisms and by imparting a viewpoint that has traditionally been foreign to the public sphere. Whether or not UFI and more traditional "nudges" should be used, they will likely be limited by traditional moral, efficacy and cost/ benefit challenges, as well as the political and bureaucratic impediments that emerge throughout the policy implementation process. These challenges will likely preclude UFI and nudges from having a transformative effect on public policy, but this new school of thought will likely gain prominence through more amorphous means as more individuals learn and adopt its central theory. We should be excited about the potential of UFI and the use of behavioural public policy, but should temper our excitement with realistic expectations about how extensively such an approach should and will be used.

  11. Spatial misfits in a multi-level renewable energy policy implementation process on the Small Island State of Malta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotzebue, Julia R.; Bressers, Hans Th.A.; Yousif, Charles

    2010-01-01

    One of the priorities of energy policies of the European Union (EU) is to generate 20% of EU's total energy consumption from renewable energy (RE) sources by 2020. The EU policy framework mainly emphasizes economical and technical aspects of RE sources, and promotes large scale projects. However the local implementation of RE EU policies can lead to spatial misfits if the policy implementation neglects the peculiarities of the place. It is important to understand the misfits and relationship between the EU RE policies and the local implementation process, as misfits can affect the policy implementation process and subsequently policy outcomes can be different from those intended, leading to inapt or inapplicable measures. This article presents findings of a qualitative in-depth study of Malta's RE policy implementation. The paper shows that planning of central large-scale RE projects in Malta provokes land and marine use conflicts and can cause difficulties in implementation. The concerned key actors implement the policies according to their motivation, perception, and capacity, and the context in which they are embedded. Hence, both the EU RE policy framework and the national interaction process influence the implementation process, which can lead to spatial mismatches.

  12. Finnish Higher Education Policy and the Ongoing Bologna Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahola, Sakari; Mesikammen, Jani

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Bologna Process (a European-wide project to create a European Higher Education Area and harmonize degree structures), examining how educational policy has reached a stage for considering a European Higher Education Area that examines concepts of harmonization and the Bologna Process. Discusses future scenarios, highlighting why…

  13. A possible dynamical process leading to fractal structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we propose a stochastic evolution of the early Universe which can lead to a fractal correlation in galactic distribution in the Universe. The stochastic equation of state, due to fluctuating creation rates of various components in a many-component fluid, leads to a fluctuating expansion rate for the Universe in the ...

  14. Optimum temperature policy for sorption enhanced steam methane reforming process for hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retnamma, Rajasree [National Laboratory of energy and Geology (LNEG), Lisbon (PT). Energy Systems Modeling and Optimization Unit (UMOSE); Ravi Kumar, V.; Kulkarni, B.D. [National Chemical Laboratory, Pune (India). Chemical Engineering and Process Development

    2010-07-01

    Sorption enhanced steam methane reforming (SE-SMR) process offers high potential for producing H{sub 2} in fuel cell applications compared to conventional catalytic steam methane reforming (SMR) process. The reactor temperature can significantly affect the performance of the SE-SMR reaction and simultaneous adsorption behavior of CO{sub 2}. Determination of an optimal temperature policy in SE-SMR reactor is therefore an important optimization issue. Multi-stage operation is a possible way to implement optimum temperature policies. In the present work, simulation study has been carried out for multi-stage operation using a mathematical model incorporating basic mechanisms operating in a fixed bed reactor with nonlinear reaction kinetic features of an SE-SMR process. Three cases were considered for implementing the multi-stage concept and the results show that increase in temperature based on a policy leads to considerable improvement in the process performance. (orig.)

  15. Of risks and regulations: how leading U.S. nanoscientists form policy stances about nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheufele, Dietram A.; Hu, Qian

    2009-01-01

    Even though there is a high degree of scientific uncertainty about the risks of nanotechnology, many scholars have argued that policy-making cannot be placed on hold until risk assessments are complete (Faunce, Med J Aust 186(4):189–191, 2007; Kuzma, J Nanopart Res 9(1):165–182, 2007; O’Brien and Cummins, Hum Ecol Risk Assess 14(3):568–592, 2008; Powell et al., Environ Manag 42(3):426–443, 2008). In the absence of risk assessment data, decision makers often rely on scientists’ input about risks and regulation to make policy decisions. The research we present here goes beyond the earlier descriptive studies about nanotechnology regulation to explore the heuristics that the leading U.S. nanoscientists use when they make policy decisions about regulating nanotechnology. In particular, we explore the relationship between nanoscientists’ risk and benefit perceptions and their support for nanotech regulation. We conclude that nanoscientists are more supportive of regulating nanotechnology when they perceive higher levels of risks; yet, their perceived benefits about nanotechnology do not significantly impact their support for nanotech regulation. We also find some gender and disciplinary differences among the nanoscientists. Males are less supportive of nanotech regulation than their female peers and materials scientists are more supportive of nanotechnology regulation than scientists in other fields. Lastly, our findings illustrate that the leading U.S. nanoscientists see the areas of surveillance/privacy, human enhancement, medicine, and environment as the nanotech application areas that are most in need of new regulations. PMID:21170136

  16. Of risks and regulations: how leading U.S. nanoscientists form policy stances about nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corley, Elizabeth A.; Scheufele, Dietram A.; Hu Qian

    2009-01-01

    Even though there is a high degree of scientific uncertainty about the risks of nanotechnology, many scholars have argued that policy-making cannot be placed on hold until risk assessments are complete (Faunce, Med J Aust 186(4):189-191, 2007; Kuzma, J Nanopart Res 9(1):165-182, 2007; O'Brien and Cummins, Hum Ecol Risk Assess 14(3):568-592, 2008; Powell et al., Environ Manag 42(3):426-443, 2008). In the absence of risk assessment data, decision makers often rely on scientists' input about risks and regulation to make policy decisions. The research we present here goes beyond the earlier descriptive studies about nanotechnology regulation to explore the heuristics that the leading U.S. nanoscientists use when they make policy decisions about regulating nanotechnology. In particular, we explore the relationship between nanoscientists' risk and benefit perceptions and their support for nanotech regulation. We conclude that nanoscientists are more supportive of regulating nanotechnology when they perceive higher levels of risks; yet, their perceived benefits about nanotechnology do not significantly impact their support for nanotech regulation. We also find some gender and disciplinary differences among the nanoscientists. Males are less supportive of nanotech regulation than their female peers and materials scientists are more supportive of nanotechnology regulation than scientists in other fields. Lastly, our findings illustrate that the leading U.S. nanoscientists see the areas of surveillance/privacy, human enhancement, medicine, and environment as the nanotech application areas that are most in need of new regulations.

  17. Policy processes underpinning universal health insurance in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bui T. T. Ha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In almost 30 years since economic reforms or ‘renovation’ (Doimoi were launched, Vietnam has achieved remarkably good health results, in many cases matching those in much higher income countries. This study explores the contribution made by Universal Health Insurance (UHI policies, focusing on the past 15 years. We conducted a mixed method study to describe and assess the policy process relating to health insurance, from agenda setting through implementation and evaluation. Design: The qualitative research methods implemented in this study were 30 in-depth interviews, 4 focus group discussions, expert consultancy, and 420 secondary data review. The data were analyzed by NVivo 7.0. Results: Health insurance in Vietnam was introduced in 1992 and has been elaborated over a 20-year time frame. These processes relate to moving from a contingent to a gradually expanded target population, expanding the scope of the benefit package, and reducing the financial contribution from the insured. The target groups expanded to include 66.8% of the population by 2012. We characterized the policy process relating to UHI as incremental with a learning-by-doing approach, with an emphasis on increasing coverage rather than ensuring a basic service package and financial protection. There was limited involvement of civil society organizations and users in all policy processes. Intertwined political economy factors influenced the policy processes. Conclusions: Incremental policy processes, characterized by a learning-by-doing approach, is appropriate for countries attempting to introduce new health institutions, such as health insurance in Vietnam. Vietnam should continue to mobilize resources in sustainable and viable ways to support the target groups. The country should also adopt a multi-pronged approach to achieving universal access to health services, beyond health insurance.

  18. Policy processes underpinning universal health insurance in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Bui T T; Frizen, Scott; Thi, Le M; Duong, Doan T T; Duc, Duong M

    2014-01-01

    In almost 30 years since economic reforms or 'renovation' (Doimoi) were launched, Vietnam has achieved remarkably good health results, in many cases matching those in much higher income countries. This study explores the contribution made by Universal Health Insurance (UHI) policies, focusing on the past 15 years. We conducted a mixed method study to describe and assess the policy process relating to health insurance, from agenda setting through implementation and evaluation. The qualitative research methods implemented in this study were 30 in-depth interviews, 4 focus group discussions, expert consultancy, and 420 secondary data review. The data were analyzed by NVivo 7.0. Health insurance in Vietnam was introduced in 1992 and has been elaborated over a 20-year time frame. These processes relate to moving from a contingent to a gradually expanded target population, expanding the scope of the benefit package, and reducing the financial contribution from the insured. The target groups expanded to include 66.8% of the population by 2012. We characterized the policy process relating to UHI as incremental with a learning-by-doing approach, with an emphasis on increasing coverage rather than ensuring a basic service package and financial protection. There was limited involvement of civil society organizations and users in all policy processes. Intertwined political economy factors influenced the policy processes. Incremental policy processes, characterized by a learning-by-doing approach, is appropriate for countries attempting to introduce new health institutions, such as health insurance in Vietnam. Vietnam should continue to mobilize resources in sustainable and viable ways to support the target groups. The country should also adopt a multi-pronged approach to achieving universal access to health services, beyond health insurance.

  19. 'Race', disadvantage, and policy processes in British planning

    OpenAIRE

    H Thomas; V Krishnarayan

    1994-01-01

    In this paper some of the mechanisms by which black and ethnic minorities can be put at a particular disadvantage within the planning system in Britain (and how these processes can be challenged) are examined. A number of types of policy processes operating in British planning are identified, and, drawing on a range of secondary and primary data, the influence of black and ethnic minorities within these processes are analysed. The paper is concluded with a review of the possibilities for the ...

  20. Stakeholders Analysis of Policy-Making Process: The Case of Timber Legality Policy on Private Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulyaningrum Mulyaningrum

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to identify and measure the relationships among stakeholders that influence the process of policy-making in defining legality of timber from private forests. The study focuses on the policy-making process of the Ministry of Forestry Regulation P.38/Menhut-II/2009 on Standard and Guidelines for Assessment of Sustainable Forest Management Performance and Timber Legality Verification of Concessionaire or of the Private Forest License Holder as the subject that has been implemented in several private forest management units as follow: Giri Mukti Wana Tirta in Lampung, Koperasi Serba Usaha APIK in Bali, Koperasi Hutan Jaya Lestari in South East Sulawesi, and Koperasi Wana Lestari Menoreh Kulonprogo in Yogyakarta. This research used a qualitative approach and the analysis method used in this research is a modified-stakeholder analysis that developed by ODA (1995, Reitbergen et al. (1998, and Mayer (2005. The stakeholder analysis shows that the interests and influences do not consider private forest farmers as primary stakeholder during  the process of policy formulation.  The strong national and international interests, supported by high authority could not be influnced by the role of the NGOs and academicians. The imbalance of responsibilities, rights, and revenues that was experienced by  farmers as the manager of private forest when started implementing the policy was more as burdens, it means implementation of the policy was more as burdens. Strong relationships between the Ministry of Forestry with the state as a core could not empower the relationship with private forest farmers. As result, policy assumptions cannot be implemented properly.Keywords: policy making process, timber legality, private forest, stakeholder.DOI: 10.7226/jtfm.19.2.156

  1. What factors in the policy-making process determine the priority given to a policy issue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erisa Xhixho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Agenda setting is the process by which problems and alternative solutions gain or lose public attention (Birkland T. (2007, p.63; Werner J. and Wegrich K. (2007, p.46.. The main factor that determine an issue that it could become a priority, drawing the attention of decision makers, the public, reaching for it to become part of the agenda are: “Window of Opportunity”, which is a strategy used by less powerful groups, which are benefiting from the fact that powerful groups in certain situations may lose control of the agenda, they manage this circumstances to make their case to the priority. Another factor are the “Focus Event” that emphasizes the fact that unexpected events that shock the public opinion, as were the cases of corruption of officials, case “Snowden” or 11 September in the USA, affecting an issue that directly lead the decision-making agenda. Advocacy coalitions, is a form that use less powerful groups by joining on the basis of certain principles, values, beliefs they have about a particular issue. This alliance of values, resources and coordination of actions helps to advance the issue becoming a priority. “Venue shop” as a factor that aims to reach groups through institutions, be heard, be able to attract the attention of decision makers, also using the media as a very important factor nowadays for sensitizing public opinion on the issue and influence in order to become a priority issue. “Policy network” has come as a need of developing a relationship between government and the private sector, thus forming a power dependency relationship mainly the exchange of resources and thereby influencing the political agenda on particular issues. Therefore in this article I will try to argue that these factors affect in various ways becoming determinant that the issue be the priority on the decision agenda. Also, I can say that after the development of the analysis, I think that the two factors have a greater influence

  2. Healthy kids: Making school health policy a participatory learning process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjernqvist, Nanna Wurr; Bruselius-Jensen, Maria; Høstgaard Bonde, Ane

    programmes. Simultaneously a staff health team is formed from existing organisational structures, integrating local knowledge and building support for school policy making based on the pupils’ visions. A pilot study - applying the model in one Danish elementary school - has been conducted as an action...... was weakhindering sustainable health changes. Conclusion Findings indicate that integrating school policy processes into the teaching of curriculum might pave the way for schools to engage in health promotion. But further knowledge on how to likewise engage the staff on an organisational level is needed....

  3. Interactive policy processes: a challenge for street-level bureaucrats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Annika; Damgaard, Bodil

    2018-01-01

    Street-level bureaucrats (SLB) are, according to the literature, assigned a crucial role providing better policy implementation and generating trust between the system and the citizens. In this article, we argue that Lipsky’s division between public managers and SLB needs an update. Today more...... converting public managers to SLB. The key question raised is thus: What kind of skills and capabilities of SLB are needed in more interactive forms of public policy making? And what are the consequences for how the universities educate these groups?’ Drawing on a study of 32 urban professionals that work...... public managers are expected to work closely and directly with affected stakeholders in order to solve cross-cutting ‘wicked problems’. More interactive and participative collaborative policy processes increasingly require public managers to move from back-office work to front-office work, in effect...

  4. The Hinkley Point decision: An analysis of the policy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    In 2006, the British government launched a policy to build nuclear power reactors based on a claim that the power produced would be competitive with fossil fuel and would require no public subsidy. A decade later, it is not clear how many, if any, orders will be placed and the claims on costs and subsidies have proved false. Despite this failure to deliver, the policy is still being pursued with undiminished determination. The finance model that is now proposed is seen as a model other European countries can follow so the success or otherwise of the British nuclear programme will have implications outside the UK. This paper contends that the checks and balances that should weed out misguided policies, have failed. It argues that the most serious failure is with the civil service and its inability to provide politicians with high quality advice – truth to power. It concludes that the failure is likely to be due to the unwillingness of politicians to listen to opinions that conflict with their beliefs. Other weaknesses include the lack of energy expertise in the media, the unwillingness of the public to engage in the policy process and the impotence of Parliamentary Committees. - Highlights: •Britain's nuclear power policy is failing due to high costs and problems of finance. •This has implications for European countries who want to use the same financing model. •The continued pursuit of a failing policy is due to poor advice from civil servants. •Lack of expertise in the media and lack of public engagement have contributed. •Parliamentary processes have not provided proper critical scrutiny.

  5. Radiometric on-line-determination of lead in lead-zinc ore processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubecki, A.; Wiese, K.; Gralher, M.

    1983-01-01

    By the example of Pb determination in PbS-ZnS flotation liquids the advancement of the radionuclide (Co-57) excited X-ray fluorescence assay technique Graf is reported. The technique of measurement, previously tested in analyzing baryte contained in the fluorsphar flotation liquid was adapted to the conditions prevailing in the PbS-ZnS flotation liquid by modification of theory, principle of measurement, and measuring technique. Testing on an industrial scale was performed in the flotation facility of Preussag AG Metall at Bad Grund, more particularly in the process streams of strategic importance such as ''total tailings'', ''Pb tailings'', and ''lotation feed''. Correspondence between the on-line analytical values and the comparable values from conventional operating analysis was fair. For 31 reference samples from ''total tailings'' and for 20 reference samples from ''Pb tailings'' the mean scattering was calculated to be approx. 0,04%, for 20 reference samples from ''flotation feed'' it amounted to 0,14% Pb. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Electromagnetic processes in ultra peripheral lead-lead collisions with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Guzik, Marcin Pawel; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The large equivalent-photon fluxes accompanying Pb ion beams at the LHC initiate photon-photon and photo-nuclear interactions which dominate when the colliding nuclei have large impact parameter (ultra-peripheral collisions). These electromagnetically-induced processes are sensitive to the nuclear wave-function and in particular the nuclear modifications of the nucleon parton distribution functions (nPDFs). As such, they are complementary to the ongoing p+A program at RHIC and the LHC, as well as the upcoming electron-ion collider (EIC) program in the US. The absolute rates of single and multiple neutron emission into one or both zero-degree calorimeters (ZDCs) will be presented, to test theoretical predictions for the photon fluxes as well as the photonuclear absorption. High-mass dilepton pair continuum rates have been measured and compared with theoretical predictions to test expectations for two-photon interactions, and good agreement with model calculations is obtained. Finally, evidence for the elastic ...

  7. Identification of Optimal Policies in Markov Decision Processes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sladký, Karel

    46 2010, č. 3 (2010), s. 558-570 ISSN 0023-5954. [ International Conference on Mathematical Methods in Economy and Industry. České Budějovice, 15.06.2009-18.06.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA402/08/0107; GA ČR GA402/07/1113 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : finite state Markov decision processes * discounted and average costs * elimination of suboptimal policies Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.461, year: 2010 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/E/sladky-identification of optimal policies in markov decision processes.pdf

  8. Does climate policy lead to relocation with adverse effects for GHG emissions or not? A first assessment of the spillovers of climate policy for energy intensive industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikonomou, V.; Patel, M.; Worrell, E.

    2004-12-01

    Energy-intensive industries play a special role in climate policy. World-wide, industry is responsible for about 50% of greenhouse gas emissions. The emission intensity makes these industries an important target for climate policy. At the same time these industries are particularly vulnerable if climate policy would lead to higher energy costs, and if they would be unable to offset these increased costs. The side effects of climate policy on GHG emissions in foreign countries are typically referred to as 'spillovers'. Negative spillovers reduce the effectiveness of a climate policy, while positive spillovers increase its effectiveness. This paper provides a review of the literature on the spillover effects of climate policy for carbon intensive industries. Reviews of past trends in production location of energy-intensive industries show an increased share of non-Annex 1 countries. However, this trend is primarily driven by demand growth, and there is no empirical evidence for a role of environmental policy in these development patterns. In contrast, climate models do show a strong carbon leakage of emissions from these industries. Even though that climate policy may have a more profound impact than previous environmental policies, the results of the modelling are ambiguous. The energy and carbon intensity of energy-intensive industries is rapidly declining in most developing countries, and reducing the 'gap' between industrialized and developing countries. Still, considerable potential for emission reduction exists, both in developing and industrialized countries. Technology development is likely to deliver further reductions in energy use and CO2 emissions. Despite the potential for positive spillovers in the energy-intensive industries, none of the models used in the analysis of spillovers of climate policies has an endogenous representation of technological change for the energy-intensive industries. This underlines the need for a better understanding of

  9. Feasibility of lead extraction from waste Cathode-Ray-Tubes (CRT) funnel glass through a lead smelting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jianfang; Yang, Hongying; Jin, Zhenan; Ma, Zhiyuan; Song, Yan

    2016-11-01

    A novel and effective process for extracting lead from the hazardous waste Cathode Ray Tubes (CRT) funnel glass is presented. The technological breakthrough of this process is introducing the discarded CRT funnel glass to traditional lead smelting. In this study, the influences of amount of carbon addition, calcium-silicate ratio, temperature, holding time and funnel glass addition on lead extraction efficiency were investigated to determine the optimal operational parameters. With a glass addition of less than 30wt%, a high extraction yield of 97.5% of lead from the mixture of funnel glass and lead slag was successfully obtained by controlling the C/PbO molar ratio, CaO/SiO 2 ratio, temperature, treatment time at 0.9, 0.8, 1200°C, 60min, respectively. The main crystalline phases of the residues were calcium silicate slag, and an amorphous glass phase appears at a glass addition more than 30wt%. Thermodynamic calculation shows that the proportion of liquid phase in the slag first increased and then decreased, when the addition of glass is increased, while the viscosity of the slag exhibited a continuous decrease. Thus, based on all the results, it is concluded that the process proposed in this paper is an effective and promising approach for reutilization of obsolete CRT funnel glass. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Did the financial crisis lead to changes in private equity investor preferences regarding renewable energy and climate policies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofman, Daan M.; Huisman, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    examined the preferences of 60 clean-tech venture capital and private equity investors regarding renewable energy and climate policies in 2007. This paper presents the results of a research project that examined whether these investor preferences changed due to the financial crisis. We re-conducted that part of survey that focuses on the preferences for 12 market-pull policies. Comparing our results with those from 2007, we found that the popularity of 11 out of 12 policies decreased. The decrease was significant for those policies that involve subsidies and trade related schemes such as CO 2 emissions and green certificates trading. The decrease in the popularity of the policies was mainly the result of changes in the preferences of European investors, whereas the preferences of North American investors did not change noteworthy. - Highlights: ► We re-conducted a survey among clean-tech private equity and venture capital investors. ► We compare their preference for renewable energy and climate market-pull policies with survey results from 2006. ► We found a significant decrease in popularity for those policies such as subsidies and trade related schemes. ► Especially the preferences for renewable energy policies of European investors declined. ► The financial crises lead to a reduced preference for renewable energy policies.

  11. PROCESS APPROACH TO CULTURAL POLICY IN THE REGIONAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryna Lavryshsheva

    2017-02-01

    Characteristics of cultural policy, as a process, i.e. procedural approach, allows us to see the specific aspects of interaction of subjects over the governmental authorities. However, due to the fact, that in its scale cultural process is the same as political environment of the state, some scientists identify it either with politics in general or with the totality of the shares of behavioral government entities, change their status and influence. Supporters of the institutional approach associates the cultural political process with the functioning and the transformation of the government institutionы, based on a set of the political system reactions on the environmental challenges. As we speak in the current economic conditions in Ukraine is actual the development of anti-crisis measures for the rehabilitation and development of the conceptual approach of cultural policies in the region. As such, the obvious is the development of a measures set by all courses of the plan, that will mutualize the key goals, objectives and tools into a uniform system of measures. This plan should provide the combined model in the region and provide a transition to the zonal management principle of the transition period. In the plan it is also should be provided institutional support for the proposed measures, namely the mechanisms of technological and socio-cultural issues implementation in range of the cultural policy of the society [1, p.18].

  12. From policy implementation to business process management : Principles for creating flexibility and agility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, Y.; Janssen, M.

    2012-01-01

    Organizations are required to comply with changes in legislation and policy. Yet the implementation of new legislation is often expensive, can have long lead times and is prone to failure. The existing situation significantly constrains policy-making. To improve this, policy makers and policy

  13. Exploring health systems research and its influence on policy processes in low income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Shamsuzzoha B

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interface between research and policymaking in low-income countries is highly complex. The ability of health systems research to influence policy processes in such settings face numerous challenges. Successful analysis of the research-policy interface in these settings requires understanding of contextual factors as well as key influences on the interface. Future Health Systems (FHS: Innovations for Equity is a consortium conducting research in six countries in Asia and Africa. One of the three cross-country research themes of the consortium is analysis of the relationship between research (evidence and policy making, especially their impact on the poor; insights gained in the initial conceptual phase of FHS activities can inform the global knowledge pool on this subject. Discussion This paper provides a review of the research-policy interface in low-income countries and proposes a conceptual framework, followed by directions for empirical approaches. First, four developmental perspectives are considered: social institutional factors; virtual versus grassroots realities; science-society relationships; and construction of social arrangements. Building on these developmental perspectives three research-policy interface entry points are identified: 1. Recognizing policy as complex processes; 2. Engaging key stakeholders: decision-makers, providers, scientists, and communities; and 3. Enhancing accountability. A conceptual framework with three entry points to the research-policy interface – policy processes; stakeholder interests, values, and power; and accountability – within a context provided by four developmental perspectives is proposed. Potential empirical approaches to the research-policy interface are then reviewed. Finally, the value of such innovative empirical analysis is considered. Conclusion The purpose of this paper is to provide the background, conceptual framework, and key research directions for

  14. National Environmental Policy Act guidance: A model process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angle, B.M.; Lockhart, V.A.T.; Sema, B.; Tuott, L.C.; Irving, J.S.

    1995-04-01

    The ''Model National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Process'' includes: References to regulations, guidance documents, and plans; training programs; procedures; and computer databases. Legislative Acts and reference documents from Congress, US Department of Energy, and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company provide the bases for conducting NEPA at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) NEPA / Permitting Department, the Contractor Environmental Organization (CEO) is responsible for developing and maintaining LITCO NEPA and permitting policies, guidance, and procedures. The CEO develops procedures to conduct environmental evaluations based on NEPA, Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations, and DOE guidance. This procedure includes preparation or support of environmental checklists, categorical exclusion determinations, environmental assessment determinations, environmental assessments, and environmental impact statements. In addition, the CEO uses this information to train personnel conducting environmental evaluations at the INEL. Streamlining these procedures fosters efficient use of resources, quality documents, and better decisions on proposed actions

  15. The Process Architecture of EU Territorial Cohesion Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Faludi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available When preparing the European Spatial Development Perspective (ESDP, Member States were supported by the European Commission but denied the EU a competence in the matter. Currently, the Treaty of Lisbon identifies territorial cohesion as a competence shared between the Union and the Member States. This paper is about the process architecture of territorial cohesion policy. In the past, this architecture resembled the Open Method of Coordination (OMC which the White Paper on European Governance praised, but only in areas where there was no EU competence. This reflected zero-sum thinking which may continue even under the Lisbon Treaty. After all, for as long as territorial cohesion was not a competence, voluntary cooperation as practiced in the ESDP process was pursued in this way. However, the practice of EU policies, even in areas where there is an EU competence, often exhibits features of the OMC. Surprisingly effective innovations hold the promise of rendering institutions of decision making comprehensible and democratically accountable. In the EU as a functioning polity decision making is thus at least part deliberative so that actors’ preferences are transformed by the force of the better argument. This brings into focus the socialisation of the deliberators into epistemic communities. Largely an informal process, this is reminiscent of European spatial planning having been characterised as a learning process.

  16. Development of oral health policy in Nigeria: an analysis of the role of context, actors and policy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etiaba, Enyi; Uguru, Nkoli; Ebenso, Bassey; Russo, Giuliano; Ezumah, Nkoli; Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Onwujekwe, Obinna

    2015-05-06

    In Nigeria, there is a high burden of oral health diseases, poor coordination of health services and human resources for delivery of oral health services. Previous attempts to develop an Oral Health Policy (OHP) to decrease the oral disease burden failed. However, a policy was eventually developed in November 2012. This paper explores the role of contextual factors, actors and the policy process in the development of the OHP and possible reasons why the current approved OHP succeeded. The study was undertaken across Nigeria; information gathered through document reviews and in-depth interviews with five groups of purposively selected respondents. Analysis of the policy development process was guided by the policy triangle framework, examining context, policy process and actors involved in the policy development. The foremost enabling factor was the yearning among policy actors for a policy, having had four failed attempts. Other factors were the presence of a democratically elected government, a framework for health sector reform instituted by the Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH). The approved OHP went through all stages required for policy development unlike the previous attempts. Three groups of actors played crucial roles in the process, namely academics/researchers, development partners and policy makers. They either had decision making powers or influenced policy through funding or technical ability to generate credible research evidence, all sharing a common interest in developing the OHP. Although evidence was used to inform the development of the policy, the complex interactions between the context and actors facilitated its approval. The OHP development succeeded through a complex inter-relationship of context, process and actors, clearly illustrating that none of these factors could have, in isolation, catalyzed the policy development. Availability of evidence is necessary but not sufficient for developing policies in this area. Wider socio

  17. Korea's English Education Policy Innovations to Lead the Nation into the Globalized World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bok-Myung

    2009-01-01

    This study is to historically survey the development of English language education policies in Korea to show that English education policies in Korea have developed to cultivate Korean students who are capable in a globalized world. This study has the following purposes: first, this paper surveys the origin of English education from the ending…

  18. Regulatory and policy issues for reuse and remanufacture of wood materials coated with lead-based paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas R. Napier; Robert H. Falk; George B. Guy; Susan Drodz

    2005-01-01

    At present, there is no regulatory or policy guidance at the Federal level that permits, prohibits, or qualifies practice for salvaging and reusing building materials coated with lead-based paint (LBP). This paper describes the current regulations and standards relative to LBP in buildings (in particular LBP on lumber and timber products), LBP mitigation, and disposal...

  19. The Faroe Islands’ Security Policy in a Process of Devolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beinta í Jákobsstovu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the late 1990s there has been a remarkable change in the institutional context of safety and security policies for the Faroes. The end of the Cold War led to a reduction in the strategic importance of, and military presence in, the islands. However, today Faroese sea and air space is increasingly exposed to heavy civilian traffic due to expected oil production as well as new sailing routes from the High North. The Faroese government is in a process, nearly completed, of taking over the full responsibility for societal security policy, a field it used to share with the Danish state authorities. In April 2002, the Faroese authorities took over the responsibility for SAR in Faroese sea territory and established a MRCC Center in Tórshavn. A new civic security law was passed by Løgtingið (the parliament in May 2012. This article discusses micro-states’ options in the international arena; provides a brief overview of the history of Faroese security policy; and discusses the present and future challenges involved in assuring protection and rescue services for the Faroese region of the North Atlantic.

  20. Current status and policies on biodiesel industry in Malaysia as the world's leading producer of palm oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, A.Z.; Salamatinia, B.; Mootabadi, H.; Bhatia, S.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses current status of palm oil-based biodiesel industry in Malaysia, the policies introduced and strategies for its implementation. Due to renewability, high production rate, technical feasibility and role in reducing greenhouse gases (GHG) emission, palm oil is in the right position to supply the energy needs by the incorporation into the diesel supply. As a leading producer of palm oil, Malaysia has embarked on a comprehensive palm biofuel program since 1982. It has successfully established the use of palm biodiesel blend (B5) as a suitable fuel for the transport and industrial sectors through the introduction of the National Biofuel Policy. The current scenario of biodiesel program in Malaysia, as well as biofuel policies with respect to its use, technology, export, environmental issues and implementation aspects are thoroughly discussed. The roles of the policy towards the prosperity of the stakeholders, oil price and the reduction of greenhouse gasses are also highlighted. (author)

  1. Adaptive and compliant policy implementation : Creating administrative processes using semantic web services and business rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, Y.; Janssen, M.

    2013-01-01

    Adapting to and complying with frequently changing policy against low costs requires flexible business processes. Yet, existing systems are unrelated, consist of operating silos, involve many human translation tasks and policies are hardcoded in business processes. From a technology perspective,

  2. Introducing payment for performance in the health sector of Tanzania- the policy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimhutu, Victor; Tjomsland, Marit; Songstad, Nils Gunnar; Mrisho, Mwifadhi; Moland, Karen Marie

    2015-09-02

    Prompted by the need to achieve progress in health outcomes, payment for performance (P4P) schemes are becoming popular policy options in the health systems in many low income countries. This paper describes the policy process behind the introduction of a payment for performance scheme in the health sector of Tanzania illuminating in particular the interests of and roles played by the Government of Norway, the Government of Tanzania and the other development partners. The study employed a qualitative research design using in-depth interviews (IDIs), observations and document reviews. Thirteen IDIs with key-informants representing the views of ten donor agencies and government departments influential in the process of introducing the P4P scheme in Tanzania were conducted in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and Oslo, Norway. Data was collected on the main trends and thematic priorities in development aid policy, countries and actors perceived to be proponents and opponents to the P4P scheme, and P4P agenda setting in Tanzania. The initial introduction of P4P in the health sector of Tanzania was controversial. The actors involved including the bilateral donors in the Health Basket Fund, the World Bank, the Tanzanian Government and high level politicians outside the Health Basket Fund fought for their values and interests and formed alliances that shifted in the course of the process. The process was characterized by high political pressure, conflicts, changing alliances, and, as it evolved, consensus building. The P4P policy process was highly political with external actors playing a significant role in influencing the agenda in Tanzania, leaving less space for the Government of Tanzania to provide leadership in the process. Norway in particular, took a leading role in setting the agenda. The process of introducing P4P became long and frustrating causing mistrust among partners in the Health Basket Fund.

  3. Could cannabis liberalisation lead to wider changes in drug policies and outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Brendan; Wiessing, Lucas; Des Jarlais, Don; Griffiths, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Cannabis policies are changing in some countries. This may have consequences that extend beyond cannabis-specific outcomes, such as an impact on the consumption patterns of other substances. Changes in cannabis policies may also influence policy responses to other drugs, as countries re-assess the balance between law enforcement and public health objectives. If this happens, it could have important health and social consequences, especially in those countries where a 'war on drugs' policy perspective has inhibited investment in evidence based responses in areas such as treatment and harm reduction. The burden of disease associated with opioid use for example is large and this is an area in which treatment and harm reduction have been shown to deliver benefits. Thus if the changes in cannabis policies result in a greater willingness to invest in effective interventions for other drugs, the potential net health gains could be considerable. On the other hand, if cannabis policy changes are associated with an increase in health risk behaviours, such as driving under the influence or increased use of harmful substances such as tobacco, then significant increased health costs could result. To date most attention has been focused on recent cannabis sales liberalisation in the Americas, but experiences from elsewhere are also informative. In Europe, for example, moves towards decriminalisation of drug possession are resulting in lower rates of incarceration and arguably have reduced barriers to treatment uptake. Robust monitoring and assessment of the impact of these different policy changes is crucial to evaluating and understanding their results. It is important that such monitoring is international in scope, is not limited to issues around the use of cannabis only, and considers the interactions that may exist between cannabis policies and the approaches taken to other substances. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Discovering the knowledge creation process of an expert group in women-friendly policy: The policy case of Seoul City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Young Sam; Nam, SungHee; Kim, Yuna

    2016-01-01

    This research explores how expert knowledge is created in the process of women-friendly policy making, based on actor network theory (ANT). To address this purpose, this study uses the "Women's Happiness in the City of Seoul" policy initiated by the local government of Seoul as one example of policy development. Research findings demonstrate that knowledge creation in expert groups followed the four stages suggested by ANT. In addition, this study found that various types of knowledge emerged from individual experts. This research elucidates the process of knowledge creation and its meanings for women-friendly policy.

  5. WHO policy development processes for a new vaccine: case study of malaria vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milstien, Julie; Cárdenas, Vicky; Cheyne, James; Brooks, Alan

    2010-06-24

    Recommendations from the World Health Organization (WHO) are crucial to inform developing country decisions to use, or not, a new intervention. This article analysed the WHO policy development process to predict its course for a malaria vaccine. The decision-making processes for one malaria intervention and four vaccines were classified through (1) consultations with staff and expert advisors to WHO's Global Malaria Programme (GMP) and Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals Department (IVB); (2) analysis of the procedures and recommendations of the major policy-making bodies of these groups; (3) interviews with staff of partnerships working toward new vaccine availability; and (4) review and analyses of evidence informing key policy decisions. WHO policy formulation related to use of intermittent preventive treatment in infancy (IPTi) and the following vaccine interventions: Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (Hib), pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), rotavirus vaccine (RV), and human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV), five interventions which had relatively recently been through systematic WHO policy development processes as currently constituted, was analysed. Required information was categorized in three areas defined by a recent WHO publication on development of guidelines: safety and efficacy in relevant populations, implications for costs and population health, and localization of data to specific epidemiological situations. Data needs for a malaria vaccine include safety; the demonstration of efficacy in a range of epidemiological settings in the context of other malaria prevention interventions; and information on potential rebound in which disease increases subsequent to the intervention. In addition, a malaria vaccine would require attention to additional factors, such as costs and cost-effectiveness, supply and demand, impact of use on other interventions, and distribution issues. Although policy issues may be more complex for future vaccines

  6. Political economy of renewable energy policy in Germany. A consideration of the policy making process in the electricity market under the influence of interest groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Tom

    2015-01-01

    In the research, it is argued that the targeted promotion of renewables leads to a change in the technological path dependency on the electricity market or led. The historically market depending portfolio of products in the conventional power industry will be replaced by an increasingly strong dependence on the product portfolio of Renewable Energy Sector according to this argumentation. The present work is devoted to the political explanation of the change and transition process in the electricity market. The process of policy formation in this market (especially support policies for renewable energies) will be discussed. It is examined from a public choice perspective, which political actors and instances in the past were responsible for the development and maintenance of individual policy elements. In particular, in this analysis the different private sector stakeholders in the electricity market move to center of attention. [de

  7. Political Limits to the Processing of Policy Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. May

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This contribution addresses political limits to the processing of policy problems in the United States. Our foci are the forces that limit policymakers' attention to different aspects of problems and how this affects the prospects for problem resolution. We theorize about three sets of forces: interest engagement, linkages among relevant institutions for policymaking, and partisan conflict. We show how the interplay of these forces limits efforts to address complex problems. Based on secondary accounts, we consider these underlying dynamics for ten complex problems. These include the thorny problems of the financial crisis, climate change, and health care; the persistent problems of K-12 education, drug abuse, and food safety; and the looming problems associated with critical infrastructure, the obesity epidemic, ocean health, and terrorism and extreme events. From these accounts we identify different patterns that we label fractured, allied, bureaucratic, and anemic policymaking.

  8. How do external donors influence national health policy processes? Experiences of domestic policy actors in Cambodia and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mishal S; Meghani, Ankita; Liverani, Marco; Roychowdhury, Imara; Parkhurst, Justin

    2018-03-01

    Although concerns have historically been raised about the influence of external donors on health policy process in recipient countries, remarkably few studies have investigated perspectives and experiences of domestic policymakers and advisers. This study examines donor influence at different stages of the health policy process (priority setting, policy formulation, policy implementation and monitoring and evaluation) in two aid-dependent LMICs, Cambodia and Pakistan. It identifies mechanisms through which asymmetries in influence between donors and domestic policy actors emerge. We conducted 24 key informant interviews-14 in Pakistan and 10 in Cambodia-with high-level decision-makers who inform or authorize health priority setting, allocate resources and/or are responsible for policy implementation, identifying three routes of influence: financial resources, technical expertise and indirect financial and political incentives. We used both inductive and deductive approaches to analyse the data. Our findings indicate that different routes of influence emerged depending on the stage of the policy process. Control of financial resources was the most commonly identified route by which donors influenced priority setting and policy implementation. Greater (perceived) technical expertise played an important role in donor influence at the policy formulation stage. Donors' power in influencing decisions, particularly during the final (monitoring and evaluation) stage of the policy process, was mediated by their ability to control indirect financial and political incentives as well as direct control of financial resources. This study thus helps unpack the nuances of donor influence over health policymaking in these settings, and can potentially indicate areas that require attention to increase the ownership of domestic actors of their countries' health policy processes. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of

  9. Leading Schools to Promote Social Inclusion: Developing a Conceptual Framework for Analysing Research, Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffo, Carlo; Gunter, Helen

    2008-01-01

    Although much research has focussed on how various educational policy initiatives have attempted to improve problems of social exclusion, little research has systematically examined, categorised and synthesised the types of leadership in schools that might assist improving social inclusion. Given the importance of school leadership in New Labour…

  10. U.S. Trade and Investment Policy Making Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overall, EPA’s trade and environment policy organization is designed to create a flexible and collaborative mechanism so that EPA can participate fully and effectively in the development and implementation of U.S. trade and environment policy.

  11. Environmental Education Policy Processes in the Southern African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    … in ..... documentation, in keeping with the broad understanding of policy outlined at the beginning of this paper, the audit showed .... School environmental policy development is an emerging trend in the southern African region. Initiatives like ...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix Xi to Part 266 - Lead-Bearing Materials That May be Processed in Exempt Lead Smelters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS... Materials When Generated or Originally Produced By Lead-Associated Industries 1 Acid dump/fill solids 1 Lead-associated industries are lead smelters, lead-acid battery manufacturing, and lead chemical manufacturing (e...

  13. Towards improved policy processes for promoting innovation in renewable electricity technologies in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foxon, T.J.; Pearson, P.J.G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses recent, current and potential future relations between policy processes and substantive outcomes in UK low carbon innovation policy, focussing on policies relating to renewable electricity generation technologies. It examines the development of policy processes relating to the adoption and implementation of the Renewables Obligation and how these may affect the current and likely future success of the Obligation in promoting low carbon innovation. It examines the new policy and institutional processes put in place in the 2003 Energy White Paper and argues that these are unlikely to provide the strategic long-term framework needed to realise the ambitious goals for UK energy policy set out in the White Paper. Finally, it outlines some suggestions for further development of policy processes to facilitate improved delivery of these goals, based on guiding principles for sustainable innovation policy processes, developed by the authors and their colleagues

  14. Leading processes of patient care and treatment in hierarchical healthcare organizations in Sweden--process managers' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Kerstin; Sandoff, Mette

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to gain better understanding of the roles and functions of process managers by describing Swedish process managers' experiences of leading processes involving patient care and treatment when working in a hierarchical health-care organization. This study is based on an explorative design. The data were gathered from interviews with 12 process managers at three Swedish hospitals. These data underwent qualitative and interpretative analysis with a modified editing style. The process managers' experiences of leading processes in a hierarchical health-care organization are described under three themes: having or not having a mandate, exposure to conflict situations and leading process development. The results indicate a need for clarity regarding process manager's responsibility and work content, which need to be communicated to all managers and staff involved in the patient care and treatment process, irrespective of department. There also needs to be an emphasis on realistic expectations and orientation of the goals that are an intrinsic part of the task of being a process manager. Generalizations from the results of the qualitative interview studies are limited, but a deeper understanding of the phenomenon was reached, which, in turn, can be transferred to similar settings. This study contributes qualitative descriptions of leading care and treatment processes in a functional, hierarchical health-care organization from process managers' experiences, a subject that has not been investigated earlier.

  15. Relationship between lead in the blood and performance in the abilities from hearing process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalves, Thaís dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The contamination by lead affects all the nervous systems from the human body, mostly the nervous system. Objective: Investigate if there is correlation between the blood lead levels and the performance in tests of hearing process. Method: Retrospective study. 73 children, with ages between 7 to 15 years, residents in a area where happened emission of lead above the permitted, with level of blood lead level bigger or equal to 10 micrograms/dL, audiological exams (audiometry and tympanometry inside the normality patterns. To evaluate the hearing process were used the Auditory Fusion Test-Revised (AFT-R, subtest 1, and the dichotic test of digits (binaural integration stage. Was used the Spearman test to verify the correlation between the data. Results: The blood lead level varieties from 10 to 30,2 micrograms/dL, being the average corresponding to 15,8 micrograms/dL (standard deviation of 4,8. From those children, 60,3% presented a bad performance for the right ear and 67,3% presented a bad performance of the left ear. According to the results of the tests of correlation of Spearman, there were no significant statistical between the level of lead and the results of hearing processing tests. Conclusion: There were no correlation between the blood lead level and the performance in the abilities of the hearing process; however the contaminated children by the lead presented a lower performance in the abilities of the hearing processing.

  16. Studying and evaluating pharmaceutical policy--becoming a part of the policy and consultative process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Traulsen, Janine M

    2006-01-01

    In this last article in the series the authors focus on the issue of researching and evaluating pharmaceutical policy. The past five articles made an argument for why pharmaceutical policy is important and why it is different from health policy. The evidence base needed for pharmaceutical policym...

  17. The Mikea Forest Under Threat (southwest Madagascar : How public policy leads to conflicting territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Blanc-Pamard

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available With 10 million hectares, forest covers only 16% of the territory of Madagascar in 2005. Deforestation is attaining alarming proportions and is recognized as a major environmental problem. This process has recently accelerated, particularly in the southwest of the country. The main factor promoting deforestation is slash-and-burn maize cultivation. Pioneer agriculture is developing rapidly at the expense of the forest. Loss of forest is linked to several factors: demographic pressure caused by immigration, saturation of the most fertile lands, the relaxation of state regulations on forest clearing, and above all the role of maize cultivation associated with a booming export market. The maize fever causes irreversible destruction of the dry forest since the process of deforestation is followed by a process of savannization. Land clearing is a strategy for controlling resources and development of a territory. It was not until the late 1990s that environmental policies were designed to reduce the loss of forest cover and conserve the endemic flora and fauna of such a large area. The creation of the Mikea national park is currently underway. But the process has been slowed by an ilmenite mining project which poses a new threat to the forest. Furthermore, since 2008, an oil exploration licence has been granted in this area. The conflicting land uses of three government-sponsored projects destabilize local populations who have been encouraged by the state to preserve the forest.En 2005, avec 10 millions d’hectares, la forêt ne couvrait que 16 % du territoire de Madagascar. La déforestation atteint des niveaux alarmants et est reconnue comme un problème environnemental majeur. Ce processus s’est récemment accéléré, en particulier dans le sud-ouest du pays. La principale cause de déforestation est la culture du maïs sur brûlis et l’agriculture de défrichage se développe rapidement aux dépens de la forêt. Le recul de la forêt est li

  18. The productive techniques and constitutive effects of 'evidence-based policy' and 'consumer participation' discourses in health policy processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, K; Seear, K; Treloar, C; Ritter, A

    2017-03-01

    For over twenty years there have been calls for greater 'consumer' participation in health decision-making. While it is recognised by governments and other stakeholders that 'consumer' participation is desirable, barriers to meaningful involvement nonetheless remain. It has been suggested that the reifying of 'evidence-based policy' may be limiting opportunities for participation, through the way this discourse legitimates particular voices to the exclusion of others. Others have suggested that assumptions underpinning the very notion of the 'affected community' or 'consumers' as fixed and bounded 'policy publics' need to be problematised. In this paper, drawing on interviews (n = 41) with individuals closely involved in Australian drug policy discussions, we critically interrogate the productive techniques and constitutive effects of 'evidence-based policy' and 'consumer participation' discourses in the context of drug policy processes. To inform our analysis, we draw on and combine a number of critical perspectives including Foucault's concept of subjugated knowledges, the work of feminist theorists, as well as recent work regarding conceptualisations of emergent policy publics. First, we explore how the subject position of 'consumer' might be seen as enacted in the material-discursive practices of 'evidence-based policy' and 'consumer participation' in drug policy processes. Secondly, we consider the centralising power-effects of the dominant 'evidence-based policy' paradigm, and how resistance may be thought about in this context. We suggest that such interrogation has potential to recast the call for 'consumer' participation in health policy decision-making and drug policy processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Policy processes and decision making of environmental policy in Great Britain and France. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, H.

    1991-01-01

    Research of central aspects of British environmental policy. This report concentrates on the role of the constitutional system of environmental policy, on the evaluation of a growing of 'Green Policy' in Great Britain, on the central problems of environmental policy and finally on the role of international environmental policy for Great Britain and Great Britain's role in international environmental activities. Beyond that this report contains a presentation of the state of the British environment (Pollution: Air, Water, Waste, Soil; Radioactivity and Noise). (orig.) With 205 refs., 18 tabs., 14 figs [de

  20. Application of Management Policies in the Processing of Member ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study found a significant proportion of the respondents (NSSF staff) were generally familiar with the concept of management policy applied by NSSF. Secondly, management policies applied by NSSF included: customer service and corporate imaging (.727), change management (.605), human resource capacity ...

  1. Engaging Effectively in the Policy-Making Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Virginia L.; West, Jane E.; Anderson, Jeffrey A.

    2016-01-01

    Current political polarization and competing priorities complicate development of sound education policy. Particularly troubling is the disconnect between research and policy, as decision makers rely more on the work of think tanks and advocacy groups than the knowledge base of the profession. The mismatch between higher education and policy…

  2. Facilitating participatory processes for policy change in natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    an open and participatory policy and decision -making at the lower .... people who are open minded and who believe in the success of change ..... Figure 3: Policy Task Force Critical Triangle. Source: Adapted form Catacutan et al. (2001). Farmers and local organisations. R&D Facilitators. Decentralized local government.

  3. Vanuatu Education Policy Post-2015: "Alternative", Decolonising Processes for "Development"

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    This article is based on ongoing research in Vanuatu and the wider Pacific. It maps multilevel roles that education and development policy actors, and civil societies in particular, have increasingly been playing in official education and development policy activities. Most recently this has been in relation to the "post-2015" agendas…

  4. Lead recovery from waste CRT funnel glass by high-temperature melting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Biao; Hui, Wenlong

    2018-02-05

    In this research, a novel and effective process for waste CRT funnel glass treatment was developed. The key to this process is removal of lead from the CRT funnel glass by high-temperature melting process. Sodium carbonate powder was used as a fusion agent, sodium sulfide serves as a catalytic agent and carbon powder acts as reducing agent. Experimental results showed that lead recovery rate increased with an increase in the amount of added sodium carbonate, sodium sulfide, carbonate, temperature and holding time initially, and then reached a stable value. The maximum lead recovery rate was approximately 94%, when the optimum adding amount of sodium carbonate, sodium sulfide, carbonate, temperature and holding time were 25%, 8%, 3.6%, 1200°C and 120min, respectively. In the high-temperature melting process, lead silicate in the funnel glass was firstly reduced, and then removed. The glass slag can be made into sodium and potassium silicate by hydrolysis process. This study proposed a practical and economical process for recovery of lead and utilization of waste glass slag. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Road pricing policy process : The interplay between policy actors, the media and public

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ardiç, O.

    2015-01-01

    Although road pricing policies are generally seen as an effective measure to deal with transport related problems (e.g. congestion), the number of implemented road pricing schemes is relatively limited. The thesis aims to gain insights into complex interplay between policy actors, media and public

  6. Policy Democracy: Social and Material Participation in Biodiesel Policy-Making Processes in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hoop, E.; Arora, Saurabh

    2017-01-01

    Following its 2003 biodiesel mission, the Indian national government released its controversial policy on biodiesel in December 2009. Viewing the policy as a set of propositions that have been progressively assembled and constituted by many voices, we study its making on the basis of 72 qualitative

  7. Policy Making Processes with Respect to Teacher Education in Finland and Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afdal, Hilde Wagsas

    2013-01-01

    This article examines policy making processes in the area of teacher education (TE) in Finland and Norway. Particular attention is given to the roles different actors play in these processes and the potential effects of their involvement on the TE programs in the two countries. Contemporary policy processes are analyzed through a set of interviews…

  8. Public policy processes and getting physical activity into Alberta's urban schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladwin, Catherine P; Church, John; Plotnikoff, Ronald C

    2008-01-01

    Public policies impact the amount of physical activity (PA) that children receive at school. These policies are of interest because overweight and obesity among Canadian children have grown at significant rates, and increasing PA among children is one way to reverse this trend. This research investigates the public policy processes that have resulted in Alberta's education system adopting in-school daily physical activity (DPA) and not supporting walk-to-school (WTS) initiatives. Using the policy process described by Kingdon and others as a conceptual framework, this research reviews literature and documents on public policy relating to PA in schools and interviews key individuals (N = 20) to identify the policy-related facilitators and barriers in Alberta, Canada to increasing PA in school-aged children. DPA was mandated because Kingdon's three policy streams (problem, solution and politics) became joined or linked. DPA was the most viable solution because literature supports and teachers believe in the educational benefits of PA. As well, a physician with personal beliefs about the benefits of PA became the minister of education and coupled the solution with the political stream through his ministerial power. Reasons that WTS programs have not become school or health policy include advocacy led by politically weak organizations, lack of a supportive policy entrepreneur and poor saliency among educators. This research illuminates the inner workings of the policy process shaping PA in schools, identifying the unseen forces of the policy process that move issues forward. The findings provide valuable insight for building other healthy public policies.

  9. Are stressful developmental processes of youths leading to health problems amplified by genetic polymorphisms? The case of body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickrama, Kandauda K A S; O'Neal, Catherine Walker; Oshri, Assaf

    2014-07-01

    Although previous research has documented the adverse influence of early socioeconomic disadvantage on youths' physical health outcomes and the increase in health inequalities over the early life course, little is known about genetically informed sequential life course developmental processes leading to health outcomes. Consistent with the life course-stress process perspective, we hypothesized that early socioeconomic adversity initiates a stress process over the early life course. This process involves the disrupted transition from adolescence to young adulthood, which increases the risk of health problems during young adulthood. Behavioral, psychosocial, and genetic data were collected from 12,424 adolescents (53 % female) over a period of 13 years participating in the nationally representative National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Early cumulative socioeconomic adversity and the polygenic influence were measured using composite indices. The study provided evidence for stressful developmental processes of adolescents, involving parental rejection, depressive symptoms, and adolescents' precocious transition. This longitudinal process was initiated by early cumulative socioeconomic adversity and eventuated with young adults' increased body mass index (BMI). Furthermore, the study provided evidence for the influence of life context-gene interactions (G × E) on adolescents' precocious development and young adult BMI (after controlling for the lagged measure) amplifying the stress process over the early life course. These findings emphasize the need for incorporating individual genetic characteristics in a longitudinal context into life course stress research. Furthermore, policies focused on eradicating childhood/adolescent adversities are necessary as well as youth programs and policies that promote youth competencies that aid in their successful transition to young adulthood.

  10. China’s Foreign- and Security-policy Decision-making Processes under Hu Jintao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Cabestan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Since 1979, foreign- and security-policy-making and implementation processes have gradually and substantially changed. New modes of operation that have consolidated under Hu Jintao, actually took shape under Jiang Zemin in the 1990s, and some, under Deng Xiaoping. While the military’s role has diminished, that of diplomats, experts, and bureaucracies dealing with trade, international economic relations, energy, propaganda and education has increased. Decision making in this area has remained highly centralized and concentrated in the supreme leading bodies of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP. However, China’s globalization and decentralization, as well as the increasing complexity of its international interests, have intensified the need to better coordinate the activities of the various CCP and state organs involved in foreign and security policy; hence, the growing importance of the CCP leading small groups (foreign affairs, national security, Taiwan, etc.. But the rigidity of the current institutional pattern has so far foiled repeated attempts to establish a National Security Council.

  11. Process of Fragment-Based Lead Discovery—A Perspective from NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongsheng Ma

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fragment-based lead discovery (FBLD has proven fruitful during the past two decades for a variety of targets, even challenging protein–protein interaction (PPI systems. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy plays a vital role, from initial fragment-based screening to lead generation, because of its power to probe the intrinsically weak interactions between targets and low-molecular-weight fragments. Here, we review the NMR FBLD process from initial library construction to lead generation. We describe technical aspects regarding fragment library design, ligand- and protein-observed screening, and protein–ligand structure model generation. For weak binders, the initial hit-to-lead evolution can be guided by structural information retrieved from NMR spectroscopy, including chemical shift perturbation, transferred pseudocontact shifts, and paramagnetic relaxation enhancement. This perspective examines structure-guided optimization from weak fragment screening hits to potent leads for challenging PPI targets.

  12. A novel process utilizing mechanochemical sulfidization to remove lead from cathode ray tube funnel glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wenyi; Li, Jinhui; Zhang, Qiwu; Saito, Fumio; Yang, Bo

    2013-04-01

    A novelprocess ofmechanochemical sulfidization for the treatment of cathode ray tube (CRT)funnel glass has been investigated by co-grinding with the element sulfur The ground samples were characterized by means of a set of analytical methods, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis (TG). The analytical results showed that during the co-grinding of the CRTfunnel glass with sulfur, the Si-O-Pb bond in glass and S-S bond broke and recombined into lead sulfide (PbS). The sulfidizing reaction proceeded with an increase in grinding time and the amount of the added sulfur. The sulfidizing rate increased rapidly from 16.6%for the JO-min ground sample to 96.7% for the 120-min ground sample. Using this process, current mineralprocessing technology, such as flotation separation, might be used to recover PbS. The proposed technology could also be used to treat other leaded glass and even other lead-containing wastes. In this research, a mechanochemical sulfidization method was proposed to recover lead from waste cathode ray tube (CRT) funnel glass. CRT funnel glass was co-ground with sulfur in N2 atmosphere by mechanical milling. After milling, lead in CRT funnel glass was transferred into lead sulfide (PbS). Using this process, current nfiineral processing technology, such as flotation separation, might be used to recover PbS from the ground sample. The process can be applied to treat other leaded glass or lead-containing wastes.

  13. Knowing and Doing Vocational Education and Training Reform: Evidence, Learning and the Policy Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Simon; Lugg, Rosemary

    2012-01-01

    Much of VET policy internationally draws on a toolkit that has been seriously questioned for its logic, international relevance and effectiveness by considerable amounts of academic research. Reflecting primarily on our experiences of leading a complex, multi-country policy study, we develop an account that seeks to explore ways in which the…

  14. What shapes research impact on policy? Understanding research uptake in sexual and reproductive health policy processes in resource poor contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Andy; Crichton, Jo; Theobald, Sally; Zulu, Eliya; Parkhurst, Justin

    2011-06-16

    Assessing the impact that research evidence has on policy is complex. It involves consideration of conceptual issues of what determines research impact and policy change. There are also a range of methodological issues relating to the question of attribution and the counter-factual. The dynamics of SRH, HIV and AIDS, like many policy arenas, are partly generic and partly issue- and context-specific. Against this background, this article reviews some of the main conceptualisations of research impact on policy, including generic determinants of research impact identified across a range of settings, as well as the specificities of SRH in particular. We find that there is scope for greater cross-fertilisation of concepts, models and experiences between public health researchers and political scientists working in international development and research impact evaluation. We identify aspects of the policy landscape and drivers of policy change commonly occurring across multiple sectors and studies to create a framework that researchers can use to examine the influences on research uptake in specific settings, in order to guide attempts to ensure uptake of their findings. This framework has the advantage that distinguishes between pre-existing factors influencing uptake and the ways in which researchers can actively influence the policy landscape and promote research uptake through their policy engagement actions and strategies. We apply this framework to examples from the case study papers in this supplement, with specific discussion about the dynamics of SRH policy processes in resource poor contexts. We conclude by highlighting the need for continued multi-sectoral work on understanding and measuring research uptake and for prospective approaches to receive greater attention from policy analysts.

  15. Europeanization in VET Policy as a Process of Reshaping the Educational Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista Loogma

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The EU represents a transforming educational space, where national and supranational boundaries in educational governance are becoming blurred. The EU has become an  important actor in educational governance and an important arena for policy learning and transfer. This paper explores how the process of reshaping the educational space manifests itself in the process of the Europeanization of VET policy in the case of Estonia. In Estonia, this process was followed by the growth of executive VET institutions and has developed from rather uncritical initial policy transfer to more active learning from the EU, although conformism can still be seen in cases of the introduction of standardizing policy tools.

  16. Nutrition labelling and the choices logo in Israel: positions and perceptions of leading health policy makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesser-Edelsburg, A; Endevelt, R; Tirosh-Kamienchick, Y

    2014-02-01

    Based on the Social Marketing approach and Diffusion of Innovations Theory that indicates the importance of opinion leaders with respect to the spreading of new ideas, concepts or practices within a community, the present study aimed to examine positions and perceptions of Israeli leading dietitians and health officials regarding nutrition labelling and the Choices logo, before it was launched in Israel in February 2011, as well as how they would communicate it to the public as agents of influence. The study involved in-depth face-to-face and telephone interviews with 15 senior dietitians and Health Ministry officials using semi-structured protocols including questions about nutrition labelling and the Choices logo. The respondents considered that the nutrition facts panels usually found on the backs of packages are too complicated for the average consumer. Simiularly, fronts of packages are cluttered with advertisements and health claims, causing confusion. The study participants would like to see an integrative label on the front of the package to facilitate consumers' decisions. However, the Choices logo raises ethical and social questions about the conflict between corporate interests and public health: (i) the label's relativity versus objectivity; (ii) the consumer's responsibility to create a balanced diet; (iii) the label's credibility; and (iv) bias against companies, products and audiences. The results of the present study highlight the importance of a need for an integrated programme of nutrition promotion, including the use of social marketing based on a cooperative effort between the food industry, regulators and professionals, to recommend changes and adjustments in nutritional front of package labelling with the aim of promoting healthier nutrition consumption. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  17. Educational management and policy in the globalization process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Feldfeber

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzes the main orientation of educational policies designed and implemented in the region within the so called “second generation state reforms”, in a context of growing inequality, fragmentation and social polarization. These reforms have been based, on the one hand, on the Knowledge Society Paradigm and the demand for competitive insertion in the global economy, and on the other, on strategies for poverty reduction and containment aimed at guaranteeing democratic governance in Latin American countries. In this vein, new forms of government and management of educational systems have been designed and implemented, that can be analyzed as new ways to regulate educational policy and action.

  18. Revised Interim Final Consolidated Enforcement Response and Penalty Policy for the Pre-Renovation Education Rule; Renovation, Repair and Painting Rule; and Lead-Based Paint Activities Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the revised version of the Interim Final Consolidated Enforcement Response and Penalty Policy for the Pre-Renovation Education Rule; Renovation, Repair and Painting Rule; and Lead-Based Paint Activities Rule.

  19. Influenza vaccination policy-making processes in France and The Netherlands: framework and determinants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, M.L.; Perrier, L.; Paget, W.J.; Mosnier, A.; Buthion, V.; Cohen, J.M.; Späth, H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Target groups for seasonal influenza vaccination are nationally defined based on several factors. However, few studies have explored the policy-making processes at the country-level. We investigated key differences in the policy-making process for the development of vaccination

  20. Policy development: a more formal systems approach process

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greeff, AP

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available is suggested. The similarity between the classical systems approach and typical current policy development life-cycles are striking. The rigorous systems approach, as often used in Systems Engineering projects, could be adapted, and thus provide the rigour...

  1. Development of laser bonding as a manufacturing process for inner-lead bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, James D.

    1991-12-01

    The conventional thermo-compression bonding processes for bonding tape-automated-bonding (TAB) leadframes to silicon die has inherent reliability drawbacks due to the high pressures and temperatures necessary to produce a good metallurgical joint. Whether tin- or gold-plated tape is used, the bonding process can cause damage to the underlying structure of the device which results in device failures. The use of a laser source for inner lead bonding (ILB) has the advantage of providing a very localized temperature input to the bonding site with minimal contact force. The resulting mechanical stresses on the device are consequently low and the overall temperature extreme to which the device is subjected is similarly low. Advanced Micro Devices, Inc., has undertaken a program to qualify a gold/tin laser bonded ILB process as a viable manufacturing alternative to thermo-compression bonding. The initial evaluation has defined thresholds for laser input energy necessary to produce a good fillet around the TAB beam and a void-free interface. This is the first necessary step to provide the degree of gold/tin alloying necessary to prevent Kirkendall voiding during subsequent high temperature storage. Among the parameters critical to the bonding process is the wafer bump surface topography. The quality of the bonding process has been monitored using bond strength data and visual examination before and after high temperature storage and temperature cycling tests. The test samples used were 154 and 160 lead production TAB tape and device designs with approximately equals 200 (mu) lead pitch and a 410 lead experimental tape with 102 (mu) lead pitch.

  2. Political processes and variation in renewable energy policies between U.S. states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasseur, Michael

    Over the past forty years federal efforts at renewable energy policy in the United States have been fragmented and are largely stalled. This is much different from U.S. states, which enact a diverse array of renewable energy policies. What factors explain this subnational variation? Addressing this question requires moving past the standard model of binary policy adoption that dominates studies of renewable energy policy. In its place I provide analyses of multifaceted policy outcomes, and also include predictors from a more inclusive view of politics than the standard economic and political interest factors. These additions to the standard energy policy model shed light not just on when states take policy action, but also on the content of the policies states ultimately adopt. In this dissertation I argue that different combinations of state-level political and economic characteristics influence policy adoption and policy content, a fact that is obscured by analysis of only binary policy action. I demonstrate this through three empirical projects that utilize an original longitudinal dataset and a variety of quantitative methods. The first project examines the diffusion of two varieties of a single regulatory policy instrument within a political context. I demonstrate that, contrary to most diffusion studies, policy adoption should be thought of as a multifaceted process, with separate factors determining the impetus for action and others shaping the content of the policy. My second project examines the role of economic, political, institutional, and cultural factors on a state's portfolio of policies. This work extends findings from prior literature on tax policies and incorporates institutional and cultural accounts of policy adoption into the study of renewable energy policy. I show that state economic and political factors, the predictors in traditional energy policy models, predict policy action but not policy content. Instead it is a state's cultural context

  3. Aligning food-processing policies to promote healthier fat consumption in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Shauna M; Marie Thow, Anne; Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna; Leeder, Stephen R

    2015-09-01

    India is undergoing a shift in consumption from traditional foods to processed foods high in sugar, salt and fat. Partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVOs) high in trans-fat are often used in processed foods in India given their low cost and extended shelf life. The World Health Organization has called for the elimination of PHVOs from the global food supply and recommends their replacement with polyunsaturated fat to maximize health benefits. This study examined barriers to replacing industrially produced trans-fat in the Indian food supply and systematically identified potential policy solutions to assist the government in encouraging its removal and replacement with healthier polyunsaturated fat. A combination of food supply chain analysis and semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders was conducted. The main barriers faced by the food-processing sector in terms of reducing use of trans-fat and replacing it with healthier oils in India were the low availability and high cost of oils high in polyunsaturated fats leading to a reliance on palm oil (high in saturated fat) and the low use of those healthier oils in product reformulation. Improved integration between farmers and processors, investment in technology and pricing strategies to incentivize use of healthier oils for product reformulation were identified as policy options. Food processors have trouble accessing sufficient affordable healthy oils for product reformulation, but existing incentives aimed at supporting food processing could be tweaked to ensure a greater supply of healthy oils with the potential to improve population health. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Australia's Health Star Rating policy process: Lessons for global policy-making in front-of-pack nutrition labelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Medha; Gleeson, Deborah; Barraclough, Simon

    2017-11-12

    This study explored factors that shaped the development of Australia's Health Star Rating system for front-of-pack labelling (FoPL) on packaged foods and whether insights could be drawn from this experience to inform the development of global FoPL standards. Ten individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with public health or consumer advocates, academics in the field of nutrition labelling and policy, a food industry employee, and Australian public servants. Thematic analysis was undertaken, guided by Kingdon's Multiple Streams Framework, to identify factors which shaped Australian and international FoPL policy processes. Senior Australian bureaucrats played the policy entrepreneur role to facilitate the development of the Health Star Rating system. The public health and consumer advocacy groups formed an alliance to counter-balance the influence of the food industry in the Health Star Rating development process. Public health and consumer groups have less influence at Codex Alimentarius, where policy-making is constrained by political alliances and consensus voting structures. Strong leadership, policy entrepreneurship and a coherent alliance between public health and consumer groups enabled the development of a FoPL system in Australia and could contribute to advancing FoPL standards at the international level. © 2017 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  5. Evaluation of lead recovery efficiency from waste CRT funnel glass by chlorinating volatilization process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzat, Aris; Zhang, Fu-Shen

    2014-01-01

    The current study was carried out to develop a novel process, namely chloride volatilization procedure for lead recovery from waste cathode ray tube (CRT) funnel glass. In the recovery system, the glass powder was first compressed into cylindrical pellet homogeneously with chlorinating agents, and then subjected to thermal treatment for solid-phase reaction. In this case, lead could be easily released from the silicon oxide network of the glass and it was recovered in the form of PbCl₂. It was found that CaCl2 was the most effective chlorinating agent, and the optimum operation temperature, holding time and system pressure were 1000 °C, 2 h, 600 ± 50 Pa, respectively. The evaporated PbCl₂could be easily recovered by a cooling device. The evaporation ratio of lead from waste CRT was 99.1% and the purity of the recovered PbCl₂product was 97.0%. The reaction routes and lead recovery mechanisms of the process were identified. This study provides an efficient and practical process for waste CRT funnel glass detoxification and recycling.

  6. Dissolving decision making? Models and their roles in decision-making processes and policy at large.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiss, Ragna; van Egmond, Stans

    2014-12-01

    This article studies the roles three science-based models play in Dutch policy and decision making processes. Key is the interaction between model construction and environment. Their political and scientific environments form contexts that shape the roles of models in policy decision making. Attention is paid to three aspects of the wider context of the models: a) the history of the construction process; b) (changes in) the political and scientific environments; and c) the use in policy processes over longer periods of time. Models are more successfully used when they are constructed in a stable political and scientific environment. Stability and certainty within a scientific field seems to be a key predictor for the usefulness of models for policy making. The economic model is more disputed than the ecology-based model and the model that has its theoretical foundation in physics and chemistry. The roles models play in policy processes are too complex to be considered as straightforward technocratic powers.

  7. International Processes of Education Policy Formation: An Analytic Framework and the Case of Plan 2021 in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    This article uses multiple perspectives to frame international processes of education policy formation and then applies the framework to El Salvador's Plan 2021 between 2003 and 2005. These perspectives are policy attraction, policy negotiation, policy imposition, and policy hybridization. Research reveals that the formation of Plan 2021 was the…

  8. Using research evidence to reframe the policy debate around mental illness and guns: process and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Emma E; Frattaroli, Shannon; Appelbaum, Paul S; Bonnie, Richard J; Grilley, Anna; Horwitz, Joshua; Swanson, Jeffrey W; Webster, Daniel W

    2014-11-01

    Recent mass shootings have prompted a national dialogue around mental illness and gun policy. To advance an evidence-informed policy agenda on this controversial issue, we formed a consortium of national gun violence prevention and mental health experts. The consortium agreed on a guiding principle for future policy recommendations: restricting firearm access on the basis of certain dangerous behaviors is supported by the evidence; restricting access on the basis of mental illness diagnoses is not. We describe the group's process and recommendations.

  9. HTS current lead units prepared by the TFA-MOD processed YBCO coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiohara, K.; Sakai, S.; Ishii, Y.; Yamada, Y.; Tachikawa, K.; Koizumi, T.; Aoki, Y.; Hasegawa, T.; Tamura, H.; Mito, T.

    2010-01-01

    Two superconducting current lead units have been prepared using ten coated conductors of the Tri-Fluoro-Acetate - Metal Organic Deposition (TFA-MOD) processed Y 1 Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (YBCO) coated conductors with critical current (I c ) of about 170 A at 77 K in self-field. The coated conductors are 5 mm in width, 190 mm in length and about 120 μm in overall thickness. The 1.5 μm thick superconducting YBCO layer was synthesized through the TFA-MOD process on Hastelloy TM C-276 substrate tape with two buffer oxide layers of Gd 2 Zr 2 O 7 and CeO 2 . The five YBCO coated conductors are attached on a 1 mm thick Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastics (GFRP) board and soldered to Cu caps at the both ends. We prepared two 500 A-class current lead units. The DC transport current of 800 A was stably applied at 77 K without any voltage generation in all coated conductors. The voltage between both Cu caps linearly increased with increasing the applied current, and was about 350 μV at 500 A in both current lead units. According to the estimated values of the heat leakage from 77 K to 4.2 K, the heat leakage for the current lead unit was 46.5 mW. We successfully attained reduction of the heat leakage because of improvement of the transport current performance (I c ), a thinner Ag layer of YBCO coated conductor and usage of the GFRP board for reinforcement instead of a stainless steel board used in the previous study. The DC transport current of 1400 A was stably applied when the two current lead units were joined in parallel. The sum of the heat leakages from 77 K to 4.2 K for the combined the current lead units was 93 mW. In comparison with the conventional Cu current leads by gas-cooling, it could be noted that the heat leakage of the current lead is about one order of magnitude smaller than that of the Cu current lead.

  10. Removal of lead from cathode ray tube funnel glass by combined thermal treatment and leaching processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Takashi; Nishimura, Fumihiro; Yonezawa, Susumu

    2015-11-01

    The reduction melting process is useful to recover toxic lead from cathode ray tube funnel glass; however, this process generates SiO2-containing residues that are disposed in landfill sites. To reduce the volume of landfill waste, it is desirable to recycle the SiO2-containing residues. In this study, SiO2 powder was recovered from the residue generated by reduction melting. The funnel glass was treated by a process combining reduction melting at 1000°C and annealing at 700°C to recover a large quantity of lead from the glass. The oxide phase generated by the thermal treatment was subjected to water leaching and acid leaching with 1M hydrochloric acid to wash out unwanted non-SiO2 elements for SiO2 purification. In the water washing, the oxide phase was microparticulated, and porous structures formed on the oxide surfaces. This increased the surface area of the oxide phase, and the unwanted elements were effectively washed out during the subsequent acid leaching. By controlling the acid leaching time and the amount of added acid, porous and amorphous SiO2 (purity >95 wt%) was recovered. In the obtained SiO2-concentrated product, unrecovered lead remained at concentrations of 0.25-0.79 wt%. When the Na2CO3 dosage in the thermal treatment was increased, the lead removal by acid leaching was enhanced, and the lead concentration in the obtained product decreased to 0.016 wt%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Processing Mineralogy Study on Lead and Zinc Oxide Ore in Sichuan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Yang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The processing mineralogy characteristics of an oxidized lead-zinc ore from Sichuan were studied systematically using numerous modern instruments. Results showed that lead and zinc oxide content in the ore exceeded the minimum industrial grade, and also included a relatively high concentration of silver and iron. This ore is composed of many different minerals. Major zinc-containing minerals include sphalerite, hemimorphite, smithsonite, hydrozincite, zinc-containing baileychlore, and zinc-containing dolomite and calcite. Lead-containing minerals are primarily galena and cerussite with small amounts of dechenite, cesaronite, anglesite, limonite and coronadite. Gangue minerals include dolomite and calcite. Dissemination size for the main minerals ranges from medium (0.04 mm to fine (0.02 mm. All the valuable minerals are well liberated, including galena, sphalerite, cerussite, calamine, and smithsonite. However, the dissemination relationships are complex. Lead is concentrated mainly in galena and cerussite, while zinc occurs primarily in sphalerite, calamine, and smithsonite. The theoretical recovery for lead and zinc were estimated at 72% and 67%, respectively.

  12. On the description of exclusive processes beyond the leading twist approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikin, I.V.; Ivanov, D.Yu.; Pire, B.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.

    2010-01-01

    We describe hard exclusive processes beyond the leading twist approximation in a framework based on the Taylor expansion of the amplitude around the dominant light-cone directions. This naturally introduces an appropriate set of non-perturbative correlators whose number is minimalized after taking into account QCD equations of motion and the invariance under rotation on the light-cone. We exemplify this method at the twist 3 level and show that the coordinate and momentum space descriptions are fully equivalent.

  13. On the description of exclusive processes beyond the leading twist approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anikin, I.V. [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, JINR, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Ivanov, D.Yu. [Institute of Mathematics, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Pire, B., E-mail: pire@cpht.polytechnique.f [CPhT, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Szymanowski, L. [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Wallon, S. [LPT, Universite d' Orsay, CNRS, 91404 Orsay (France); UPMC Univ. Paris 6, Faculte de Physique, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2010-01-04

    We describe hard exclusive processes beyond the leading twist approximation in a framework based on the Taylor expansion of the amplitude around the dominant light-cone directions. This naturally introduces an appropriate set of non-perturbative correlators whose number is minimalized after taking into account QCD equations of motion and the invariance under rotation on the light-cone. We exemplify this method at the twist 3 level and show that the coordinate and momentum space descriptions are fully equivalent.

  14. Energy-saving management modelling and optimization for lead-acid battery formation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T.; Chen, Z.; Xu, J. Y.; Wang, F. Y.; Liu, H. M.

    2017-11-01

    In this context, a typical lead-acid battery producing process is introduced. Based on the formation process, an efficiency management method is proposed. An optimization model with the objective to minimize the formation electricity cost in a single period is established. This optimization model considers several related constraints, together with two influencing factors including the transformation efficiency of IGBT charge-and-discharge machine and the time-of-use price. An example simulation is shown using PSO algorithm to solve this mathematic model, and the proposed optimization strategy is proved to be effective and learnable for energy-saving and efficiency optimization in battery producing industries.

  15. Application of six sigma and AHP in analysis of variable lead time calibration process instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimantho, Dino; Rahman, Tomy Abdul; Cahyadi, Bambang; Tina Hernawati, S.

    2017-02-01

    Calibration of instrumentation equipment in the pharmaceutical industry is an important activity to determine the true value of a measurement. Preliminary studies indicated that occur lead-time calibration resulted in disruption of production and laboratory activities. This study aimed to analyze the causes of lead-time calibration. Several methods used in this study such as, Six Sigma in order to determine the capability process of the calibration instrumentation of equipment. Furthermore, the method of brainstorming, Pareto diagrams, and Fishbone diagrams were used to identify and analyze the problems. Then, the method of Hierarchy Analytical Process (AHP) was used to create a hierarchical structure and prioritize problems. The results showed that the value of DPMO around 40769.23 which was equivalent to the level of sigma in calibration equipment approximately 3,24σ. This indicated the need for improvements in the calibration process. Furthermore, the determination of problem-solving strategies Lead Time Calibration such as, shortens the schedule preventive maintenance, increase the number of instrument Calibrators, and train personnel. Test results on the consistency of the whole matrix of pairwise comparisons and consistency test showed the value of hierarchy the CR below 0.1.

  16. The legacy of French colonial policy on the nation building process ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is against this background that this article examines France's colonial policy in Chad and its impact on nation building process before the outbreak of the country's civil war in the period shortly after independence. The essay argues that France's policies of “useful” and “useless Chad” was greatly responsible for the ...

  17. Dissolving decision making? : Models and their roles in decision-making processes and policy at large

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeiss, Ragna; van Egmond, S.

    2014-01-01

    This article studies the roles three science-based models play in Dutch policy and decision making processes. Key is the interaction between model construction and environment. Their political and scientific environments form contexts that shape the roles of models in policy decision making.

  18. Policy and Advocacy Concepts and Processes: Innovative Content in Early Childhood Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Heidi L.; Knight-McKenna, Mary; Bryan, Ren

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge and skills regarding policy and advocacy are important expectations for today's early childhood workforce, yet policy and advocacy content and processes have not traditionally been emphasized in teacher preparation programmes. This article describes an innovative undergraduate course that goes beyond traditional foci on developmental…

  19. Revitalizing REDD+ Policy Processes in Vietnam: The Roles of State and Non-State Actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thu Ba Huynh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Vietnam was one of the first countries to introduce the National REDD+ (Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation Action Program in 2012. The country has recently revised the Program to aim for a more inclusive 2016–2020 strategy and a vision to 2030. This study explores how Vietnam policy actors view REDD+ policy development and their influence in these processes. The results can contribute to the discussion on how policy actors can effectively influence policy processes in the evolving context of REDD+ and in the types of political arrangements represented in Vietnam. We examined the influence of state and non-state actors on the 2012 National REDD+ Action Program (NRAP processes, and explored factors that may have shaped this influence, using a combination of document analysis and semi-structured interviews with 81 policy actors. It was found that non-state actors in REDD+ are still on the periphery of decision making, occupying “safe” positions, and have not taken either full advantage of their capacities, or of recent significant changes in the contemporary policy environment, to exert stronger influence on policy. We suggest that REDD+ policy processes in Vietnam need to be revitalized with key actors engaging collectively to promote the possibilities of REDD+ within a broader view of social change that reaches beyond the forestry sector.

  20. Understanding the process of establishing a food and nutrition policy: the case of Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugelberg, Susanna; Jönsson, Kristina; Yngve, Agneta

    2012-09-01

    There has been an increasing effort across Europe to develop national policies in food and nutrition during the last decade. However, little is known about how public health nutrition issues get on the public health agenda and the roles individuals have when these agendas are being set. The aims of this study were to scrutinise the development process of the Slovenian national food and nutrition policy, and to identify the roles and functions of individuals who have contributed to that process. This study undertook a qualitative approach. Data collection included 18 semi-structured interviews between 2007 and 2011, and grey and scientific literature search. Text analysis was based on Kingdon's streams model, which involved highlighting the relationship between problem identification, policy solutions and political opportunities. Data were coded to identify the roles and functions of individuals participating in the agenda-setting process. The analysis showed that the opportunity for the Slovenian food and nutrition policy to be developed was largely explained by a change in political circumstances, namely the accession of Slovenia to the European Union and the Common Agricultural Policy. Individuals with experience in policy development were identified because of their analytical, strategic and policy entrepreneurial skills. The analyst was responsible for communicating the key nutrition issues to policy-makers, the strategist joined international networks and promoted policy solutions from international experts including the World Health Organization, and the policy entrepreneur took advantage of the political situation to enlist the participation of previous opponents to a national nutrition policy. This study found that individuals, their roles and skills, played an important role in the development of the Slovenian National Food and Nutrition Policy. The roles and functions of these individuals, which are identified in this study, may assist future endeavours

  1. A geometric process model for M/PH(M/PH)/1/K queue with new service machine procurement lead time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Miaomiao; Tang, Yinghui; Fu, Yonghong

    2013-06-01

    In this article, we consider a geometric process model for M/PH(M/PH)/1/K queue with new service machine procurement lead time. A maintenance policy (N - 1, N) based on the number of failures of the service machine is introduced into the system. Assuming that a failed service machine after repair will not be 'as good as new', and the spare service machine for replacement is only available by an order. More specifically, we suppose that the procurement lead time for delivering the spare service machine follows a phase-type (PH) distribution. Under such assumptions, we apply the matrix-analytic method to develop the steady state probabilities of the system, and then we obtain some system performance measures. Finally, employing an important Lemma, the explicit expression of the long-run average cost rate for the service machine is derived, and the direct search method is also implemented to determine the optimal value of N for minimising the average cost rate.

  2. Studies on mathematical modeling of the leaching process in order to efficiently recover lead from the sulfate/oxide lead paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzatu, Traian; Ghica, Gabriel Valeriu; Petrescu, Ionuţ Mircea; Iacob, Gheorghe; Buzatu, Mihai; Niculescu, Florentina

    2017-02-01

    Increasing global lead consumption has been mainly supported by the acid battery manufacturing industry. As the lead demand will continue to grow, to provide the necessary lead will require an efficient approach to recycling lead acid batteries. In this paper was performed a mathematical modeling of the process parameters for lead recovery from spent lead-acid batteries. The results of the mathematical modeling compare well with the experimental data. The experimental method applied consists in the solubilisation of the sulfate/oxide paste with sodium hydroxide solutions followed by electrolytic processing for lead recovery. The parameters taken into considerations were NaOH molarity (4M, 6M and 8M), solid/liquid ratio - S/L (1/10, 1/30 and 1/50) and temperature (40°C, 60°C and 80°C). The optimal conditions resulted by mathematical modeling of the electrolytic process of lead deposition from alkaline solutions have been established by using a second-order orthogonal program, in order to obtain a maximum efficiency of current without exceeding an imposed energy specific consumption. The optimum value for the leaching recovery efficiency, obtained through mathematical modeling, was 89.647%, with an error of δ y =3.623 which leads to a maximum recovery efficiency of 86.024%. The optimum values for each variable that ensure the lead extraction efficiency equal to 89.647% are the following: 3M - NaOH, 1/35 - S/L, 70°C - temperature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Multiple synergistic effects of emotion and memory on proactive processes leading to scene recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schettino, Antonio; Loeys, Tom; Pourtois, Gilles

    2013-11-01

    Visual scene recognition is a proactive process through which contextual cues and top-down expectations facilitate the extraction of invariant features. Whether the emotional content of the scenes exerts a reliable influence on these processes or not, however, remains an open question. Here, topographic ERP mapping analysis and a distributed source localization method were used to characterize the electrophysiological correlates of proactive processes leading to scene recognition, as well as the potential modulation of these processes by memory and emotion. On each trial, the content of a complex neutral or emotional scene was progressively revealed, and participants were asked to decide whether this scene had previously been encountered or not (delayed match-to-sample task). Behavioral results showed earlier recognition for old compared to new scenes, as well as delayed recognition for emotional vs. neutral scenes. Electrophysiological results revealed that, ~400 ms following stimulus onset, activity in ventral object-selective regions increased linearly as a function of accumulation of perceptual evidence prior to recognition of old scenes. The emotional content of the scenes had an early influence in these areas. By comparison, at the same latency, the processing of new scenes was mostly achieved by dorsal and medial frontal brain areas, including the anterior cingulate cortex and the insula. In the latter region, emotion biased recognition at later stages, likely corresponding to decision making processes. These findings suggest that emotion can operate at distinct and multiple levels during proactive processes leading to scene recognition, depending on the extent of prior encounter with these scenes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessing the influence of knowledge translation platforms on health system policy processes to achieve the health millennium development goals in Cameroon and Uganda: a comparative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongolo-Zogo, Pierre; Lavis, John N; Tomson, Goran; Sewankambo, Nelson K

    2018-05-01

    There is a scarcity of empirical data on the influence of initiatives supporting evidence-informed health system policy-making (EIHSP), such as the knowledge translation platforms (KTPs) operating in Africa. To assess whether and how two KTPs housed in government-affiliated institutions in Cameroon and Uganda have influenced: (1) health system policy-making processes and decisions aiming at supporting achievement of the health millennium development goals (MDGs); and (2) the general climate for EIHSP. We conducted an embedded comparative case study of four policy processes in which Evidence Informed Policy Network (EVIPNet) Cameroon and Regional East African Community Health Policy Initiative (REACH-PI) Uganda were involved between 2009 and 2011. We combined a documentary review and semi structured interviews of 54 stakeholders. A framework-guided thematic analysis, inspired by scholarship in health policy analysis and knowledge utilization was used. EVIPNet Cameroon and REACH-PI Uganda have had direct influence on health system policy decisions. The coproduction of evidence briefs combined with tacit knowledge gathered during inclusive evidence-informed stakeholder dialogues helped to reframe health system problems, unveil sources of conflicts, open grounds for consensus and align viable and affordable options for achieving the health MDGs thus leading to decisions. New policy issue networks have emerged. The KTPs indirectly influenced health policy processes by changing how interests interact with one another and by introducing safe-harbour deliberations and intersected with contextual ideational factors by improving access to policy-relevant evidence. KTPs were perceived as change agents with positive impact on the understanding, acceptance and adoption of EIHSP because of their complementary work in relation to capacity building, rapid evidence syntheses and clearinghouse of policy-relevant evidence. This embedded case study illustrates how two KTPs influenced

  5. Changing the malaria treatment protocol policy in Timor-Leste: an examination of context, process, and actors’ involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In 2007 Timor-Leste, a malaria endemic country, changed its Malaria Treatment Protocol for uncomplicated falciparum malaria from sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine to artemether-lumefantrine. The change in treatment policy was based on the rise in morbidity due to malaria and perception of increasing drug resistance. Despite a lack of nationally available evidence on drug resistance, the Ministry of Health decided to change the protocol. The policy process leading to this change was examined through a qualitative study on how the country developed its revised treatment protocol for malaria. This process involved many actors and was led by the Timor-Leste Ministry of Health and the WHO country office. This paper examines the challenges and opportunities identified during this period of treatment protocol change. PMID:23672371

  6. Transformation Directions of the Financial Policy in the Process of Stabilisation of the Ukrainian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrushevska Viktoriya V.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is consideration of theoretical provisions with respect to the state financial policy. The article considers the role of the financial policy in ensuring stabilisation of the Ukrainian financial system. It presents conceptual provisions regarding main goals, mechanisms and instruments of the stabilisation financial policy of the state. It develops economic indicators of its efficiency. The use of indicators of economic efficiency of the stabilisation financial policy by the bodies of state authority in their practical activity would provide the society with a possibility to assess expediency of measures of this policy increasing its efficiency and decreasing criticism at the government. A necessary direction of achievement of effectiveness and efficiency of the stabilisation financial policy is taking into consideration interests of all social groups (population, entrepreneurs, financial institutes and companies, etc. by the bodies of state authority in the process of its development and realisation.

  7. 32 CFR 507.18 - Processing complaints of alleged breach of policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Program § 507.18 Processing complaints of alleged breach of policies. The Institute of Heraldry may revoke... Institute of Heraldry, 9325 Gunston Road, Room S-112, Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-5579 (hereinafter referred to...

  8. Experiences with a dialogue process between policy makers and global modellers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Daalen, C.E.; Thissen, W.A.H.; Berk, M.M.

    1998-01-01

    Between 1995 and 1997, a series of five workshops, henceforth called the Delft process, took place with the aim to explore and enhance use of the IMAGE 2 model to support international climate negotiations. The IMAGE 2 model is a multi-disciplinary, integrated model designed to simulate the dynamics of the global society-biosphere-climate system. The workshops facilitated a dialogue between policy makers and scientists involved in the development and applications of the IMAGE 2 model. In this way, policy makers would benefit from the policy makers on how to improve the policy relevance of the IMAGE 2 model. The evaluation at the end of the workshop series showed that participants have used information from the workshop at international negotiation conferences and in preparation of policy documents. The process shows that creating a forum for direct science-policy interactions can be very useful and productive, and has confirmed the importance of creating an open and constructive atmosphere between policy makers, and between policy makers and analysts, to enhance utilisation of scientific knowledge. The authors' analysis also suggests that many factors have to be 'in the right position at the right time and place' to achieve such a success, and that it is difficult to prevent the occurrence of biases in processes like this. 33 refs

  9. Improving the machinability of leaded free cutting steel through process optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyamurthy, P.; Vetrivelmurugan, R.; Sooryaprakash, J.

    2018-02-01

    Free cutting steel grades are high sulphur grades which can be classified under two categories as Leaded and Non-Leaded. These grades are used for manufacturing components like Nuts, bolts, studs, hydraulic fittings, brake pistons where higher machining is required to get intricate shape. Machinability of these grades are affected by hard oxide inclusions and highly deformed manganese sulphide inclusions. At JSW, machinability of leaded free cutting steel is improved by various process modifications namely deoxidation through carbon and manganese, Tellurium (Rare earth element) addition and maintaining the oxygen level at 80- 120ppm. Former one avoids the formation of hard SiO2 and Al2O3 compounds, Tellurium addition forms PbTe compound at the tail of MnS inclusions which resists the deformation of MnS inclusions and increased oxygen level favours the formation of less deformable oxy- sulphide inclusions. Above process modifications have resulted in achieving the low silicate content, better aspect ratio of MnS inclusions in the final rolled product. They are assessed by the characteristics of chip formation and surface roughness of machined part.

  10. Optimal dividend policies with transaction costs for a class of jump-diffusion processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunting, Martin; Paulsen, Jostein

    2013-01-01

    his paper addresses the problem of finding an optimal dividend policy for a class of jump-diffusion processes. The jump component is a compound Poisson process with negative jumps, and the drift and diffusion components are assumed to satisfy some regularity and growth restrictions. Each dividend......-tailed distributions, the optimal policy is a simple lump sum policy, that is, when assets are equal to or larger than an upper barrier u¯∗, they are immediately reduced to a lower barrier u−∗ through a dividend payment. The case with K=0 is also investigated briefly, and the optimal policy is shown to be a reflecting...... barrier policy for the same light-tailed class. Methods to numerically verify whether a simple lump sum barrier strategy is optimal for any jump distribution are provided at the end of the paper, and some numerical examples are given....

  11. Health policy evolution in Lao People's Democratic Republic: context, processes and agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, Kristina; Phoummalaysith, Bounfeng; Wahlström, Rolf; Tomson, Göran

    2015-05-01

    During the last 20 years Lao People's Democratic Republic has successfully developed and adopted some 30 health policies, strategies, decrees and laws in the field of health. Still, the implementation process remains arduous. This article aims at discussing challenges of health policy development and effective implementation by contextualizing the policy evolution over time and by focusing particularly on the National Drug Policy and the Health Care Law. Special attention is given to the role of research in policymaking. The analysis was guided by the conceptual framework of policy context, process, content and actors, combined with an institutional perspective, and showed that effective implementation of a health policy is highly dependent on both structures and agency of those involved in the policy process. The National Drug Policy was formulated and adopted in a short period of time in a resource-scarce setting, but with dedicated policy entrepreneurs and support of concerned international collaborators. Timely introduction of operational health systems research played a crucial role to support the implementation, as well as the subsequent revision of the policy. The development of the Health Care Law took several years and once adopted, the implementation was delayed by institutional legacies and issues concerning the choice of institutional design and financing, despite strong support of the law among the policymakers. Among many factors, timing of the implementation appeared to be of crucial importance, in combination with strong leadership. These two examples show that more research, that problematizes the complex policy environment in combination with improved communication between researchers and policymakers, is necessary to inform about measures for effective implementation. A way forward can be to strengthen the domestic research capacity and the international research collaboration regionally as well as globally. Published by Oxford University Press

  12. The influence of knowledge on the public policy making process: the case of renewable energies in Midi Pyrenees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behar, L.

    2012-01-01

    Even though energy policy makers were novices when wind power was introduced in the Midi Pyrenees region, the situation had changed when the photovoltaic was implemented. The new challenges policy makers experimented about the wind power and their opponents, the wood energy and the primacy of the wood's industrials, the photovoltaic and the preservation of the agricultural lands, fostered their learning and gradually lead them to change their perception of inherent issues. The coalitions forged between technical experts and policy makers unbind along the progressive empowerment of the formers. Shared between different forms of knowledge, however, the resources needed to implement renewable energies projects cannot be reduced to the technical dimension. Local knowledge and engineering knowledge increasingly compete with expert knowledge. This evolution corresponds to a policy arrangement change. Since the dynamic but also the elements that compose this political system change, a new reality gradually emerges. This whole process will be the main concern of this thesis. We will finally notice that there are some differences between the implementation of these renewable energies among the territories but also among the three forms of renewable energies we analyze. This means that although renewable energy policy are based on interactions between actors' resources, discourse and rules, they also emerge from the action of intermediates actors, and from the characteristic of each territories in which they are implemented. (author)

  13. Serum Neuron-Specific Enolase, Biogenic Amino-Acids and Neurobehavioral Function in Lead-Exposed Workers from Lead-Acid Battery Manufacturing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ravibabu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The interaction between serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE, biogenic amino-acids and neurobehavioral function with blood lead levels in workers exposed to lead form lead-acid battery manufacturing process was not studied. Objective: To evaluate serum NSE and biogenic amino-acids (dopamine and serotonin levels, and neurobehavioral performance among workers exposed to lead from lead-acid storage battery plant, and its relation with blood lead levels (BLLs. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, we performed biochemical and neurobehavioral function tests on 146 workers exposed to lead from lead-acid battery manufacturing process. BLLs were assessed by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Serum NSE, dopamine and serotonin were measured by ELISA. Neurobehavioral functions were assessed by CDC-recommended tests—simple reaction time (SRT, symbol digit substitution test (SDST, and serial digit learning test (SDLT. Results: There was a significant correlation (r 0.199, p<0.05 between SDST and BLL. SDLT and SRT had also a significant positive correlation (r 0.238, p<0.01. NSE had a negative correlation (r –0.194, p<0.05 with serotonin level. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that both SRT and SDST had positive significant associations with BLL. SRT also had a positive significant association with age. Conclusion: Serum NSE cannot be used as a marker for BLL. The only domain of neurobehavioral function tests that is affected by increased BLL in workers of lead-acid battery manufacturing process is that of the “attention and perception” (SDST.

  14. Leading safety performance indicators for resilience assessment of radiopharmaceuticals production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grecco, Claudio H.S.; Santos, Isaac J.A.L.; Carvalho, Paulo V.R.

    2011-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals are radiation-emitting substances used in medicine for radiotherapy and imaging diagnosis. A Research Institute, located in Rio de Janeiro, produces three radiopharmaceuticals: the sodium iodate is used in the diagnosis of thyroid dysfunctions, the meta-iodo-benzyl guanidine is used in the diagnosis of cardiac diseases, and the fluorodeoxyglucose is used in diagnosis in cardiology, oncology, neurology and neuro psychiatry. This paper presents a leading safety performance indicators framework to assess the resilience of radiopharmaceuticals production processes. The organizations that use resilience indicators will be able to pro actively evaluate and manage safety. (author)

  15. Spectrometric gamma investigations concerning zinc-lead ores and the products of their processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girczys, J.; Skowronek, J.; Zrodlowski, B.

    1983-01-01

    Zinc-lead ore and products of its enrichment were investigated using gamma spectrometry for the content of uranium, thorium and potassium 40. It was stated that the mean content of these elements in a deposit does not diverge from their mean concentration in the lithosphere. They also accompany the surrounding rocks. As a result of mechanical processing of this ore radionuclides pass discards in which they do not form concentrations dangerous for life, either. In the exploitation areas and in the surroundings there is no state of ecological hazard. (author)

  16. Leading safety performance indicators for resilience assessment of radiopharmaceuticals production process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grecco, Claudio H.S.; Santos, Isaac J.A.L.; Carvalho, Paulo V.R., E-mail: grecco@ien.gov.b, E-mail: luquetti@ien.gov.b, E-mail: paulov@ien.gov.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Instrumentacao e Confiabilidade Humana; Vidal, Mario C.R., E-mail: mvidal@ergonomia.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PEP/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia de Producao. Grupo de Ergonomia e Novas Tecnologias (GENTE)

    2011-07-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals are radiation-emitting substances used in medicine for radiotherapy and imaging diagnosis. A Research Institute, located in Rio de Janeiro, produces three radiopharmaceuticals: the sodium iodate is used in the diagnosis of thyroid dysfunctions, the meta-iodo-benzyl guanidine is used in the diagnosis of cardiac diseases, and the fluorodeoxyglucose is used in diagnosis in cardiology, oncology, neurology and neuro psychiatry. This paper presents a leading safety performance indicators framework to assess the resilience of radiopharmaceuticals production processes. The organizations that use resilience indicators will be able to pro actively evaluate and manage safety. (author)

  17. Necessary and Sufficient Process leading to Work Smart Standards. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The Necessary and Sufficient Process leading to Work Smart Standards is a Department of Energy initiative to assure adequate protection for workers, the public, and the environment. The Work Smart Standards initiative directs the Laboratory to develop a set of ES and H standards based on the work performed at the Laboratory and the hazards associated with the work. Berkeley Lab`s set of Work Smart Standards includes required Federal, State and local laws and, additionally, national and international standards which represent the highest operating standards of industrial and commercial institutions.

  18. Necessary and Sufficient Process leading to Work Smart Standards. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The Necessary and Sufficient Process leading to Work Smart Standards is a Department of Energy initiative to assure adequate protection for workers, the public, and the environment. The Work Smart Standards initiative directs the Laboratory to develop a set of ES and H standards based on the work performed at the Laboratory and the hazards associated with the work. Berkeley Lab's set of Work Smart Standards includes required Federal, State and local laws and, additionally, national and international standards which represent the highest operating standards of industrial and commercial institutions

  19. Analisis Penerapan Lean Production Process untuk Mengurangi Lead Time Process Perawatan Engine (Studi Kasus PT.GMF AEROASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Adrianto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Engine maintenance strives to always improve its service excellence with tools such as gate system where the system is expected to realize the lead time for 60days. In the implementation of the gate system is still not able to meet the expected target. During maintenance or overhaul the engine is still encountered waste or waste that causes the target cannot be met. Lean Manufacturing is an approach that aims to minimize waste that occurs in the process flow.Understanding the conditions of the process described in Value Stream Mapping for further elaborate activities that have the value-added and non-value added.Through seven waste concept, then be weighted to determine the most dominant type of waste.From the data processing is obtained that through the Value Stream Mapping is known gate 1 and gate 3 is the point that there are many wastes. Weighting and ranking of seven existing waste in the process of the activity obtained results in the form of a waste critical sequence of seven existing waste. Highest weights on the type of waste waiting with a weight of 0.38. Results of Root Cause Analysis in mind that the root cause of waste waiting for that data is maintained, the lack of attention to people development, There are still bugs in the system and miscommunication.

  20. The possibility of using 5-aminolevulinic acid in lead phytoextraction process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Jarosz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies conducted in the greenhouse involving a sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. grown in medium containing 200 mg Pb ∙ dm -3 which were designed to evaluate the impact of foliar nutrition with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA on the chemical composition of sunflower in reference to possible use of this plant in the process of induced phytoextraction. The study revealed from 4.8% to 34.1% increase in aboveground matter of sunflower which was sprayed by 5-ALA solution at concentrations of 0.01-0.1 ppm in comparison with plants grown in a medium containing 200 mg Pb ∙ dm -3 with no 5-ALA spraying. The sunflower leaves sprayed by 5-ALA solution contained from 3.78% to 27.1% more lead in comparison to plants not sprayed by this agent. As well as remarkable decrease in lead content from 17.4 to 33.4% was recorded in the roots of sunflower sprayed by 5-ALA solution. The lead content in plant shoots was independent from foliar application of 5-aminolevulinic acid

  1. Application of risk analysis and quality control methods for improvement of lead molding process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Gołaś

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to highlight the significance of implication of risk analysis and quality control methods for the improvement of parameters of lead molding process. For this reason, Fault Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA was developed in the conceptual stage of a new product TC-G100-NR. However, the final product was faulty (a complete lack of adhesion of brass insert to leak regardless of the previously defined potential problem and its preventive action. It contributed to the recognition of root causes, corrective actions and change of production parameters. It showed how these methods, level of their organization, systematic and rigorous study affect molding process parameters.

  2. Radiotracer investigations of the shaft processes in Polish zinc and lead metallurgy. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalik, J.S.; Bazaniak, Z.; Palige, J.

    1990-01-01

    The principal phenomena and processes occurring in the ISP furnace as well as the radiotracer methods for the investigation of charge flow dynamics have been discussed. 65 Zn was applied for investigations of the batch movement dynamics. The tracer was obtained on the way of direct neutron activation of the zinc/lead sinter in the nuclear reactor. The activity distribution measurements were performed by taking samples. Three series of experiments were carried out in order to examine the batch material movement and its dependence on the furnace charging manner. The influence of the process parameters on the batch movement has also been discussed. The shortest descent time of the charge material is strongly favoured by the joint system of charging the furnace (i.e. coke and sinter together). (author)

  3. Exploring maintenance policy selection using the Analytic Hierarchy Process; An application for naval ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goossens, Adriaan J.M.; Basten, Rob J.I.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate maintenance policy selection (MPS) through the use of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). A maintenance policy is a policy that dictates which parameter triggers a maintenance action. In practice, selecting the right maintenance policy appears to be a difficult decision. We investigate MPS for naval ships, but our results have wider applicability. For our study we cooperate with the owner and operator of the ships, as well as with a shipbuilder and an original equipment manufacturer of naval ships. We apply a structured five step approach to obtain the relevant criteria that may make one policy preferable over another. The criteria are drawn from both literature and a series of interviews at several navy related companies and are structured into a hierarchy of criteria usable with the AHP. Additionally, we organize three workshops at the three different companies to test the AHP-based MPS approach in practice. We conclude that the AHP is well suited for maintenance policy selection in this broad setting, and that it provides a structured and detailed approach for MPS. Adding to that, it facilitates discussions during and after the sessions, creating a better understanding of the policy selection process. - Highlights: • We use the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) for maintenance policy selection (MPS). • Using both interviews and case studies from the literature, we construct a hierarchy. • In sessions at 3 companies, we find that 1 hierarchy can be used for multiple assets. • The AHP creates a better understanding of the maintenance policy selection process. • Our work is on naval ships, but our approach and findings have wider applicability

  4. Technology in the policy process - controlling nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collingridge, D.

    1983-01-01

    The discussion in this book is built around nuclear power. The technology of nuclear power is shown to have features which make it inflexible in the sense that, once built, it is difficult and expensive to control. If inflexible technology is to be avoided, it is crucially important to be able to identify this failing at an early stage in the technology's development, before it has acquired an immunity to political control. Again, this problem is approached through the example of nuclear power, in particular the breeder reactor. The breeder is shown to be even less flexible than today's nuclear technology, because it will have higher capital costs, be of greater capital intensity, longer lead time, larger unit size, and will require more infrastructure for its operation. If this is developed, the breeder will be even less open to political control than the nuclear plant of the present. To put it another way, its planning will be even more open to errors and whatever errors are made will be even more costly than for existing nuclear technology. It is therefore even less of a socially and economically acceptable technology than today's nuclear power. (author)

  5. Carbon Offsets in California: What Role for Earth Scientists in the Policy Process? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullenward, D.; Strong, A. L.

    2013-12-01

    some offset protocols award credits for activities that would have occurred anyway; by replacing a company's need to acquire an allowance in the carbon market, critics believe that poorly designed offset protocols increase greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, the effectiveness of the policy approach depends on the scientific integrity of the offset protocols. To date, California has approved offset protocols for emissions reductions in four applications: (1) forestry, (2) urban forestry, (3) livestock, and (4) destruction of ozone-depleting substances. In addition, the State is currently considering protocols that would address (5) methane emissions from mining and (6) greenhouse gas reductions from improved rice cultivation practices. These protocols rely heavily on findings from the environmental and earth sciences communities, especially when the protocol subject involves land use or land use change. Yet, due to budget constraints, the Air Resources Board is relying primarily on third-party protocol developers to design and propose the detailed structures under which offset credits will be issued. Despite the fact that any member of the public may participate in the governance regime that leads to protocol approvals, few scientists or scientific organizations provide input into the policy process. We use case studies from several of the California protocols to illustrate ways scientists can apply their skills to a crucial stage of climate policy development.

  6. DETERMINATION OF IMPURITIES IN LEAD AND ALUMINIUM SAMPLES USED IN IRRADIATION PROCESSES IN THE NUCLEAR REACTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABDEL-FATTAH, A.A.; SANAD, W.A.; ALLAN, K.F.; EL-KOLALY, M.T.

    2008-01-01

    Non-destructive instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been exploited for studying the elemental composition of one lead and three aluminium samples used in the irradiation processes in the Egyptian nuclear reactor; ETRR-1 (Pb is used as a gravitational mass for diving the aluminium cans in cooling water during irradiation and enclosed in the outer Al can, two Al samples as inner irradiation cans and one Al sample as outer irradiation can). The induced radioactivities of the detected elements were measured using the computerized multi-channel analyzer connected with a high purity Co-axial germanium detector. It was found that lead sample gave the highest radioactivity levels after irradiation with respect to other samples. This observation was explained by the cooling and moderating effects caused by water, in which Pb sample was dived, on the neutrons of irradiation which facilitates the nuclear reaction with Pb. The relevant nuclear data has been tabulated. The SD's of the measured activities has been provided. Moreover, a group separation scheme (flow chart) has been suggested for the detected elements. The study aims to investigate the radioactive hazards of these materials used in the irradiation processes in the reactor in order to achieve the efficient protection from their radiations and to attain the safe disposal and treatment of their radioactive wastes

  7. Influence of processing temperature and precursor composition on phase region of solution processed methylammonium lead iodide perovskite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, A. K.; Hodges, D.; Misra, R. D. K.

    2017-09-01

    Solution processed organic-inorganic metal halide perovskite and its derivatives are promising in the development of efficient thin film photovoltaic devices. In the context of increasing the efficiency and sustainability of perovskite solar cells (PSC) devices, we have attempted to experimentally develop phase diagram for solution processed methyl ammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3)) perovskite. The phase diagram emphasized the role of processing parameters (precursor composition and crystallization temperature) on the crystallographic functionality and optical band gap of perovskite. The phase dynamics of low dimensional perovskite, which has emerged as a potential candidate for absorber layer in perovskite solar cells (PSC) with higher stability in ambient conditions is also discussed. We observed that crystallization via non-equilibrium annealing introduced lattice strain in perovskite which affected the crystallographic properties of perovskite. A highly crystalline perovskite, with large grain size was obtained by optimizing the crystallization parameters and precursor composition together with nucleation of perovskite crystal and its growth dynamics.

  8. Food advertising on Argentinean television: are ultra-processed foods in the lead?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allemandi, Lorena; Castronuovo, Luciana; Tiscornia, M Victoria; Ponce, Miguel; Schoj, Veronica

    2018-01-01

    To describe the number of processed and ultra-processed food (PUPF) advertisements (ads) targeted to children on Argentinean television (TV), to analyse the advertising techniques used and the nutritional quality of the foods advertised, and to determine the potential exposure of children to unhealthy food advertising in our country. Five free-to-air channels and the three most popular children's cable networks were recorded from 07.00 to 22.00 hours for 6 weeks. Ads were classified by target audience, type of product, advertised food categories and advertising strategies used. The NOVA system was used to classify food products according to industrial food processing level. Nutritional quality was analysed using the Pan American Health Organization's nutrient profile model. Buenos Aires, Argentina. Results are considered applicable to most of the country. The study did not involve human subjects. Of the sample of food ads, PUPF products were more frequently advertised during children's programmes (98·9 %) v. programmes targeted to the general audience (93·7 %, χ 2=45·92, Pfood categories were desserts, dairy products, non-alcoholic sugary beverages, fast-food restaurants, and salty snacks. Special promotions and the appearance of cartoon characters were much more frequent in ads targeting children. Argentinean children are estimated to be exposed to sixty-one ads for unhealthy PUPF products per week. Our study showed that Argentinean children are exposed to a high number of unhealthy PUPF ads on TV. The Argentinean Government should build on this information to design and implement a comprehensive policy to reduce exposure to unhealthy food marketing that includes TV and other communication channels and places.

  9. The Emergence and Workings of a Process View in Public Education Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Justine Grønbæk; Ratner, Helene

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a study of Danish primary education policy with the purpose of exploring what is put at stake when contemporary management discourses describe the object of management as fluid and emergent processes rather than as entities, persons and things. The article examines how...... such a process view of organisation allows policy makers to imagine innovative change, but also how a process view interacts in particular ways with financial pressures and become entangled to increased performance measurements. We conclude that in this particular case, a conception of the object of management...

  10. The emergence and workings of a process view in public education policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk Pors, Justine; Ratner, Helene Gad

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a study of Danish primary education policy with the purpose of exploring what is put at stake when contemporary management discourses describe the object of management as fluid and emergent processes rather than as entities, persons and things. The article examines how...... such a process view of organisation allows policy makers to imagine innovative change, but also how a process view interacts in particular ways with financial pressures and become entangled to increased performance measurements. We conclude that in this particular case, a conception of the object of management...

  11. Does central bank communication really lead to better forecasts of policy decisions? New evidence based on a Taylor rule model for the ECB

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, Jan-Egbert; De Haan, Jakob

    Nowadays, it is widely believed that greater disclosure and clarity over policy may lead to greater predictability of central bank actions. We examine whether communication by the European Central Bank (ECB) adds information compared to the information provided by a Taylor rule model in which

  12. The impact of health system governance and policy processes on health services in Iraqi Kurdistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik-Shukor, Ali; Khoshnaw, Hiro

    2010-06-08

    Relative to the amount of global attention and media coverage since the first and second Gulf Wars, very little has been published in the health services research literature regarding the state of health services in Iraq, and particularly on the semi-autonomous region of Kurdistan. Building on findings from a field visit, this paper describes the state of health services in Kurdistan, analyzes their underlying governance structures and policy processes, and their overall impact on the quality, accessibility and cost of the health system, while stressing the importance of reinvesting in public health and community-based primary care. Very little validated, research-based data exists relating to the state of population health and health services in Kurdistan. What little evidence exists, points to a region experiencing an epidemiological polarization, with different segments of the population experiencing rapidly-diverging rates of morbidity and mortality related to different etiological patterns of communicable, non-communicable, acute and chronic illness and disease. Simply put, the rural poor suffer from malnutrition and cholera, while the urban middle and upper classes deal with issues of obesity and Type 2 diabetes. The inequity is exacerbated by a poorly governed, fragmented, unregulated, specialized and heavily privatized system, that not only leads to poor quality of care and catastrophic health expenditures, but also threatens the economic and political stability of the region. There is an urgent need to revisit and clearly define the core values and goals of a future health system, and to develop an inclusive governance and policy framework for change, towards a more equitable and effective primary care-based health system, with attention to broader social determinants of health and salutogenesis. This paper not only frames the situation in Kurdistan in terms of a human rights or special political issue of a minority population, but provides important

  13. The impact of health system governance and policy processes on health services in Iraqi Kurdistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoshnaw Hiro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Relative to the amount of global attention and media coverage since the first and second Gulf Wars, very little has been published in the health services research literature regarding the state of health services in Iraq, and particularly on the semi-autonomous region of Kurdistan. Building on findings from a field visit, this paper describes the state of health services in Kurdistan, analyzes their underlying governance structures and policy processes, and their overall impact on the quality, accessibility and cost of the health system, while stressing the importance of reinvesting in public health and community-based primary care. Discussion Very little validated, research-based data exists relating to the state of population health and health services in Kurdistan. What little evidence exists, points to a region experiencing an epidemiological polarization, with different segments of the population experiencing rapidly-diverging rates of morbidity and mortality related to different etiological patterns of communicable, non-communicable, acute and chronic illness and disease. Simply put, the rural poor suffer from malnutrition and cholera, while the urban middle and upper classes deal with issues of obesity and Type 2 diabetes. The inequity is exacerbated by a poorly governed, fragmented, unregulated, specialized and heavily privatized system, that not only leads to poor quality of care and catastrophic health expenditures, but also threatens the economic and political stability of the region. There is an urgent need to revisit and clearly define the core values and goals of a future health system, and to develop an inclusive governance and policy framework for change, towards a more equitable and effective primary care-based health system, with attention to broader social determinants of health and salutogenesis. Summary This paper not only frames the situation in Kurdistan in terms of a human rights or special political

  14. Radiochemical characterization and environmental radiological impact in tin and lead processing from cassiterite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Marcia Aparecida Antico

    2009-01-01

    The tin and lead industry located in Pirapora do Bom Jesus in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, is responsible for the production of about 7000 ton year-1 of tin and 350 ton year-1 of lead. The raw material used in this facility is cassiterite, which presents in its composition concentrations of natural radionuclides from the uranium and thorium series up to 660 kBq kg -1 and 450 kBq kg -1 , respectively. The smelting and refining processes may lead to concentrations of these radionuclides, mainly in the precipitated dust and in slag. In the operational process, intermediate refining and final slag are obtained and are stored in piles in open air. It is estimated that the amount of waste stored is about 600000 ton. This work aims to study the environmental radiological impact of the operation of this facility and to establish its Environmental Radiological Monitoring Program. In order to accomplish this task the content of radioactivity was determined in the raw material, products, byproducts, residue, deposition pond and exhausting systems. Although in the raw material the radionuclides from the uranium and thorium series are almost in equilibrium, during the processing this equilibrium is disrupted and the radionuclides migrate according to their chemical properties. Concentrations up to 31 kBq kg -1 for 238 U, 69 kBq kg -1 for 226 Ra, 2.5 kBq kg -1 for 210 Pb, 130 kBq kg -1 for 232 Th and 120 kBq kg -1 for 228 Ra were obtained in the slag. The environmental radiological impact was established by measuring the radionuclides in the critical compartments that is the ones that may cause exposure to the public. If the residue pile is considered, the critical pathways are the internal exposition from the dust inhalation and the water ingestion, due to re suspension and dispersion of the pile dust and groundwater contamination, respectively; and external exposure due to immersion in the radioactive cloud and soil contamination. For the emission of gaseous and particulate

  15. Renewable energy support policy in Spain : An analysis of the decision-making process (1994-2014)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leston, D.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the decision-making process behind the RE support policy will be explored in order to answer the following research questions: “why has the policy-making process been revised so many times?” and “how can such a drastic change on the RE support policy be explained?” The answer is found

  16. Instruments and options for environmental policy during the accession process of EU associated countries in the area of environment and energy. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cames, M.; Matthes, F.C.; Baer, S.; Oberthuer, S.; Krug, M.; Mez, L.; Tempel, S.

    2001-07-01

    With regard to the leading role of the EU in climate protection policies, it is important to consider the impact of the accession process on EU climate policy. This study includes the analysis of the most important issues related to environment and energy within the accession process, namely: 1) status quo and development of the energy sector and structural CO{sub 2} mitigation options; 2) legal gap assessment and analysis of performance in the accession process; 3) identification of implementation patterns through detailed policy analysis; 4) evaluation of co-operation projects in the field of environment and energy in order to develop new projects that promote the accession process. This volume includes comparative analysis of the five Accession Countries. The detailed analysis of each country is documented in five country reports, each in a separate volume available only on the attached CD. (orig.)

  17. Exploring the Process of Implementing Healthy Workplace Initiatives: Mapping to Kotter's Leading Change Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Stacie; Pescud, Melanie; Waterworth, Pippa; Shilton, Trevor; Roche, Dee; Ledger, Melissa; Slevin, Terry; Rosenberg, Michael

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to use Kotter's leading change model to explore the implementation of workplace health and wellbeing initiatives. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 31 workplace representatives with a healthy workplace initiative. None of the workplaces used a formal change management model when implementing their healthy workplace initiatives. Not all of the steps in Kotter model were considered necessary and the order of the steps was challenged. For example, interviewees perceived that communicating the vision, developing the vision, and creating a guiding coalition were integral parts of the process, although there was less emphasis on the importance of creating a sense of urgency and consolidating change. Although none of the workplaces reported using a formal organizational change model when implementing their healthy workplace initiatives, there did appear to be perceived merit in using the steps in Kotter's model.

  18. The application of theories of the policy process to obesity prevention: a systematic review and meta-synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Brydie; Swinburn, Boyd; Sacks, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Background Theories of the policy process are recommended as tools to help explain both policy stasis and change. Methods A systematic review of the application of such theoretical frameworks within the field of obesity prevention policy was conducted. A meta-synthesis was also undertaken to identify the key influences on policy decision-making. Results The review identified 17 studies of obesity prevention policy underpinned by political science theories. The majority of included studies wer...

  19. Processes involved in charging of discharged lead-acid battery electrodes by pulse methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Alkaine, C.V. [Group of Electrochemistry and Polymers/DQ/UFSCar, C.P. 676, 13565-905 Sao Carlos (SP) (Brazil); de Souza, L.M.M.; Impinnisi, P.R.; de Andrade, J. [Group of Battery and Cells/DPMA-LACTEC/Centro Politecnico da UFPR, C.P. 19067, 81531-990 Curitiba (PR) (Brazil)

    2006-08-25

    In general, a relatively large part of the PbSO{sub 4} of lead-acid battery electrode discharge products can be seen as particles at the end of the discharge and thus their reduction, on the negative electrode, or oxidation, on the positive electrode, must involve the dissolution of the Pb{sup 2+}. In this paper, the processes occurring on flat negative electrodes during the galvanostatic charge transients are studied in detail, especially in relation to where and how much the PbSO{sub 4} and Pb{sup 2+} are reduced. The understanding of these processes is fundamental for the understanding of any pulse charging process. Thus, it is shown for a single discharge/charge cycle, that during the charging process a disruption of the PbSO{sub 4} film, giving rise to a continuous glued non-disrupted film and to a disrupted film attached by surface tension forces to the electrode surface can occur. Further, it is shown that the amount of disruption depends on the charging current conditions and it decreases with decreasing charging currents. It is also demonstrated that the reduction of the Pb{sup 2+} dissolved from the disrupted particles takes place simultaneously to the reduction of the non-disrupted glued part of the film. On the basis of these facts, it is finally shown, for the case of multiple discharge/charge cycles, how the charge associated with the disrupted film changes with cycling and why and how it is possible to determine the amount disrupted PbSO{sub 4} film formed. (author)

  20. Track leading to decision of 'framework for nuclear energy policy'. Reading the public attitude with public opinions (the second). Framework for nuclear energy policy (as of July 2005)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimooka, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    The Government decides to respect the 'Framework for Nuclear Energy Policy', which was decided by the Atomic Energy Commission on October 11th, 2005, as a basic principle for the nuclear energy policy and promote research, development and utilization of nuclear science and engineering. The Atomic Energy Commission asked the public to comment on the draft and held Public Hearings at five different venues. The Planning Council finalized the draft, taking the 1717 opinions from 701 citizens thus gathered into the consideration. Reading the public attitude with public opinions had been conducted by the author, which showed a large percentage of the consent to the policy and, at the same time, the necessity for the nation to make more efforts to communicate with the public in simple and more concise terms or listen to the public, and also to gain the public trust through education and public relations. The pros and cons both commented that the mass media was not fair. (T. Tanaka)

  1. National medicines policies – a review of the evolution and development processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Continuous provision of appropriate medicines of assured quality, in adequate quantities, and at reasonable prices is a concern for all national governments. A national medicines policy (NMP) developed in a collaborative fashion identifies strategies needed to meet these objectives and provides a comprehensive framework to develop all components of a national pharmaceutical sector. To meet the health needs of the population, there is a general need for medicine policies based on universal principles, but nevertheless adapted to the national situation. This review aims to provide a quantitative and qualitative (describing the historical development) study of the development process and evolution of NMPs. Methods The number of NMPs and their current status has been obtained from the results of the assessment of WHO Level I indicators. The policy formulation process is examined in more detail with case studies from four countries: Sri Lanka, Australia, former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and South Africa. Results The number of NMPs worldwide has increased in the last 25 years with the highest proportional increase in the last 5–10 years in high-income countries. Higher income countries seem to have more NMP implementation plans available and have updated their NMP more recently. The four case studies show that the development of a NMP is a complex process that is country specific. In addition, it demonstrates that an appropriate political window is needed for the policy to be passed (for South Africa and the FYR Macedonia, a major political event acted as a trigger for initiating the policy development). Policy-making does not stop with the official adoption of a policy but should create mechanisms for implementation and monitoring. The NMPs of the FYR Macedonia and Australia provide indicators for monitoring. Conclusions To date, not all countries have a NMP since political pressure by national experts or non-governmental organizations is generally

  2. Processes of local alcohol policy-making in England: Does the theory of policy transfer provide useful insights into public health decision-making?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavens, Lucy; Holmes, John; Buykx, Penny; de Vocht, Frank; Egan, Matt; Grace, Daniel; Lock, Karen; Mooney, John D; Brennan, Alan

    2017-06-13

    Recent years have seen a rise in new and innovative policies to reduce alcohol consumption and related harm in England, which can be implemented by local, as opposed to national, policy-makers. The aim of this paper is to explore the processes that underpin the adoption of these alcohol policies within local authorities. In particular, it aims to assess whether the concept of policy transfer (i.e. a process through which knowledge about policies in one place is used in the development of policies in another time or place) provides a useful model for understanding local alcohol policy-making. Qualitative data generated through in-depth interviews and focus groups from five case study sites across England were used to explore stakeholder experiences of alcohol policy transfer between local authorities. The purposive sample of policy actors included representatives from the police, trading standards, public health, licensing, and commissioning. Thematic analysis was used inductively to identify key features in the data. Themes from the policy transfer literature identified in the data were: policy copying, emulating, hybridization, and inspiration. Participants described a multitude of ways in which learning was shared between places, ranging from formal academic evaluation to opportunistic conversations in informal settings. Participants also described facilitators and constraints to policy transfer, such as the historical policy context and the local cultural, economic, and bureaucratic context, which influenced whether or not a policy that was perceived to work in one place might be transferred successfully to another context. Theories of policy transfer provide a promising framework for characterising processes of local alcohol policy-making in England, extending beyond debates regarding evidence-informed policy to account for a much wider range of considerations. Applying a policy transfer lens enables us to move beyond simple (but still important) questions of

  3. Enzyme activity as an indicator of soil-rehabilitation processes at a zinc and lead ore mining and processing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarkowska, Krystyna; Sołek-Podwika, Katarzyna; Wieczorek, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    The activities of soil enzymes in relation to the changes occurring in the soil on a degraded area in southern Poland after zinc and lead mining were analyzed. An evaluation of the usefulness of urease and invertase activities for estimating the progress of the rehabilitation processes in degraded soil was performed. The data show that the soil samples differed significantly in organic carbon (0.68-104.0 g kg(-1)) and total nitrogen (0.03-8.64 g kg(-1)) content in their surface horizons. All of the soil samples (apart from one covered with forest) had very high total concentrations of zinc (4050-10,884 mg kg(-1)), lead (959-6661 mg kg(-1)) and cadmium (24.4-174.3 mg kg(-1)) in their surface horizons, and similar concentrations in their deeper horizons. Nevertheless, the amounts of the soluble forms of the above-mentioned heavy metals were quite low and they accounted for only a small percentage of the total concentrations: 1.4% for Zn, 0.01% for Pb and 2.6% for Cd. Urease activities were ranked as follows: soil from flotation settler (0.88-1.78 μg N-NH4(+) 2h(-1) g(-1))inverted sugar, but they were much lower in soil from the flotation settler (0.12-6.95 mg of the inverted sugar). The results demonstrated that heavy pollution with Zn, Pb and Cd slightly decreased the activities of urease and invertase. It is thought that it resulted from the enzyme reactions occurring in slightly acidic or alkaline soil conditions. Under such conditions, heavy metals occur mainly in insoluble forms. The activities of these enzymes are strongly dependent on the content and decomposition of organic matter in the soil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Predictive process simulation of cryogenic implants for leading edge transistor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gossmann, Hans-Joachim; Zographos, Nikolas; Park, Hugh; Colombeau, Benjamin; Parrill, Thomas; Khasgiwale, Niranjan; Borges, Ricardo; Gull, Ronald; Erokhin, Yuri

    2012-01-01

    Two cryogenic implant TCAD-modules have been developed: (i) A continuum-based compact model targeted towards a TCAD production environment calibrated against an extensive data-set for all common dopants. Ion-specific calibration parameters related to damage generation and dynamic annealing were used and resulted in excellent fits to the calibration data-set. (ii) A Kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) model including the full time dependence of ion-exposure that a particular spot on the wafer experiences, as well as the resulting temperature vs. time profile of this spot. It was calibrated by adjusting damage generation and dynamic annealing parameters. The kMC simulations clearly demonstrate the importance of the time-structure of the beam for the amorphization process: Assuming an average dose-rate does not capture all of the physics and may lead to incorrect conclusions. The model enables optimization of the amorphization process through tool parameters such as scan speed or beam height.

  5. Practices and Processes of Leading High Performance Home Builders in the Upper Midwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Thoma, E.; Ojczyk, C.

    2012-12-01

    The NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership team proposed this study to gain insight into the business, sales, and construction processes of successful high performance builders. The knowledge gained by understanding the high performance strategies used by individual builders, as well as the process each followed to move from traditional builder to high performance builder, will be beneficial in proposing more in-depth research to yield specific action items to assist the industry at large transform to high performance new home construction. This investigation identified the best practices of three successful high performance builders in the upper Midwest. In-depth field analysis of the performance levels of their homes, their business models, and their strategies for market acceptance were explored. All three builders commonly seek ENERGY STAR certification on their homes and implement strategies that would allow them to meet the requirements for the Building America Builders Challenge program. Their desire for continuous improvement, willingness to seek outside assistance, and ambition to be leaders in their field are common themes. Problem solving to overcome challenges was accepted as part of doing business. It was concluded that crossing the gap from code-based building to high performance based building was a natural evolution for these leading builders.

  6. Developing New Mexico Health Care Policy: An application of the Vital Issues Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engi, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Icerman, L. [Icerman & Associates, Santa Fe, NM (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The Vital Issues Process, developed by the Sandia National Laboratories Strategic Technologies Department, was utilized by the Health Care Task Force Advisory Group to apply structure to their policy deliberations. By convening three expert panels, an overarching goal for the New Mexico health care system, seven desired outcomes, nine policy options, and 17 action items were developed for the New Mexico health care system. Three broadly stated evaluation criteria were articulated and used to produce relative rankings of the desired outcomes and policy options for preventive care and information systems. Reports summarizing the policy deliberations were submitted for consideration by the Health Care Task Force, a Joint Interim Committee of the New Mexico Legislature, charged with facilitating the development and implementation of a comprehensive health care delivery system for New Mexico. The Task Force reported its findings and recommendations to the Second Session of the 41st New Mexico State Legislature in January 1994.

  7. Optimal base-stock policy for the inventory system with periodic review, backorders and sequential lead times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren Glud; Thorstenson, Anders

    2008-01-01

    We extend well-known formulae for the optimal base stock of the inventory system with continuous review and constant lead time to the case with periodic review and stochastic, sequential lead times. Our extension uses the notion of the 'extended lead time'. The derived performance measures...

  8. Off-Policy Reinforcement Learning: Optimal Operational Control for Two-Time-Scale Industrial Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinna; Kiumarsi, Bahare; Chai, Tianyou; Lewis, Frank L; Fan, Jialu

    2017-12-01

    Industrial flow lines are composed of unit processes operating on a fast time scale and performance measurements known as operational indices measured at a slower time scale. This paper presents a model-free optimal solution to a class of two time-scale industrial processes using off-policy reinforcement learning (RL). First, the lower-layer unit process control loop with a fast sampling period and the upper-layer operational index dynamics at a slow time scale are modeled. Second, a general optimal operational control problem is formulated to optimally prescribe the set-points for the unit industrial process. Then, a zero-sum game off-policy RL algorithm is developed to find the optimal set-points by using data measured in real-time. Finally, a simulation experiment is employed for an industrial flotation process to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  9. Processes of globalization, economic policy and the role of state in raw materials and energy complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Vodzinský

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Authors dedicate this article to impacts of constrains in paradigm of potentials forming our society.As entire societies are assembled in certain pattern, this article is dedicated to reasoning why economical growth builton influence and a use of knowledge of the reasons would accelerate consumer orientation of reproduction cycle on the levelof ownership.Both of these, causes and reasons, result in aggravation of social order and ecological crises.End products of globalization and concomitant state economic policies do not lead to crisis solution nor do they lead to effectivedisappearance of their consequences.

  10. Toxicological analysis of the risk of lead exposure in metal processing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate toxicological risks for workers who are exposed to lead in their work environment. Methods: Since it is an important indicator of toxicological risk, a statistical analysis of lead concentration and biological lead toxicity markers in blood and urine were performed for both exposed and control groups.

  11. Investigation of the relaxor behavior of sol gel processed lanthanum lead titanium ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limame, K. [Centre Régional des Metiers de l' Education et de la Formation (CRMEF) de Fès, Rue deKuwait, BP 49, Fès (Morocco); Laboratoire de Physique Théorique et Appliquée, (LPTA), FSDM, B.P. 1796, Fès-Atlas, Fès (Morocco); Sayouri, S., E-mail: ssayouri@gmail.com [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique et Appliquée, (LPTA), FSDM, B.P. 1796, Fès-Atlas, Fès (Morocco); Yahyaoui, M.M. [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique et Appliquée, (LPTA), FSDM, B.P. 1796, Fès-Atlas, Fès (Morocco); Housni, A. [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique et Appliquée, (LPTA), FSDM, B.P. 1796, Fès-Atlas, Fès (Morocco); Institut Supérieur des Professions Infirmières et Techniques de Santé (ISPITS), Fès (Morocco); Jaber, B. [Centre National pour la Recherche Scientifique et Technique (CNRST), Angle Avenue Allal El Fassi avenue des FAR, Quartie Hay Ryad, BP8027 Nation Unies, Rabat (Morocco)

    2016-08-01

    A series of La doped lead titanate samples, with composition Pb{sub 1−x}La{sub x}Ti{sub 1−x/4}O{sub 3} (PLTx), where x=0.00; 0.02; 0.04; 0.06; 0.07; 0.08; 0.10; 0.12; 0.14; 0.16; 0.18; 0.21 and 0.22 was prepared using the sol–gel process. Addition of La gives rise to the two well-known phenomena: diffuseness and relaxation around the ferro-to-paraelectric transition; the two parameters related to these phenomena, and which give a satisfactory interpretation of them, have been estimated using the Uchino's quadratic law. This diffuse phase transition (DPT) has been investigated with the help of the Landau–Devonshire cluster theory and the model of Cheng et al., to show that polar regions may be generated around the DPT and far from the temperature, T{sub m}, of the maximum of the dielectric permittivity, which have as a direct consequence a non vanishing polarization even if T>T{sub m}.

  12. An In Vitro Evaluation of Biochemical Processes Involved in Lead-Induced Changes on Ram Spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, P; Maroto-Morales, A; García-Álvarez, O; Garde, J J; Mateo, R

    2016-06-01

    Lead (Pb(2+) ) is a toxic heavy metal which interferes with several physiological processes regulated by Ca(2+) , including those characterized by changes of the membrane stability and the motility of spermatozoa necessary for the fertilization of the oocyte. In this study, ejaculated sperm from six rams (Ovis aries) have been incubated in vitro with or without 50 ng Pb(2+) /ml during 30 min and in the presence or absence of three different potential modulators of the effects of Pb(2+) on changes in the sperm membrane before fertilization: charybdotoxin, quinacrine and staurosporine. Sperm samples incubated with Pb(2+) have shown significant reductions in acrosome integrity and sperm viability and an increase in progressive movement. None of the studied potential modulators had a protective effect against Pb(2+) action. On the contrary, Pb(2+) -incubated sperm in the presence of staurosporine had lower acrosome integrity, and lower sperm viability was observed when spermatozoa were incubated with Pb(2+) + charybdotoxin. Quinacrine was the only tested substance capable of increasing the concentration of Pb(2+) in spermatozoa; thus, the enhancement of Pb(2+) effects produced by staurosporine and charybdotoxin was not produced by an increased uptake of Pb(2+) by spermatozoa. However, the increase of intracellular Pb(2+) in those spermatozoa incubated with quinacrine did not result in an adverse effect on sperm motility or viability although the acrosome integrity was negatively affected. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Investigation of the relaxor behavior of sol gel processed lanthanum lead titanium ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limame, K.; Sayouri, S.; Yahyaoui, M.M.; Housni, A.; Jaber, B.

    2016-01-01

    A series of La doped lead titanate samples, with composition Pb 1−x La x Ti 1−x/4 O 3 (PLTx), where x=0.00; 0.02; 0.04; 0.06; 0.07; 0.08; 0.10; 0.12; 0.14; 0.16; 0.18; 0.21 and 0.22 was prepared using the sol–gel process. Addition of La gives rise to the two well-known phenomena: diffuseness and relaxation around the ferro-to-paraelectric transition; the two parameters related to these phenomena, and which give a satisfactory interpretation of them, have been estimated using the Uchino's quadratic law. This diffuse phase transition (DPT) has been investigated with the help of the Landau–Devonshire cluster theory and the model of Cheng et al., to show that polar regions may be generated around the DPT and far from the temperature, T m , of the maximum of the dielectric permittivity, which have as a direct consequence a non vanishing polarization even if T>T m .

  14. Effects of operating parameters on efficiency of lead removal by complexation-microfiltration process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trivunac Katarina V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Majority of lead content found in the environment is the result of human activities. Heavy metals can be hazardous because they tend to bioaccumulate. Complexation-microfiltration process for the removal of Pb(II ions was studied. The aim of microfiltration of the model wastewater containing heavy metal ions was finding an optimum ratio between the concentrations of the complexing agent and metal, and determining the most favorable pH value. The microfiltration experiments were carried out in a stirred dead-end cell. Diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE 23 was selected as the complexing agent. Versapor membranes were used to separate formed polymer-metal complex. The concentration of heavy metal ions after microfiltration in aqueous solution was determined using the atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS. Effects on the amount of complexing agent, concentration of metal ion, pH value and operating pressure on the flux, J, and rejection coefficient, R, were investigated. Experimental results indicate that the pH of the solution has considerable influence on the rejection coefficient. An increase in pH and the amount of complexing agents enabled us to obtain very high retention coefficient (99%.

  15. Structure/Processing Relationships of Highly Ordered Lead Salt Nanocrystal Superlattices

    KAUST Repository

    Hanrath, Tobias

    2009-10-27

    We investigated the influence of processing conditions, nanocrystal/substrate interactions and solvent evaporation rate on the ordering of strongly interacting nanocrystals by synergistically combining electron microscopy and synchrotron-based small-angle X-ray scattering analysis. Spin-cast PbSe nanocrystal films exhibited submicrometer-sized supracrystals with face-centered cubic symmetry and (001)s planes aligned parallel to the substrate. The ordering of drop-cast lead salt nanocrystal films was sensitive to the nature of the substrate and solvent evaporation dynamics. Nanocrystal films drop-cast on rough indium tin oxide substrates were polycrystalline with small grain size and low degree of orientation with respect to the substrate, whereas films drop-cast on flat Si substrates formed highly ordered face-centered cubic supracrystals with close-packed (111)s planes parallel to the substrate. The spatial coherence of nanocrystal films drop-cast in the presence of saturated solvent vapor was significantly improved compared to films drop-cast in a dry environment. Solvent vapor annealing was demonstrated as a postdeposition technique to modify the ordering of nanocrystals in the thin film. Octane vapor significantly improved the long-range order and degree of orientation of initially disordered or polycrystalline nanocrystal assemblies. Exposure to 1,2-ethanedithiol vapor caused partial displacement of surface bound oleic acid ligands and drastically degraded the degree of order in the nanocrystal assembly. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  16. Efficiencies and Physical Principles of Various Solar Energy Conversion Processes Leading to the Photolysis of Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergene, T.

    1995-12-31

    In the application of solar energy, hydrogen is likely to be used as an energy carrier and a storage medium. Production of molecular hydrogen and oxygen from water requires energy input, which may come from solar energy in various ways. This thesis begins with a literature survey of the different conversion processes and the efficiencies, which is an introduction to a series of enclosed papers. These papers are: (1) Trapping of Minority Charge Carriers at Irradiated Semiconductor/Electrolyte Heterojunctions, (2) Model Calculations on Flat-Plate Solar Heat Collector With Integrated Solar Cells, and (3) Efficiencies and Physical Principles of Photolysis of Water By Microalgae. In the papers, The qualitative features of the ``illumination-current``-characteristic curve are deduced. The hypothesis is that trapping originates in some specific cases because of confinement, which leads to charge injections into energy states above that corresponding to the band edge. The quantitative features of certain hybrid photovoltaic/thermal configuration are deduced. An analysis of the theoretical and realizable efficiencies of the photolysis of water by micro algae is given. 151 refs., 18 figs., 1 table

  17. Europeanization in VET Policy as a Process of Reshaping the Educational Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loogma, Krista

    2016-01-01

    The EU represents a transforming educational space, where national and supranational boundaries in educational governance are becoming blurred. The EU has become an important actor in educational governance and an important arena for policy learning and transfer. This paper explores how the process of reshaping the educational space manifests…

  18. Policies lost in translation? Unravelling water reform processes in African waterscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemerink-Seyoum, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1980s a major change took place in public policies for water resources management. The role of governments shifted under this reform process from an emphasis on investment in the development, operation and maintenance of water infrastructure to a focus on managing water resources systems

  19. The Implementation Process of Alcohol Policies in Eight Swedish Football Clubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geidne, Susanna; Quennerstedt, Mikael; Eriksson, Charli

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Alcohol stands in an ambiguous relationship to sports, and there is a common belief that participation in sports prevents alcohol consumption. Although this is not always the case, sports clubs can be important settings for health promoting alcohol policy interventions .The purpose of this paper is to explore the process of implementing…

  20. Researching International Processes of Education Policy Formation: Conceptual and Methodological Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This article elaborates one approach to conceptualizing and investigating international processes of education policy formation (IPEPF), which are dynamic, multi-level and processual in nature. This contribution is important because, although research is increasingly conducted on phenomena with such characteristics, extended discussions of how…

  1. Integrated Tales of Policies, Teaching and Teacher Education: Reflecting on an Ongoing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, C.

    2009-01-01

    Changing times in teacher education has been a long mantra and many changes have been occurring globally in this sector of higher education. In South Africa teacher education change has been linked to changes in the broader education processes and includes policy changes and the development of regulatory frameworks which all impacted on practice…

  2. Exploring National Environmental Policy Act processes across federal land management agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc J. Stern; Michael J. Mortimer

    2009-01-01

    Broad discretion is granted at all levels throughout federal land management agencies regarding compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). We explored the diversity of procedures employed in NEPA processes across four agencies, the USDA Forest Service, The USDI National Park Service and Bureau of Land Management, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers...

  3. Comparison of NITAG policies and working processes in selected developed countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ricciardi, G.W.; Toumi, M; Weil-Olivier, C.; Ruitenberg, E.J.; Danko, D; Picazo, J.; Zöllner, Y.; Poland, G.; Drummond, M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Vaccines are specific medicines characterized by two country-specific market access processes: (1) a recommendation by National Immunization Technical Advisory Group (NITAG), and (2) a funding policy decision. Objectives: The objective of this study was to compare and analyze NITAGs of

  4. Tracing the Policy Mediation Process in the Implementation of a Change in the Life Sciences Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh-Pillay, Asheena; Alant, Busisiwe

    2015-01-01

    This paper accounts for the enacted realities of curriculum reform in South Africa, in particular the mediation of curriculum change. Curriculum implementation is viewed as a complex networked process of transforming or mediating policy into classroom practice. The fact that curriculum implementation is seen as problematic requires attention for…

  5. Politics, policies and processes: a multidisciplinary and multimethods research programme on policies on the social determinants of health inequity in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Fran; Friel, Sharon

    2017-12-21

    The development and implementation of multisectoral policy to improve health and reduce health inequities has been slow and uneven. Evidence is largely focused on the facts of health inequities rather than understanding the political and policy processes. This 5-year funded programme of research investigates how these processes could function more effectively to improve equitable population health. The programme of work is organised in four work packages using four themes (macroeconomics and infrastructure, land use and urban environments, health systems and racism) related to the structural drivers shaping the distribution of power, money and resources and daily living conditions. Policy case studies will use publicly available documents (policy documents, published evaluations, media coverage) and interviews with informants (policy-makers, former politicians, civil society, private sector) (~25 per case). NVIVO software will be used to analyse the documents to see how 'social and health equity' is included and conceptualised. The interview data will include qualitative descriptive and theory-driven critical discourse analysis. Our quantitative methodological work assessing the impact of public policy on health equity is experimental that is in its infancy but promises to provide the type of evidence demanded by policy-makers. Our programme is recognising the inherently political nature of the uptake, formulation and implementation of policy. The early stages of our work indicate its feasibility. Our work is aided by a Critical Policy Reference Group. Multiple ethics approvals have been obtained with the foundation approval from the Social and Behavioural Ethics Committee, Flinders University (Project No: 6786).The theoretical, methodological and policy engagement processes established will provide improved evidence for policy-makers who wish to reduce health inequities and inform a new generation of policy savvy knowledge on social determinants. © Article author

  6. On applications of excess level processes to (N,D-policy bulk queueing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jewgeni H. Dshalalow

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with queueing systems in which N- and D-policies are combined into one. This means that an idle or vacationing server will resume his service if the queueing or workload process crosses some specified fixed level N or D, respectively. For the proposed (N,D-policy we study the queueing processes in models with and without server vacations, with compound Poisson input, and with generally distributed service and vacation periods. The analysis of the models is essentially based on fluctuation techniques for two-dimensional marked counting processes newly developed by the author. The results enable us to arrive at stationary distributions for the embedded and continuous time parameter queueing processes in closed analytic forms, enhancing the well-known Kendall formulas and their modifications.

  7. From chloroquine to artemether-lumefantrine: the process of drug policy change in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snow Robert W

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following the recognition that morbidity and mortality due to malaria had dramatically increased in the last three decades, in 2002 the government of Zambia reviewed its efforts to prevent and treat malaria. Convincing evidence of the failing efficacy of chloroquine resulted in the initiation of a process that eventually led to the development and implementation of a new national drug policy based on artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT. Methods All published and unpublished documented evidence dealing with the antimalarial drug policy change was reviewed. These data were supplemented by the authors' observations of the policy change process. The information has been structured to capture the timing of events, the challenges encountered, and the resolutions reached in order to achieve implementation of the new treatment policy. Results A decision was made to change national drug policy to artemether-lumefantrine (AL in the first quarter of 2002, with a formal announcement made in October 2002. During this period, efforts were undertaken to identify funding for the procurement of AL and to develop new malaria treatment guidelines, training materials, and plans for implementation of the policy. In order to avoid a delay in implementation, the policy change decision required a formal adoption within existing legislation. Starting with donated drug, a phased deployment of AL began in January 2003 with initial use in seven districts followed by scaling up to 28 districts in the second half of 2003 and then to all 72 districts countrywide in early 2004. Conclusion Drug policy changes are not without difficulties and demand a sustained international financing strategy for them to succeed. The Zambian experience demonstrates the need for a harmonized national consensus among many stakeholders and a political commitment to ensure that new policies are translated into practice quickly. To guarantee effective policies requires

  8. Influence in the Policy Making Process: the Rise of Economics at the Expense of Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, K. M.

    2007-12-01

    Scientific influence in resource policy making reached a zenith in the early 1970s during the legislative monopoly in the United States Congress that produced command and control regulatory protection policies. This congressional consensus began in 1879 with legislation producing the U.S. Geological Survey. Other scientific agencies followed. The Congresses of the first half of the 20th century merely strengthened the influence of science in policy outcomes that was present in the earliest congressional debates. What then happened at the turn of the 21st century when representatives in the administration frequently dismissed sound science in their policy deliberations? Policy monopolies arise from agreement in principle, and alternately decline as rival ideas gain hold in policy space. The science policy monopoly began to face competition from economics when cost benefit analysis was introduced into political parlance in 1936, again in the 1950s as a successful blocking tactic by the minority in opposition to western dams, and in 1961 when systems analysis was introduced to the Department of Defense under Robert McNamara. As businessmen replaced farmers as the modal profession of legislators, the language of politics increasingly contained economic terms and concepts. A ternary diagram and a budget simplex have the same shape, but have different theoretical meanings and imply different processes. Policy consensus is not dissimilar to a mineral phase diagram, with boundary conditions marked by election magnitudes and majority parties. The 1980 elections brought economic principles into all aspects of government decision-making, with a particular long-term interest in reducing the size and scope of government. Since then the shift in policy jargon from science to economics has been incremental. With the 1994 Republican legislative majority, scientists, their programs, and the funds required to maintain data collection projects became targets. The Conservative

  9. Ratification of the Kyoto Protocol: a citizen's guide to the Canadian climate change policy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, D.; Bjorn, A.; Duminuco, S.

    2002-01-01

    Canada is faced with the important decision of whether it should ratify the Kyoto Protocol. A reference for stakeholders and non-expert interested parties, this document is a guide into the Canadian Climate Change Policy Process. An understanding of climate science is required for climate policy, as is a knowledge of policy options available to overcome the challenges posed by climate change. The situation is further complicated by international and federal-provincial negotiations over the measures that should be implemented, if any. Climate policy affects all aspects of our lives, especially how we produce and use energy. An overview of climate science is provided in the first section, and the relationship between climate and rising temperatures due to greenhouse gas emissions is established. The sources of greenhouse gases in Canada are identified, with a closer look at the current trends. The Kyoto Protocol, if ratified, calls for Canada to reduce its emissions of greenhouse gases to six per cent below 1990 levels. It is noted that to date, Canada's emissions have risen 19.7 per cent above 1990 levels. The process underlying the international negotiations associated with the Kyoto Protocol, and especially Canada's role in it, are discussed. Flexibility mechanisms are strongly supported by Canada, such as credits for sinks, international carbon trading and credits for Clean Energy Exports. By approving such measures, the integrity of the Protocol would be considerably weakened. The domestic policy-making environment is examined, presenting key federal, provincial business and environmental players. In addition, the policy process in Canada is described, as well as the decisions made up to September 2002. Bibliographic and contact information is added in the last section of the document. 89 refs., 7 tabs., 7 figs

  10. Note: Optimal base-stock policy for the inventory system with periodic review, backorders and sequential lead times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren Glud; Thorstenson, Anders

    We show that well-known textbook formulae for determining the optimal base stock of the inventory system with continuous review and constant lead time can easily be extended to the case with periodic review and stochastic, sequential lead times. The provided performance measures and conditions...

  11. [The role of the state and society relationship in the foreign policy making process : arvustus] / Hiski Haukkala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Haukkala, Hiski

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Maria Groeneveld. The role of the state and society relationship in the foreign policy making process. Tartu : Tartu University Press, 2012. ( Dissertationes rerum politicarum Universitatis Tartuensis ; 7)

  12. Geometric-Process-Based Battery Management Optimizing Policy for the Electric Bus

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yan; Wang, Jin-kuan; Han, Peng; Han, Ying-hua

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of the electric vehicle industry and promotive policies worldwide, the electric bus (E-bus) has been adopted in many major cities around the world. One of the most important factors that restrain the widespread application of the E-bus is the high operating cost due to the deficient battery management. This paper proposes a geometric-process-based (GP-based) battery management optimizing policy which aims to minimize the average cost of the operation on the premise ...

  13. Policy Iteration for Continuous-Time Average Reward Markov Decision Processes in Polish Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanxin Zhu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the policy iteration algorithm (PIA for continuous-time jump Markov decision processes in general state and action spaces. The corresponding transition rates are allowed to be unbounded, and the reward rates may have neither upper nor lower bounds. The criterion that we are concerned with is expected average reward. We propose a set of conditions under which we first establish the average reward optimality equation and present the PIA. Then under two slightly different sets of conditions we show that the PIA yields the optimal (maximum reward, an average optimal stationary policy, and a solution to the average reward optimality equation.

  14. Development of an eco-friendly material recycling process for spent lead glass using a mechanochemical process and Na2EDTA reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasai, Ryo; Kubo, Hisashi; Kamiya, Masahiro; Itoh, Hideaki

    2008-06-01

    To develop a novel nonheating method with lower energy consumption and higher efficiency for recovering both lead and SiO2 glass matrix from spent lead-glass powder, we attempted to treat the spent lead glass by the mechanochemical method using the metal chelate reagent, sodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (Na2EDTA). As a result of the wet ball-milling treatment of spent lead-glass powder sealed in a polypropylene bottle with zirconia balls, Na2EDTA, and water at room temperature, we found that more than 99 mass % of lead contained in the spentlead-glass powder was extracted as a lead-EDTA species from the solid silica glass network matrix. This separation phenomenon was accelerated by the enlargement of the solid-liquid interface area due to ball-milling atomization and by the high stability constant of lead-EDTA. High extraction yield suggests that Pb-O-Pb bonds in lead glass are weakened or are broken down by the wet ball-milling treatment, i.e., the strong mechanical energy such as the potential and/ or friction energy provided by ball-milling may be high enough to elute lead ions from silica matrix. Moreover, we succeeded in recovering both lead ions as lead sulfate, which is the main compound of anglesite, and the EDTA as sodium-EDTA, which is reusable as the metal chelate reagent in wet chemical process using the ferric sulfate.

  15. Global Warming Leading to Phenological Responses in the Process of Urbanization, South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Don Lee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Current studies are either region-limited, sole-species, or have short researching periods; so, studies about various species are necessary throughout South Korea. In this study, trends of changes in the budding and flowering dates of spring plants by climate factors served to explore the process of urbanization. Four common species, such as Forsythia koreana (forsythia, Rhododendron mucronulatum (azalea, Prunus yedoensis (Yoshino cherry and Prunus mume (Japanese apricot, are examined during the period from 1973 to 2008 due to the limitation of recent datasets. Budding of forsythia, azalea, Yoshino cherry and the flowering of Japanese apricot are defined as Type I (inland, of reverse letter ‘L’ and flowering of forsythia, azalea and Yoshino cherry were grouped as Type II (inland and south coastline. Prunus mume budding was different from others, so it was defined as Type III (subtropical climate. The inland phonological response is relatively cold and dry and areas are affected by the Siberian high atmospheric pressure. On the other hand, the south and east coastlines are humid and warm areas even in the winter season due to the southeastern wind. There were advancements for 3.1 days of forsythia, 5.5 days of azalea, 6.5 days of Yoshino cherry and 18.6 days of Japanese apricot during the research period. The greatest changes occurred with respect to the minimum temperature in January and the maximum temperature in February, while the precipitation change was not significant. However, in Type II, the precipitation significantly impacted plant flowering events. Precipitation was the lowest in early spring in South Korea and especially the flowering of plants was impacted by the small amount of precipitation in this region. Additionally, if precipitation after budding was over 1 mm for forsythia and azalea, 2 mm for Yoshino cherry and 7 mm for apricot, flowering occurred in over 80% of the region. South Korea is characterized as having a small

  16. Optimal Inventory Policy Involving Ordering Cost Reduction, Back-Order Discounts, and Variable Lead Time Demand by Minimax Criterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Wuu Wu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper allows the backorder rate as a control variable to widen applications of a continuous review inventory model. Moreover, we also consider the backorder rate that is proposed by combining Ouyang and Chuang (2001 (or Lee (2005 with Pan and Hsiao (2001 to present a new form. Thus, the backorder rate is dependent on the amount of shortages and backorder price discounts. Besides, we also treat the ordering cost as a decision variable. Hence, we develop an algorithmic procedure to find the optimal inventory policy by minimax criterion. Finally, a numerical example is also given to illustrate the results.

  17. Role of Evidence in Maternal Health Policy Processes in Vietnam, India and China: Findings from the HEPVIC Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzoev, Tolib; Green, Andrew; Gerein, Nancy; Pearson, Stephen; Bird, Philippa; Ha, Bui Thi Thu; Ramani, Karaikurichi; Qian, Xu; Yang, Xiaoguang; Mukhopadhyay, Maitrayee; Soors, Werner

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the role of evidence in maternal health policy processes in Vietnam, India and China. Both formal and informal types of evidence were used; and differences were found between the stages of policy processes. Evidence used mostly covered easily quantifiable issues and clearly identifiable technical solutions. Different policy…

  18. The process of institutionalising the EU’s anti-terrorist policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Argomaniz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This article applies the perspective of historical institutionalism to the empirical analysis of the motors and characteristics of the institutionalisation process of the European Union’s anti-terrorist policies. Based on a theoretical model developed by Stone Sweet, Sandholtz and Fligstein, this contribution critically analyses the impact of external crises in the form of a series of terrorist attacks on the emergence of antiterrorism as an sphere of European governance. The article also examines political developments and key institutions, studies the role of policy entrepreneurs during this period and compares the importance of “revolutionary” and “evolutionist” perspectives to our understanding of the process of institutional change in this field.

  19. Embracing the Complexity of Policy Processes in Sanitation: Insights from India

    OpenAIRE

    Hueso, Andrés; Boni Aristizábal, Alejandra; Fernández-Baldor, Álvaro

    2018-01-01

    [EN] Different stakeholders tried participatory approaches to boost progress in rural sanitation in India. The policy processes around these experiences, despite shaping their outcomes, remain a knowledge gap this paper addresses. Evidence show that the interests of the actors involved resulted in the national campaign being construction-focused. Therefore, participatory approaches could only be successfully introduced through networks with political champions at their centre. Moreover, polit...

  20. Clashing frames: human rights and foreign policy in the Brazilian re-democratization process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Henrique Roriz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article deals with the use of rights in the Brazilian foreign policy in the late 1970s. Two main arguments are advanced: there was a novel understanding of rights that clashed with the traditional statist one, and the Brazilian strategies were less a complete rebuttal of rights language and more a reading of rights as a possible threat to the Abertura process.

  1. Lead recovery and the feasibility of foam glass production from funnel glass of dismantled cathode ray tube through pyrovacuum process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Mengjun; Zhang Fushen; Zhu Jianxin

    2009-01-01

    Cathode ray tube (CRT) is the first and foremost problem that must be solved in electronic waste disposal, and Key of which lies in the detoxification and reutilization of lead-contained funnel glass. In this study, a novel and effective process for funnel glass of dismantled CRT treatment was developed. Key point of the process was to recover metallic lead from the funnel glass and to prepare foam glass synchronously. Experimental results showed that lead recovery rate increased first with the increase of temperature, carbon adding amount, and holding time, then reached a plateau value, but pressure was on the contrary. The optimum temperature, pressure, carbon adding amount and holding time for lead recovery were 1000 deg. C, 1000 Pa, 5% and 4 h, respectively, and the maximum lead recovery rate was 98.6%. In the pyrovacuum process, lead in the funnel glass was firstly detached and changed to PbO, then reduced and evaporated, and was recovered in the form of pure metal with a purity of 99.3%. The residue porous glass was environmentally acceptable for construction application

  2. All Sequential Dip-Coating Processed Perovskite Layers from an Aqueous Lead Precursor for High Efficiency Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Muhammad; Lee, Jae Kwan

    2018-02-01

    A novel, sequential method of dip-coating a ZnO covered mesoporous TiO 2 electrode was performed using a non-halide lead precursor in an aqueous system to form a nanoscale perovskite film. The introduction of a ZnO interfacial layer induced significant adsorption in the non-halide lead precursor system. An efficient successive solid-state ion exchange and reaction process improved the morphology, crystallinity, and stability of perovskite solar cells. Improved surface coverage was achieved using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction processes. When all sequential dipping conditions were controlled, a notable power conversion efficiency of 12.41% under standard conditions (AM 1.5, 100 mW·cm -2 ) was achieved for the perovskite solar cells fabricated from an aqueous non-halide lead precursor solution without spin-casting, which is an environmentally benign and low-cost manufacturing processes.

  3. Optimal (R, Q) policy and pricing for two-echelon supply chain with lead time and retailer's service-level incomplete information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, M.; Naghavi, M. S.; Ghahghaei, A.

    2018-03-01

    Many studies focus on inventory systems to analyze different real-world situations. This paper considers a two-echelon supply chain that includes one warehouse and one retailer with stochastic demand and an up-to-level policy. The retailer's lead time includes the transportation time from the warehouse to the retailer that is unknown to the retailer. On the other hand, the warehouse is unaware of retailer's service level. The relationship between the retailer and the warehouse is modeled based on the Stackelberg game with incomplete information. Moreover, their relationship is presented when the warehouse and the retailer reveal their private information using the incentive strategies. The optimal inventory and pricing policies are obtained using an algorithm based on bi-level programming. Numerical examples, including sensitivity analysis of some key parameters, will compare the results between the Stackelberg models. The results show that information sharing is more beneficial to the warehouse rather than the retailer.

  4. Sub-national entities’ participation in Brazil’s foreign policy and in regional integration processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deisy Ventura

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on how sub-national entities’ gradual participation in Brazilian foreign policy has come about, with reference to a decentralised scenario of the decision-making process in Itamaraty, where the ministries and presidential organs have a voice on many strategic themes, mainly concerning development. The article examines the insertion of sub-national entities into the decision-making process in the Southern Common Market (Mercosur, and concludes that in spite of the incipient participation, relevant contributions to the process of regional integration have arisen. Regarding the hypothesis that the participation of the federative entities in the decision-making process generates local and regional development, we argue that this is an alternative to increasing state efficiency. In conclusion, and despite the incipient institutionalisation that does not guarantee their vote in the decision-making process, at least their voice is heard.

  5. 76 FR 70833 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Primary Lead Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-15

    ... were changes to our cancer, acute, and PB-HAP multipathway screening analyses for non-lead HAP as a... pollutants (HAP) from stationary sources. In the first stage, after the EPA has identified categories of sources emitting one or more of the HAP listed in section 112(b) of the CAA, section 112(d) calls for us...

  6. Toxicological analysis of the risk of lead exposure in metal processing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Australia. 2.41. The aim of the present study is to evaluate toxicological risks for the workers who are exposed to lead in their work environment. (NISSAL factory, Niš, Serbia; hereinafter. "Nissal"). The values of this toxic metal and the biological markers (δ-aminolevulinic acid and coproporphyrin) in the blood and urine were.

  7. ‘Rowing against the current’: the policy process and effects of removing user fees for caesarean sections in Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresswell, Jenny A; Makoutodé, Patrick; De Brouwere, Vincent; Witter, Sophie; Filippi, Veronique; Kanhonou, Lydie G; Goufodji, Sourou B; Lange, Isabelle L; Lawin, Lionel; Affo, Fabien; Marchal, Bruno

    2018-01-01

    Background In 2009, the Benin government introduced a user fee exemption policy for caesarean sections. We analyse this policy with regard to how the existing ideas and institutions related to user fees influenced key steps of the policy cycle and draw lessons that could inform the policy dialogue for universal health coverage in the West African region. Methods Following the policy stages model, we analyse the agenda setting, policy formulation and legitimation phase, and assess the implementation fidelity and policy results. We adopted an embedded case study design, using quantitative and qualitative data collected with 13 tools at the national level and in seven hospitals implementing the policy. Results We found that the initial political goal of the policy was not to reduce maternal mortality but to eliminate the detention in hospitals of mothers and newborns who cannot pay the user fees by exempting a comprehensive package of maternal health services. We found that the policy development process suffered from inadequate uptake of evidence and that the policy content and process were not completely in harmony with political and public health goals. The initial policy intention clashed with the neoliberal orientation of the political system, the fee recovery principles institutionalised since the Bamako Initiative and the prevailing ideas in favour of user fees. The policymakers did not take these entrenched factors into account. The resulting tension contributed to a benefit package covering only caesarean sections and to the variable implementation and effectiveness of the policy. Conclusion The influence of organisational culture in the decision-making processes in the health sector is often ignored but must be considered in the design and implementation of any policy aimed at achieving universal health coverage in West African countries. PMID:29564156

  8. A Community Health Clinic Breastfeeding-Friendly Pilot: What Can We Learn about the Policy Process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Donna B; Lamson, Erica; Schwartz, Rachel; Goldhammer, Camie; Ellings, Amy

    2015-11-01

    Implementing evidence-based practices and policies for breastfeeding support in community clinics is a promising, but challenging, approach to reducing disparities in breastfeeding rates. This study aimed to apply a policy process research framework to increase knowledge of factors that facilitate adoption and implementation of breastfeeding policy changes. In 2013, Washington State piloted a process to encourage 8 clinics to adopt and implement steps to become breastfeeding friendly. Evaluation data were collected through interviews, project reports, training evaluations, and pre- and post-self-assessments of achievement of the steps. In 6 months, clinics increased the breastfeeding-friendly steps that they were implementing from a median (interquartile range) of 1.5 (0-3) to 6 (5-7). Improvements were most likely in the steps that required the fewest resources and administrative changes. Barriers to implementation included misperceptions about breastfeeding and breastfeeding support; lack of administrative "buy-in"; need for organizational changes to accommodate actions like monitoring breastfeeding rates and allowing providers training time; and the social-political climate of the clinic. Several factors, including actions taken by public health practitioners, enhanced the change process. These included fostering supportive relationships, targeting technical assistance, and providing resources for planning and training. This pilot project demonstrates that it is possible to make changes in breastfeeding support practices and policies in community clinics. Recommendations to enhance future work include framing and marketing breastfeeding support in ways that resonate with clinic decision makers and enhancing training, resources, and advocacy to build capacity for internal and external systems changes to support breastfeeding best practices. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Determination of regression functions for the charging and discharging processes of valve regulated lead-acid batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Vukić, Vladimir Đ.

    2012-01-01

    Following a deep discharge of AGM SVT 300 valve-regulated lead-acid batteries using the ten-hour discharge current, the batteries were charged using variable current. In accordance with the obtained results, exponential and polynomial functions for the approximation of the specified processes were analyzed. The main evaluation instrument for the quality of the implemented approximations was the adjusted coefficient of determination R-2. It was perceived that the battery discharge process migh...

  10. [Processes in the construction of the Brazilian National Health Promotion Policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira Neto, João Leite; Kind, Luciana; Resende, Maria Carolina Costa; Colen, Natália Silva

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the processes involved in the construction of the Brazilian National Health Promotion Policy (PNPS) through the analysis of three documents produced by the Ministry of Health from 2002 to 2005 and the final text of the National Health Promotion Policy, approved in 2006. We interviewed five subjects who participated in drafting the PNPS, three of whom were Ministry of Health administrators, plus two researchers. The documents were explored with discourse analysis. The article contributes to the debate on the development of the PNPS. Health promotion showed various points of disagreement, which led to the delay in the document's final approval. International induction via funding proved to be a crucial element for defining the final wording of the PNPS, reestablishing the emphasis (subject to criticism) on lifestyle changes in its "Actions". The article highlights the negotiated consensus that led to the creation of the PNPS Management Committee, with participation by various sub-sectors, an innovative structure within the Ministry of Health.

  11. Serbian migration policy concerning irregular migration and asylum in the context of the EU integration process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Stojić-Mitrović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I would like to present Serbian migration policy concerning irregular migration and asylum in the context of the attempts of the Serbian state to become a member of the European Union. I would describe the history of the asylum system prior and after the implementation of the independent asylum system in Serbia in 2008. My presentation of the Serbian migration policy would be channelled by the analysis of some particular political issues, such as the externalization of the EU borders’ control, as well as some relevant elements of the European integration process, like visa liberalization. The second, more culturally specific dimension of the issue would be accessed through the demonstration of both legislative and public conceptualizations of the irregular migrants, asylum seekers and refugees in Serbia.

  12. Process optimization of batch biosorption of lead using Lactobacillius bulgaricus in an aqueous phase system using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedighi, Mehdi; Ghasemi, Mostafa; Hassan, Sedky H A; Daud, Wan Ramli Wan; Ismail, Manal; Abdallah, Elgorban

    2012-05-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite rotatable design was used to investigate the effects of operating variable, mainly, pH, weight of biomass, and initial lead ion concentration on the lead adsorption capacity at ambient temperature using dried cells of Lactobacillius bulgaricus. Using RSM, quadratic polynomial equation was obtained for predicting the percent of lead ion removal. Analysis of variance showed that the effects of pH and weight of dried biomass were concluded to be the key factors influencing the capacity of lead ion removal. At pH lower than 2 (high acidic condition) and in alkaline condition, there is no significant biosorption. The optimum percent of lead ion removal was found at pH of 6.78, biomass concentration of 6.58 g/l and initial lead concentration 36.22 ppm. In this condition, percent of lead ion removal was 86.21%. This study showed RSM effectiveness for modeling of biosorption process.

  13. Lead recovery and glass microspheres synthesis from waste CRT funnel glasses through carbon thermal reduction enhanced acid leaching process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingfei, Xing; Yaping, Wang; Jun, Li; Hua, Xu

    2016-03-15

    In this study, a novel process for detoxification and reutilization of waste cathode ray tube (CRT) funnel glass was developed by carbon thermal reduction enhanced acid leaching process. The key to this process is removal of lead from the CRT funnel glass and synchronous preparation of glass microspheres. Carbon powder was used as an isolation agent and a reducing agent. Under the isolation of the carbon powder, the funnel glass powder was sintered into glass microspheres. In thermal reduction, PbO in the funnel glass was first reduced to elemental Pb by carbon monoxide and then located on the surface of glass microspheres which can be removed easily by acid leaching. Experimental results showed that temperature, carbon adding amount and holding time were the major parameters that controlled lead removal rate. The maximum lead removal rate was 94.80% and glass microspheres that measured 0.73-14.74μm were obtained successfully by setting the temperature, carbon adding amount and holding time at 1200°C, 10% and 30min, respectively. The prepared glass microspheres may be used as fillers in polymer materials and abrasive materials, among others. Accordingly, this study proposed a practical and economical process for detoxification and recycling of waste lead-containing glass. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Processing and characterization of lead-free ceramics on the base of sodium-potassium niobate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politova, E. D.; Golubko, N. V.; Kaleva, G. M.; Mosunov, A. V.; Sadovskaya, N. V.; Stefanovich, S. Yu.; Kiselev, D. A.; Kislyuk, A. M.; Panda, P. K.

    Lead-free sodium-potassium niobate-based piezoelectric materials are most intensively studied in order to replace the widely used Pb-based ones. In this work, the effects of modification of compositions by donor and acceptor dopants in the A- and B-sites of perovskite lattice on structure, dielectric, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric properties of ceramics from Morphotropic Phase Boundary in the (1-x)(K0.5Na0.5)NbO3-xBaTiO3 system and in compositions with x=0.05 and 0.06 additionally doped by Ni3+ cations have been studied.

  15. Leading nucleons from peripheral processes in lepton deep inelastic scattering and the nucleon structure

    CERN Document Server

    Szczurek, A

    1999-01-01

    The experimental information on nucleon production in lepton deep inelastic scattering (DIS) is rather scarce. Recently there is a growing interest in understanding the mechanism of the production of baryons in DIS, stimulated by recent results on leading protons and neutrons from electron-proton scattering at HERA. I review on different peripheral mechanisms of nucleon (proton or neutron) production in lepton DIS and discuss their role in understanding the spectra of nucleons for both fixed target and collider experiments. In DIS ep to e'Xh, the QCD hardness scale gradually diminishes from the hard scale, Q/sup 2/, in the virtual photon (current) fragmentation region to the soft, hadronic, scale in the proton (target) fragmentation region. This suggests a similarity of the inclusive spectra of leading protons and neutrons, h=p, n, in high energy hadron-proton collisions and in lepton DIS at small Bjorken-x. The semi-inclusive cross section for production of slow protons in charged-current deep inelastic (ant...

  16. Stress leads to aberrant hippocampal involvement when processing schema-related information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Susanne; Kluen, Lisa Marieke; Fernández, Guillén; Schwabe, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Prior knowledge, represented as a mental schema, has critical impact on how we organize, interpret, and process incoming information. Recent findings indicate that the use of an existing schema is coordinated by the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), communicating with parietal areas. The hippocampus, however, is crucial for encoding schema-unrelated information but not for schema-related information. A recent study indicated that stress mediators may affect schema-related memory, but the underlying neural mechanisms are currently unknown. Here, we thus tested the impact of acute stress on neural processing of schema-related information. We exposed healthy participants to a stress or control manipulation before they processed, in the MRI scanner, words related or unrelated to a preexisting schema activated by a specific cue. Participants' memory for the presented material was tested 3-5 d after encoding. Overall, the processing of schema-related information activated the mPFC, the precuneus, and the angular gyrus. Stress resulted in aberrant hippocampal activity and connectivity while participants processed schema-related information. This aberrant engagement of the hippocampus was linked to altered subsequent memory. These findings suggest that stress may interfere with the efficient use of prior knowledge during encoding and may have important practical implications, in particular for educational settings. © 2018 Vogel et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  17. Jovian Substorms: A Study of Processes Leading to Transient Behavior in the Jovian Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, C. T.

    2000-01-01

    Solar system magnetospheres can be divided into two groups: induced and intrinsic. The induced magnetospheres are produced in the solar wind interaction of the magnetized solar wind with planetary obstacles. Examples of these magnetospheres are those of comets, Venus and Mars. Intrinsic magnetospheres are the cavities formed in the solar wind by the magnetic fields produced by dynamo current systems inside the planets: Mercury, Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are known to have intrinsic magnetospheres. Intrinsic magnetospheres can be further subdivided as to how the circulating plasma is driven by external or internal processes. The magnetospheres of Mercury and Earth are driven by the solar wind. The magnetospheres of Jupiter and possibly of Saturn are principally driven by internal processes. These processes provide the energy for the powerful jovian radio signals that can be detected easily on the surface of the Earth.

  18. Effects of Lead Exposure, Environmental Conditions, and Metapopulation Processes on Population Dynamics of Spectacled Eiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Paul L.; Grand, James B.; Petersen, Margaret; Rockwell, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    Spectacled eider Somateria fischeri numbers have declined and they are considered threatened in accordance with the US Endangered Species Act throughout their range. We synthesized the available information for spectacled eiders to construct deterministic, stochastic, and metapopulation models for this species that incorporated current estimates of vital rates such as nest success, adult survival, and the impact of lead poisoning on survival. Elasticities of our deterministic models suggested that the populations would respond most dramatically to changes in adult female survival and that the reductions in adult female survival related to lead poisoning were locally important. We also examined the sensitivity of the population to changes in lead exposure rates. With the knowledge that some vital rates vary with environmental conditions, we cast stochastic models that mimicked observed variation in productivity. We also used the stochastic model to examine the probability that a specific population will persist for periods of up to 50 y. Elasticity analysis of these models was consistent with that for the deterministic models, with perturbations to adult female survival having the greatest effect on population projections. When used in single population models, demographic data for some localities predicted rapid declines that were inconsistent with our observations in the field. Thus, we constructed a metapopulation model and examined the predictions for local subpopulations and the metapopulation over a wide range of dispersal rates. Using the metapopulation model, we were able to simulate the observed stability of local subpopulations as well as that of the metapopulation. Finally, we developed a global metapopulation model that simulates periodic winter habitat limitation, similar to that which might be experienced in years of heavy sea ice in the core wintering area of spectacled eiders in the central Bering Sea. Our metapopulation analyses suggested that no

  19. CULTURAL PHENOMENA AND PROCESSES IN CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY – DETERMINANTS OF CULTURAL POLICIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREEA MIHAELA NITA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cultural phenomena and processes in the contemporary society, influenced by the social development models and by the fact that the constitutive elements of the culture have become the decisive factors of social change, are the determinants of the cultural policies. They are centered on the active process of cultural globalization that emphasizes besides the assimilation of the European principles, also the preservation of the cultural dialog without identity loss. Contemporary culture cannot be appreciated unless we know the main processes and phenomena that lately have generated impressive changes in the area of technology and means of communication. Due to these transformations we witness a change of the cultural paradigms, a mutation of values.

  20. From Capitol Hill to Dupont Circle and Beyond: The Influence of Policy Actors in the Federal Higher Education Rulemaking Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natow, Rebecca S.

    2015-01-01

    The federal higher education rulemaking process develops policies that can profoundly affect college students, higher education institutions, and other actors in the higher education policy community. But little has been researched about the influence that different types of actors have on higher education rulemaking. By analyzing interviews with…

  1. Addressing the challenges to health sector decentralization in Nepal: an inquiry into the policy and implementation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, R; Ratanawijitrasin, S; Srithamrongsawat, S

    2009-09-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze the status and explore the challenges to decentralization policy implementation in Nepal. Thirty seven key informants rich in experience and knowledge, seven focus group discussions, observation of six health facilities and analysis of about 25 key policy documents provided the data for this study. The study identified the challenges to the implementation of decentralization reforms in the public health sector as: (i) centralised and weak management and programming practices of the government; (ii) weak legal and institutional framework; (iii) conflicting policy objectives; (iv) lack of implementation strategy; (v) poor financial and human resource management system; (vi) lack of adequate preparation for managing the reform; (vii) weak capacity at all levels; (viii) political instability. It was revealed that the implementation of the policy in Nepal was extremely poor as many of the important policy measures were either never initiated or they were only partially implemented. The challenges lie both at - policy design and implementation phase. Clear policy objectives, appropriate structure, sound planning, financing and human resources policy, adequate capacity, responsive information system, defined service packages, active participation of stakeholders and a conducive socio-political environment are considered imperative for successful implementation of the policy. Preparation for managing reform implementation at national and district levels is prerequisite for decentralization to work. Pushing for decentralization in a politically fragile environment may rather lead to further fragmentation, instead of strengthening government legitimacy.

  2. Influence of lead-doped hydroponic medium on the adsorption/bioaccumulation processes of lead and phosphorus in roots and leaves of the aquatic macrophyte Eicchornia crassipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza-Quiñones, Fernando R; Módenes, Aparecido Nivaldo; de Oliveira, Ana Paula; Trigueros, Daniela Estelita Goes

    2013-11-30

    In this study, lead bioaccumulation by the living free-floating aquatic macrophyte Eicchornia crassipes in different hydroponic conditions with variations in phosphorus and lead concentrations was investigated. A set of growth experiments in hydroponic media doped with lead and phosphorus within a wide concentration range was performed for 32 days in a greenhouse. All experiments were carried out with periodic replacement of all nutrients and lead. The concentration of lead and nutrients in biomass was determined by synchrotron radiation-excited total reflection X-ray fluorescence. By increasing the lead concentration in the medium, a reduction in biomass growth was observed, but a higher phosphorus retention in roots and leaves was shown at lower lead concentrations. In addition, an increase in the amount of bioaccumulated lead and phosphorus in roots was observed for higher lead and phosphorus concentrations in the medium, reaching saturation values of 4 mg Pb g(-1) and 7 mg P g(-1), respectively. Four non-structural kinetic models were tested, to represent the bioaccumulation of lead and phosphorus in roots. Pseudo-second order and irreversible kinetic models described the lead bioaccumulation data well, however, an irreversible kinetic model better fitted phosphorus uptake in roots. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Leading research on brain functional information processing; No kino joho shori no sendo kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This research aims at searching the concept of an information processing device with a fully different architecture from a previous ones based on the study on human brain function, sense and perception, and developing the basic fabrication technology for such system, and realizing the human-like information processing mechanism of memorization, learning, association, perception, intuition and value judgement. As an approach deriving biological and technological models from experimental brain studies, the model was derived from the brain functional information processing based on brain development/differentiation mechanism, the control mechanism/material of brain activities, and the knowledge obtained from brain measurement and study. In addition, for understanding a brain oscillation phenomenon by computational neuroscience, the cerebral cortex neural network model composed of realistic neuron models was proposed. Evaluation of the previous large-scale neural network chip system showed its ability of learning and fast processing, however, the next-generation brain computer requires further R and D of some novel architecture, device and system. 184 refs., 41 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Symposium on intermediate-range atmospheric-transport processes and technology assessment. [Lead Abstract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 47 papers in this proceedings. The purpose of this meeting was to assess the state of the art of modeling atmospheric transport processes 10 to 100 km downwind of point and area sources of pollution. (KRM)

  5. Stress Leads to Aberrant Hippocampal Involvement When Processing Schema-Related Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Susanne; Kluen, Lisa Marieke; Fernández, Guillén; Schwabe, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Prior knowledge, represented as a mental schema, has critical impact on how we organize, interpret, and process incoming information. Recent findings indicate that the use of an existing schema is coordinated by the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), communicating with parietal areas. The hippocampus, however, is crucial for encoding…

  6. Mutation of Dcdc2 in mice leads to impairments in auditory processing and memory ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, D T; Che, A; Rendall, A R; Szalkowski, C E; LoTurco, J J; Galaburda, A M; Holly Fitch, R

    2014-11-01

    Dyslexia is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired reading ability despite normal intellect, and is associated with specific difficulties in phonological and rapid auditory processing (RAP), visual attention and working memory. Genetic variants in Doublecortin domain-containing protein 2 (DCDC2) have been associated with dyslexia, impairments in phonological processing and in short-term/working memory. The purpose of this study was to determine whether sensory and behavioral impairments can result directly from mutation of the Dcdc2 gene in mice. Several behavioral tasks, including a modified pre-pulse inhibition paradigm (to examine auditory processing), a 4/8 radial arm maze (to assess/dissociate working vs. reference memory) and rotarod (to examine sensorimotor ability and motor learning), were used to assess the effects of Dcdc2 mutation. Behavioral results revealed deficits in RAP, working memory and reference memory in Dcdc2(del2/del2) mice when compared with matched wild types. Current findings parallel clinical research linking genetic variants of DCDC2 with specific impairments of phonological processing and memory ability. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  7. The Impact of the Self-Awareness Process on Learning and Leading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Patricia Steiner describes a research problem that took considerable time and energy to investigate: the study of the "self-awareness" process. Steiner states that, if we believe in the concept of lifelong learning and development, then we must acknowledge the value of self-awareness as an important precursor to learning…

  8. The CIX uranium process: Blyvoors leads the way with full conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Board has developed a promising technique - the continuous ion exchange(CIX) process - for the recovery of uranium. The Blyvooruitzicht Gold Mining Company, which accommodated the highly successful demonstration plant is now spending R10 500 000 on extentions and conversions to full CCD/CIX. This article outlines the system and its advantages

  9. An Analysis of the Extent of Social Inclusion and Equity Consideration in Malawi's National HIV and AIDS Policy Review Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinyama, Mathews Junior; MacLachlan, Malcolm; McVeigh, Joanne; Huss, Tessy; Gawamadzi, Sylvester

    2017-07-29

    Equity and social inclusion for vulnerable groups in policy development processes and resulting documents remain a challenge globally. Most often, the marginalization of vulnerable groups is overlooked in both the planning and practice of health service delivery. Such marginalization may occur because authorities deem the targeting of those who already have better access to healthcare a cheaper and easier way to achieve short-term health gains. The Government of Malawi wishes to achieve an equitable and inclusive HIV and AIDS Policy. The aim of this study is to assess the extent to which the Malawi Policy review process addressed regional and international health priorities of equity and social inclusion for vulnerable groups in the policy content and policy revision process. This research design comprised two phases. First, the content of the Malawi HIV and AIDS Policy was assessed using EquiFrame regarding its coverage of 21 Core Concepts of human rights and inclusion of 12 Vulnerable Groups. Second, the engagement of vulnerable groups in the policy process was assessed using the EquIPP matrix. For the latter, 10 interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of representatives of public sector, civil society organizations and development partners who participated in the policy revision process. Data was also collected from documented information of the policy processes. Our analyses indicated that the Malawi HIV and AIDS Policy had a relatively high coverage of Core Concepts of human rights and Vulnerable Groups; although with some notable omissions. The analyses also found that reasonable steps were taken to engage and promote participation of vulnerable groups in the planning, development, implementation, monitoring and evaluation processes of the HIV and AIDS Policy, although again, with some notable exceptions. This is the first study to use both EquiFrame and EquIPP as complimentary tools to assess the content and process of policy. While the findings

  10. A national public health programme on gambling policy development in New Zealand: insights from a process evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolandai-Matchett, Komathi; Landon, Jason; Bellringer, Maria; Abbott, Max

    2018-03-06

    In New Zealand, a public health programme on gambling policy development is part of a national gambling harm reduction and prevention strategy mandated by the Gambling Act 2003. Funded by the Ministry of Health, the programme directs workplace/organisational gambling policies, non-gambling fundraising policies, and local council policies on electronic gaming machines (EGMs). We carried out a process evaluation of this programme to identify practical information (e.g. advocacy approaches; challenges and ameliorating strategies) that can be used by programme planners and implementers to reinforce programme effectiveness and serve to guide similar policy-focused public health initiatives elsewhere. Evaluation criteria, based on the programme's official service specifications, guided our evaluation questions, analysis and reporting. To identify informative aspects of programme delivery, we thematically analysed over 100 six-monthly implementer progress reports (representing 3 years of programme delivery) and transcript of a focus group with public health staff. Identified output-related themes included purposeful awareness raising to build understanding about gambling harms and the need for harm-reduction policies and stakeholder relationship development. Outcome-related themes included enhanced community awareness about gambling harms, community involvement in policy development, some workplace/organisational policy development, and some influences on council EGM policies. Non-gambling fundraising policy development was not common. The programme offers an unprecedented gambling harm reduction approach. Although complex (due to its three distinct policy focus areas targeting different sectors) and challenging (due to the extensive time and resources needed to develop relationships and overcome counteractive views), the programme resulted in some policy development. Encouraging workplace/organisational policy development requires increased awareness of costs to

  11. The European Union Cohesion Policy in Romania - Strategic Approach to the Implementation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAZAR Szilard

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Achieving economic, social and territorial cohesion by reducing existing disparities between regions through investing in infrastructure, human resources and diversification of regional economies remains a major goal for the EU Member States. The achievement of this goal would not be possible without the development and implementation of regional policy strategic instruments at national and EU level. This study presents the role, the essential elements, and objectives of instruments such as the Community Strategic Guidelines on Cohesion, the National Strategic Reference Framework, and the Romanian Operational Programmes for the programming period 2007-2013. Since the success of the cohesion policy is tied to its implementation, we also present the management and control system applicable for the operational programmes. The final part of the study deals with issues concerning the payment rate of Structural Funds in Romania, with a focus on the main challenges of the implementation process. An important task for the Romanian government is to remove the obstacles that brake the effective implementation of the Cohesion policy and the absorption of Structural and Cohesion Funds.

  12. Processes and challenges of the interaction betweeen research and policy from the perspective of researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo-Tuesta, Antonia; Santos, Leonor Maria Pacheco; Iturri, José Antonio

    2018-01-01

    Evidence-informed policies can produce social and economic impacts and equity and health benefits. Interaction between researchers in politics depends on the interests of social stakeholders and favorable political environments. This paper seeks to understand the meanings and researchers' perspectives of interaction processes between scientists and decision-makers that would influence the research impact on the health policy. This is a qualitative content analysis study conducted in 2014 to identify the core meanings and relationships between research and politics. The paper builds on the RAPID program approach of the Overseas Development Institute. Fourteen researchers who conducted maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality studies sponsored by the Health Ministry were interviewed. Researchers focused on the production of knowledge, strengthening of research capacities and dissemination of results. On some occasions, researchers also participated in the definition of clinical care policies and performance of health services. They pointed to barriers to interact and produce an impact on politics due to tensions in the political, economic and social context, as well as to institutional and organizational changes in the health sector and to the academic evaluation system.

  13. LEADING WITH LEADING INDICATORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PREVETTE, S.S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper documents Fluor Hanford's use of Leading Indicators, management leadership, and statistical methodology in order to improve safe performance of work. By applying these methods, Fluor Hanford achieved a significant reduction in injury rates in 2003 and 2004, and the improvement continues today. The integration of data, leadership, and teamwork pays off with improved safety performance and credibility with the customer. The use of Statistical Process Control, Pareto Charts, and Systems Thinking and their effect on management decisions and employee involvement are discussed. Included are practical examples of choosing leading indicators. A statistically based color coded dashboard presentation system methodology is provided. These tools, management theories and methods, coupled with involved leadership and employee efforts, directly led to significant improvements in worker safety and health, and environmental protection and restoration at one of the nation's largest nuclear cleanup sites

  14. DEMOGRAPHIC IMPERATIVES OF MODERNIZATION PROCESSES IN EDUCATIONAL POLICY (FOR EXAMPLE REGIONS OF INNER ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Innokentievna Garmaeva

    2017-02-01

    Methodological basis of the research are the historical, sociological methods, and also systematic and structural-functional analysis. The results of the research will help to determine the demographic processes in the cross-border regions of Inner Asia, in particular in the Republic of Buryatia (Russia, Autonomous Region of Inner Mongolia (China, Mongolia; the possibility of the higher education system’s development in the designated regions. The obtained results can be used in the work of public authorities involved in the development of public policy in the field of education, in reading of the lecture course, special seminars on pedagogy and history of education for the students and specialists of humanities.

  15. Towards a Nordic child care policy – the political processes and agendas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Tine; Eydal, Gudny

    2012-01-01

    This chapter will address the question of why childcare policies have been shaped in the way that it has. In other words, the chapter examines the underlying political processes and the agendas of the various political parties. In the literature about the driving forces of welfare state development......, two types of approaches have dominated the theoretical debate: functionalism, stressing the importance of structures and whole systems, and conflict theories, stressing institutions and actors (Borchorst & Siim 2009; Esping-Andersen 1991). This chapter will adopt a conflict-theory perspective....

  16. Participation, public policy-making, and legitimacy in the EU Voluntary Partnership Agreement process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wodschow, Astrid; Nathan, Iben; Cerutti, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses how participatory policy-making processes such as the Voluntary Partnership Agreement (VPA) negotiations are and should be organised to foster political legitimacy and support. The VPAs are bilateral agreements between the European Union (EU) and timber producing countries....... VPAs constitute a cornerstone in EU's Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT) programme, the most important tool for the EU to address illegal logging problems. The EU requires that national VPA negotiations include participation by the relevant stakeholders. Based on primary data, we...

  17. Practices and Processes of Leading High Performance Home Builders in the Upper Midwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Thoma, Ed [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership; Ojzcyk, Cindy [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership

    2012-12-01

    The NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership team proposed this study to gain insight into the business, sales, and construction processes of successful high performance builders. The knowledge gained by understanding the high performance strategies used by individual builders, as well as the process each followed to move from traditional builder to high performance builder, will be beneficial in proposing more in-depth research to yield specific action items to assist the industry at large transform to high performance new home construction. This investigation identified the best practices of three successful high performance builders in the upper Midwest. In-depth field analysis of the performance levels of their homes, their business models, and their strategies for market acceptance were explored.

  18. QCD factorization beyond leading twist in exclusive processes: rhoT-meson production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallon, S.; Anikin, I.; ); Ivanov, D.; Pire, B.; Szymanowski, L.

    2009-01-01

    Exclusive processes in hard electroproduction with asymptotic γ * p center of mass energy is one of the best place for understanding QCD in the perturbative Regge limit. The HERA experiment recently provided precise data for rho electroproduction, including all spin density matrix elements. From QCD, it is expected that such a process should factorize between a hard (calculable) coefficient function, and hadronic (P and ρ) matrix elements. Such a factorization is up to now only proven for a longitudinally polarized rho. Within the kt-factorization approach (valid at large s γ * p), we evaluate the impact factor of the transition γ * → ρT taking into account the twist 3 contributions. We show that a gauge invariant expression is obtained with the help of QCD equations of motion. More generally, relying on these equations and on the gauge invariance of the factorized amplitude, the non-perturbative Distribution Amplitudes can be reduced to a minimal set. This opens the way to a consistent treatment of factorization for exclusive processes with a transversally polarized vector meson. (author)

  19. The Empathic Process and Misconceptions that Lead to Burnout in Healthcare Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villacieros, Marta; Olmos, Ricardo; Bermejo, José Carlos

    2017-12-04

    Empathy has been identified as a relevant variable in order to predict burnout in healthcare professionals. In addition, assertiveness and self-esteem have been considered relevant variables to develop empathic capacity. In the other hand, misconceptions surrounding empathy constitute a risk factor for burnout. Two adult samples (N = 252 and N = 275) were used to explore and confirm the underlying structure of two questionnaires. The Exercise of Process of Empathy (EPE) scale (18 items) confirmatory factor analysis including 5 dimensions (cognitive and emotional comprehension, attention, clarity and assertiveness), showed reasonable goodness- of-fit indices χ2(130) = 269.63, p Misconceptions (EH) of empathy scale (16 items) confirmatory factor analysis, including 3 dimensions (feeling, confluence and character misconceptions) also obtained reasonable goodness-of-fit indices χ 2 (101) = 250.59, p misconceptions) a risk factor (b* = .171), EPE (empathy process) a protection factor (b* = -.183). The model partially explains how misconceptions empathy process and self-esteem (b* = -.334) relate to burnout syndrome in healthcare professionals; what is more, it heralds a potential means to prevent it.

  20. Processing and optical characterization of lead calcium titanate borosilicate glass doped with germanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, C. R.; Das, Sangeeta; Gautam, S. S.; Madheshiya, Abhishek; Singh, Anod Kumar

    2018-04-01

    In this study, various compositions of lead calcium titanate borosilicate glass doped with a fixed amount of germanium were synthesized using the rapid melt quench technique. The amorphous nature of the synthesized glass was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analyses. The structural and optical properties were deduced using Raman, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. FTIR spectroscopy confirmed the presence of borate groups in triangular and tetrahedral coordination. Infrared and Raman analyses detected the vibrational bonds of Gesbnd Osbnd Ge, Bsbnd Osbnd Ge, Sisbnd Osbnd Ge, Sisbnd Osbnd Si, and Pbsbnd Osbnd Ge. The energy band gaps were evaluated for the prepared glass samples based on Tauc plots of the UV-Vis spectra. The calculated values of the optical band gap decreased from 2.91 to 2.85 eV as the PbO content increased from x = 0.0 to x = 0.7. Furthermore, the Urbach energy was studied based on the UV-Vis results to confirm the disordered structure of the glass. The calculated densities of the glass samples (1.5835 g/cm3 to 3.9184 g/cm3) increased as the concentration of PbO increased, whereas they decreased with the molar volume.

  1. Characterization of highly crystalline lead iodide nanosheets prepared by room-temperature solution processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisenda, Riccardo; Island, Joshua O.; Lado, Jose L.; Giovanelli, Emerson; Gant, Patricia; Nagler, Philipp; Bange, Sebastian; Lupton, John M.; Schüller, Christian; Molina-Mendoza, Aday J.; Aballe, Lucia; Foerster, Michael; Korn, Tobias; Niño, Miguel Angel; Perez de Lara, David; Pérez, Emilio M.; Fernandéz-Rossier, Joaquín; Castellanos-Gomez, Andres

    2017-11-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) semiconducting materials are particularly appealing for many applications. Although theory predicts a large number of 2D materials, experimentally only a few of these materials have been identified and characterized comprehensively in the ultrathin limit. Lead iodide, which belongs to the transition metal halides family and has a direct bandgap in the visible spectrum, has been known for a long time and has been well characterized in its bulk form. Nevertheless, studies of this material in the nanometer thickness regime are rather scarce. In this article we demonstrate an easy way to synthesize ultrathin, highly crystalline flakes of PbI2 by precipitation from a solution in water. We thoroughly characterize the produced thin flakes with different techniques ranging from optical and Raman spectroscopy to temperature-dependent photoluminescence and electron microscopy. We compare the results to ab initio calculations of the band structure of the material. Finally, we fabricate photodetectors based on PbI2 and study their optoelectronic properties.

  2. Comparing different policy scenarios to reduce the consumption of ultra-processed foods in UK: impact on cardiovascular disease mortality using a modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Patricia V L; Baraldi, Larissa Galastri; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto; Newton, Alex; Capewell, Simon; O'Flaherty, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The global burden of non-communicable diseases partly reflects growing exposure to ultra-processed food products (UPPs). These heavily marketed UPPs are cheap and convenient for consumers and profitable for manufacturers, but contain high levels of salt, fat and sugars. This study aimed to explore the potential mortality reduction associated with future policies for substantially reducing ultra-processed food intake in the UK. We obtained data from the UK Living Cost and Food Survey and from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey. By the NOVA food typology, all food items were categorized into three groups according to the extent of food processing: Group 1 describes unprocessed/minimally processed foods. Group 2 comprises processed culinary ingredients. Group 3 includes all processed or ultra-processed products. Using UK nutrient conversion tables, we estimated the energy and nutrient profile of each food group. We then used the IMPACT Food Policy model to estimate reductions in cardiovascular mortality from improved nutrient intakes reflecting shifts from processed or ultra-processed to unprocessed/minimally processed foods. We then conducted probabilistic sensitivity analyses using Monte Carlo simulation. Approximately 175,000 cardiovascular disease (CVD) deaths might be expected in 2030 if current mortality patterns persist. However, halving the intake of Group 3 (processed) foods could result in approximately 22,055 fewer CVD related deaths in 2030 (minimum estimate 10,705, maximum estimate 34,625). An ideal scenario in which salt and fat intakes are reduced to the low levels observed in Group 1 and 2 could lead to approximately 14,235 (minimum estimate 6,680, maximum estimate 22,525) fewer coronary deaths and approximately 7,820 (minimum estimate 4,025, maximum estimate 12,100) fewer stroke deaths, comprising almost 13% mortality reduction. This study shows a substantial potential for reducing the cardiovascular disease burden through a healthier food system

  3. Defining progressive stages in the commitment process leading to embryonic lens formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hong; Fisher, Marilyn; Grainger, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The commitment of regions of the embryo to form particular tissues or organs is a central concept in development, but the mechanisms controlling this process remain elusive. The well-studied model of lens induction is ideal for dissecting key phases of the commitment process. We find in Xenopus tropicalis, at the time of specification of the lens, i.e. when presumptive lens ectoderm (PLE) can be isolated, cultured and will differentiate into a lens, that the PLE is not yet irreversibly committed, or determined, to form a lens. When transplanted into the posterior of a host embryo lens development is prevented at this stage, while approximately 3 hr later, using the same assay, determination is complete. Interestingly, we find that specified lens ectoderm, when cultured, acquires the ability to become determined without further tissue interactions. Further, we show that specified PLE has a different gene expression pattern than determined PLE, and that determined PLE can maintain expression of essential regulatory genes (e.g. foxe3, mafB) in an ectopic environment while specified PLE cannot. These observations set the stage for a detailed mechanistic study of the genes and signals controlling tissue commitment. PMID:22566346

  4. Noble-metal intercalation process leading to a protected adatom in a graphene hollow site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan Nair, M.; Cranney, M.; Jiang, T.; Hajjar-Garreau, S.; Aubel, D.; Vonau, F.; Florentin, A.; Denys, E.; Bocquet, M.-L.; Simon, L.

    2016-08-01

    In previous studies, we have shown that gold deposited on a monolayer (ML) of graphene on SiC(0001) is intercalated below the ML after an annealing procedure and affects the band structure of graphene. Here we prove experimentally and theoretically that some of the gold forms a dispersed phase composed of single adatoms, being intercalated between the ML and the buffer layer and in a hollow position with respect to C atoms of the ML on top. They are freestanding and negatively charged, due to the partial screening of the electron transfer between SiC and the ML, without changing the intrinsic n-type doping of the ML. As these single atoms decouple the ML from the buffer layer, the quasiparticles of graphene are less perturbed, thus increasing their Fermi velocity. Moreover, the hollow position of the intercalated single Au atoms might lead to spin-orbit coupling in the graphene layer covering IC domains. This effect of spin-orbit coupling has been recently observed experimentally in Au-intercalated graphene on SiC(0001) [D. Marchenko, A. Varykhalov, J. Sánchez-Barriga, Th. Seyller, and O. Rader, Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 172405 (2016), 10.1063/1.4947286] and has been theoretically predicted for heavy atoms, like thallium, in a hollow position on graphene [C. Weeks, J. Hu, J. Alicea, M. Franz, and R. Wu, Phys. Rev. X 1, 021001 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevX.1.021001; A. Cresti, D. V. Tuan, D. Soriano, A. W. Cummings, and S. Roche, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 246603 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.246603].

  5. Is it Feasible to Use Students' Self-reported Step Data in a Local School Policy Process?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Ane Høstgaard; Bruselius-Jensen, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Objective: We examined students’ self-reported step data and discussed the feasibility of using these data in a local school policy process. Methods: For 5 days during school hours, 281 stu- dents from grades 5–7 participating in a health education program, measured their steps using a pedometer......: Student-collected data showed similar patterns as reported in the literature, and therefore, a feasible perspective could be to use students’ self-reported step data in a local school policy process....

  6. Improved Signal Processing Technique Leads to More Robust Self Diagnostic Accelerometer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokars, Roger; Lekki, John; Jaros, Dave; Riggs, Terrence; Evans, Kenneth P.

    2010-01-01

    The self diagnostic accelerometer (SDA) is a sensor system designed to actively monitor the health of an accelerometer. In this case an accelerometer is considered healthy if it can be determined that it is operating correctly and its measurements may be relied upon. The SDA system accomplishes this by actively monitoring the accelerometer for a variety of failure conditions including accelerometer structural damage, an electrical open circuit, and most importantly accelerometer detachment. In recent testing of the SDA system in emulated engine operating conditions it has been found that a more robust signal processing technique was necessary. An improved accelerometer diagnostic technique and test results of the SDA system utilizing this technique are presented here. Furthermore, the real time, autonomous capability of the SDA system to concurrently compensate for effects from real operating conditions such as temperature changes and mechanical noise, while monitoring the condition of the accelerometer health and attachment, will be demonstrated.

  7. Alternative Processing Method Leads to Stronger Sapphire-Reinforced Alumina Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaskowiak, Martha H.

    1997-01-01

    The development of advanced engines for aerospace applications depends on the availability of strong, tough materials that can withstand increasingly higher temperatures under oxidizing conditions. The need for such materials led to the study of an oxide-based composite composed of an alumina matrix reinforced with zirconia-coated sapphire fibers. Because the nonbrittle behavior of this system depends on the interface and its ability to prevent fiber-to-matrix bonding and reduce interfacial shear stress, the microstructure of the zirconia must be carefully controlled during both coating application and composite processing. When it was both porous and unstabilized, zirconia (which does not react easily with alumina) was found to be the most effective material tested in reducing interfacial shear strength between the fiber and matrix.

  8. Bacterially mediated mineralisation processes lead to biodeterioration of artworks in Maltese catacombs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zammit, Gabrielle, E-mail: gabrielle.zammit@gmail.com [Dept. of Physiology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Malta (Malta); Sanchez-Moral, Sergio [Dept. de Geologia, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Albertano, Patrizia [Dept. of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Rome ' Tor Vergata' , Rome (Italy)

    2011-06-15

    Mineral structures formed by bacterial and microalgal biofilms growing on the archaeological surface in Maltese hypogea were studied using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) coupled to Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM), X-ray micro-diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). These techniques have shown that mineral structures having different morphologies and chemical composition were associated with the microorganisms in the subaerophytic biofilm. Salt efflorescences and mineral deposits on the archaeological surface were often formed from gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}{center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O), halite (NaCl) and calcite (CaCO{sub 3}). Biogenic carbonates produced by microbial activities were a common occurrence. These assumed different forms, such as the production of mineral coats around cyanobacterial sheaths and the occurrence of calcite fibres with different morphologies on the surface of the biofilms. Moreover, vaterite (CaCO{sub 3}) spherulites which appeared hollow in cross-section were observed. The presence of struvite was recorded from one catacomb site. These investigations have facilitated the study of the neoformation of metastable minerals by microbially mediated processes, which potentially contribute to a better understanding of the biodeterioration of artworks in Maltese palaeo-Christian catacombs. - Research highlights: {yields} Mineral structures formed by subaerial biofilms growing in hypogea were examined. {yields} Efflorescences and mineral deposits were often formed from gypsum, halite, and calcite. {yields} Biogenic carbonates assumed different forms e.g. vaterite spherulite, calcite fibres. {yields} The formation of rare minerals e.g. struvite was mediated by bacteria. {yields} Understanding biomineralisation processes facilitates the conservation of artworks.

  9. Environmental processes leading to the presence of organically bound plutonium in plant tissues consumed by animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildung, R.E.; Garland, T.R.; Cataldo, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    Using a proposed model for Pu behaviour to integrate current knowledge, information is presented on the chemical/biochemical processes governing the form of Pu in soils and plants and the relationship of these phenomena to gut absorption in animals. Regardless of the source term, Pu behaviour in the soil will be governed by the chemistry of Pu(IV), which predominates over Pu(VI) due to reductive reactions in the soil and at the plant root surface. The soil behaviour of Pu(IV) is governed by (1) hydrolysis, which results in insolubilization and sorption on solid phases, and (2) complexation with inorganic and organic ligands, which stabilize Pu(IV) against hydrolysis and increase solubility. These competing processes likely represent the rate-limiting step in the ingestion pathway because plants do not effectively discriminate against the soluble Pu(IV) ion. Following dissociation of soil Pu(IV) complexes at the outer root surface, Pu is transported across the plant root membrane as the Pu(IV) ion and translocated as Pu(IV) complexes with plant organic ligands. Redistribution of Pu occurs as the plant grows, with initial increases in stem tissues followed by accumulation in roots as the plant matures. The Pu concentration decreases up the plant and seeds contain the lowest Pu concentrations. The gastro-intestinal absorption of Pu requires the presence of soluble Pu forms and hydrolysis/complexation reactions in the gut likely govern solubility. The acidity of the gut is not sufficient to retard hydrolysis of Pu(IV). Therefore, the gastro-intestinal absorption of Pu organically bound in plant tissues is increased relative to Pu administered in hydrolysable solutions. (author)

  10. Bacterially mediated mineralisation processes lead to biodeterioration of artworks in Maltese catacombs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zammit, Gabrielle; Sanchez-Moral, Sergio; Albertano, Patrizia

    2011-01-01

    Mineral structures formed by bacterial and microalgal biofilms growing on the archaeological surface in Maltese hypogea were studied using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) coupled to Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM), X-ray micro-diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). These techniques have shown that mineral structures having different morphologies and chemical composition were associated with the microorganisms in the subaerophytic biofilm. Salt efflorescences and mineral deposits on the archaeological surface were often formed from gypsum (CaSO 4 · 2H 2 O), halite (NaCl) and calcite (CaCO 3 ). Biogenic carbonates produced by microbial activities were a common occurrence. These assumed different forms, such as the production of mineral coats around cyanobacterial sheaths and the occurrence of calcite fibres with different morphologies on the surface of the biofilms. Moreover, vaterite (CaCO 3 ) spherulites which appeared hollow in cross-section were observed. The presence of struvite was recorded from one catacomb site. These investigations have facilitated the study of the neoformation of metastable minerals by microbially mediated processes, which potentially contribute to a better understanding of the biodeterioration of artworks in Maltese palaeo-Christian catacombs. - Research highlights: → Mineral structures formed by subaerial biofilms growing in hypogea were examined. → Efflorescences and mineral deposits were often formed from gypsum, halite, and calcite. → Biogenic carbonates assumed different forms e.g. vaterite spherulite, calcite fibres. → The formation of rare minerals e.g. struvite was mediated by bacteria. → Understanding biomineralisation processes facilitates the conservation of artworks.

  11. The formulation of public policies for rural youth in Brazil and the constituent elements of social process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Botton Barcellos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The construction of the research problem occurred in trying to investigate the configuration of public policies for the rural youth and how this political agenda was introduced in the State of the Brazil. The main issue in the research is how the process of configuration of public policies for rural youth in federal government has occurred. The methodology for this study used was qualitative research procedures were triggered participant observation, interviews and documentary analysis. During the research the actors, the formulated policies and rural youth category expressed during this process were highlighted.

  12. Challenges in Australian policy processes for disinvestment from existing, ineffective health care practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshaug, Adam G; Hiller, Janet E; Tunis, Sean R; Moss, John R

    2007-10-31

    Internationally, many health care interventions were diffused prior to the standard use of assessments of safety, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. Disinvestment from ineffective or inappropriately applied practices is a growing priority for health care systems for reasons of improved quality of care and sustainability of resource allocation. In this paper we examine key challenges for disinvestment from these interventions and explore potential policy-related avenues to advance a disinvestment agenda. We examine five key challenges in the area of policy driven disinvestment: 1) lack of resources to support disinvestment policy mechanisms; 2) lack of reliable administrative mechanisms to identify and prioritise technologies and/or practices with uncertain clinical and cost-effectiveness; 3) political, clinical and social challenges to removing an established technology or practice; 4) lack of published studies with evidence demonstrating that existing technologies/practices provide little or no benefit (highlighting complexity of design) and; 5) inadequate resources to support a research agenda to advance disinvestment methods. Partnerships are required to involve government, professional colleges and relevant stakeholder groups to put disinvestment on the agenda. Such partnerships could foster awareness raising, collaboration and improved health outcome data generation and reporting. Dedicated funds and distinct processes could be established within the Medical Services Advisory Committee and Pharmaceutical Benefits Advisory Committee to, a) identify technologies and practices for which there is relative uncertainty that could be the basis for disinvestment analysis, and b) conduct disinvestment assessments of selected item(s) to address existing practices in an analogous manner to the current focus on new and emerging technology. Finally, dedicated funding and cross-disciplinary collaboration is necessary to build health services and policy research capacity

  13. Bacterially mediated mineralisation processes lead to biodeterioration of artworks in Maltese catacombs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zammit, Gabrielle; Sánchez-Moral, Sergio; Albertano, Patrizia

    2011-06-15

    Mineral structures formed by bacterial and microalgal biofilms growing on the archaeological surface in Maltese hypogea were studied using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) coupled to Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM), X-ray micro-diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). These techniques have shown that mineral structures having different morphologies and chemical composition were associated with the microorganisms in the subaerophytic biofilm. Salt efflorescences and mineral deposits on the archaeological surface were often formed from gypsum (CaSO(4)∙2H(2)O), halite (NaCl) and calcite (CaCO(3)). Biogenic carbonates produced by microbial activities were a common occurrence. These assumed different forms, such as the production of mineral coats around cyanobacterial sheaths and the occurrence of calcite fibres with different morphologies on the surface of the biofilms. Moreover, vaterite (CaCO(3)) spherulites which appeared hollow in cross-section were observed. The presence of struvite was recorded from one catacomb site. These investigations have facilitated the study of the neoformation of metastable minerals by microbially mediated processes, which potentially contribute to a better understanding of the biodeterioration of artworks in Maltese palaeo-Christian catacombs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Methylammonium lead mixed halide films processed with a new composition for planar perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ban-Suk; Lee, Seojun; Yoon, Saemon; Ha, Tae-Jun; Kang, Dong-Won

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we propose a new mixed halide precursor composition for MAPbI3-xClx organic/inorganic perovskite (PRV) solar cells. PRV films made with a new precursor composition of (MAI: PbCl2: PbI2 = 2 : 1 : 1) could be crystallized at lower temperature (70 °C) and shorter annealing duration (60 min), whereas previous standard composition (MAI: PbCl2 = 3 : 1) requires multi-step and high temperature (from 75 °C to 130 °C) annealing for longer durations (∼100 min). By adopting the suggested composition, much uniform surface morphology of PRV light harvester was obtained even though non-polar solvent washing was not introduced yet. Also, when the suitable toluene washing treatment was introduced, PRV surfaces of highly compact and large crystallites with regular distribution were achieved without any pinhole, which offered significant improvements in fill factor (41 → 65%) and power conversion efficiency (5.85 → 9.39%) of PRV cells. The suggested new precursor composition contributing for surface topography can be widely utilized for inverted planar PRV devices with low-temperature and simple processing.

  15. Transition process leading to microbubble emission boiling on horizontal circular heated surface in subcooled pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Ichiro; Ando, Jun; Horiuchi, Kazuna; Saiki, Takahito; Kaneko, Toshihiro

    2016-11-01

    Microbubble emission boiling (MEB) produces a higher heat flux than critical heat flux (CHF) and therefore has been investigated in terms of its heat transfer characteristics as well as the conditions under which MEB occurs. Its physical mechanism, however, is not yet clearly understood. We carried out a series of experiments to examine boiling on horizontal circular heated surfaces of 5 mm and of 10 mm in diameter, in a subcooled pool, paying close attention to the transition process to MEB. High-speed observation results show that, in the MEB regime, the growth, condensation, and collapse of the vapor bubbles occur within a very short time. In addition, a number of fine bubbles are emitted from the collapse of the vapor bubbles. By tracking these tiny bubbles, we clearly visualize that the collapse of the vapor bubbles drives the liquid near the bubbles towards the heated surface, such that the convection field around the vapor bubbles under MEB significantly differs from that under nucleate boiling. Moreover, the axial temperature gradient in a heated block (quasi-heat flux) indicates a clear difference between nucleate boiling and MEB. A combination of quasi-heat flux and the measurement of the behavior of the vapor bubbles allows us to discuss the transition to MEB. This work was financially supported by the 45th Research Grant in Natural Sciences from The Mitsubishi Foundation (2014 - 2015), and by Research Grant for Boiler and Pressurized Vessels from The Japan Boiler Association (2016).

  16. Biosorption of aqueous lead (II) on rice straws (oryza sativa) by flash column process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, H.N.; Hassan, M.U.; Jamil, N.; Ahmad, D.; Bushra, H.; Khatoon, S.

    2010-01-01

    Biosorption of Pb (II) on rice straws has been studied with the variation in the parameters and on modified rice straws by flash column process. Different parameters like particle size of adsorbent, initial concentration of metal ions, length and width of columns were studied. A comparative study of modification of adsorbent was also done for which rice straws were modified with EDTA, acids, bases, and volatile organic solvents. Base modified adsorbents have shown an increase in adsorption capacity while acid modified adsorbents proved to be the poor adsorbents for metal ions similarly ash of rice straws used as adsorbent given higher adsorption and EDTA modified adsorbents have shown least adsorption of metal ions. Polar volatile organic solvents modified adsorbent gave less adsorption efficiency and non polar adsorbent shown no influence on Pb (II) uptake capacity of rice straws. Rice straws proved to be the best biosorbent for Pb(II) in aqueous solution. The biosorption characteristics fit well with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm. (author)

  17. Races of Infant Industry Protection and Government Sponsored R&D Pograms in Lead Markets - Implications for (Capital) Goods' Durability and Trade Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla

    Infant industries have come to be associated with behind the frontier technologies in developing countries. This paper takes a fresh look at the infant industry problem and in the more contemporary perspective of developed-emerging economy competition in lead markets such as for example the global...... solar panel industry. The paper offers a simple dynamic model with learning to think about the problems of finding better mechanisms for global governance in these important industries. It is discussed how not only learning but also a myriad of other issues pertinent to the economic welfare inquiry...... partly could be conforming to national culture and institutions which may be fundamental determinants of our preference for things that endure. The best policy when preference is informative from a global governance perspective is either by targeting the supply side to make producers switch...

  18. Leadership Revised: How Did the Ukraine Crisis and the Annexation of Crimea Affirm Germany’s Leading Role in EU Foreign Policy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koeth Wolfgang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent string of existential crises in Europe - the Euro crisis, Russia’s aggression in Ukraine and the refugee crisis of 2015 - have resulted in new dynamics within the European Union. In Brussels, Germany has emerged as the hardly contested nexus of decision making. It was in particular through the Ukraine crisis and the annexation of Crimea by Russia in 2014 that Germany found itself assuming a leadership role also in the EU’s foreign policy, a role it has shunned in the past. However, for Berlin this new role is far from obvious - it is only gradually that Germany grew comfortable with its enhanced role, which is due more to external circumstances than by its own design. Conscious of its own image abroad and, due to the still prevalent feeling of historical guilt, the fear of being perceived as a dominating power has so far prevented Germany from occupying the forefront of the stage, preferring to pulling strings from behind and presenting itself as the EU’s “Chief Facilitation Officer”. This article analyses how Germany, in particular through the Ukraine crisis starting in 2014, affirmed itself - albeit reluctantly - as a nexus of decision making in the EU’s Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP and became the de facto leading nation for defining the EU’s response towards Russia. The article points out the internal and external consequences of this new role and, in particular, its impact on the Baltic States.

  19. The Health Policy Process in Vietnam: Going Beyond Kingdon's Multiple Streams TheoryComment on "Shaping the Health Policy Agenda: The Case of Safe Motherhood Policy in Vietnam".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Sumit

    2016-04-25

    This commentary reflects upon the article along three broad lines. It reflects on the theoretical choices and omissions, particularly highlighting why it is important to adapt the multiple streams framework (MSF) when applying it in a socio-political context like Vietnam's. The commentary also reflects upon the analytical threads tackled by Ha et al; for instance, it highlights the opportunities offered by, and raises questions about the centrality of the Policy Entrepreneur in getting the policy onto the political agenda and in pushing it through. The commentary also dwells on the implications of the article for development aid policies and practices. Throughout, the commentary signposts possible themes for Ha et al to consider for further analysis, and more generally, for future research using Kingdon's multiple streams theory. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  20. Abstract: Within-Person Processes Leading to Quarrelsome Behavior in Interactions Between Romantic Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadikaj, Gentiana; Moskowitz, D S; Zuroff, David C

    2011-11-30

    This study used multilevel structural equation modeling (MSEM; Preacher, Zyphur, & Zhang, 2010) to examine within-person processes that give rise to quarrelsome behavior in interactions between romantic partners. Based on Interpersonal Theory and Adult Attachment Theory, we hypothesized that a person's quarrelsome behavior would be predicted by (a) the direct effect of the partner's quarrelsome behavior, (b) an indirect effect mediated by the person's perceptions of the partner's quarrelsome behavior, and (c) an indirect effect mediated by the person's felt security. Using an event-contingent recording methodology, both partners in 93 cohabiting community couples reported independently on their quarrelsome behavior, felt security, and perceptions of the partner's quarrelsome behavior in interactions with each other during a 20-day period. Findings (see Figure 1 ) supported a direct effect of partner's increases in quarrelsome behavior on person's increases in quarrelsome behavior. This association was partly accounted for by perceptions of partner's behavior and felt security following these perceptions. The more a person perceived the partner as engaging in quarrelsome behavior, the more the person engaged in quarrelsome behavior [indirect effect = .016, 95% CI (.009 - .022)]. Furthermore, the person's perception of greater quarrelsomeness in the partner's behavior was associated with decreases in the person's felt security, which in turn were related to increases in a person's quarrelsome behavior [indirect effect = .009, 95% CI (.005 - .013)]. No gender differences were found. Findings indicate that a partner's increase in quarrelsome behavior is partly related to a person's increase in quarrelsome behavior in part to the extent that the person perceives the behavior as quarrelsome and consequently feels insecure during the interaction. Findings illustrate an application of MSEM for assessing multilevel mediation in the dyadic context. Moreover, the results

  1. The application of theories of the policy process to obesity prevention: a systematic review and meta-synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Brydie; Swinburn, Boyd; Sacks, Gary

    2016-10-13

    Theories of the policy process are recommended as tools to help explain both policy stasis and change. A systematic review of the application of such theoretical frameworks within the field of obesity prevention policy was conducted. A meta-synthesis was also undertaken to identify the key influences on policy decision-making. The review identified 17 studies of obesity prevention policy underpinned by political science theories. The majority of included studies were conducted in the United States (US), with significant heterogeneity in terms of policy level (e.g., national, state) studied, areas of focus, and methodologies used. Many of the included studies were methodologically limited, in regard to rigour and trustworthiness. Prominent themes identified included the role of groups and networks, political institutions, and political system characteristics, issue framing, the use of evidence, personal values and beliefs, prevailing political ideology, and timing. The limited application of political science theories indicates a need for future theoretically based research into the complexity of policy-making and multiple influences on obesity prevention policy processes.

  2. HIV/AIDS Policy Making Process in Iran: Analysis of HIV/AIDS Agenda Setting Based on Kingdon's Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Khodayari Zarnaq

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives : Agenda setting is the process by which certain issues come onto the policy agenda from the much larger number of issues potentially worthy of attention by policy makers. The aim of this study was to deeply understand about how AIDS entered to health policy agenda in Iran. Material and Methods: An exploratory qualitative retrospective study based on multiple streams framework to analyze AIDS agenda setting process, 32 semi-structured interviews were conducted with key informants and stakeholders in Iran and 30 policy documents were reviewed. Data were analyzed using framework analysis method and MAXQDA software. Results : Problem, policy and politics, the three streams of HIV/AIDS in context of Iran were identified and the advent and continuity of multiple streams and their interactions and combination by policy entrepreneurs in couple of streams in policy windows were explained. Conclusion: In this study, the assumption of independence of three streams from each other was doubted. Also, framework has ambiguities in explaining entrepreneurs' act when opening policy windows. Other researchers can modify the framework by learning-by-doing.

  3. Banning shisha smoking in public places in Iran: an advocacy coalition framework perspective on policy process and change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayatzadeh-Mahani, Akram; Breton, Eric; Ruckert, Arne; Labonté, Ronald

    2017-07-01

    Shisha smoking is a widespread custom in Iran with a rapidly growing prevalence especially among the youth. In this article, we analyze the policy process of enforcing a federal/state ban on shisha smoking in all public places in Kerman Province, Iran. Guided by the Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF), we investigate how a shisha smoking ban reached the political agenda in 2011, how it was framed by different policy actors, and why no significant breakthrough took place despite its inclusion on the agenda. We conducted a qualitative study using a case study approach. Two main sources of data were employed: face-to-face in-depth interviews and document analysis of key policy texts. We interviewed 24 policy actors from diverse sectors. A qualitative thematic framework, incorporating both inductive and deductive analyses, was employed to analyze our data. We found that the health sector was the main actor pushing the issue of shisha smoking onto the political agenda by framing it as a public health risk. The health sector and its allies advocated enforcement of a federal law to ban shisha smoking in all public places including teahouses and traditional restaurants whereas another group of actors opposed the ban. The pro-ban group was unable to neutralize the strategies of the anti-ban group and to steer the debate towards the health harms of shisha smoking. Our analysis uncovers three main reasons behind the policy stasis: lack of policy learning due to lack of agreement over evidence and related analytical conflicts between the two groups linked to differences in core and policy beliefs; the inability of the pro-ban group to exploit opportunities in the external policy subsystem through generating stronger public support for enforcement of the shisha smoking ban; and the nature of the institutional setting, in particular the autocratic governance of CHFS which contributed to a lack of policy learning within the policy subsystem. Our research demonstrated the utility

  4. A Markov Decision Process Model for Cervical Cancer Screening Policies in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan-Tabatabaei, Raha; Sánchez, Diana Marcela; Yeung, Thomas G

    2017-02-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women around the world, and the human papillomavirus (HPV) is universally known as the necessary agent for developing this disease. Through early detection of abnormal cells and HPV virus types, cervical cancer incidents can be reduced and disease progression prevented. We propose a finite-horizon Markov decision process model to determine the optimal screening policies for cervical cancer prevention. The optimal decision is given in terms of when and what type of screening test to be performed on a patient based on her current diagnosis, age, HPV contraction risk, and screening test results. The cost function considers the tradeoff between the cost of prevention and treatment procedures and the risk of taking no action while taking into account a cost assigned to loss of life quality in each state. We apply the model to data collected from a representative sample of 1141 affiliates at a health care provider located in Bogotá, Colombia. To track the disease incidence more effectively and avoid higher cancer rates and future costs, the optimal policies recommend more frequent colposcopies and Pap tests for women with riskier profiles.

  5. [Inclusive education policy: perceptions of managers about the process of changes in Higher Education Institutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Francilene Jane Rodrigues; dos Santos, Sérgio Ribeiro; da Silva, Cesar Cavalcanti

    2011-01-01

    This is a qualitative descriptive exploratory study, conducted in Higher Education Institutions (HEI) which offers Nursing course, in Joao Pessoa-PB. The study aimed to understand the concept of managers about the need for organizational changes to attend customers with special needs. Four managers participated in the study. A semi-structured interview with guiding questions was used to collect information and to interpret the data we used the method of discourse analysis based on Fiorin. It was noticed that the managers have a concern to meet the demands of inclusive policies, including the adequacy of physical spaces and the pedagogy adopted to meet the students' needs. However, some of them admitted to have little knowledge on how to deal with students with special needs and also mentioned that the institutions do not have an efficient and logistic work which can meet the current legislation of inclusion. We concluded that the process of structural and pedagogical changes is built in a slow and gradual way and it requires an involvement of qualified managers who are committed to execute the policies of inclusion of customers with special needs in a civil and legal way.

  6. Networks of power in digital copyright law and policy political salience, expertise and the legislative process

    CERN Document Server

    Farrand, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    In this book, Benjamin Farrand employs an interdisciplinary approach that combines legal analysis with political theory to explore the development of copyright law in the EU. Farrand utilises Foucault's concept of Networks of Power and Culpepper's Quiet Politics to assess the adoption and enforcement of copyright law in the EU, including the role of industry representative, cross-border licensing, and judicial approaches to territorial restrictions. Focusing in particular on legislative initiatives concerning copyright, digital music and the internet, Networks of Power in Digital Copyright Law and Policy: Political Salience, Expertise and the Legislative Process demonstrates the connection between copyright law and complex network relationships. This book presents an original socio-political theoretical framework for assessing developments in copyright law that will interest researchers and post-graduate students of law and politics, as well as those more particularly concerned with political theory, EU and c...

  7. Policies and Processes for Social Inclusion: Using EquiFrame and EquIPP for Policy Dialogue Comment on "Are Sexual and Reproductive Health Policies Designed for All? Vulnerable Groups in Policy Documents of Four European Countries and Their Involvement in Policy Development".

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLachlan, Malcolm; Mannan, Hasheem; Huss, Tessy; Munthali, Alister; Amin, Mutamad

    2015-11-16

    The application of EquiFrame in the analysis of sexual and reproductive health policies by Ivanova et al to a new thematic area, their selection of only some of the Core Concepts of human rights in health service provision and the addition of new vulnerable groups relevant to the purpose of their analysis, are all very welcome developments. We also applaud their application of EquiFrame to policies in countries where it has not previously been used, along with their use of interviews with policy-makers to produce a deeper understanding of policy processes. We argue that clear justification for the inclusion of additional, or replacement of some exiting vulnerable groups within EquiFrame should be accompanied by clear definitions of such groups, along with the evidence-base that justifies their classification as a vulnerable or marginalised group. To illustrate the versatility of EquiFrame, we summarise a range of ways in which it has been used across a number of regions; including a brief Case Study of its use to develop the National Health Policy of Malawi. While EquiFrame focuses on policy content, we preview a new policy analysis tool - Equity and Inclusion in Policy Processes (EquIPP) - which assesses the extent of equity and inclusion in broader policy processes. Together, EquiFrame and EquIPP can be used to help governments and civil society ensure that policies are addressing the much stronger emphasis on social inclusion, now apparent in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  8. State of the environment reporting (SOER) and the policy process in South Africa: Learing for the future

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Will, C

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available State of the Environment Report 2005 (Year One). Department of Environmental Affairs and Development Planning, Provincial Government of the Western Cape. Dryzek, J. S (1997) The Politics of the Earth: Environmental Discourses. Oxford University Press...) The Politics of Environmental Discourse. Ecological Modernisation and the Policy Process. Oxford University Press, Oxford. Hajer, M. A and Wagenaar, H. (eds) (2004) Deliberative Policy Analysis: Understanding Governance in the Network Society, Cambridge...

  9. Data sharing and reanalysis of randomized controlled trials in leading biomedical journals with a full data sharing policy: survey of studies published in The BMJ and PLOS Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naudet, Florian; Sakarovitch, Charlotte; Janiaud, Perrine; Cristea, Ioana; Fanelli, Daniele; Moher, David

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objectives To explore the effectiveness of data sharing by randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in journals with a full data sharing policy and to describe potential difficulties encountered in the process of performing reanalyses of the primary outcomes. Design Survey of published RCTs. Setting PubMed/Medline. Eligibility criteria RCTs that had been submitted and published by The BMJ and PLOS Medicine subsequent to the adoption of data sharing policies by these journals. Main outcome measure The primary outcome was data availability, defined as the eventual receipt of complete data with clear labelling. Primary outcomes were reanalyzed to assess to what extent studies were reproduced. Difficulties encountered were described. Results 37 RCTs (21 from The BMJ and 16 from PLOS Medicine) published between 2013 and 2016 met the eligibility criteria. 17/37 (46%, 95% confidence interval 30% to 62%) satisfied the definition of data availability and 14 of the 17 (82%, 59% to 94%) were fully reproduced on all their primary outcomes. Of the remaining RCTs, errors were identified in two but reached similar conclusions and one paper did not provide enough information in the Methods section to reproduce the analyses. Difficulties identified included problems in contacting corresponding authors and lack of resources on their behalf in preparing the datasets. In addition, there was a range of different data sharing practices across study groups. Conclusions Data availability was not optimal in two journals with a strong policy for data sharing. When investigators shared data, most reanalyses largely reproduced the original results. Data sharing practices need to become more widespread and streamlined to allow meaningful reanalyses and reuse of data. Trial registration Open Science Framework osf.io/c4zke. PMID:29440066

  10. Evaluation of possible physical-chemical processes that might lead to separations of actinides in ORNL waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Cul, G.D.; Toth, L.M.; Bond, W.D.; Dai, S.

    1997-09-01

    The concern that there might be some physical-chemical process which would lead to a separation of the poisoning actinides ( 232 Th, 238 U) from the fissionable ones ( 239 Pu, 235 U) in waste storage tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has led to a paper study of potential separations processes involving these elements. At the relatively high pH values (>8), the actinides are normally present as precipitated hydroxides. Mechanisms that might then selectively dissolve and reprecipitate the actinides through thermal processes or additions of reagents were addressed. Although redox reactions, pH changes, and complexation reactions were all considered, only the last type was regarded as having any significant probability. Furthermore, only carbonate accumulation, through continual unmonitored air sparging of the tank contents, could credibly account for gross transport and separation of the actinide components. From the large amount of equilibrium data in the literature, concentration differences in Th, U, and Pu due to carbonate complexation as a function of pH have been presented to demonstrate this phenomenon. While the carbonate effect does represent a potential separations process, control of long-term air sparging and solution pH, accompanied by routine determinations of soluble carbonate concentration, should ensure that this separations process does not occur

  11. Social acceptability of climate change policies; will energy efficiency always fail to win its case through the consultation process? Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pett, Jacky

    2007-01-01

    Which segments of society 'win' as a result of climate change policies? Actors generally support the principle of reduced emissions through decarbonising fuels, and many are convinced that reducing overall energy consumption is an essential strategy to prevent further damaging climate change. However, proposed strategies for ensuring that sufficient action is taken to reduce emissions suffer from complexity, uncertainty and dissent, especially from vested interests. The policy maker has to choose between many options, and many conflicting consultation responses, to select the most politically feasible and socially acceptable pathway. An FP6 funded project into Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies for climate change is developing an innovative tool to support policy choice based on a mix of methods, using case studies to test the outputs. Resources include stakeholder deliberation on criteria necessary to evaluate pathway options. The first stage maps energy actors' perspectives of climate change, identifying key issues for socially acceptable policies for the 2012 - 2050 period that would either limit climate change to only 2 deg C increase, or provide a 'soft landing' to a world 5 degrees above present.This paper describes this mapping exercise and indicates the issues of most debate, on which rest the criteria for social acceptability. It describes how deliberative methods can involve stakeholders more effectively in policy formation, contrasts the roles of deliberation and consultation, and discusses the engagement of powerful vested interests with this approach. While there are considerable overlaps in perspectives of different actors, leading to specific points of contention, importantly, decisions on selection and engagement of stakeholders with the process become critical if the criteria for policy decisions are to be accepted by society

  12. Factors affecting evidence-use in food policy-making processes in health and agriculture in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waqa, Gade; Bell, Colin; Snowdon, Wendy; Moodie, Marj

    2017-01-09

    There is limited research on the use of evidence to inform policy-making in the Pacific. This study aims to identify and describe factors that facilitate or limit the use of evidence in food-related policy-making in the Health and Agriculture Ministries in Fiji. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with selected policy-makers in two government ministries that were instrumental in the development of food-related policies in Fiji designed to prevent Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs). Snowball sampling was used to recruit, as key informants, senior policy-makers in management positions such as national advisors and directors who were based at either the national headquarters or equivalent. Interviewees were asked about their experiences in developing food-related or other policies, barriers or facilitators encountered in the policy development and implementation process and the use of evidence. Each interview lasted approximately 45-60 minutes, and was conducted in English. Audio-recorded interviews were transcribed, thematically coded and analyzed using N-Vivo 8.0 software. Thirty-one policy-makers from the Ministry of Health and Medical Services (MoHMS n = 18) and the Ministry of Agriculture (MoA n = 13) in Fiji participated in the study. Whilst evidence is sometimes used in food-related policy-making in both the Health and Agriculture Ministries (including formal evidence such as published research and informal evidence such as personal experiences and opinions), it is not yet embedded as an essential part of the process. Participants indicated that a lack of resources, poor technical support in terms of training, the absence of clear strategies for improving competent use of evidence, procedures regarding engagement with other stakeholders across sectors, varying support from senior managers and limited consultation across sectors were barriers to evidence use. The willingness of organizations to create a culture of using evidence was

  13. Scorecard for spina bifida research, prevention, and policy - A development process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kancherla, Vijaya; Walani, Salimah R; Weakland, Aliki P; Bauwens, Lieven; Oakley, Godfrey P; Warf, Benjamin C

    2017-06-01

    Spina bifida is a serious and largely preventable neural tube birth defect and an important cause of mortality and lifelong disability. The People and Organizations United for Spina Bifida and Hydrocephalus (PUSH!) Global Alliance was formed in 2014 to provide a common platform for various organizations worldwide to raise the visibility of spina bifida and hydrocephalus. In its formative phase, the alliance recognized that in order to accelerate surveillance, prevention, and care for these conditions, there was a need to provide an evidence-based assessment of how nations are performing in specific areas. In this paper, we describe the impetus for, and the process of, developing country-level scorecards for spina bifida surveillance, prevention and care. The PUSH! Executive Committee formulated a comprehensive list of six actionable indicators measuring availability of published studies on population-based folate studies; surveillance of prevalence and mortality; prevention-based policies; access to care; and quality of life associated with spina bifida. Rubrics were developed to score each country on the aforementioned indicators. Country scores were pooled across each indicator and the composite scores ranged between zero and three if there was a need for improvement, four and five if they were in good standing, or six for an excellent status. The scorecard included country-specific recommendations assimilated from the literature and published guidelines to aid policy makers in accelerating surveillance and prevention, and improving the care and quality of life indicators. For comparison, country-level scorecards were grouped by WHO-regions. Score cards were made available publicly through the website "www.pu-sh.org". Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of Integrated Time-Temperature Effect in Pyrolysis Process of Historically Contaminated Soils with Cadmium (Cd and Lead (Pb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulmău C

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available It is already known that heavy metals pollution causes important concern to human and ecosystem health. Heavy metals in soils at the European level represents 37.3% between main contaminates affecting soils (EEA, 2007. This paper illustrates results obtained in the framework of laboratory experiments concerning the evaluation of integrated time-temperature effect in pyrolysis process applied to contaminated soil by two different ways: it is about heavy metals historically contaminated soil from one of the most polluted areas within Romania, and artificially contaminated with PCB-containing transformer oil. In particular, the authors focused on a recent evaluation of pyrolysis efficiency on removing lead (Pb and cadmium (Cd from the contaminated soil. The experimental study evaluated two important parameters related to the studied remediation methodology: thermal process temperature and the retention time in reactor of the contaminated soils. The remediation treatments were performed in a rotary kiln reactor, taking into account three process temperatures (400°C, 600°C and 800°C and two retention times: 30 min. and 60 min. Completed analyses have focused on pyrolysis solids and gas products. Consequently, both ash and gas obtained after pyrolysis process were subjected to chemical analyses.

  15. Degradation process of lead chromate in paintings by Vincent van Gogh studied by means of spectromicroscopic methods. 4. Artificial aging of model samples of co-precipitates of lead chromate and lead sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monico, Letizia; Janssens, Koen; Miliani, Costanza; Van der Snickt, Geert; Brunetti, Brunetto Giovanni; Cestelli Guidi, Mariangela; Radepont, Marie; Cotte, Marine

    2013-01-15

    Previous investigations about the darkening of chrome yellow pigments revealed that this form of alteration is attributable to a reduction of the original Cr(VI) to Cr(III), and that the presence of sulfur-containing compounds, most often sulfates, plays a key role during this process. We recently demonstrated that different crystal forms of chrome yellow pigments (PbCrO(4) and PbCr(1-x)S(x)O(4)) are present in paintings by Vincent van Gogh. In the present work, we show how both the chemical composition and the crystalline structure of lead chromate-based pigments influence their stability. For this purpose, oil model samples made with in-house synthesized powders of PbCrO(4) and PbCr(1-x)S(x)O(4) were artificially aged and characterized. We observed a profound darkening only for those paint models made with PbCr(1-x)S(x)O(4), rich in SO(4)(2-) (x ≥ 0.4), and orthorhombic phases (>30 wt %). Cr and S K-edge micro X-ray absorption near edge structure investigations revealed in an unequivocal manner the formation of up to about 60% of Cr(III)-species in the outer layer of the most altered samples; conversely, independent of the paint models' chemical composition, no change in the S-oxidation state was observed. Analyses employing UV-visible diffuse reflectance and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were performed on unaged and aged model samples in order to obtain additional information on the physicochemical changes induced by the aging treatment.

  16. Does Structured Quizzing with Process Specific Feedback Lead to Learning Gains in an Active Learning Geoscience Classroom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palsole, S.; Serpa, L. F.

    2013-12-01

    There is a great realization that efficient teaching in the geosciences has the potential to have far reaching effects in outreach to decision and policy makers (Herbert, 2006; Manduca & Mogk, 2006). This research in turn informs educators that the geosciences by the virtue of their highly integrative nature play an important role in serving as an entry point into STEM disciplines and helping developing a new cadre of geoscientists, scientists and a general population with an understanding of science. Keeping these goals in mind we set to design introductory geoscience courses for non-majors and majors that move away from the traditional lecture models which don't necessarily contribute well to knowledge building and retention ((Handelsman et al., 2007; Hake, 1997) to a blended active learning classroom where basic concepts and didactic information is acquired online via webquests, lecturettes and virtual field trips and the face to face portions of the class are focused on problem solving exercises. The traditional way to ensure that students are prepared for the in-class activity is to have the students take a quiz online to demonstrate basic competency. In the process of redesign, we decided to leverage the technology to build quizzes that are highly structured and map to a process (formation of divergent boundaries for example) or sets of earth processes that we needed the students to know before in-class activities. The quizzes can be taken multiple times and provide process specific feedback, thus serving as a heuristic to the students to ensure they have acquired the necessary competency. The heuristic quizzes were developed and deployed over a year with the student data driving the redesign process to ensure synchronicity. Preliminary data analysis indicates a positive correlation between higher student scores on in-class application exercises and time spent on the process quizzes. An assessment of learning gains also indicate a higher degree of self

  17. Controlling the Color of Lead-Free Red Overglaze Enamels and a Process for Preparing High-Quality Red Paints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Hideki; Inada, Hirofumi; Okazaki, Yuki; Takaishi, Taigo; Fujii, Tatsuo; Takada, Jun

    2016-05-04

    Akae porcelain, an artistic Japanese traditional overglaze ceramic typically known for Kakiemon-style ware, has fascinated porcelain lovers around the world for over 400 years because of the graceful red color displayed by akae that matches so well with white porcelain bodies. In this work, we clarified the factors that control the color of akae and those that are conventionally controlled by artisans based on empirical experience. Inspired by a recent particle-design method, we also developed a practical facile process to prepare red paints that yields high-quality akae. Various akae samples were prepared from a combination of lead-free alkali borosilicate glass frits with different particle sizes and hematite powders with differing dispersibilities. Polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy analyses indicate that considering only the dispersibility of hematite powders is not sufficient, but the frit-particle size must be controlled to obtain high-quality akae with a high reflectance value for ≥580 nm visible light. In addition, we developed a process for preparing high-quality red paints that uses a large-particle frit powder and a strongly aggregated-hematite powder, both of which are easily obtainable. The red paint composed of frit, hematite, and the solvent is mixed until the paint is drying. By adding more solvent and repeating this process three times, we obtained high-quality akae with a higher reflectance value than for the akae prepared from a frit with submicron-sized particles and weakly aggregated-hematite powder. On the basis of transmission electron microscopic observations, we consider the red paint to consist of a core/shell-like composite structure of frit and hematite, forming a three-dimensional network in the akae glass layer. The good dispersibility of these particles leads to high-quality akae.

  18. Processes for consensus building and role sharing. Lessons learned from HLW policies in European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagano, Koji

    2003-01-01

    This report attempts to obtain lessons in implementation of HLW management policies for Japan by reviewing past experiences and present status of policy formulation and implementation as well as reflection of public opinions and consensus building of selected European countries, such as Finland, Sweden and others. After examining the situations of those countries, the author derives four key aspects that need to be addressed; separation of nuclear energy policies and HLW policies, fundamental support shared among national public, sense of controllability, and proper scheme of responsibility sharing. (author)

  19. An overview of the United States government's space and science policy-making process

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    A brief overview of the basic elements of the US space and science policy-making apparatus will be presented, focussing on insights into the interactions among the principal organizations, policy-making bodies and individual participants and their respective impact on policy outcomes. Several specific examples will be provided to illustrate the points made, and in the conclusion there will be some observations on current events in the US that may shape the outcome for the near-term future of US space and science policy in several areas.

  20. A reengineering success story: process improvement in emergency department x-ray cycle time, leading to breakthrough performance in the ED ambulatory care (Fast Track) process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, J A; Treiber, P M; Kosnik, L

    1997-01-01

    This article describes the journey of a multidisciplinary reengineering team, which worked to reduce a critical, high-leverage process in an emergency department setting. The process selected was emergency department radiology services. This process was selected on a rational basis. The team knew tht 60 percent of our emergency department patients were truly ambulatory, and that most could be seen in a "fast track" process as part of our emergency department's core mission. However, we knew from customer satisfaction data, that patients would like to be "in and out" of emergency department Fast Track in less than an hour. Over half of our Fast Track patients require x-rays. For most, this was their sole reason for seeking emergency care. Our state, at the start of the project, included an average x-ray cycle time of over 60 minutes. The associated Fast-Track cycle time was over 90 minutes median. It was clear to the emergency department leadership, as well as to members of the Fast-Track management team, that a cycle time of 30 minutes or less for x-ray service was needed as a necessary condition to an hour or less Fast Track cycle time. It was also felt that a more rapid x-ray cycle time would allow for more rapid turn over of ED rooms, leading to a virtual greater capacity to the ED. It was hoped that this would lead to a reduction in the time from arrival to treatment by the emergency physician for all patients.

  1. Determination of regression functions for the charging and discharging processes of valve regulated lead-acid batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukić Vladimir Đ.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Following a deep discharge of AGM SVT 300 valve-regulated lead-acid batteries using the ten-hour discharge current, the batteries were charged using variable current. In accordance with the obtained results, exponential and polynomial functions for the approximation of the specified processes were analyzed. The main evaluation instrument for the quality of the implemented approximations was the adjusted coefficient of determination R-2. It was perceived that the battery discharge process might be successfully approximated with both an exponential and the second order polynomial function. On all the occasions analyzed, values of the adjusted coefficient of determination were greater than 0.995. The charging process of the deeply discharged batteries was successfully approximated with the exponential function; the measured values of the adjusted coefficient of determination being nearly 0.95. Apart from the high measured values of the adjusted coefficient of determination, polynomial approximations of the second and third order did not provide satisfactory results regarding the interpolation of the battery charging characteristics. A possibility for a practical implementation of the procured regression functions in uninterruptible power supply systems was described.

  2. European experiences as guidelines for public, private and civil sector role redefinition in spatial policy formulation process in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksić Milica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The period of post-socialist transition in Serbia brings more complex actors environment compared to socialistic period, while institutional arrangements are not enough developed to actively involve different groups of actors in spatial policy formulation process. In order to gather certain knowledge as guidelines for redefining institutional practices in Serbia, institutional framework of Serbia was compared in this paper with institutional framework of three developed European countries, especially in relation to the roles of public, private and civil sector in spatial policy formulation process. The European countries selected for the analysis are United Kingdom, Netherlands and Germany because of diverse national administrative traditions, so different institutional arrangements could be researched. By comparing institutional framework in Serbia with the ones in developed European countries following questions are researched: which actors are missing in Serbia, what are the ways institutional arrangements for different groups inclusion into spatial policy formulation process are formed, what are the differences between the roles of certain groups of actors in decision-making process. Current roles of actors in spatial policy formulation process in Serbia are reviewed and possible directions for public, private and civil sector role redefinition in Serbia are discussed in accordance with experiences of developed European countries.

  3. Field and laboratory assessment of a coal processing effluent in the Leading Creek Watershed, Meigs County, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, A.J.; Cherry, D.S.; Currie, R.J. [Virginia Polytechnique Institute & State University, Blacksburg, VA (USA). Dept. of Biology

    2003-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has not recommended water quality criteria (WQC) to protect aquatic life from elevated sodium and sulfate concentrations, such as those associated with the coal-processing effluent of Meigs County Mine No. 31. This discharge, received by a tributary of the Leading Creek Watershed (SE Ohio), had a mean specific conductivity (SC) of 8,109 (7,750-8,750) {mu}S/cm and total metal concentrations below acute WQC. The mean 48h LC50 for Ceriodaphnia dubia in the effluent was 6,713 +/- 99 {mu}S/cm; mean 48h survival was 44% for study sites downstream of the effluent. The best indicators of impairment used in this study were Ceriodaphnia fecundity, in situ Corbicula fluminea growth, EPT minus Hydropsychidae (richness and relative abundance), and relative Ephemeroptera abundance. Mayflies, reduced by more than 99% below the effluent, were absent from all but the furthest downstream study site. SC was strongly correlated with Corbicula growth and EPT minus Hydropsychidae richness, suggesting the effluent was primarily responsible for biotic impairment. The results indicated that SC levels, a measure of dissolved solids, in the Leading Creek Watershed that exceeded about to 3,700 {mu}S/cm impaired sensitive aquatic fauna.

  4. Process development for the removal of lead and chromium from aqueous solutions using red mud--an aluminium industry waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, V K; Gupta, M; Sharma, S

    2001-04-01

    Red mud, an aluminium industry waste, has been converted into an inexpensive and efficient adsorbent and used for the removal of lead and chromium from aqueous solutions. Effect of various factors on the removal of these metal ions from water (e.g. pH, adsorbent dose, adsorbate concentration, temperature, particle size, etc.) has been studied and discussed. The effect of presence of other metal ions/surfactants on the removal of Pb2+ and Cr6+ has also been studied. The material exhibits good adsorption capacity and the data follow both Freundlich and Langmuir models. Thermodynamic parameters indicate the feasibility of the process. Kinetic studies have been performed to understand the mechanism of adsorption. Dynamic modelling of lead and chromium removal on red mud has been undertaken and found to follow first-order kinetics. The rate constant and mass transfer coefficient have also been evaluated under optimum conditions of removal in order to understand the mechanism. Column studies have been carried out to compare these with batch capacities. The recovery of Pb2+ and Cr6+ and chemical regeneration of the spent column have also been tried.

  5. Exclusive processes beyond leading twist: {gamma}*T {yields} {rho}T impact factor with twist three accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szymanowski, Lech [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Hoza 69, 00691, Warsaw (Poland); Anikin, Igor V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research - JINR, Joliot-Curie st., 6, Moskovskaya obl., 141980, Dubna (Russian Federation); Ivanov, Dmitry Yu [Sobolev Institute of Mathematics, Acad. Koptyug pr., 4, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Pire, Bernard [Centre de Physique Theorique - CPHT, UMR 7644, Ecole Polytechnique, Bat. 6, RDC, F91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Wallon, Samuel [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique d' Orsay - LPT, Bat. 210, Univ. Paris-Sud 11, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2010-07-01

    We describe a consistent approach to factorization of scattering amplitudes for exclusive processes beyond the leading twist approximation. The method is based on the Taylor expansion of the scattering amplitude in the momentum space around the dominant light-cone direction and thus naturally introduces an appropriate set of non-perturbative correlators which encode effects not only of the lowest but also of the higher Fock states of the produced particle. The reduction of original set of correlators to a set of independent ones is achieved with the help of equations of motion and invariance of the scattering amplitude under rotation on the light-cone. As a concrete application, we compute the expressions of the impact factor for the transition of virtual photon to transversally polarised {rho}-meson up to the twist 3 accuracy. (Phys.Lett.B682:413-418,2010 and Nucl.Phys.B828:1-68,2010.). (authors)

  6. Role of the national energy system modelling in the process of the policy development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merse Stane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategic planning and decision making, nonetheless making energy policies and strategies, is very extensive process and has to follow multiple and often contradictory objectives. During the preparation of the new Slovenian Energy Programme proposal, complete update of the technology and sector oriented bottom up model of Reference Energy and Environmental System of Slovenia (REES-SLO has been done. During the redevelopment of the REES-SLO model trade-off between the simulation and optimisation approach has been done, favouring presentation of relations between controls and their effects rather than the elusive optimality of results which can be misleading for small energy systems. Scenario-based planning was integrated into the MESAP (Modular Energy System Analysis and Planning environment, allowing integration of past, present and planned (calculated data in a comprehensive overall system. Within the paper, the main technical, economic and environmental characteristics of the Slovenian energy system model REES-SLO are described. This paper presents a new approach in modelling relatively small energy systems which goes beyond investment in particular technologies or categories of technology and allows smooth transition to low carbon economy. Presented research work confirms that transition from environment unfriendly fossil fuelled economy to sustainable and climate friendly development requires a new approach, which must be based on excellent knowledge of alternative possibilities of development and especially awareness about new opportunities in exploitation of energy efficiency and renewable energy sources.

  7. Analyzing Public Discourse: Using Media Content Analysis to Understand the Policy Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraisky, Nancy Green

    2016-01-01

    One of the most basic and obvious sources of data for education policy analysis is text. This article discusses content analysis as an important part of the methodological toolbox for elucidating patterns and trends about education policy. Focusing specifically on media, I show how media content analysis can produce nuanced insights about the ways…

  8. Maintenance policy selection for ships: an investigation using the analytic hierarchy process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, Adriaan

    2015-01-01

    Maintenance is an important contributor to reach the intended life-time of capital technical assets. How to maintain these assets is gaining increasing attention and relevance. One of the decisions within maintenance is selecting the right maintenance policy: maintenance policy selection (MPS). A

  9. Computing Optimal Stationary Policies for Multi-objective Markov Decision Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiering, M.A.; Jong, E.D. de

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a novel algorithm called CONMODP for computing Pareto optimal policies for deterministic multi-objective sequential decision problems. CON-MODP is a value iteration based multi-objective dynamic programming algorithm that only computes stationary policies. We observe

  10. Migratory Processes: Contrasts between Immigration Law and Social Policy in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Madrid

    2011-10-01

    aspects of the new immigration law. Likewise, the article examines the fit between social policies and the prevailing immigration law, and questions the concrete possibilities of access to public policies that guarantee the daily reproduction of the immigrant population, as well as the logic grounding the criteria for the exclusion or inclusion of said population

  11. Revamping the Teacher Evaluation Process. Education Policy Brief. Volume 9, Number 4, Fall 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Rodney S.; Shi, Dingjing; Plucker, Jonathan A.

    2011-01-01

    This policy brief explores Senate Enrolled Act 001 (SEA 1), specifically the provisions for how teachers must be evaluated. After a short summary of SEA 1 and its direct changes to evaluation policies and practices, the brief reviews literature in teacher evaluation and highlights important issues for school corporations to consider when selecting…

  12. Multi-national knowledge strategies, policy and the upgrading process of regions: Revisiting the automotive industry in Ostrava and Shanghai

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuijl, E. van; Carvalho, L.; Winden, W. van; Jacobs, W.A.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper revisits how and why new multinational knowledge-based strategies and multi-level governmental policies influence the upgrading process of regions in developing economies. Automotive multinationals traditionally exploited local asset conditions, but it is shown that they have also been

  13. A note on optimal (s,S) and (R,nQ) policies under a stuttering Poisson demand process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    In this note, a new efficient algorithm is proposed to find an optimal (s, S) replenishment policy for inventory systems with continuous reviews and where the demand follows a stuttering Poisson process (the compound element is geometrically distributed). We also derive three upper bounds...

  14. The process leading to affirmation of life with cleft lip and cleft palate: the importance of acquiring coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omiya, Tomoko; Ito, Mikiko; Yamazaki, Yoshihiko

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to understand the experiences of people with cleft lip and cleft palate (CLCP) and to describe the processes and factors leading to the acquisition of high self-esteem. Semi-structured interviews were conducted of 19 subjects with CLCP recruited via hospitals and through snowball sampling, and the results were analyzed qualitatively, comparing high and low self-esteem groups. Participants with high self-esteem had gone through the phases of "noticing their difference from others", "knowing about and deepening their understanding of CLCP", "no denial of their life with CLCP" and "affirmation of life with CLCP". Seven factor categories including "received sufficient explanation of CLCP condition (from parents) in the early stage", "have not received negative messages about CLCP" and "feeling the presence of someone who accepts their feelings and supports them" were extracted as factors promoting these processes. Knowing about and understanding CLCP enables individuals to acquire a sense of coherence in their lives, which may be related to gaining a feeling of control over their cleft condition, acquiring a sense of autonomy, and finding a meaning for their lives. Thus, medical professionals should provide explanations that enable patients to understand CLCP, and also facilitate interaction between patients with the same condition. © 2011 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2011 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  15. The Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Counterterrorism Policies on the PKK-inflicted Violence during the Democratization Process of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Irfan Ciftci; Sedat Kula

    2015-01-01

    This study tries to explore the relationship between soft-line governmental policy interventions of Turkey and the responses of the PKK (The Kurdistan Workers’ Party) by using time series data from 1995 to 2010. The negative binomial specifications for two models, the number of incidents and the number casualties are used. The aggregated impact of soft-line policies on the level of violence is found to be positive and significant. In one hand, Turkey’s EU accession process had a decreasing im...

  16. ABOUT THE ROLE OF GOVERNMENT SPENDING IN THE PROCESSES OF FINANCIAL POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ye. Vlasiuk

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the analyses of financial system conditions through the state expenses. The factors of the state regulation influence on forming the financial policy are analyzed.

  17. Engaging China in the International Export Control Process: Options for U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goldman, Charles

    1995-01-01

    .... objectives and potential policy initiatives toward that end. Using knowledge about the operation of the Chinese bureaucratic system, especially in defense related research and development, the briefing describes a number of strategy options for U.S...

  18. [Clinical manifestations of lead levels in children exposed to automobile battery recycling processes in Soacha and Bogotá, D.C].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Carlos Mauricio; Gutiérrez, Myriam; Echeverry, Jairo

    2008-03-01

    Lead is a harmless metal if not handled directly in the industrial process. Even thought lead has been eliminated from the gasoline in many countries, automobile battery recycling continues to be a potential source of exposure and intoxication for the workers and their families, particularly of low income. The current investigation was initiated after an index case of lead poisoning was reported from Soacha, Cundinamarca, in central Colombia. Clinical investigation established lead levels and lead poison frequency in children with para-occupational lead exposure in the process of recycling automobile batteries. This was designed as a descriptive study, with selection of subjects with high risk of possible lead exposure. Minors, mostly of school age were recruited based on referral by relatives, neighbors or acquaintances, all of whom were involved in para-occupational exposure. Thirty two children, less than 12 years old (majority school age), were included. General and specific examinations of the children were made, and blood samples were taken for lead and hematological determinations. All subjects showed high levels of lead (2-9 times the maximum acceptable value) and, according to established criteria, two-thirds were rated as severely poisoned. The children with high levels of lead had tendency toward more specific hematological compromise and showing black gingival bordering (Burton border). This study communicates to the sanitary authorities and government a clear sign of alarm in that measures must be taken to diminish the occupational or para-occupational lead exposure of children by way of the automobile battery recycling industry.

  19. Crossing institutional boundaries: mapping the policy process for improved control of endemic and neglected zoonoses in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, Anna; Welburn, Susan; Smith, James

    2015-07-01

    The recent adoption of the World Health Assembly Resolution 66.12 for neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) in May 2013 is an important turning point for advocacy regarding a number of endemic zoonotic infections, defined by the World Health Organization as the neglected zoonotic diseases (NZDs). In addition to NTD-listed zoonoses such as rabies, echinococcosis (hydatid disease), leishmaniasis, Human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) and Taenia solium cysticercosis, the NZDs also include important bacterial zoonoses such as anthrax, bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis. To date, analysis of the processes that prioritize, develop and deliver zoonoses control programmes in many low- and middle-income countries is lacking, despite its potential to highlight significant evidence gaps and institutional constraints to the intersectoral approach required for their control. Policy process analysis was conducted via a series of semi-structured interviews with key policy actors within various ministries and institutes in Uganda and Nigeria. The study concluded that despite the rhetoric around 'linear' models of health policy development promoting consultation with a wide range of national stakeholders, the decision-making process for zoonotic disease control appears instead overtly influenced by the external political economy of trending pandemic threats, often overlooking national and regional zoonoses priorities. The inclusion of political systems remains a key factor in the zoonoses analysis matrix, enhancing our understanding of the intersectoral and transdisciplinary approaches required for their control. The authors consider policy process analysis to be a fundamental first step of any attempt to holistically strengthen human and animal health systems in a development context, particularly regarding the promotion of integrated control policies for regionally important zoonoses under the growing One Health movement. Published by Oxford University Press in

  20. Knowledge brokering between researchers and policymakers in Fiji to develop policies to reduce obesity: a process evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waqa, Gade; Mavoa, Helen; Snowdon, Wendy; Moodie, Marj; Schultz, Jimaima; McCabe, Marita; Kremer, Peter; Swinburn, Boyd

    2013-07-01

    The importance of using research evidence in decisionmaking at the policy level has been increasingly recognized. However, knowledge brokering to engage researchers and policymakers in government and non-government organizations is challenging. This paper describes and evaluates the knowledge exchange processes employed by the Translational Research on Obesity Prevention in Communities (TROPIC) project that was conducted from July 2009 to April 2012 in Fiji. TROPIC aimed to enhance: the evidence-informed decisionmaking skills of policy developers; and awareness and utilization of local and other obesity-related evidence to develop policies that could potentially improve the nation's food and physical activity environments. The specific research question was: Can a knowledge brokering approach advance evidence-informed policy development to improve eating and physical activity environments in Fiji. The intervention comprised: recruiting organizations and individuals; mapping policy environments; analyzing organizational capacity and support for evidence-informed policymaking (EIPM); developing EIPM skills; and facilitating development of evidence-informed policy briefs. Flexible timetabling of activities was essential to accommodate multiple competing priorities at both individual and organizational levels. Process diaries captured the duration, frequency and type of each interaction and/or activity between the knowledge brokering team and participants or their organizations. Partnerships were formalized with high-level officers in each of the six participating organization. Participants (n = 49) developed EIPM skills (acquire, assess, adapt and apply evidence) through a series of four workshops and applied this knowledge to formulate briefs with ongoing one-to-one support from TROPIC team members. A total of 55% of participants completed the 12 to18 month intervention, and 63% produced one or more briefs (total = 20) that were presented to higher

  1. Process, paper policy and practice : a case study of the introduction of a formal extension policy in Queensland, Australia 1987 - 1994

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coutts, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    This study explores the policy element of public sector agricultural extension. It was contended that this policy element lacked an adequate framework. Without such a framework, there was a risk that major policy - or operational - issues would be neglected in policy formulation. The study

  2. Evidence for the Involvement of Membranous Bodies in the Processes Leading to Genetic Transformation in Bacillus subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolstenholme, David R.; Vermeulen, Cornelius A.; Venema, Gerhardus

    1966-01-01

    Wolstenholme, David R. (Max-Planck-Institut für Biologie, Tübingen, Germany), Cornelius A. Vermeulen, and Gerhardus Venema. Evidence for the involvement of membranous bodies in the processes leading to genetic transformation in Bacillus subtilis. J. Bacteriol. 92:1111–1121. 1966.—Data obtained from electron microscopic autoradiographs of profiles of cells of a Bacillus subtilis population exposed to H3-thymidine-labeled donor deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) during the phase of maximal competence indicated that molecules originating from absorbed DNA are closely associated with membranous bodies, particularly with those situated in the cytoplasm, but that most if not all of the radioactive molecules are outside the bodies. It is suggested that membranous bodies produce enzymes essential to the eventual incorporation of transforming DNA into the bacterial genome, or to the breakdown and utilization or expulsion of absorbed DNA not incorporated as transformant (or to both processes). During the phase of maximal competence, the total number of membranous bodies seen in profiles increased continuously to as much as 2.3 times the numbers found during earlier stages of culture. This increase was not accounted for by a decrease in bacterial cell volume, but resulted from an actual increase in total volume of membranous bodies. The number of membranous bodies visibly connecting plasma membrane and nuclear region increased during maximal competence to as much as 30 times the numbers found in earlier stages. As both increases were found in the absence of donor DNA and only began after maximal competence was attained, it seemed most probable that they were an expression of a physiological state influenced by the continuing deficiency of nutrients in the growth medium during this phase of culture. Images PMID:4959042

  3. Arsenic, cadmium and lead in fresh and processed tuna marketed in Galicia (NW Spain): Risk assessment of dietary exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Ricardo; García, M Ángeles; Alonso, Julián; Melgar, M Julia

    2018-01-29

    Currently, metal bioaccumulation in fish is increasing and is a cause of concern due to toxicity. Total arsenic, cadmium and lead concentrations in fresh and processed tuna (110 samples) marketed in Galicia (NW Spain) were determined by ICP-MS spectrometry. The average concentrations of As and Cd, 3.78 and 0.024 mg kg -1 w.w., respectively, in fresh tuna were statistically significantly higher than those in processed tuna (p  natural > pickled sauce. Of the two species studied in canned tuna, Thunnus alalunga showed statistically significant higher levels both for As 1.28 mg kg -1 (p < 0.001) and Pb 0.013 mg kg -1 (p = 0.0496) than Thunnus albacares. No samples surpassed the limits set by the EU for Cd and Pb. The limit for As in fish has not been established, but the arsenic contents in fresh tuna reported here are important, as they are among the highest reported in the literature. Considering public health in children and adults with respect to the investigated metals, the estimated daily intakes (EDIs) did not exceed the tolerable intakes. No chronic systemic risk was found since all the target hazard quotients (THQs-TTHQs) were far below 1 (critical value), and the carcinogenic risk (CR) for As did not exceed the acceptable value of 10 -5 . Thus, tuna consumption in the Galician diet does not pose a risk for different population groups in terms of these studied metals/metalloids. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. QCD factorization of exclusive processes beyond leading twist: γT*→ρT impact factor with twist three accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikin, I.V.; Ivanov, D.Yu.; Pire, B.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a consistent approach to factorization of scattering amplitudes for exclusive processes beyond the leading twist approximation. The method involves the Taylor expansion of the scattering amplitude in the momentum space around the dominant light-cone direction and thus naturally introduces an appropriate set of non-perturbative correlators which encode effects not only of the lowest but also of the higher Fock states of the produced particle. The reduction of original set of correlators to a set of independent ones is achieved with the help of equations of motion and invariance of the scattering amplitude under rotation on the light cone. We compare the proposed method with the covariant method formulated in the coordinate space, based on the operator product expansion. We prove the equivalence of two proposed parametrizations of the ρ T distribution amplitudes. As a concrete application, we compute the expressions of the impact factor for the transition of virtual photon to transversally polarised ρ-meson up to the twist 3 accuracy within these two quite different methods and show that they are identical.

  5. From forest landscape to agricultural landscape in the developing tropical country of Malaysia: pattern, process, and their significance on policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Saiful Arif; Hezri, Adnan A

    2008-11-01

    Agricultural expansion and deforestation are spatial processes of land transformation that impact on landscape pattern. In peninsular Malaysia, the conversion of forested areas into two major cash crops--rubber and oil palm plantations--has been identified as driving significant environmental change. To date, there has been insufficient literature studying the link between changes in landscape patterns and land-related development policies. Therefore, this paper examines: (i) the links between development policies and changes in land use/land cover and landscape pattern and (ii) the significance and implications of these links for future development policies. The objective is to generate insights on the changing process of land use/land cover and landscape pattern as a functional response to development policies and their consequences for environmental conditions. Over the last century, the development of cash crops has changed the country from one dominated by natural landscapes to one dominated by agricultural landscapes. But the last decade of the century saw urbanization beginning to impact significantly. This process aligned with the establishment of various development policies, from land development for agriculture between the mid 1950s and the 1970s to an emphasis on manufacturing from the 1980s onward. Based on a case study in Selangor, peninsular Malaysia, a model of landscape pattern change is presented. It contains three stages according to the relative importance of rubber (first stage: 1900--1950s), oil palm (second stage: 1960s--1970s), and urban (third stage: 1980s--1990s) development that influenced landscape fragmentation and heterogeneity. The environmental consequences of this change have been depicted through loss of biodiversity, geohazard incidences, and the spread of vector-borne diseases. The spatial ecological information can be useful to development policy formulation, allowing diagnosis of the country's "health" and sustainability. The

  6. Understanding farmers' strategic decision-making processes and the implications for biodiversity conservation policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmar-Bowers, Quentin; Lane, Ruth

    2009-02-01

    The conservation of biodiversity is an important issue world wide and in Australia the maintenance of native biodiversity on farms makes an important contribution to overall conservation objectives. This paper seeks to explain Australian farmers' rationale for maintaining biodiversity on their farms for personal as opposed to business reasons by developing a decision-systems theory from in-depth interviews. This difference has implications for policy development. The decision-systems theory is divided into two main sections. The first section contains five parts. (1) A hierarchy of motivation stories, (2) the concept of suitability and availability of opportunities, (3) a hierarchy of three decision-systems, (4) the concept of personal career paths, (5) the concept of Lenses. The second section contains one part, a policy classification system called 'boxes of influence' that suggests how policy developers can use the information in the first section to develop new biodiversity conservation policy. The paper suggests that decision-systems theory could be used to shed new light on current trends in agriculture and become an important investigative tool for policy development concerning the conservation of biodiversity on farms.

  7. The process of construction of evidence: An analysis of the use of indicators in two decisions of innovation policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boavida, N.; Moniz, A.; Laranja, M.

    2016-07-01

    Despite increasing calls for evidence-based policies, knowledge about the practical use of evidences remains limited. This paper studies the process of construction of evidences in decisions of innovation policy to understand how evidences were used. It analysis the use of indicators and other evidences through interviews conducted to inquire about the two decisions: an electric mobility policy and a nanotechnology laboratory. Results show indicators and other evidences were brought to decision processes according to their availability and capacity to support the different interests of the actors and the stakeholders. Their role was influenced by the particular situation of the decision makers. More importantly, the use of persuasive analytical evidences appears to be related with the adversity of the policy context. In addition, research suggests that indicators are one tool among others to foster innovation decisions. In fact, the relatively minor instrumental role of indicators suggests that indicators are mostly a complementary instrument of decision. When used relevantly, indicators can offer support to a decision. But there are other significant influences that need to be taken into account to understand the specific role indicators and other evidences play, such as the social relations of the decision makers and their emotional-intuitive decisions. (Author)

  8. The Health Policy Process in Vietnam: Going Beyond Kingdon’s Multiple Streams Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Sumit

    2016-01-01

    This commentary reflects upon the article along three broad lines. It reflects on the theoretical choices and omissions, particularly highlighting why it is important to adapt the multiple streams framework (MSF) when applying it in a socio-political context like Vietnam’s. The commentary also reflects upon the analytical threads tackled by Ha et al; for instance, it highlights the opportunities offered by, and raises questions about the centrality of the Policy Entrepreneur in getting the policy onto the political agenda and in pushing it through. The commentary also dwells on the implications of the article for development aid policies and practices. Throughout, the commentary signposts possible themes for Ha et al to consider for further analysis, and more generally, for future research using Kingdon’s multiple streams theory. PMID:27694671

  9. You can lead a horse to water … what Self-Determination Theory can contribute to our understanding of clinical policy implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Geoffrey P; Williams, Theresa M

    2017-01-01

    There has been increasing reliance on policy directives as instruments for shaping clinical practice in health care, despite it being widely recognized that there is a significant translation gap between clinical policy and its implementation. Self-Determination Theory, a widely researched and empirically validated theory of human needs' fulfilment and motivation, offers a potentially valuable theoretical framework for understanding not only why the current policy environment has not led to the anticipated improvement in the quality and safety of clinical care but, importantly, also provides guidance about how organizations can create an environment that can nurture behavioural change in the workforce. We describe an alternative approach to clinical policy-making underpinned by Self-Determination Theory, which we believe has broad application for the science of clinical implementation theory.

  10. Public policy for children in Brazil – the process of implementation of a new model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Stumpf González

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently happened the 25th anniversary of the approval of the Child and Adolescent Statute. Which goals are achieved? What changed? This work analyses the Brazilian case in implementation of a new paradigm of children rights and his impact in the definition of aconcrete agenda of public policies, doing an evaluation of the new model and the changes, with focus of the development of a agenda of policies in four subjects: creation of councils, attention for the young lawbreakers, exploitation of child labour and sexual violence against children. At the end are discussed motivation for partial success in implementation of the agenda and responsibilities of the institutional actors involved.

  11. An interoperable architecture and principles for implementing strategy and policy in operational processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, Y.; Janssen, M.

    2013-01-01

    In today's economy managers expect new strategies and policies to be implemented quickly. Yet practice shows that current systems are not able to implement changes within a short time frame. Nowadays a variety of technologies including semantic web services, business rules and software agents are

  12. Children's Friendships in Diverse Primary Schools: Teachers and the Processes of Policy Enactment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Carol; Neal, Sarah; Iqbal, Humera

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on data from a project exploring children's and adults' friendships across social class and ethnic difference, this paper focuses on the enactment of national and institutional policy around children's friendships as realized in three primary schools in diverse urban areas in London. Through a focus on the way in which social and emotional…

  13. Shifts in EU cohesion policy and processes of peripheralization: a view from Central Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faragó, L.; Varró, K.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing dominance of neoliberalism as the key steering mechanism of the European Union (EU) since the early 1990s has implied the competitiveness-oriented reshaping of cohesion policy. The aim of this paper is to initiate a debate from a critical political economic perspective on the

  14. Regional Integrated Assessments in Support of Decision-making: Process, Product, and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luers, A. L.; Hayhoe, K.

    2006-12-01

    Regional integrated climate assessments are increasingly viewed as critical for informing sound climate policy. Yet, the scientific information in many assessments often is not effectively transformed in to policies to protect the environment. Why are some assessments more effective at informing policies than others? We will provide some insight into this question by describing the lessons learned from a series of regional assessments organized by the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS). Working with independent experts in the global change research community, UCS has produced assessments in three regions of the US California, the Great Lakes, and the Gulf Coast. The reports from each of these assessments continue to be used by local, state and regional decision-makers in related management and policy initiatives. We attribute the success of these assessments in motivating and supporting climate-related decisions to four factors: (1) credibility, attained both through scientific peer-review and by engaging local scientific and community leaders; (2) regional relevance of assessment focus areas; (3) accessible presentation of the results to non-technical audiences; and (4) wide communication and distribution of the report to the media, the public, civic groups, and public officials.

  15. The planning process regarding inflow in GP training in the Netherlands: between policy and practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greuningen, M. van; Batenburg, R.; Velden, L. van der

    2011-01-01

    Context: Shortages and oversupply of health care personnel are a major concern of policy makers and professional bodies. It is commonly acknowledged manpower planning can be an important instrument to control these fluctuations. In the Netherlands, there has been a long period of experience with

  16. Track leading to decision of 'framework for nuclear energy policy'. Reading the public attitude with public opinions (the first). Contents of a new plan (as of June 2005)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimooka, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    The Government decides to respect the 'Framework for Nuclear Energy Policy', which was decided by the Atomic Energy Commission on October 11th, 2005, as a basic principle for the nuclear energy policy and promote research, development and utilization of nuclear science and engineering. The Planning Council asked public opinion and received 758 opinions from 393 citizens. The Council continued the deliberation taking these opinions and compiled a preliminary draft of the 'Framework for Nuclear Energy Policy'. Reading the public attitude with public opinions had been conducted by the author, which showed the necessity for the nation to communicate crucial issues such as the nation's role of nuclear program's implementation, reasons for further promotion of nuclear program and its impacts on environments as well as more preferable introduction of new energy or energy conservation in stead of nuclear power, more to the public. (T. Tanaka)

  17. A survey on the methodological processes and policies of renal guideline groups as a first step to harmonize renal guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Maria C; van der Veer, Sabine N; Nagler, Evi V; Tomson, Charlie; Lewington, Andrew; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Gallagher, Martin; Rocco, Michael; Obrador, Gregorio; Vanholder, Raymond; Craig, Jonathan C; van Biesen, Wim

    2015-07-01

    Worldwide, several bodies produce renal guidelines, potentially leading to duplication of effort while other topics may remain uncovered. A collaborative work plan could improve efficiency and impact, but requires a common approved methodology. The aim of this study was to identify organizational and methodological similarities and differences among seven major renal guideline bodies to identify methodological barriers to a collaborative effort. An electronic 62-item survey with questions based on the Institute of Medicine standards for guidelines was completed by representatives of seven major organizations producing renal guidelines: the Canadian Society of Nephrology (CSN), European Renal Best Practice (ERBP), Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcome (KDIGO), Kidney Health Australia-Caring for Australians with Renal Insufficiency (KHA-CARI), Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative (KDOQI), Sociedad Latino-Americano de Nefrologia e Hipertension (SLANH) and United Kingdom Renal Association (UK-RA). Five of the seven groups conduct systematic searches for evidence, two include detailed critical appraisal and all use the GRADE framework. Five have public review of the guideline draft. Guidelines are updated as new evidence comes up in all, and/or after a specified time frame has passed (N = 3). Commentaries or position statements on guidelines published by other groups are produced by five, with the ADAPTE framework (N = 1) and the AGREEII (N = 2) used by some. Funding is from their parent organizations (N = 5) or directly from industry (N = 2). None allow funders to influence topic selection or guideline content. The budgets to develop a full guideline vary from $2000 to $500 000. Guideline development groups vary in size from <5 (N = 1) to 13-20 persons (N = 3). Three explicitly seek patient perspectives, for example, by involving patients in the scoping process, and four incorporate health economic considerations. All provide training in methodology for

  18. Policy-Led Comparative Environmental Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Crops: Testing for Increased Risk Rather Than Profiling Phenotypes Leads to Predictable and Transparent Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Raybould

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe two contrasting methods of comparative environmental risk assessment for genetically modified (GM crops. Both are science-based, in the sense that they use science to help make decisions, but they differ in the relationship between science and policy. Policy-led comparative risk assessment begins by defining what would be regarded as unacceptable changes when the use a particular GM crop replaces an accepted use of another crop. Hypotheses that these changes will not occur are tested using existing or new data, and corroboration or falsification of the hypotheses is used to inform decision-making. Science-led comparative risk assessment, on the other hand, tends to test null hypotheses of no difference between a GM crop and a comparator. The variables that are compared may have little or no relevance to any previously stated policy objective and hence decision-making tends to be ad hoc in response to possibly spurious statistical significance. We argue that policy-led comparative risk assessment is the far more effective method. With this in mind, we caution that phenotypic profiling of GM crops, particularly with omics methods, is potentially detrimental to risk assessment.

  19. 2008 annual nuclear technology conference: opting out of the use of nuclear power. German special approach leads into a dead end of energy policy. Conference report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    The President of the Deutsches Atomforum, Dr. Walter Hohlefelder, emphasized in his opening address at the 2008 Annual Nuclear Technology Conference in Hamburg that the German special approach to nuclear power utilization led straight into a dead end of energy policy. ''The outcome is foreseeable: The ambitious German goals of carbon dioxide reduction are missed, the competitiveness of the country is jeopardized, dependency on foreign energy imports rises,'' Dr. Hohlefelder stated. In view of the growing challenges in energy policy Germany had no alternative but to reassess nuclear power. The only outcome of this reappraisal could be extension of the life of nuclear power plants currently in operation. This was necessary also in order to avoid an impending gap in German electricity supply, Dr. Hohlefelder added. He invited all stakeholders to join in an open, unbiased dialog. Dr. Hohlefelder openly criticized the continued ban on research into the development of new reactors. ''A policy of this kind, a policy which bans thinking, is unacceptable in a technology-oriented, industrialized nation such as Germany.'' Nuclear power technology as a high-tech area was a unique achievement which had contributed to the prosperity of the country. The Annual Nuclear Technology Conference, which was held for the 39th time this year, is one of the biggest specialized conferences in the nuclear field with an attendance, this year, of approximately 1300 participants from more than twenty nations. (orig.)

  20. Human Dignity as Leading Principle in Public Health Ethics: A Multi-Case Analysis of 21st Century German Health Policy Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Sebastian F; Winter, Stefan F

    2017-06-10

    There is ample evidence that since the turn of the millennium German health policy made a considerable step towards prevention and health promotion, putting the strategies of 'personal empowerment' and 'settings based approach' high on the federal government's agenda. This phenomenon has challenged the role of ethics in health policy. Concurrently, increasing relevance of the Concept of Human Dignity for health and human rights has been discussed. However, a direct relationship between Human Dignity and Public Health Ethics (PHE) has surprisingly not yet been established. We here conduct a systematic ethical analysis of eminent German health prevention policy case-examples between the years 2000-2016. Specifically, our analysis seeks to adapt and apply the principalism (autonomy, beneficence, justice)-based Concept of Human Dignity of Italian philosopher Corrado Viafora, contextualizing it with the emerging field of PHE. To further inform this health policy analysis, index databases (PubMed, Google Scholar) were searched to include relevant published and grey literature. We observe a systematic approach of post-millennial health policy decisions on prevention and on defined health targets in Germany, exemplified by (1) the fostering of the preparedness against pandemic infectious diseases, (2) the development and implementation of the first cancer vaccination, (3) major legal provisions on non-smokers protection in the public domain, (4) acts to strengthen long term care (LTC) as well as (5) the new German E-Health legislation. The ethical analysis of these health prevention decisions exhibits their profound ongoing impact on social justice, probing their ability to meet the underlying Concept of Human Dignity in order to fulfill the requirements of the principle of non-maleficence. The observed health policy focus on prevention and health promotion has sparked new public debates about the formation of/compliance with emerging standards of PHE in Germany. We

  1. Information Security Policy Modeling for Network Security Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Sergeevich Chernyavskiy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Policy management for network security systems (NSSs is one of the most topical issues of network security management. Incorrect configurations of NSSs lead to system outages and appearance of vulnerabilities. Moreover, policy management process is a time-consuming task, which includes significant amount of manual work. These factors reduce efficiency of NSSs’ utilization. The paper discusses peculiarities of policy management process and existing approaches to policy modeling, presents a model aimed to formalize policies for NSSs independently on NSSs’ platforms and select the most effective NSSs for implementation of the policies.

  2. Towards environmentally sustainable human behaviour: targeting non-conscious and conscious processes for effective and acceptable policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteau, Theresa M

    2017-06-13

    Meeting climate change targets to limit global warming to 2°C requires rapid and large reductions in demand for products that most contribute to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. These include production of bulk materials (e.g. steel and cement), energy supply (e.g. fossil fuels) and animal source foods (particularly ruminants and their products). Effective strategies to meet these targets require transformative changes in supply as well as demand, involving changes in economic, political and legal systems at local, national and international levels, building on evidence from many disciplines. This paper outlines contributions from behavioural science in reducing demand. Grounded in dual-process models of human behaviour (involving non-conscious and conscious processes) this paper considers first why interventions aimed at changing population values towards the environment are usually insufficient or unnecessary for reducing demand although they may be important in increasing public acceptability of policies that could reduce demand. It then outlines two sets of evidence from behavioural science towards effective systems-based strategies, to identify interventions likely to be effective at: (i) reducing demand for products that contribute most to GHG emissions, mainly targeting non-conscious processes and (ii) increasing public acceptability for policy changes to enable these interventions, targeting conscious processes.This article is part of the themed issue 'Material demand reduction'. © 2017 The Authors.

  3. Towards environmentally sustainable human behaviour: targeting non-conscious and conscious processes for effective and acceptable policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteau, Theresa M.

    2017-05-01

    Meeting climate change targets to limit global warming to 2°C requires rapid and large reductions in demand for products that most contribute to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. These include production of bulk materials (e.g. steel and cement), energy supply (e.g. fossil fuels) and animal source foods (particularly ruminants and their products). Effective strategies to meet these targets require transformative changes in supply as well as demand, involving changes in economic, political and legal systems at local, national and international levels, building on evidence from many disciplines. This paper outlines contributions from behavioural science in reducing demand. Grounded in dual-process models of human behaviour (involving non-conscious and conscious processes) this paper considers first why interventions aimed at changing population values towards the environment are usually insufficient or unnecessary for reducing demand although they may be important in increasing public acceptability of policies that could reduce demand. It then outlines two sets of evidence from behavioural science towards effective systems-based strategies, to identify interventions likely to be effective at: (i) reducing demand for products that contribute most to GHG emissions, mainly targeting non-conscious processes and (ii) increasing public acceptability for policy changes to enable these interventions, targeting conscious processes. This article is part of the themed issue 'Material demand reduction'.

  4. Inside the removal of lead(II) from aqueous solutions by De-Oiled Allspice Husk in batch and continuous processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz-Olivares, J.; Perez-Alonso, C. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Quimica, Paseo Colon interseccion Paseo Tollocan S/N. C.P. 50120, Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Barrera-Diaz, C., E-mail: cbarrera@uaemex.mx [Centro Conjunto de Investigacion en Quimica Sustentable UAEM-UNAM, Carretera Toluca-Atlacomulco, km 14.5, Unidad El Rosedal, C.P. 50200, Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Lopez, G.; Balderas-Hernandez, P. [Centro Conjunto de Investigacion en Quimica Sustentable UAEM-UNAM, Carretera Toluca-Atlacomulco, km 14.5, Unidad El Rosedal, C.P. 50200, Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-09-15

    A new adsorbent material for removing lead ions from aqueous solutions has been investigated. The residue of the allspice extraction process (De-Oiled Allspice Husk) was used on the removal of Pb(II) from water solutions. The lead sorption capacity of De-Olied Allspice Husk (DOAH) was studied in batch and continuous processes. It was found that percentage removals of Pb(II) depend on the pH and the initial lead concentrations. The Pb(II) uptake process was maximum at pH 5 in a range concentrations of 5-25 mg L{sup -1}. The overall sorption process was well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model under conditions of pH 5 (0.1 g adsorbent per 100 mL of contaminated solution) 0.001 mass/volume ratio and 25 deg. C. The sorption capacity of lead(II) onto DOAH in batch process was 5.00, 8.02, 11.59, 15.23 and 20.07 mg g{sup -1}, when the concentration solutions were 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 mg L{sup -1} respectively. These values are lower than obtained in continuous process, where lead was removed by 95% and the experimental results were appropriately fitted by the Yoon-Nelson model. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) provides information regarding the interactions between lead ions and the adsorbent surface indicating that the formation of 2 complexes depends on the functional groups associated.

  5. The ethics of interrogation and the American Psychological Association: a critique of policy and process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Brad; Soldz, Stephen; Davis, Martha

    2008-01-29

    The Psychological Ethics and National Security (PENS) task force was assembled by the American Psychological Association (APA) to guide policy on the role of psychologists in interrogations at foreign detention centers for the purpose of U.S. national security. The task force met briefly in 2005, and its report was quickly accepted by the APA Board of Directors and deemed consistent with the APA Ethics Code by the APA Ethics Committee. This rapid acceptance was unusual for a number of reasons but primarily because of the APA's long-standing tradition of taking great care in developing ethical policies that protected anyone who might be impacted by the work of psychologists. Many psychological and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), as well as reputable journalists, believed the risk of harm associated with psychologist participation in interrogations at these detention centers was not adequately addressed by the report. The present critique analyzes the assumptions of the PENS report and its interpretations of the APA Ethics Code. We demonstrate that it presents only one (and not particularly representative) side of a complex set of ethical issues. We conclude with a discussion of more appropriate psychological contributions to national security and world peace that better respect and preserve human rights.

  6. The ethics of interrogation and the American Psychological Association: A critique of policy and process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Martha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Psychological Ethics and National Security (PENS task force was assembled by the American Psychological Association (APA to guide policy on the role of psychologists in interrogations at foreign detention centers for the purpose of U.S. national security. The task force met briefly in 2005, and its report was quickly accepted by the APA Board of Directors and deemed consistent with the APA Ethics Code by the APA Ethics Committee. This rapid acceptance was unusual for a number of reasons but primarily because of the APA's long-standing tradition of taking great care in developing ethical policies that protected anyone who might be impacted by the work of psychologists. Many psychological and non-governmental organizations (NGOs, as well as reputable journalists, believed the risk of harm associated with psychologist participation in interrogations at these detention centers was not adequately addressed by the report. The present critique analyzes the assumptions of the PENS report and its interpretations of the APA Ethics Code. We demonstrate that it presents only one (and not particularly representative side of a complex set of ethical issues. We conclude with a discussion of more appropriate psychological contributions to national security and world peace that better respect and preserve human rights.

  7. Implementation of a Positive Youth Development Program in a Chinese Context: The Role of Policy, Program, People, Process, and Place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a case study is presented based on one school, conducted to examine the factors that influenced the process and quality of implementation of the Tier 1 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. Through interviews with the school contact person and focus group interviews with the instructors, an integration of the findings showed that several factors related to the program, people, process, policy, and place (5 “P”s facilitated the implementation process of the Tier 1 Program in the school. Obstacles and difficulties with reference to the 5 “P”s that affected the quality of implementation were also identified. Overall, the quality of program implementation in the school was good, and the program was well received by the program implementers. Implications of the present findings for future program implementation with reference to school administrative arrangements and implementation issues are discussed.

  8. Mechanistic study of lead desorption during the leaching process of ion-absorbed rare earths: pH effect and the column experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Q.; Tang, J., Sr.; Chen, H.

    2017-12-01

    High concentrations of ammonium sulfate, often used in the in-situ mining process, can result in a decrease of pH in the environment and dissolution of rare earth metals. Ammonium sulfate can also cause desorption of toxic heavy metals, leading to environmental and human health implications. In this study, the desorption behavior and fraction changes of lead in the ion-absorbed rare earth ore were studied using batch desorption experiments and column leaching tests. Results from batch desorption experiments showed that the desorption process of lead included fast and slow stages, and followed an Elovich model well. The desorption rate and the proportion of lead content in the solution to the total lead in the soil were observed to increase with a decrease in the initial pH of the ammonium sulfate solution. The lead in soil included an acid extractable fraction, reducible fraction, oxidizable fraction, and a residual fraction, with the predominant fractions being the reducible and acid extractable fractions. 96% of the extractable fraction in soil were desorbed into solution at pH=3.0, and the content of the reducible fraction was observed to initially increase (when pH>4.0) and then decrease (when pHsoil followed the trend of reducible fraction > oxidizable fraction > acid extractable fraction > residual fraction after the simulating leaching mining process. The change in pH was also found to have a larger influence on the acid extractable and reducible fractions than the other two fractions. The proportion of the extractable fraction being leached was ca. 86%, and the reducible fraction was enriched along the migration direction of the leaching liquid. These results suggest that certain lead fractions may desorb again and contaminate the environment via acid rain, which provides significant information for environmental assessment and remediation after mining process.

  9. Multi-Level Policy Dialogues, Processes, and Actions: Challenges and Opportunities for National REDD+ Safeguards Measurement, Reporting, and Verification (MRV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Jagger

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available REDD+ social safeguards have gained increasing attention in numerous forums. This paper reviews the evolution of multi-level policy dialogues, processes, and actions related to REDD+ social safeguards (e.g., Cancun Safeguards 1–5 among policy makers, civil society organizations, and within the media in Brazil, Indonesia and Tanzania, three countries with well advanced REDD+ programs. We find that progress on core aspects of social safeguards is uneven across the three countries. Brazil is by far the most advanced having drafted a REDD+ social safeguards policy. Both Brazil and Indonesia have benefited from progress made by strong sub-national entities in the operationalization of REDD+ safeguards including free prior and informed consent (FPIC, participation, and benefit sharing. Tanzania has weakly articulated how social safeguards will be operationalized and has a more top-down approach. We conclude that in all three countries, measuring, reporting and verifying progress on social safeguards is likely to be a complex issue. Stakeholders with vested interests in REDD+ social safeguards operate in polycentric rather than nested systems, suggesting that aggregation of information from local to national-scale will be a challenge. However, polycentric systems are also likely to support more transparent and comprehensive safeguards systems. Clear direction from the international community and financing for REDD+ safeguard MRV is essential if REDD+ social safeguards are to be meaningfully integrated into forest-based climate mitigation strategies.

  10. Influence of Thermal Processing Protocol upon the Crystallization and Photovoltaic Performance of Organic–Inorganic Lead Trihalide Perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    Saliba, Michael

    2014-07-31

    We investigate the thermally induced morphological and crystalline development of methylammonium lead mixed halide perovskite (CH 3NH3PbI3-xClx) thin films and photovoltaic device performance with meso-superstructured and planar heterojunction architectures. We observe that a short rapid thermal annealing at 130 °C leads to the growth of large micron-sized textured perovskite domains and improved the short circuit currents and power conversion efficiencies up to 13.5% for the planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells. This work highlights the criticality of controlling the thin film crystallization mechanism of hybrid perovskite materials for high-performing photovoltaic applications. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  11. The Invisible Hand or What Makes the Bureaucracy Indispensable? A Short Theoretical Inquiry Into the Bureaucracy's Role in the Policy Making Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina HARUŢA

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the study of public bureaucracy, an intrinsic preoccupation arises concerning the balance of policy making authority between politicians and bureaucrats. In this paper we attempt to show from a theoretical point of view that bureaucracies enjoy some degree of discretion over policy making via implementation, rulemaking and enforcement activities. According to many authors it appears that the bureaucrats are entitled as well to play the role of both partners and contributors in the public policy formulation process, even if sometimes their policy preferences do not overlap all the times with the preferences of their elected overseers.

  12. Environmental policy in Norway: emission quotas to the processing industries, taxation of the oil companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjernshaugen, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    In a white paper on the climate policy, the Norwegian Government proposes a variety of political instruments. In the years 2005 to 2007, the Government will give priority to a quota system for the industrial sectors that are currently exempt from the CO 2 tax. At the same time, the tax on oil- and gas extraction and on traffic will be continued. In addition, a series of measures are evaluated against specific emission sources such as waste management and oil heating. For the years 2008 to 2012, which is the period of commitment under the Kyoto protocol, the CO 2 will be replaced by a broad quota system that will apply to all sources that can be technically included

  13. The Formation of Accounting Policies for Processing Enterprises in the Context of Adaptation of National Regulations to the International Standards of Accounting and Reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozheliuk Viktoriia M.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article defines principles for preparation of accounting policies using both domestic and foreign experience, generalizes scientific and theoretical approaches, and improves the wordings of the concept of «accounting policy». The feasibility of conducting a preliminary assessment of efficiency of organizational activities through the use of the criteria generalized in the accounting policy has been substantiated, the legal and regulatory levels have been highlighted, taking into consideration the existing legislation. The procedure for determining the accounting policy parameters and directions has been disclosed, requirements to the formation of accounting policy have been defined, influencing of factors on its formation in market conditions has been researched. Recommendations for the main sections of the accounting policy order in the processing enterprise have been formulated, a list of parts of the accounting policy order has been determined, taking into consideration the organization and technology of the working process of processing enterprises in the circumstances of market economy. A comparison of international and national regulations on the formation of accounting policies for the market-based enterprises has been carried out.

  14. 3D simulation of the cold extrusion process of non-symmetric section of tellurium-lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Eskandari Jam

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, making use of the ABAQUS software, an extrusion simulation is made with Tellurium-lead alloy. In this respect, two kinds of die land and their effects on extrusion force are investigated. The results are compared with available experimental ones in some references. The results show that a straight-line product is achieved by adding die lands to the die (with two statements, which increases the extrusion load and the deformation of the metal significantly. Also is investigated that the amount of force increase in the second state decreased in comparison with the first state.

  15. Error-Induced Blindness: Error Detection Leads to Impaired Sensory Processing and Lower Accuracy at Short Response-Stimulus Intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzell, George A; Beatty, Paul J; Paquette, Natalie A; Roberts, Daniel M; McDonald, Craig G

    2017-03-15

    Empirical evidence indicates that detecting one's own mistakes can serve as a signal to improve task performance. However, little work has focused on how task constraints, such as the response-stimulus interval (RSI), influence post-error adjustments. In the present study, event-related potential (ERP) and behavioral measures were used to investigate the time course of error-related processing while humans performed a difficult visual discrimination task. We found that error commission resulted in a marked reduction in both task performance and sensory processing on the following trial when RSIs were short, but that such impairments were not detectable at longer RSIs. Critically, diminished sensory processing at short RSIs, indexed by the stimulus-evoked P1 component, was predicted by an ERP measure of error processing, the Pe component. A control analysis ruled out a general lapse in attention or mind wandering as being predictive of subsequent reductions in sensory processing; instead, the data suggest that error detection causes an attentional bottleneck, which can diminish sensory processing on subsequent trials that occur in short succession. The findings demonstrate that the neural system dedicated to monitoring and improving behavior can, paradoxically, at times be the source of performance failures. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The performance-monitoring system is a network of brain regions dedicated to monitoring behavior to adjust task performance when necessary. Previous research has demonstrated that activation of the performance monitoring system following incorrect decisions serves to improve future task performance. However, the present study provides evidence that, when perceptual decisions must be made rapidly (within approximately half a second of each other), activation of the performance-monitoring system is predictive of impaired task-related attention on the subsequent trial. The data illustrate that the cognitive demands imposed by error processing

  16. How high-performance work systems drive health care value: an examination of leading process improvement strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Julie; Garman, Andrew N; Song, Paula H; McAlearney, Ann Scheck

    2012-01-01

    As hospitals focus on increasing health care value, process improvement strategies have proliferated, seemingly faster than the evidence base supporting them. Yet, most process improvement strategies are associated with work practices for which solid evidence does exist. Evaluating improvement strategies in the context of evidence-based work practices can provide guidance about which strategies would work best for a given health care organization. We combined a literature review with analysis of key informant interview data collected from 5 case studies of high-performance work practices (HPWPs) in health care organizations. We explored the link between an evidence-based framework for HPWP use and 3 process improvement strategies: Hardwiring Excellence, Lean/Six Sigma, and Baldrige. We found that each of these process improvement strategies has not only strengths but also important gaps with respect to incorporating HPWPs involving engaging staff, aligning leaders, acquiring and developing talent, and empowering the front line. Given differences among these strategies, our analyses suggest that some may work better than others for individual health care organizations, depending on the organizations' current management systems. In practice, most organizations implementing improvement strategies would benefit from including evidence-based HPWPs to maximize the potential for process improvement strategies to increase value in health care.

  17. The policy process in a petro-state. An analysis of PDVSA's (Petroleos de Venezuela SA's) internationalisation strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baena, C.E. [Instituto de Estudios Superiores de Administracion, Caracas (Venezuela)

    1999-07-01

    Venezuela offers a unique case and fertile ground for the study of oil policy-making processes. In the specialised literature very little attention has been paid to the nature and operations of multinationals from developing countries. By analysing Petroleos de Venezuela SA's (PDVSA's) internationalisation policy, this unique book explores the difficulties encountered by a major state oil enterprise in its efforts to grow beyond national borders. This informative study focuses on the impact of democratic bargaining on the process of oil policy-making in Venezuela, stressing the constraints posed by politics on PDVSA's efforts to expand its foreign operations. (author)

  18. Adsorption of aluminum and lead from wastewater by chitosan-tannic acid modified biopolymers: Isotherms, kinetics, thermodynamics and process mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawi, M A; Negm, N A; Abou Kana, M T H; Hefni, H H; Abdel Moneem, M M

    2017-06-01

    Chitosan was reacted by tannic acid to obtain three modified chitosan biopolymer. Their chemical structures were characterized by FTIR and elemental analysis. The prepared biopolymers were used to adsorb Al(III) and Pb(II) metal ions from industrial wastewater. The factors affecting the adsorption process were biosorbent amount, initial concentration of metal ion and pH of the medium. The adsorption efficiency increased considerably with the increase of the biosorbent amount and pH of the medium. The adsorption process of biosorbent on different metal ions was fitted by Freundlich adsorption model. The adsorption kinetics was followed Pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The adsorption process occurred according to diffusion mechanism which was confirmed by the interparticle diffusion model. The modified biopolymers were efficient biosorbents for removal of Pb(II) and Al(III) metal ions from the medium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Signal Processing in Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS: Methodological Differences Lead to Different Statistical Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mischa D. Pfeifer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though research in the field of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS has been performed for more than 20 years, consensus on signal processing methods is still lacking. A significant knowledge gap exists between established researchers and those entering the field. One major issue regularly observed in publications from researchers new to the field is the failure to consider possible signal contamination by hemodynamic changes unrelated to neurovascular coupling (i.e., scalp blood flow and systemic blood flow. This might be due to the fact that these researchers use the signal processing methods provided by the manufacturers of their measurement device without an advanced understanding of the performed steps. The aim of the present study was to investigate how different signal processing approaches (including and excluding approaches that partially correct for the possible signal contamination affect the results of a typical functional neuroimaging study performed with fNIRS. In particular, we evaluated one standard signal processing method provided by a commercial company and compared it to three customized approaches. We thereby investigated the influence of the chosen method on the statistical outcome of a clinical data set (task-evoked motor cortex activity. No short-channels were used in the present study and therefore two types of multi-channel corrections based on multiple long-channels were applied. The choice of the signal processing method had a considerable influence on the outcome of the study. While methods that ignored the contamination of the fNIRS signals by task-evoked physiological noise yielded several significant hemodynamic responses over the whole head, the statistical significance of these findings disappeared when accounting for part of the contamination using a multi-channel regression. We conclude that adopting signal processing methods that correct for physiological confounding effects might yield more

  20. Signal Processing in Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS): Methodological Differences Lead to Different Statistical Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Mischa D; Scholkmann, Felix; Labruyère, Rob

    2017-01-01

    Even though research in the field of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) has been performed for more than 20 years, consensus on signal processing methods is still lacking. A significant knowledge gap exists between established researchers and those entering the field. One major issue regularly observed in publications from researchers new to the field is the failure to consider possible signal contamination by hemodynamic changes unrelated to neurovascular coupling (i.e., scalp blood flow and systemic blood flow). This might be due to the fact that these researchers use the signal processing methods provided by the manufacturers of their measurement device without an advanced understanding of the performed steps. The aim of the present study was to investigate how different signal processing approaches (including and excluding approaches that partially correct for the possible signal contamination) affect the results of a typical functional neuroimaging study performed with fNIRS. In particular, we evaluated one standard signal processing method provided by a commercial company and compared it to three customized approaches. We thereby investigated the influence of the chosen method on the statistical outcome of a clinical data set (task-evoked motor cortex activity). No short-channels were used in the present study and therefore two types of multi-channel corrections based on multiple long-channels were applied. The choice of the signal processing method had a considerable influence on the outcome of the study. While methods that ignored the contamination of the fNIRS signals by task-evoked physiological noise yielded several significant hemodynamic responses over the whole head, the statistical significance of these findings disappeared when accounting for part of the contamination using a multi-channel regression. We conclude that adopting signal processing methods that correct for physiological confounding effects might yield more realistic results

  1. Key factors leading to reduced recruitment and retention of health professionals in remote areas of Ghana: a qualitative study and proposed policy solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzodzomenyo Mawuli

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability of many countries to achieve national health goals such as the Millennium Development Goals remains hindered by inadequate and poorly distributed health personnel, including doctors. The distribution of doctors in Ghana is highly skewed, with a majority serving in two major metropolitan areas (Accra and Kumasi, and inadequate numbers in remote and rural districts. Recent policies increasing health worker salaries have reduced migration of doctors out of Ghana, but made little difference to distribution within the country. This qualitative study was undertaken to understand how practicing doctors and medical leaders in Ghana describe the key factors reducing recruitment and retention of health professionals into remote areas, and to document their proposed policy solutions. Methods In-depth interviews were carried out with 84 doctors and medical leaders, including 17 regional medical directors and deputy directors from across Ghana, and 67 doctors currently practicing in 3 regions (Greater Accra, Brong Ahafo, and Upper West; these 3 regions were chosen to represent progressively more remote distances from the capital of Accra. Results and discussion All participants felt that rural postings must have special career or monetary incentives given the loss of locum (i.e. moonlighting income, the higher workload, and professional isolation of remote assignments. Career 'death' and prolonged rural appointments were a common fear, and proposed policy solutions focused considerably on career incentives, such as guaranteed promotion or a study opportunity after some fixed term of service in a remote or hardship area. There was considerable stress placed on the need for rural doctors to have periodic contact with mentors through rural rotation of specialists, or remote learning centers, and reliable terms of appointment with fixed end-points. Also raised, but given less emphasis, were concerns about the adequacy of clinical

  2. Key factors leading to reduced recruitment and retention of health professionals in remote areas of Ghana: a qualitative study and proposed policy solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Rachel C; Asabir, Kwesi; Mutumba, Massy; Koomson, Elizabeth; Gyan, Kofi; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli; Kruk, Margaret; Kwansah, Janet

    2011-05-21

    The ability of many countries to achieve national health goals such as the Millennium Development Goals remains hindered by inadequate and poorly distributed health personnel, including doctors. The distribution of doctors in Ghana is highly skewed, with a majority serving in two major metropolitan areas (Accra and Kumasi), and inadequate numbers in remote and rural districts. Recent policies increasing health worker salaries have reduced migration of doctors out of Ghana, but made little difference to distribution within the country. This qualitative study was undertaken to understand how practicing doctors and medical leaders in Ghana describe the key factors reducing recruitment and retention of health professionals into remote areas, and to document their proposed policy solutions. In-depth interviews were carried out with 84 doctors and medical leaders, including 17 regional medical directors and deputy directors from across Ghana, and 67 doctors currently practicing in 3 regions (Greater Accra, Brong Ahafo, and Upper West); these 3 regions were chosen to represent progressively more remote distances from the capital of Accra. All participants felt that rural postings must have special career or monetary incentives given the loss of locum (i.e. moonlighting income), the higher workload, and professional isolation of remote assignments. Career 'death' and prolonged rural appointments were a common fear, and proposed policy solutions focused considerably on career incentives, such as guaranteed promotion or a study opportunity after some fixed term of service in a remote or hardship area. There was considerable stress placed on the need for rural doctors to have periodic contact with mentors through rural rotation of specialists, or remote learning centers, and reliable terms of appointment with fixed end-points. Also raised, but given less emphasis, were concerns about the adequacy of clinical equipment in remote facilities, and remote accommodations. In

  3. Determination of lead and cadmium contaminations in UF-Cheese and yoghurt produced in Esfahan and GolpayeganPegah Dairy Processing Establishments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Jaberi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Milk is a complicated liquid that contains necessary components for the growth of mammalian neonate. Milk can get polluted by heavy metals such as lead and cadmium. In this study, the concentrations of lead and cadmium were measured in 12 yoghurt and 12 UF cheese samples produced in each of the Isfahan and Golpayegan-Pegah Dairy Processing Establishments. The samples were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry by furnace according to AOAC instruction. According to the results, lead concentrations (Mean ± SD in yoghurt and UF cheese samples produced in Isfahan and Golpayegan-Pegah were estimated at 54.96 ± 35.21, 61.65 ± 19.62, 105.38 ± 59.09, 141.94 ± 63.44 μg/Kg, respectively. In the case of cadmium, the concentrations were determined as 19.03 ± 1.23, 16.84 ± 8.08, 53.79 ± 19.29, 37.67 ± 22.58 μg/Kg, respectively. Results revealed a significant difference (P≥0.05 in lead and cadmium concentrations among the cheese samples of the two Dairy Processing Establishments. However, lead and cadmium concentrations in all samples were within the international approved limit (200 ppb.

  4. Replacement policy in a system under shocks following a Markovian arrival process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoro-Cazorla, Delia [Department of Statistics and Operational Research, University of Jaen (Spain); Perez-Ocon, Rafael [Department of Statistics and Operational Research, University of Granada, Granada (Spain)], E-mail: rperezo@ugr.es; Carmen Segovia, Maria del [Departamento de Estadistica e I.O., University of Granada, Granada (Spain)

    2009-02-15

    We present a system subject to shocks that arrive following a Markovian arrival process. The system is minimally repaired. It is replaced when a certain number of shocks arrive. A general model where the replacements are governed by a discrete phase-type distribution is studied. For this system, the Markov process governing the system is constructed, and the interarrival times between replacements and the number of replacements are calculated. A special case of this system is when it can stand a prefixed number of shocks. For this new system, the same performance measures are calculated. The systems are considered in transient and stationary regime.

  5. An experimental analysis of critical factors involved in the breakdown process of leading edge vortex flows. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Kenneth D.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental crosswire measurements of the flowfield above a 70 and 75 degree flat plate delta wing were performed at a Reynolds number of 250,000. Survey grids were taken normal to the platform at a series of chordwise locations for angles of attack of 20 and 30 degrees. Axial and azimuthal vorticity distributions were derived from the velocity fields. The dependence of circulation on distance from the vortex core as well as on chordwise location was examined. The effects of nondimensionalization in comparison with other experimental data was made. The circulation distribution scales with the local semispan and grows approximately linearly in the chordwise direction. For regions of the flow outside of the vortex subcore, the circulation at any chordwise station was observed to vary logarithmically with distance from the vortex axis. The circulation was also found to increase linearly with angle of incidence at a given chordwise station. A reduction in the local circulation about the vortex axis occurred at breakdown. The spanwise distribution of axial vorticity was severely altered through the breakdown region and the spanwise distribution of axial vorticity present appeared to reach a maximum immediately preceding breakdown. The local concentration of axial vorticity about the vortex axis was reduced while the magnitude of the azimuthal vorticity decreased throughout the breakdown zone. The axial vorticity components with a negative sense, found in the secondary vortex, remained unaffected by changes in wing sweep or angle of attack, in direct contrast to the positive components. The inclusion of the local wing geometry into a previously derived correlation parameter indicated that the circulation of growing leading edge vortex flows were similar at corresponding radii from the vortex axis. It was concluded that the flow over a delta wing, upstream of the breakdown regions and away from the apex and trailing edge regions, is conical. In addition, the dominating

  6. Lead Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lead is a metal that occurs naturally in the earth's crust. Lead can be found in all parts of our ... from human activities such as mining and manufacturing. Lead used to be in paint; older houses may ...

  7. Lead extraction and glass-ceramics synthesis from waste cathode ray tube funnel glass through cooperative smelting process with coal fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jianfang; Yang, Hongying; Jin, Zhenan; Zhao, Minglei

    2018-03-14

    In this study, a novel process was developed for extracting lead from the hazardous waste cathode ray tube (CRT) funnel glass and simultaneously producing glass-ceramics. CRT funnel glass was mixed with coal fly ash and subjected to carbon thermal reduction with the addition of CaO. The homogeneous glass melt and reduced metallic lead were quenched in water. Glass-ceramics were produced from the parent glass through an appropriate heat treatment. The optimum carbon loading amount (calculated as the molar ratio of C/PbO), CaO/SiO 2 ratio, smelting temperature and holding time for lead recovery were 1.0, 0.3-0.6, 1450 °C and 2 h, respectively. Under these conditions, more than 95% of lead can be extracted from the funnel glass and a low lead content of the resultant parent glass below 0.6 wt% was successfully achieved. CaO behaved as a network modifier to reduce the viscosity of the glass and also acted as a substitution to release lead oxide from the silicate network structure, resulting in a high lead separation efficiency. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the main crystalline phase was gehlenite when 50-70 wt% funnel glass was added. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation showed that well-crystallized crystals occurred in the specimens with 50-70 wt% funnel glass additions, whereas the specimens with 40 wt% and 80 wt% glass additions exhibited a relative low crystallization degree. Furthermore, property measurements, chemical resistance tests and leaching characteristics of heavy metals confirmed the possibility of engineering and construction applications of the superior glass-ceramic products. Overall results indicate that the process proposed in this paper is an effective and promising approach for reutilization of obsolete CRT funnel glass. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Impact of Institutional Culture, Policy and Process on Student Engagement in University Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Philip

    2018-01-01

    There is a strong focus on the importance of student engagement in higher education, with increasing attention on how students can participate in their university's decision-making processes. Yet, although the concept appears to be almost universally accepted, it is rarely problematised. This has led some commentators to conclude that student…

  9. Processes of convergence and divergence in the policy formulation of policing strategies for European metropolises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devroe, E.; Edwards, A.M.; Ponsaers, P.

    2017-01-01

    This edited collection forms part of a broader, ongoing, research project, ‘The Policing European Metropolises Project’ (‘PEMP’). The Project has its origins in a network of researchers interested in the significance of sub-national policing for understanding processes of convergence and divergence

  10. 76 FR 60941 - Policy Regarding Submittal of Amendments for Processing of Equivalent Feed at Licensed Uranium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... feed as material other than natural uranium ores. Alternate feed can, therefore, be certain wastes... waste would be considered as 11e.(2) byproduct material. To constitute equivalent feed, resin must be... facilities, the wastes associated with processing equivalent feed (i.e., unloaded resin) are considered...

  11. Tightening the Purchasing Process: Superintendents Get More Involved in Buying Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Victor

    2009-01-01

    Over the last 18 months, school district purchasing offices across the country have been tightening the reins like never before while more top-level administrators get involved in the budget process. "When the economy really hit the skids, states got hit hard, so a lot of school districts were forced to make severe budget cuts," says John Musso,…

  12. Ecological modernization and environmental policy reform in Thailand: the case of food processing SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wattanapinyo, A.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2013-01-01

    To mitigate environmental pollution from a rapidly expanding Thai food processing industry, different options and technologies can be identifi ed. However, actually implementing these environmental improvements within small and medium-sized agro-food companies requires governing efforts of a variety

  13. The Bologna Process Policy Implementation in Russia and Ukraine: Similarities and Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchinskaya, Daria; Ovchynnikova, Olena

    2011-01-01

    The recent establishment of the European Higher Education Area and the ongoing monitoring carried out by the Bologna Follow-up Group raises the question: to what extent have the objectives of the Bologna Process been implemented in the varied higher education systems of the 47 signatory states, including the former Soviet Union states? This…

  14. U.S. Budgeting for the United Nations: Process, Policy, and Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    that concluded WWII; Chapter XVIII deal with the method for amending the Charter; and Chapter XIX describes the time line and process for Charter...In the last few years there have been reports of crimes by UN personnel, including rape and forced prostitution of women and young girls (Schaefer

  15. Re-approaching social development: a field of action between social life and policy processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arce, A.M.G.

    2003-01-01

    This article reflects on contemporary social development, and suggests that we need to initiate a process of thinking about a post neo-liberal development agenda. As a step in this direction, it is suggested we need to re-approach the social as a conceptual category in order to consider social

  16. Community Psychology as a Process of Citizen Participation in Health Policy Comment on "The Rise of Post-truth Populism in Pluralist Liberal Democracies: Challenges for Health Policy".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, Danny

    2017-06-25

    This brief commentary discusses a recent paper by Speed and Mannion that explores "The Rise of post truth populism in liberal democracies: challenges for health policy." It considers their assertion that through meaningful democratic engagement in health policy, some of the risks brought about by an exclusionary populist politics can be mediated. With an overview of what participation means in modern healthcare policy and implementation, the field of community psychology is presented as one way to engage marginalized groups at risk of exploitation or exclusion by nativist populist policy. © 2018 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  17. When the Second Language Takes the Lead: Neurocognitive Processing Changes in the First Language of Adult Attriters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasparian, Kristina; Steinhauer, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    Although research on multilingualism has revealed continued neuroplasticity for language-learning beyond what was previously expected, it remains controversial whether and to what extent a second language (L2) acquired in adulthood may induce changes in the neurocognitive processing of a first language (L1). First language (L1) attrition in adulthood offers new insight on neuroplasticity and the factors that modulate neurocognitive responses to language. To date, investigations of the neurocognitive correlates of L1 attrition and of factors influencing these mechanisms are still scarce. Moreover, most event-related-potential (ERP) studies of second language processing have focused on L1 influence on the L2, while cross-linguistic influence in the reverse direction has been underexplored. Using ERPs, we examined the real-time processing of Italian relative-clauses in 24 Italian-English adult migrants with predominant use of English since immigration and reporting attrition of their native-Italian (Attriters), compared to 30 non-attriting monolinguals in Italy (Controls). Our results showed that Attriters differed from Controls in their acceptability judgment ratings and ERP responses when relative clause constructions were ungrammatical in English, though grammatical in Italian. Controls' ERP responses to unpreferred sentence constructions were consistent with garden path effects typically observed in the literature for these complex sentences. In contrast, due to L2-English influence, Attriters were less sensitive to semantic cues than to word-order preferences, and processed permissible Italian sentences as outright morphosyntactic violations. Key factors modulating processing differences within Attriters were the degree of maintained L1 exposure, length of residence in the L2 environment and L2 proficiency - with higher levels of L2 immersion and proficiency associated with increased L2 influence on the L1. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that

  18. The development of new environmental policies and processes in response to a crisis: the case of the multiple barrier approach for safe drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plummer, Ryan; Velaniskis, Jonas; Grosbois, Danuta de; Kreutzwiser, Reid D.; Loe, Rob de

    2010-01-01

    While new environmental policies and procedures often are developed incrementally, they can also result from crises or other significant events. In situations where policies and procedures are introduced in response to a crisis, questions about the strengths and weaknesses of existing mechanisms, and the extent to which they can be used to address concerns, may be ignored. This paper explores the complexities of introducing new policies and processes where planning systems and procedures already exist. Drinking water source protection policies that are being developed in response to the tragic events in Walkerton, Ontario, Canada serve as the context for the inquiry. Three case study watersheds were selected to reflect the diversity of municipal jurisdictions and water supply systems in Ontario. A content analysis was undertaken on regulatory and non-regulatory policy documents to determine the extent to which they addressed elements of the multi-barrier approach for drinking water safety. Findings from the research reveal considerable evidence of the multi-barrier approach in the policy and guiding documents analyzed. Policy development in response to a crisis can advance progress on the issue of drinking water safety and coincide with emerging governance strategies. Policy effectiveness may be enhanced by considering existing policies as well as contextual and jurisdictional differences.

  19. Scalable approximate policies for Markov decision process models of hospital elective admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, George; Lizotte, Dan; Hoey, Jesse

    2014-05-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of using stochastic simulation methods for the solution of a large-scale Markov decision process model of on-line patient admissions scheduling. The problem of admissions scheduling is modeled as a Markov decision process in which the states represent numbers of patients using each of a number of resources. We investigate current state-of-the-art real time planning methods to compute solutions to this Markov decision process. Due to the complexity of the model, traditional model-based planners are limited in scalability since they require an explicit enumeration of the model dynamics. To overcome this challenge, we apply sample-based planners along with efficient simulation techniques that given an initial start state, generate an action on-demand while avoiding portions of the model that are irrelevant to the start state. We also propose a novel variant of a popular sample-based planner that is particularly well suited to the elective admissions problem. Results show that the stochastic simulation methods allow for the problem size to be scaled by a factor of almost 10 in the action space, and exponentially in the state space. We have demonstrated our approach on a problem with 81 actions, four specialities and four treatment patterns, and shown that we can generate solutions that are near-optimal in about 100s. Sample-based planners are a viable alternative to state-based planners for large Markov decision process models of elective admissions scheduling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Social Media and the Policy-Making Process a Traditional Novel Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-13

    in their deliberative process. 1 Introduction Social media is a new model of interaction that brings unanticipated changes to the world’s...communication strategy aimed only at a few groups and channeled only through traditional media will necessarily fall short . 31 However, according...in a Globalised World, ed. Jolyon Welsh and Daniel Fearn (London: Foreign and Commonwealth Office, 2008), 66, http://uscpublicdiplomacy.org

  1. Developing a closed-form cost expression for an (R, s, nQ) policy where the demand process is compound generalized Erlang

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian; Kiesmüller, G.P

    2007-01-01

    We derive a closed-form cost expression for an (R,s,nQ) inventory control policy where all replenishment orders have a constant lead-time, unfilled demand is back-logged and inter-arrival times of order requests are generalized Erlang distributed. For given values of Q and R we show how to comput...

  2. Developing a closed-form cost expression for an (R,s,nQ) policy where the demand process is compound generalized Erlang

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian; Kiesmüller, Gudrun P.

    We derive a closed-form cost expression for an (R,s,nQ) inventory control policy where all replenishment orders have a constant lead-time, unfilled demand is backlogged and inter-arrival times of order requests are generalized Erlang distributed....

  3. Effects of improved process for CuO-doped NKN lead-free ceramics on high-power piezoelectric transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Song-Ling; Tsai, Cheng-Che; Liou, Yi-Cheng; Hong, Cheng-Shong; Li, Bing-Jing; Chu, Sheng-Yuan

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, the effects of the electrical proper- ties of CuO-doped (Na(0.5)K(0.5))NbO(3) (NKN) ceramics prepared separately using the B-site oxide precursor method (BO method) and conventional mixed-oxide method (MO method) on high-power piezoelectric transformers (PTs) were investigated. The performances of PTs made with these two substrates were compared. Experimental results showed that the output power and temperature stability of PTs could be enhanced because of the lower resonant impedance of the ceramics prepared using the BO method. In addition, the output power of PTs was more affected by the resonant impedance than by the mechanical quality factor (Q(m)) of the ceramics. The PTs fabricated with ceramics prepared using the BO method showed a high efficiency of more than 94% and a maximum output power of 8.98 W (power density: 18.3 W/cm(3)) with temperature increase of 3°C under the optimum load resistance (5 kΩ) and an input voltage of 150 V(pp). This output power of the lead-free disk-type PTs is the best reported so far.

  4. Impact ionization processes in the steady state of a driven Mott-insulating layer coupled to metallic leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorantin, Max E.; Dorda, Antonius; Held, Karsten; Arrigoni, Enrico

    2018-03-01

    We study a simple model of photovoltaic energy harvesting across a Mott-insulating gap consisting of a correlated layer connected to two metallic leads held at different chemical potentials. We address, in particular, the issue of impact ionization, whereby a particle photoexcited to the high-energy part of the upper Hubbard band uses its extra energy to produce a second particle-hole excitation. We find a drastic increase of the photocurrent upon entering the frequency regime where impact ionization is possible. At large values of the Mott gap, where impact ionization is energetically not allowed, we observe a suppression of the current and a piling up of charge in the high-energy part of the upper Hubbard band. Our study is based on a Floquet dynamical mean-field theory treatment of the steady state with the so-called auxiliary master equation approach as impurity solver. We verify that an additional approximation, taking the self-energy diagonal in the Floquet indices, is appropriate for the parameter range we are considering.

  5. Seed priming with KNO3mediates biochemical processes to inhibit lead toxicity in maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Fahim; Naeem, Muhammad; Akram, Asim; Ashraf, Muhammad Y; Ahmad, Khawaja S; Zulfiqar, Bilal; Sardar, Hasan; Shabbir, Rana N; Majeed, Sadia; Shehzad, Muhammad A; Anwar, Irfan

    2017-11-01

    Accumulation of lead (Pb) in agricultural soils has become a major factor for reduced crop yields and poses serious threats to humans consuming agricultural products. The present study investigated the effects of KNO 3 seed priming (0 and 0.5% KNO 3 ) on growth of maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings exposed to Pb toxicity (0, 1300 and 2550 mg kg -1 Pb). Pb exposure markedly reduced the growth of maize seedlings and resulted in higher Pb accumulation in roots than shoots. Pretreatment of seeds with KNO 3 significantly improved the germination percentage and increased physiological indices. A stimulating effect of KNO 3 seed priming was also observed on pigments (chlorophyll a, b, total chlorophyll and carotenoid contents) of Pb-stressed plants. Low translocation of Pb from roots to shoots caused an increased accumulation of total free amino acids and higher activities of catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase in roots as compared to shoot, which were further enhanced by exogenous KNO 3 supply to prevent Pb toxicity. Maize accumulates more Pb in roots than shoot at early growth stages. Priming of seeds with KNO 3 prevents Pb toxicity, which may be exploited to improve seedling establishment in crop species grown under Pb contaminated soils. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. A multi-level analysis of the EU linking directive process: the controversial connection between EU and global climate policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaam, Karoline Haegstad

    2007-10-15

    Despite initial scepticism in the EU towards the Kyoto Protocol's project mechanisms (the CDM and JI), the 'Linking Directive' was adopted in October 2004, connecting the EU emissions trading scheme with the project mechanisms. Not only was the Linking Directive settled remarkably quickly, the decision-making process also left a more liberal text, with fewer restrictions on the use of the project mechanisms, as compared to the initial directive proposal. This report examines possible explanations to this puzzle, evaluating whether Member State preferences, EU institutions or external influence from the climate regime best can contribute to understanding the process. On the basis of the analysis of written sources stemming from the decision-making process, as well as seven in-depth interviews, the report finds that Member State preferences were the main driver in the Linking Directive process. This gives support to the intergovernmentalist mantra, that Member States are the main decision-makers in the EU. It also challenges much recent research claiming that EU policy-making is increasingly being taken out of the hands of the nation-state and into supranational actors such as the Commission and the European Parliament. (author). 41 refs., figs., tabs

  7. Collaboration: a SWOT analysis of the process of conducting a review of nursing workforce policies in five European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth; Lakanmaa, Riitta-Liisa; Flinkman, Mervi; Basto, Marta Lima; Attree, Moira

    2014-05-01

    This paper critically reviews the literature on international collaboration and analyses the collaborative process involved in producing a nursing workforce policy analysis. Collaboration is increasingly promoted as a means of solving shared problems and achieving common goals; however, collaboration creates its own opportunities and challenges. Evidence about the collaboration process, its outcomes and critical success factors is lacking. A literature review and content analysis of data collected from six participants (from five European countries) members of the European Academy of Nursing Science Scholar Collaborative Workforce Workgroup, using a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis template. Two major factors affecting scholarly collaboration were identified: Facilitators, which incorporated personal attributes and enabling contexts/mechanisms, including individual commitment, responsibility and teamwork, facilitative supportive structures and processes. The second, Barriers, incorporated unmet needs for funding; time; communication and impeding contexts/mechanisms, including workload and insufficient support/mentorship. The literature review identified a low level of evidence on collaboration processes, outcomes, opportunities and challenges. The SWOT analysis identified critical success factors, planning strategies and resources of effective international collaboration. Collaboration is an important concept for management. Evidence-based knowledge of the critical success factors facilitating and impeding collaboration could help managers make collaboration more effective. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Diffusion of innovation in mental health policy adoption: what should we ask about the quality of policy and the role of stakeholders in this process? Comment on "Cross-national diffusion of mental health policy".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lucy

    2015-03-10

    In his recent study, Gordon Shen analyses a pertinent question facing the global mental health research and practice community today; that of how and why mental health policy is or is not adopted by national governments. This study identifies becoming a World Health Organization (WHO) member nation, and being in regional proximity to countries which have adopted a mental health policy as supportive of mental health policy adoption, but no support for its hypothesis that country recipients of higher levels of aid would have adopted a mental health policy due to conditionalities imposed on aid recipients by donors. Asking further questions of each may help to understand more not only about how and why mental health policies may be adopted, but also about the relevance and quality of implementation of these policies and the role of specific actors in achieving adoption and implementation of high quality mental health policies. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  9. Lead Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... time may lead to reduced IQ, slow learning, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), or behavioral issues. • Lead also affects other parts ... 800-424-5323) • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Lead Awareness Program http: / / www. epa. gov/ lead • EPA publication “ ...

  10. The European Union renewable directive: The policy-making process and the stakeholders positions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gullberg, Anne Therese

    2011-07-01

    This working paper focuses on the proposal for a renewable energy directive in the European Union (EU), which main aim is to increase the share of renewable energy sources in EU energy consumption from 8.5 to 20 per cent by 2020. It accounts for the legislative process, from the drafting and consultation stage to the final directive was formally adopted in April 2009, and in particular the proposal of binding interim targets and financial penalty. The formal proposals as well as the stakeholders positions on this issue are examined.(auth)

  11. Lead and cadmium phytoavailability and human bioaccessibility for vegetables exposed to soil or atmospheric pollution by process ultrafine particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Tiantian; Leveque, Thibault; Shahid, Muhammad; Foucault, Yann; Mombo, Stéphane; Dumat, Camille

    2014-09-01

    When plants are exposed to airborne particles, they can accumulate metals in their edible portions through root or foliar transfer. There is a lack of knowledge on the influence of plant exposure conditions on human bioaccessibility of metals, which is of particular concern with the increase in urban gardening activities. Lettuce, radish, and parsley were exposed to metal-rich ultrafine particles from a recycling factory via field atmospheric fallouts or polluted soil. Total lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in of the edible plant parts and their human bioaccessibility were measured, and Pb translocation through the plants was studied using Pb isotopic analysis. The Pb and Cd bioaccessibility measured for consumed parts of the different polluted plants was significantly higher for root exposure (70% for Pb and 89% for Cd in lettuce) in comparison to foliar exposure (40% for Pb and 69% for Cd in lettuce). The difference in metal bioaccessibility could be linked to the metal compartmentalization and speciation changes in relation to exposure conditions. Metal nature strongly influences the measured bioaccessibility: Cd presents higher bioaccessibility in comparison to Pb. In the case of foliar exposure, a significant translocation of Pb from leaves toward the roots was observed. To conclude, the type of pollutant and the method of exposure significantly influences the phytoavailability and human bioaccessibility of metals, especially in relation to the contrasting phenomena involved in the rhizosphere and phyllosphere. The conditions of plant exposure must therefore be taken into account for environmental and health risk assessment. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  12. One-step, solution-processed formamidinium lead trihalide (FAPbI(3-x)Cl(x)) for mesoscopic perovskite-polymer solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Siliu; Pang, Shuping; Zhou, Yuanyuan; Padture, Nitin P; Hu, Hao; Wang, Li; Zhou, Xinhong; Zhu, Huimin; Zhang, Lixue; Huang, Changshui; Cui, Guanglei

    2014-09-28

    Formamidinium (FA) lead triiodide perovskite with chlorine addition (NH2CH=NH2PbI(3-x)Clx) is employed as a light harvester in mesoscopic solar cells for the first time. It is demonstrated that a phase-pure FAPbI(3-x)Clx perovskite layer can be synthesized using a one-step solution-process at 140 °C, and the resultant solar cells deliver a maximum power conversion efficiency of 7.51%, which is the most efficient formamidinium-lead-halide perovskite mesoscopic solar cell employing a polymer hole-transporting layer. The effects of the thermal annealing temperature on the quality/morphology of the perovskite layer and the solar cells performance are discussed. The advantages offered by the one-step solution-processing method and the reduced bandgap make FAPbI(3-x)Clx perovskites an attractive choice for future hybrid photovoltaics.

  13. Applying decision-making tools to national e-waste recycling policy: an example of Analytic Hierarchy Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Hsu; Wen, Lihchyi; Tsai, Yue-Mi

    2010-05-01

    As policy making is in essence a process of discussion, decision-making tools have in many cases been proposed to resolve the differences of opinion among the different parties. In our project that sought to promote a country's performance in recycling, we used the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to evaluate the possibilities and determine the priority of the addition of new mandatory recycled waste, also referred to as Due Recycled Wastes, from candidate waste appliances. The evaluation process started with the collection of data based on telephone interviews and field investigations to understand the behavior of consumers as well as their overall opinions regarding the disposal of certain waste appliances. With the data serving as background information, the research team then implemented the Analytic Hierarchy Process using the information that formed an incomplete hierarchy structure in order to determine the priority for recycling. Since the number of objects to be evaluated exceeded the number that the AHP researchers had suggested, we reclassified the objects into four groups and added one more level of pair-wise comparisons, which substantially reduced the inconsistency in the judgment of the AHP participants. The project was found to serve as a flexible and achievable application of AHP to the environmental policy-making process. In addition, based on the project's outcomes derived from the project as a whole, the research team drew conclusions regarding the government's need to take back 15 of the items evaluated, and suggested instruments that could be used or recycling regulations that could be changed in the future. Further analysis on the top three items recommended by the results of the evaluation for recycling, namely, Compact Disks, Cellular Phones and Computer Keyboards, was then conducted to clarify their concrete feasibility. After the trial period for recycling ordered by the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration, only Computer

  14. Policy Levers Key for Primary Health Care Organizations to Support Primary Care Practices in Meeting Medical Home Expectations: Comparing Leading States to the Australian Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takach, Mary

    2016-10-01

    Several countries with highly ranked delivery systems have implemented locally-based, publicly-funded primary health care organizations (PHCOs) as vehicles to strengthen their primary care foundations. In the United States, state governments have started down a similar pathway with models that share similarities with international PHCOs. The objective of this study was to determine if these kinds of organizations were working with primary care practices to improve their ability to provide comprehensive, coordinated, and accessible patient-centered care that met quality, safety, and efficiency outcomes-all core attributes of a medical home. This qualitative study looked at 4 different PHCO models-3 from the United States and 1 from Australia-with similar objectives and scope. Primary and secondary data included semi-structured interviews with 26 PHCOs and a review of government documents. The study found that the 4 PHCO models were engaging practices to meet a number of medical home expectations, but the US PHCOs were more uniform in efforts to work with practices and focused on arranging services to meet the needs of complex patients. There was significant variation in level of effort between the Australian PHCOs. These differences can be explained through the state governments' selection of payment models and use of data frameworks to support collaboration and incentivize performance of both PHCOs and practices. These findings offer policy lessons to inform health reform efforts under way to better capitalize on the potential of PHCOs to support a high-functioning primary health foundation as an essential component to a reformed health system.

  15. Evaluation of influence of the locality, the vintage year, wine variety and fermentation process on volume of cooper and lead in wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Jedlička

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We have focused on the influence evaluation of the locality, the vintage year and fermentation process on the volume of copper and lead into grape must and wine. First of all copper and lead volume was assessed into fresh grape musts. Subsequently the musts were fermented. During the wines analyses we found great decrease of copper by the fermentation process. Assessed Cu2+ values vary from 0.07 to 0.2 mg.L-1 and represent a decrease of the original copper volume from 90 to 97%. On the copper content into grape has probably the significant influence also the precipitation amount, which falling in the second part of the vegetation half a year. Total rainfall in the period before the grape harvesting (the months of August - September was for the first year 153 mm and for second year 137,5 mm. During both observed vintage years it was concerning to the above average values. Copper is not possible to eliminate totally in the protection of the vine against fungal diseases, because against it does not come into existence resistance into a pathogen. For resolution of this problem it is suitable to combine the copper and organic products. Fermentation affect as a biological filter and influence also lead volume. Into analysed wines we found the decrease of the lead volume from 25 to 94%. Maximal assessed Pb2+ value into wine was 0.09 mg.L-1. The linear relationship between lead and copper into grape must in relationship to the lead and copper into wine was not statistically demonstrated. We found the statistically significant relationship in lead content into grape must by the influence of the vintage year, which as we supposed, it was connected with the atmospheric precipitation quantity and distribution during the vegetation. On the base of the assessed results of the lead and copper volume into wine, we state that by using of the faultless material and appropriate technological equipment during the wine production, it is possible to eliminate almost

  16. Uneven dietary development: linking the policies and processes of globalization with the nutrition transition, obesity and diet-related chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2006-03-28

    In a "nutrition transition", the consumption of foods high in fats and sweeteners is increasing throughout the developing world. The transition, implicated in the rapid rise of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases worldwide, is rooted in the processes of globalization. Globalization affects the nature of agri-food systems, thereby altering the quantity, type, cost and desirability of foods available for consumption. Understanding the links between globalization and the nutrition transition is therefore necessary to help policy makers develop policies, including food policies, for addressing the global burden of chronic disease. While the subject has been much discussed, tracing the specific pathways between globalization and dietary change remains a challenge. To help address this challenge, this paper explores how one of the central mechanisms of globalization, the integration of the global marketplace, is affecting the specific diet patterns. Focusing on middle-income countries, it highlights the importance of three major processes of market integration: (I) production and trade of agricultural goods; (II) foreign direct investment in food processing and retailing; and (III) global food advertising and promotion. The paper reveals how specific policies implemented to advance the globalization agenda account in part for some recent trends in the global diet. Agricultural production and trade policies have enabled more vegetable oil consumption; policies on foreign direct investment have facilitated higher consumption of highly-processed foods, as has global food marketing. These dietary outcomes also reflect the socioeconomic and cultural context in which these policies are operating. An important finding is that the dynamic, competitive forces unleashed as a result of global market integration facilitates not only convergence in consumption habits (as is commonly assumed in the "Coca-Colonization" hypothesis), but adaptation to products targeted at different

  17. The Social Process of Analyzing Real Water Resource Systems Plans and Management Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucks, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Developing and applying systems analysis methods for improving the development and management of real world water resource systems, I have learned, is primarily a social process. This talk is a call for more recognition of this reality in the modeling approaches we propose in the papers and books we publish. The mathematical models designed to inform planners and managers of water systems that we see in many of our journals often seem more complex than they need be. They also often seem not as connected to reality as they could be. While it may be easier to publish descriptions of complex models than simpler ones, and while adding complexity to models might make them better able to mimic or resemble the actual complexity of the real physical and/or social systems or processes being analyzed, the usefulness of such models often can be an illusion. Sometimes the important features of reality that are of concern or interest to those who make decisions can be adequately captured using relatively simple models. Finding the right balance for the particular issues being addressed or the particular decisions that need to be made is an art. When applied to real world problems or issues in specific basins or regions, systems modeling projects often involve more attention to the social aspects than the mathematical ones. Mathematical models addressing connected interacting interdependent components of complex water systems are in fact some of the most useful methods we have to study and better understand the systems we manage around us. They can help us identify and evaluate possible alternative solutions to problems facing humanity today. The study of real world systems of interacting components using mathematical models is commonly called applied systems analyses. Performing such analyses with decision makers rather than of decision makers is critical if the needed trust between project personnel and their clients is to be developed. Using examples from recent and ongoing

  18. CURRICULUM POLICIES AND GEOGRAPHY TEACHING: perspectives ond discourse, subjectivity and subject community

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo Heleno Camilo Costa

    2012-01-01

    This paper I discuss, in the context of research in curriculum policy for the teaching of Geography, the processes of constitution of the subjects involved in policy. Present initially snippets of the course of research development, drawing attention to possibilities of understanding about the processes that lead to the production of curriculum policies for Geography. I call attention to the subjectivity involved in the production of such policies, questioning the category subject community i...

  19. Lead recovery and high silica glass powder synthesis from waste CRT funnel glasses through carbon thermal reduction enhanced glass phase separation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Mingfei; Fu, Zegang; Wang, Yaping; Wang, Jingyu; Zhang, Zhiyuan

    2017-01-15

    In this study, a novel process for the removal of toxic lead from the CRT funnel glass and synchronous preparation of high silica glass powder was developed by a carbon-thermal reduction enhanced glass phase separation process. CRT funnel glass was remelted with B 2 O 3 in reducing atmosphere. In the thermal process, a part of PbO contained in the funnel glass was reduced into metallic Pb and detached from the glass phase. The rest of PbO and other metal oxides (including Na 2 O, K 2 O, Al 2 O 3, BaO and CaO) were mainly concentrated in the boric oxide phase. The metallic Pb phase and boric oxide phase were completely leached out by 5mol/L HNO 3 . The lead removal rate was 99.80% and high silica glass powder (SiO 2 purity >95wt%) was obtained by setting the temperature, B 2 O 3 added amount and holding time at 1000°C, 20% and 30mins, respectively. The prepared high silicate glass powders can be used as catalyst carrier, semipermeable membranes, adsorbents or be remelted into high silicate glass as an ideal substitute for quartz glass. Thus this study proposed an eco-friendly and economical process for recycling Pb-rich electronic glass waste. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Uneven dietary development: linking the policies and processes of globalization with the nutrition transition, obesity and diet-related chronic diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2006-01-01

    In a "nutrition transition", the consumption of foods high in fats and sweeteners is increasing throughout the developing world. The transition, implicated in the rapid rise of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases worldwide, is rooted in the processes of globalization. Globalization affects the nature of agri-food systems, thereby altering the quantity, type, cost and desirability of foods available for consumption. Understanding the links between globalization and the nutrition transition is therefore necessary to help policy makers develop policies, including food policies, for addressing the global burden of chronic disease. While the subject has been much discussed, tracing the specific pathways between globalization and dietary change remains a challenge. To help address this challenge, this paper explores how one of the central mechanisms of globalization, the integration of the global marketplace, is affecting the specific diet patterns. Focusing on middle-income countries, it highlights the importance of three major processes of market integration: (I) production and trade of agricultural goods; (II) foreign direct investment in food processing and retailing; and (III) global food advertising and promotion. The paper reveals how specific policies implemented to advance the globalization agenda account in part for some recent trends in the global diet. Agricultural production and trade policies have enabled more vegetable oil consumption; policies on foreign direct investment have facilitated higher consumption of highly-processed foods, as has global food marketing. These dietary outcomes also reflect the socioeconomic and cultural context in which these policies are operating. An important finding is that the dynamic, competitive forces unleashed as a result of global market integration facilitates not only convergence in consumption habits (as is commonly assumed in the "Coca-Colonization" hypothesis), but adaptation to products targeted at different

  1. Uneven dietary development: linking the policies and processes of globalization with the nutrition transition, obesity and diet-related chronic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawkes Corinna

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a "nutrition transition", the consumption of foods high in fats and sweeteners is increasing throughout the developing world. The transition, implicated in the rapid rise of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases worldwide, is rooted in the processes of globalization. Globalization affects the nature of agri-food systems, thereby altering the quantity, type, cost and desirability of foods available for consumption. Understanding the links between globalization and the nutrition transition is therefore necessary to help policy makers develop policies, including food policies, for addressing the global burden of chronic disease. While the subject has been much discussed, tracing the specific pathways between globalization and dietary change remains a challenge. To help address this challenge, this paper explores how one of the central mechanisms of globalization, the integration of the global marketplace, is affecting the specific diet patterns. Focusing on middle-income countries, it highlights the importance of three major processes of market integration: (I production and trade of agricultural goods; (II foreign direct investment in food processing and retailing; and (III global food advertising and promotion. The paper reveals how specific policies implemented to advance the globalization agenda account in part for some recent trends in the global diet. Agricultural production and trade policies have enabled more vegetable oil consumption; policies on foreign direct investment have facilitated higher consumption of highly-processed foods, as has global food marketing. These dietary outcomes also reflect the socioeconomic and cultural context in which these policies are operating. An important finding is that the dynamic, competitive forces unleashed as a result of global market integration facilitates not only convergence in consumption habits (as is commonly assumed in the "Coca-Colonization" hypothesis, but adaptation to

  2. Processed data for CHMS 2007–2009: Bisphenol A, phthalates and lead and learning and behavioral problems in Canadian children 6–19 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tye E. Arbuckle

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents processed data from an analysis of cross-sectional data from Cycle 1 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS to examine the potential association between urinary concentrations of BPA and phthalate metabolites and child learning and behavioral problems, considering important covariates such as gender, blood lead and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS. These processed data are related to the research on a subset of the children (Arbuckle et al., 2016 [1]. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ outcomes of interest were emotional symptoms, hyperactivity/inattention, and a total difficulties SDQ score, with borderline and abnormal scores grouped together and compared with children with normal scores. Other outcomes studied included reported learning disability, ADD/ADHD (attention deficit disorder/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and use of psychotropic medications to treat behavioral disorders in the past month. Data are presented for all children 6–19 years of age combined.Weighted simple logistic regression estimates for important covariates of each of the outcomes from CHMS Cycle 1 children are reported. Odds ratios based on weighted multiple logistic regression estimates for urinary BPA and phthalate metabolites (including specific gravity as a covariate and blood lead are presented for the reported outcomes ADD/ADHD, learning disability and psychotropic medications, as well as the SDQ outcomes emotional symptoms, hyperactivity/inattention and total difficulties. Keywords: Bisphenol A, Lead, Phthalates, Behavior, Children

  3. Accessible tourism in Brazil: an exploratory study about the public policies and the process of inclusion of persons with disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donária Coelho Duarte

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest challenges of society Brazilian is confronting the issue of equality and social exclusion. It is estimated that there are approximately 45 million people with disabilities in Brazil (IBGE, 2010, many of them still unable to enjoy leisure and tourism activities due to their physical limitations and lack of adaptation of the environment. The purpose of this article is to verify if public policy focused tourism for people with disabilities (PWD have been able to meet demands for inclusion these  segment, also seeks the perception of these people as to the inclusion process. The focus of this study, therefore, refers to people who were born or have acquired some kind of permanent limitation, not being object of this survey people who have had temporary physical limitations and/or sporadic or who have reduced mobility. In terms of methodology, a exploratory and qualitative research was made with interviews of semi-structured scripts.  The participants of study were nine managers chosen from representatives of government, of representatives of the tourist trade and of associations of people with disabilities. From the interviews with the public, given the diversity of actions and their characteristics, it proposed the classification of programs/government actions. As result, the research shows that the government has to attack the problem and sought to create and implement policies directed to this segment. However, people with disabilities consider that what has been done is not enough to include them really in tourist activities and say they are not being heard enough. All disabled associations mentions that the limitations/difficult environment hamper achievement of tourism. It was noticed also that the private sector does not consider the disabled person as a consumer public and that are not done research to understand the profile and the needs of this segment. Both the private sector as PWD associations, showed little

  4. The impact of the European Environment and Health Process on UK environment and health policy, plans and practice: what difference has it made?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capleton, Alexander C; Stevens, Jane; Harrison, Paul T C

    2005-10-01

    The European Environment and Health Process (EEHP), led by the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe, aims to support WHO Member States as they plan and implement national and international environment and health policies. An evaluation of the impact of the EEHP in the UK was conducted in preparation for the fourth Ministerial Conference on Environment and Health in Budapest, 2004. The evaluation identified a number of impacts and influences of the EEHP. This concluded that the process had only a marginal direct influence on policy within the UK. However, it was also concluded that the process had resulted in several indirect influences, including better cooperation between government departments, greater awareness of environment and health issues from an international perspective, and a higher political profile of environment and health issues. A few outcomes of the EEHP also appear to have been taken into account in some national and local policy documents. The National Environmental Health Action Plan, which was produced as a direct result of the EEHP, appears to have had little direct impact in the UK, probably because of the lack of an implementation process and indicators, and because it was superseded by other policy initiatives relatively soon after publication. A need for better coordination and promotion of the EEHP amongst stakeholders responsible for environment and health policy areas was also identified.

  5. Menu-labeling policy in King County, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Donna B; Payne, Elizabeth C; McNeese, Molly A; Allen, Deborah

    2012-09-01

    Food eaten away from home now accounts for about one third of total calories consumed in the U.S. Policy change could lead to sustainable improvements in restaurant and other nutrition environments. Broadly described, policy development is one of the three core functions of public health, and there is a need to more fully understand and evaluate this function. Policy process research has developed frameworks and models that can be used to understand the policy development process. To describe policy processes associated with the passage of restaurant menu-labeling regulations in order to inform nutrition policy development in other settings. Document reviews and interviews with 12 key players in the policy process were conducted and analyzed between June 2009 and October 2010. Policy process actors primarily belonged to two advocacy coalitions: a public health coalition and an industry coalition. Within the coalitions there were shared values and beliefs about the appropriate role of governmental regulation in protecting the health of the population and the need for environmental change. The process was adversarial at times, but "policy learning" built the trust needed for collaboration to negotiate agreements. Expert technical assistance moved the process forward. Elements that contributed to the success of a menu-labeling policy initiative in a large, urban health department have been identified. The King County case study can inform the work of others who seek to build healthier nutrition environments through policy change. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. IT Policy Archive

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CIO defines IT processes and policies. The CIO defines the development processes, milestones, review gates, and the overall policies for all capital planning,...

  7. An Analysis of the Economic Impact of Cap-and-Trade Policy on the California Food Processing Industry: A Look at Processed Tomatoes and Dairy Products

    OpenAIRE

    Paggi, Mechel S.; Yamazaki, Fumiko; Konduru, Srinivasa

    2014-01-01

    California Cap-and-Trade policy, sets a statewide limit on sources responsible for an estimated 85 percent of the state’s greenhouse gas emissions. To maintain the cap as per the policy, individual industrial facilities in California must obtain enough allowances to cover their emissions either by purchasing allowances at auction or reducing their emissions by operating more efficiently. This research report analyses the economic impact of the Cap-and-Trade policy on the California food pro...

  8. Environmental Lead and Children's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Marie

    This paper discusses the threat to children's health posed by environmental exposure to lead, focusing on public policy issues surrounding lead exposure in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. In Australia, the current blood lead level at which there is a health concern is at or above 25 micrograms per deciliter (ug/dl) of blood for infants and…

  9. Ultrafine particles derived from mineral processing: A case study of the Pb-Zn sulfide ore with emphasis on lead-bearing colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhlin, Yuri; Vorobyev, Sergey; Romanchenko, Alexander; Karasev, Sergey; Karacharov, Anton; Zharkov, Sergey

    2016-03-01

    Although mining and mineral processing industry is a vast source of heavy metal pollutants, the formation and behavior of micrometer- and nanometer-sized particles and their aqueous colloids entered the environment from the technological media has received insufficient attention to date. Here, the yield and characteristics of ultrafine mineral entities produced by routine grinding of the Pb-Zn sulfide ore (Gorevskoe ore deposit, Russia) were studied using laser diffraction analysis (LDA), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential measurement, microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, with most attention given to toxic lead species. It was revealed, in particular, that the fraction of particles less that 1 μm in the ground ore typical reaches 0.4 vol. %. The aquatic particles in supernatants were micrometer size aggregates with increased content of zinc, sulfur, calcium as compared with the bulk ore concentrations. The hydrodynamic diameter of the colloidal species decreased with time, with their zeta potentials remaining about -12 mV. The colloids produced from galena were composed of 20-50 nm PbS nanoparticles associated with lead sulfate and thiosulfate, while the surface oxidation products at precipitated galena were largely lead oxyhydroxides. The size and zeta potential of the lead-bearing colloids decreased with time down to about 100 nm and from -15 mV to -30 mV, respectively. And, conversely, lead sulfide nanoparticles were mobilized before the aggregates during redispersion of the precipitates in fresh portions of water. The potential environmental impact of the metal-bearing colloids, which is due to the large-scale production and relative stability, is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Role of Science in Advising the Decision Making Process: A Pathway for Building Effective Climate Change Mitigation Policies in Mexico at the Local Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza, Roberto; Velazquez-Angulo, Gilberto; Flores-Tavizón, Edith; Romero-González, Jaime; Huertas-Cardozo, José Ignacio

    2016-04-27

    This study examines a pathway for building urban climate change mitigation policies by presenting a multi-dimensional and transdisciplinary approach in which technical, economic, environmental, social, and political dimensions interact. Now, more than ever, the gap between science and policymaking needs to be bridged; this will enable judicious choices to be made in regarding energy and climate change mitigation strategies, leading to positive social impacts, in particular for the populations at-risk at the local level. Through a case study in Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, we propose a multidimensional and transdisciplinary approach with the role of scientist as policy advisers to improve the role of science in decision-making on mitigation policies at the local level in Mexico.

  11. The Role of Science in Advising the Decision Making Process: A Pathway for Building Effective Climate Change Mitigation Policies in Mexico at the Local Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Barraza

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines a pathway for building urban climate change mitigation policies by presenting a multi-dimensional and transdisciplinary approach in which technical, economic, environmental, social, and political dimensions interact. Now, more than ever, the gap between science and policymaking needs to be bridged; this will enable judicious choices to be made in regarding energy and climate change mitigation strategies, leading to positive social impacts, in particular for the populations at-risk at the local level. Through a case study in Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, we propose a multidimensional and transdisciplinary approach with the role of scientist as policy advisers to improve the role of science in decision-making on mitigation policies at the local level in Mexico.

  12. Are social security policies for Chinese landless farmers really effective on health in the process of Chinese rapid urbanization? A study on the effect of social security policies for Chinese landless farmers on their health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ying; Lu, Wanyi; Wu, Wei

    2014-01-15

    on the HRQOL of landless farmers. As regards social security policies, the land acquisition compensation policy and the employment security policy produce the greatest and weakest influences on the HRQOL of landless farmers, respectively. The rapid urbanization in China has deprived many farmers of their lands and of the benefits of urbanization. These farmers are often in a disadvantaged position in the land acquisition process. Statistic analysis in this paper shows that the satisfaction of landless farmers with their social security policies positively influences their HRQOL. The implementation and improvement of social security policies is very important for the long-term and sustainable development of these landless farmers.

  13. Current approaches to the European Health Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anda CURTA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify the key elements that define the new European health policy. We observed that the health policy actually appeared to be an enclave within the integration process. The development of health policy in the new Member States followed a common pattern. Therefore, the European health policy reflected a general desire on behalf of the members to have more clarity of the rules in this area, given the different interpretation of the rules by different Member States.The Lisbon Treaty does not bring substantive changes regarding the public health policy, therefore the Member States shall keep their competence in defining the organization and financing this domain. However, the EU2020 Strategy states that “Europe faces a moment of transformation”. Therefore, the “Europeanization” of health policy could lead to the positive developments that all EU citizens are expecting.

  14. Analysis of respirable particulate exposure and its effect to public health around lead smelter and e-waste processing industry in West Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marselina, M.; Roosmini, D.; Salami, I. R. S.; Ayu A, M.; Cahyadi, W.

    2016-03-01

    Respirable particulate exposure strongly affects human health, especially for children who lived around industrial area. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of respirable particulate exposure to lung capacity of children. Study location in this study was Parung Panjang District, area of lead smelter industry and also in Astana Anyar District, area of e-waste processing industry. Thirty children were involved in Astana Anyar District and also thirty children in Parung Panjang District. The control groups were also studied in both areas. Predicted average daily intake (ADD) of respirable particulate was estimated and lung or respiration condition of children was measured by using spirometer. The lung condition of respondents was estimated by FEV1.0 and FVC values. As the result, the predicted ADD of children in lead smelter area is 3 times higher than the predicted ADD of children in e-waste processing area. It was correlated positively with the higher PM2.5 concentration in Parung Panjang District than the PM2.5 concentration in Astana Anyar District. Metals concentration in Parung Panjang was also measured with X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) in this study and it was clearly state that metals concentration in location study were higher than metals concentration in control area.

  15. The influence of bureaucrats on the policy-making process in the former Soviet Union: The case of Chernobyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerner, Lucy Alexandra

    The events that started to unfurl in the former Soviet Union in the beginning of the 1990s and that ended with the disintegration of the USSR caught many sovietologists, and specialists on former communist and socialist regimes by surprise. Major theories and analyses developed and successfully used in such areas as Comparative Politics, International Relations, and Comparative Socialism turned out to be impotent to foresee the approach of the dramatic changes. Noticing the growing significance of and influence on the policy making process of numerous bureaucracies, this study has applied alternative approaches that were developed in such fields as Organizational Theory, Bureaucratic Behavior, and Public Policy. The issue of bureaucratic performance in the former USSR became the central focal point of the study. Methods suggested by specialists in these fields permitted measurement of the performance of different bureaucratic medical institutions during and after the Chernobyl crisis. Utilization of performance measurements helped uncover several important phenomena. One, that performance of the Soviet medical institutions/organizations and bureaucracies that they housed reached an ultimate dysfunctional stage. It became counterproductive to the point that we can brand it pathological. The characteristic feature of pathological performance is that its outcomes (final results) have a totally counterproductive effect on the external environment and on the community which uses its services and/or products. In the case of Chernobyl it was medical services that were either very poorly provided to the victims of the accident or totally withheld from them The result was a manifold increase in different illnesses and deaths among the population affected by the accident. Second, behavior and performance of the medical bureaucracies in comparison with the behavior and performance of other Soviet bureaucracies has shown that it was not unique. This counterproductive behavior

  16. The role of organizational culture in policy mobilities – the case of South Korean climate change adaptation policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Schäfer

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The conceptualization of policies as mobile and mutable knowledge is the key feature of the recent debate on policy mobilities. Policy mobility studies have focused on the movement and translation of policies as well as on the impact of mobile policies on policy-making processes and governed spaces. Given that policy mobilities have mainly been examined in comparable institutional contexts, the current debate has neglected the role of organizational culture in the translation of policies. Organizational culture is understood as a set of shared assumptions that guide what happens in organizations by defining appropriate practices of policy making. The case study, South Korean adaptation policy, illustrates that organizational culture has a significant impact on the translation of mobile adaptation policy. Besides the claim to consider organizational culture more prominently in the field of policy mobility studies, this paper illustrates the translation process of adaptation policy in the South Korean political system. The practices in South Korean political institutions dealing with climate change adaptation are highly characterized by the avoidance of risks. The propensity to avoid risks leads policy makers to focus on technical solutions to climate change adaptation and to neglect the participation of civil society.

  17. THE EFFICIENCY OF USING MILK THISTLE (Silybum marianum FOR ADJUSTING THE INTENSITY OF OXIDATIVE PROCESSES IN CARP IN THE CONDITIONS OF LEAD CONTAMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Opalynskyi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the effect of milk thistle on the intensity of oxidative processes in carp under the conditions of experimental toxic contamination with lead. Methodology. Experimental works were conducted in laboratory conditions. The object of the study was age-1+ carp, which were divided into three groups of 12–15 fish in each. Carp of the group 1 (intact, which received 3% starch paste through a probe, were used as a control. Carp of the group 2 were kept during a month in water, in which lead salts (PbNO3 were introduced at quantities corresponding to 10 maximum allowable levels calculated as metal ions. Carp of the group 3 during a month were kept in the same environment of dissolved lead salts and received 3% starch paste through a probe together with ground seeds of milk thistle (Silybum marianum at a quantity of 80 mg/kg of fish body weight. We examined the effect of milk thistle on lipid peroxidation (LPO and enzyme activity of antioxidant defense system (ADS in carp organism under conditions of lead contamination. TBA-active products were assessed baed on the content of products which reacted with 2-thiobarbituric acid (malondialdehyde. The level of oxidative damage to lipids was also evaluated based on the content of accumulated lipid hydroperoxide. Superoxide dismutase (SOD activity was determined in the reaction of quercetine oxidation. Catalase activity was assessed in the reaction with ammonium molybdate. Numeric data were processed by biometric method of variation nonparametric analysis using Microsoft Excel and Statistica 6.0. Differences between the values were considered statistically significant: p <0.05; 0.01 and 0.001. Findings. Toxic contamination with heavy metals in conjunction with the physiological stress are the most significant factors, which stimulate the peroxidation and oxidative disorders in the body. This fact was proved in the study using the salts of lead that increased the intensity of the

  18. Taking the Copenhagen Process apart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cort, Pia

    discourse in which education and training in general is to contribute to the competitiveness of the EU in a global economy. Within this discourse, policy is de-politicized and naturalised as being neutral and evidence-based leading to the unreflective transfer of policies across countries.......The aim of this thesis is to analyse the EU vocational education and training policy process (The Copenhagen Process) from a critical perspective based on the policy analysis methodology, “What’s the Problem Represented to Be?” (WPR) developed by Professor Carol Bacchi. The main research question...... “How can the European vocational education and training policy process - the Copenhagen Process - be understood from a WPR perspective? “ is addressed in six articles which take apart the Copenhagen Process and deal with specific WPR questions and specific aspects of the Copenhagen Process...

  19. Lead poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control If someone has severe symptoms from possible ... be caused by lead poisoning, call your local poison control center. Your local poison center can be ...

  20. The Health Policy Process in Vietnam: Going Beyond Kingdon’s Multiple Streams Theory Comment on “Shaping the Health Policy Agenda: The Case of Safe Motherhood Policy in Vietnam”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Kane

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This commentary reflects upon the article along three broad lines. It reflects on the theoretical choices and omissions, particularly highlighting why it is important to adapt the multiple streams framework (MSF when applying it in a socio-political context like Vietnam’s. The commentary also reflects upon the analytical threads tackled by Ha et al; for instance, it highlights the opportunities offered by, and raises questions about the centrality of the Policy Entrepreneur in getting the policy onto the political agenda and in pushing it through. The commentary also dwells on the implications of the article for development aid policies and practices. Throughout, the commentary signposts possible themes for Ha et al to consider for further analysis, and more generally, for future research using Kingdon’s multiple streams theory.

  1. Lead recovery and high silica glass powder synthesis from waste CRT funnel glasses through carbon thermal reduction enhanced glass phase separation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Mingfei [Henan Key Laboratory Cultivation Base of Mine Environmental Protection and Ecological Remediation, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454000 Henan China (China); Institute of Resource and Environment, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454000 Henan China (China); Fu, Zegang [Institute of Resource and Environment, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454000 Henan China (China); Wang, Yaping, E-mail: wangyp326@163.com [School of Surveying and Land Information Engineering, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454000, Henan China (China); Wang, Jingyu [Institute of Resource and Environment, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454000 Henan China (China); Zhang, Zhiyuan [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • CRT funnel glass was remelted with B{sub 2}O{sub 3} in reducing atmosphere. • A part of PbO was reduced into Pb and detached from the glass phase. • The rest of PbO and other metal oxides were mainly concentrated in the B{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase. • PbO enriched in the interconnected B{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase can be completely leached out by HNO{sub 3}. • High silica glass powder(SiO{sub 2} purity >95%) was obtained after the leaching process. - Abstract: In this study, a novel process for the removal of toxic lead from the CRT funnel glass and synchronous preparation of high silica glass powder was developed by a carbon-thermal reduction enhanced glass phase separation process. CRT funnel glass was remelted with B{sub 2}O{sub 3} in reducing atmosphere. In the thermal process, a part of PbO contained in the funnel glass was reduced into metallic Pb and detached from the glass phase. The rest of PbO and other metal oxides (including Na{sub 2}O, K{sub 2}O, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3,} BaO and CaO) were mainly concentrated in the boric oxide phase. The metallic Pb phase and boric oxide phase were completely leached out by 5 mol/L HNO{sub 3}. The lead removal rate was 99.80% and high silica glass powder (SiO{sub 2} purity >95 wt%) was obtained by setting the temperature, B{sub 2}O{sub 3} added amount and holding time at 1000 °C, 20% and 30 mins, respectively. The prepared high silicate glass powders can be used as catalyst carrier, semipermeable membranes, adsorbents or be remelted into high silicate glass as an ideal substitute for quartz glass. Thus this study proposed an eco-friendly and economical process for recycling Pb-rich electronic glass waste.

  2. What Can We Learn About the Processes of Regulation of Tuberculosis Medicines From the Experiences of Health Policy and System Actors in India, Tanzania, and Zambia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabir Sheikh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The unregulated availability and irrational use of tuberculosis (TB medicines is a major issue of public health concern globally. Governments of many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs have committed to regulating the quality and availability of TB medicines, but with variable success. Regulation of TB medicines remains an intractable challenge in many settings, but the reasons for this are poorly understood. The objective of this paper is to elaborate processes of regulation of quality and availability of TB medicines in three LMICs – India, Tanzania, and Zambia – and to understand the factors that constrain and enable these processes. Methods: We adopted the action-centred approach of policy implementation analysis that draws on the experiences of relevant policy and health system actors in order to understand regulatory processes. We drew on data from three case studies commissioned by the World Health Organization (WHO, on the regulation of TB medicines in India, Tanzania, and Zambia. Qualitative research methods were used, including in-depth interviews with 89 policy and health system actors and document review. Data were organized thematically into accounts of regulators’ authority and capacity; extent of policy implementation; and efficiency, transparency, and accountability. Results: In India, findings included the absence of a comprehensive policy framework for regulation of TB medicines, constraints of authority and capacity of regulators, and poor implementation of prescribing and dispensing norms in the majority private sector. Tanzania had a policy that restricted import, prescribing and dispensing of TB medicines to government operators. Zambia procured and dispensed TB medicines mainly through government services, albeit in the absence of a single policy for restriction of medicines. Three cross-cutting factors emerged as crucially influencing regulatory processes - political and stakeholder support for

  3. What Can We Learn About the Processes of Regulation of Tuberculosis Medicines From the Experiences of Health Policy and System Actors in India, Tanzania, and Zambia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Kabir; Uplekar, Mukund

    2016-03-09

    The unregulated availability and irrational use of tuberculosis (TB) medicines is a major issue of public health concern globally. Governments of many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have committed to regulating the quality and availability of TB medicines, but with variable success. Regulation of TB medicines remains an intractable challenge in many settings, but the reasons for this are poorly understood. The objective of this paper is to elaborate processes of regulation of quality and availability of TB medicines in three LMICs - India, Tanzania, and Zambia - and to understand the factors that constrain and enable these processes. We adopted the action-centred approach of policy implementation analysis that draws on the experiences of relevant policy and health system actors in order to understand regulatory processes. We drew on data from three case studies commissioned by the World Health Organization (WHO), on the regulation of TB medicines in India, Tanzania, and Zambia. Qualitative research methods were used, including in-depth interviews with 89 policy and health system actors and document review. Data were organized thematically into accounts of regulators' authority and capacity; extent of policy implementation; and efficiency, transparency, and accountability. In India, findings included the absence of a comprehensive policy framework for regulation of TB medicines, constraints of authority and capacity of regulators, and poor implementation of prescribing and dispensing norms in the majority private sector. Tanzania had a policy that restricted import, prescribing and dispensing of TB medicines to government operators. Zambia procured and dispensed TB medicines mainly through government services, albeit in the absence of a single policy for restriction of medicines. Three cross-cutting factors emerged as crucially influencing regulatory processes - political and stakeholder support for regulation, technical and human resource capacity of

  4. A framework for an institutional high level security policy for the processing of medical data and their transmission through the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilioudis, C; Pangalos, G

    2001-01-01

    The Internet provides many advantages when used for interaction and data sharing among health care providers, patients, and researchers. However, the advantages provided by the Internet come with a significantly greater element of risk to the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of information. It is therefore essential that Health Care Establishments processing and exchanging medical data use an appropriate security policy. To develop a High Level Security Policy for the processing of medical data and their transmission through the Internet, which is a set of high-level statements intended to guide Health Care Establishment personnel who process and manage sensitive health care information. We developed the policy based on a detailed study of the existing framework in the EU countries, USA, and Canada, and on consultations with users in the context of the Intranet Health Clinic project. More specifically, this paper has taken into account the major directives, technical reports, law, and recommendations that are related to the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data, and the protection of privacy and medical data on the Internet. We present a High Level Security Policy for Health Care Establishments, which includes a set of 7 principles and 45 guidelines detailed in this paper. The proposed principles and guidelines have been made as generic and open to specific implementations as possible, to provide for maximum flexibility and adaptability to local environments. The High Level Security Policy establishes the basic security requirements that must be addressed to use the Internet to safely transmit patient and other sensitive health care information. The High Level Security Policy is primarily intended for large Health Care Establishments in Europe, USA, and Canada. It is clear however that the general framework presented here can only serve as reference material for developing an appropriate High Level Security Policy in a

  5. Editorial policy in reporting ethical processes: A survey of 'instructions for authors' in International Indexed Dental Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaneetha, Cugati

    2011-04-01

    The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors expects authors to report if their studies were carried out in accordance with the International Ethical Guidelines and Declaration of Helsinki; and inform readers regarding the same. To determine the proportion of International Indexed Dental Journals reporting on ethical clearance for human and animal research, obtaining of informed consent and / or assent, and the conduction of research in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and International Medical Research, 2006. A cross-sectional survey of 'instructions for authors,' for analysis of editorial policy on ethical processes, was done. One hundred and twenty-six dental journals (which included 50 general and 76 specialties) were reviewed for reporting, with regard to the Ethical Committee Approval for human and animal researches, obtaining of informed consent / assent from the research participants, and research in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki as well as International Medical Research 2006 were analyzed. Descriptive statistics was used and results were expressed in percentages. Of the 126 dental journals, 57 (45.23%) reported having obtained approval from the Ethics Committee, 33 (26.19%) were instructed about the Animal Ethics Committee approval, and 38 (30.15%) insisted on obtaining and reporting informed consent / assent. 41 (32.53%) journals expected authors to mention the research being conducted according to Declaration of Helsinki and and 3 (2.38%) journals required researches to be conducted in accordance with International Medical Research, 2006. A significant proportion of international indexed dental journals did not provide instructions to authors to report on the ethical approval, informed consent and / assent, and research conduction according to the Declaration of Helsinki as well as the International Medical Research, 2006.

  6. Editorial policy in reporting ethical processes: A survey of ′instructions for authors′ in International Indexed Dental Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cugati Navaneetha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors expects authors to report if their studies were carried out in accordance with the International Ethical Guidelines and Declaration of Helsinki; and inform readers regarding the same. Aims: To determine the proportion of International Indexed Dental Journals reporting on ethical clearance for human and animal research, obtaining of informed consent and / or assent, and the conduction of research in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and International Medical Research, 2006. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional survey of ′instructions for authors,′ for analysis of editorial policy on ethical processes, was done. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty-six dental journals (which included 50 general and 76 specialties were reviewed for reporting, with regard to the Ethical Committee Approval for human and animal researches, obtaining of informed consent / assent from the research participants, and research in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki as well as International Medical Research 2006 were analyzed. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics was used and results were expressed in percentages. Results: Of the 126 dental journals, 57 (45.23% reported having obtained approval from the Ethics Committee, 33 (26.19% were instructed about the Animal Ethics Committee approval, and 38 (30.15% insisted on obtaining and reporting informed consent / assent. 41 (32.53% journals expected authors to mention the research being conducted according to Declaration of Helsinki and and 3 (2.38% journals required researches to be conducted in accordance with International Medical Research, 2006. Conclusions: A significant proportion of international indexed dental journals did not provide instructions to authors to report on the ethical approval, informed consent and / assent, and research conduction according to the Declaration of Helsinki as well as the

  7. MATERIAL AND PROCESS DEVELOPMENT LEADING TO ECONOMICAL HIGH-PERFORMANCE THIN-FILM SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS. Final Technical Report (October 2000 - December 2003)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jie Guan; Nguyen Minh

    2003-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of the work conducted under the program: ''Material and Process Development Leading to Economical High-Performance Thin-Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells'' under contract number DE-AC26-00NT40711. The program goal is to advance materials and processes that can be used to produce economical, high-performance solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) capable of achieving extraordinary high power densities at reduced temperatures. Under this program, anode-supported thin electrolyte based on lanthanum gallate (LSMGF) has been developed using tape-calendering process. The fabrication parameters such as raw materials characteristics, tape formulations and sintering conditions have been evaluated. Dense anode supported LSGMF electrolytes with thickness range of 10-50 micron have been fabricated. High performance cathode based on Sr 0.5 Sm 0.5 CoO 3 (SSC) has been developed. Polarization of ∼0.23 ohm-cm 2 has been achieved at 600 C with Sr 0.5 Sm 0.5 CoO 3 cathode. The high-performance SSC cathode and thin gallate electrolyte have been integrated into single cells and cell performance has been characterized. Tested cells to date generally showed low performance because of low cell OCVs and material interactions between NiO in the anode and lanthanum gallate electrolyte

  8. FADD cleavage by NK cell granzyme M enhances its self-association to facilitate procaspase-8 recruitment for auto-processing leading to caspase cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S; Xia, P; Shi, L; Fan, Z

    2012-04-01

    Granzyme M (GzmM), an orphan Gzm, is constitutively and abundantly expressed in innate effector natural killer cells. We previously demonstrated that GzmM induces caspase (casp)-dependent apoptosis and cytochrome c release from mitochondria. We also resolved the crystal structure for GzmM and generated its specific inhibitor. However, how GzmM causes casp activation has not been defined. Here we found that casp-8 is an initiator caspase in GzmM-induced casp cascade, which causes other casp activation and Bid cleavage. GzmM does not directly cleave procaspase-3 and Bid, whose processing is casp dependent. Casp-8 knockdown or deficient cells attenuate or abolish GzmM-induced proteolysis of procaspase-3 and Bid. Extrinsic death receptor pathway adaptor Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD) contributes to GzmM-induced casp-8 activation. GzmM specifically cleaves FADD after Met 196 to generate truncated FADD (tFADD) that enhances its self-association for oligomerization. The oligomerized tFADD facilitates procaspase-8 recruitment to promote its auto-processing leading to casp activation cascade. FADD-deficient cells abrogate GzmM-induced activation of casp-8 and apoptosis as well as significantly inhibit lymphokine-activated killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity. FADD processing by GzmM can potentiate killing efficacy against tumor cells and intracellular pathogens.

  9. Data sharing and reanalysis of randomized controlled trials in leading biomedical journals with a full data sharing policy: survey of studies published inThe BMJandPLOS Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naudet, Florian; Sakarovitch, Charlotte; Janiaud, Perrine; Cristea, Ioana; Fanelli, Daniele; Moher, David; Ioannidis, John P A

    2018-02-13

    To explore the effectiveness of data sharing by randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in journals with a full data sharing policy and to describe potential difficulties encountered in the process of performing reanalyses of the primary outcomes. Survey of published RCTs. PubMed/Medline. RCTs that had been submitted and published by The BMJ and PLOS Medicine subsequent to the adoption of data sharing policies by these journals. The primary outcome was data availability, defined as the eventual receipt of complete data with clear labelling. Primary outcomes were reanalyzed to assess to what extent studies were reproduced. Difficulties encountered were described. 37 RCTs (21 from The BMJ and 16 from PLOS Medicine ) published between 2013 and 2016 met the eligibility criteria. 17/37 (46%, 95% confidence interval 30% to 62%) satisfied the definition of data availability and 14 of the 17 (82%, 59% to 94%) were fully reproduced on all their primary outcomes. Of the remaining RCTs, errors were identified in two but reached similar conclusions and one paper did not provide enough information in the Methods section to reproduce the analyses. Difficulties identified included problems in contacting corresponding authors and lack of resources on their behalf in preparing the datasets. In addition, there was a range of different data sharing practices across study groups. Data availability was not optimal in two journals with a strong policy for data sharing. When investigators shared data, most reanalyses largely reproduced the original results. Data sharing practices need to become more widespread and streamlined to allow meaningful reanalyses and reuse of data. Open Science Framework osf.io/c4zke. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Antibiotic policy

    OpenAIRE

    Gyssens, Inge

    2011-01-01

    There is a clear association between antibiotic use and resistance both on individual and population levels. In the European Union, countries with large antibiotic consumption have higher resistance rates. Antibiotic resistance leads to failed treatments, prolonged hospitalisations, increased costs and deaths. With few new antibiotics in the Research & Development pipeline, prudent antibiotic use is the only option to delay the development of resistance. Antibiotic policy consists of prescrib...

  11. Lead contamination of subarctic lakes and its response to reduced atmospheric fallout: can the recovery process be counteracted by the ongoing climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaminder, Jonatan; Hammarlund, Dan; Kokfelt, Ulla; Vonk, Jorien E; Bigler, Christian

    2010-04-01

    Can a climate-triggered export of old contaminants from the soil alter the lead (Pb) contaminant burden of subarctic lakes? To address this question, we reconstructed the pollution history of three high latitude lakes situated in a region where a recent climatic shift has occurred. Dated sediment records were used as archives of past Pb inputs to the lakes, where the difference in the (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio between atmospheric contaminants ((206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio 1.22) were used to trace fluxes of Pb contaminants. Lead contaminants were found in sediments deposited since Roman times. A significant export of Pb from the soil contaminant pool is indicated in two of the lakes surrounded by near-shore permafrost soils. Here, levels of Pb contaminants and (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios of sediments deposited after the 1970s appear not to have been strongly affected by the >or=90% reduction in atmospheric deposition rates and increasing (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios of atmospheric Pb since the 1990s. We concluded that soil processes stimulated by the ongoing climate change at high latitudes might work counteractive to efforts to reduce contaminant levels in subarctic lakes.

  12. Methanol oxidation at platinized lead coatings prepared by a two-step electrodeposition-electroless deposition process on glassy carbon and platinum substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadimitriou, S.; Tegou, A.; Pavlidou, E.; Kokkinidis, G.; Sotiropoulos, S.

    2007-01-01

    Platinized lead deposits, Pt(Pb), have been formed on glassy carbon (GC) and platinum electrodes by a two-step process, whereby a controlled amount of Pb was electrodeposited onto the substrates and was subsequently coated with a thin Pt layer upon immersion of the Pb/GC or Pb/Pt electrodes into a chloroplatinic acid solution. The spontaneous surface replacement of Pb by Pt resulted in Pt(Pb)/GC or Pt(Pb)/Pt electrodes which consisted of dispersed Pt(Pb) particles and displayed typical Pt surface electrochemistry in deaerated acid solutions. When tested as methanol oxidation anodes, these electrodes exhibited enhanced electrocatalytic activity both during voltammetric and constant potential experiments. This behaviour is attributed to an electronic effect of the underlying Pb onto the Pt surface layer

  13. How Philadelphia is Integrating Climate Science and Policy: Changing Capital Planning Processes and Developing Flood-Depth Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, C.; Dix, B.; Choate, A.; Wong, A.; Asam, S.; Schultz, P. A.

    2016-12-01

    Policy makers can implement more effective climate change adaptation programs if they are provided with two tools: accessible information on the impacts that they need to prepare for, and clear guidance on how to integrate climate change considerations into their work. This presentation will highlight recent and ongoing efforts at the City of Philadelphia to integrate climate science into their decision-making. These efforts include developing a climate change information visualization tool, climate change risk assessments across the city, and processes to integrate climate change into routine planning and budgeting practices. The goal of these efforts is to make climate change science highly targeted to decision maker needs, non-political, easily accessible, and actionable. While sea level rise inundation maps have been available to communities for years, the maps do not effectively communicate how the design of a building or a piece of infrastructure would need to be modified to protect it. The Philadelphia Flood Risk Viewer is an interactive planning tool that allows Philadelphia to identify projected depths of flooding for any location within the City, for a variety of sea level rise and storm surge scenarios. Users can also determine whether a location is located in a FEMA floodplain. By having access to information on the projected depth of flooding at a given location, the City can determine what flood protection measures may be effective, or even inform the long-term viability of developing a particular area. With an understanding of climate vulnerabilities, cities have the opportunity to make smart, climate-resilient investments with their capital budgets that will yield multiple benefits for years to come. Few, however, have established protocols for doing so. Philadelphia, with support from ICF, developed a guidance document that identifies recommendations for integrating climate change considerations throughout the Capital Program and capital budgeting

  14. Patterns of genetic variability and habitat occupancy in Crepis triasii (Asteraceae) at different spatial scales: insights on evolutionary processes leading to diversification in continental islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayol, Maria; Palau, Carles; Rosselló, Josep A; González-Martínez, Santiago C; Molins, Arántzazu; Riba, Miquel

    2012-02-01

    Archipelagos are unique systems for studying evolutionary processes promoting diversification and speciation. The islands of the Mediterranean basin are major areas of plant richness, including a high proportion of narrow endemics. Many endemic plants are currently found in rocky habitats, showing varying patterns of habitat occupancy at different spatial scales throughout their range. The aim of the present study was to understand the impact of varying patterns of population distribution on genetic diversity and structure to shed light on demographic and evolutionary processes leading to population diversification in Crepis triasii, an endemic plant from the eastern Balearic Islands. Using allozyme and chloroplast markers, we related patterns of genetic structure and diversity to those of habitat occupancy at a regional (between islands and among populations within islands) and landscape (population size and connectivity) scale. Genetic diversity was highly structured both at the regional and at the landscape level, and was positively correlated with population connectivity in the landscape. Populations located in small isolated mountains and coastal areas, with restricted patterns of regional occupancy, were genetically less diverse and much more differentiated. In addition, more isolated populations had stronger fine-scale genetic structure than well-connected ones. Changes in habitat availability and quality arising from marine transgressions during the Quaternary, as well as progressive fragmentation associated with the aridification of the climate since the last glaciation, are the most plausible factors leading to the observed patterns of genetic diversity and structure. Our results emphasize the importance of gene flow in preventing genetic erosion and maintaining the evolutionary potential of populations. They also agree with recent studies highlighting the importance of restricted gene flow and genetic drift as drivers of plant evolution in Mediterranean

  15. When and How do Bureaucratic Conflicts Matter in Trade Policy? Evidence from the US Trade Policymaking Process during the Clinton Administration (1993–2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Fagundes Cézar

    Full Text Available Abstract The study of the role played by bureaucracies contributed substantively to the analysis of the domestic determinants of foreign policy outcomes, particularly by softening the premise of the state as a unitary-rational actor. However, the potential of focusing on bureaucracies to analyse US trade policy outcomes has been severely underestimated by the most recent IPE scholarship, which tends to focus on the Congress and interest groups, and to consider the Executive a unitary actor. Based on elements of the bureaucratic politics model, this article uses evidence from the US trade policy during Clinton’s administration (1993–2001 in order to present arguments regarding how and when bureaucratic conflicts matter the most, and highlight the relevance of these conflicts in the trade decision-making process.

  16. Ecotoxicology: Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuhammer, A.M.; Beyer, W.N.; Schmitt, C.J.; Jorgensen, Sven Erik; Fath, Brian D.

    2008-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a naturally occurring metallic element; trace concentrations are found in all environmental media and in all living things. However, certain human activities, especially base metal mining and smelting; combustion of leaded gasoline; the use of Pb in hunting, target shooting, and recreational angling; the use of Pb-based paints; and the uncontrolled disposal of Pb-containing products such as old vehicle batteries and electronic devices have resulted in increased environmental levels of Pb, and have created risks for Pb exposure and toxicity in invertebrates, fish, and wildlife in some ecosystems.

  17. Power and Politics in the Global Health Landscape: Beliefs, Competition and Negotiation Among Global Advocacy Coalitions in the Policy-Making Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori McDougall

    2016-05-01

    of advantage. Global health policy-making is an arena of contested interests, power and ideas, shaped by the interaction of coalitions. Although policy-making is often seen as a process that should be guided by evidence rather than interest-based politics, this study concludes that a participatory process of debate among different actorcoalitions is vital to progress and can lend greater legitimacy, accountability and transparency to the policy process.

  18. Power and Politics in the Global Health Landscape: Beliefs, Competition and Negotiation Among Global Advocacy Coalitions in the Policy-Making Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Lori

    2016-01-30

    contested interests, power and ideas, shaped by the interaction of coalitions. Although policy-making is often seen as a process that should be guided by evidence rather than interest-based politics, this study concludes that a participatory process of debate among different actor-coalitions is vital to progress and can lend greater legitimacy, accountability and transparency to the policy process. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  19. Façade insulation retrofitting policy implementation process and its effects on health equity determinants: A realist review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camprubí, Lluís; Malmusi, Davide; Mehdipanah, Roshanak

    2016-01-01

    Fuel poverty and cold housing constitute a significant public health problem. Energy efficiency interventions, such as façade retrofitting, address the problem from a structural and long-term perspective. Despite evidence of the health benefits of insulation, little is known about the political and social contexts that contribute to social inequalities in receiving and experiencing health benefits from these interventions. We used a realist review methodology to better understand the mechanisms that explain how and why variations across different social groups appear in receiving energy efficiency façade retrofitting interventions and in their impact on health determinants. We considered the four stages of the policy implementation framework: public policy approach; policy; receiving intervention and impact on health determinants. We found strong evidence that certain social groups (low-income, renters, elderly) suffering most from fuel poverty, experience more barriers for undertaking a building retrofitting (due to factors such as upfront costs, “presentism” thinking, split incentives, disruption and lack of control), and that some public policies on housing energy efficiency may exacerbate these inequalities. This can be avoided if such policies specifically aim at tackling fuel poverty or social inequities, are completely free to users, target the most affected groups and are adapted to their needs. - Highlights: •Health benefits of housing façade insulation more pronounced in fuel poor groups. •Social groups suffering most from fuel poverty least likely to undergo insulation. •Energy efficiency policies focused solely on CO 2 reduction may increase inequalities. •Split Incentives and “Take-Back” effect show socioeconomic and contextual variability. •Universal policies without targeting increase inequalities in retrofitting uptake.

  20. Lead grids

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    One of the 150 lead grids used in the multiwire proportional chamber g-ray detector. The 0.75 mm diameter holes are spaced 1 mm centre to centre. The grids were made by chemical cutting techniques in the Godet Workshop of the SB Physics.

  1. Leading men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekker-Nielsen, Tønnes

    2016-01-01

    Through a systematic comparison of c. 50 careers leading to the koinarchate or high priesthood of Asia, Bithynia, Galatia, Lycia, Macedonia and coastal Pontus, as described in funeral or honorary inscriptions of individual koinarchs, it is possible to identify common denominators but also disting...

  2. Framing in policy processes: a case study from hospital planning in the National Health Service in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lorelei; Exworthy, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports from an ethnographic study of hospital planning in England undertaken between 2006 and 2009. We explored how a policy to centralise hospital services was espoused in national policy documents, how this shifted over time and how it was translated in practice. We found that policy texts defined hospital planning as a clinical issue and framed decisions to close hospitals or hospital departments as based on the evidence and necessary to ensure safety. We interpreted this framing as a rhetorical strategy for implementing organisational change in the context of community resistance to service closure and a concomitant policy emphasising the importance of public and patient involvement in planning. Although the persuasive power of the framing was limited, a more insidious form of power was identified in the way the framing disguised the political nature of the issue by defining it as a clinical problem. We conclude by discussing how the clinical rationale constrains public participation in decisions about the delivery and organisation of healthcare and restricts the extent to which alternative courses of action can be considered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A review of the progress and pitfalls of FDA policy process: Planning a pathway for pharmaceutical interventions for hearing loss development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammill, Tanisha L

    2017-06-01

    The Federal Food and Drug Administration, or FDA is generally considered a powerful gatekeeper, able to deliver or withhold life-saving cures and create or destroy economic windfalls. As the decades go by, and technologies, diseases, public health demands, and politics evolve, we can identify patterns of change, action and inter-action among some of these traditional stakeholders in the FDA's policy sphere. A careful examination of this agency's colorful history can shed light on central features of the agency's policy process, which has been quite receptive to its stakeholders and adaptive to change over the decades and, in turn, show the way for development in lanes which do not fit neatly into the current paradigms offered by the agency. This paper will explore the history of FDA policy process, through examination of seminal moments in FDA history, the prominent actors and focusing events within them, and the outcomes of those events, in an attempt to illuminate a pattern of behavior or processes by which a struggling field of pharmaceutical development such as interventions for hearing loss can advance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Research Leading to High Throughput Processing of Thin-Film CdTe PV Module: Phase I Annual Report, October 2003 (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, R. C.; Meyers, P. V.

    2004-02-01

    Work under this subcontract contributes to the overall manufacturing operation. During Phase I, average module efficiency on the line was improved from 7.1% to 7.9%, due primarily to increased photocurrent resulting from a decrease in CdS thickness. At the same time, production volume for commercial sale increased from 1.5 to 2.5 MW/yr. First Solar is committed to commercializing CdTe-based thin-film photovoltaics. This commercialization effort includes a major addition of floor space and equipment, as well as process improvements to achieve higher efficiency and greater durability. This report presents the results of Phase I of the subcontract entitled''Research Leading to High Throughput Processing of Thin-Film CdTe PV Modules.'' The subcontract supports several important aspects needed to begin high-volume manufacturing, including further development of the semiconductor deposition reactor, advancement of accelerated life testing methods and understanding, and improvements to th e environmental, health, and safety programs. Progress in the development of the semiconductor deposition reactor was made in several areas. First, a new style of vapor transport deposition distributor with simpler operational behavior and the potential for improved cross-web uniformity was demonstrated. Second, an improved CdS feed system that will improve down-web uniformity was developed. Third, the core of a numerical model of fluid and heat flow within the distributor was developed, including flow in a 3-component gas system at high temperature and low pressure and particle sublimation.

  5. QCD factorization of exclusive processes beyond leading twist: gamma{sub T}*->rho{sub T} impact factor with twist three accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anikin, I.V. [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, JINR, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Ivanov, D.Yu. [Sobolev Institute of Mathematics, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Pire, B., E-mail: pire@cpht.polytechnique.f [CPHT, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Szymanowski, L. [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, PL-00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Wallon, S. [LPT, Universite Paris-Sud, CNRS, 91405 Orsay (France); UPMC Univ. Paris 06, faculte de physique, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2010-03-21

    We describe a consistent approach to factorization of scattering amplitudes for exclusive processes beyond the leading twist approximation. The method involves the Taylor expansion of the scattering amplitude in the momentum space around the dominant light-cone direction and thus naturally introduces an appropriate set of non-perturbative correlators which encode effects not only of the lowest but also of the higher Fock states of the produced particle. The reduction of original set of correlators to a set of independent ones is achieved with the help of equations of motion and invariance of the scattering amplitude under rotation on the light cone. We compare the proposed method with the covariant method formulated in the coordinate space, based on the operator product expansion. We prove the equivalence of two proposed parametrizations of the rho{sub T} distribution amplitudes. As a concrete application, we compute the expressions of the impact factor for the transition of virtual photon to transversally polarised rho-meson up to the twist 3 accuracy within these two quite different methods and show that they are identical.

  6. Insights into the annealing process of sol-gel TiO2 films leading to anatase development: The interrelationship between microstructure and optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, E.; Domínguez, M.; González-Leal, J. M.; Márquez, E.; Outón, J.; Ramírez-del-Solar, M.

    2018-05-01

    The microstructure and optical properties of TiO2 thin films, prepared by the sol-gel dip coating technique on glass substrates, were inspected. After deposition, the films were annealed at several temperatures in the 400-850 °C range and the resulting nanostructured films were studied by different techniques showing that their structural and optical characteristics evolved significantly with the increased annealing temperature. The analysis of these results by the assumption of the Tauc Lorenz model and the use of Wemple-DiDomenico equation leads to a correlation between microstructural aspects and optical characteristics of the films. Thus, crystallization processes (nucleation, growth and phase transformation) and the evolution of films texture and thickness with increasing annealing temperatures are related with the variation of the refractive index, average gap and extinction coefficient during annealing. Finally, the free-carrier concentration in the films, estimated from the Spitzer-Fan model, ranged from 1.44 × 1019 cm-3 to 3.07 × 1019 cm-3 with the changing annealing temperature, which is in agreement with those obtained in similar anatase thin films from electrical measurement techniques.

  7. Isotopic Composition as a Signature for Different Processes Leading to Fragment Production in Midperipheral Ni+Al, Ni, Ag Collisions at 30 MeV/Nucleon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, P. M.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Rui, R.; Vannini, G.; Colonna, N.; Gramegna, F.; Mastinu, P. F.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Bellia, G.; Coniglione, R.; Del Zoppo, A.; Finocchiaro, P.; Maiolino, C.; Migneco, E.; Piattelli, P.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.; Iori, I.; Moroni, A.

    2007-01-01

    The results of experiments performed to investigate the Ni+Al, Ni+Ni, Ni+Ag reactions at 30 MeV/nucleon are presented. From the study of dissipative midperipheral collisions, it has been possible to detect events in which Intermediate Mass Fragments (IMF) production takes place. The decay of a quasi-projectile has been identified; its excitation energy leads to a multifragmentation totally described in terms of a statistical disassembly of a thermalized system (T≃4 MeV, E* ≃4 MeV/nucleon). Moreover, for the systems Ni+Ni, Ni+Ag, in the same nuclear reaction, a source with velocity intermediate between that of the quasi-projectile and that of the quasi-target, emitting IMF, is observed. The fragments produced by this source are more neutron rich than the average matter of the overall system, and have a charge distribution different, with respect to those statistically emitted from the quasi-projectile. The above features suggest that this production comes from material which is "surface-like" (since it originates from the overlap of the two nuclei). To investigate the neutron content in both processes the 4He and 6He experimental yields were studied.

  8. Detection of simultaneous processes leading to multifragmentation in central collisions of the system 86Kr + 197Au, at 60 MeV per nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, O.

    1993-06-01

    Multi-fragments production in intermediate-energy heavy ion collisions is the most important deexcitation process for hot nuclei produced in small impact-parameter collisions (central collisions). The study of the 60 A.MeV Kr+Au system, performed at GANIL with a 4π and low threshold experimental setup including the fragments and light charged particles multidetectors DELF, XYZt, MUR and TONNEAU associated with 6 solid state detectors, has allowed to measure the global characteristics of dissipative reactions leading to a large amount (up to 6) of fragments with charge greater than 5. The events analysis has been performed by using global variables and has shown that there was the formation of a equilibrated composite system when one looked at kinematical observables (velocities) in the center-of-mass frame. The use of two models, one corresponding to multifragmentation, the other to sequential binary fission, has allowed to conclude for the existence of a simultaneous breakup of the composite system (multifragmentation). Last, no effect related to nuclear matter compressibility (compression/expansion stage) has been found for the most important part of the fragments (charge greater than 10). (orig.)

  9. Political economy of renewable energy policy in Germany. A consideration of the policy making process in the electricity market under the influence of interest groups; Politische Oekonomie der Erneuerbare-Energien-Politik in Deutschland. Eine Betrachtung des Politikbildungsprozesses auf dem Strommarkt unter dem Einfluss von Interessengruppen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Tom

    2015-07-01

    In the research, it is argued that the targeted promotion of renewables leads to a change in the technological path dependency on the electricity market or led. The historically market depending portfolio of products in the conventional power industry will be replaced by an increasingly strong dependence on the product portfolio of Renewable Energy Sector according to this argumentation. The present work is devoted to the political explanation of the change and transition process in the electricity market. The process of policy formation in this market (especially support policies for renewable energies) will be discussed. It is examined from a public choice perspective, which political actors and instances in the past were responsible for the development and maintenance of individual policy elements. In particular, in this analysis the different private sector stakeholders in the electricity market move to center of attention. [German] In der Forschung wird argumentiert, dass die gezielte Foerderung der Erneuerbaren zu einer Veraenderung der technologischen Pfadabhaengigkeit am Strommarkt fuehrt bzw. gefuehrt hat. Die historisch bedingte Marktabhaengigkeit vom Angebotsportfolio der konventionellen Stromindustrie wird im Rahmen dieser Argumentation durch eine zunehmend starke Abhaengigkeit vom Angebotsportfolio des Erneuerbare-Eenergie-Bereichs ersetzt. Die vorliegende Arbeit widmet sich der politischen Erklaerung des Veraenderungs- bzw. Uebergangsprozesses am Strommarkt. Der Prozess der Politikbildung auf diesem Markt (v.a. der Foerderpolitik fuer erneuerbare Energien) wird diskutiert. Es wird aus einer Public-Choice-Perspektive untersucht, welche politischen Akteure und Instanzen in der Vergangenheit fuer die Entstehung und Aufrechterhaltung einzelner Politikelemente verantwortlich waren. Insbesondere ruecken bei dieser Betrachtung die unterschiedlichen privatwirtschaftlichen Interessengruppen am Strommarkt ins Zentrum der Aufmerksamkeit.

  10. The Raison d'Être of Mutual Recognition: An Analysis of the 2015 Reform to Research Ethics Review Policies, Processes and Problems in Québec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliki Rahimzadeh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ethics review is a pre-requisite to conducting research involving humans in Canada, and indeed in most international jurisdictions. The Tri-Council Policy Statement on Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans (TCPS2 serves as the national policy framework for research ethics review in Canada, and outlines three potential oversight models: independent, delegated and reciprocal. While the independent model preserves institutional oversight of research, it contributes to a duplicative system that can unduly delay research and impose barriers to research collaboration. This analysis centres on a 2015 reform to the policy model of research ethics review for collaborative, multi-site studies in the province of Québec. Informal interviews with key informants supplemented a document analysis of provincial research ethics policies using the comparative framework proposed by Lavis and colleagues. Consolidating bureaucratic structures and preserving locally-relevant review studies that span multiple sites remain among the most pressing challenges to transitioning from an independent model, and could provide reference for other provinces that have, or are currently in the process of such a transition.

  11. An international constant: The crucial role of policy competence in the effective strategic management of health services organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longest, B B

    2004-05-01

    In view of the pervasive impact of government policies on health services organizations worldwide, policy competence is an increasingly important element in the successful strategic management of these organizations. This article discusses a conceptual perspective of policy competence, including three intertwined components of this competence. Firstly, policy competence is built upon understanding the government policies that affect health services organizations, as well as understanding the process by which such policies are made and the forces that can affect the process and its outcomes. Secondly, policy competence helps strategic managers anticipate and lead responses of health services organizations to the opportunities and threats emanating from their policy environments. Finally, policy competence assists strategic managers to participate effectively in shaping the policy environments of health services organizations to the benefit of these organizations.

  12. Evaluating the Process and Extent of Institutionalization: A Case Study of a Rapid Response Unit for Health Policy in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Zida

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Good decision-making requires gathering and using sufficient information. Several knowledge translation platforms have been introduced in Burkina Faso to support evidence-informed decision-making. One of these is the rapid response service for health. This platform aims to provide quick access for policy-makers in Burkina Faso to highquality research evidence about health systems. The purpose of this study is to describe the process and extent of the institutionalization of the rapid response service. Methods A qualitative case study design was used, drawing on interviews with policy-makers, together with documentary analysis. Previously used institutionalization frameworks were combined to guide the analysis. Results Burkina Faso’s rapid response service has largely reached the consolidation phase of the institutionalization process but not yet the final phase of maturity. The impetus for the project came from designated project leaders, who convinced policy-makers of the importance of the rapid response service, and obtained resources to run a pilot. During the expansion stage, additional policy-makers at national and sub-national levels began to use the service. Unit staff also tried to improve the way it was delivered, based on lessons learned during the pilot stage. The service has, however, stagnated at the consolidation stage, and not moved into the final phase of maturity. Conclusion The institutionalization process for the rapid response service in Burkina Faso has been fluid rather than linear, with some areas developing faster than others. The service has reached the consolidation stage, but now requires additional efforts to reach maturity.

  13. Evaluating the Process and Extent of Institutionalization: A Case Study of a Rapid Response Unit for Health Policy in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zida, Andre; Lavis, John N; Sewankambo, Nelson K; Kouyate, Bocar; Ouedraogo, Salimata

    2017-04-10

    Good decision-making requires gathering and using sufficient information. Several knowledge translation platforms have been introduced in Burkina Faso to support evidence-informed decision-making. One of these is the rapid response service for health. This platform aims to provide quick access for policy-makers in Burkina Faso to highquality research evidence about health systems. The purpose of this study is to describe the process and extent of the institutionalization of the rapid response service. A qualitative case study design was used, drawing on interviews with policy-makers, together with documentary analysis. Previously used institutionalization frameworks were combined to guide the analysis. Burkina Faso's rapid response service has largely reached the consolidation phase of the institutionalization process but not yet the final phase of maturity. The impetus for the project came from designated project leaders, who convinced policy-makers of the importance of the rapid response service, and obtained resources to run a pilot. During the expansion stage, additional policy-makers at national and sub-national levels began to use the service. Unit staff also tried to improve the way it was delivered, based on lessons learned during the pilot stage. The service has, however, stagnated at the consolidation stage, and not moved into the final phase of maturity. The institutionalization process for the rapid response service in Burkina Faso has been fluid rather than linear, with some areas developing faster than others. The service has reached the consolidation stage, but now requires additional efforts to reach maturity. © 2018 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly

  14. Variable charge molecular dynamics studies of oxygen diffusion processes in nickel leading to the formation of internal oxide nano-clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garruchet, S.; Politano, O.; Vignal, V.; Arnoux, P.

    2009-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: New materials are under development for numerous applications in 4. generation reactor (Supercritical water reactor for example) and will have to operate at high temperature and in corrosive environments. Nickel and nickel based alloys are one of the most important candidate because of their good mechanical properties on a wide variety of severe environments (corrosive, irradiative, high temperatures,...). In this work, we simulated a model system of nickel to study the diffusivity of atomic oxygen and the formation of internal oxide nano-clusters by variable charge molecular dynamics techniques. Oxidation of nickel surfaces proceeds by cationic diffusion. In that sense, the governing parameter is the diffusion of Nickel in the oxide scale. However, it is also experimentally observed that some oxygen atoms are trapped within the metal. At high temperature, those atoms can diffuse and form internal oxide clusters in nano-voids within the metallic bulk. To characterize such processes, many experimental approaches have determined the O diffusion coefficient in Ni. However recent experimental studies expressed doubts about these values as the role played by impurities and/or vacancies during the diffusion processes was not addressed. Recently, some authors showed that O couldn't diffuse in Ni in absence of defects. As a consequence, new O diffusion coefficient has to be determined and correlated to the defects concentration in the system. To our knowledge, only a few numbers of theoretical investigations are dedicated to this topic. In particular all the numerical studies were performed by using the density functional theory (DFT)]. These approaches permitted to calculate migration energy and diffusion path at 0 K. However, a complete study of O diffusion at high temperature is still missing. This last leads us to develop variable charge molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on the diffusion of atomic O in Ni in the range 950 K to 1600 K

  15. сисOptimization of the state information policy of Ukraine in the conditions of contemporary modernization processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. O. Romanenko

    2014-10-01

    Today in Ukraine is a strategic document that at the national level to govern the main priorities, directions, principles, principles and ways of realization of the State policy on implementing its information and communication functions. Moreover the communicative component state is not clearly separated from the information, and therefore does not have the proper conceptual, technological and functional software, also destablzacjno affects the livelihoods of its public sector.

  16. Efficient Web Services Policy Combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatan, Farrokh; Harman, Joseph G.

    2010-01-01

    precedence. Meta-policies are specified in defeasible logic, a computationally efficient non-monotonic logic developed to model human reasoning. One drawback of this method is that at one point the algorithm starts an exhaustive search of all subsets of the set of conclusions of a defeasible theory. Although the propositional defeasible logic has linear complexity, the set of conclusions here may be large, especially in real-life practical cases. This phenomenon leads to an inefficient exponential explosion of complexity. The current process of getting a Web security policy from combination of two meta-policies consists of two steps. The first is generating a new meta-policy that is a composition of the input meta-policies, and the second is mapping the meta-policy onto a security policy. The new algorithm avoids the exhaustive search in the current algorithm, and provides a security policy that matches all requirements of the involved metapolicies.

  17. Relating Actor Analysis Methods to Policy Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Lei, T.E.

    2009-01-01

    For a policy analyst the policy problem is the starting point for the policy analysis process. During this process the policy analyst structures the policy problem and makes a choice for an appropriate set of methods or techniques to analyze the problem (Goeller 1984). The methods of the policy

  18. Ensuring due process in the IACUC and animal welfare setting: considerations in developing noncompliance policies and procedures for institutional animal care and use committees and institutional officials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Barbara C; Gografe, Sylvia; Pritt, Stacy; Jen, Kai-Lin Catherine; McWhirter, Camille A; Barman, Susan M; Comuzzie, Anthony; Greene, Molly; McNulty, Justin A; Michele, Daniel Eugene; Moaddab, Naz; Nelson, Randall J; Norris, Karen; Uray, Karen D; Banks, Ron; Westlund, Karin N; Yates, Bill J; Silverman, Jerald; Hansen, Kenneth D; Redman, Barbara

    2017-10-01

    Every institution that is involved in research with animals is expected to have in place policies and procedures for the management of allegations of noncompliance with the Animal Welfare Act and the U.S. Public Health Service Policy on the Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. We present here a model set of recommendations for institutional animal care and use committees and institutional officials to ensure appropriate consideration of allegations of noncompliance with federal Animal Welfare Act regulations that carry a significant risk or specific threat to animal welfare. This guidance has 3 overarching aims: 1 ) protecting the welfare of research animals; 2 ) according fair treatment and due process to an individual accused of noncompliance; and 3 ) ensuring compliance with federal regulations. Through this guidance, the present work seeks to advance the cause of scientific integrity, animal welfare, and the public trust while recognizing and supporting the critical importance of animal research for the betterment of the health of both humans and animals.-Hansen, B. C., Gografe, S., Pritt, S., Jen, K.-L. C., McWhirter, C. A., Barman, S. M., Comuzzie, A., Greene, M., McNulty, J. A., Michele, D. E., Moaddab, N., Nelson, R. J., Norris, K., Uray, K. D., Banks, R., Westlund, K. N., Yates, B. J., Silverman, J., Hansen, K. D., Redman, B. Ensuring due process in the IACUC and animal welfare setting: considerations in developing noncompliance policies and procedures for institutional animal care and use committees and institutional officials. © FASEB.

  19. Lead in the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattee, Oliver H.; Pain, Deborah J.; Hoffman, David J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Burton, G. Allen; Cairns, John

    2003-01-01

    . and the .reduction of lead in gasoline has resulted in lower tissue lead concentrations in humans and wildlife from many, particularly urban, locations. However, it has been suggested that increasing use of organic lead compounds as catalysts for the production of plastics and as wood preservatives and biocides could adversely affect wildlife. The most significant source of direct wildlife mortality from lead is spent gunshot and fishing sinkers. Elevated mortality from shot ingestion in avian species resulted in the introduction of nontoxic (steel) shot zones along certain flyways in the United States in the mid-1970s and a total ban on the use of lead for waterfowl and coot hunting nationwide by 1992. Several other countries are now following suit and have either banned or are in the process of restricting the use of lead shot for waterfowl hunting. In the United States it has been estimated that since the 1986 hunting season. when the use of nontoxic shot became widespread. over 6 million ducks have not been lost to lead poisoning. Raptors, especially eagles, have also apparently benefited. although lead poisoning from ingestion of bullet fragments remains a problem for the critically threatened California condor. Quantifying reductions in lead mortality rates would be difficult since eagle populations throughout North America are rapidly recovering from other anthropogenic perturbations, especially organochlorine pesticides.

  20. The GLAMA (Girls! Lead! Achieve! Mentor! Activate!) physical activity and peer leadership intervention pilot project: A process evaluation using the RE-AIM framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Implementing new initiatives and physical activity interventions in schools represents a myriad of challenges that if overcome can potentially facilitate a range of behavioural changes. The aim of this paper is to describe the process evaluation of specific design constructs used in the GLAMA (Girls! Lead! Achieve! Mentor! Activate!) peer leadership and physical activity pilot project. Conducted in a state secondary school in Australia, the intervention was designed to provide students with opportunities to develop leadership skills, school and social connectedness in addition to a range of physical activity experiences. Methods This process evaluation used the RE-AIM (Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance) health promotion evaluation framework to assess three design constructs of the intervention: the effectiveness of leadership training and leader preparedness, activity suitability and participation, and the barriers to implementation of the intervention and potential solutions to overcome these barriers. As it was not the specific aim of this pilot, no behavioural change data were collected from students. Data were collected using a mixed methods approach including student questionnaires, teachers and researchers reporting on their own observations and feedback from students. Results There were three main considerations evident across more than one RE-AIM dimension that need to be addressed to assist with future GLAMA dissemination. Firstly, the development of teacher, school and student participation. This needs to be through a variety of professional development opportunities for teachers, integration of the program within timetabled classes within the school and promoting the program to students as an opportunity to develop a range of skills to apply to future learning and workplace environments. Secondly, the successful translation of leadership training to practice is necessary to ensure that leaders are effectively able to

  1. The GLAMA (Girls! Lead! Achieve! Mentor! Activate! physical activity and peer leadership intervention pilot project: A process evaluation using the RE-AIM framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenkinson Kate A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Implementing new initiatives and physical activity interventions in schools represents a myriad of challenges that if overcome can potentially facilitate a range of behavioural changes. The aim of this paper is to describe the process evaluation of specific design constructs used in the GLAMA (Girls! Lead! Achieve! Mentor! Activate! peer leadership and physical activity pilot project. Conducted in a state secondary school in Australia, the intervention was designed to provide students with opportunities to develop leadership skills, school and social connectedness in addition to a range of physical activity experiences. Methods This process evaluation used the RE-AIM (Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance health promotion evaluation framework to assess three design constructs of the intervention: the effectiveness of leadership training and leader preparedness, activity suitability and participation, and the barriers to implementation of the intervention and potential solutions to overcome these barriers. As it was not the specific aim of this pilot, no behavioural change data were collected from students. Data were collected using a mixed methods approach including student questionnaires, teachers and researchers reporting on their own observations and feedback from students. Results There were three main considerations evident across more than one RE-AIM dimension that need to be addressed to assist with future GLAMA dissemination. Firstly, the development of teacher, school and student participation. This needs to be through a variety of professional development opportunities for teachers, integration of the program within timetabled classes within the school and promoting the program to students as an opportunity to develop a range of skills to apply to future learning and workplace environments. Secondly, the successful translation of leadership training to practice is necessary to ensure that leaders

  2. Transnational communication and domestic environmental policy learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sietske VEENMAN

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to provide patterns of how transnational communication may lead to domestic policy learning. Existing theories of policy learning, policy diffusion and policy convergence assume that transnational communication may lead to domestic policy learning and policy change, but do not suggest general, empirically investigated patterns. Two case studies on the policy of noise abatement around airports and the policy of contaminated land show that different venues in which transnational communication takes place may induce different types of policy change at the national level.

  3. Synthesis of High-Purity alpha-and beta-PbO and Possible Applications to Synthesis and Processing of Other Lead Oxide Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, Dale L.; Wilkinson, T. J.

    2009-11-12

    The red, tetragonal form of lead oxide, alpha-PbO, litharge, and the yellow, orthorhombic form, beta-PbO, massicot, have been synthesized from lead(II) salts in aqueous media at elevated temperature. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the size, morphology, and crystallographic structural forms of the products. The role of impurities in the experimental synthesis of the materials and microstructural variations in the final products are described, and the implications of these observations with respect to the synthesis of different conducting lead oxides and other related materials are discussed.

  4. A survey on the methodological processes and policies of renal guideline groups as a first step to harmonize renal guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haller, Maria C.; van der Veer, Sabine N.; Nagler, Evi V.; Tomson, Charlie; Lewington, Andrew; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R.; Gallagher, Martin; Rocco, Michael; Obrador, Gregorio; Vanholder, Raymond; Craig, Jonathan C.; van Biesen, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, several bodies produce renal guidelines, potentially leading to duplication of effort while other topics may remain uncovered. A collaborative work plan could improve efficiency and impact, but requires a common approved methodology. The aim of this study was to identify organizational

  5. Directory Enabled Policy Based Networking; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KELIIAA, CURTIS M.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents a discussion of directory-enabled policy-based networking with an emphasis on its role as the foundation for securely scalable enterprise networks. A directory service provides the object-oriented logical environment for interactive cyber-policy implementation. Cyber-policy implementation includes security, network management, operational process and quality of service policies. The leading network-technology vendors have invested in these technologies for secure universal connectivity that transverses Internet, extranet and intranet boundaries. Industry standards are established that provide the fundamental guidelines for directory deployment scalable to global networks. The integration of policy-based networking with directory-service technologies provides for intelligent management of the enterprise network environment as an end-to-end system of related clients, services and resources. This architecture allows logical policies to protect data, manage security and provision critical network services permitting a proactive defense-in-depth cyber-security posture. Enterprise networking imposes the consideration of supporting multiple computing platforms, sites and business-operation models. An industry-standards based approach combined with principled systems engineering in the deployment of these technologies allows these issues to be successfully addressed. This discussion is focused on a directory-based policy architecture for the heterogeneous enterprise network-computing environment and does not propose specific vendor solutions. This document is written to present practical design methodology and provide an understanding of the risks, complexities and most important, the benefits of directory-enabled policy-based networking

  6. TRANSFORMATION THE ROLE OF THINK TANKS IN THE PROCESS OF GOVERNMENT POLICY FORMATION IN THE CONTEXT OF WORLD FINANCIAL CRISIS IN 2008-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barsukov Anton Yuryevich

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study is dedicated to the evolution of think tanks role as a political tool of government policy formation in the context of world financial crisis. The main purpose of the study was the description of such evolution, revealing of the basic differences with the analytical centers, founded before 2008 in China, and finding-out of think tank’ role in the process of anticrisis campaign. The actuality of the study is obvious, proceeding from there are not any other study dedicated to the Chinese “new type” think tanks in Russian politologycal science. The appearance of “new type” think tanks in the PRC is mentioned in the study. The special meaning devoted to the increasing of returnees’ role in the process of government policy formation. The author makes the conclusion that “new type” think tanks have a very important meaning just as in the process of anticrisis campaign so in the public life. “New type” think tanks have more independence from the official authorities.

  7. TRANSFORMATION THE ROLE OF THINK TANKS IN THE PROCESS OF GOVERNMENT POLICY FORMATION IN THE CONTEXT OF WORLD FINANCIAL CRISIS IN 2008-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Антон Юрьевич Барсуков

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The study is dedicated to the evolution of think tanks role as a political tool of government policy formation in the context of world financial crisis. The main purpose of the study was the description of such evolution, revealing of the basic differences with the analytical centers, founded before 2008 in China, and finding-out of think tank’ role in the process of anticrisis campaign.The actuality of the study is obvious, proceeding from there are not any other study dedicated to the Chinese “new type” think tanks in Russian politologycal science.The appearance of “new type” think tanks in the PRC is mentioned in the study. The special meaning devoted to the increasing of returnees’ role in the process of government policy formation. The author makes the conclusion that “new type” think tanks have a very important meaning just as in the process of anticrisis campaign so in the public life. “New type” think tanks have more independence from the official authorities. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-4-38

  8. Ambiguously Divided Responsibilities across Government Spheres: How they Impact the Policy Process and Result in Coordination Problems in the Case of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Dubois

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Empirical studies in decentralized settings associate ambiguities in the division of responsibilities between government spheres with coordination problems. This study explores the mechanisms behind this association, mainly drawing on in-depth interviews with local government officials in Poland. A typology emerges from the data. Ambiguities can refer to the policy content, but also to the rationale behind responsibilities. They may be real or perceived. The agent who perceives the ambiguities can be close to public administration (internal or further removed from it (external. External ambiguities mostly inhibit front-room stages of the policy cycle, while external ambiguities impede back-room stages. Through different paths, they contribute to tensions between government spheres, obstructing cooperation needed to address the ambiguities. Overall, the article contributes to a better understanding of the policy process in decentralized settings, unwraps the dynamic causal framework surrounding the ambiguities, and highlights the role of perceptions, not only by the electorate, but by public officials in particular.

  9. Geography and history education in Estonia: processes, policies and practices in an ethnically divided society from the late 1980s to the early 2000s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaanus Veemaa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article studies processes, policies and practices for geography and history education in Estonia. The analysis covers the societal transformation period in an ethnically divided society from the 1980s to the early 2000s characterized by Estonia’s disintegration from the Soviet Union towards the integration to the European Union and NATO. Geography and history education curricula, textbooks and related policies and practices promoted a particular national time-space by supporting the belongingness of Estonia into Europe, rejecting connections towards Russia and suggesting a division between ethnic Estonians and ethnically non-Estonian residents of Estonia. In geography and history textbooks, the Russian-speaking population, comprising then almost a third of the entire population of Estonia, was divided into non-loyal, semi-loyal and loyal groups of whom only the latter could be integrated in the Estonian time-space. The formal education policies for geography and history supported Estonia’s disintegration from the Soviet past and pawed way to integration to the western political and economic structures. However, challenging market and sensitive cultural contexts created peculiar, alternative and sometimes opposing local practices in geography and history education.

  10. National policy on physical activity: the development of a policy audit tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Fiona C; Milton, Karen; Kahlmeier, Sonja

    2014-02-01

    Physical inactivity is a leading risk factor for noncommunicable disease worldwide. Increasing physical activity requires large scale actions and relevant, supportive national policy across multiple sectors. The policy audit tool (PAT) was developed to provide a standardized instrument to assess national policy approaches to physical activity. A draft tool, based on earlier work, was developed and pilot-tested in 7 countries. After several rounds of revisions, the final PAT comprises 27 items and collects information on 1) government structure, 2) development and content of identified key policies across multiple sectors, 3) the experience of policy implementation at both the national and local level, and 4) a summary of the PAT completion process. PAT provides a standardized instrument for assessing progress of national policy on physical activity. Engaging a diverse international group of countries in the development helped ensure PAT has applicability across a wide range of countries and contexts. Experiences from the development of the PAT suggests that undertaking an audit of health enhancing physical activity (HEPA) policy can stimulate greater awareness of current policy opportunities and gaps, promote critical debate across sectors, and provide a catalyst for collaboration on policy level actions. The final tool is available online.

  11. The concern for nature, a natural process for public policy? How to promote sustainable development in urban environmental agendas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Ángeles Barrionuevo Mora

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ecuador is a leader worldwide for its recognition of the Rights of Nature and the Rights of the City in its Constitution. In so far as Quito, its capital, has positioned itself among the first municipalities that have demonstrated their compliance with the international commitments on climate change, it is a relevant case study. From the experience of this city, we aim to identify the main factors that contribute to local government taking on a sustainability agenda. Although the national and international context influence on the positioning of such topics, such factors as leadership, the influence of international networks, the level of specialization of the bureaucratic apparatus and local regulations have permitted to include issues related to sustainable development in the public policy agenda and thus have given visibility to cities as relevant actors in the pursuit of sustainable development.

  12. Science and Mathematics Faculty Responses to a Policy-Based Initiative: Change Processes, Self-Efficacy Beliefs, and Department Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellett, Chad D.; Demir, Kadir; Monsaas, Judith

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine change processes, self-efficacy beliefs, and department culture and the roles these elements play in faculty engagement in working in K-12 schools. The development of three new web-based measures of faculty perceptions of change processes, self-efficacy beliefs, and department culture are described. The…

  13. Cluster Policy in the Light of Institutional Context—A Comparative Study of Transition Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Tine Lehmann; Maximilian Benner

    2015-01-01

    The business environment in transition countries is often extraordinarily challenging for companies. The transition process these countries find themselves in leads to constant changes in the institutional environment. Hence, institutional voids prevail. These institutional voids cause competitive disadvantages for small and medium enterprises. Cluster policy can address these competitive disadvantages. As cluster policy generally aims at supporting companies’ competitive advantage by spurrin...

  14. 76 FR 38399 - Assessing the Current Research, Policy, and Practice Environment in Public Health Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... CDC-2011-0008] Assessing the Current Research, Policy, and Practice Environment in Public Health... information helpful to assess the current research, policy, and practice environment in public health genomics. HHS/CDC is currently leading a process to assess the most important steps for public health genomics...

  15. Reshaping skills policy in South Africa: structures, policies and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reshaping skills policy in South Africa: structures, policies and processes. ... New Agenda: South African Journal of Social and Economic Policy ... South African skills development policy since the promulgation of the Skills Development Act of 1998 has undergone a number of different iterations or attempts at accelerating ...

  16. What the Heck is Science Policy and Who Really Does It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatten, Amy

    2006-04-01

    The objective of this discussion is to provide graduate students and others with insights regarding careers in science policy--how a scientific graduate degree can lead to opportunities beyond the laboratory, combining scientific expertise with diverse interests such as business, international affairs and national security. The topics covered will include: 1) an overview of the U.S. Government bodies and other stakeholders involved in science policy development; 2) case studies to exemplify the ``process'' of science policy formulation; and 3) where/how one might explore a career in science policy. The speaker served from 1999-2004 with White House Office of Science and Technology Policy.

  17. Policy entrepreneurship and policy networks in healthcare systems - the case of Israel's pediatric dentistry reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Nissim; Horev, Tuvia

    2017-01-01

    Can the entry of a policy entrepreneur challenge the equilibrium of a policy network and promote changes that might clash with the goals of powerful civil-servants and/or interest groups and, if so, why and how? Our goal is to examine two sides of the same coin: how does an in-depth analysis of Israel's dental care reform enrich our understanding of policy networks and policy entrepreneurship? Second, how does the literature on policy networks and policy entrepreneurship help us understand this reform? Based on a theoretical framework that appears in the literature of policy entrepreneurship and policy networks, we analyze the motivations, goals and strategies of the main actors involved in the process of reforming pediatric dental care in Israel. We demonstrate how a policy entrepreneur navigated within a policy network and managed to promote a reform that, until his appearance, no one else in that network had succeeded in enacting. Our goals are advanced through a case study of a reform in pediatric dentistry implemented in Israel in 2010. It rests on textual analyses of the literature, reports, committee minutes, parliamentary proceedings, print and online media, and updates in relevant legislation and case law between 2009 and 2015. In addition, the case study draws on the insights of one of the authors (TH), who played a role in the reform process. Historical circumstances and the Israeli public's longstanding lack of interest in changing the existing model as well as interest groups that preferred the dominance of the private sector in the dental healthcare system kept that area out of the services supplied, universally, under the National Health Insurance Law. This situation changed significantly following the publication in 2007 of a policy analysis that contributed to shifts in the motivations and balance of power within the policy network, which in turn prepared the ground for a policy change. In this environment a determined policy entrepreneur, who

  18. Policy Research Environment and Policy Research Organizations in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to better understand the nature of policy research organizations in South Asia. It will do so through a series of studies, analyses and roundtables with leading researchers, and a survey of policy research institutions. The idea is to generate an understanding of the policy research environment with a view to ...

  19. Climate policy decisions require policy-based lifecycle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, Antonio M; Klotz, Richard

    2014-05-20

    Lifecycle analysis (LCA) metrics of greenhouse gas emissions are increasingly being used to select technologies supported by climate policy. However, LCAs typically evaluate the emissions associated with a technology or product, not the impacts of policies. Here, we show that policies supporting the same technology can lead to dramatically different emissions impacts per unit of technology added, due to multimarket responses to the policy. Using a policy-based consequential LCA, we find that the lifecycle emissions impacts of four US biofuel policies range from a reduction of 16.1 gCO2e to an increase of 24.0 gCO2e per MJ corn ethanol added by the policy. The differences between these results and representative technology-based LCA measures, which do not account for the policy instrument driving the expansion in the technology, illustrate the need for policy-based LCA measures when informing policy decision making.

  20. Lead contamination of subarctic lakes and its response to reduced atmospheric fallout : Can the recovery process be counteracted by the ongoing Climate change?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonatan, Klaminder; Dan, Hammarlund; Ulla, Kokfelt; Vonk And, Jorien E.; Christian, Bigler

    2010-01-01

    Can a climate-triggered export of old contaminants from the soil alter the lead (Pb) contaminant burden of subarctic lakes? To address this question, we reconstructed the pollution history of three high latitude lakes situated in a region where a recent climatic shift has occurred. Dated sediment

  1. How much participation makes a participatory process legitimate? Observations from participants in forestry policy-making and nuclear weapons complex management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuler, S.

    1997-01-01

    Public participation has received increasing attention as a means for improving research, policy-making, and decision-making in a variety of contexts. Regulators have experimented with a variety of participatory approaches to improve the legitimacy of outcomes in the eyes of diverse publics. In this paper the authors will explore how participants (as opposed to planners) perceived legitimacy of both processes and outcomes in planning processes. Data from two case studies will be presented: (1) a forestry planning process in the northeastern US and (2) environmental health, waste management, and clean-up activities in the US nuclear weapons complex. The data reveal that judgments about the appropriateness of particular forms of participation and about the quality of participation can be a critical factor in perceived legitimacy of processes and outcomes, and that judgments of appropriateness and quality are grounded in the experiences of individual participants. In addition, linkages between judgments about the adequacy of participation and legitimacy can be mediated by historical interactions and judgments of trust. Implications for the design of participatory processes will be discussed

  2. Smoke-free policy development in Italy through the legislative process of the ban 2000-2005, and press media review 1998-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Gorini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to describe the process of approval of the Italian smoking ban, enacted in 2005. The method is to conduct a review of proposed and approved legislation 20002005, and of articles published in Italian newspapers, 1998-2008. Enabling factors in the process were: the leadership of two consecutive Health Ministers, both physicians, who introduced the bill four times between 2000-2002; the repeated presentation and final approval of the bill as an amendment within a bill on public administration which enabled timely approval of the ban; and the stringent air quality standards in the 2003 regulation that made building smoking rooms impracticable and prohibitively expensive. Limiting factors in the process were: the 6-month delay in approving the regulation on smoking rooms; the 1.5-year delay in approving the regulation establishing owners' responsibility for enforcing the ban in hospitality premises and the legal action in August 2005, which shifted responsibility for enforcement to police. Eighty-three percent of the 808 articles published on smoking in 1998-2008 were released between 2000-2005, during the policy process. While the press devoted considerable attention to the issues raised by the hospitality sector, the long legislative process of the bill and its regulations also stimulated coverage on tobacco control issues.

  3. Smoke-free policy development in Italy through the legislative process of the ban 2000-2005, and press media review 1998-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorini, Giuseppe; Currie, Laura; Spizzichino, Lorenzo; Galeone, Daniela; Lopez, Maria J

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this article is to describe the process of approval of the Italian smoking ban, enacted in 2005. The method is to conduct a review of proposed and approved legislation 2000- 2005, and of articles published in Italian newspapers, 1998-2008. Enabling factors in the process were: the leadership of two consecutive Health Ministers, both physicians, who introduced the bill four times between 2000-2002; the repeated presentation and final approval of the bill as an amendment within a bill on public administration which enabled timely approval of the ban; and the stringent air quality standards in the 2003 regulation that made building smoking rooms impracticable and prohibitively expensive. Limiting factors in the process were: the 6-month delay in approving the regulation on smoking rooms; the 1.5-year delay in approving the regulation establishing owners' responsibility for enforcing the ban in hospitality premises and the legal action in August 2005, which shifted responsibility for enforcement to police. Eighty-three percent of the 808 articles published on smoking in 1998-2008 were released between 2000-2005, during the policy process. While the press devoted considerable attention to the issues raised by the hospitality sector, the long legislative process of the bill and its regulations also stimulated coverage on tobacco control issues.

  4. Development of the regional policy process for air pollution in South Asia, southern Africa and Latin America

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hicks, WK

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available issues in three sub-regions of three continents. Experiences gained through activities within a programme on Regional Air Pollution in Developing Countries are used to illustrate progress. The sub-regional process in South Asia developed through a series...

  5. Problematizations in Health Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Bacchi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article directs attention to the significance, for health promotion advocates, of reflecting on how “problems” are constituted, or brought into existence, as particular sorts of problems, within policies and policy proposals. To this end, it introduces a poststructural analytic strategy called “What’s the Problem Represented to be?” (WPR approach, and contrasts this perspective to the ways in which “problems” are commonly conceptualized in health policy analyses (e.g., “a problem stream,” “wicked problems”. Such a perspective offers a significant rethinking of the conventional emphasis on agenda setting and policy-making processes in considering the meaning of success or failure in health policy initiatives. The starting point is a close analysis of items that are “successful,” in the sense that they make the political agenda, to see how representations of “problems” within selected policies limit what is talked about as possible or desirable, or as impossible and undesirable. This form of analysis thus enables critical reflections on the substantive content of policy initiatives in health policy. The article takes a step back from policy process theories, frameworks, and models to offer reflections at the level of paradigms. Highlighting potential dangers and limitations in positivism, interpretivism, and critical realism, it uses international, Australian, and South Australian examples in health policy to explore what poststructural policy analysis contributes to understanding the broad political influences shaping contemporary modes of rule.

  6. O processo de produção normativa tributária infralegal como instrumento de intervenção regulatória: mecanismos e impactos/Tax regulatory process in Brazil as public policy intervention tool: Its mechanisms and impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Cardoso Leite

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – This article aims to provide an inicial analysis of the regulation process in the current Brazilian tax environment. It also intends to investigate whether those tax administrative regulations have their guidelines extracted from a legal-procedural theory that allows them to be clear, simple and trusty on their rulemaking process. Methodology/approach/design – The text adopts as methodological approach the regulatory administrative procedure that is actually applied by Brazil’s Revenue Service (Portuguese acronym: SRF, Foreign Trade Chamber (Portuguese acronym: Camex, National Committee on Revenue Policy (Portuguese acronym: Confaz, and Revenue Appeal Chamber (Portuguese acronym: Carf, considered the regulatory influence and the economic consequences that they entail. As a guideline to this text, some theoretical assumptions needs to be made on public choice and public interest theories, based on Steven P. Croley criticism, and on legal analysis of economic policy developed by Marcus Faro de Castro. Findings – Debates on proposed reforms of Brazil’s tax system have brought about concerns related to excessive amount of regulations, leading to lack of perception of safety, clarity and confidence in the national legal environment. Practical implications – It provides basic guidelines to developing a regulatory rulemaking process focused on taxation. Originality/value – This article fosters the debate on the Brazilian tax system simplification, transparency, and publicity, focusing on regulatory rulemaking process and on social participating at the discussion agenda about tax public policies and regulation.

  7. Safe meat-handling knowledge, attitudes and practices of private and government meat processing plants' workers: implications for future policy

    OpenAIRE

    ADESOKAN, H.K.; RAJI, A.O.Q.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Introduction. Food-borne disease outbreaks remain a major global health challenge and cross-contamination from raw meat due to poor handling is a major cause in developing countries. Adequate knowledge of meat handlers is important in limiting these outbreaks. This study evaluated and compared the safe meat-handling knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of private (PMPP) and government meat processing plants' (GMPP) workers in south-western Nigeria. Methods. This cross sectional st...

  8. Further Evidence on the Effect of Acquisition Policy and Process on Cost Growth of Major Defense Acquisition Programs (Revised)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    two significant findings. First, Major Defense Acquisition Programs (MDAPs) that entered Engineering and Manufacturing Development (EMD) during...First, Major Defense Acquisition Programs (MDAPs) that entered Engineering and Manufacturing Development (EMD) during “bust” funding climates on...Additionally, a major building block of McNamara’s process began operating in 1959. See William D. O’Neil and Gene H. Porter, “What to Buy ? The Role of

  9. Universally design social policy: when disability disappears?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickenbach, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review and evaluate the legal and policy feasibility of applying the principles of Universal Design (UD) to create a "universalised disability policy" that targets the needs and circumstances of persons with disabilities in light of universal human rights, conscious of individual differences. Applying modified versions of the principles of UD to disability social policy and using core interpretative strategies for human rights implementation (used in the United Nations' Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities) to illuminate, by analogy, ways to resolve the dilemma between seeking equality and respecting difference. The aspirations of UD in architecture and planning - namely to design buildings and cities to accommodate the needs of the widest spectrum of abilities as possible - can successfully be applied to social policy that focuses on the needs and circumstances of persons with disabilities, and which underwrites a blueprint for reform in the delivery of social services. "Universal social policy", and UD, are feasible and desirable approaches to their respective domains, if we adopt a strategy derived from the legal interpretation of human rights implementation. The consequence, however, may be a policy that begins a process of social disappearance of disability. Implications for Rehabilitation The well-recognised principles of Universal Design (UD) have analogs for social policy that focuses on the needs of persons with disabilities. Universal social policy is consistent with the rights and aspirations of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Universalising social policy may lead eventually to the disappearance of "disability" as a policy category.

  10. Making sense of policy choices: understanding the roles of value predispositions, mass media, and cognitive processing in public attitudes toward nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Shirley S., E-mail: tsyho@ntu.edu.s [Nanyang Technological University, Wee Kim Wee School of Communication and Information (Singapore); Scheufele, Dietram A., E-mail: scheufele@wisc.ed [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Life Sciences Communication (United States); Corley, Elizabeth A., E-mail: elizabeth.corley@asu.ed [Arizona State University, School of Public Affairs (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Using a nationally representative telephone survey of 1,015 adults in the United States, this study examines how value predispositions, communication variables, and perceptions of risks and benefits are associated with public support for federal funding of nanotechnology. Our findings show that highly religious individuals were less supportive of funding of nanotech than less religious individuals, whereas individuals who held a high deference for scientific authority were more supportive of funding of the emerging technology than those low in deference. Mass media use and elaborative processing of scientific news were positively associated with public support for funding, whereas factual scientific knowledge had no significant association with policy choices. The findings suggest that thinking about and reflecting upon scientific news promote better understanding of the scientific world and may provide a more sophisticated cognitive structure for the public to form opinions about nanotech than factual scientific knowledge. Finally, heuristic cues including trust in scientists and perceived risks and benefits of nanotech were found to be associated with public support for nanotech funding. We conclude with policy implications that will be useful for policymakers and science communication practitioners.

  11. Making sense of policy choices: understanding the roles of value predispositions, mass media, and cognitive processing in public attitudes toward nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shirley S.; Scheufele, Dietram A.; Corley, Elizabeth A.

    2010-10-01

    Using a nationally representative telephone survey of 1,015 adults in the United States, this study examines how value predispositions, communication variables, and perceptions of risks and benefits are associated with public support for federal funding of nanotechnology. Our findings show that highly religious individuals were less supportive of funding of nanotech than less religious individuals, whereas individuals who held a high deference for scientific authority were more supportive of funding of the emerging technology than those low in deference. Mass media use and elaborative processing of scientific news were positively associated with public support for funding, whereas factual scientific knowledge had no significant association with policy choices. The findings suggest that thinking about and reflecting upon scientific news promote better understanding of the scientific world and may provide a more sophisticated cognitive structure for the public to form opinions about nanotech than factual scientific knowledge. Finally, heuristic cues including trust in scientists and perceived risks and benefits of nanotech were found to be associated with public support for nanotech funding. We conclude with policy implications that will be useful for policymakers and science communication practitioners.

  12. Making sense of policy choices: understanding the roles of value predispositions, mass media, and cognitive processing in public attitudes toward nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Shirley S.; Scheufele, Dietram A.; Corley, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    Using a nationally representative telephone survey of 1,015 adults in the United States, this study examines how value predispositions, communication variables, and perceptions of risks and benefits are associated with public support for federal funding of nanotechnology. Our findings show that highly religious individuals were less supportive of funding of nanotech than less religious individuals, whereas individuals who held a high deference for scientific authority were more supportive of funding of the emerging technology than those low in deference. Mass media use and elaborative processing of scientific news were positively associated with public support for funding, whereas factual scientific knowledge had no significant association with policy choices. The findings suggest that thinking about and reflecting upon scientific news promote better understanding of the scientific world and may provide a more sophisticated cognitive structure for the public to form opinions about nanotech than factual scientific knowledge. Finally, heuristic cues including trust in scientists and perceived risks and benefits of nanotech were found to be associated with public support for nanotech funding. We conclude with policy implications that will be useful for policymakers and science communication practitioners.

  13. Market, Policies and Local Governance as Drivers of Environmental Public Benefits: The Case of the Localised Processed Tomato in Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Mantino

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the role of a specific Localised Agri-food System (LAFS in the provision of Environmental and social benefits (ESBs in densely cultivated, industrialised, and populated areas by analysing the core of the processing tomato supply chain of northern Italy (Parma and Piacenza. The research examines how the interplay of market drivers, public policies, and collective actions favoured farming, technological, and organisational innovations geared to support long-term economic growth and tackle, at the same time, environmental challenges. The tomato supply chain is characterised by a favourable convergence of attitudes, policies, and market conditions that over time allowed for fruitful interactions between private stakeholders and between the supply chain and public players. Decades of key stakeholders’ interconnections within the tomato supply chain led to a success story of economic growth and attention to a new balance between agro-industry and environment, for the benefit of producers/processors, consumers, and natural resources. Profitability strategies inevitably imply intensification of farming in order to maximise profit levels per hectare, however, the tomato supply chain found a collective motivation that could grant profitability and concurrently reward producers and processors for attention paid to safeguarding the environment—giving evidence that intensification does not necessarily conflict with requirements in support of sustainability.

  14. A novel one-pot de-blocking and conjugation reaction step leads to process intensification in the manufacture of PEGylated insulin IN-105.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazra, Partha; Chatterjee, Amarnath; Shabandri, Qais; Adhikary, Laxmi; Dave, Nitesh; Buddha, Madhavan

    2012-10-01

    Bio-catalytic in vitro multistep reactions can be combined in a single step in one pot by optimizing multistep reactions under identical reaction condition. Using this analogy, the process of making PEGylated insulin, IN-105, was simplified. Instead of taking the purified active insulin bulk powder as the starting material for the conjugation step, an insulin process intermediate, partially purified insulin ester, was taken as starting material. Process intensification (PI) was established by performing a novel de-blocking (de-esterification) of the partially purified insulin ester and conjugation at B-29 Lys residue of B chain with a short-chain methoxy polyethylene glycol (mPEG) in a single-pot reactor. The chromatographic profile at the end of the reaction was found similar irrespective of whether both the reactions were performed sequentially or simultaneously. The conjugated product of interest, IN-105 (conjugation at LysB(29)), was purified from the heterogeneous mixture of conjugated products. The new manufacturing process was deduced to be more simplified and economical in making the insulin conjugates as several downstream purification steps could be circumvented. The physicochemical characteristics of IN-105 manufactured through this economic process was found to be indifferent from the product formed through the traditional process where the conjugation starting material was purified from bulk insulin.

  15. On the integration developmental characteristics as a form of international policy in the context of modern globalization processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bostan Sergii Ivanovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Under globalization of the world community, there are new opportunities and potential threats to the current system of international relations, collective security and geopolitical development of different regions. Integration and regionalization, consolidation and separatism entered upon the agenda of the political present. The integration process becomes one of the variations of peaceful and mutually beneficial solution to the question of the globalization influence of uneven development of the world regions, the fight against global problems of humanity, discrimination and intolerance, spread the values of democracy, rights, freedom and equality.

  16. Web technology to support work processes in energy policy research - A case study with energy efficiency standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benenson, Peter; McMahon, James E.; Brown, Stephen R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper focuses on a process to design and build a web-based system to assist staff in day-to-day management and contemporaneous documentation of their work. Other groups that want to use web technology to support their work could apply the approach presented here, but the design itself pertains to a particular set of issues in a unique context. Each user must apply the approach to identify their objectives and design a site to meet them. The main question that the Energy Efficiency Standards Group addressed was: ''How can we facilitate documentation of interim results and final products while conducting a complex, interdependent set of analyses by multiple authors under time pressures for delivering a final product?'' The approach to address this question includes categorization of the components of the work, discussions with staff, development of infrastructure support for documentation, implementation of the documentation process and integration with the workflow, and follow- up with staff. The search for a solution raised a number of issues such as the need for a thorough understanding of the work, consensus building by inclusion of key staff, and deliverable scheduling to allow for contemporaneous documentation. Documentation results vary among the product analyses, from extensive internal and external use to much slower adoption. Complaints include the length of the input forms and pressure from clients to deliver results. But with repeated demand for interim output, the need for thorough contemporaneous documentation still remains. Accordingly, as problems arise there is continued commitment among the staff to address them

  17. Safe meat-handling knowledge, attitudes and practices of private and government meat processing plants' workers: implications for future policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesokan, H K; Raji, A O Q

    2014-03-01

    Food-borne disease outbreaks remain a major global health challenge and cross-contamination from raw meat due to poor handling is a major cause in developing countries. Adequate knowledge of meat handlers is important in limiting these outbreaks. This study evaluated and compared the safe meat-handling knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of private (PMPP) and government meat processing plants' (GMPP) workers in south-western Nigeria. This cross sectional study comprised 190 meat handlers (PMPP = 55; GMPP = 135). Data concerning their safe meat-handling knowledge, attitudes and practices as well as their socio-demographic characteristics, such as age, gender and work experience were collected. A significant association was observed between the type of meat processing plants and their knowledge (p = 0.000), attitudes (p = 0.000) and practices (p = 0.000) of safe meat-handling. Meat handlers in the GMPP were respectively, about 17 times (OR = 0.060, 95% CI: 0.018-0.203), 57 times (OR = 0.019, 95% CI: 0.007-0.054) and 111 times (OR = 0.009, 95% CI: 0.001- 0.067) less likely to obtain good knowledge, attitude and practice level of safe meat-handling than those from PMPP. Further, KAP levels were significantly associated with age group, education and work experience (p private sector for improved food safety and quality delivery. Public health education on safe food handling and hygiene should be on the front burner among food handlers in general.

  18. Tough Policies, Incredible Policies?

    OpenAIRE

    Andres Velasco; Alejandro Neut

    2003-01-01

    We revisit the question of what determines the credibility of macroeconomic policies here, of promises to repay public debt. Almost all thinking on the issue has focused on governments' strategic decision to default (or erode the value of outstanding debt via inflation/devaluation). But sometimes governments default not because they want to, but because they cannot avoid it: adverse shocks leave them no option. We build a model in which default/devaluation can occur deliberately (for strategi...

  19. Financial globalization and monetary policy

    OpenAIRE

    Devereux, Michael B.; Sutherland, Alan

    2008-01-01

    The process of financial globalization has significantly altered the environment in which national monetary policy authorities operate. What implications does this have for the design of monetary policy? The question can be properly addressed only in the context of a model where monetary policy interacts with financial market efficiency. This paper is concerned with the effects of monetary policy when international portfolio choice is endogenous. We analyze the link between monetary policy an...

  20. The Development of a B2G Online Authentication Standard: a design perspective of the policy consultation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Campbell

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary focus in design science research is the development of innovative and useful system artifacts. Apart from IT-centric artifacts such as software and hardware, design research outputs can also include constructs, models, methods and better theories. However, there is very little published research concerned with these alternative artifact genres. The research reported in this paper focuses on one of these alternative design outputs that are of particular interest to information systems; the development of innovative technology standards. In this paper it is argued that much can be learnt from using a design science approach to analyze these types of information systems artifacts. A design science theory of punctuated action is presented and used to briefly explore the public consultation process in the development of a B2G online authentication standard for the Australian Federal Government.