WorldWideScience

Sample records for policy options child

  1. Child Poverty & Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafel, Judith A., Ed.

    This collection documents how far we still are in the United States from putting our knowledge about child well being and policy into practice. It provides an overview of the changing nature of child poverty in the United States through the contributions of authors who use a number of qualitative and quantitative approaches to look at children in…

  2. The Chinese brain drain and policy options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, P; Deng, Z

    1992-01-01

    The authors discuss the growing problem caused by the increasing reluctance of Chinese receiving higher education overseas to return to China following completion of their studies. They note that the Tiananmen incident of June 1989 exacerbated this problem. The policy options open to the Chinese government are reviewed.

  3. Chapter 13, Policy options: North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane Barr; James Dobrowolski; John Campbell; Philippe Le Prestre; Lori Lynch; Marc Sydnor; Robert Adler; Jose Etcheverry; Alexander Kenny; Catherine Hallmich; Jim Lazar; Russell M. Meyer; Robin Newmark; Janet Peace; Julie A. Suhr Pierce; Stephen. Yamasaki

    2012-01-01

    As previously indicated, GEO-5 shifts the GEO focus from identifying environmental problems to identifying solutions that governments can then prioritize. This chapter provides examples of a number of policy options and market mechanisms that have shown some success in improving environmental conditions in North America. They are organized by priority environmental...

  4. Deflation; Determinants, Risks, and Policy Options

    OpenAIRE

    Taimur Baig; Jörg Decressin; Tarhan Feyzioglu; Manmohan S. Kumar; Chris Faulkner-MacDonagh

    2003-01-01

    Deflation can be costly and difficult to anticipate, and concerns of a generalized decline in prices in both industrial and emerging market economies have increased recently. This paper investigates the causes and consequences of deflation, the risk of deflation globally and in individual countries, and policy options. The authors discuss issues related to the measurement, determinants, and costs of deflation and examine previous episodes of deflation. They compute an index of deflation vulne...

  5. Options for enabling policies and regulatory environments

    OpenAIRE

    Izac, A.-M.; Egelyng, H.; Ferreira, G.; Duthie, D.; Hubert, B.; Louwaars, N.; al., et

    2009-01-01

    Based on the International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology for Development (IAASTD), this chapter (7) of the “Global Report” identifies a range of policy options for future support for agricultural knowledge, science and technology (AKST) to pursue environmentally and socially sustainable development. Presenting its analysis in sections covering “Natural resources and global environmental change”, “Trade and Markets”, “Food Safety and Plant Health”, “Knowledge and...

  6. Commodities and Switzerland: Development Policy Challenges and Policy Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Thut

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EDITOR’S NOTEThis paper, written in December 2012, is a contribution to the ‘Policy Debate’ section of the International Development Policy. In this section, academics, policy makers and practitioners engage in a dialogue on global development challenges. Papers are copy-edited but not peer-reviewed. Instead, an initial thematic contribution is followed by critical comments and reactions from different stakeholders. This paper by Werner Thut is followed by reactions and analysis from a non-profit policy institute (Alexandra Gillies, Revenue Watch Institute, New York, ‘Crafting a Strategic Response to the Commodity-Development Conundrum’, a Southern scholar (Prof. Humberto Campodonico, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima ‘Going Beyond Transparency and Good Governance’ | ‘Más allá de la transparencia y una buena gobernanza’ and a representative of the trading sector (Stéphane Graber, Secretary General of Geneva Trading & Shipping Association – ‘Reassessing the Merchants’ Role in a Globalized Economy’.PAPER’S ABSTRACTSwitzerland is one of the world’s largest commodity trading hub. The author, senior policy adviser at the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC, reviews experiences and policy options related to commodity trading from a development policy perspective. While this sector has become of strategic importance to Switzerland’s economy, it also entails a number of risks. On the other hand, Swiss development cooperation efforts focus on several resource-rich countries, whose mineral and agricultural commodities are traded via Switzerland. How can Switzerland assist these countries to reap the benefits of their natural resource wealth? This paper looks at development policy aspects of commodity trading in relation to Swiss foreign and domestic policy. It examines ongoing policy debates in Switzerland and discusses development policy options.

  7. Policy, Protectionism and the Competent Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyness, Michael G.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the way recent childhood policy initiatives in Britain have generated contradictory models of child competence and adults' role, and attempts to locate policy within broader understandings of social change. Draws from case material on two dominant child care issues: child sex abuse and school deviance. (BGC)

  8. Acceptability of child adoption as management option for infertility in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acceptability of child adoption as management option for infertility in Nigeria: Evidence from focus group discussions. A Oladokun, O Arulogun, R Oladokun, IO Morhason- Bello, EA Bamgboye, IF Adewole, OA Ojengbede ...

  9. Global population trends and policy options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeh, Alex C; Bongaarts, John; Mberu, Blessing

    2012-07-14

    Rapid population growth is a threat to wellbeing in the poorest countries, whereas very low fertility increasingly threatens the future welfare of many developed countries. The mapping of global trends in population growth from 2005-10 shows four distinct patterns. Most of the poorest countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, are characterised by rapid growth of more than 2% per year. Moderate annual growth of 1-2% is concentrated in large countries, such as India and Indonesia, and across north Africa and western Latin America. Whereas most advanced-economy countries and large middle-income countries, such as China and Brazil, are characterised by low or no growth (0-1% per year), most of eastern Europe, Japan, and a few western European countries are characterised by population decline. Countries with rapid growth face adverse social, economic, and environmental pressures, whereas those with low or negative growth face rapid population ageing, unsustainable burdens on public pensions and health-care systems, and slow economic growth. Countries with rapid growth should consider the implementation of voluntary family planning programmes as their main policy option to reduce the high unmet need for contraception, unwanted pregnancies, and probirth reproductive norms. In countries with low or negative growth, policies to address ageing and very low fertility are still evolving. Further research into the potential effect of demographic policies on other social systems, social groups, and fertility decisions and trends is therefore recommended. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Expanding policy options for educating teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, David

    2009-01-01

    David Stern argues that some basic features of the American high school must be modified if it is to serve all students successfully. He notes, for example, that only three-quarters of U.S. high school students graduate four years after beginning ninth grade and that the National Assessment of Educational Progress found no improvement in reading or mathematics for seventeen-year-olds between 1971 and 2004. The nation's system for educating teenagers, says Stern, seems to be stuck, despite the constant efforts of teachers and repeated waves of reform. Citing two widely accepted public purposes of educating teenagers-preparation for civic participation and for economic self-sufficiency-Stern proposes four new strategies to achieve those goals. He draws on empirical evidence suggesting that these are promising directions for research and policy, but acknowledges that existing studies provide only limited guidance. First, he says, schools should continue the current trend toward integrating educational options to provide young people with skills and experiences that pave the way to both college and careers. Second, states and districts should tie education funding not simply to the number of students attending school, but also to what young people learn, whether they graduate, and whether they find jobs or enroll in postsecondary education. Such a move, he argues, would encourage teaching and learning formats that use students' time more effectively. Third, more adults in addition to classroom teachers should be involved in educating teenagers. Other adults acting as academic advisers, learning coaches, student advocates, internship supervisors, mentors, and college counselors could help guide the education of teenagers inside and outside of school and provide some relief for the chronic shortage of teachers. Fourth, schools should expand the options for educating teenagers outside of geographically fixed schools. Combining improved Internet-based curriculum with

  11. 45 CFR 1306.35 - Family child care program option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... potentially harmful materials for controlling pests must not occur while children are on premises. (ii... offering the family child care option must ensure that providers have made plans to notify parents in the event of any emergency or unplanned interruption of service. The provider and parent together must...

  12. GATS Mode 4 Negotiation and Policy Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kil-Sang Yoo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This study reviews the characteristics and issues of GATS Mode 4 and guesses the effects of Mode 4 liberalization on Korean economy and labor market to suggest policy options to Korea. Mode 4 negotiation started from the trade perspective, however, since Mode 4 involves international labor migration, it also has migration perspective. Thus developed countries, that have competitiveness in service sector, are interested in free movement of skilled workers such as intra-company transferees and business visitors. On the other hand, developing countries, that have little competitiveness in service sector, are interested in free movement of low-skilled workers. Empirical studies predict that the benefits of Mode 4 liberalization will be focused on developed countries rather than developing countries. The latter may suffer from brain drain and reduction of labor supply. Nevertheless developed countries are reluctant to Mode 4 negotiation because they can utilize skilled workers from developing countries by use of their own temporary visa programs. They are interested in Mode 4 related with Mode 3 in order to ease direct investment and movement of natural persons to developing countries. Regardless of the direction of a single undertaking of Mode 4 negotiation, the net effects of Mode 4 liberalization on Korean economy and labor market may be negative. The Korean initial offer on Mode 4 is the same as the UR offer. Since Korean position on Mode 4 is most defensive, it is hard to expect that Korean position will be accepted as the single undertaking of Mode 4 negotiation. Thus Korea has to prepare strategic package measures to minimize the costs of Mode 4 liberalization and improve competitiveness of service sector.

  13. Georgia Health Policy Center Child Policy Briefs, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001

    This set of briefs discusses state public policy and implications as they pertain to children in Georgia. The five briefs each address a single policy issue: kinship care, dental care, child care, special health care needs, and school health practice in Georgia. Each two-page brief provides background information on the issue, details the types of…

  14. Energy policy options for Illinois. Proceedings. [26 papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-six papers presented at the Fifth Annual Oil Illinois Energy Conference are categorized into five sections, namely: An overview of U.S. and Illinois Energy Policy; Energy Policy; Conservation--Solar--Biomass and Solid Wastes; Energy Policy; Petroleum and Natural Gas; Energy Policy; Coal and Electric Utilities; and Economic and Consumer Concerns. One paper, A Perspective on Long-Range Nuclear Energy Options, by William O. Harms has previously appeared in EAPA 4: 1364. (MCW)

  15. Alternative entrepreneurial options: a policy mitigation strategy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focused on alternative entrepreneurial options as a mitigation strategy against climate change among part-time farmers in Abia state Nigeria. Some farmers abandoned farming in the face of reoccurring adverse weather conditions to other livelihood sustaining activities. The objectives were to examine the ...

  16. Child development in developing countries: child rights and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto, Pia Rebello; Ulkuer, Nurper

    2012-01-01

    The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey was used to provide information on feeding practices, caregiving, discipline and violence, and the home environment for young children across 28 countries. The findings from the series of studies in this Special Section are the first of their kind because they provide information on the most proximal context for development of the youngest children in the majority world using one of the only data sets to study these contexts across countries. Using the framework of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, in particular the Rights to Survival, Development and Protection, findings are explained with implications for international and national-level social policies. Implications are also discussed, with respect to policy makers and the larger international community, who have the obligation to uphold these rights. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  17. Radiation indicator options for environmental policy

    CERN Document Server

    Pruppers, M J M

    2002-01-01

    It has proven impossible to create an indicator capable of showing the state of the art in a single figure so as to determine the progress made in the 'radiation component' of environmental policy from the trends indicated. This is the conclusion following an investigation requested by the Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment in the framework of the environmental theme 'dispersion of radioactive substances and ionising radiation' to develop a radiation indicator comparable to the indicators for proprietary substances and pesticides. The most important reasons for failing to develop this indicator lie in the absence of both suitable policy targets and data for the calculations necessary for the indicator. Substituting policy targets with reference emissions, reference concentrations and reference doses would make it possible to define indicators for radiation protection. Here, environmental pressure indicators are proposed for nuclear installations and the process industry. The environment...

  18. Policy options to contain healthcare costs: a review and classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stadhouders, N.W.; Koolman, X.; Tanke, M.A.C.; Maarse, H.; Jeurissen, P.P.T.

    2016-01-01

    Containing health care costs has been a challenge for most OECD member states. We classify 2250 cost containment policies in forty-one groups of policy options. This conceptual framework might act as a toolkit for policymakers that seek to develop strategies for cost control; and for researchers

  19. Green Building Policy Options for New Orleans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doris, E.

    2011-09-01

    This document is adapted from a memo and report delivered to the City Council of New Orleans, the office of the Mayor of New Orleans, the Chairperson of the Citizen Stakeholders Group (New Orleans Energy Task Force) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Project Officer in 2008. The report outlines ideas for and potential impacts of various green building policies in New Orleans in the years following Hurricane Katrina.

  20. Danish Telecommunications: Keeping the Policy Options Open

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Wulff, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    In recent years Danish telecommunications policy has gone through a marked change in emphasis, Tele Danmark, formed only 6 years ago as the national operator in order to strengthen the Danish telecom industry, has come under pressure in the present liberalization. This article discusses Tele...... Danmark's situation and future possibilities and presents background information on the new Danish telecommunications legislation, the present Danish telecommunications market, and Tele Danmark's strategies. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd...

  1. World Energy Outlook - 2050: Policy Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghouri, Salman Saif

    2007-07-01

    The paper analyzes the historical trends, resource distribution and forecasts the regional total primary energy consumption (TPEC) to 2050. The purpose is to provide a most probable path so that appropriate policies can be made to enhance/slowdown the energy consumption without hampering economic growth. Global TPEC is most likely to reach 763-1259 Quadrillion Btu (QBtu) to 2050 with reference case trending between and stood at 978 QBtu. By 2050 the equation of TPEC is expected to be tilted in favor of developing countries when their share is increased from 47 percent in 2003 to 59 percent. Asia developing region becomes the largest consumer of TPEC; however on per capita basis it remains the lowest after Africa. The forecast gives some guidance to policy makers. Which policy measures should be taken to ensure availability of predicted level of energy resources? How should we mobilize sizeable investment to increase the expected production/capacity/logistic both in the producing and consuming countries? Simultaneously, what strategic measures should be taken: to improve energy efficiency/conservation, development/promotion of renewable sources of energies and check population growth to downward shift the probable TPEC path without compromising economic growth, productivity and quality of life? (auth)

  2. "International Criminalisation and Child Welfare Protection": The Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Trevor

    2008-01-01

    The Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography has two overall aims: (i) to strengthen international criminalisation and (ii) to provide welfare protection for child victims. This article reviews the context of the Protocol including the work of the Special…

  3. A Practical Method of Policy Analysis by Simulating Policy Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, James L.

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on a method of policy analysis that has evolved from the previous articles in this issue. The first section, "Toward a Theory of Educational Production," identifies concepts from science and achievement production to be incorporated into this policy analysis method. Building on Kuhn's (1970) discussion regarding paradigms, the…

  4. Policy Options for the Improvement of the European Patent System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen; Cowin, Robin; Van de Eijck, Wim

    2007-01-01

    , the Working Group recognizes that the protection and enforcement of the rights of inventors through the patent system must be done in a manner to stimulate innovation and the diffusion of knowledge. In order to propose meaningful policy options that meet these objectives as much as possible, the evidence put...... these and the other challenges identified in the report. Instead, the Working Group believes a package of interrelated options is more suitable. This reflects the intricacy of the policy situation and mirrors the many connected and complex fields involved. For instance, the workings of the European patent system...

  5. Policy Options for Reducing Dietary Sodium Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay McLaren

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Faced with soaring health-care costs, Canadian governments should consider creative ways to enable the population to stay healthy — and making it possible for Canadians to reduce their sodium intake is an extremely cost-effective way to do so. Excess sodium consumption is a risk factor for high blood pressure, stroke and heart disease. On average, Canadians consume 3,400 mg of sodium a day (1,100 mg over recommended levels, at least three-quarters of which comes from processed foods. Any attempt at sodium reduction must therefore involve the food industry. This paper surveys sodium reduction efforts in jurisdictions around the globe, as well as past Canadian attempts, to provide provincial and federal policymakers with a comprehensive suite of lessons learned and a host of far-sighted policy recommendations ranging from food procurement to legislation and private sector engagement. Provincial governments, individually or together, must launch multi-pronged efforts involving food service companies, manufacturers, post-secondary institutes and the media to ensure that low-sodium alternatives are readily available, and that consumers are aware of them. They must also support federal action on changing dietary guidelines and introducing restrictions on food advertising to children. The benefits to be had are very real. In light of evidence showing that population-level intervention is superior to clinical intervention in terms of cost-effectiveness, returning up to $11.10 for every dollar spent and generating tens of billions in direct health-care savings, there is a very strong case for investing in population-level sodium reduction interventions that will work. The time for governments to act is now.

  6. Cost effectiveness of GHG mitigation options and policy implication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, K. S. [Korea Institute for Industrial Economics and Trade, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-04-01

    This paper represents the summary findings and conclusions of several studies implemented about microeconomics and macroeconomics marginal costs of GHG abatement policies. Financial, economic, and, where possible, environmental microeconomics costs of reducing GHGs are estimated by a World Bank team. Six energy-related CO{sub 2} mitigation policy options are applied to estimate the macroeconomics costs of GHG emission reduction, the macroeconomics impacts on the Chinese economy. In terms of policy, conservation is a better option to cope with a restrictive mitigation constraint, assuming a developing country can achieve planned energy-saving targets. Without a CO{sub 2} emission constraint or with less restrictive CO{sub 2} emission constraints, however, the simulation results indicate that a conservation strategy may be less attractive than fuel substitution in a developing country, mainly due to the economic dampening effect of reduced production in the energy sectors. This finding suggests that an often-cited costless or negative-cost energy conservation policy may not be a better option when a less restrictive mitigation target is in force. This does not mean that the potential for energy efficiency improvements in a developing country is not worthwhile, but that the overall macroeconomics impacts should be considered before implementing the policy option. (author). 9 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Cost allocation policy review: options and preferred alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-10-15

    This policy review of the consultation process on the electricity cost allocation issue is presented with specific cost allocation policy issues addressed herein, such as: the new microFIT rate, accounting changes and the transition to IFRS, and review of allocating costs to load displacement generation. This report gave the current situation for all these issues, previous work, issues, viable options for dealing with these issues and the preferred alternatives.

  8. Policy options to contain healthcare costs: a review and classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadhouders, Niek; Koolman, Xander; Tanke, Marit; Maarse, Hans; Jeurissen, Patrick

    2016-05-01

    Containing health care costs has been a challenge for most OECD member states. We classify 2250 cost containment policies in forty-one groups of policy options. This conceptual framework might act as a toolkit for policymakers that seek to develop strategies for cost control; and for researchers that seek to evaluate them. We found that certain important cost drivers such as wages and capital are being sparsely covered. We distinguish four primary targets to contain costs: volume controls, price controls, budgeting and market oriented policies. Price controls and budgeting, both seen as relatively effective, appear substantially less often in literature than volume controls and market oriented policies. The relative use of each option hardly changed over time, although the health system type did matter. Market oriented policies were more likely to be suggested for countries with public provision of health care, as well as for the US system. In contrast, budgeting policy proposals were more likely to be suggested for countries with market provision systems, such as Canada, Germany and France. Implementation of cost containment policies could lead to convergence of health care systems, except for the US system, if policies are implemented based on the literature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Environmental effects of manure policy options in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oenema, O.; Liere, van L.; Plette, S.; Prins, T.; Zeijts, van H.; Schoumans, O.F.

    2004-01-01

    This study explores the effects of manure policy options for agricultural land in The Netherlands on nitrate leaching to groundwater, ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions to the atmosphere and on eutrophication of surface waters. The implementation of the farm gate balance MINAS at farm level, with

  10. An Empirical Analysis of Payout Policy and Option Expensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelio J. Cardona

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The increased use of stock options as a compensation component and the subsequent failure of firms where their use was prevalent forced both Congress and the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB to enact new legislation and regulations in 2002. Among other things, the new legislation required corporations to disclose more information on their financial statements and initially to recognize voluntarily stock option grants as an expense on their financial statements. In 2004 option expensing became mandatory. This investigation uses Tobit regression models to examine whether there is a change in the payout policy (use a firm’s cash to pay dividends to its stockholders or to repurchase outstanding shares from its shareholders in a group of firms after announcing their voluntary decision to expense their stock options. The expected increases in the payment of dividends or share repurchases did not occur. Firms seem to have reacted to the required option expensing with other changes in their equity compensation plans such as accelerating the vesting of its options or by modifying the terms of its option grants.

  11. [The one-child policy in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botton Beja, F; Cornejo Bustamante, R

    1989-01-01

    Although the government of the People's Republic of China manifested sporadic concern about the nation's rapid population growth beginning at the time of the 1953 national census, it was not until the 1970s that a small family with a maximum of 2 children began to be promoted through a national campaign of education and persuasion. With the subsequent advent of the 1-child policy in 1979, the family planning campaign became a campaign for population planning in which the government no longer limited itself to contraceptive education and distribution, but began to intervene in human reproduction to accomodate it to material production. China's population policy, despite setbacks and delays, has had notable results. No other predominantly peasant society has achieved such a significant fertility decline in such a short time, but the price has been high. The problems have included confrontation with ancient cultural traditions, interference of the government in the most intimate aspects of family life, the sacrifice of a natural desire for children, evasion of marriage and birth registration, and even female infanticide. The incentives and sanctions for the 1-child policy have been primarily economic in nature, but widespread coercion and abuse have been reported. Although China's fertility has declined steadily since 1971, the fall was considerably greater in the cities, where the expense of children and critical housing shortages have effectively discouraged childbearing. In the countryside the dismantling of the communes and substitution of a system of family responsibility for agricultural production have had a strong pronatalist effect, reinforcing the desire for children as a means of old age security. The costs of children in rural areas are insignificant compared to the cities, housing is less crowded, and fertility sanctions are harder to enforce. Rural discontent and resistence to government family planning policy nevertheless became so acute that it was

  12. Implications of China's one-child policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardee, K

    1984-05-01

    China's ambitious efforts to control its population have been effective, for the annual growth rate declined from 2.3% to 1.4% between 1971-81. The government's goal is to keep the population to 1.2 billion by the year 2000 and either maintain that as a stable population, or, ideally, to reduce the population to 700 million, deemed the optimum population that China's natural resources can sustain. The government is using a 1 child policy as a means of achieving this goal. It is apparent that the 1 child policy will cause significant changes in the society's demographic structure and contribute to social stress. The age structure is being altered, the ratio of males to females reflects a desire for the only child to be a son, and there are conflicts between the new economic policy and the call for limits on the number of children. The state is powerful enough to enforce its policy in urban areas but will most likely need to be content with a 2-child compromise in the countryside. Like most developing countries, China has a young population now. In 1980, 36% of the people were 14 years old or younger, whereas only 5% of the population were 65 and older. Each Chinese worker supported .93 dependents (the dependency ratio), mostly young children. The economy is geared to a young population, and the government must provide pediatric medical care, day care, and schools. If Chinese couples reduce their family size to slightly more than 1.5 children per couple, the dependency ratio will improve initially as the percentage of workers increases until 2015. After that a large percentage of workers would reach retirement age. The Chinese government promises increased retirement benefits for retirees and community aid to elderly with no family to support them. Statistics show that currently only 10% of the urban population is covered by pensions and only 1% of men and women of retirement age in rural areas receive community aid. To increase the number of people assisted would be

  13. Renewable energy policy options for Abu Dhabi: Drivers and barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezher, Toufic; Dawelbait, Gihan; Abbas, Zeina

    2012-01-01

    Climate change and fossil fuel depletion are the main drivers for the recent focus on Renewable Energy (RE) resources. However, since the high cost of RE technologies is the main obstacle facing the diffusion of RE power generation, economic and political intervention is inevitable. In the United Arab Emirates (UAE) population and economic growth are the main causes of a sharp increase of energy demand. Two key related factors highlight the need to establish a RE sector: first the UAE has one of the highest carbon footprint in the world and second, the rate of depletion of its main energy generation resource – fossil fuel. In this study, we present a review of overall policies in sixty-one countries, focusing on their efforts to adopt RE resources in the power sector, and on their implementation of fundamental policies implemented. Furthermore, we investigate the applicability to Abu Dhabi UAE of the main RE policies implemented worldwide. As a result of our analysis, we recommend the implementation of a mixed policy of Feed-in-Tariff (FIT) and the Quota system for RE electricity generation in order for the UAE to meet its 7% target by 2020. - Highlights: ► Comprehensive review of renewable energy policy mechanisms. ► Summarizes the renewable energy policy adoptions, targets, and installed capacity in many countries. ► Gives recommendations on renewable energy policy options for Abu Dhabi, an oil rich country.

  14. Comparing Clean Water Act Section 316(b Policy Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kadvany

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a comparative framework for policy proposals involving fish protection and Section 316(b of the Clean Water Act (CWA. Section 316(b addresses the impingement and entrainment of fish by cooling-water intake structures used principally by steam electric power plants. The framework is motivated by examining the role of adverse environmental impacts (AEIs in the context of Section 316(b decision making. AEI is mentioned in Section 316(b, but not defined. While various AEI options have been proposed over the years, none has been formalized through environmental regulations nor universally accepted. Using a multiple values approach from decision analysis, AEIs are characterized as measurement criteria for ecological impacts. Criteria for evaluating AEI options are identified, including modeling and assessment issues, the characterization of ecological value, regulatory implementation, and the treatment of uncertainty. Motivated by the difficulties in defining AEI once and for all, a framework is introduced to compare options for 316(b decision making. Three simplified policy options are considered, each with a different implicit or explicit AEI approach: (1 a technology-driven rule based on a strict reading of the 316(b regulatory text, and for which any impingement and entrainment count as AEI, (2 a complementary, open-ended risk-assessment process for estimating population effects with AEI characterized on a site-specific basis, and (3 an intermediate position based on proxy measures such as specially constructed definitions of littoral zone, sensitive habitat, or water body type. The first two proposals correspond roughly to responses provided, respectively, by the Riverkeeper environmental organization and the Utility Water Act Group to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA’s proposed 316(b new facilities rule of August 2000; the third example is a simplified form of the EPA’s proposed August 2000 new facilities

  15. Increasing Participation in No Child Left Behind School Choice. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernez, Georges; Li, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This is one in a series of policy briefs on key education issues prepared by the RAND Corporation for the Obama administration. No Child Left Behind gave students in low-performing schools the opportunity to switch schools, but only a small percentage of eligible students exercise the option. The low rate of uptake is due to operational issues and…

  16. Background document for climate change policy options in Northern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents an initial compilation of background material in support of the development of climate change policy options for the jurisdictions of Yukon, Northwest Territories and Nunavut in Northern Canada. While Northern Canada contributes only a small fraction of the world's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, scientists forecast changes in average annual temperatures to be among the highest in the world. The Northern Climate Exchange at Yukon College was created in March 2001 to address this issue and to help guide northerners in what they can do now and in the future. This paper includes an annotated bibliography of a total of 75 international, national, and territorial policy documents and major reference documents relevant to climate change issues. It is meant to be a resource for researchers, policy analysts and government officials developing policy options and implementing programs for Northern Canada. While each of the three northern territories are at a different stage in the evolution of their climate change activities, they are all striving to develop strategies and action plans and to initiate the implementation of those plans. It is recognized that many long-standing programs and initiatives, particularly in the areas of energy efficiency and alternate energy, will help northern jurisdictions address their climate change objectives. The three territories are cooperating to deliver their message to the federal government. 75 refs., 4 figs

  17. Policy options for effective REDD+ implementation in Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saito, Moeko; Sikor, T.; Kurniawan, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Indonesia, which contains the third-largest area of tropical forest in the world, is currently exploring policy options for the effective implementation of REDD+, the global initiative to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. This article analyses the major questions regarding...... the effective distribution of benefits on the basis of three village case studies in Kutai Barat district in the province of East Kalimantan. The case studies demonstrate that companies are unlikely to take up compensation payments for stopping large-scale activities that cause deforestation and forest......, and in particular recognition of customary forest tenure through communal titles, which is more advantageous than the transfer of individual titles to households....

  18. Policy options for effective REDD+ implementation in Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saito, Moeko; Sikor, T.; Kurniawan, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Indonesia, which contains the third-largest area of tropical forest in the world, is currently exploring policy options for the effective implementation of REDD+, the global initiative to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. This article analyses the major questions regarding...... the effective distribution of benefits on the basis of three village case studies in Kutai Barat district in the province of East Kalimantan. The case studies demonstrate that companies are unlikely to take up compensation payments for stopping large-scale activities that cause deforestation and forest...

  19. Analysis of maternal and child health policies in Malawi: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of maternal and child health policies in. Malawi: The methodological perspective. Abstract. The question of why most health policies do not achieve their intended results continues to receive a considerable attention in the literature. This is in the light of the recognized gap between policy as intent and policy.

  20. Looking locally at China's one-child policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, S E; Fengying, Z

    1998-12-01

    Of all the reforms and policies set in motion in the early 1980s in China, the one-child policy has been called the most far-reaching in its implications for China's population and economic development. Almost two decades later, little is known about what the policy looks like across local neighborhoods and villages. To sketch a more general picture of the one-child policy, this article presents panel data from three waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (1989, 1991, and 1993) collected in 167 communities in eight provinces. Local policy, including policy strength and policy incentives and disincentives, is detailed separately for urban and rural areas. These data confirm that no single one-child policy exists; policy varied considerably from place to place and within individual communities during the 1989-93 period.

  1. Filial Piety, Patrilineality, and China's One-Child Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Francine M.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the effects of China's one-child policy on two traditional aspects of Chinese family life: filial piety and patrilineality. Eighty-four graduating university seniors, who were part of the first cohort born under the one child policy, were interviewed about their life plans. Comparisons between only children and those with…

  2. From Policy to Practice: Implementation of Water Policies in Child Care Centers in Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Ann E.; Henderson, Kathryn E.; Schwartz, Marlene B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Child care policies may contribute to healthy beverage consumption patterns. This study documented availability and accessibility of water and correspondence with state and federal policy and accreditation standards in child care centers. Design: One-day observations were conducted in a random sample of 40 Child and Adult Care Food…

  3. Prohibiting physicians' dual practice in Iran: Policy options for implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazyar, Mohammad; Rashidian, Arash; Jahanmehr, Nader; Behzadi, Faranak; Moghri, Javad; Doshmangir, Leila

    2018-04-23

    In Iran, based on the recent national policy documents, physician dual practice (PDP) has been prohibited. This study aimed to develop policy options (POs) to implement physicians' dual practice prohibition law in Iran. International evidence published in English and local documents published in Persian about PDP analyzed and results (advantages, disadvantages, challenges and requirements to ban PDP, and applied policies to limit the dual practice) were extracted. Results discussed among the research team in 5 rounds of meetings. In each meeting, any possible PO to limit PDP in Iran was proposed based on brainstorming technique and 12 POs were developed. These 12 POs and their advantages and disadvantages were discussed in a focus group discussion attended by 14 informed policy makers, and 3 additional POs were added. Fifteen POs were developed. Each PO has its own advantages and disadvantages. It is worth to highlight that not only are the proposed POs not mutually exclusive but they are also mutually reinforcing; that is, each of these POs can be applied alone or they can be implemented alongside each other simultaneously. No single optimal PO exists for dealing with the dual practice in Iranian health system. Implementing a mix of POs could reduce possible complications of each PO and increase the chance of successful implementation of the law. It is advisable to follow a conservative and incremental approach and start with POs that will cause less resistance and political challenges. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Marriage and Child Well-Being: Research and Policy Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, the linkages between marriage and child well-being have attracted the attention of researchers and policy makers alike. Children's living arrangements have become increasingly diverse and unstable, which raises important questions about how and why family structure and stability are related to child outcomes. This article reviews new research on this topic, emphasizing how it can inform policy debates about the role of marriage in reducing poverty and improving child out...

  5. A climate for development. Climate change policy options for Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okoth-Ogendo, H.W.O.; Ojwang, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    The seriousness of the potential impacts of climate change on development in Africa is now well recognized within, and increasingly outside, scientific circles. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is a landmark in international environmental governance, providing a mechanism for exchange, negotiation and institution-building to re-direct development towards more efficient use of resources, especially energy. The message of 'A climate for Development' is that unless policy-makers fully understand both the international commitments made under the Convention and the essential national development priorities of their own countries, effective action on climate change is unlikely to be realized. The action needed, however, can at the same time stimulate capacity-building, planning and policy change which would strengthen the economic and ecological base of African countries. The climate change issue has hence brought us face to face with the urgency of the basic issues of sustainable development in Africa. The book discusses key issues that cut across all African countries, such as emissions and their impacts, financial resources and technology transfer for emissions abatement strategies. It then provides a sectoral analysis of greenhouse gas emissions and abatement options focusing on energy, industry, agriculture, forestry and transportation. The book concludes with guidelines for options which may be considered by African countries to ensure that climate change concerns are effectively dealt with in the context of their development priorities. 113 refs

  6. Child Agency and Language Policy in Transnational Families

    OpenAIRE

    Fogle, Lyn W.; King, Kendall A.

    2013-01-01

    Study of family language policy unites research in child language acquisition and language policy to better understand how parents’ language decisions, practices and beliefs influence child outcomes (King, Fogle & Logan-Terry, 2008). Thus far, this work has focused on how family language policy shapes children’s language competencies, formal school success (e.g., Snow, 1990), and the future status of minority languages (e.g., Fishman, 1991), with less attention to children’s active roles in s...

  7. Caring: Implications for Child Care and for Family Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderic Beaujot

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Canadian families have changed, in part due to an economy that provides more work opportunities for women, and a cultural orientation that values equal opportunity and diversity in families. In spite of the change, both quantitative and qualitative evidence suggest a continued preference for mothers to spend considerable time with children, especially in the infant and toddler years. Thus, in an average couple, the presence of young children in the home brings wives to reduce their paid work and husbands to increase their paid work. Our reading of parental preferences suggests an interest in more services for young children in the form of early childhood education and child care, but also an interest in policies that would allow parents to spend more time with children through parental leaves, part-time work with good benefits, and subsidies that supplement market income. Many options available to two-parent families are often less feasible for lone parents, giving a higher priority to child care.

  8. EU policy options for climate and energy beyond 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koelemeijer, R.; Ros, J.; Notenboom, J.; Boot, P. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Den Haag (Netherlands); Groenenberg, H.; Winkel, T. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    In 2009, the EU climate and energy package with targets for 2020 (the so-called 20-20-20 targets) were formulated. For the period after 2020, however, there are no legally binding targets at the EU level, except for a decreasing ETS cap which will not be sufficient in light of the ambition for 2050. This leads to uncertainty for market players, as project lead times are long and high upfront investments need to deliver returns well beyond 2020. In its Green Paper on a 2030 framework for climate and energy policies, the European Commission recognised the need for clarity regarding the post-2020 policy framework. Currently under discussion is whether the approach for 2020 should be continued towards 2030 in the form of three more stringent targets or that other approaches would be more appropriate. Within this context, the Dutch Government asked PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency and Ecofys for advice. PBL and Ecofys have subsequently analysed possible options for an EU policy framework for 2030 that will steer towards a low-carbon economy by 2050 in a cost-effective way.

  9. Options for Improving the Military Child Care System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zellman, Gail L; Gates, Susan M; Cho, Michelle; Shaw, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    .... Care in Child Development Centers (CDCs) is quite costly for DoD to provide; care for the youngest children is particularly expensive since parent fees are based on family income and not on the cost of care...

  10. Policy Options for the Improvement of the European Patent System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen; Cowin, Robin; Van de Eijck, Wim

    2007-01-01

    been developed to improve the system as it is known today, since the Community patent is not guaranteed to be introduced in the near future. Should it be introduced, the Working Group considers that many of the policy options put forward would have an even better effect. When making its recommendations...... forward in the report includes an assessment of key patenting activity trends occurring at the moment. The analysis assesses what kind of impact these trends have on the ability of the European patent system to work well, and what are the specific challenges that arise as a result. The report identifies...... that worldwide, the most important patent trends happening now relate to the number of patent applications being made. Specifically, the fact that applications received by patent offices continue to grow steeply, resulting in high numbers of granted patent rights. One potentially undesirable consequence...

  11. Surface technologies 2006-Alternative energies and policy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Surfaces are the immediate contact between anything in our world. Literally, every industry utilizes coatings and surface modifications in order to create surfaces tailored to specific needs, protect underlying substrates, or modify their behavior. Surface and coating technologies are essential to a large variety of different industrial sectors, including transportation, manufacturing, food and biomedical engineering, energy, resources, and materials science and technology. The present paper explains the limitations for alternative energy technologies, with a focus on fuel cell technology development and the alternative energy sector, based on the outcomes of presentations and facilitated discussion groups during a Canadian national workshop series. Options for technological improvements of alternative energy systems are presented in combination with national and international policy choices, which could positively influence research and development in the alternative energy sector

  12. Reconciling biofuels, sustainability and commodities demand. Pitfalls and policy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uslu, A.; Bole, T.; Londo, M.; Pelkmans, L.; Berndes, G.; Prieler, S.; Fischer, G.; Cueste Cabal, H.

    2010-06-01

    prices. Furthermore, land use change both through converting natural land to produce 1st generation biofuels, and by displacing existing agricultural activities to other areas, may drastically impact the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction of biofuels production and use. However, there are ways to reduce negative impacts. Even though shifting to second generation (2nd generation) biofuels appears to be one of the best solutions in terms of decreasing the pressure on agricultural commodity markets and improving GHG performances of biofuels, a mix of 1st and 2nd generation biofuels will be the likely future. In this respect, strategies to increase agricultural productivity, especially in developing countries where yields presently are low, stands out as one of the most important requirements. Food security and agricultural productivity improvements have been addressed as part of the millennium development goals (MDG's). But policy-driven biofuel production that impacts global agricultural markets should also become part of the policy framework that supports agricultural productivity increase in the world regions that are likely to be impacted most with increased biofuel demand. 2nd generation biofuels can decrease some of the pressure on agriculture commodities if they are produced from residues and crops cultivated on marginal lands. They are in addition expected to provide a substantial contribution to reducing GHG emissions. However, those technologies are still at demonstration stage and bringing them to the market requires policy measures that take into account their risk profiles and create a favourable and stable investment climate. A set of policy options, for instance combinations of high investment subsidies with soft loans, tax exemptions, and favourable crediting in relation to biofuel targets, can help overcome the initial investment barriers and enable larger volumes of 2nd generation biofuel penetration into the market. Lignocellulosic feedstocks are

  13. 3 CFR 13493 - Executive Order 13493 of January 22, 2009. Review of Detention Policy Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Detention Policy Options 13493 Order 13493 Presidential Documents Executive Orders Executive Order 13493 of January 22, 2009 EO 13493 Review of Detention Policy Options By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, in order to develop policies for the...

  14. Program and Policy Options for Preventing Obesity in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijun, Wang; Fengying, Zhai

    2014-01-01

    By 2002, China’s prevalence of overweight and obesity among adults was 18.9 percent and 2.9 percent, respectively. The Chinese traditional diet has been replaced by the “Western diet” and major declines in all phases of activity and increased sedentary activity as the main reasons explaining the rapid increase in overweight and obesity, bring major economic and health costs. The Nutrition Improvement Work Management Approach was released in 2010. Overweight and obesity prevention-related policies were added to national planning for disease prevention and control. The Guidelines for Prevention and Control of Overweight and Obesity of Chinese Adults and the School-age Children and Teenagers Overweight and Obesity Prevention and Control Guidelines in China were promulgated in 2003 and 2007, respectively. Few education programs have been implemented. Selected academic intervention research projects dominate with a focus on reducing child obesity and promoting healthier diets; increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary time; and facilitating changes in family, school, social, and cultural environments. Intervention samples are small and have not addressed the increasing rates of obesity throughout the entire population. Government provision of effective policy measures, multisectoral cooperation and increasing corporate social responsibility are keys to curb the trend toward overweight and obesity in China. PMID:24102781

  15. The Study on Policy Options for Siting Hazardous Energy Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Oh [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2000-10-01

    The problem of site allocation on locally unwanted land uses related to energy utilities that extended most recently is becoming a new energy policy issue due to the improvement of national standard of living and livelihood quality. Residents do not generally agree on establishing the construction of public energy utilities in their village due to NIMBY syndrome while they basically agree to have them. These circumstances made a big problem against mass production of industry society and the improvement of the national welfare. Locally unwanted land use related to energy utilities includes waste incineration system, nuclear power plant, coal fired power plant, oil and Gas storage tank, briquette manufacturing plant and etc. Opportunity for SOC projects carried out by central and local government is lost because of the regional egoism. The site dispute between government and residents obstructs optimal energy supply to be necessary for industry growth and the national welfare. The main objective of this study is to propose the policy option for finding a solution after surveying theory and background of site troubles and dispute factors. Final results of this study propose a solution on structural and institutional dispute. The former introduces three kinds of approaches such as tradition, compensation and negotiation. The transition of an environmentally sound energy consumption pattern and the improvement of energy efficiency could be carried out by traditional approaches. To claim the damage and offer the accommodation facilities could be settled by compensational approaches. The establishment of regional decentralization on NIMBY facilities could be settled by negotiatory approaches through fair share criteria. The latter proposes 1) 'polluter pays principle', 2) internalization of social cost and benefit on air or water pollution, 3) the behind - the - scene negotiation in a bid to settle a site dispute, 4) and supporting system for peripheral areas

  16. Development Potentials and Policy Options of Biomass in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lei; Liu, Litao; Yao, Zhijun; Liu, Gang; Lucas, Mario

    2010-10-01

    Biomass, one of the most important renewable energies, is playing and will continue to play an important role in the future energy structure of the world. This article aims to analyze the position and role, assess the resource availability, discuss the geographic distribution, market scale and industry development, and present the policy options of biomass in China. The resource availability and geographical distribution of biomass byproducts are assessed in terms of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater. The position of biomass use for power generation is just next to hydropower among types of renewable energy in China. The potential quantity of all biomass byproducts energy in 2004 is 3511 Mtce (Mtce is the abbreviation of million tons of coal equivalents and 1 Mtce is equal to106 tce.), while the acquirable quantity is 460 Mtce. Biomass energy plays a critical role in rural regions of China. The geographical distribution and quantity of biomass byproducts resources depends mainly on the relationship between ecological zones and climate conditions. Our estimation shows that the total quantity of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater resources are 728, 3926, 2175, 155 and 48240 Mt (million tons), respectively. Crop residues come mainly from the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Jilin and Sichuan. All manure is mainly located in the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Sichuan, Hebei and Hunan. Forest and wood biomass byproducts are mainly produced in the provinces or autonomous regions of Tibet, Sichuan, Yunnan, Heilongjiang and Inner Mongolia, while most of municipal waste mainly comes from Guangdong, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Hubei and Jiangsu. Most of wastewater is largely discharged from advanced provinces like Guangdong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shandong and Henan. Biomass byproducts’ energy distribution also varies from province to province in China. Based on

  17. Development potentials and policy options of biomass in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lei; Liu, Litao; Yao, Zhijun; Liu, Gang; Lucas, Mario

    2010-10-01

    Biomass, one of the most important renewable energies, is playing and will continue to play an important role in the future energy structure of the world. This article aims to analyze the position and role, assess the resource availability, discuss the geographic distribution, market scale and industry development, and present the policy options of biomass in China. The resource availability and geographical distribution of biomass byproducts are assessed in terms of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater. The position of biomass use for power generation is just next to hydropower among types of renewable energy in China. The potential quantity of all biomass byproducts energy in 2004 is 3511 Mtce (Mtce is the abbreviation of million tons of coal equivalents and 1 Mtce is equal to10(6) tce.), while the acquirable quantity is 460 Mtce. Biomass energy plays a critical role in rural regions of China. The geographical distribution and quantity of biomass byproducts resources depends mainly on the relationship between ecological zones and climate conditions. Our estimation shows that the total quantity of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater resources are 728, 3926, 2175, 155 and 48240 Mt (million tons), respectively. Crop residues come mainly from the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Jilin and Sichuan. All manure is mainly located in the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Sichuan, Hebei and Hunan. Forest and wood biomass byproducts are mainly produced in the provinces or autonomous regions of Tibet, Sichuan, Yunnan, Heilongjiang and Inner Mongolia, while most of municipal waste mainly comes from Guangdong, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Hubei and Jiangsu. Most of wastewater is largely discharged from advanced provinces like Guangdong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shandong and Henan. Biomass byproducts' energy distribution also varies from province to province in China

  18. Mapping public policy options responding to obesity: the case of Spain

    OpenAIRE

    González Zapata, Laura Inés; Ortiz-Moncada, Rocío; Álvarez-Dardet, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    This study assesses the opinions of the main Spanish stakeholders from food and physical exercise policy networks on public policy options for responding to obesity. We followed the multi-criteria mapping methodology in the framework of the European project ‘Policy options in responding to obesity’ (PorGrow), through a structured interview to 21 stakeholders. A four-step approach was taken: options, criteria, scoring and weighting, obtaining in this way a measure of the performance of each op...

  19. Family Economic Security Policies and Child and Family Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Rachael A.; Komro, Kelli A.

    2017-01-01

    In this review we examine the effects of family economic security policies (i.e., minimum wage, Earned Income Tax Credit, unemployment insurance, Temporary Assistance to Needy Families) on child and family health outcomes, summarize policy generosity across states in the U.S., and discuss directions and possibilities for future research. This manuscript is an update to a review article that was published in 2014. Millions of Americans are affected by family economic security policies each year, many of whom are the most vulnerable in society. There is increasing evidence that these policies impact health outcomes and behaviors of adults and children. Further, research indicates that, overall, policies which are more restrictive are associated with poorer health behaviors and outcomes; however, the strength of the evidence differs across each of the four policies. There is significant diversity in state-level policies and it is plausible that these policy variations are contributing to health disparities across and within states. Despite increasing evidence of the relationship between economic policies and health, there continues to be limited attention to this issue. State policy variations offer a valuable opportunity for scientists to conduct natural experiments and contribute to evidence linking social policy effects to family and child wellbeing. The mounting evidence will help to guide future research and policy making for evolving toward a more nurturing society for family and child health and wellbeing. PMID:28176020

  20. Family Economic Security Policies and Child and Family Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Rachael A; Komro, Kelli A

    2017-03-01

    In this review, we examine the effects of family economic security policies (i.e., minimum wage, earned income tax credit, unemployment insurance, Temporary Assistance to Needy Families) on child and family health outcomes, summarize policy generosity across states in the USA, and discuss directions and possibilities for future research. This manuscript is an update to a review article that was published in 2014. Millions of Americans are affected by family economic security policies each year, many of whom are the most vulnerable in society. There is increasing evidence that these policies impact health outcomes and behaviors of adults and children. Further, research indicates that, overall, policies which are more restrictive are associated with poorer health behaviors and outcomes; however, the strength of the evidence differs across each of the four policies. There is significant diversity in state-level policies, and it is plausible that these policy variations are contributing to health disparities across and within states. Despite increasing evidence of the relationship between economic policies and health, there continues to be limited attention to this issue. State policy variations offer a valuable opportunity for scientists to conduct natural experiments and contribute to evidence linking social policy effects to family and child well-being. The mounting evidence will help to guide future research and policy making for evolving toward a more nurturing society for family and child health and well-being.

  1. Our children's future: child care policy in Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cleveland, Gordon; Krashinsky, Michael

    2001-01-01

    ... of child care policy and asked them to consider a number of important questions. Based on a symposium on the topic held in 1998, Our Children's Future makes a significant contribution to understanding how Canada, with its particular institutions, history, politics, and values, should design a national child care strategy. Presenting a healthy and vigo...

  2. Marriage and Child Well-Being: Research and Policy Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, the linkages between marriage and child well-being have attracted the attention of researchers and policy makers alike. Children's living arrangements have become increasingly diverse and unstable, which raises important questions about how and why family structure and stability are related to child outcomes. This article…

  3. China attempts to soften its one-child policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernman, J

    1999-02-13

    This paper reports an attempt by the People's Republic of China to subdue its one-child policy. Widespread poverty threatened China in the mid-1970s as a result of the cultural evolution during the Mao Zedong rule, wherein the population was encouraged to produce many children. In this context the government adopted the one-child policy, which encourages late marriage among couples and allows only one child. On the other hand, there have been reports of mass sterilizations and forced abortions among rural women. Since the start of his term, President Jiang Zemin has led the country to consider amending the one-child policy and opening its doors to western journalists. Health care facilities, previously used to accommodate forced abortion and sterilization procedures, now offer maternal/child care, mammography screening, Pap smear and fertility treatments, as well as friendly lectures on one-child policy for couples during their visit. Family planning in China now involves a choice between IUD and female sterilization, with an implemented fine for those who prefer having more than one child. Despite these efforts, population experts predict a continuous rise in the Chinese population by the mid-21st century, before the population rate starts to level off and eventually decline.

  4. Son preference and sex-selective abortion in China: informing policy options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chi; Wang, Xiao Lei; Zhou, Xu Dong; Hesketh, Therese

    2012-06-01

    There is growing evidence in China that son preference is on the decline, but the sex ratio at birth is still the highest in the world at around 120 male births to 100 females. The aim of the study was to explore attitudes towards gender preference among people of reproductive age, to determine the reasons why the sex ratio is persistently high, and to inform policy options. We conducted in-depth interviews with 212 individuals who aged from 18 to 39 in rural and urban areas of three provinces: Yunnan, Guizhou and Zhejiang. We show that while son preference has weakened considerably, it has not disappeared. The sex ratio remains high, because of this small minority of individuals, who still choose sex-selective abortion to ensure male offsprings. Intensive local policy interventions have been successful in reducing the sex ratio in some areas and these should be disseminated widely. In addition, the law forbidding sex selection should be actively enforced, and the One Child Policy should be relaxed in some areas, to reduce the disproportionately high sex ratio in the second order births.

  5. Interim Policy Options for Commercialization of Solar Heating and Cooling Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezdek, Roger

    This interim report reviews the major incentive policy options available to accelerate market penetration of solar heating and cooling (SHAC) systems. Feasible policy options designed to overcome existing barriers to commercial acceptance and market penetration are identified and evaluated. The report is divided into seven sections, each dealing…

  6. Cannabis legalization with strict regulation, the overall superior policy option for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, J; Fischer, B

    2015-06-01

    Cannabis is the most prevalently used drug globally, with many jurisdictions considering varying reform options to current policies to deal with this substance and associated harm. Three policy options are available: prohibition, decriminalization, and legalization, with prohibition currently the dominant model globally. This contribution gives reasons why legalization with strict regulation should be considered superior to other options with respect to public health in high income countries in North America. © 2015 ASCPT.

  7. The nuclear power option in the Italian energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Nucci, M.R.

    2006-01-01

    Italy took a pioneering role in the early development of nuclear power. This source of energy should have provided the answer to the lack of domestic fossil resources. Due to the cheap oil prices, the influence of the state hydrocarbons company ENI and an influential petroleum lobby, following the nationalisation of the electricity sector in the early sixties, the nuclear option was no longer consequently pursued. Italy became heavily dependent on imported oil. Although in the period 1974-1975 an intensive nuclear power development programme was launched, the share of nuclear power remained marginal. In the aftermath of the Chernobyl disaster and following the referendum phasing out nuclear power in 1987, the national energy policy was newly defined. Our analysis will follow the customary practice to subdivide the Italian nuclear power development into three phases: the pioneering years till the mid-1960s; the period between 1966 and 1987 and the post-Chernobyl phase. We discuss the early phase at a certain length, since it is symptomatic of the way in Italy technological and industrial matters are dealt with and well illustrates the alliance games and behaviour of still existing market players. Although disputes about the alleged advantages of nuclear power are revived with certain regularity and are justified with arguments such as climate change and dependence on imported fuel, we argue that a return to nuclear power in Italy is not foreseeable. Nonetheless, the country cannot be considered a nuclear-free area. Nuclear wastes still play a disquieting role and imported electricity is generated also by nuclear power. Moreover, another tendency has set through. Due to a large liquidity provided by the mandated divestments in the framework of the liberalisation of the electricity market, the previous monopolist ENEL is heavily investing in generating capacities, including stakes in nuclear plants abroad, especially in new EU countries. (author)

  8. The effects of China's universal two-child policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yi; Hesketh, Therese

    2016-10-15

    In October, 2015, China's one-child policy was replaced by a universal two-child policy. The effects of the new policy are inevitably speculative, but predictions can be made based on recent trends. The population increase will be relatively small, peaking at 1·45 billion in 2029 (compared with a peak of 1·4 billion in 2023 if the one-child policy continued). The new policy will allow almost all Chinese people to have their preferred number of children. The benefits of the new policy include: a large reduction in abortions of unapproved pregnancies, virtual elimination of the problem of unregistered children, and a more normal sex ratio. All of these effects should improve health outcomes. Effects of the new policy on the shrinking workforce and rapid population ageing will not be evident for two decades. In the meantime, more sound policy actions are needed to meet the social, health, and care needs of the elderly population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The End of China's One-Child Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wang; Gu, Baochang; Cai, Yong

    2016-03-01

    Starting on January 1, 2016, all Chinese couples are allowed to have two children. This marks the end of China's one-child policy, which has restricted the majority of Chinese families to only one child for the last 35 years. Yet, China's policy change came at least a decade later than it should have. The costly lessons to be learned are not only in politics and public policymaking, but also in how parts of the academic community informed and misinformed public policymaking. © 2016 The Population Council, Inc.

  10. International policies toward parental leave and child care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldfogel, J

    2001-01-01

    The pleasures and pressures of parenting a newborn are universal, but the supports surrounding parents vary widely from country to country. In many nations, decades of attention to benefits and services for new parents offer lessons worthy of attention in this country. This article describes policies regarding parental leave, child care, and early childhood benefits here and in 10 industrial nations in North America and Europe. The sharpest contrast separates the United States from the other countries, although differences among the others also are instructive: The right to parental leave is new to American workers; it covers one-half of the private-sector workforce and is relatively short and unpaid. By contrast, other nations offer universal, paid leaves of 10 months or more. Child care assistance in Europe is usually provided through publicly funded programs, whereas the United States relies more on subsidies and tax credits to reimburse parents for part of their child care expenses. Nations vary in the emphasis they place on parental leave versus child care supports for families with children under age three. Each approach creates incentives that influence parents' decisions about employment and child care. Several European nations, seeking flexible solutions for parents, are testing "early childhood benefits" that can be used to supplement income or pay for private child care. Based on this review, the author urges that the United States adopt universal, paid parental leave of at least 10 months; help parents cover more child care costs; and improve the quality of child care. She finds policy packages that support different parental choices promising, because the right mix of leave and care will vary from family to family, and child to child.

  11. The One-Child Policy and School Attendance in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juhua

    2007-01-01

    In addition to its goal of limiting China's population growth, a key purpose of China's one-child policy is to improve children's well-being. The government has made a strenuous effort to limit parents' childbearing in exchange for the greater opportunities it provides for their only children, including educational opportunities. In this article,…

  12. Moving Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health Evidence into Policy in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project brings together and supports the uptake of maternal and child health research evidence into policies and practices in West Africa. ... is a collaboration between Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, and the International Development Research Centre.

  13. Linking Macro Development Policies to Child Poverty in Ethiopia's ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Linking Macro Development Policies to Child Poverty in Ethiopia's Second Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (2006-2010). Globalization and trade liberalization are likely to have a major impact on the lives of poor children and their families. To date, however, few attempts have been made to differentiate the impact of ...

  14. Book Review: Regulating Private Tutoring for Public Good: Policy Options for Supplementary Education in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    T. Marimuthu

    2015-01-01

    Book Review Regulating Private Tutoring for Public Good: Policy Options for Supplementary Education in Asia By Mark Bray and Ora Kwo (2014), 93pp. ISBN: 978-988-17852-9-9, Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre.

  15. Engaging China in the International Export Control Process: Options for U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goldman, Charles

    1995-01-01

    .... objectives and potential policy initiatives toward that end. Using knowledge about the operation of the Chinese bureaucratic system, especially in defense related research and development, the briefing describes a number of strategy options for U.S...

  16. Options for sustainable passenger transport: an assessment of policy choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleugel, J.M.; Rienstra, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    If the current trends in transport are not changed, a sustainable transport system is not feasible. In order to achieve such a state, new technologiesmay be an interesting option. In this context several success and failure factors for the introduction of new technologies are analyzed in this

  17. Chinese water policy for sustainable water resources: Options for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    China has no option but to press on with the implementation of the National Water Initiative as stated by its government in ''Document No. 1". One might observe that it can be a bit heavy in political terms. Most hydrological means are pretty meaningless in reality. Though the nation is not sure if it can handle such a project ...

  18. The U.S. Trade Deficit: Causes, Consequences, and Policy Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    project, it is undertaking intertemporal trade . In such a transaction, the borrowing nation gains because it can support a higher rate of investment...CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress The U.S. Trade Deficit: Causes , Consequences, and Policy Options...TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The U.S. Trade Deficit: Causes , Consequences, and Policy Options 5a

  19. Payout phase in DC pension funds – policy option - Theoretical considerations and Albanian available options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enkeleda Shehi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to provide a brief overview of the third pillar of pensions in Albania and what are the different alternatives related to the payout. Referring to the actual development of this market in Albania, experience of the actors involved, I find it indispensable and necessary to provide some theoretical background and considerations, and then build up a simple model of projection of a pension scheme cost and a model for payout alternatives for the Albanian pension funds. A great deal of importance is shown towards posing the assumptions. Also, the paper gives an explanation about the differences among different payout options and suggests the best option for the existing pension funds in Albania. The best option represents my conclusion and recommendation for the actual third pillar of pensions and the others that might join latter. To sum up, the first conclusion of the paper is that the annuity option is the best alternative for the payout phase of the pensions. It has the advantage of providing the highest protection against the risk of longevity. The second conclusion is that based on other countries experiences, the annuity market have to be developed hand in hand with the pension system development. Therefore Albania should rely on and follow this experience.

  20. Child spacing and two child policy in practice in rural Vietnam: cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoa, H T; Toan, N V; Johansson, A; Hoa, V T; Höjer, B; Persson, L A

    1996-11-02

    To explore the reproductive pattern of women in rural Vietnam in relation to the existing family planning policies and laws. Cross sectional survey with question-naires on reproductive history. Tien Hai, a district in Red River Delta area, where the population density is one of the highest in Vietnam. 1132 women who had at least one child under 5 years of age in April 1992. Birth spacing and probability of having a third child. The mean age at first birth was 22.2 years. The average spacing between the first and the second child was 2.6 years. Mothers with a lower educational level, farmers, and women belonging to the Catholic religion had shorter spacing between the first and second child and also a higher probability of having a third child. In addition, women who had no sons or who had lost a previous child were more likely to have a third child. Most families do not adhere to the official family planning policy, which was introduced in 1988, stipulating that each couple should have a maximum of two children with 3-5 years' spacing in between. More consideration should be given to family planning needs and perceptions of the population, supporting the woman to be in control of her fertility. This may imply improved contraceptive services and better consideration of sex issues and cultural differences as well as improved social support for elderly people.

  1. Incentive Policy Options for Product Remanufacturing: Subsidizing Donations or Resales?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaodong; Wang, Yue; Li, Bangyi

    2017-01-01

    Remanufactured products offer better environmental benefits, and governments encourage manufacturers to remanufacture through various subsidy policies. This practice has shown that, in addition to product sales, remanufactured product can also achieve its value through social donation. Based on the remanufactured product value realization approaches, governments provide two kinds of incentive policies, which are remanufactured product sales subsidies and remanufactured product donation subsidies. This paper constructs a two-stage Stackelberg game model including a government and a manufacturer under two different policies, which can be solved by backward induction. By comparing the optimal decision of the two policies, our results show that, compared with the remanufacturing sales subsidy, donation subsidy weakens the cannibalization of remanufactured products for new products and increases the quantity of new products. It reduces the sales quantity of remanufactured products, but increases their total quantity. Under certain conditions of low subsidy, the manufacturer adopting sales subsidy provides better economic and environmental benefits. Under certain conditions of high subsidy, the manufacturer adopting donation subsidy offers better economic and environmental benefits. When untreated product environmental impact is large enough, donation subsidy policy has a better social welfare. Otherwise, the choice of social welfare of these two different policies depends on the social impact of remanufactured product donated. PMID:29194411

  2. U.S. weapons-useable plutonium disposition policy: Implementation of the MOX fuel option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, A.L.; Gonzalez, V.L.

    1998-10-01

    A comprehensive case study was conducted on the policy problem of disposing of US weapons-grade plutonium, which has been declared surplus to strategic defense needs. Specifically, implementation of the mixed-oxide fuel disposition option was examined in the context of national and international nonproliferation policy, and in contrast to US plutonium policy. The study reveals numerous difficulties in achieving effective implementation of the mixed-oxide fuel option including unresolved licensing and regulatory issues, technological uncertainties, public opposition, potentially conflicting federal policies, and the need for international assurances of reciprocal plutonium disposition activities. It is believed that these difficulties can be resolved in time so that the implementation of the mixed-oxide fuel option can eventually be effective in accomplishing its policy objective

  3. U.S. weapons-usable plutonium disposition policy: Implementation of the MOX fuel option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, A.L. [ed.] [Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium, TX (United States); Gonzalez, V.L. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Political Science

    1998-10-01

    A comprehensive case study was conducted on the policy problem of disposing of US weapons-grade plutonium, which has been declared surplus to strategic defense needs. Specifically, implementation of the mixed-oxide fuel disposition option was examined in the context of national and international nonproliferation policy, and in contrast to US plutonium policy. The study reveals numerous difficulties in achieving effective implementation of the mixed-oxide fuel option including unresolved licensing and regulatory issues, technological uncertainties, public opposition, potentially conflicting federal policies, and the need for international assurances of reciprocal plutonium disposition activities. It is believed that these difficulties can be resolved in time so that the implementation of the mixed-oxide fuel option can eventually be effective in accomplishing its policy objective.

  4. "Who Cares for the Children?" Lessons from a Global Perspective of Child Care Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokteff, Maegan; Piercy, Kathleen W.

    2012-01-01

    We present the argument that the meaning of child care and the policies that address it are explicitly linked with national ideologies, work force participation, economic success, and child outcomes. The relationship between family and child care policies is cyclical in nature, with a nation's ideology and vision of family often driving child care…

  5. Little emperors: behavioral impacts of China's One-Child Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, L; Erkal, N; Gangadharan, L; Meng, X

    2013-02-22

    We document that China's One-Child Policy (OCP), one of the most radical approaches to limiting population growth, has produced significantly less trusting, less trustworthy, more risk-averse, less competitive, more pessimistic, and less conscientious individuals. Our data were collected from economics experiments conducted with 421 individuals born just before and just after the OCP's introduction in 1979. Surveys to elicit personality traits were also used. We used the exogenous imposition of the OCP to identify the causal impact of being an only child, net of family background effects. The OCP thus has significant ramifications for Chinese society.

  6. Multiperiod Production and Ordering Policies for a Retailer-Led Supply Chain through Option Contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Wan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper formulates two groups of multiperiod production and ordering models with call and bidirectional option contracts for a two-party supply chain consisting of one followed supplier and one dominant retailer, respectively. Based on dynamic programming theory, we characterize the optimal policy structures for two partners in each period. We also provide an approximation for the corresponding policy parameters evaluation in two cases. Then, we investigate the impacts of different option contracts and the demand risk on the decisions and performances of two members. Our results suggest that, whether concerning call or bidirectional option contracts, the optimal policies for two members always follow a base stock type. When the price parameters are the same for different option contracts, the service levels of both the system and the retailer are higher with call option contracts than with bidirectional ones, whereas the retailer’s inventory risk is lower with bidirectional option contracts than with call ones. Under the same conditions stated above, call option contracts can always benefit the supplier, but not the retailer. Owing to the retailer’s dominant position, call option contracts are better choice for the supply chain if the option (exercise price is low (high, while bidirectional option contracts are more suitable choice for the supply chain if the option (exercise price is high (low. In addition, an increase in the demand risk would prompt the supplier to increase his production quantity and the retailer to reduce the initial firm order quantity, either with call or bidirectional option contracts.

  7. Mapping public policy options responding to obesity: the case of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Zapata, L I; Ortiz-Moncada, R; Alvarez-Dardet, C

    2007-05-01

    This study assesses the opinions of the main Spanish stakeholders from food and physical exercise policy networks on public policy options for responding to obesity. We followed the multi-criteria mapping methodology in the framework of the European project 'Policy options in responding to obesity' (PorGrow), through a structured interview to 21 stakeholders. A four-step approach was taken: options, criteria, scoring and weighting, obtaining in this way a measure of the performance of each option which integrates qualitative and quantitative information. In an overall analysis, the more popular policy options where those grouped as educational initiatives: include food and health in the school curriculum, improve health education to the general public, improve the training of health professionals in obesity care and prevention, incentives to caterers to provide healthier menus and improve community sports facilities. Fiscal measures as subsidies and taxes had the lowest support. The criteria assessed as priorities were grouped as efficacy and societal benefits. Obesity in Spain can be approached through public policies, although the process will not be easy or immediate. The feasibility of changes requires concerned public policymakers developing long-term actions taking into account the map of prioritized options by the stakeholders.

  8. United States Policy Options in the Western Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    already overcrowded in relation to the resources available, have a severe population problem that must be corrected. The government does not possess a popu...lation policy and there are no programs designed to aid family planning. These programs must be undertaken soon or the prob- lems of overpopulation

  9. An Empirical Exploration of Selected Policy Options in Organ Donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenow, Daniel J.; Youngs, George A., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Presents findings from a mail survey of 414 persons regarding organ transplantation and donation policy issues. Gauged three measures of support for organ donation: donor card commitment, required request of next-of-kin support, and weak presumed consent support. High levels of support exist for organ donor cards and the next-of-kin law. Little…

  10. Options for including nitrogen management in climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erisman, J.W.

    2010-12-01

    The outline of the presentation is as follows: Climate change and nitrogen; Nitrogen and climate interlinkages; Options for nitrogen management; Report, workshop and IPCC; and Conclusions. The concluding remarks are: Fertilizing the biosphere with reactive nitrogen compounds lead to ecosystem, health, water and climate impacts; Nitrogen deposition can lead to additional carbon sequestration and to impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services; Nitrogen addition to the biosphere might have a net cooling effect of 1 W/m 2 ; Life Cycle Analysis is needed to show the full impact; and Nitrogen management is essential for the environment and can have a positive effect on the net GHG exchange.

  11. Effects of child care policy and environment on physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, Stewart G; Ward, Dianne S; Senso, Meghan

    2010-03-01

    Child care centers differ systematically with respect to the quality and quantity of physical activity they provide, suggesting that center-level policies and practices, as well as the center's physical environment, are important influences on children's physical activity behavior. To summarize and critically evaluate the extant peer-reviewed literature on the influence of child care policy and environment on physical activity in preschool-aged children. A computer database search identified seven relevant studies that were categorized into three broad areas: cross-sectional studies investigating the impact of selected center-level policies and practices on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), studies correlating specific attributes of the outdoor play environment with the level and intensity of MVPA, and studies in which a specific center-level policy or environmental attribute was experimentally manipulated and evaluated for changes in MVPA. Staff education and training, as well as staff behavior on the playground, seem to be salient influences on MVPA in preschoolers. Lower playground density (less children per square meter) and the presence of vegetation and open play areas also seem to be positive influences on MVPA. However, not all studies found these attributes to be significant. The availability and quality of portable play equipment, not the amount or type of fixed play equipment, significantly influenced MVPA levels. Emerging evidence suggests that several policy and environmental factors contribute to the marked between-center variability in physical activity and sedentary behavior. Intervention studies targeting these factors are thus warranted.

  12. Child sexual abuse prevention policy: an analysis of Erin's law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gwendolyn D

    2014-01-01

    Child sexual abuse affects thousands of children in the United States and is vastly underreported. Tertiary prevention policies, primarily in the form of sex offender registries and community notification programs, have received the most attention and funding. Few policies have focused on school-based prevention. One recently passed law in Illinois mandates all K-5 public schools to implement sexual abuse prevention programs. The law was championed by a young social worker, Erin Merryn. Through the multiple streams framework, this article examines the unique set of political circumstances, united with Merryn's advocacy, which created the opportunity for the law to pass.

  13. Clean Energy Policy Analysis: Impact Analysis of Potential Clean Energy Policy Options for the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, S.; Doris, E.; Braccio, R.; Lippert, D.; Finch, P.; O' Toole, D.; Fetter, J.

    2010-04-01

    This report provides detailed analyses of 21 clean energy policy options considered by the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative working groups for recommendation to the 2010 Hawaii State Legislature. The report considers the impact each policy may have on ratepayers, businesses, and the state in terms of energy saved, clean energy generated, and the financial costs and benefits. The analyses provide insight into the possible impacts, both qualitative and quantitative, that these policies may have in Hawaii based on the experience with these policies elsewhere. As much as possible, the analyses incorporate Hawaii-specific context to reflect the many unique aspects of energy use in the State of Hawaii.

  14. Climate policy options and the transformation of the energy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Held H.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The key lines of argument to estimate a meaningful degree of efforts to mitigate global warming are outlined. Potential implementations of a policy that strives to limit global warming to 2°C compared to pre-industrial values are discussed. A recent model intercomparison study on mitigation costs is summarized. Conceptual difficulties when internalizing uncertainty in these types of analyses are highlighted and first attempts to overcome them are outlined. For the mitigation technology “carbon capture and storage” it is illustrated that mitigation technologies also require a proper treatment of their side-effects rather than just focusing on their cost-reduction potential in the context of mitigation. Finally, the prospects of climate policy are sketched.

  15. Policy Options for the Improvement of the European Patent System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen; Cowin, Robin; Van de Eijck, Wim

    2007-01-01

    challenge identified is that new subject matter and science-based inventions are making it harder for examiners to accurately assess patentability requirements. And this may mean that undesirably broad rights are being granted in emerging technologies. No single all-embracing policy strategy is able to meet......The present report is based on an independent, policy-oriented investigation of the current European patent system. The central premise of the report is that the patent system has so far been a positive factor in promoting innovation and the diffusion of knowledge, and thus that the system...... is contributing in a constructive way to economic and social welfare objectives. In acknowledging the importance of the patent system in relation to many aspects of society, it is also essential to continually evaluate whether the system is working as effectively as it could be. In addition, because of some...

  16. Accounting Policy Options under IFRS: Evidence from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Oguzhan BAHADIR; Buke TOLGA

    2013-01-01

    Although one of the main purposes of International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) is to improve comparability of financial statements by eliminating different accounting treatments applied by companies, International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRSs) still permit choices in accounting treatment of similar transactions and events. This paper examines the accounting choices made by Turkish listed companies in cases where IFRSs permit a choice between alternative accounting policies. The ...

  17. US Policy Options Mitigating Venezuelan Sponsored Security Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-12

    Democratic Action Party (Accion, Democratica - AD) and the Social Christian Party (Comite de Organizacion Politica Electoral Independiente-COPEI...because Chavez has been vehemently anti-American. At the other end of the spectrum, Chavez could use an engagement policy as a propaganda tool touting... propaganda needs in portraying the US as an international villain. He could easily plead Venezuela’s case in international forums with some degree of success

  18. Uncertainty and global warming : an option - pricing approach to policy

    OpenAIRE

    Baranzini, Andrea; Chesney, Marc; Morisset, Jacques

    1995-01-01

    Uncertainty is inherent in the analysis of global warming issues. Not only is there considerable scientific uncertainty about the magnitude of global warming, but even if that problem were resolved, there is uncertainty about what monetary value to assign to the costs and benefits of various policies to reduce global warming. And yet the influence of uncertainty in policymaker's decisions is ignored in most studies of the issue. The authors try to explicitly incorporate the effect of uncertai...

  19. Assessing Stop-Loss Policy Options through Personnel Flow Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    respond to iso - lated policy changes for stop-loss in a manner fundamentally similar to any alternative system change that, too, would have to reconcile...All Units - Scale: 5 Pct of Force FY07 Accession Pattern 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Year

  20. Renewable energy policy in South Africa: policy options for renewable electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, H.

    2005-01-01

    Investment in renewable energy and energy efficiency is important to reduce the negative economic, social and environmental impacts of energy production and consumption in South Africa. Currently, renewable energy contributes relatively little to primary energy and even less to the consumption of commercial energy. This article examines policy options for promoting renewable electricity. Feed-in tariffs guarantee prices for developers, but lack certainty on the amount of renewable electricity such laws would deliver under local conditions. Portfolio standards set a fixed quantity, which would guarantee diversity of supply. The question is whether the incremental upfront cost to be paid by society may be unacceptably high, compared to future health and environmental benefits. A renewables obligation combines the setting of a target with a tendering process, but may be bureaucratic to administer. Neither setting targets or regulating prices alone, however, will be sufficient. Power purchase agreements, access to the grid and creating markets for green electricity are some supporting activities that should be considered. Given that renewable electricity technologies have to compete with relatively low electricity tariffs, funding will be needed. Possible sources, both locally and internationally, are identified. The extent to which these are utilised will determine the future mix of renewable energy in South Africa. (author)

  1. Renewable energy policy in South Africa: policy options for renewable electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, Harald

    2005-01-01

    Investment in renewable energy and energy efficiency is important to reduce the negative economic, social and environmental impacts of energy production and consumption in South Africa. Currently, renewable energy contributes relatively little to primary energy and even less to the consumption of commercial energy. This article examines policy options for promoting renewable electricity. Feed-in tariffs guarantee prices for developers, but lack certainty on the amount of renewable electricity such laws would deliver under local conditions. Portfolio standards set a fixed quantity, which would guarantee diversity of supply. The question is whether the incremental upfront cost to be paid by society may be unacceptably high, compared to future health and environmental benefits. A renewables obligation combines the setting of a target with a tendering process, but may be bureaucratic to administer. Neither setting targets or regulating prices alone, however, will be sufficient. Power purchase agreements, access to the grid and creating markets for green electricity are some supporting activities that should be considered. Given that renewable electricity technologies have to compete with relatively low electricity tariffs, funding will be needed. Possible sources, both locally and internationally, are identified. The extent to which these are utilised will determine the future mix of renewable energy in South Africa

  2. The economic policy options and their connection with inflation and unemployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogna Kopeć

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Economic system after 1990 had many fluctuations. This article applies to two essential phenomena in a free market economy: inflation and unemployment. This article applies to changes in the process of inflation and fluctuations in the unemployment rate under different economic policy options. Economic policies can affect the development of the inflation and unemployment. It includes interest rates and budget deficits. Methodology of model is based on a pendulum. Economic policy has been designated as a synthetic indicator of the resultant two policies - monetary and fiscal policies. With the help of the pendulum model has been established that the character had run monetary and fiscal policy, and how developed as economic policy. By the dominance of one of the policy options is understood that during cycles level inflation or the deficit fluctuated strongly to economic stabilization. One of the stages of the study was to analyze the monetary policy and assess whether there is a link between the evolution of interest rates and the evolution of the inflation rate. In a similar way, fiscal policy was analyzed. This article attempts to determine whether the conduct of economic policy was correct, and has had an impact on the economic situation.

  3. Losing an only child: the one-child policy and elderly care in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yu

    2014-05-01

    China has had the one-child policy for more than 30 years. It reduced China's population growth within a short period of time and promoted economic development. However, it has also led to difficulties, and this paper focuses on those which pertain to ageing and losing one's only child. Approximately one million families have lost their only child in China. They suffer mentally and physically, and sometimes face social stigma and economic loss. What worries them most, however, is elderly care, which has become a severe crisis for the families who have lost their only children. This article draws upon several qualitative studies and 12 cases reported by the Chinese media in 2012 and 2013, and existing laws and policies for supporting those who have lost only children. It also analyses the current elderly care situation facing these families. The Chinese government has recognized the predicament and provides some help, which is increasing but is still not always adequate. To both sustain China's economic development and limit population growth, it is essential for the government to reform the one-child policy and provide a comprehensive support system for the families who have lost their only children, including financial relief and elderly care, and work to reduce stigma against these families. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Policy Windows, Public Opinion, and Policy Ideas: The Evolution of No Child Left Behind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiani, Vasil; Whitford, Andrew B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the policy process that led to the passage of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act in the United States and the Bush Administration's role in this process. Design/methodology/approach: The research design is historical and archival. A description of the NCLB Act is given and the major provisions and…

  5. Alcohol under the radar: do we have policy options regarding unrecorded alcohol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Taylor, Benjamin J; Rehm, Jürgen

    2011-03-01

    According to the World Health Organization, the public health impact of illicit alcohol and informally produced alcohol should be reduced. This paper summarizes and evaluates the evidence base about policy and intervention options regarding unrecorded alcohol consumption. A systematic review of the literature using electronic databases. The literature on unrecorded consumption was sparse with less than 30 articles about policy options, mostly based on observational studies. The most simplistic option to reduce unrecorded consumption would be to lower recorded alcohol prices to remove the economic incentive of buying unrecorded alcohol. However, this may increase the net total alcohol consumption, making it an unappealing public health policy option. Other policy options largely depend on the specific sub-group of unrecorded alcohol. The prohibition of toxic compounds used to denature alcohol (e.g. methanol) can improve health outcomes associated with surrogate alcohol consumption. Cross-border shopping can be reduced by either narrowing the tax differences, or stricter control. Actions limiting illegal trade and counterfeiting include introduction of tax stamps and electronic surveillance systems of alcohol trade. Education campaigns might increase the awareness about the risks associated with illegal alcohol. The most problematic category appears to be the home and small-scale artisanal production, for which the most promising option is to offer financial incentives to the producers for registration and quality control. Even though there are suggestions and theories on how to reduce unrecorded alcohol consumption, there is currently no clear evidence base on the effectiveness or cost effectiveness of available policy options. In addition, the differences in consumption levels, types of unrecorded alcohol, culture and tradition point to different measures in different parts of the world. Thus, the recommendation of a framework for moving forward in decision making

  6. Low-income energy policy in a restructuring electricity industry: an assessment of federal options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, L.W.

    1997-07-01

    This report identifies both the low-income energy services historically provided in the electricity industry and those services that may be affected by industry restructuring. It identifies policies that are being proposed or could be developed to address low- income electricity services in a restructured industry. It discusses potential federal policy options and identifies key policy and implementation issues that arise when considering these potential federal initiatives. To understand recent policy development at the state level, we reviewed restructuring proposals from eight states and the accompanying testimony and comments filed in restructuring proceedings in these states.

  7. Energy and the environment: Technology assessment and policy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, M.P.W.

    1990-01-01

    While the energy crisis of the 1970s stimulated technological innovation in developed countries, it often had the opposite effect in the third world. However, developing countries can be considered to have two types of energy systems: ''connected'' and ''disconnected''. The connected system is affected by changes in the price of commercial energy, but the disconnected system is usually rural and remote. Commercial forms of energy may be needed in the disconnected system, but they are largely unavailable. In some of the developing countries, new energy technologies have therefore been developed which adapt traditional technologies still existing in the disconnected sector. In this article some of the work of the United National Centre for Science and Technology for Development is described. Through its ATAS (Advance Technology Alert System) programme, international and regional workshops are held to discuss policy questions arising in regard to new technologies and developments. Workshops have been held in Moscow on new energy technologies in the industry subsystem (connected), in Guatemala City on new energy technologies and the disconnected system, and in Ottawa on new energy technologies, transportation and development. Initial assessments made by or through these workshops are outlined here. A fourth workshop will be held in June 1990 in Saarbrucken on energy technologies and climate change. (author). 3 figs

  8. The Pacific Islands. Policy options for telecommunications investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jussawalla, M; Ogden, M R

    1989-03-01

    The Independent Commission for World-Wide Telecommunications Development (Maitland Commission) reported that telecommunication networks, including public telephone systems, are an infrastructure which aids economic development throughout the world. The Commissions objective is to bring the majority of the world's population within easy access of a telephone and, in time, other communications services. Development in the Pacific Islands region is slowed by a lack of efficient communications. The islands are spread over 29 million square kilometers of ocean and extremely vulnerable to natural disasters. Pacific Island Nations (PINs) have problems of foreign exchange, skill shortages, and poor credit terms. Telecommunications infrastructure audits showed the overall regional teledensity of 3 telephones per 100 population. The individual countries vary form 8.3 in Fiji to 1.5 in Papua New Guinea and 25.2 in New Zealand. The population of the developing island countries is in mostly rural areas where there is a chronic shortage of telephones. The constraints on radio systems can be overcome with satellite technology. The new technologies are coming on the market faster than these countries can afford to handle them. By using satellite technology and sharing facilities PINs can greatly reduce the cost of telecommunications systems. Fiber optic cables will be used to carry large volumes of traffic over major routes while satellites can be used for a array of services for the smallest PIN nation to the largest route rim country. Work is being done to standardize the equipment specifications and to develop policies for the coordination of regional telecommunications training. To further facilitate communications development in this area, changes need to be made in international funding priorities for development, and recommendations by the Maitland Commission must be taken seriously.

  9. Policy options for pharmaceutical pricing and purchasing: issues for low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Knight, Rosemary; Roughead, Elizabeth Ellen; Brooks, Geoffrey; Mant, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    Pharmaceutical expenditure is rising globally. Most high-income countries have exercised pricing or purchasing strategies to address this pressure. Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), however, usually have less regulated pharmaceutical markets and often lack feasible pricing or purchasing strategies, notwithstanding their wish to effectively manage medicine budgets. In high-income countries, most medicines payments are made by the state or health insurance institutions. In LMICs, most pharmaceutical expenditure is out-of-pocket which creates a different dynamic for policy enforcement. The paucity of rigorous studies on the effectiveness of pharmaceutical pricing and purchasing strategies makes it especially difficult for policy makers in LMICs to decide on a course of action. This article reviews published articles on pharmaceutical pricing and purchasing policies. Many policy options for medicine pricing and purchasing have been found to work but they also have attendant risks. No one option is decisively preferred; rather a mix of options may be required based on country-specific context. Empirical studies in LMICs are lacking. However, risks from any one policy option can reasonably be argued to be greater in LMICs which often lack strong legal systems, purchasing and state institutions to underpin the healthcare system. Key factors are identified to assist LMICs improve their medicine pricing and purchasing systems. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2014; all rights reserved.

  10. Quantity-Quality and the One Child Policy:The Only-Child Disadvantage in School Enrollment in Rural China

    OpenAIRE

    Nancy Qian

    2009-01-01

    Many believe that increasing the quantity of children will lead to a decrease in their quality. This paper exploits plausibly exogenous changes in family size caused by relaxations in China's One Child Policy to estimate the causal effect of family size on school enrollment of the first child. The results show that for one-child families, an additional child significantly increased school enrollment of first-born children by approximately 16 percentage-points. The effect is larger for househo...

  11. European Policies to Promote Children's Rights and Combat Child Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbæk, Mona

    2017-07-26

    The upbringing of children relies heavily on shared responsibilities between parents and society. The Council of Europe Recommendation (2006) 19 on Policy to Support Positive Parenting and the European Commission Recommendation (2013) Investing in Children: Breaking the Cycle of Disadvantage, both aim at supporting parents to care and provide for their children in accordance with the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. By means of a document analysis this article examines what kind of parental practices and provision to parents the recommendations suggest to safeguard children's rights in the family. Three findings are highlighted: first, both recommendations reflect a commitment to respecting children's rights while at the same time acknowledging parents as children's primary caregivers. Second, both recognize parents' rights to work, while also recognizing the necessity of adequate income support if work is not available or income too low. Third, adequate resources are defined as a combination of universal policies and services, which guarantee a minimum level for all, and targeted measures reaching out to the most disadvantaged. The recommendations' emphasis on children and parents as partners and on the families' economic situations are valuable for future development of family and child policy and support programs.

  12. Policy options for carbon taxation in the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, Eloi; Le Cacheux, Jacques

    2010-06-01

    Even though the EU clearly leads the global fight against climate change and despite the additional reduction in emissions due to the global crisis and European recession, the ambitious objectives flagged in the '20-20-20 by 2020' strategy and 'climate-energy package' are probably out of reach if a more resolute and consistent policy of carbon taxation is not rapidly put in place. First, the EU is not as 'virtuous' as it may seem, and shows signs of a 'fatigue' in mitigating climate change; this is explained by the weak incentive structure of current climate institutions, due to both narrow coverage and insufficient stringency of the European 'Emission Trading Scheme' (ETS) - the European 'carbon market'-, and to excessive reliance on emission standards combined with weak energy taxation. Fears of losing competitiveness are a major argument against imposing a higher carbon price on industries, feeding tax competition both within the EU and vis-a-vis the rest of the world. Though not fully satisfactory, the Commission's recent proposal (a revision of the 2003 energy taxation directive introducing floors on national excises based on carbon content) would help solving the intra-EU conundrum. Alternatively, an extension of the EU ETS to households and the transport sector via the 'upstream' inclusion of fossil fuel dealers would also be a feasible solution. In order to answer the 'carbon leakage' argument and to send appropriate price signals to European consumers on extra-EU imports, a border adjustment mechanism - carbon levy or inclusion of importers into the EU ETS - is also necessary. Ultimately though, in order to make sure that economic agents face a uniform carbon price, a generalized carbon tax, in the form of a European 'Carbon Added Tax' (ECAT), would be the most effective instrument in the fight against climate change, as well as the pillar of a thorough tax

  13. Uruguay - Policy Options for Improving the Efficiency of Uruguay’s Railway Sector : Consolidated Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the state of the productive infrastructure of Uruguay and the development policies that govern it and to propose policy options for the long term contribution to achieving a higher level of economic and sustainable development, based on the premise that there is a link between the development of a country's infrastructure and its economic growth. The stud...

  14. Regulatory and mixed policy options for reducing energy use and carbon emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swisher, J.N. [UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment, Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    Non-fiscal policy options to reduce energy demand and the resulting environmental impacts are discussed, and experiences with these options to date are reviewed. Such policies include accelerating technology development and demonstration, stimulating product demand via procurement policies, applying efficiency standards to information-poor end-use sectors, and encouraging utility energy efficiency programs. Efforts to implement such measures are underway in several industrialised countries and have begun in developing countries. Increasing energy efficiency is an important area for near-term carbon emission reductions, and a key strategy for cost-effective mitigation of global climate change. However, little of the energy efficiency potential identified by technical studies will be realised in the absence of policies to reduce barriers to energy efficiency investments. Performance standards can overcome the lack of information on the part of energy users, while technology procurement helps overcome the view of manufacturers that introducing efficient products is risky. The effects of these policy options on product markets are characterised, showing the synergy between different instruments and their potential to create and transform markets for energy efficient products, systems and services. The existence of such energy efficiency markets can stimulate new progress and innovation, providing the conditions in which the continuous process of technical improvement is significantly accelerated. Most policy analysis and discussions regarding climate change mitigation have centred on various forms of carbon emission taxes and to some extent on tradable emission offsets or permits. This article concludes with an examination of why non-fiscal options are mostly absent from energy-economic models and climate change policy studies, and we suggest approaches to include them more fully in energy policy analysis and implementation. 2 figs., 1 tab., 64 refs.

  15. Transport, environment and health in central and Eastern Europe. State of affairs and policy options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The report provides a review of the current state of affairs and development trends in the transport sector in Central and Eastern Europe including the associated environmental and health effects. Focus in the report is on the challenges and policy options for counteracting the negative effects from transport as well as integrating environmental and health aspects in transport policies. The report is undertaken as a desk study supplemented by two case studies in the Czech Republic and Bulgaria. (au)

  16. Mandatory Reporting? Issues to consider when developing legislation and policy to improve discovery of child abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Davies

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Article by Dr Emma Davies (School of Law, Liverpool John Moores University, Associate Professor Ben Mathews (School of Law, Queensland University of Technology and Professor John Read (Institute of Psychology, Health and Society, University of Liverpool. In the United Kingdom, recent investigations into child sexual abuse occurring within schools, the Catholic Church and the British Broadcasting Corporation, have intensified debate on ways to improve the discovery of child sexual abuse, and child maltreatment generally. One approach adopted in other jurisdictions to better identify cases of severe child maltreatment is the introduction of some form of legislative mandatory reporting to require designated persons to report known and suspected cases. The debate in England has raised the prospect of whether adopting a strategy of some kind of mandatory reporting law is advisable. The purpose of this article is to add to this debate by identifying fundamental principles, issues and complexities underpinning policy and even legislative developments in the interests of children and society. The article will first highlight the data on the hidden nature of child maltreatment and the background to the debate. Secondly, it will identify some significant gaps in knowledge that need to be filled. Thirdly, the article will summarise the barriers to reporting abuse and neglect. Fourthly, we will identify a range of options for, and clarify the dilemmas in developing, legislative mandatory reporting, addressing two key issues: who should be mandated to report, and what types of child maltreatment should they be required to report? Finally, we draw attention to some inherently different goals and competing interests, both between and within the various institutions involved in the safeguarding of children and the criminal prosecution of some offenders. Based on this analysis we offer some concluding observations that we hope contribute to informed and careful

  17. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV: cost-effectiveness of antiretroviral regimens and feeding options in Rwanda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Binagwaho

    Full Text Available Rwanda's National PMTCT program aims to achieve elimination of new HIV infections in children by 2015. In November 2010, Rwanda adopted the WHO 2010 ARV guidelines for PMTCT recommending Option B (HAART for all HIV-positive pregnant women extended throughout breastfeeding and discontinued (short course-HAART only for those not eligible for life treatment. The current study aims to assess the cost-effectiveness of this policy choice.Based on a cohort of HIV-infected pregnant women in Rwanda, we modelled the cost-effectiveness of six regimens: dual ARV prophylaxis with either 12 months breastfeeding or replacement feeding; short course HAART (Sc-HAART prophylaxis with either 6 months breastfeeding, 12 months breastfeeding, or 18 months breastfeeding; and Sc-HAART prophylaxis with replacement feeding. Direct costs were modelled based on all inputs in each scenario and related unit costs. Effectiveness was evaluated by measuring HIV-free survival at 18 months. Savings correspond to the lifetime costs of HIV treatment and care avoided as a result of all vertical HIV infections averted.All PMTCT scenarios considered are cost saving compared to "no intervention." Sc-HAART with 12 months breastfeeding or 6 months breastfeeding dominate all other scenarios. Sc-HAART with 12 months breastfeeding allows for more children to be alive and HIV-uninfected by 18 months than Sc-HAART with 6 months breastfeeding for an incremental cost per child alive and uninfected of 11,882 USD. This conclusion is sensitive to changes in the relative risk of mortality by 18 months for exposed HIV-uninfected children on replacement feeding from birth and those who were breastfed for only 6 months compared to those breastfeeding for 12 months or more.Our findings support the earlier decision by Rwanda to adopt WHO Option B and could inform alternatives for breastfeeding duration. Local contexts and existing care delivery models should be part of national policy decisions.

  18. Real options analysis for land use management: Methods, application, and implications for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Courtney M; Bryan, Brett A; Connor, Jeffery D; Meyer, Wayne S; Ostendorf, Bertram; Zhu, Zili; Bao, Chenming

    2015-09-15

    Discounted cash flow analysis, including net present value is an established way to value land use and management investments which accounts for the time-value of money. However, it provides a static view and assumes passive commitment to an investment strategy when real world land use and management investment decisions are characterised by uncertainty, irreversibility, change, and adaptation. Real options analysis has been proposed as a better valuation method under uncertainty and where the opportunity exists to delay investment decisions, pending more information. We briefly review the use of discounted cash flow methods in land use and management and discuss their benefits and limitations. We then provide an overview of real options analysis, describe the main analytical methods, and summarize its application to land use investment decisions. Real options analysis is largely underutilized in evaluating land use decisions, despite uncertainty in policy and economic drivers, the irreversibility and sunk costs involved. New simulation methods offer the potential for overcoming current technical challenges to implementation as demonstrated with a real options simulation model used to evaluate an agricultural land use decision in South Australia. We conclude that considering option values in future policy design will provide a more realistic assessment of landholder investment decision making and provide insights for improved policy performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The impact of “Option B” on HIV transmission from mother to child in Rwanda: An interrupted time series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abimpaye, Monique; Iyer, Hari S.; Gupta, Neil; Remera, Eric; Mugwaneza, Placidie; Law, Michael R.

    2018-01-01

    Background Nearly a quarter of a million children have acquired HIV, prompting the implementation of new protocols—Option B and B+—for treating HIV+ pregnant women. While efficacy has been demonstrated in randomized trials, there is limited real-world evidence on the impact of these changes. Using longitudinal, routinely collected data we assessed the impact of the adoption of WHO Option B in Rwanda on mother to infant transmission. Methods We used interrupted time series analysis to evaluate the impact of Option B on mother-to-child HIV transmission in Rwanda. Our primary outcome was the proportion of HIV tests in infants with positive results at six weeks of age. We included data for 20 months before and 22 months after the 2010 policy change. Results Of the 15,830 HIV tests conducted during our study period, 392 tested positive. We found a significant decrease in both the level (-2.08 positive tests per 100 tests conducted, 95% CI: -2.71 to -1.45, p < 0.001) and trend (-0.11 positive tests per 100 tests conducted per month, 95% CI: -0.16 to -0.07, p < 0.001) of test positivity. This represents an estimated 297 fewer children born without HIV in the post-policy period or a 46% reduction in HIV transmission from mother to child. Conclusions The adoption of Option B in Rwanda contributed to an immediate decrease in the rate of HIV transmission from mother to child. This suggests other countries may benefit from adopting these WHO guidelines. PMID:29451925

  20. Curbing International Piracy of Intellectual Property. Policy Options for a Major Exporting Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Gary M.; Marcou, George T.

    This report of the International Piracy Project addresses three major topics: (1) The Costs and Complications of Piracy; (2) Rights Enforcement Today; and (3) Policy Options for Curbing Piracy. The first section discusses piracy of copyrights, patents, and other intellectual property, including economic losses and damage to the finances and…

  1. China Policy Options in a Post Crisis World : Young China Scholars ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    China Policy Options in a Post Crisis World : Young China Scholars Network - Phase II. This project builds on an earlier phase, Poverty and Inequality Research Network for China ... Les chaînes de valeur comme leviers stratégiques. Les entreprises peuvent comprendre les tendances commerciales et les défis futurs dans ...

  2. Advanced policy options to regulate sugar-sweetened beverages to support public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2012-02-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has increased worldwide. As public health studies expose the detrimental impact of SSBs, consumer protection and public health advocates have called for increased government control. A major focus has been on restricting marketing of SSBs to children, but many innovative policy options--legally defensible ways to regulate SSBs and support public health--are largely unexplored. We describe the public health, economic, and retail marketing research related to SSBs (including energy drinks). We review policy options available to governments, including mandatory factual disclosures, earmarked taxation, and regulating sales, including placement within retail and food service establishments, and schools. Our review describes recent international initiatives and classifies options available in the United States by jurisdiction (federal, state, and local) based on legal viability.

  3. The Coming-of-Age of China's Single-Child Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoughlin, Caven S.

    2005-01-01

    China's one-child policy is now 25 years of age--the officially sanctioned age for marriage by men in the People's Republic of China. A significant proportion of those now about to enter their child-bearing years are themselves the product of the first generation of one-child homes. This article reviews the history of the single-child policy, with…

  4. Stemming the impact of health professional brain drain from Africa: a systemic review of policy options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Zimbudzi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Africa has been losing professionally trained health workers who are the core of the health system of this continent for many years. Faced with an increased burden of disease and coupled by a massive exodus of the health workforce, the health systems of many African nations are risking complete paralysis. Several studies have suggested policy options to reduce brain drain from Africa. The purpose of this paper is to review possible policies, which can stem the impact of health professional brain drain from Africa. A systemic literature review was conducted. Cinahl, Science Direct and PubMed databases were searched with the following terms: health professional brain drain from Africa and policies for reducing impact of brain drain from Africa. References were also browsed for relevant articles. A total of 425 articles were available for the study but only 23 articles met the inclusion criteria. The review identified nine policy options, which were being implemented in Africa, but the most common was task shifting which had success in several African countries. This review has demonstrated that there is considerable consensus on task shifting as the most appropriate and sustainable policy option for reducing the impact of health professional brain drain from Africa.

  5. Using economic policy to tackle chronic disease: options for the Australian Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplin, Lauren; Thow, Anne Marie

    2013-03-01

    Australia suffers from one of the highest prevalences among developed countries of persons being overweight and obese, these conditions arising from the overconsumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods that are generally less expensive than healthier options. One potential avenue for intervention is to influence the price of foods such that healthier options are less expensive and, therefore, are an easier choice to make. This article considers the potential for fiscal policies that would realign food prices with health incentives. Through a review of consumption taxes, consumer subsidies, trade policies, agricultural support policies, and other incentive programs as possible avenues for intervention, this article asks what the Commonwealth Government has already done to help improve Australian diets, and looks at where further improvements could be made.

  6. A Game of Two Elderly Care Facilities: Competition, Mothballing Options, and Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congcong Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article develops a model to investigate the entry strategies of private investors to the elderly care service market, with the purpose of explaining the reasons behind dilemma of low signing rate plaguing China’s Public-Private Partnership projects. We focus on the competition between two private investors with or without mothballing options under price uncertainty. After the derivation of equilibria of entry strategies, we employ numerical examples to analyze the dependencies of entry thresholds on market parameters, cost parameters, subsidy, and possession of mothballing option. Conclusions are drawn and some policy implications are given with the intention to alleviate the problem of low signing rate.

  7. Current Government Actions and Potential Policy Options for Reducing Obesity in Queensland Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsharairi, Naser A

    2018-01-29

    School nutrition policies provide promising avenues towards the improvement of children's eating habits and the prevention of obesity. Childhood obesity rates and related chronic diseases are increasing in Queensland, in part as a result of unhealthy eating habits and lack of physical activity. There is a very high investment by the Queensland government in maintaining healthy weight and promoting nutrition and physical activity among schoolchildren through delivering a range of initiatives across the state. However, there is a lack of evidence concerning the effectiveness of nutrition/physical education and parental involvement programs addressing obesity delivered in Queensland schools. This paper can be used to guide government and policy-makers regarding the most effective policy options that will promote healthy eating and physical activity among Queensland schoolchildren. The aim of this paper is to: (i) summarize current evidence on Queensland government responses to obesity; and (ii) discuss potential policy options that could support healthy eating and regular physical activity, and examine the evidence base for each option and suggest new areas for future research.

  8. Air emissions of ammonia and methane from livestock operations: valuation and policy options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Jhih-Shyang; Burtraw, Dallas; Palmer, Karen; Siikamäki, Juha

    2008-09-01

    The animal husbandry industry is a major emitter of ammonia (NH3), which is a precursor of fine particulate matter (PM2.5)--arguably, the number-one environment-related public health threat facing the nation. The industry is also a major emitter of methane (CH4), which is an important greenhouse gas (GHG). We present an integrated process model of the engineering economics of technologies to reduce NH3 and CH4 emissions at dairy operations in California. Three policy options are explored: PM offset credits for NH3 control, GHG offset credits for CH4 control, and expanded net metering policies to provide revenue for the sale of electricity generated from captured methane (CH4) gas. Individually these policies vary substantially in the economic incentives they provide for farm operators to reduce emissions. We report on initial steps to fully develop the integrated process model that will provide guidance for policy-makers.

  9. Policy Options to Reduce Fragmentation in the Pooling of Health Insurance Funds in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazyar, Mohammad; Rashidian, Arash; Kane, Sumit; Vaez Mahdavi, Mohammad Reza; Akbari Sari, Ali; Doshmangir, Leila

    2016-01-01

    There are fragmentations in Iran’s health insurance system. Multiple health insurance funds exist, without adequate provisions for transfer or redistribution of cross subsidy among them. Multiple risk pools, including several private secondary insurance schemes, have resulted in a tiered health insurance system with inequitable benefit packages for different segments of the population. Also fragmentation might have contributed to inefficiency in the health insurance systems, a low financial protection against healthcare expenditures for the insured persons, high coinsurance rates, a notable rate of insurance coverage duplication, low contribution of well-funded institutes with generous benefit package to the public health insurance schemes, underfunding and severe financial shortages for the public funds, and a lack of transparency and reliable data and statistics for policy-making. We have conducted a policy analysis study, including qualitative interviews of key informants and document analysis. As a result we introduce three policy options: keeping the existing structural fragmentations of social health insurance (SHI)schemes but implementing a comprehensive "policy integration" strategy; consolidation of existing health insurance funds and creating a single national health insurance scheme; and reducing fragmentation by merging minor well-resourced funds together and creating two or three large insurance funds under the umbrella of the existing organizations. These policy options with their advantages and disadvantages are explained in the paper. PMID:27239868

  10. Policy Options to Reduce Fragmentation in the Pooling of Health Insurance Funds in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazyar, Mohammad; Rashidian, Arash; Kane, Sumit; Vaez Mahdavi, Mohammad Reza; Akbari Sari, Ali; Doshmangir, Leila

    2016-02-11

    There are fragmentations in Iran's health insurance system. Multiple health insurance funds exist, without adequate provisions for transfer or redistribution of cross subsidy among them. Multiple risk pools, including several private secondary insurance schemes, have resulted in a tiered health insurance system with inequitable benefit packages for different segments of the population. Also fragmentation might have contributed to inefficiency in the health insurance systems, a low financial protection against healthcare expenditures for the insured persons, high coinsurance rates, a notable rate of insurance coverage duplication, low contribution of well-funded institutes with generous benefit package to the public health insurance schemes, underfunding and severe financial shortages for the public funds, and a lack of transparency and reliable data and statistics for policy-making. We have conducted a policy analysis study, including qualitative interviews of key informants and document analysis. As a result we introduce three policy options: keeping the existing structural fragmentations of social health insurance (SHI)schemes but implementing a comprehensive "policy integration" strategy; consolidation of existing health insurance funds and creating a single national health insurance scheme; and reducing fragmentation by merging minor well-resourced funds together and creating two or three large insurance funds under the umbrella of the existing organizations. These policy options with their advantages and disadvantages are explained in the paper. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  11. Environmental Issues in the Power Sector : Long-Term Impacts and Policy Options for Karnataka

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    This study of the long-term environmental impacts and policy options for power sector development in Karnataka, is one of a series undertaken by the Bank, in cooperation with the Government of India and state governments. It is a follow-up to the broader study Environmental Issues in the Power Sector (EIPS) (ESMAP/World Bank 1998), and the general methodology developed for EIPS, is used fo...

  12. Nonnative forest insects and pathogens in the United States: impacts and policy options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary M. Lovett; Marissa Weiss; Andrew M. Liebhold; Tom Holmes; Brian Leung; Kathy-Fallon Lambert; David A. Orwig; Faith T. Campbell; Jonathan Rosenthal; Deborah G. McCullough; Radka Wildova; Matthew P. Ayres; Charles D. Canham; David R. Foster; Shannon L. LaDeau; Troy Weldy

    2016-01-01

    We review and synthesize information on invasions of nonnative forest insects and diseases in the United States, including their ecological and economic impacts, pathways of arrival, distribution within the United States, and policy options for reducing future invasions. Nonnative insects have accumulated in United States forests at a rate of ~2.5 per yr over the last...

  13. Financing Child Care. A Public Policy Report from the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation. Winter 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, Kansas City, MO.

    This public policy report focuses on financing child care in the United States. The report contains brief articles on the following topics: (1) child care wages in comparison to other positions; (2) benefits to businesses when employees have high-quality child care; (3) resources for funding early education systems; (4) comparison of the cost of…

  14. For Mommy and Me: Toward a Child Development Policy for Welfare Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Eve E.; Hurley, Brigit

    This report defines policy and practices for child care assistance for welfare recipients in New York, and explores ways in which the state could use the newly enacted federal welfare reform legislation to create opportunities for children of welfare recipients. The six sections of the report are based on a survey of child care policies and…

  15. Ask These Key Questions When You Review Child Abuse Reporting Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Joy J.

    1988-01-01

    Urges policymakers to examine and update their school system's child abuse reporting policy. Such policies must be adequate to help endangered children, protect their right to privacy, and avoid overprotection. Advises on ways to protect staff against unnecessary accusations and develop inservice training programs discussing child abuse, state…

  16. Household Rates of Return to Education in Rural Bangladesh: Accounting for Direct Costs, Child Labour, and Option Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2007-01-01

    This study estimates the returns to boys' education for rural Bangladeshi households by accounting for some conventionally neglected items: direct costs of education, foregone child labour earnings, and option value. The estimated returns are 13.5% for primary education, 7.8% for junior-secondary education, 12.9% for higher-secondary education,…

  17. Renewable energy and policy options in an integrated ASEAN electricity market: Quantitative assessments and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Youngho; Li, Yanfei

    2015-01-01

    Energy market integration (EMI) in the ASEAN region is a promising solution to relieve the current immobilization of its renewable energy resources and would serve the fast increasing demand for electricity in the region. EMI could be further extended with coordinated policies in carbon pricing, renewable energy portfolio standards (RPS), and feed-in-tariffs (FIT) in the ASEAN countries. Using a linear dynamic programming model, this study quantitatively assesses the impacts of EMI and the above-mentioned policies on the development of renewable energy in the power generation sector of the region, and the carbon emissions reduction achievable with these policies. According to our results, EMI is expected to significantly promote the adoption of renewable energy. Along with EMI, FIT appears to be more cost-effective than RPS and is recommended for the ASEAN region, albeit political barriers for policy coordination among the countries might be a practical concern. In addition, an RPS of 30% electricity from renewable sources by 2030, which is considered politically a “low-hanging fruit”, would achieve moderate improvements in carbon emissions reductions and renewable energy development, while incurring negligible increases in the total cost of electricity. -- Highlights: •Energy market integration (EMI), carbon pricing, RPS, and FIT are examined for ASEAN. •EMI is a promising and feasible solution to promote renewable energy for ASEAN. •Along with EMI, FIT appears to be more cost-effective than RPS for ASEAN. •RPS of 30% by 2030 appears to be reasonable and feasible for ASEAN. •Coordinating FIT and RPS policies under EMI among ASEAN is advised

  18. Child Care during Nonstandard Work Hours: Research to Policy Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In November 2014, the Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) Act of 2014 was signed into law, reauthorizing the Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF)--the federal child care subsidy program--for the first time since 1996. In December 2015, the U.S. Office of Child Care issued a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, which updated CCDF regulations…

  19. Technical backgrounder to CAPP input on June 14, 2002 workshop on federal climate change policy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-06-01

    This paper presents arguments regarding the Federal Discussion Paper on Climate Change which presents four options for Canada to implement the Kyoto Protocol. This paper describes some major flaws with the package. The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) believes that policy on climate change should ensure that measures for the trade exposed industry sectors are based on achievable objectives and that all levels of government should take a coordinated approach to greenhouse gases. In addition there should be no unfair burden on any region or unfairness in any sector. Climate change policy objectives should also consider economic, environmental and social objectives. With respect to the Kyoto Protocol in particular, governments should assess the liability that ratification would create and determine whether it makes economic sense. CAPP argues that none of the four options in the federal discussion paper meets requirements for industry objectives and form of policies. In addition, if Canada does not shift industry and emissions to other countries, or buy foreign credits, energy use by consumers would have to be significantly reduced in order to meet the Kyoto target. It was also noted that if the 'polluter pay' policy proposal is to be adopted, it must be based on a thorough understanding of what it implies and be applied in such a way to reflect the reality of international markets

  20. Demographic Consequences of Gender Discrimination in China: Simulation Analysis of Policy Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quanbao, Jiang; Shuzhuo, Li; Marcus W, Feldman

    2011-08-01

    The large number of missing females in China, a consequence of gender discrimination, is having and will continue to have a profound effect on the country's population development. In this paper, we analyze the causes of this gender discrimination in terms of institutions, culture and, economy, and suggest public policies that might help eliminate gender discrimination. Using a population simulation model, we study the effect of public policies on the sex ratio at birth and excess female child mortality, and the effect of gender discrimination on China's population development. We find that gender discrimination will decrease China's population size, number of births, and working age population, accelerate population aging and exacerbate the male marriage squeeze. These results provide theoretical support for suggesting that the government enact and implement public policies aimed at eliminating gender discrimination.

  1. Changes in Nutrition Policies and Dietary Intake in Child Care Homes Participating in Healthy Eating and Active Living Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward-Lopez, Gail; Kao, Janice; Kuo, Elena S; James, Paula; Lenhart, Kitty; Becker, Christina; Boyle, Kathryn; Williamson, Dana; Rauzon, Suzanne

    2018-05-01

    From 2012 to 2014, a total of 17 family child care homes participated in a multisector, community-wide initiative to prevent obesity. Strategies included staff workshops, materials, site visits, and technical assistance regarding development and implementation of nutrition policies. The purpose of the evaluation was to examine the impact of the initiative on family child care home nutrition-related policies and practices and child dietary intake. Pre- and post-intervention without control group. Measures taken at baseline and follow-up included structured observations and questionnaires regarding nutrition policies, practices, and environments; documentation of lunch foods served on 5 days; and lunch plate waste observations on 2 days. Paired t-tests were used to determine the significance of change over time. Seventeen family child care homes in a low-income diverse community in Northern California; children aged 2-5 years who attended the family child care homes. Change in nutrition-related policies and practices, lunch foods served and consumed. Data was collected at 17 sites for an average of 5.2 children aged 2-5 years per site per day at baseline and 4.6 at follow-up for a total of 333 plate waste observations. There were significant increases in staff training, parental involvement, and several of the targeted nutrition-related practices; prevalence of most other practices either improved or was maintained over time. There were significant increases in the number of sites meeting Child and Adult Care Food Program meal guidelines, variety of fruit and frequency of vegetables offered, and reductions in frequency of juice and high-fat processed meats offered. Adequate portions of all food groups were consumed at both time points with no significant change over time. A simple, policy-focused intervention by a child care resource and referral agency was successful at reinforcing and improving upon nutrition-related practices at family child care homes. Children

  2. The One-Child Policy and Privatization of Education in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Guangyu

    2012-01-01

    China's one-child policy is one of the most significant, yet controversial, programs of planned fertility. While the focus of the controversy is on the nature of the policy (for example, whether the policy is humane, or whether it violates the basic human rights of individual freedom), the impact of such population control program on China's…

  3. Child Welfare, Education, Inequality, and Social Policy in Comparative Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarelli, Lance D.

    2015-01-01

    Using international data on child well-being and educational attainment, this article compares child well-being in the United States to member countries in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Multiple measures of child well-being are analyzed, such as material well-being (including poverty, unemployment, and income…

  4. Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African Association for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Allied Professions (SAACAPAP). The SAACAPAP is a professional body for child and adolescent mental health practitioners in South Africa. It was initiated in 1978, and since then has been an active member of the International Association for Child ...

  5. Assessment of policy options with regard to air pollution from international shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, F.; Veldeman, N.; Lodewijks, P.; Duuerinck, J.; Janssen, L.; Campling, P.; Janssen, S.; Vanherle, K.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, a study has been carried out for DG Environment of the European Commission titled 'Market-based instruments for Reducing Air Pollution. Assessment of Policy Options to reducing air pollution from shipping'. Within this study it was decided to study the environmental impact of two legally possible trading systems: a voluntary emissions trading system for all sea areas belonging to the European Union and a mandatory emissions trading system for the ports and territorial waters of EU Member States. If the emissions in ports and coastal waters will be made part of such a trading system it can result in lower environmental exposure for the population. [nl

  6. One-Child Policy and the Rise of Man-Made Twins

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Wei; Lei, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Yaohui

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates how people respond to the distorted incentives of One-Child Policy by examining its impact on twin births in China. The analysis using population census data shows that the One-Child Policy accounts for more than one-third of the increase in twin births since the 1970s. Further investigation finds that the One-Child Policy is associated with a larger birth gap of twins with prior births and greater height difference between twins. These findings suggest that the increa...

  7. Analysis of maternal and child health policies in Malawi: The methodological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daire, J; Khalil, D

    2015-12-01

    The question of why most health policies do not achieve their intended results continues to receive a considerable attention in the literature. This is in the light of the recognized gap between policy as intent and policy as practice, which calls for substantial research work to understand the factors that improve policy implementation. Although there is substantial work that explains the reasons why policies achieve or fail to achieve their intended outcomes, there are limited case studies that illustrate how to analyze policies from the methodological perspective. In this article, we report and discuss how a mixed qualitative research method was applied for analyzing maternal and child health policies in Malawi. For the purposes of this article, we do not report research findings; instead we focus our dicussion on the methodology of the study and draw lessons for policy analysis research work. We base our disusssion on our experiences from a study in which we analyzed maternal and child health policies in Malawi over the period from 1964 to 2008. Noting the multifaceted nature of maternal and child health policies, we adopted a mixed qualitative research method, whereby a number of data collection methods were employed. This approach allowed for the capturing of different perspectives of maternal and child health policies in Malawi and for strengthening of the weaknesses of each method, especially in terms of data validity. This research suggested that the multidimensional nature of maternal and child health policies, like other health policies, calls for a combination of research designs as well as a variety of methods of data collection and analysis. In addition, we suggest that, as an emerging research field, health policy analysis will benefit more from case study designs because they provide rich experiences in the actual policy context.

  8. China's one-child policy and overweight children in the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juhua

    2007-05-01

    The prevalence of overweight children in China has increased, and the one-child policy has been suggested as a cause. Drawing on longitudinal data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey, this paper investigates the relationship between the one-child policy and overweight among young children. The policy is measured directly as local variations and indirectly as sibship composition (i.e., number of siblings, birth order and birth interval). Results suggest that overweight among preschoolers and primary school children increased in the 1990s at a slower pace than that documented in previous studies in China, and the prevalence of overweight varies by age of children and urban residence. However, while there are substantially gross differences in overweight by policy variations and sibsize (i.e., number of siblings), single children and those in strict one-child policy communities do not differ from other children, after adjusting for household and community characteristics. Thus, the policy does not seem to bear an independent relationship to child overweight risk. Hence, this analysis provides little to support the public perception that the one-child policy is associated with the rising epidemic of child overweight in transitional China. Rather the risk associated with overweight include age of children, parental body mass index (BMI), level of maternal education, local socioeconomic development, urban residence and province/region.

  9. Reactivation of nuclear power plant construction projects. Plant status, policy issues and regulatory options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spangler, M.B.

    1986-07-01

    Prior to the TMI-2 accident on March 28, 1979, four nuclear power plant units that had previously been issued a construction permit were cancelled, principally because of reduced projections of regional power demand. Since that time, an additional 31 units with CPs have been cancelled and eight units deferred. On December 23, 1985 one of the deferred units (Limerick-2) was reactivated and construction resumed. The primary objective of this policy study is to identify the principal issues requiring office-level consideration in the event of reactivation of the construction of one or more of the nuclear power plants falling into two categories: (1) LWR units issued a construction permit whose construction has been cancelled, and (2) LWR units whose construction has been deferred. The study scope is limited to identifying regulatory issues or questions deserving analysis rather than providing, at this time, answers or recommended actions. Five tasks are addressed: a tabulation and discussion of the status of all cancelled and deferred LWR units; and identification of potential safety and environmental issues; an identification of regulatory or policy issues and needed information to determine the desirability of revising certain rules and policies; and identification of regulatory options and decision criteria; and an identification of decision considerations in determining staff requirements and organizational coordination of LWR reactivation policy and implementation efforts. 41 refs

  10. Environmental and technology policy options in the electricity sector. Interactions and outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Carolyn; Newell, Richard G.; Preonas, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Myriad policy measures aim to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the electricity sector, promote generation from renewable sources, and encourage energy conservation. To what extent do innovation and energy efficiency (EE) market failures justify additional interventions when a carbon price is in place? We extend the model of Fischer and Newell (2008) with advanced and conventional renewable energy technologies and short and long-run EE investments. We incorporate both knowledge spillovers and imperfections in the demand for energy efficiency. We conclude that some technology policies, particularly correcting R and D market failures, can be useful complements to emissions pricing, but ambitious renewable targets or subsidies seem unlikely to enhance welfare when placed alongside sufficient emissions pricing. The desirability of stringent EE policies is highly sensitive to the degree of undervaluation of EE by consumers, which also has implications for policies that tend to lower electricity prices. Even with multiple market failures, emissions pricing remains the single most cost-effective option for reducing emissions.

  11. Biofuels development in China: Technology options and policies needed to meet the 2020 target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Shiyan; Zhao, Lili; Timilsina, Govinda R.; Zhang, Xiliang

    2012-01-01

    China promulgated the Medium and Long-Term Development Plan for Renewable Energy in 2007, which included sub-targets of 2010 and 2020 for various renewable energy technologies. Almost all the 2010 sub-targets have been met and even surpassed except non-grain fuel ethanol. There is debate surrounding the questions of whether and how the country will be able to meet the 2020 biofuels target. This paper provides the assessment of potential technology pathways to achieve the 2020 target regarding their respective resource potential and supply cost. Barriers and policy options are identified based on broad literatures review. And an overview of biofuels projections is presented to provide insight into the comparison of various policy scenarios. The study shows that China can potentially satisfy non-grain fuel ethanol target by 2020 from technology perspective. But she will probably fall far short of this target if current situations continue. Additional policy efforts are needed. Meanwhile, the target of biodiesel production has high probability to be achieved. However, if given support policies, it will develop better. - Highlights: ► I. Non-grain feedstocks such as cassava, sweet sorghum and sweet potato grown in low productive arable lands or unutilized lands have enough potential to meet ethanol targets in 2020. ► II. If current situations continue, China will fall far short of the 2020 target. ► III. The target of biodiesel production has high probability to be achieved, while, if given support policies, it will develop better. ► IV. Supply cost is one of the major barriers faced by all biofuels pathways. ► V. Various policy measures would be necessary to overcome the costs barriers to biofuels in China.

  12. Analysis of federal policy options for improving US lighting energy efficiency: Commercial and residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, B.A.; McMahon, J.E.; Mills, E.; Chan, P.; Chan, T.W.; Eto, J.H.; Jennings, J.D.; Koomey, J.G.; Lo, K.W.; Lecar, M.; Price, L.; Rubinstein, F.; Sezgen, O.; Wenzel, T.

    1992-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized the opportunity to achieve energy, economic, and environmental benefits by promoting energy-efficient lighting through federal policies, including lighting standards, financial incentives, and information programs. To assist in this process, the Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy`s Office of Codes and Standards invited Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to assess prospective national impacts for a variety of policy options. Some progress has already been made in developing lighting policies at both the federal and state levels. The US DOE`s Office of Building Technologies has evaluated lighting efficiency incentives as part of its analysis for the National Energy Strategy. Fluorescent and incandescent lamp standards are included in the national Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486, October 24, 1992). A few states have analyzed or implemented lamp and luminaire standards. Many policy-related issues merit further investigation. For example, there is considerable debate over issues such as mandatory or voluntary standards versus component labeling and other education-oriented strategies. Several different technologies are involved that interact with each other-lamps (incandescent, compact fluorescent, and HID), ballasts (for fluorescent and HID lamps), and fixtures with reflectors and lenses. Control systems and operation patterns must also be considered (timers, automated dimming, or occupancy sensors). Lighting applications are diverse, ranging from offices, restaurants, hallways, hospital operating rooms, to exterior lights. Lighting energy use influences heating and cooling requirements in buildings. Successful lighting system design must also address interactions between architectural design elements and daylighting availability. Proper system installation and ongoing operation and maintenance are crucial. The economic aspects of the preceding points must also be considered for policy making.

  13. Analysis of federal policy options for improving US lighting energy efficiency: Commercial and residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, B.A.; McMahon, J.E.; Mills, E.; Chan, P.; Chan, T.W.; Eto, J.H.; Jennings, J.D.; Koomey, J.G.; Lo, K.W.; Lecar, M.; Price, L.; Rubinstein, F.; Sezgen, O.; Wenzel, T.

    1992-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized the opportunity to achieve energy, economic, and environmental benefits by promoting energy-efficient lighting through federal policies, including lighting standards, financial incentives, and information programs. To assist in this process, the Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy's Office of Codes and Standards invited Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to assess prospective national impacts for a variety of policy options. Some progress has already been made in developing lighting policies at both the federal and state levels. The US DOE's Office of Building Technologies has evaluated lighting efficiency incentives as part of its analysis for the National Energy Strategy. Fluorescent and incandescent lamp standards are included in the national Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486, October 24, 1992). A few states have analyzed or implemented lamp and luminaire standards. Many policy-related issues merit further investigation. For example, there is considerable debate over issues such as mandatory or voluntary standards versus component labeling and other education-oriented strategies. Several different technologies are involved that interact with each other-lamps (incandescent, compact fluorescent, and HID), ballasts (for fluorescent and HID lamps), and fixtures with reflectors and lenses. Control systems and operation patterns must also be considered (timers, automated dimming, or occupancy sensors). Lighting applications are diverse, ranging from offices, restaurants, hallways, hospital operating rooms, to exterior lights. Lighting energy use influences heating and cooling requirements in buildings. Successful lighting system design must also address interactions between architectural design elements and daylighting availability. Proper system installation and ongoing operation and maintenance are crucial. The economic aspects of the preceding points must also be considered for policy making.

  14. Mitigation implications of midcentury targets that preserve long-term climate policy options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Brian C; Riahi, Keywan; Keppo, Ilkka

    2010-01-19

    Midcentury targets have been proposed as a guide to climate change policy that can link long-term goals to shorter-term actions. However no explicit mitigation analyses have been carried out of the relationship between midcentury conditions and longer-term outcomes. Here we use an integrated assessment modeling framework with a detailed representation of the energy sector to examine the dependence of climate change outcomes in 2100 on emissions levels, atmospheric concentrations, and technology characteristics in 2050. We find that midcentury conditions are crucial determinants of longer-term climate outcomes, and we identify feasibility thresholds describing conditions that must be met by midcentury to keep particular long-term options open. For example, to preserve the technical feasibility of a 50% likelihood of keeping global average temperature at < 2 degrees C above preindustrial in 2100, global emissions must be reduced by about 20% below 2000 levels by 2050. Results are sensitive to several assumptions, including the nature of future socio-economic development. In a scenario with high demand for energy and land, being below 2 degrees C with 50% likelihood requires a 50% reduction in emissions below 2000 levels by 2050, which is only barely feasible with known technologies in that scenario. Results suggest that a greater focus on midcentury targets could facilitate the development of policies that preserve potentially desirable long-term options.

  15. Making Homes Part of the Climate Solution: Policy Options To Promote Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Dr. Marilyn Ann [Georgia Institute of Technology; Chandler, Jess [Georgia Institute of Technology; Lapsa, Melissa Voss [ORNL; Ally, Moonis [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2009-06-01

    In the area of energy efficiency, advanced technologies combined with best practices appear to afford not only large, but also cost-effective options to conserve energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions (McKinsey & Company, 2007). In practice, however, the realization of this potential has often proven difficult. Progress appears to require large numbers of individuals to act knowledgeably, and each individual must often act with enabling assistance from others. Even when consumer education is effective and social norms are supportive, the actions of individuals and businesses can be impeded by a broad range of barriers, many of which are non-technical in nature. Title XVI of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 included a mandate to examine barriers to progress and make recommendations in this regard. A detailed report on barriers as well as the National strategy for overcoming barriers met this requirement (Brown et al, 2008; CCCSTI, 2009). Following up on this mandate, the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program (CCTP) chose to focus next on the development of policy options to improve energy efficiency in residential buildings, with supporting analysis of pros and cons, informed in part by behavioral research. While this work is sponsored by CCTP, it has been undertaken in coordination with DOE's Building Technologies Program and Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability.

  16. CAN CHILD-CARE SUPPORT POLICIES HALT DECREASING FERTILITY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaya Yasuoka

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Some earlier papers examine whether child allowances can raise fertility or not in an endogenous fertility model with a defined contribution pension system. They derive that a child allowance can raise fertility. This paper is aimed at deriving the level of child allowances or education subsidies to make the pension system sustainable. A child allowance can raise fertility instantaneously. However, in the long run, fertility might continue decreasing and the pension system might not be sustainable if less child allowance is provided. In a defined benefit system, tax burdens for pension benefits are heavy in an aging society with fewer children. A heavy tax burden reduces the household income and then decreases fertility. Therefore, child allowances must be provided to halt decreasing fertility in the long run. Nevertheless, given parametric conditions, education subsidy of more than a certain level can not halt the decrease of fertility in the long run.

  17. Drinking and its burden in a global perspective: policy considerations and options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Room, Robin; Graham, Kathryn; Rehm, Jürgen; Jernigan, David; Monteiro, Maristela

    2003-10-01

    To identify the policy implications of the magnitude and characteristics of alcohol consumption and problems, viewed globally, and to summarize conclusions on the effectiveness of the strategies available to policymakers concerned with reducing rates of alcohol problems. This summative article draws on the findings of the articles preceding it and of reviews of the literature. Overall volume of consumption is the major factor in the prevalence of harms from drinking. Since consumption and associated problems tend to increase with economic development, policymakers in developing economies should be especially aware of the need to develop policies to minimize overall increases in alcohol consumption. Unrecorded consumption is also an important consideration for policy in many parts of the world, and poses difficulties for alcohol control policies. Drinking pattern is also an important contributing factor toward alcohol-related harm. Although some drinking patterns have been shown to produce beneficial health effects, because the net effect of alcohol on coronary disease is negative in most parts of the world, policies that promote abstinence or lower drinking overall may be the safest options. Moreover, sporadic intoxication is common in many parts of the world, and policies are unlikely to change this drinking pattern at least in the short to medium term. At the same time, because injuries comprise a large proportion of the burden of alcohol, it is appropriate to enhance these policies with targeted harm reduction strategies such as drinking and driving countermeasures and interventions focused on reducing alcohol-related violence in specific high-risk settings. Alcohol consumption is a major factor for the global burden of disease and should be considered a public health priority globally, regionally, and nationally for the vast majority of countries in the world. The need for alcohol policy is even stronger when it is taken into consideration that the burden of

  18. Effect of the one-child policy on influenza transmission in China: a stochastic transmission model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengchen Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: China's one-child-per-couple policy, introduced in 1979, led to profound demographic changes for nearly a quarter of the world's population. Several decades later, the consequences include decreased fertility rates, population aging, decreased household sizes, changes in family structure, and imbalanced sex ratios. The epidemiology of communicable diseases may have been affected by these changes since the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases depend on demographic characteristics of the population. Of particular interest is influenza because China and Southeast Asia lie at the center of a global transmission network of influenza. Moreover, changes in household structure may affect influenza transmission. Is it possible that the pronounced demographic changes that have occurred in China have affected influenza transmission? METHODS AND FINDINGS: To address this question, we developed a continuous-time, stochastic, individual-based simulation model for influenza transmission. With this model, we simulated 30 years of influenza transmission and compared influenza transmission rates in populations with and without the one-child policy control. We found that the average annual attack rate is reduced by 6.08% (SD 2.21% in the presence of the one-child policy compared to a population in which no demographic changes occurred. There was no discernible difference in the secondary attack rate, -0.15% (SD 1.85%, between the populations with and without a one-child policy. We also forecasted influenza transmission over a ten-year time period in a population with a two-child policy under a hypothesis that a two-child-per-couple policy will be carried out in 2015, and found a negligible difference in the average annual attack rate compared to the population with the one-child policy. CONCLUSIONS: This study found that the average annual attack rate is slightly lowered in a population with a one-child policy, which may have resulted from a

  19. Effect of the one-child policy on influenza transmission in China: a stochastic transmission model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fengchen; Enanoria, Wayne T A; Ray, Kathryn J; Coffee, Megan P; Gordon, Aubree; Aragón, Tomás J; Yu, Guowei; Cowling, Benjamin J; Porco, Travis C

    2014-01-01

    China's one-child-per-couple policy, introduced in 1979, led to profound demographic changes for nearly a quarter of the world's population. Several decades later, the consequences include decreased fertility rates, population aging, decreased household sizes, changes in family structure, and imbalanced sex ratios. The epidemiology of communicable diseases may have been affected by these changes since the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases depend on demographic characteristics of the population. Of particular interest is influenza because China and Southeast Asia lie at the center of a global transmission network of influenza. Moreover, changes in household structure may affect influenza transmission. Is it possible that the pronounced demographic changes that have occurred in China have affected influenza transmission? To address this question, we developed a continuous-time, stochastic, individual-based simulation model for influenza transmission. With this model, we simulated 30 years of influenza transmission and compared influenza transmission rates in populations with and without the one-child policy control. We found that the average annual attack rate is reduced by 6.08% (SD 2.21%) in the presence of the one-child policy compared to a population in which no demographic changes occurred. There was no discernible difference in the secondary attack rate, -0.15% (SD 1.85%), between the populations with and without a one-child policy. We also forecasted influenza transmission over a ten-year time period in a population with a two-child policy under a hypothesis that a two-child-per-couple policy will be carried out in 2015, and found a negligible difference in the average annual attack rate compared to the population with the one-child policy. This study found that the average annual attack rate is slightly lowered in a population with a one-child policy, which may have resulted from a decrease in household size and the proportion of children in the

  20. Research on Child and Adolescent Development and Public Policy in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narea, Marigen

    2016-01-01

    This commentary discusses the implication of child and adolescent development research for public policy in Latin America. As illustrated by the articles in this special issue, even though the research of child and adolescent development in Latin America is making significant progress, still more research is needed. Developmental research in the…

  1. Policy options to improve the effectiveness of the EU emissions trading system: A multi-criteria analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clò, Stefano; Battles, Susan; Zoppoli, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers several policy options which have been proposed to improve the functioning of the ETS. These options require an intervention either on the ETS cap (−30% target, set-aside, carbon central bank, long-term target) or on the carbon price (European and national price floor). We analyse the impact of each policy on the ETS carbon price and emissions. A multi-criteria evaluation method is applied to compare the policy options against a plurality of environmental, economic and procedural criteria. We find that the final ranking depends on the goals to be achieved, i.e., the relative weights attributed to the criteria. When policymakers want mainly to support the carbon price both in the short and long-run, while improving ETS flexibility and harmonization, the CCB and the EU price floor are, respectively ranked as first and second-best options. As the preference for environmental and implementation goals gradually increases, the position of the EU price floor and CCB options tend to invert. The −30% target should be adopted when reducing emissions is the priority goal, while a national price floor is the worst option, in this case. Nevertheless, self-interested States looking for a relatively quick, feasible solution, may find it optimal. - Highlights: ► A multi-criteria analysis is adopted to compare policy options to improve the ETS effectiveness. ► An ETS cap reversible adjustment by a carbon central bank is the first-best option. ► The establishment of a EU-wide price floor would represent a second-best solution. ► A national price floor is the worst option but self-interest states may find it optimal. ► A post-2020 target is not a mutually exclusive option and should be set

  2. Moving Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health Evidence into Policy in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Death, illness, disability continue. While health systems research has informed improvements in maternal, newborn, and child health globally, there are critical knowledge and implementation gaps in East Africa. Preventable maternal, newborn, and child deaths, illnesses, and disabilities continue to burden countries in the ...

  3. The Reformed Australian Child Support Scheme: An International Policy Comment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Margaret

    1991-01-01

    Describes antecedents, major objectives, and characteristics of Australian child support reforms in context of their introduction into highly discretionary family law system. Draws parallels with Wisconsin Child Support Assurance System. Discusses findings of Australian Institute of Family Studies evaluation which suggests that the scheme has…

  4. THE INNOVATIVE POLICY OPTIONS FOR COASTAL FISHERIES ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: A CASE OF KWANDANG BAY COASTAL ECOSYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Taylor Moore

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Socio-environmental problems, such as climate change, pollution and habitat destruction, present serious challenges for fisheries economic development. The integration of interventions or investments within a coastal marine ecosystem, a defined spatial area, is considered important in the economic development of local communities leading to the planned outcomes of livelihoods, food security and conservation The coastal marine ecosystem, is the provider of products and services to the local economy adjacent to the ecosystem where the benefit flows, within that area, are interconnected. The roles of science, technology and innovation (STI are an integral part of these multi-dimensional interventions. Hence the need for an integrated approach for these interventions by government and/or through donor funded projects to enhance economic development of coastal communities. The policy framework proposed is therefore an STI perspective of the links between these intervention and investment options, based on a ‘fisheries economic development Hub’ (Hub and discussed using the multi-level perspective (MLP. The policy innovation proposal suggests an implementation strategy of a pilot project and analyses the selection and implications of a potential Indonesian site for the application of the Hub. This paper aims to introduce the MLP into the framework of coastal community-based fisheries economic development.   Key words: policy innovation. coastal marine ecosystem, fisheries economic development Hub, value chains, multi-level perspective (MLP

  5. Opportunities for strengthening infant and young child feeding policies in South Asia: Insights from the SAIFRN policy analysis project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thow, Anne Marie; Karn, Sumit; Devkota, Madhu Dixit; Rasheed, Sabrina; Roy, S K; Suleman, Yasmeen; Hazir, Tabish; Patel, Archana; Gaidhane, Abhay; Puri, Seema; Godakandage, Sanjeeva; Senarath, Upul; Dibley, Michael J

    2017-06-13

    South Asian countries experience some of the highest levels of child undernutrition in the world, strongly linked to poor infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices. Strong and responsive policy support is essential for effective interventions to improve IYCF. This study aimed to identify opportunities for strengthening the policy environment in the region to better support appropriate infant and young child feeding. We mapped policies relevant to infant and young child feeding in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Nepal, based on a common matrix. The matrix described potentially relevant policies ranging from high-level strategic policy documents to implementation-level guidelines. We analyzed the data based on themes focused on caregiver interactions with IYCF interventions: provision of correct information to mothers, training of frontline workers, enabling mothers to engage with service providers and strategic support for IYCF. Policy support for IYCF was present in relation to each of the themes assessed. In all countries, there was support for nutrition in National Development Plans, and all countries had some level of maternity protection and restrictions on marketing of breast milk substitutes. Sectoral and implementation-level policy documents contained provisions for system strengthening for IYCF and for training of frontline workers. The key opportunities for strengthening IYCF policy support were in relation to translating strategic directives into implementation level documents; improving multi-sectoral support and coordination; and increased clarity regarding roles and responsibilities of frontline workers interacting with mothers. These findings can support efforts to strengthen IYCF policy at the national and regional level.

  6. Opportunities for strengthening infant and young child feeding policies in South Asia: Insights from the SAIFRN policy analysis project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marie Thow

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Asian countries experience some of the highest levels of child undernutrition in the world, strongly linked to poor infant and young child feeding (IYCF practices. Strong and responsive policy support is essential for effective interventions to improve IYCF. This study aimed to identify opportunities for strengthening the policy environment in the region to better support appropriate infant and young child feeding. Methods We mapped policies relevant to infant and young child feeding in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Nepal, based on a common matrix. The matrix described potentially relevant policies ranging from high-level strategic policy documents to implementation-level guidelines. We analyzed the data based on themes focused on caregiver interactions with IYCF interventions: provision of correct information to mothers, training of frontline workers, enabling mothers to engage with service providers and strategic support for IYCF. Results Policy support for IYCF was present in relation to each of the themes assessed. In all countries, there was support for nutrition in National Development Plans, and all countries had some level of maternity protection and restrictions on marketing of breast milk substitutes. Sectoral and implementation-level policy documents contained provisions for system strengthening for IYCF and for training of frontline workers. Conclusions The key opportunities for strengthening IYCF policy support were in relation to translating strategic directives into implementation level documents; improving multi-sectoral support and coordination; and increased clarity regarding roles and responsibilities of frontline workers interacting with mothers. These findings can support efforts to strengthen IYCF policy at the national and regional level.

  7. Exploring Policy Options to Stop the Loss of Wetlands on Prairie Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serran, J.; Creed, I. F.

    2013-12-01

    Wetlands from the prairie pothole region of North America have been disappearing at rapid rates over the past century. Within Canada, the issue of wetland loss is compounded by the lack of high resolution wetland inventories, the lack of information on rates of wetland loss, and the absence of wetland policies to further protect against loss. In Alberta, the situation is particularly problematic as increasing development pressures continue to place wetlands at risk. The 'no net loss' of wetlands policy established in 1993 has been ineffective, as wetland loss has continued, leaving Albertans searching for alternative policy options. An alternative policy option is to shift focus from wetland area to wetland function. We present a wetland function assessment system founded on ecological and hydrological processes for estimating wetland functions, including biodiversity, flood control, and pollution reduction, for a regional watershed in Alberta. First, we establish wetland loss rates using inventory time series from 1960 to present; wetland loss estimates can be derived from a break in slope in the area-frequency relationship. Second, we create a high-resolution wetland inventory using a novel approach that fuses LiDAR data (probability of wetland) with aerial photographs (to distinguish open water and the surrounding wet meadow zone). Third, using this wetland inventory, we identify indicators of wetland function using GIS and remote sensing data and technologies for application at regional watershed scales. Biodiversity indicators include a wetland's condition, ability to provide habitat, and potential for high ecological diversity. Flood control indicators include a wetland's ability to store water, connect to surface drainage network, and desynchronize flood waves throughout the landscape. Pollution control indicators include a wetland's contributing source area of nutrients, mechanisms that transport nutrients to the wetland, and mechanisms that retain

  8. The importance of research and participation in formulating child health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Lisa; Kendall, Sally; Wills, Wendy

    2012-12-01

    Despite some evidence of the successful involvement of children in the development of health policy in the U.K., the outcome of this process and its evaluation are limited. This article reflects on the development of child health policy and how the views of children and young people may serve to inform and improve on their own lives and those of future generations.

  9. State policies regarding nursing delegation and medication administration in child care settings: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heschel, Rhonda T; Crowley, Angela A; Cohen, Sally S

    2005-05-01

    Medication administration is an essential component of quality child care, and nurses play a central role in assuring high-quality training of child care providers. Through key informant interviews and review of public documents, this case study explored the development of state statutes and regulations for medication administration training of child care providers in the state of Connecticut, nursing liability issues related to the definition of this activity, and the role of the Connecticut State Board of Examiners for Nursing. This article also examines the interpretation of the nursing role within this context as delegation versus professional activity and the impact of such designation on nursing practice, child care providers' access to medication administration training by nurses, and children's health status in child care settings. As a result of this case study, the Connecticut State Board of Examiners for Nursing revised its policies, demonstrating an exemplar linkage among research, practice, and policy.

  10. Nonnative forest insects and pathogens in the United States: Impacts and policy options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovett, Gary M; Weiss, Marissa; Liebhold, Andrew M; Holmes, Thomas P; Leung, Brian; Lambert, Kathy Fallon; Orwig, David A; Campbell, Faith T; Rosenthal, Jonathan; McCullough, Deborah G; Wildova, Radka; Ayres, Matthew P; Canham, Charles D; Foster, David R; LaDeau, Shannon L; Weldy, Troy

    2016-07-01

    We review and synthesize information on invasions of nonnative forest insects and diseases in the United States, including their ecological and economic impacts, pathways of arrival, distribution within the United States, and policy options for reducing future invasions. Nonnative insects have accumulated in United States forests at a rate of ~2.5 per yr over the last 150 yr. Currently the two major pathways of introduction are importation of live plants and wood packing material such as pallets and crates. Introduced insects and diseases occur in forests and cities throughout the United States, and the problem is particularly severe in the Northeast and Upper Midwest. Nonnative forest pests are the only disturbance agent that has effectively eliminated entire tree species or genera from United States forests within decades. The resulting shift in forest structure and species composition alters ecosystem functions such as productivity, nutrient cycling, and wildlife habitat. In urban and suburban areas, loss of trees from streets, yards, and parks affects aesthetics, property values, shading, stormwater runoff, and human health. The economic damage from nonnative pests is not yet fully known, but is likely in the billions of dollars per year, with the majority of this economic burden borne by municipalities and residential property owners. Current policies for preventing introductions are having positive effects but are insufficient to reduce the influx of pests in the face of burgeoning global trade. Options are available to strengthen the defenses against pest arrival and establishment, including measures taken in the exporting country prior to shipment, measures to ensure clean shipments of plants and wood products, inspections at ports of entry, and post-entry measures such as quarantines, surveillance, and eradication programs. Improved data collection procedures for inspections, greater data accessibility, and better reporting would support better evaluation

  11. Watch Out for the Children: Army Policy and Child Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Handbook, (Fort Leavenworth, KS: U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command, 2007), 52. 16 parents ’ permission. Children are then incorporated into...information of tactical value. Questions about past operations that a child soldier may have been forced to conduct could only intimidate or alienate ...that numerous child soldiers are forced to kill family members when they are abducted from their villages, in an attempt to alienate them from being

  12. Behavioural Climate Change Mitigation Options and Their Appropriate Inclusion in Quantitative Longer Term Policy Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, J.; Schroten, A.; Bles, M.; Sevenster, M.; Markowska, A.; Smit, M. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Rohde, C.; Duetschke, E.; Koehler, J.; Gigli, M. [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI, Karlsruhe (Germany); Zimmermann, K.; Soboh, R.; Van ' t Riet, J. [Landbouw Economisch Instituut LEI, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2012-01-15

    Changes in consumer behaviour can lead to major reductions in greenhouse gas emissions in the European Union, particularly in the areas of transport, housing and food. Behavioural changes can complement technological changes and can allow emission reduction targets to be achieved more cost-effectively overall. The study identifies 36 options for behavioural change that would cut greenhouse gas emissions. Of these, 11 particularly relevant options have been studied in detail. They include shifting to a more healthy and balanced diet, eating less meat and dairy products, buying and using a smaller car or an electric car, teleworking, adjusting room temperature and optimising ventilation. For each of the behavioural changes studied in depth, emission reduction potentials have been quantified for 2020, 2030 and 2050. The study identifies barriers to implementing the changes, and quantifies the likely effects of policy packages which could overcome these barriers. The results show that the behavioural changes that could take place simultaneously have the potential to save emissions totalling up to about 600 million tonnes of CO2-equivalent a year in 2020. This is about one-quarter of the projected annual emissions from sectors not covered by the EU emissions trading system. The savings potential is particularly high in the area of food.

  13. Promoting the uptake of preventative Aboriginal child health policy in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Sue; Hellwig, Leonie; Peate, Diann; Wilson, Anne

    2015-12-01

    Australian Aboriginal children are over-represented on all negative health indicators compared with non-Aboriginal children.Contributing factors to the disparity include the impact of historical events, racism and social determinants of health. Despite the benefits of child health checks, offered through the Medicare Benefit Schedule and community health services, uptake of these is low. In 2012, Western Australia Health implemented the Enhanced Aboriginal Child Health Schedule (EACHS) policy to address specific health needs of Aboriginal children. The Aboriginal Child Heath Project (the Project), was a five-year initiative funded through the Council of Australian Governments. Project staff promoted the profile of preventative child health and the uptake of the EACHS policy across the state by agencies operating in the sector. Western Australia. Reach of the implementation workshop was measured by the number of staff attending policy implementation and the total number for agencies represented. One measure of impact was the number of agencies requesting the EACHS policy who adapted or adopted it to deliver evidence based comprehensive child health programs. The Project offered policy implementation workshops to health staff delivering services to young Aboriginal children. In addition to the evidence-based policy, a suite of resources were made available to support service delivery. The EACHS is a framework used by agencies to deliver consistent care and support governance when providing child health services to Aboriginal families across Western Australia. Providing a policy that was consistent with identified service strengths allowed agencies to individually build their capacity to deliver child health checks, using existing resources, at their own pace. © 2015 Commonwealth of Australia. Australian Journal of Rural Health © 2015 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  14. Family Models for Earning and Caring: Implications for Child Care and for Family Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravanera, Zenaida

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractCanadian families have changed, in part due to an economy that provides more work opportunities for women, and a cultural orientation that values equal opportunity and diversity infamilies. In spite of the change, both quantitative and qualitative evidence suggest a continued preference for mothers to spend considerable time with children, especially in the infant andtoddler years. Thus, in an average couple, the presence of young children in the home brings wives to reduce their paid work and husbands to increase their paid work. Our reading of parentalpreferences suggests an interest in more services for young children in the form of early childhood education and child care, but also an interest in policies that would allow parents to spend more time with children through parental leaves, part-time work with good benefits, and subsidies that supplement market income. Many options available to two-parent families are often less feasible for lone parents, giving a higher priority to child care.RésuméLa famille canadiennes a changé, dû en partie à une économie qui offre plus de possibilités d’emploi pour les femmes, et à une tendance culturelle qui valorise l’égalité des chances et la diversité dans les familles. En dépit de ces changements, les preuves quantitatives et qualitatives suggèrent une préférence continue pour les mères de passer plus de temps avec les enfants, particulièrement quand il s’agit de nouveau-nés ou d’enfants en bas âge. Donc, pour un couple moyen, la présence de jeunes enfants au foyer pousse les femmes à réduire leurs emplois rémunérés et les maris à augmenter les leurs. Notre étude des préférences parentales suggère un intérêt pour un accroissement des services pour jeunes enfants sous la forme d’éducation préscolaire et de garde d’enfants, et aussi un intérêt pour des politiques qui permettraient aux parents de passer plus de temps avec leurs enfants tels que cong

  15. Nutrition and Physical Activity Policies and Practices in Family Child Care Homes in Oregon: Baseline Findings from the Healthy Home Child Care Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Katherine B.; Rice, Kelly R.; Trost, Stewart G.

    2012-01-01

    Baseline findings from the Healthy Home Child Care Project include data from Family Child Care Providers (FCCPs) in Oregon (n=53) who completed assessments of nutrition and physical activity policies and practices and BMI data for children in the care of FCCPs (n=205). Results show that a significant percentage of FCCPs failed to meet child care…

  16. Quantity-Quality and the One Child Policy: The Only-Child Disadvantage in School Enrollment in Rural China. NBER Working Paper No. 14973

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Many believe that increasing the quantity of children will lead to a decrease in their quality. This paper exploits plausibly exogenous changes in family size caused by relaxations in China's One Child Policy to estimate the causal effect of family size on school enrollment of the first child. The results show that for one-child families, an…

  17. A real options approach to biotechnology Investment policy - the case of developing a Campylobacter vaccine to poultry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mogens; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2016-01-01

    in a cost-effective way. The development of a vaccine against Campylobacter jejuni in poultry is applied as a case study. Employing the real options methodology, the net present value of the vaccine R&D project becomes larger than a purely probabilistic expected present value throughout the different stages...... of the project – and the net present value becomes larger, when more types of real options are taken into consideration. The insight from the real options analysis reveals opportunities for new policies to promote the development of animal vaccines. One such approach might be to develop schemes combining stage...

  18. Estimating Premium and Out-of-Pocket Outlays Under All Child Dental Coverage Options in the Federally Facilitated Marketplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujicic, Marko; Yarbrough, Cassandra

    2017-03-01

    To estimate premium and out-of-pocket costs for child dental care services under various dental coverage options offered within the federally facilitated marketplace. We estimated premium and out-of-pocket costs for child dental care services for 12 patient profiles, which vary by dental care use and spending. We did this for 1039 medical plans that include child dental coverage, 2703 medical plans that do not include child dental coverage, and 583 stand-alone dental plans for the 2015 plan year. Our analysis is based on plan data from the Center for Consumer Information and Insurance Oversight and Data.HealthCare.Gov. On average, expected total financial outlays for child dental care services were lower when dental coverage was embedded within a medical plan compared with the alternative of a stand-alone dental plan. The difference, however, in average expected out-of-pocket spending varied significantly for our 12 patient profiles. Older children who are very high users of dental care, for example, have lower expected out-of-pocket costs under a stand-alone dental plan. For the vast majority of other age groups and dental care use profiles, the reverse holds. Our results show that embedding dental coverage within medical plans, on average, results in lower total financial outlays for child beneficiaries. Although our results are specific to the federally facilitated marketplace, they hold lessons for both state-based marketplaces and the general private health insurance and dental benefits market, as well. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV: Postpartum adherence to Option B+ until 18 months in Western Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Sarah; Rempis, Eva; Schnack, Alexandra; Braun, Vera; Rubaihayo, John; Busingye, Priscilla; Tumwesigye, Nazarius Mbona; Harms, Gundel; Theuring, Stefanie

    2017-01-01

    Since 2012, the WHO recommends Option B+ for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. This approach entails the initiation of lifelong antiretroviral therapy in all HIV-positive pregnant women, also implying protection during breastfeeding for 12 months or longer. Research on long-term adherence to Option B+ throughout breastfeeding is scarce to date. Therefore, we conducted a prospective observational cohort study in Fort Portal, Western Uganda, to assess adherence to Option B+ until 18 months postpartum. In 2013, we recruited 67 HIV-positive, Option B+ enrolled women six weeks after giving birth and scheduled them for follow-up study visits after six, twelve and 18 months. Two adherence measures, self-reported drug intake and amount of drug refill visits, were combined to define adherence, and were assessed together with feeding information at all study visits. At six months postpartum, 51% of the enrolled women were considered to be adherent. Until twelve and 18 months postpartum, adherence for the respective follow-up interval decreased to 19% and 20.5% respectively. No woman was completely adherent until 18 months. At the same time, 76.5% of the women breastfed for ≥12 months. Drug adherence was associated with younger age (ptravel costs (p = 0.02), and lower number of previous deliveries (p = 0.04). Long-term adherence to Option B+ seems to be challenging. Considering that in our cohort, prolonged breastfeeding until ≥12 months was widely applied while postpartum adherence until the end of breastfeeding was poor, a potential risk of postpartum vertical transmission needs to be taken seriously into account for Option B+ implementation.

  20. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV: Postpartum adherence to Option B+ until 18 months in Western Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Decker

    Full Text Available Since 2012, the WHO recommends Option B+ for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. This approach entails the initiation of lifelong antiretroviral therapy in all HIV-positive pregnant women, also implying protection during breastfeeding for 12 months or longer. Research on long-term adherence to Option B+ throughout breastfeeding is scarce to date. Therefore, we conducted a prospective observational cohort study in Fort Portal, Western Uganda, to assess adherence to Option B+ until 18 months postpartum. In 2013, we recruited 67 HIV-positive, Option B+ enrolled women six weeks after giving birth and scheduled them for follow-up study visits after six, twelve and 18 months. Two adherence measures, self-reported drug intake and amount of drug refill visits, were combined to define adherence, and were assessed together with feeding information at all study visits. At six months postpartum, 51% of the enrolled women were considered to be adherent. Until twelve and 18 months postpartum, adherence for the respective follow-up interval decreased to 19% and 20.5% respectively. No woman was completely adherent until 18 months. At the same time, 76.5% of the women breastfed for ≥12 months. Drug adherence was associated with younger age (p<0.01, lower travel costs (p = 0.02, and lower number of previous deliveries (p = 0.04. Long-term adherence to Option B+ seems to be challenging. Considering that in our cohort, prolonged breastfeeding until ≥12 months was widely applied while postpartum adherence until the end of breastfeeding was poor, a potential risk of postpartum vertical transmission needs to be taken seriously into account for Option B+ implementation.

  1. Exploring women's decisions about childbearing after the lifting of the one-child policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Eileen; Hesketh, Therese

    2018-01-30

    In 2016, China officially ended the 'one-child' policy permitting all couples to have two children for the first time since 1979. While the policy was relaxed due to demographic concerns, it simultaneously provided many women with a new reproductive opportunity. The goal of this study was to qualitatively understand the childbearing decision process in the new era of the two-child policy. We conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 45 postpartum women at two hospitals in Zhejiang Province, China. The interviews explored women's views on the two-child policy and reproductive decisions and how they decided to have their first or second child. Most women approved of the lifting of the one-child policy; however, many were hesitant or uncertain about their own decisions to have second children. Many felt pressured to have two children for the good of, or as an obligation to, the family. However, they also felt that caring for two children was burdensome, and that they would have to sacrifice a lot in terms of freedom, energy and money. Their responses to the new reproductive opportunity highlight the complexity of childbearing decision-making in modern Chinese society, against a background of persisting traditional values.

  2. Disparities in academic achievement and health: the intersection of child education and health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiscella, Kevin; Kitzman, Harriet

    2009-03-01

    Recent data suggest that that the United States is failing to make significant progress toward the Healthy People 2010 goal of eliminating health disparities. One missing element from the US strategy for achieving this goal is a focus on gaps in child development and achievement. Academic achievement and education seem to be critical determinants of health across the life span and disparities in one contribute to disparities in the other. Despite these linkages, national policy treats child education and health as separate. Landmark education legislation, the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, is due for Congressional reauthorization. It seeks to eliminate gaps in academic child achievement by 2014. It does so by introducing accountability for states, school districts, and schools. In this special article, we review health disparities and contributors to child achievement gaps. We review changes in achievement gaps over time and potential contributors to the limited success of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, including its unfunded mandates and unfounded assumptions. We conclude with key reforms, which include addressing gaps in child school readiness through adequate investment in child health and early education and reductions in child poverty; closing the gap in child achievement by ensuring equity in school accountability standards; and, importantly, ensuring equity in school funding so that resources are allocated on the basis of the needs of the students. This will ensure that schools, particularly those serving large numbers of poor and minority children, have the resources necessary to promote optimal learning.

  3. How Can Data Drive Policy and Practice in Child Welfare? Making the Link in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Barbara; Filippelli, Joanne; Black, Tara; Trocmé, Nico; Esposito, Tonino

    2017-10-14

    Formal university-child welfare partnerships offer a unique opportunity to begin to fill the gaps in the child welfare knowledge base and link child welfare services to the realities of practice. With resources from a knowledge mobilization grant, a formal partnership was developed between the University of Toronto, clinicians, policy analysts, and researchers from child welfare agencies across Ontario. The key objectives of the grant included: (1) enhancing the capacity of service providers to access and analyze child welfare data to inform service and policy decisions; (2) integrating clinical expertise in service and policy decisions; and (3) developing a joint research agenda addressing high-priority knowledge gaps. This partnership was an opportunity to advance the evidence base with respect to service provision in Ontario and to create a culture of knowledge and evidence that would eventually support more complex research initiatives. Administrative data was analyzed for this partnership through the Ontario Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (OCANDS)-the first child welfare data system in Ontario to track child welfare-involved children and their families. Child welfare agencies identified recurrence as an important priority and agency-driven analyses were subsequently conducted on OCANDS generated recurrence Service Performance Indicators (SPI's). Using an urgent versus chronic investigative taxonomy for analyses, findings revealed that the majority of cases did not recur within 12 months and cases identified as chronic needs are more likely to return to the attention of child welfare authorities. One of the key outcomes of the partnership - helping agencies to understand their administrative data is described, as are considerations for next steps for future partnerships and research.

  4. Wide variability in physical activity environments and weather-related outdoor play policies in child care centers within a single county of Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Kristen A; Sherman, Susan N; Khoury, Jane C; Foster, Karla E; Saelens, Brian E; Kalkwarf, Heidi J

    2011-05-01

    To examine the variability of physical activity environments and outdoor play policies in child care centers and to determine whether this variability is associated with the demographic characteristics of the child care centers surveyed. Early Learning Environments Physical Activity and Nutrition Telephone Survey. Child care centers in Hamilton County (greater Cincinnati area), Ohio, during the period from 2008 to 2009. Directors of all 185 licensed full-time child care centers in Hamilton County. Descriptive measures of playground and indoor physical activity environments and weather-related outdoor play policies. Of 185 eligible child care centers, 162 (88%) responded to our survey. Of the 162 centers that responded, 151 (93%) reported an on-site playground, but slightly more than half reported that their playgrounds were large, that they were at least one-third covered in shade, or that they had a variety of portable play equipment. Only half reported having a dedicated indoor gross motor room where children could be active during inclement weather. Only 32 centers (20%) allowed children to go outside in temperatures below 32°F (0°C), and 70 centers (43%) reported allowing children outdoors during light rain. A higher percentage of children receiving tuition assistance was associated with lower quality physical activity facilities and stricter weather-related practices. National accreditation was associated with more physical activity-promoting practices. We found considerable variability in the indoor and outdoor physical activity environments offered by child care centers within a single county of Ohio. Depending on the outdoor play policy and options for indoor physical activity of a child care center, children's opportunities for physical activity can be curtailed as a result of subfreezing temperatures or light rain. Policy changes and education of parents and teachers may be needed to ensure that children have ample opportunity for daily physical

  5. Entryway into the child protection system: the impacts of child maltreatment reporting policies and reporting system structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Julie A; Duran, Lloyd

    2014-05-01

    This study was designed to assess the impacts of maltreatment reporting policies and reporting system structures on four aspects of entry into the child protection system (the maltreatment referral rate, the percentage of referrals screened in for investigation, the screened-in report rate and the substantiated report rate). Using secondary data from several sources, eight multiple linear regression models were created and analyzed. Results from a sample of 44 states indicated significant effects for system structure but no effects for reporting policies. Specifically, states with decentralized reporting system structures were significantly more restrictive in access than other states. These results have implications for child welfare administrators and policymakers seeking to maximize access for maltreated children and their families. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The One-Child Policy, Elder Care, and LGB Chinese: A Social Policy Explanation for Family Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Timothy

    2018-01-03

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people in China consistently report family pressure as the greatest challenge they face in their daily lives. This problem has been explained primarily by highlighting sociocultural factors. While such explanations are important to understanding family pressure, they do not easily lead to actionable policy interventions to relieve it. This article suggests a new way of looking at family pressure by positing a social policy explanation. In particular, it reveals how both the one-child policy and elder care reforms have strong heteronormative biases that negatively and disproportionately affect LGB people, and it explores social policy interventions that may help address them. Beyond the China case, the article seeks to open up new avenues for research into how sexuality could be better accounted for in analyses of social policies and considered in broader discussions on defamilization and welfare state reform.

  7. Child Fatality Review Teams: A Content Analysis of Social Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Emily M.; McCarthy, Sean C.

    2011-01-01

    Child fatality review teams (CFRTs) have existed since the 1970s; yet, a comprehensive understanding of their procedures, practices, and outcomes is lacking. This article addresses that gap in this study of CFRT state statutes. Findings indicate CFRT laws address nine areas of practice, from team composition, to purpose, to outcomes. Results also…

  8. Supporting the Whole Child through Coordinated Policies, Processes, and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Sharon D.; Hurley, James; Ahmed, Shannon R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child (WSCC) model provides a framework for promoting greater alignment, integration, and collaboration between health and education across the school setting and improving students' cognitive, physical, social, and emotional development. By providing a learning environment that ensures each…

  9. Child Welfare Privatization: Quantitative Indicators and Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yampolskaya, Svetlana; Paulson, Robert I.; Armstrong, Mary; Jordan, Neil; Vargo, Amy C.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the development of safety, permanency, and child well-being indicators by using administrative data sets as well as by using these indicators as tools for evaluating Florida's Community-Based Care (CBC) initiative. Longitudinal data from 37 counties including 4 counties that implemented community-based…

  10. Child injury surveillance capabilities in NSW: informing policy and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Mitchell

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Injury is one of the most common reasons why a child is hospitalised. Information gained from injury surveillance activities provides an estimate of the injury burden, describes injury event circumstances, can be used to monitor injury trends over time, and is used to design and evaluate injury prevention activities. This perspective article provides an overview of child injury surveillance capabilities within New South Wales (NSW, Australia, following a stocktake of population-based injury-related data collections using the Evaluation Framework for Injury Surveillance Systems. Information about childhood injury in NSW is obtained from multiple administrative data collections that were not specifically designed to conduct injury surveillance. Obtaining good information for child injury surveillance in NSW will involve better coordination of information from agencies that record information about childhood injury. Regular reporting about childhood injury to provide a comprehensive profile of injuries of children and young people in the state should be considered, along with the provision and/or linkage of child injury information from multiple data collections. This could support the development of a suite of injury performance indicators to monitor childhood injury reduction strategies across NSW.

  11. Analysis of policy options and implementation measures promoting electricity from renewable biomass in the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kautto, N.

    2005-04-01

    Biomass as a renewable energy source holds a great potential in responding to energy challenges of the future as well as meeting renewable energy targets set by the European Union. The objective of this study was to analyse various policy options and implementation measures promoting electricity from renewable biomass in the European Union, including new Member States (EU-25). The main political driving force behind this investigation was the RES-E Directive (2001/77/EC). The effectiveness of policy instruments regarding the development of electricity from biomass and biogas in the period of 1990-2002, and the framework conditions, i.e. success and risk factors, for this progress were assessed though a 'five-step approach'. Past development in terms of bioelectricity production and generating capacity was assessed based on statistics of Eurostat and the IEA. Policy instruments promoting bioelectricity and the framework factors on the national level in each EU Member State (excluding Cyprus and Malta) were investigated using the EU and governmental documents, independent evaluations and expert contacts as information sources. It became clear that determination of the effectiveness of policy instruments cannot be separated from the environment these mechanisms are applied to: mapping of the frame conditions for development is essential. Instead of selecting distinct policy instruments, successful Member State/bioelectricity combinations were chosen. The most successful combinations were found to be Germany, United Kingdom, Spain and Finland, whereas examples of unsuccessful measures were found in Greece, Luxembourg and the new Member States. Bioelectricity has clearly benefited from feed-in tariff system in countries like Germany but the use of biomass has essentially increased even without this measure in Sweden and Finland, where favourable taxation and strong links between forestry and power industries are defining factors for positive development. This study

  12. Drinking water in California child care sites before and after 2011-2012 beverage policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Lorrene D; Yoshida, Sallie; Sharma, Sushma; Patel, Anisha; Vitale, Elyse Homel; Hecht, Ken

    2015-06-04

    Drinking water is promoted to improve beverage nutrition and reduce the prevalence of obesity. The aims of this study were to identify how water was provided to young children in child care and to determine the extent to which water access changed after a federal and state child care beverage policy was instituted in 2011 and 2012 in California. Two independent cross-sectional samples of licensed child care providers completed a self-administered survey in 2008 (n = 429) and 2012 (n = 435). Logistic regression was used to analyze data for differences between 2008 and 2012 survey responses, after adjustment for correlations among the measurements in each of 6 child care categories sampled. A significantly larger percentage of sites in 2012 than in 2008 always served water at the table with meals or snacks (47.0% vs 28.0%, P = .001). A significantly larger percentage of child care sites in 2012 than in 2008 made water easily and visibly available for children to self-serve both indoors (77.9% vs 69.0%, P = .02) and outside (78.0% vs 69.0%, P = .03). Sites that participated in the federal Child and Adult Care Food Program had greater access to water indoors and outside than sites not in the program. In 2012 most (76.1%) child care providers reported no barriers to serving water to children. Factors most frequently cited to facilitate serving water were information for families (39.0% of sites), beverage policy (37.0%), and lessons for children (37.9%). Water provision in California child care improved significantly between samples of sites studied in 2008 and 2012, but room for improvement remains after policy implementation. Additional training for child care providers and parents should be considered.

  13. A quantitative assessment of policy options for no net loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulp, C.J.E.; van Teeffelen, A.J.A.; Tucker, G.; Verburg, P.H.

    2016-01-01

    The Biodiversity Strategy of the European Union includes a target to "ensure no-net-loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services by 2020". Many policy options can be envisioned to achieve such a no-net-loss target, mainly acting on land use and land management. To assess the effectiveness of such

  14. Using value of statistical life for the ex ante evaluation of transport policy options: a discussion based on ethical theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wee, B.; Rietveld, P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss a number of questions that are highly important for the ex ante evaluation of the safety impacts of transport policy options, from the perspective of ethical theory: (1) Is it morally OK to express prevention on acceptance of fatalities or risks in monetary terms? (2) How

  15. Using value of statistical life for the ex ante evaluation of transport policy options : A discussion based on ethical theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wee, G.P.; Rietveld, P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss a number of questions that are highly important for the ex ante evaluation of the safety impacts of transport policy options, from the perspective of ethical theory: (1) Is it morally OK to express prevention on acceptance of fatalities or risks in monetary terms? (2) How

  16. Public opinion on nutrition-related policies to combat child obesity, Los Angeles County, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Paul A; Chiang, Choiyuk; Lightstone, Amy S; Shih, Margaret

    2014-06-05

    We assessed public opinion on nutrition-related policies to address child obesity: a soda tax, restrictions on advertising unhealthy foods and beverages to children, and restrictions on siting fast food restaurants and convenience stores near schools. We analyzed data from 998 adults (aged ≥18 years) in the 2011 Los Angeles County Health Survey. Support was highest for advertising restrictions (74%), intermediate for a soda tax (60%), and lowest for siting restrictions on fast food restaurants and convenience stores (44% and 37%, respectively). Support for food and beverage advertising restrictions and soda taxation is promising for future policy efforts to address child obesity.

  17. China's one-child policy: the economic choices and consequences faced by pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, J P; Norton, E C; Veney, J E

    2001-03-01

    This paper addresses the important issue of the effect of China's one-child policy on prenatal and obstetric care utilization. The paper provides the first detailed empirical approach to this question, exploiting a unique high quality household survey. China officially codified a set of rules and regulations in 1979 governing the approved size of Chinese families, commonly known as the one-child policy. The policy imposed economic and social costs on families failing to adhere to the family size limits. In particular, the policy raised the price of obstetric medical services for unapproved pregnancies in comparison to approved pregnancies and imposed fines on families with unapproved births. Using data from an eight-province longitudinal household survey (The China Health and Nutrition Survey), we investigate whether or not the one-child policy's financial penalties were associated with the avoidance of obstetric care by pregnant Chinese women with unapproved pregnancies. The one-child policy variables of particular interest were a dichotomous measure of the approval status of the pregnancy, a continuous measure of the fine imposed upon families with unapproved births, and a continuous measure of the prices of prenatal care and delivery services net of any subsidy available for approved births. The results partially confirm the hypotheses that the one-child policy's economic and social costs caused women to forego seeking modern obstetric care services. The fine was found to be a significant deterrent to the utilization of prenatal care. Additionally, the unapproved-status of a pregnancy was strongly negatively associated with "the use of obstetric care. However, higher prices were not consistently found to be a significant deterrent to the use of obstetric care.

  18. 75 FR 20316 - Geographic Preference Option for the Procurement of Unprocessed Agricultural Products in Child...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... Summer Food Service Program sponsor, to determine how to define the geographic area. As provided in the... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service 7 CFR Parts 210, 215, 220, 225, and 226 RIN... Child Nutrition Programs AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The...

  19. The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea: environmental and socioeconomic status, future prognosis and ameliorative policy options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVantier, Lyndon; Alcala, Angel; Wilkinson, Clive

    2004-02-01

    The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea, with neighboring Indonesian Seas and South China Sea, lies at the center of the world's tropical marine biodiversity. Encircled by 3 populous, developing nations, the Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia, the Sea and its adjacent coastal and terrestrial ecosystems, supports ca. 33 million people, most with subsistence livelihoods heavily reliant on its renewable natural resources. These resources are being impacted severely by rapid population growth (> 2% yr-1, with expected doubling by 2035) and widespread poverty, coupled with increasing international market demand and rapid technological changes, compounded by inefficiencies in governance and a lack of awareness and/or acceptance of some laws among local populations, particularly in parts of the Philippines and Indonesia. These key root causes all contribute to illegal practices and corruption, and are resulting in severe resource depletion and degradation of water catchments, river, lacustrine, estuarine, coastal, and marine ecosystems. The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea forms a major geopolitical focus, with porous borders, transmigration, separatist movements, piracy, and illegal fishing all contributing to environmental degradation, human suffering and political instability, and inhibiting strong trilateral support for interventions. This review analyzes these multifarious environmental and socioeconomic impacts and their root causes, provides a future prognosis of status by 2020, and recommends policy options aimed at amelioration through sustainable management and development.

  20. Long-Term Socioeconomic Impact of Child Abuse and Neglect: Implications for Public Policy. Policy Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, David S.

    2005-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect greatly influence victims' long-term wellbeing. Until recently, however, little was known about how such experiences affect victims' later socioeconomic status. Current research has examined the long-term impact of child abuse and neglect on adult employment, income, and reliance on public assistance, as well as the reasons…

  1. Policy content and stakeholder network analysis for infant and young child feeding in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Puri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last decade, infant and young child feeding (IYCF indicators in India have improved. However, poor IYCF practices are still apparent, associated with pervasive high rates of child under-nutrition. Interventions to improve IYCF need augmentation by appropriate policy support to consolidate gains. The aim of this study was to identify opportunities to strengthen and support IYCF policies through a policy content and stakeholder network analysis. Methods IYCF policies and guidelines were systematically mapped and coded using predetermined themes. Six ‘net-map’ group interviews were conducted for stakeholder analysis with data analyzed using ORA (organizational risk analyzer, copyright Carley, Carnegie Mellon University software. The study was carried out at a national level and in the states of Maharashtra and unified Andhra Pradesh. Results Thirty relevant policy documents were identified. Support for IYCF was clearly apparent and was actioned within sectoral policies and strategic plans. We identified support for provision of information to mothers and caregivers in both sectoral and high-level/strategic policy documents. At a sectoral level, there was support for training health care workers and for enabling mothers to access IYCF. Opportunities to strengthen policy included expanding coverage and translating policy goals into implementation level documents. At the national level, Ministry of Women and Child Development [MoWCD], Ministry of Health and Family Welfare [MoHFW] and the Prime Minister’s Nutrition Council [PMNC] were the most influential actors in providing technical support while MoHFW, MoWCD, and Bill Melinda Gates Foundation were the most influential actors in providing funding and were therefore influential stakeholders in shaping IYCF policies and programs. Conclusion We identified a wide range of strengths in the IYCF policy environment in India and also opportunities for improvement. One key

  2. Policy content and stakeholder network analysis for infant and young child feeding in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Seema; Fernandez, Sylvia; Puranik, Amrita; Anand, Deepika; Gaidhane, Abhay; Quazi Syed, Zahiruddin; Patel, Archana; Uddin, Shahadat; Thow, Anne Marie

    2017-06-13

    Over the last decade, infant and young child feeding (IYCF) indicators in India have improved. However, poor IYCF practices are still apparent, associated with pervasive high rates of child under-nutrition. Interventions to improve IYCF need augmentation by appropriate policy support to consolidate gains. The aim of this study was to identify opportunities to strengthen and support IYCF policies through a policy content and stakeholder network analysis. IYCF policies and guidelines were systematically mapped and coded using predetermined themes. Six 'net-map' group interviews were conducted for stakeholder analysis with data analyzed using ORA (organizational risk analyzer, copyright Carley, Carnegie Mellon University) software. The study was carried out at a national level and in the states of Maharashtra and unified Andhra Pradesh. Thirty relevant policy documents were identified. Support for IYCF was clearly apparent and was actioned within sectoral policies and strategic plans. We identified support for provision of information to mothers and caregivers in both sectoral and high-level/strategic policy documents. At a sectoral level, there was support for training health care workers and for enabling mothers to access IYCF. Opportunities to strengthen policy included expanding coverage and translating policy goals into implementation level documents. At the national level, Ministry of Women and Child Development [MoWCD], Ministry of Health and Family Welfare [MoHFW] and the Prime Minister's Nutrition Council [PMNC] were the most influential actors in providing technical support while MoHFW, MoWCD, and Bill Melinda Gates Foundation were the most influential actors in providing funding and were therefore influential stakeholders in shaping IYCF policies and programs. We identified a wide range of strengths in the IYCF policy environment in India and also opportunities for improvement. One key strength is the integration of IYCF policies into a range of agendas and

  3. Assessing NHS trusts' compliance with child health policy standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Leslie; Glasper, Alan; Battrick, Cath; Brown, Sara

    An audit tool to undertake a baseline assessment of NHS trust compliance with contemporary healthcare polices was designed collaboratively by senior children's nurses across one English strategic health authority (SHA). Children's units in hospitals across the SHA were benchmarked against the audit tool standards throughout 2009. The aim was to identify good and less optimum compliance with best practice policy-driven benchmarks of care, using a 1-5 scale. Each NHS trust within the SHA was contacted to make arrangements with members of the interprofessional team to complete the baseline benchmarking exercise. The audit was conducted over 1 or 2 days. The majority of the evidence sourced comprised documented evidence and verbal affirmation of the individual perceptions of key informants with regard to how the range of clinical areas scored against the best practice benchmarks. Scores of policy compliance in some trusts audited ranged from 1 (non-compliant) to 5 (full compliance). The results demonstrate that many trusts are making good efforts to ensure full compliance to policy guidelines and mandates. However, there are some aspects of policy standards that trusts have yet to fully embrace. This initial benchmarking exercise on behalf of an English SHA has revealed many areas of outstanding and good practice which have the potential to be shared.

  4. Child and Family Policies in a Time of Economic Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Dominic

    2010-01-01

    At the beginning of 2008, a number of the world's major economies began to experience the effects of the biggest economic financial crisis in history. By the end of that year, the financial crisis was a global recession, and governments responded with changes to a suite of social and economic policies. Two broad stages of government response are…

  5. The ethical and policy implications of research on income inequality and child well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Kate E; Wilkinson, Richard G

    2015-03-01

    Child well-being is important for lifelong health and well-being. Although there is a robust evidence base linking social determinants of health (eg, relative poverty and income inequality) to child well-being, social and public health policy tends to focus on interventions to mitigate their effects, rather than remove the root causes. The goal of this study was to examine associations between child well-being and income inequality. We compared reported rates of childhood well-being in the 2007 and 2013 UNICEF reports on child well-being in wealthy countries. Twenty indicators of child well-being (excluding child poverty) were defined consistently in both the 2007 and 2013 reports. These variables were used to create an indicator of change in child well-being over the approximate decade 2000 to 2010. For our analyses of income inequality, we used the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Gini coefficient of income inequality for 2009 and change between 2000 and 2009, respectively. The overall index of child well-being in 2013 was closely and negatively correlated with income inequality (r = -0.60, P = .004) but not with average income (r = -0.3460, P = .12). Adjustment for income inequality, children in relative poverty, and the child poverty gap did not change the lack of association between average income and child well-being in 2013 in wealthy countries. Between 2000 and 2010, child well-being scores improved most in Italy, Norway, Portugal, the United Kingdom, and Germany. The biggest declines were seen in Sweden, Canada, Japan, Switzerland, and France. Countries that experienced the largest increases in income inequality had significantly greater declines in child well-being (r = -0.51, P = .02). Children born into socioeconomically disadvantaged families suffer worse child well-being and its lifelong implications, in all societies, worldwide. Our analyses show, however, that some wealthy societies are able to mitigate these inequalities; these

  6. Climate policy through changing consumption choices: Options and obstacles for reducing greenhouse gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girod, B.; van Vuuren, D.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/11522016X; Hertwich, E.G.

    2014-01-01

    While national climate policy can address countries’ production or consumption, climate mitigation via changes in consumption has previously received relatively little attention in climate policy literature. In the absence of an effective international climate policy, the focus on consumption is

  7. The Shift towards Family Reunification in Romanian Child Welfare Policy: An Analysis of Changing Forms of Governmental Intervention in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the transition in Romanian child welfare policy from a paternalistic attitude of taking responsibility for "abandoned" children to a capitalist orientation of reinstating responsibility for "abandoned" children to the private sphere. While this shift in child policy is often seen to reflect a withdrawal of…

  8. China's One-Child Policy and the Care of Children: An Analysis of Qualitative and Quantitative Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Susan E.; Zhai, Fengying; Xu, Siyuan; Yang, Mingliang

    2001-01-01

    Longitudinal survey data from eight primarily rural regions of China and in-depth interviews suggest that the one-child policy, in so far as it limits couples to one or two children, leads to greater parent involvement in child care. Additional effects of policy vary by children's gender. (Contains 65 references.) (Author/SV)

  9. Women-friendly policy paradoxes?! Child Care policies and gender equality visions in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borchorst, Anette

    2006-01-01

    The chapter focuses on the political construction of the equality-difference dilemma in Scandinavian welfare policies. Different policy logics of childcare policies in Sweden, Norway and Denmark are addressed and the visions of gender equality underpinning them are analyzed....

  10. Biologising parenting: neuroscience discourse, English social and public health policy and understandings of the child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Pam; Lee, Ellie; Macvarish, Jan

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, claims about children's developing brains have become central to the formation of child health and welfare policies in England. While these policies assert that they are based on neuro-scientific discoveries, their relationship to neuroscience itself has been debated. However, what is clear is that they portray a particular understanding of children and childhood, one that is marked by a lack of acknowledgment of child personhood. Using an analysis of key government-commissioned reports and additional advocacy documents, this article illustrates the ways that the mind of the child is reduced to the brain, and this brain comes to represent the child. It is argued that a highly reductionist and limiting construction of the child is produced, alongside the idea that parenting is the main factor in child development. It is concluded that this focus on children's brains, with its accompanying deterministic perspective on parenting, overlooks children's embodied lives and this has implications for the design of children's health and welfare services. © 2015 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Appropriate food policies and investments could reduce child malnutrition by 43% in 2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosegrant, Mark W; Meijer, Siet

    2002-11-01

    This report describes past trends in global child malnutrition and assesses future prospects for reducing child malnutrition. Most developing countries have significantly reduced the proportion of malnourished children during the past three decades. However, because of population growth, the absolute number of malnourished children has fallen much less sharply. Moreover, the number of malnourished children has increased in Sub-Saharan Africa. A global food supply-and-demand model is used to project child malnutrition to 2020 under alternative assumptions on policies and investments that influence food security outcomes in education, clean water, agricultural research, irrigation and rural infrastructure. The baseline "best-estimate" projection shows that the number of malnourished children will continue to decline slowly but that child malnutrition will continue to increase in Sub-Saharan Africa. The optimistic scenario shows that better policy and more rapid economic and agricultural growth can lead to substantial food security improvements, but the pessimistic scenario shows that significantly worse outcomes are also possible with relatively small declines in policy and investment efforts relative to the baseline. A concerted effort to eliminate childhood malnutrition would require policy reform and significant increases in public investment to produce long-term gains in income growth, agricultural productivity and social indicators.

  12. Elementary Teachers' Knowledge of Legislative and Policy Duties for Reporting Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Mathews, Ben; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Farrell, Ann; Butler, Des

    2013-01-01

    This study examined elementary school teachers' knowledge of their legislative and policy-based reporting duties with respect to child sexual abuse. Data were collected from 470 elementary school teachers from urban and rural government and nongovernment schools in 3 Australian states, which at the time of the study had 3 different legislative…

  13. State of Early Child Development Research, Practice, and Policy for Most Vulnerable Children: A Global Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Mary Eming

    2017-01-01

    Interventions to enhance development of children ages 0-6 have profound benefits for children, families, and societies. The benefits are well documented, recognized internationally, and supportive of policies and programs targeting early child development (ECD). Intervening in the early years is a critical first step toward alleviating poverty,…

  14. The "Missing Girls" of China and the Unintended Consequences of the One Child Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebenstein, Avraham

    2010-01-01

    High ratios of males to females in China have concerned researchers (Sen 1990, Yi et al. 1993) and the recent increase has alarmed policymakers worldwide. This paper presents an analysis of China's census data that indicates that the "missing girls" phenomenon is causally linked to enforcement of the One Child Policy. Fertility is lower…

  15. Epidemiology of child injuries in Uganda: challenges for health policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee Yuen-Jan Hsia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Globally, 90% of road crash deaths occur in the developing world. Children in Africa bear the major part of this burden, with the highest unintentional injury rates in the world. Our study aims to better understand injury patterns among children living in Kampala, Uganda and provide evidence that injuries are significant in child health. Trauma registry records of injured children seen at Mulago Hospital in Kampala were analysed. This data was collected when patients were seen initially and included patient condition, demographics, clinical variables, cause, severity, as measured by the Kampala trauma score, and location of injury. Outcomes were captured on discharge from the casualty department and at two weeks for admitted patients. From August 2004 to August 2005, 872 injury visits for children <18 years old were recorded. The mean age was 11 years (95% CI 10.9–11.6; 68% (95% CI 65–72% were males; 64% were treated in casualty and discharged; 35% were admitted. The most common causes were traffic crashes (34%, falls (18% and violence (15%. Most children (87% were mildly injured; 1% severely injured. By two weeks, 6% of the patients admitted for injuries had died and, of these morbidities, 16% had severe injuries, 63% had moderate injuries and 21% had mild injuries. We concluded that, in Kampala, children bear a large burden of injury from preventable causes. Deaths in low severity patients highlight the need for improvements in facility-based care. Further studies are necessary to capture overall child injury mortality and to measure chronic morbidity owing to sequelae of injuries.

  16. Evaluation of Nutrition and Physical Activity Policies and Practices in Child Care Centers within Rural Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Jaime S; Contreras, Dawn; Gold, Abby; Keim, Ann; Oscarson, Renee; Peters, Paula; Procter, Sandra; Remig, Valentina; Smathers, Carol; Mobley, Amy R

    2015-10-01

    Although some researchers have examined nutrition and physical activity policies within urban child care centers, little is known about the potentially unique needs of rural communities. Child care centers serving preschool children located within low-income rural communities (n = 29) from seven states (Indiana, Kansas, Michigan, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin) were assessed to determine current nutrition and physical activity (PA) practices and policies. As part of a large-scale childhood obesity prevention project, the Community Healthy Living Index's previously validated Early Childhood Program Assessment Tool was used to collect data. Descriptive statistical analysis was conducted to identify high-priority areas. Healthy People 2020 and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics' recommendations for nutrition and PA policies in child care centers were used as benchmarks. Reports of not fully implementing (nutrition-related policies or practices within rural early child care centers were identified. Centers not consistently serving a variety of fruits (48%), vegetables (45%), whole grains (41%), limiting saturated fat intake (31%), implementing healthy celebration guidelines (41%), involving children in mealtime (62%), and referring families to nutrition assistance programs (24%) were identified. More than one third of centers also had limited structured PA opportunities. Although eligible, only 48% of the centers participated in the Child and Adult Care Food Program. Overall, centers lacked parental outreach, staff training, and funding/resources to support nutrition and PA. These results provide insight into where child care centers within low-income, rural communities may need assistance to help prevent childhood obesity.

  17. Societal values and policies may curtail preschool children's physical activity in child care centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Kristen A; Sherman, Susan N; Kendeigh, Cassandra A; Kalkwarf, Heidi J; Saelens, Brian E

    2012-02-01

    Three-fourths of US preschool-age children are in child care centers. Children are primarily sedentary in these settings, and are not meeting recommended levels of physical activity. Our objective was to identify potential barriers to children's physical activity in child care centers. Nine focus groups with 49 child care providers (55% African American) were assembled from 34 centers (inner-city, suburban, Head Start, and Montessori) in Cincinnati, Ohio. Three coders independently analyzed verbatim transcripts for themes. Data analysis and interpretation of findings were verified through triangulation of methods. We identified 3 main barriers to children's physical activity in child care: (1) injury concerns, (2) financial, and (3) a focus on "academics." Stricter licensing codes intended to reduce children's injuries on playgrounds rendered playgrounds less physically challenging and interesting. In addition, some parents concerned about potential injury, requested staff to restrict playground participation for their children. Small operating margins of most child care centers limited their ability to install abundant playground equipment. Child care providers felt pressure from state mandates and parents to focus on academics at the expense of gross motor play. Because children spend long hours in care and many lack a safe place to play near their home, these barriers may limit children's only opportunity to engage in physical activity. Societal priorities for young children--safety and school readiness--may be hindering children's physical development. In designing environments that optimally promote children's health and development, child advocates should think holistically about potential unintended consequences of policies.

  18. A group randomized trial using an appointment system to improve adherence to ART at reproductive and child health clinics implementing Option B+ in Tanzania.

    OpenAIRE

    Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Chalker, John; Liana, Jafary; Kajoka, Mwikemo Deborah; Valimba, Richard; Kimatta, Suleiman; Dillip, Angel; Vialle-Valentin, Catherine; Embrey, Martha; Lieber, Rachel; Johnson, Keith

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: In October 2013, Tanzania adopted Option B+ under which HIV-positive pregnant women are initiated on antiretroviral therapy in reproductive and child health clinics at diagnosis. Studies have shown that adherence and retention to antiretroviral treatment can be problematic. Methods: We implemented a group randomized controlled trial in 24 reproductive and child health clinics in eight districts in Mbeya region. The trial tested the impact of implementing paper-based appointment ...

  19. Projection of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions by motor vehicles in China: Policy options and impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo Hong; Wang, Michael; Zhang Xiliang; He Kebin; Gong Huiming; Jiang Kejun; Jin Yuefu; Shi Yaodong; Yu Xin

    2012-01-01

    We project the well-to-wheels (WTW) and tank-to-wheels (TTW) fossil-energy use, petroleum use, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the road-transport sector in China up to year 2050 and evaluate the effects of various potential policy options with the fuel economy and environmental impacts (FEEI) model ( (http://www.feeimodel.org/)). The policies evaluated include (1) vehicle fuel-consumption improvements, (2) dieselization, (3) vehicle electrification, and (4) fuel diversification, with plausible policy scenarios. Under the business-as-usual scenario, road transport in China would create 410–520 million metric tons (MMT) of oil-equivalent of TTW oil demand (three to four times the current level), 28–36 billion GJ of WTW energy demand, and 1900–2300 MMT of CO 2 -equivalent of WTW GHG emissions by 2050. The policies (in the same order as above) are projected to reduce the TTW oil demand by 35%, 10%, 29%, and 44%, and reduce WTW GHG emissions by 34%, 5%, 12%, and 13%, respectively, by 2050. This evaluation reveals that the fuel-consumption improvement policy could achieve greater benefit in reducing oil use, fossil-energy use, and GHG emissions. Implications of each policy option are discussed and the uncertainties associated with the policy scenarios are analyzed. - Highlights: ► Fuel-cycle energy use and GHG emissions of vehicles in China are projected up to 2050. ► Various policies are evaluated with the fuel economy and environmental impacts model. ► Fuel economy standards have greatest benefit in saving energy use and GHG emissions. ► Electrification is effective. Benefit of dieselization and fuel blending is limited.

  20. Designing a climate change policy for the international maritime transport sector: Market-based measures and technological options for global and regional policy actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miola, A.; Marra, M.; Ciuffo, B.

    2011-01-01

    The international maritime transport sector has a significant abatement potential and some technical improvements that reduce GHG emissions would already be profitable without any policy in place. This paper analyses in-depth the limits and opportunities of policy options currently under consideration at the international level to stimulate the sector to reduce its GHG emissions. In particular, in order for the maritime transport sector to become more environmentally friendly, the flexible nature of international market-based measures and the European Union Emission Trading Scheme provide a definite window of opportunity without placing unnecessary high burden on the sector. However, the development of a regional policy, such as at European level, for the international maritime transport sector faces several obstacles: allocation of emissions, carbon leakage, permit allocation, treatment of the great variety in ship type, size and usage, and transaction cost. Global market-based policies could overcome most of these challenges. This paper provides an in-depth analysis of the policy instruments currently under discussion to reduce the sector's burden on the environment, and focuses on economic theory, legal principles, technological options, and the political framework that together make up the basis of decision-making regarding the international maritime transport sector's climate change policies. - Highlights: → Technologies for a more environmental friendly maritime transport sector and their cost-effectiveness. → How to combine ambitious CO 2 reduction goals with a sector-wide market-based policy. → Permits should be auctioned frequently and small emitters have to be excluded. → Inclusion of shipping in the EU ETS causes carbon leakage, so the policy should aim at expansion.

  1. Public health economic evaluation of different European Union-level policy options aimed at reducing population dietary trans fat intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Saborido, Carlos; Mouratidou, Theodora; Livaniou, Anastasia; Caldeira, Sandra; Wollgast, Jan

    2016-11-01

    The adverse relation between dietary trans fatty acid (TFA) intake and coronary artery disease risk is well established. Many countries in the European Union (EU) and worldwide have implemented different policies to reduce the TFA intake of their populations. The aim of this study was to assess the added value of EU-level action by estimating the cost-effectiveness of 3 possible EU-level policy measures to reduce population dietary TFA intake. This was calculated against a reference situation of not implementing any EU-level policy (i.e., by assuming only national or self-regulatory measures). We developed a mathematical model to compare different policy options at the EU level: 1) to do nothing beyond the current state (reference situation), 2) to impose mandatory TFA labeling of prepackaged foods, 3) to seek voluntary agreements toward further reducing industrially produced TFA (iTFA) content in foods, and 4) to impose a legislative limit for iTFA content in foods. The model indicated that to impose an EU-level legal limit or to make voluntary agreements may, over the course of a lifetime (85 y), avoid the loss of 3.73 and 2.19 million disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), respectively, and save >51 and 23 billion euros when compared with the reference situation. Implementing mandatory TFA labeling can also avoid the loss of 0.98 million DALYs, but this option incurs more costs than it saves compared with the reference option. The model indicates that there is added value of an EU-level action, either via a legal limit or through voluntary agreements, with the legal limit option producing the highest additional health benefits. Introducing mandatory TFA labeling for the EU common market may provide some additional health benefits; however, this would likely not be a cost-effective strategy.

  2. Optimal Replacement Policies for Non-Uniform Cache Objects with Optional Eviction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bahat, Omri; Makowski, Armand M

    2002-01-01

    .... However, since the introduction of optimal replacement policies for conventional caching, the problem of finding optimal replacement policies under the factors indicated has not been studied in any systematic manner...

  3. Climate change : expert opinion on the economics of policy options to address climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Panelists identified key strengths and limitations of alternative policy approaches that should be of assistance to the Congress in weighing the potential benefits and costs of different policies for addressing climate change. Many panelists said tha...

  4. Honorable son might be a girl: social effects of China's one-child policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D Y

    1984-01-01

    The population growth of China continues to outpace economic production despite a tremendous decrease in fertility rates in the last decade. The dual goals of modernization and population control now hinge on the success of the government's policy of 1-child families. Limiting couples to 1 child appears to be a simple and effective way of achieving the goal of 1.2 billion population by 2020, but closer examination suggests that success in population control could mean social and cultural problems. Is the "onyl child" raised radically different from the child who grows up with siblings? The predominant view is that child rearinfg in China has become too soft. Based on equal parts of observation abd speculation, the prevailing wisdom contends that the only child runs the risk of becoming a self-centered, demanding, uncooperative, and materialistic adult who lacks self-discipline and has no interest in serving others. Single children appear to have more "bad habits", yet preliminary testing in a few kindergartens shows them to faster learners and intellectually moe mature. By directing their resources and attention on 1 child, parents are better able to provide better nutrition and living conditions. Yet, concentrated parental expectations and pressure to succeed may result in mental health complications for the only child. To counteract the effects of 1-child families and their fostering of individualism, institutional child rearing at the nursery and kindergarten levels is emphasized. However, parents seeing their child only 1 day a week, may overcompensate for the time of separation, teaching the child a double standard concerning school values vs. home values. Future residential arrangements for elderly parents and grandparents will create problems for the only child. Another prevailing problem is the traditional Chinese preference for male children, particularly in rural areas. Discrimination against females has become a serious problem in the countryside, and

  5. Too early or too late: What have we learned from the 30-year two-child policy experiment in Yicheng, China?

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Qin; Fei Wang

    2017-01-01

    Background: In January 2016, China ended its 35-year-old one-child policy and replaced it with a nationwide two-child policy. However, it remains unclear whether a two-child policy can effectively increase the fertility level in China. Objective: We reviewed the 30-year (1985-2015) two-child policy experiment carried out in Yicheng, a county in the Shanxi province of China, to assess the impact of this policy on the crude birth rate, as compared with the one-child policy implemented in mos...

  6. Dual containment in the Persian Gulf: strategic considerations and policy options

    OpenAIRE

    Mraz, Jerry L; McCallen, John P.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis is a critical analysis of US foreign policy toward Iran and Iraq known as a policy of dual containment. The objective of dual containment is to isolate these regimes politically, economically and militarily. This thesis evaluates American conduct in the region for the last 50 years, in order to show how previous strategies culminated in the present policy. It discusses both the merits and problems inherent in dual containment, as well as the impact of this policy on its two intend...

  7. China Policy Options in a Post Crisis World : Young China Scholars ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The grant will enable young scholars to contribute to the debate by undertaking new research on the impact of the financial crisis and post-crisis policy in five areas: trade and investment; financial structure and macroeconomic policy; inequality, poverty and the social dimensions of the crisis and post-crisis policy; rural ...

  8. Financial considerations of policy options to enhance biomass utilization for reducing wildfire hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis R. Becker; Debra Larson; Eini C. Lowell

    2009-01-01

    The Harvest Cost-Revenue Estimator, a financial model, was used to examine the cost sensitivity of forest biomass harvesting scenarios to targeted policies designed to stimulate wildfire hazardous fuel reduction projects. The policies selected represent actual policies enacted by federal and state governments to provide incentive to biomass utilization and are aimed at...

  9. A real option-based model to valuate CDM projects under uncertain energy policies for emission trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Taeil; Kim, Changyoon; Kim, Hyoungkwan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A real option-based model for the valuation of CDM projects is proposed. • This study investigates the impact of energy policies on the value of CDM projects. • Level of target emission and its schedule should be carefully designed. • Government subsidy facilitates the implementation of CDM projects. • Period for free emission allowance prevents promoting CDM projects. - Abstract: Emission trading has been considered a primary policy tool for emission reduction. Governments establish national targets for emission reduction and assign emission reduction goals to private entities to accomplish the targets. To attain the goal, private entities should perform offset projects that can produce emission credits or buy emission credits from the market. However, it is not easy for private entities to decide to implement the projects because energy policies associated with emission trading keep changing; thus, the future benefits of the offset projects are quite uncertain. This study presents a real option-based model to investigate how uncertain energy policies affect the financial viability of an offset project. A case study showed that the establishment of a target emission was attractive to the government because it could make the CDM project financially viable with a small amount of government subsidy. In addition, the level of the government subsidy could determine the investment timing for the CDM project. In this context, governments should be cautious in designing energy policies, because even the same energy policies could have different impacts on private entities. Overall, this study is expected to assist private entities in establishing proper investment strategies for CDM projects under uncertain energy policies

  10. Rationalization and Student/School Personhood in U.S. College Admissions: The Rise of Test-Optional Policies, 1987 to 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Jared

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the rise of "test-optional" college admissions policies since the 1990s. I argue that the rationalization of college admissions policies after World War II contributed to the rise of "meritocratic" stratification (in policy) and standardized tests, like the SAT, but it also led to the expansion and…

  11. Policy content and stakeholder network analysis for infant and young child feeding in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Karn

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite concerted effort from government and partners, Nepal continues to have a high burden of under nutrition among children. Identifying opportunities to strengthen policy support for infant and young child feeding (IYCF is a key component to improve child survival, growth and development. This study aims to explore policy support for IYCF and to identify the influential stakeholders for IYCF for effective future policy development and programmatic action. Methods Policies relevant to IYCF were identified through web searches and direct approaches to relevant government ministries. Policy content was analysed based on four key domains focussed on mothers, using a qualitative synthesis approach. Three group interviews were conducted using the participatory tool “Net-Map”, to identify the influential stakeholders in IYCF policy and programming processes. Results Twenty-six relevant policy documents were analysed for content relating to IYCF. General support for IYCF was found in most of the development plans and high-level health sector policies. Most implementation level documents included support for provision of correct information to mothers. Capacity building of frontline workers for IYCN and system strengthening were well supported through sectoral plans and policies. However, gaps were identified regarding maternity protection, support for monitoring and evaluation, and translation of high-level policy directives into implementation level guidelines, resulting in a lack of clarity over roles and responsibilities. Both government and non-governmental stakeholders, particularly donors, emerged as influential drivers of IYCF policy decisions in Nepal, through technical assistance and funding. The Nutrition Technical Committee under the Ministry of Health, UNICEF, Suaahara, USAID and WHO were identified as key actors providing technical assistance. Key funding agencies were identified as UNICEF and USAID. Conclusions

  12. Is recycling the best policy option? Insights from life cycle analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L.L.; Stodolsky, F.

    1996-03-01

    The public perceives that the more we recycle, the better off we are. However, both the concept of recycling and the benefits to be achieved from recycling are somewhat vague. To determine the best option for disposition of a material at the end of its first use, we need to first define the available options and then clarify the possible goals that can be achieved by them. The best option will depend on the material, goals to be achieved, and location-dependent factors, such as costs, resources, and regulations. This paper presents the results of a life-cycle energy analysis of kraft paper and newsprint by Argonne National Laboratory. They indicate that under some circumstances, the option of fiber-energy recovery will maximize the benefits that can. be realized from the U.S. used paper resource.

  13. Children in Poverty: Trends, Consequences, and Policy Options. Child Trends Research Brief, Publication #2009-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kristin Anderson; Redd, Zakia; Burkhauser, Mary; Mbwana, Kassim; Collins, Ashleigh

    2009-01-01

    The number of U.S. children living in poverty increased in 2007--continuing an upward trend dating back to 2000: in 2007, 13.3 million children were living in poverty, up from 11.6 million children in 2000. The percentage of children living in families with incomes below the poverty line has increased from 16.2 percent in 2000 to 18.0 percent in…

  14. Do Father-Friendly Policies Promote Father-Friendly Child-Rearing Practices? A Review of Swedish Parental Leave and Child Health Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Michael B.; Sarkadi, Anna

    2012-01-01

    By reviewing the literature, we looked at how parental leave policies in Sweden have influenced two well-defined areas of early father involvement: participating in parental leave and at visits/activities at the Child Health Centers. Sweden has one of the most comprehensive and egalitarian parental leave policies in the world, permitting parents…

  15. Knowledge and power in policy-making for child survival in Niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalglish, Sarah L; Rodríguez, Daniela C; Harouna, Abdoutan; Surkan, Pamela J

    2017-03-01

    Calls to enhance the use of scientific evidence in international health and development policy have increased in recent years; however, analytic frameworks for understanding evidence use focus narrowly on scientific research and were created using data and observations nearly exclusively from Western countries. We examine processes of health policy development in a case study of Niger, a low-income West African country that adopted integrated community case management of childhood illness (iCCM) beginning in 2007, resulting in measurable declines in child mortality. Data collection included in-depth interviews with policy actors in Niger (N = 32), document review (N = 103) and direct observation of policy forums (N = 3). Data analysis used process tracing methodology and applied an Aristotelian definition of "knowledge" as 1) episteme (facts), 2) techne (skills) and 3) phronesis (practical wisdom), while also using a critical perspective to understand issues of power. We found sharp differentials in policy-makers' possession and use of codified forms of knowledge (episteme), with Nigerien policy officers' access highly mediated by actors at international agencies. Government policy-makers possessed skills and capacities (techne) to negotiate with donors and deliberate and weigh conflicting considerations; however they lacked capacity and resources to formally evaluate and document programs and thus reliably draw lessons from them. Practical wisdom (phronesis) emerged as key to the iCCM policy enterprise, particularly among Nigerien government actors, who used logical and ethical arguments to make decisions later found to be critical to iCCM's success. While codified knowledge confers power on members of policy discussions who can access it, this represents only one form of knowledge used in the policy process and perhaps not the most important. Future research on evidence-based policy should use broader definitions of evidence or knowledge, examine on how

  16. Cost effectiveness of option B plus for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in resource-limited countries: evidence from Kumasi, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDeusen, Adam; Paintsil, Elijah; Agyarko-Poku, Thomas; Long, Elisa F

    2015-03-18

    Achieving the goal of eliminating mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT) necessitates increased access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-infected pregnant women. Option B provides ART through pregnancy and breastfeeding, whereas Option B+ recommends continuous ART regardless of CD4 count, thus potentially reducing MTCT during future pregnancies. Our objective was to compare maternal and pediatric health outcomes and cost-effectiveness of Option B+ versus Option B in Ghana. A decision-analytic model was developed to simulate HIV progression in mothers and transmission (in utero, during birth, or through breastfeeding) to current and all future children. Clinical parameters, including antenatal care access and fertility rates, were estimated from a retrospective review of 817 medical records at two hospitals in Ghana. Additional parameters were obtained from published literature. Modeled outcomes include HIV infections averted among newborn children, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and cost-effectiveness ratios. HIV-infected women in Ghana have a lifetime average of 2.3 children (SD 1.3). Projected maternal life expectancy under Option B+ is 16.1 years, versus 16.0 years with Option B, yielding a gain of 0.1 maternal QALYs and 3.2 additional QALYs per child. Despite higher initial ART costs, Option B+ costs $785/QALY gained, a value considered very cost-effective by World Health Organization benchmarks. Widespread implementation of Option B+ in Ghana could theoretically prevent up to 668 HIV infections among children annually. Cost-effectiveness estimates remained favorable over robust sensitivity analyses. Although more expensive than Option B, Option B+ substantially reduces MTCT in future pregnancies, increases both maternal and pediatric QALYs, and is a cost-effective use of limited resources in Ghana.

  17. Preferences for Policy Options for Deceased Organ Donation for Transplantation: A Discrete Choice Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Kirsten; Jan, Stephen; Rose, John M; Wong, Germaine; Craig, Jonathan C; Irving, Michelle; Tong, Allison; Chadban, Steven; Allen, Richard D; Cass, Alan

    2016-05-01

    Despite broad public support for organ donation, there is a chronic shortage of deceased donor organs. We sought to identify community preferences for features of organ donation policies. A discrete choice study was conducted using an online panel of Australian community respondents older than 18 years. Respondents were presented with scenarios comparing a "new" policy to the current policy. Tradeoffs between 8 policy aspects were quantified using mixed logit and latent class models: registration system, extent of donor family involvement, ease of registration, frequency of confirmation of intent, direct payment, and funeral expense reimbursement, priority for donor's family, and formal recognition of donation. There were 2005 respondents (mean, 44.6 years). We found a strong preference for a new policy. Overall, respondents favored a policy that included: some involvement of the donor's family in the final decision, simple registration processes, less frequent reconfirmation of donation intent, direct payment or funeral expense reimbursement, and formal recognition of donation. However, there was significant preference heterogeneity across respondents, with various respondent groups valuing policy mechanisms differently. Respondents who viewed policy change negatively were also those who would be unlikely to be organ donors anyway, because they tended to hold negative views toward organ donation. Our results suggest that the Australian community are open to alternative organ donation policies including changes to: registration systems, family involvement, and financial and nonfinancial mechanisms. Future policy discussions should not be limited by preconceived notions of what is acceptable to the community, rather informed by actual community values and preferences.

  18. New medical risks affecting obstetrics after implementation of the two-child policy in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Deng, Dongrui

    2017-12-01

    China recently instituted a two-child policy in response to its aging population, declining workforce and demographic dividend, and the need to develop asocial economy. Additionally, women generally delay having a second child because of the overwhelming pressure in their lives. With the improvements in assisted fertility technologies in recent years, the number of elderly women attempting to bear children has increased. The quality of woman's eggs and a man's sperm declined dramatically with increasing age, leading to an increased risk of pregnancy-related complications among older women. Therefore, the types of fertility problems experienced by elderly females must be provided with considerable attention by obstetricians. This commentary article focuses on the medical problems faced by older second-child pregnant women. This work discusses their increased rates of infertility, spontaneous abortion, fetal malformation, gestational diabetes, cesarean section, placenta previa, postpartum hemorrhage, postpartum depression, and hypertensive disorders, which complicate pregnancy.

  19. Does public reporting measure up? Federalism, accountability and child-care policy in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lynell; Findlay, Tammy

    2010-01-01

    Governments in Canada have recently been exploring new accountability measures within intergovernmental relations. Public reporting has become the preferred mechanism in a range of policy areas, including early learning and child-care, and the authors assess its effectiveness as an accountability measure. The article is based on their experience with a community capacity-building project that considers the relationship between the public policy, funding and accountability mechanisms under the federal/provincial/territorial agreements related to child-care. The authors argue that in its current form, public reporting has not lived up to its promise of accountability to citizens. This evaluation is based on the standards that governments have set for themselves under the federal/provincial/territorial agreements, as well as guidelines set by the Public Sector Accounting Board, an independent body that develops accounting standards over time through consultation with governments.

  20. Global warming and options for China: energy and environmental policy profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Gan.

    1990-09-01

    This report attempts to give a comprehensive review of current perspectives on energy/environmental problems and policies in China during the last ten years. The second chapter serves as a starting point by giving a general background of the characteristics of economic development and major policy changes in China during the last ten years (1979-89). The third chapter analyzes the characteristics and problems of energy demand and supply in China by breaking down different economic sectors (industry, agriculture, transportation and residential/commercial sectors). The fourth chapter focuses on the problems of CO 2 emissions by giving a historical review of CO 2 emissions by linking up the impact of economic policies and political development in the country during 1950-89. The fifth chapter is mostly devoted to describing policy performance within government environmental policy-making and implementation in the last ten years. Finally, the report concludes by giving several policy recommendations. (Quittner)

  1. Public Opinion on Nutrition-Related Policies to Combat Child Obesity, Los Angeles County, 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Paul A.; Chiang, Choiyuk; Lightstone, Amy S.; Shih, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    We assessed public opinion on nutrition-related policies to address child obesity: a soda tax, restrictions on advertising unhealthy foods and beverages to children, and restrictions on siting fast food restaurants and convenience stores near schools. We analyzed data from 998 adults (aged ≥18 years) in the 2011 Los Angeles County Health Survey. Support was highest for advertising restrictions (74%), intermediate for a soda tax (60%), and lowest for siting restrictions on fast food restaurant...

  2. The position of the targets of the public health policy of maternal and child in Bandung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugyati, C.; Mariana, D.; Sjoraida, D. F.

    2018-03-01

    This study seeks to make a deep, systematic analysis of the urgency of implementing elements in the implementation of public health policies, especially in the field of mother and child in Bandung City, West Java. This study is important to evaluate whether the government services on maternal and child health is sufficient or not. With the descriptive-qualitative method, this study presents a discussion of how the implementers interact with the community as their targets in implementing public health programs in Bandung City so that their presence is indispensable. With theories of implementation of policies and health campaign, the data was obtained and showed that (a) the unity of the coordination and uniformity of information services, and a network of cooperation in public health institutions, in the Government of Bandung City, have been performed well; (b) in getting their rights the targets are highly motivated for the services of public health and some of them function to be the volunteers to assist local health policy implementers. However, the lack of health care workers who were directly addressing maternal and child health was perceived by the public so well that this study recommends the convening of additional formal health workers in the community.

  3. Impact of relaxation of the one-child policy on maternal mortality in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen; Liu, Shiliang; He, Fang; Du, Lili; Guo, Yanfang; El-Chaar, Darine; Wen, Shi Wu; Chen, Dunjin

    2018-01-19

    To assess the impact of the one-child policy in China on maternal mortality. The present retrospective study included maternal death data from Guangdong, China, from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2015; data from 2013 were excluded because they were not available. Maternal deaths were divided into legal and illegal pregnancies based on adherence to the one-child policy. The maternal mortality ratio (MMR) was compared between the groups, temporal trends in the MMR were examined, and comparisons were made of the causes of death and access to maternity care. The final analysis included 847 520 live deliveries and 383 maternal deaths. The MMR among legal pregnancies declined moderately from 18.5 deaths per 100 000 live deliveries in 2006 to 12.2 deaths per 100 000 live deliveries in 2015 (P=0.029), whereas the MMR among illegal pregnancies declined dramatically from 1268.4 deaths per 100 000 live deliveries to 177.5 deaths per 100 000 live deliveries (Pone-child policy in China. © 2018 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  4. Policy and stakeholder analysis of infant and young child feeding programmes in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godakandage, Sanjeeva S P; Senarath, Upul; Jayawickrama, Hiranya S; Siriwardena, Indika; Wickramasinghe, S W A D A; Arumapperuma, Prasantha; Ihalagama, Sathyajith; Nimalan, Srisothinathan; Archchuna, Ramanathan; Umesh, Claudio; Uddin, Shahadat; Thow, Anne Marie

    2017-06-13

    Infant and young child feeding practices (IYCF) play a critical role in growth and development of children. A favourable environment supported by appropriate policies and positive contributions from all stakeholders are prerequisites for achieving optimal IYCF practices. This study aimed to assess the IYCF-related policy environment and role of stakeholders in policy making in Sri Lanka, in order to identify opportunities to strengthen the policy environment to better support appropriate IYCF and reduce childhood malnutrition. We mapped national level policy-related documents on IYCF, and conducted a stakeholder analysis of IYCF policy making. A matrix was designed to capture data from IYCF policy-related documents using a thematic approach. A narrative synthesis of data from different documents was conducted to achieve the first objective. We then conducted an analysis of technical and funding links of stakeholders who shape IYCF policies and programmes in Sri Lanka using the Net-Map technique, to achieve the second objective. A total of 35 respondents were purposively selected based on their knowledge on the topic, and individual interviews were conducted. Twenty four policies were identified that contained provisions in line with global recommendations for best-practice IYCF, marketing of breast milk substitutes, strengthening health and non-health systems, maternity benefits, inter-sectoral collaboration, capacity building, health education and supplementation. However, there is no separate, written policy on IYCF in Sri Lanka. Participants identified 56 actors involved in shaping IYCF policies and programmes through technical support, and 36 through funding support. The Government Health Sector was the most connected as well as influential, followed by development partners. Almost all actors in the networks were supportive for IYCF policies and programmes. All evidence-based recommendations are covered in related policies. However, advocacy should be targeted

  5. Policy and stakeholder analysis of infant and young child feeding programmes in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeeva S. P. Godakandage

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant and young child feeding practices (IYCF play a critical role in growth and development of children. A favourable environment supported by appropriate policies and positive contributions from all stakeholders are prerequisites for achieving optimal IYCF practices. This study aimed to assess the IYCF-related policy environment and role of stakeholders in policy making in Sri Lanka, in order to identify opportunities to strengthen the policy environment to better support appropriate IYCF and reduce childhood malnutrition. Methods We mapped national level policy-related documents on IYCF, and conducted a stakeholder analysis of IYCF policy making. A matrix was designed to capture data from IYCF policy-related documents using a thematic approach. A narrative synthesis of data from different documents was conducted to achieve the first objective. We then conducted an analysis of technical and funding links of stakeholders who shape IYCF policies and programmes in Sri Lanka using the Net-Map technique, to achieve the second objective. A total of 35 respondents were purposively selected based on their knowledge on the topic, and individual interviews were conducted. Results Twenty four policies were identified that contained provisions in line with global recommendations for best-practice IYCF, marketing of breast milk substitutes, strengthening health and non-health systems, maternity benefits, inter-sectoral collaboration, capacity building, health education and supplementation. However, there is no separate, written policy on IYCF in Sri Lanka. Participants identified 56 actors involved in shaping IYCF policies and programmes through technical support, and 36 through funding support. The Government Health Sector was the most connected as well as influential, followed by development partners. Almost all actors in the networks were supportive for IYCF policies and programmes. Conclusions and recommendations All evidence

  6. Policy content and stakeholder network analysis for infant and young child feeding in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Sabrina; Roy, Swapan Kumar; Das, Susmita; Chowdhury, Syeda Nafisa; Iqbal, Mohammad; Akter, Syeda Mahsina; Jahan, Khurshid; Uddin, Shahadat; Thow, Anne Marie

    2017-06-13

    Appropriate infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices are essential for nutrition of infants and young children. Bangladesh has one of the highest levels of malnutrition globally along with sub-optimal IYCF practices. A supportive policy environment is essential to ensure that effective IYCF interventions are scaled up. The objectives of our study were to assess the support for IYCF in the national policy environment through policy analysis and stakeholder analysis and in so doing identify opportunities to strengthen the policy environment. We used a matrix developed by SAIFRN (the South Asian Infant Feeding Research Network) to systematically identify supportive national policies, plans and guidelines for IYCF. We adapted narrative synthesis and descriptive approaches to analyze policy content, based on four themes with a focus on support for mothers. We conducted three Net-Map interviews to identify stakeholders who influenced the policies and programs related to IYCF. We identified 19 national policy documents relevant to IYCF. Overall, there was good level of support for IYCF practices at policy level - particularly regarding general support for IYCF and provision of information to mothers - but these were not consistently supported at implementation level, particularly regarding specificity and population coverage. We identified gaps regarding the training of health workers, capacity building, the monitoring and targeting of vulnerable mothers and providing an enabling environment to mothers, specifically with respect to maternity leave for working women. Urban populations and providers outside the public sector remained uncovered by policy. Our stakeholder analysis identified government entities such as the National Nutrition Service, as the most influential in terms of both technical and funding support as they had the mandate for formulation and implementation of policies and national programs. Stakeholders from different sectors played important

  7. Advancing the climate agenda: Exploiting material and institutional linkages to develop a menu of policy options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Asselt, H.D.; Gupta, J.; Biermann, F.

    2005-01-01

    The utilization of interlinkages of existing material and the strengthening and promotion of new institutional interlinkages can widen the climate change agenda through new and innovative policy and legal measures. Material linkages are inherent structural connections between policy domains that are

  8. Policy Options for Addressing Health System and Human Resources for Health Crisis in Liberia Post-Ebola Epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budy, Fidel C.T.

    2015-01-01

    Qualified healthcare workers within an effective health system are critical in promoting and achieving greater health outcomes such as those espoused in the Millennium Development Goals. Liberia is currently struggling with the effects of a brutal 14-year long civil war that devastated health infrastructures and caused most qualified health workers to flee and settle in foreign countries. The current output of locally trained health workers is not adequate for the tasks at hand. The recent Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) exposed the failings of the Liberian healthcare system. There is limited evidence of policies that could be replicated in Liberia to encourage qualified diaspora Liberian health workers to return and contribute to managing the phenomenon. This paper reviews the historical context for the human resources for health crisis in Liberia; it critically examines two context-specific health policy options to address the crisis, and recommends reverse brain drain as a policy option to address the immediate and critical crisis facing the health care sector in Liberia. PMID:27622002

  9. Societal Values and Policies May Curtail Preschool Children’s Physical Activity in Child Care Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Susan N.; Kendeigh, Cassandra A.; Kalkwarf, Heidi J.; Saelens, Brian E.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Three-fourths of US preschool-age children are in child care centers. Children are primarily sedentary in these settings, and are not meeting recommended levels of physical activity. Our objective was to identify potential barriers to children’s physical activity in child care centers. METHODS: Nine focus groups with 49 child care providers (55% African American) were assembled from 34 centers (inner-city, suburban, Head Start, and Montessori) in Cincinnati, Ohio. Three coders independently analyzed verbatim transcripts for themes. Data analysis and interpretation of findings were verified through triangulation of methods. RESULTS: We identified 3 main barriers to children’s physical activity in child care: (1) injury concerns, (2) financial, and (3) a focus on “academics.” Stricter licensing codes intended to reduce children's injuries on playgrounds rendered playgrounds less physically challenging and interesting. In addition, some parents concerned about potential injury, requested staff to restrict playground participation for their children. Small operating margins of most child care centers limited their ability to install abundant playground equipment. Child care providers felt pressure from state mandates and parents to focus on academics at the expense of gross motor play. Because children spend long hours in care and many lack a safe place to play near their home, these barriers may limit children's only opportunity to engage in physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: Societal priorities for young children—safety and school readiness—may be hindering children’s physical development. In designing environments that optimally promote children’s health and development, child advocates should think holistically about potential unintended consequences of policies. PMID:22218842

  10. Obesity Prevention Practices and Policies in Child Care Settings Enrolled and Not Enrolled in the Child and Adult Care Food Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sherry T; Graffagino, Cheryl L; Leser, Kendall A; Trombetta, Autumn L; Pirie, Phyllis L

    2016-09-01

    Objectives The United States Department of Agriculture's Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) provides meals and snacks to low-income children in child care. This study compared nutrition and physical activity practices and policies as well as the overall nutrition and physical activity environments in a sample of CACFP and non-CACFP child care settings. Methods A random stratified sample of 350 child care settings in a large Midwestern city and its suburbs, was mailed a survey on obesity prevention practices and policies concerning menu offerings, feeding practices, nutrition and physical activity education, activity levels, training, and screen time. Completed surveys were obtained from 229 of 309 eligible child care settings (74.1 % response rate). Chi square tests were used to compare practices and policies in CACFP and non-CACFP sites. Poisson and negative binomial regression were used to examine associations between CACFP and total number of practices and policies. Results Sixty-nine percent of child care settings reported CACFP participation. A significantly higher proportion of CACFP sites reported offering whole grain foods daily and that providers always eat the same foods that are offered to the children. CACFP sites had 1.1 times as many supportive nutrition practices as non-CACFP sites. CACFP participation was not associated with written policies or physical activity practices. Conclusions for Practice There is room for improvement across nutrition and physical activity practices and policies. In addition to food reimbursement, CACFP participation may help promote child care environments that support healthy nutrition; however, additional training and education outreach activities may be needed.

  11. nstitutional Capacities and Social Policy Implementation: Maternal Child Health and Nutrition Programmes in Argentina and Chile (1930-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma Idiart

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article compares maternal child health and nutrition programmes in Argentina and Chile, focusing on long-term institutional features and the central neo-liberal trends organizing social reforms during the 1980s and the 1990s. Objective: To carry out a comparative study of the ransformations of Maternal Child Health and Nutrition Programmes, taking into account three intertwined issues: social policies, institutional capacity, and policy implementation. Methodology: The documentary analysis done in this article is framed in the structural force model of Carmelo Mesa-Lago and the polity-centred structure model of Theda Skocpol. Conclusions: Despite relatively similar policy lines implemented in both countries, the contrasting long-term institutional features (Chilean programmes addressed maternal and child health more efficiently than the Argentines account for most of the variation in the overall process of reform implementation and the performance of maternal and child health policies.

  12. Effects of a New State Policy on Physical Activity Practices in Child Care Centers in South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Jennifer R; Dowda, Marsha; Benjamin Neelon, Sara E; Neelon, Brian; Pate, Russell R

    2017-01-01

    We sought to determine the extent to which child care centers in South Carolina improved physical activity practices after a new policy took effect. In 2012, South Carolina adopted new mandatory physical activity standards within its child care quality enhancement program. This quasi-experimental study used North Carolina, a state not making policy changes, as the comparison. Participants were 34 child care centers in South Carolina and 30 centers in North Carolina. Researchers used the Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation (EPAO) tool to conduct center observations before and after policy implementation and then conducted repeated-measures linear regression with interaction between state and time for the Physical Activity Environment Total Score and the 8 subscale scores. Compared with centers in North Carolina, EPAO subscale scores in South Carolina centers increased significantly for the Fixed Play Environment (P child care centers was associated with improvements in practices aimed at increasing children's physical activity.

  13. The feasibility of multisectoral policy options aimed at reducing trans fats and encouraging its replacement with healthier oils in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Shauna M; Thow, Anne-Marie; Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna; Leeder, Stephen R

    2015-05-01

    The World Health Organization recommends replacement of trans fat with polyunsaturated fat to reduce cardiovascular disease risk. Although several high-income countries have been successful in reducing trans fat in the food supply, low- and middle-income countries such as India may face additional contextual challenges such as the large informal sector, lack of consumer awareness, less enforcement capacity and low availability and affordability of healthier unsaturated fats. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility and acceptability of multisectoral policy options aimed at supporting trans fat reduction and its replacement with polyunsaturated fats in India. Multisectoral policy options examined in this study were identified using food supply chain analysis. Semi-structured interviews (n = 17) were conducted with key informants from agriculture, trade, finance, retail, industry, food standards, non-governmental organizations and the health professions to gain their views on the feasibility and acceptability of the policy options. Purposive sampling was used to identify key informants. Data were coded and organized based on key themes. There was support for policies aimed at improving the quality of seeds, supporting farmer co-operatives and developing affordable farming equipment suited to smallholders to improve the production of healthier oils. Increasing the role of the private sector to improve links among producers, processors and retailers may help to streamline the fats supply chain in India. Blending healthier oils with oils high in saturated fat, which are currently readily available, could help to improve the quality of fat in the short term. Improving consumer awareness through mass media campaigns and improved labelling may help increase consumer demand for healthier products. Reorienting agricultural policies to support production of healthier oils will help increase their uptake by industry. Policy coherence across sectors will be

  14. The Globalized "Whole Child": Cultural Understandings of Children and Childhood in Multilateral Aid Development Policy, 1946-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, Maryellen; Henck, Adrienne; Baker, David P.

    2017-01-01

    Current global conceptions of childhood dictate that all children are entitled to a childhood that provides protection, preparation, and child development for the whole child. We analyze 65 years of policy documents from the influential multilateral agency UNICEF focusing on how cultural ideas have changed over time and how they have blended into…

  15. A comparative analysis of early child health and development services and outcomes in countries with different redistributive policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, Meta; Hopkins, Jessica; Biscaro, Anne; Srikanthan, Cinntha; Feller, Andrea; Bremberg, Sven; Verkuijl, Nienke; Flapper, Boudien; Ford-Jones, Elizabeth Lee; Williams, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Background: The social environment is a fundamental determinant of early child development and, in turn, early child development is a determinant of health, well-being, and learning skills across the life course. Redistributive policies aimed at reducing social inequalities, such as a welfare state

  16. Do fertility control policies affect health in old age? Evidence from China's one-child experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Asadul; Smyth, Russell

    2015-05-01

    How do fertility control policies contribute to the welfare of women, and their husbands, particularly as they get older? We consider whether the reduction in fertility resulting from population control policies has had any effect on the health of elderly parents in China. In particular, we examine the influence of this fertility decline, experienced due to China's one-child policy, on several measures of the health of parents in middle and old age. Overall, our results suggest that having fewer children has a positive effect on self-reported parental health but generally no effect on other measures of health. The results also suggest that upstream financial transfers have a positive effect on several measures of parental health. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. EVALUATING THE IMPACT OF POLICY OPTIONS ON AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPES: AN ALTERNATIVE-FUTURES APPROACH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative-futures analysis was used to analyze different scenarios of future growth patterns and attendant resource allocations on the agricultural system of Oregon's Willamette River Basin. A stakeholder group formulated three policy alternatives: a continuation of current tr...

  18. Preventing Catastrophe: U.S. Policy Options for the Management of Nuclear Weapons in South Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wojtyaiak, Martin

    2001-01-01

    The "peaceful nuclear explosion" of an Indian device in 1974 was a watershed event that called upon the U,S to focus its nonproliferation policy in South Asia, During the mid-198Os, Pakistan developed...

  19. Monetary policy options for mitigating the impact of the global financial crisis on emerging market economies.

    OpenAIRE

    Dąbrowski, Marek A.; Śmiech, Sławomir; Papież, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Though the hypothesis that exchange rate regimes fully predetermine monetary policy in the face of external shocks hardly finds any advocates on theoretical ground it has crept in the most of empirical research. This study adopts a more discerning empirical approach that looks at monetary policy tools used in order to accommodate the recent financial crisis. We investigated the GDP growth in 45 emerging market economies in the most intense phase of the crisis and found out that there is no cl...

  20. Demographic Consequences of Gender Discrimination in China: Simulation Analysis of Policy Options

    OpenAIRE

    Quanbao, Jiang; Shuzhuo, Li; Marcus W., Feldman

    2011-01-01

    The large number of missing females in China, a consequence of gender discrimination, is having and will continue to have a profound effect on the country's population development. In this paper, we analyze the causes of this gender discrimination in terms of institutions, culture and, economy, and suggest public policies that might help eliminate gender discrimination. Using a population simulation model, we study the effect of public policies on the sex ratio at birth and excess female chil...

  1. Tobacco Town: Computational Modeling of Policy Options to Reduce Tobacco Retailer Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Douglas A; Hammond, Ross A; Combs, Todd; Sorg, Amy; Kasman, Matt; Mack-Crane, Austen; Ribisl, Kurt M; Henriksen, Lisa

    2017-05-01

    To identify the behavioral mechanisms and effects of tobacco control policies designed to reduce tobacco retailer density. We developed the Tobacco Town agent-based simulation model to examine 4 types of retailer reduction policies: (1) random retailer reduction, (2) restriction by type of retailer, (3) limiting proximity of retailers to schools, and (4) limiting proximity of retailers to each other. The model examined the effects of these policies alone and in combination across 4 different types of towns, defined by 2 levels of population density (urban vs suburban) and 2 levels of income (higher vs lower). Model results indicated that reduction of retailer density has the potential to decrease accessibility of tobacco products by driving up search and purchase costs. Policy effects varied by town type: proximity policies worked better in dense, urban towns whereas retailer type and random retailer reduction worked better in less-dense, suburban settings. Comprehensive retailer density reduction policies have excellent potential to reduce the public health burden of tobacco use in communities.

  2. Policy options to promote energy efficient and environmentally sound technologies in small- and medium-scale industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiruchelvam, M.; Kumar, S.; Visvanathan, C.

    2003-01-01

    The rapid industrialization of Asian developing countries has pushed the need for more energy at the cost of environmental degradation. Though large industries are targeted for energy conservation and pollution prevention, small and medium scale industries (SMI) also contribute to significant pollution. This paper discusses the role of SMI in the economy, its energy consumption and impact on the environment. An overview of the energy and environment policies of China, India, Sri Lanka, the Philippines and Vietnam, and the role of energy efficient and environmentally sound technologies (E 3 ST) as a viable means to meet these modern challenges in SMI is discussed. The barriers faced in adopting these technologies have been identified and an analysis has been done of the various strategies and policy options available to governments to promote E 3 ST in SMI. Examples and illustrations of such successful efforts have also been highlighted

  3. Child trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation: a review of promising prevention policies and programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Yvonne

    2013-10-01

    Child trafficking, including commercial sexual exploitation (CSE), is one of the fastest growing and most lucrative criminal activities in the world. The global enslavement of children affects countless numbers of victims who are trafficked within their home countries or transported away from their homes and treated as commodities to be bought, sold, and resold for labor or sexual exploitation. All over the world, girls are particularly likely to be trafficked into the sex trade: Girls and women constitute 98% of those who are trafficked for CSE. Health and safety standards in exploitative settings are generally extremely low, and the degree of experienced violence has been linked with adverse physical, psychological, and social-emotional development. The human-rights-based approach to child trafficking provides a comprehensive conceptual framework whereby victim-focused and law enforcement responses can be developed, implemented, and evaluated. This article highlights promising policies and programs designed to prevent child trafficking and CSE by combating demand for sex with children, reducing supply, and strengthening communities. The literature reviewed includes academic publications as well as international and governmental and nongovernmental reports. Implications for social policy and future research are presented. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  4. Policies and design elements for the repowering of wind farms: A qualitative analysis of different options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rio, Pablo del, E-mail: pablo.delrio@cchs.csic.e [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Calle Albasanz 26-28, Madrid 28037 (Spain); Calvo Silvosa, Anxo, E-mail: calvo@udc.e [Universidade da Coruna, Departamento de Economia Financeira e Contabilidade, Campus de Elvina s/n, A Coruna 15071 (Spain); Iglesias Gomez, Guillermo, E-mail: gwig@udc.e [Universidade da Coruna, Departamento de Economia Aplicada I, Campus de Elvina s/n, A Coruna 15071 (Spain)

    2011-04-15

    Repowering of a wind farm is the process of replacing existing wind turbines with new turbines that either have a larger nameplate capacity or more efficiency, resulting in a net increase of the power generated. Although repowering brings, both, social and private benefits, there are also several obstacles to repowering which justify public support. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview and a qualitative analysis of instruments and design options to support repowering of on-shore wind farms. The multicriteria analysis carried out in this paper shows that all instruments have their advantages and drawbacks. However, feed-in tariffs and investment subsidies seem to be particularly appropriate instruments in this regard. Furthermore, we provide an assessment of different design options to promote repowering according to key assessment criteria. The relevance of design elements hinges on the fact that these are the ones directly affecting the variables that are relevant in the decision to repower (capacity factors and investment costs). - Research highlights: {yields} This paper provides a qualitative analysis of instruments and design options to support repowering in wind farms. {yields} The multicriteria analysis has shown that all instruments have their advantages and drawbacks regarding promotion of repowering. {yields} However, feed-in tariffs and investment subsidies seem to be particularly appropriate instruments in this regard. {yields} The choice of design elements within instruments is at least as important to promote repowering as the choice of specific instruments.

  5. Policies and design elements for the repowering of wind farms: A qualitative analysis of different options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio, Pablo del; Calvo Silvosa, Anxo; Iglesias Gomez, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    Repowering of a wind farm is the process of replacing existing wind turbines with new turbines that either have a larger nameplate capacity or more efficiency, resulting in a net increase of the power generated. Although repowering brings, both, social and private benefits, there are also several obstacles to repowering which justify public support. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview and a qualitative analysis of instruments and design options to support repowering of on-shore wind farms. The multicriteria analysis carried out in this paper shows that all instruments have their advantages and drawbacks. However, feed-in tariffs and investment subsidies seem to be particularly appropriate instruments in this regard. Furthermore, we provide an assessment of different design options to promote repowering according to key assessment criteria. The relevance of design elements hinges on the fact that these are the ones directly affecting the variables that are relevant in the decision to repower (capacity factors and investment costs). - Research highlights: → This paper provides a qualitative analysis of instruments and design options to support repowering in wind farms. → The multicriteria analysis has shown that all instruments have their advantages and drawbacks regarding promotion of repowering. → However, feed-in tariffs and investment subsidies seem to be particularly appropriate instruments in this regard. → The choice of design elements within instruments is at least as important to promote repowering as the choice of specific instruments.

  6. Online responses to the ending of the one-child policy in China: implications for preconception care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fuqin; Bao, Jiaming; Boutain, Doris; Straughn, Marcia; Adeniran, Olusola; DeGrande, Heather; Harrell, Stevan

    2016-06-24

    A critical analysis of online public postings in response to the news about the ending of China's one-child policy was conducted. The specific study aims were to 1) identify the dominant public discourse in response to the news about the ending of the one-child policy and the beginning of the new two-child policy, and 2) explore implications for preconception care from the public discourse. Data sources were 10 top-ranked, online news media sites in China, including one Hong Kong-based media site. Selected online sites announced the news about the ending of the one-child policy on 29 October 2015. Online postings associated with the first news release of each online media site before midnight of 29 October were collected and analyzed. Critical discourse analysis was used for data analysis. Three main discourse concepts were identified. The online postings referenced the concepts of cost, generation, and timing with regard to the ending of the one-child policy and the beginning of the new two-child policy. Each concept represents an aspect of the public's view of preconception care, particularly interconception care, in China. These findings suggest that the change in the family planning policy may not result in a huge surge in the population in a short period of time, as some may opt not to have a second child. Nonetheless, there is an urgent need to incorporate interconception care into various health initiatives, as it is a time-sensitive choice for many couples to have a second child.

  7. Freshwater Ecosystem Services in Mining Regions: Modelling Options for Policy Development Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Mercado-Garcia

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The ecosystem services (ES approach offers an integrated perspective of social-ecological systems, suitable for holistic assessments of mining impacts. Yet for ES models to be policy-relevant, methodological consensus in mining contexts is needed. We review articles assessing ES in mining areas focusing on freshwater components and policy support potential. Twenty-six articles were analysed concerning (i methodological complexity (data types, number of parameters, processes and ecosystem–human integration level and (ii potential applicability for policy development (communication of uncertainties, scenario simulation, stakeholder participation and management recommendations. Articles illustrate mining impacts on ES through valuation exercises mostly. However, the lack of ground- and surface-water measurements, as well as insufficient representation of the connectivity among soil, water and humans, leave room for improvements. Inclusion of mining-specific environmental stressors models, increasing resolution of topographies, determination of baseline ES patterns and inclusion of multi-stakeholder perspectives are advantageous for policy support. We argue that achieving more holistic assessments exhorts practitioners to aim for high social-ecological connectivity using mechanistic models where possible and using inductive methods only where necessary. Due to data constraints, cause–effect networks might be the most feasible and best solution. Thus, a policy-oriented framework is proposed, in which data science is directed to environmental modelling for analysis of mining impacts on water ES.

  8. The healthy options for nutrition environments in schools (Healthy ONES group randomized trial: using implementation models to change nutrition policy and environments in low income schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coleman Karen J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Healthy Options for Nutrition Environments in Schools (Healthy ONES study was an evidence-based public health (EBPH randomized group trial that adapted the Institute for Healthcare Improvement’s (IHI rapid improvement process model to implement school nutrition policy and environmental change. Methods A low-income school district volunteered for participation in the study. All schools in the district agreed to participate (elementary = 6, middle school = 2 and were randomly assigned within school type to intervention (n = 4 and control (n =4 conditions following a baseline environmental audit year. Intervention goals were to 1 eliminate unhealthy foods and beverages on campus, 2 develop nutrition services as the main source on campus for healthful eating (HE, and 3 promote school staff modeling of HE. Schools were followed across a baseline year and two intervention years. Longitudinal assessment of height and weight was conducted with second, third, and sixth grade children. Behavioral observation of the nutrition environment was used to index the amount of outside foods and beverages on campuses. Observations were made monthly in each targeted school environment and findings were presented as items per child per week. Results From an eligible 827 second, third, and sixth grade students, baseline height and weight were collected for 444 second and third grade and 135 sixth grade students (51% reach. Data were available for 73% of these enrolled students at the end of three years. Intervention school outside food and beverage items per child per week decreased over time and control school outside food and beverage items increased over time. The effects were especially pronounced for unhealthy foods and beverage items. Changes in rates of obesity for intervention school (28% baseline, 27% year 1, 30% year 2 were similar to those seen for control school (22% baseline, 22% year 1, 25% year 2 children

  9. The healthy options for nutrition environments in schools (Healthy ONES) group randomized trial: using implementation models to change nutrition policy and environments in low income schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The Healthy Options for Nutrition Environments in Schools (Healthy ONES) study was an evidence-based public health (EBPH) randomized group trial that adapted the Institute for Healthcare Improvement’s (IHI) rapid improvement process model to implement school nutrition policy and environmental change. Methods A low-income school district volunteered for participation in the study. All schools in the district agreed to participate (elementary = 6, middle school = 2) and were randomly assigned within school type to intervention (n = 4) and control (n =4) conditions following a baseline environmental audit year. Intervention goals were to 1) eliminate unhealthy foods and beverages on campus, 2) develop nutrition services as the main source on campus for healthful eating (HE), and 3) promote school staff modeling of HE. Schools were followed across a baseline year and two intervention years. Longitudinal assessment of height and weight was conducted with second, third, and sixth grade children. Behavioral observation of the nutrition environment was used to index the amount of outside foods and beverages on campuses. Observations were made monthly in each targeted school environment and findings were presented as items per child per week. Results From an eligible 827 second, third, and sixth grade students, baseline height and weight were collected for 444 second and third grade and 135 sixth grade students (51% reach). Data were available for 73% of these enrolled students at the end of three years. Intervention school outside food and beverage items per child per week decreased over time and control school outside food and beverage items increased over time. The effects were especially pronounced for unhealthy foods and beverage items. Changes in rates of obesity for intervention school (28% baseline, 27% year 1, 30% year 2) were similar to those seen for control school (22% baseline, 22% year 1, 25% year 2) children. Conclusions

  10. Solving China's environmental problems: policy options from the Working Group on Environment in U.S.-China Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, A

    1998-01-01

    This article describes the main themes, funding needs, and policy options of the Working Group on the Environment in US-China Relations that was created in November 1996. Meetings are chaired by members of the Council of Foreign Relations and the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. The 40+ member Working Group is coordinated by the Environmental Change and Security Project and the Woodrow Wilson Center's Asia Program. It offers a forum for discussion of environmental and foreign policy concerns. The aims are to identify important environmental and sustainable development issues related to US and Chinese interests; to develop creative strategies for government and nongovernment projects between the US and China; and to discuss strategies for using environmental issues for building improved relations between countries. Monthly meetings focus on energy issues, water quantity and quality, funds for environmental protection, and biodiversity issues. The group meetings emphasize the themes of multilateral cooperation, local Chinese environmental issues of significance to the US, and obstacles to cooperation on US-led projects within China. Improved relations may be achieved by articulation of a coherent China policy with explicit goals and guidelines, provision of funding, and linking local environmental problems with global ones. The US should support private business in marketing environmental technology and assist in the development of policy changes in the energy and water sectors in China. China needs improved irrigation techniques and comprehensive watershed management plans.

  11. Too early or too late: What have we learned from the 30-year two-child policy experiment in Yicheng, China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Qin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In January 2016, China ended its 35-year-old one-child policy and replaced it with a nationwide two-child policy. However, it remains unclear whether a two-child policy can effectively increase the fertility level in China. Objective: We reviewed the 30-year (1985-2015 two-child policy experiment carried out in Yicheng, a county in the Shanxi province of China, to assess the impact of this policy on the crude birth rate, as compared with the one-child policy implemented in most other places in Shanxi. Methods: We adopted a synthetic control approach. Using this method, we constructed a synthetic county using counties in Shanxi that were subject to the one-child policy. The synthetic county had similar observed characteristics to Yicheng before the launch of Yicheng's two-child policy experiment in 1985. Therefore, birth rate differences between Yicheng and the synthetic county after 1985 could be attributed only to the two-child policy. Results: We did not find any short-term impacts of the two-child policy on the Yicheng birth rate prior to the 1990s. We estimated that the two-child policy, in the long run, would lead to a maximum of two more births per 1,000 people every year in Yicheng, compared with similar areas that had a one-child policy. Conclusions: The two-child policy was not found to boost the birth rate in Yicheng and similar places. Contribution: The study identified the causal effect of a two-child policy, and was more methodologically reliable than related studies that primarily explored statistical correlations.

  12. Regulatory and mixed policy options for reducing fuel use and carbon emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swisher, J.N. [UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment, Risoe National Lab. (Denmark)

    1995-06-01

    As the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) goes into effect, some 20 industrialized countries have made commitments to stabilize or reduce future carbon emissions. To achieve the existing reduction targets, not to mention those necessary to stabilize the atmosphere, technological changes will be necessary to reduce the fossil fuel-intensity of most countries` energy system (supply-side measures) and to improve the efficiency with which fuels and electricity are used (demand-side measures). The possible policy instruments with which to stimulate these changes are many. At the international level, most discussion has centred on various forms of carbon emission taxes and to some extent on tradable emission offsets or permits. At the national level, where most real energy policy changes would have to be implemented, other non-fiscal policy instruments are common. (EG) 79 refs.

  13. The Interplay Between Housing Stability and Child Separation: Implications for Practice and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rog, Debra J; Henderson, Kathryn A; Lunn, Laurel M; Greer, Andrew L; Ellis, Mei Ling

    2017-09-01

    Greater understanding of how residential stability affects child separation and reunification among homeless families can guide both child welfare and homeless policy and practice. This article draws upon two longitudinal studies examining services and housing for homeless families and their relationship to family and housing stability. Both studies were conducted in the same state at roughly the same time with similar instruments. The first study, examining families' experiences and outcomes following entry into the homeless service system in three counties in Washington State, found that at 18 months following shelter entry, families that are intact with their children were significantly more likely to be housed in their own housing (46%) than families that were separated from one or more of their children (31%). The second study, a quasiexperimental evaluation of a supportive housing program for homeless families with multiple housing barriers, found that the rates of reunification for Child Protective Services (CPS)-involved families receiving supportive housing was comparable to that for families entering public housing without services, but significantly higher than the rate of reunification for families entering shelter. Taken together, the findings from both studies contribute to the evidence underscoring the importance of housing assistance to homeless families involved in the child welfare system. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  14. Evaluation of policy options to reform the EU Emissions Trading System. Effects on carbon price, emissions and the economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdonk, M.; Brink, C.; Vollebergh, H.; Roelfsema, M.

    2013-04-15

    The EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) is a key instrument of EU climate policy, providing a clear reduction pathway for CO2 emissions. The current carbon price (of about 3 euros per tonne of CO2, April 2013) is much lower than previously expected (which was around 30 euros) and is likely to remain low for a long time. This fuels doubts about whether the ETS will remain a key policy instrument in the long term. Such doubts also increase investment uncertainty, which is likely to have a negative impact on further investments in low-carbon technologies needed for a low-carbon economy in 2050. In November 2012, the European Commission put forward six options for a more structural reform of the EU ETS. The proposed options vary from reducing the cap and expanding the ETS to include other sectors, to strengthening the ETS by measures directly affecting allowance prices. The Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment (IenM) asked the PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency to assess the impact of these options. Four categories of options for reforming the ETS were evaluated: (1) reducing the supply of emission allowances; (2) expanding the ETS by including other sectors; (3) a minimum price for auctioned allowances; and (4) combining ETS with a carbon tax. Recently, the European Parliament voted against the European Commission's proposal to temporarily set aside emission allowances. In an earlier assessment of this proposal, PBL concluded that the impact of this backloading proposal on CO2 prices is likely to be limited, because the total amount of allowances up to 2020 would remain unchanged. All options analysed would reduce emissions and cause the emission price to increase. A minimum price on carbon, however, would provide the best opportunity to make the ETS more robust against unforeseen events, such as a further deterioration of the economy. Such a minimum price would result in more emission reductions if abatement proves to be cheaper

  15. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV Option B+ cascade in rural Tanzania: The One Stop Clinic model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gamell

    Full Text Available Strategies to improve the uptake of Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission of HIV (PMTCT are needed. We integrated HIV and maternal, newborn and child health services in a One Stop Clinic to improve the PMTCT cascade in a rural Tanzanian setting.The One Stop Clinic of Ifakara offers integral care to HIV-infected pregnant women and their families at one single place and time. All pregnant women and HIV-exposed infants attended during the first year of Option B+ implementation (04/2014-03/2015 were included. PMTCT was assessed at the antenatal clinic (ANC, HIV care and labour ward, and compared with the pre-B+ period. We also characterised HIV-infected pregnant women and evaluated the MTCT rate.1,579 women attended the ANC. Seven (0.4% were known to be HIV-infected. Of the remainder, 98.5% (1,548/1,572 were offered an HIV test, 94% (1,456/1,548 accepted and 38 (2.6% tested HIV-positive. 51 were re-screened for HIV during late pregnancy and one had seroconverted. The HIV prevalence at the ANC was 3.1% (46/1,463. Of the 39 newly diagnosed women, 35 (90% were linked to care. HIV test was offered to >98% of ANC clients during both the pre- and post-B+ periods. During the post-B+ period, test acceptance (94% versus 90.5%, p<0.0001 and linkage to care (90% versus 26%, p<0.0001 increased. Ten additional women diagnosed outside the ANC were linked to care. 82% (37/45 of these newly-enrolled women started antiretroviral treatment (ART. After a median time of 17 months, 27% (12/45 were lost to follow-up. 79 women under HIV care became pregnant and all received ART. After a median follow-up time of 19 months, 6% (5/79 had been lost. 5,727 women delivered at the hospital, 20% (1,155/5,727 had unknown HIV serostatus. Of these, 30% (345/1,155 were tested for HIV, and 18/345 (5.2% were HIV-positive. Compared to the pre-B+ period more women were tested during labour (30% versus 2.4%, p<0.0001. During the study, the MTCT rate was 2.2%.The implementation of

  16. Colombia - The Quality of Education in Colombia : An Analysis and Options for a Policy Agenda

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this report is to analyze student learning in Colombia in order to foster policies to improve education quality that are grounded in research and the Colombian context. In 2006, Colombia participated for the first time in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), which provides an imp...

  17. Digital platforms: an analytical framework for identifying and evaluating policy options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.; Fahy, R.; van Til, H.; Nooren, P.; Stokking, H.; Gelevert, H.

    2015-01-01

    At the request of the Ministry of Economic Affairs, a project consortium of TNO, Ecorys and IViR have developed a framework to analyse policy questions regarding ‘digital platforms’. This framework enables the government to take advantage of the opportunities these platforms offer and to appreciate

  18. Energy policy options--from the perspective of public attitudes and risk perceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viklund, Mattias

    2004-01-01

    In the present study a representative sample (N=797) of the Swedish population was surveyed, with regard to attitudes related to energy policy issues (e.g., environmental attitudes, risk perceptions, and attitudes towards different energy production systems), and self-reported electricity saving behavior. These factors were considered relevant in a Swedish energy policy context, due to the planned phase-out of nuclear power. Citizens' attitudes have traditionally been important factors in energy policy-making, especially nuclear policy. One of the conditions for a successful phase-out is decreased levels of electricity consumption among households and in industry, in order to compensate for the loss in energy production. Respondents reported positive attitudes to the environment in general and to electricity saving, while the attitudes to nuclear power as an energy production system in Sweden were relatively negative. Perceived risk was an important predictor of these attitudes and it was concluded that it is important to investigate factors behind this variable. The relationship between attitudes towards electricity saving and electricity saving behavior was weak. It is suggested that a contribution of psychological knowledge in energy conservation campaigns could be to elaborate on people's willingness to be public-spirited citizens in combination with their pro-environmental attitudes. Viklund (1999, Electricity saving: Attitudes and behavior of Swedish households. Center for Risk Research, Stockholm.) presented more data from the survey referred to here

  19. Economic instruments and waste policies in the Netherlands. Inventory and options for extended use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oosterhuis, F.H.; Van Beukering, P.J.H.; Bartelings, H.; Linderhof, V.G.M.

    2009-03-01

    In recent years, the interest in the use of economic instruments in environmental policy has been growing, reflecting increasing awareness of their potential cost-effectiveness as well as the need to diversify the 'policy toolbox'. Waste policy is no exception to this tendency. The present study explores the opportunities for extended use of economic instruments for waste policy in the Netherlands, focusing on waste from households and the trade, services and government sector. Five economic instruments are specifically addressed: (1) Waste taxes; (2) Waste collection charges; (3) Taxes on raw materials and products; (4) Deposit-refund schemes; and (5) Subsidies and fiscal incentives. For each of these economic instruments, the study describes existing experiences (both in the Netherlands and abroad) and analyses the impact and feasibility of a variety of possible new applications. These case studies, which primarily serve as illustrations of the mechanisms and possible impacts, were selected so as to represent a wide range of instrument types, levels of intervention, positions in the value chain, and types of waste. Depending on the application area and data availability, the analysis is done by means of quantitative approaches (using general-equilibrium modelling and statistical analysis) or more qualitative approaches in which expert judgements are used.

  20. Policy options to stimulate social innovation initiatives addressing food waste prevention and reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vittuari, Matteo; Gaiani, Silvia; Politano, Alessandro; Timmermans, A.J.M.; Bos-Brouwers, H.E.J.

    2016-01-01

    The report builds on the knowledge created by the FUSIONS position paper “Stimulating social innovation through policy measures” that uses as key inputs the range of existing social innovation initiatives catalogued by FUSIONS WP4 in the inventory and draws on the outcomes of the WP3 Social Camp

  1. Carrot, Stick, or Sledgehammer: U.S. Policy Options for North Korean Nuclear Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    North Korea is what former Secretary of Defense William Perry referred to as, “the poster- child of proliferation problems.”18 Forced to enter the NPT...Doctors Without Borders and Action Against Hunger protested the North Korean government’s control of their relief efforts and supplies. The NGOs...Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada for high-ranking U.S. leaders such as members of Congress and all new flag rank officers in the U.S. military. After

  2. Aftercare Services for Child Victims of Sex Trafficking: A Systematic Review of Policy and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraya, Dorothy Neriah; Fry, Deborah

    2016-04-01

    To explore aftercare services provided to child victims of sex trafficking globally based on the results of a systematic review of published and unpublished research, organizational policy, and current practice. This systematic review serves as a first step toward developing best practices for aftercare service providers. A systematic search was conducted of four English language databases, two human trafficking resource libraries, and one Internet search engine for journal articles and "grey" literature published between January 2000 and May 2013 on the services offered to child sex trafficking victims globally. The search yielded 15 documents for inclusion in the review. The 15 documents emphasized the need for aftercare service provision to be founded on children's rights and trauma-informed service provision. They recommended delivery practices such as case management and multidisciplinary, multiagency and multinational coordination to ensure the child victims benefit fully from the services. The systematic review revealed that there are three phases to aftercare service provision: rescue, recover, and reintegration. Each of these phases is characterized by different needs and types of services provided. The recovery phase received the most attention compared to recovery and reintegration phases. The literature highlighted that aftercare service provision for child sex trafficking victims is a new area that needs an evidence base from which policy and practice can be formed. There is great need for further research and better documentation of service provision. While this research provides insight into this area, the gap in literature remains wide. The area of aftercare service provision for children who have been trafficked has experienced phenomenal growth within the last 10 years, and with more research and resources being directed to the area, the achievement of international minimum standards of care provision is possible. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Policy and tecnological constraints to implementation of greenhouse gas mitigation options in agriculture

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available and ecological processes involved in trace gas emissions and carbon storage in agricultural systems makes investors more wary of these options than the more clear-cut industrial mitigation activities. This barrier can be reduced by investment in research... and changing lifestyles in some developing countries, most notably in China, are causing a growing demand for meat and dairy products. Meat demand in developing countries rose from 11 to �1 �1 3119 3184 +19 502 760 792 +22 142 99 106 +81 48 2260 2286...

  4. Policy Options for Encouraging Energy Efficiency Best Practices in Shandong Province's Cement Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sambeek, Emiel van [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yowargana, Ping [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shuang, Liu [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kejun, Jiang [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-07-12

    This research intends to explore possible design options for a sectoral approach in the cement sector in Shandong Province and to consider its respective advantages and disadvantages for future application. An effort has been made in this research to gather and analyze data that will provide a transparent and robust basis for development of a Business-As-Usual (BAU) scenario, maximum technology potential scenario, and ultimately a sector crediting baseline. Surveys among cement companies and discussions with stakeholders were also conducted in order to better understand the industry and local needs related to the sectoral approach.

  5. Determinants of child and forced marriage in Morocco: stakeholder perspectives on health, policies and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbe, Alexia; Oulami, Halima; Zekraoui, Wahiba; Hikmat, Halima; Temmerman, Marleen; Leye, Els

    2013-10-16

    In Morocco, the social and legal framework surrounding sexual and reproductive health has transformed greatly in the past decade, especially with the introduction of the new Family Law or Moudawana. Yet, despite raising the minimum age of marriage for girls and stipulating equal rights in the family, child and forced marriage is widespread. The objective of this research study was to explore perspectives of a broad range of professionals on factors that contribute to the occurrence of child and forced marriage in Morocco. A qualitative approach was used to generate both primary and secondary data for the analysis. Primary data consist of individual semi-structured interviews that were conducted with 22 professionals from various sectors: health, legal, education, NGO's and government. Sources of secondary data include academic papers, government and NGO reports, various legal documents and media reports. Data were analyzed using thematic qualitative analysis. Four major themes arose from the data, indicating that the following elements contribute to child and forced marriage: (1) the legal and social divergence in conceptualizing forced and child marriage; (2) the impact of legislation; (3) the role of education; and (4) the economic factor. Emphasis was especially placed on the new Family Code or Moudawana as having the greatest influence on advancement of women's rights in the sphere of marriage. However, participants pointed out that embedded patriarchal attitudes and behaviours limit its effectiveness. The study provided a comprehensive understanding of the factors that compound the problem of child and forced marriage in Morocco. From the viewpoint of professionals, who are closely involved in tackling the issue, policy measures and the law have the greatest potential to bring child and forced marriage to a halt. However, the implementation of new legal tools is facing barriers and resistance. Additionally, the legal and policy framework should go hand in hand

  6. Situational analysis of infant and young child nutrition policies and programmatic activities in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuehler, Sara E; Ly Wane, Coudy Thierno

    2011-04-01

    Progress towards reducing mortality and malnutrition among children Sahel', starting with an analysis of current activities related to infant and young child nutrition (IYCN). The main objectives of the situational analysis are to compile, analyse and interpret available information on infant and child feeding and the nutrition situation of children security and hygienic practices. Nearly all of the key IYCN topics were addressed, specifically or generally, in national policy documents. Senegal reported substantial improvements since the 1990s towards reducing infant and young child mortality and underweight, and increasing exclusive breastfeeding among infants <6 months of age (34%). Senegal is one of the few countries in the region that is nearly on track for reaching related MDGs. Notable activities that may have played a role include: (1) vitamin A supplementation was expanded to nearly semi-annual national campaigns starting in 1994; (2) the Ministry of Health partnered with several national and international agencies to scale up child survival activities under the umbrella of the Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival (1994-2006); (3) a national nutrition division was developed to support a national nutrition strengthening programme; (4) the national nutrition counsel was organized to coordinate nutritional activities across various organizations and governmental sectors, involving representatives from health, agriculture and surveillance; and (5) an integrated communications programme was developed to support harmonized behaviour change communication tools for the health and nutrition sectors. Along with these activities, a number of programme evaluations were conducted to ensure that programmes obtain desired results. Although useful, these evaluations were not rigorous enough to identify effective programmes that contributed to the mentioned reductions in the prevalence of underweight and mortality, and increases in exclusive breastfeeding

  7. Determinants of child and forced marriage in Morocco: stakeholder perspectives on health, policies and human rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In Morocco, the social and legal framework surrounding sexual and reproductive health has transformed greatly in the past decade, especially with the introduction of the new Family Law or Moudawana. Yet, despite raising the minimum age of marriage for girls and stipulating equal rights in the family, child and forced marriage is widespread. The objective of this research study was to explore perspectives of a broad range of professionals on factors that contribute to the occurrence of child and forced marriage in Morocco. Methods A qualitative approach was used to generate both primary and secondary data for the analysis. Primary data consist of individual semi-structured interviews that were conducted with 22 professionals from various sectors: health, legal, education, NGO’s and government. Sources of secondary data include academic papers, government and NGO reports, various legal documents and media reports. Data were analyzed using thematic qualitative analysis. Results Four major themes arose from the data, indicating that the following elements contribute to child and forced marriage: (1) the legal and social divergence in conceptualizing forced and child marriage; (2) the impact of legislation; (3) the role of education; and (4) the economic factor. Emphasis was especially placed on the new Family Code or Moudawana as having the greatest influence on advancement of women's rights in the sphere of marriage. However, participants pointed out that embedded patriarchal attitudes and behaviours limit its effectiveness. Conclusion The study provided a comprehensive understanding of the factors that compound the problem of child and forced marriage in Morocco. From the viewpoint of professionals, who are closely involved in tackling the issue, policy measures and the law have the greatest potential to bring child and forced marriage to a halt. However, the implementation of new legal tools is facing barriers and resistance. Additionally, the legal and

  8. Greenhouse gas options, policy and measures for the Canadian Transportation Equipment Manufacturing Industry - Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-02-01

    This report summarizes and analyses the work that have been carried out by the Transportation Equipment Manufacturing Sector (TEMS) Working Group of the National Climate Change Industry Table over the last 14 months, and presents the Group's view of appropriate policies for greenhouse gas emission reduction in Canada. To develop its approach, the Working Group conducted five separate studies which are included in this report as annexes. Annex A is a Foundation Paper, which provides an overview of the sector's performance vis-a-vis energy use and greenhouse gas production. Annex B analyzes the competitive position of the industry by reviewing growth trends in each of the industry sub-sectors and the key factors in maintaining and enhancing the sector's international competitive position. Annex C is a technology assessment. It provides an overview of the uptake of energy saving technology in the sector. Annex D provides a facility level analysis focusing on energy use in the automotive parts manufacturing sector. Annex E is a review of American policies on climate change, summarizing the approach currently being taken towards greenhouse gas emission reduction in the United States. Some of the key findings of this report are: (1) business-as-usual emissions will greatly exceed the implicit Kyoto target of six per cent reduction from 1990 levels, (2) relatively few opportunities exist for major emissions reductions through the use of existing technology, (3) sector-specific policies appear to be ill-advised, but cross-cutting policies provide good opportunities for the transportation equipment manufacturing sector to do its part in helping Canada meeting its Kyoto commitment. The report recommends investigation of barriers to adoption of new technologies and examination of market imperfections, promotion of cogeneration where it makes economic sense, and consideration of the use of flexible instruments such as carbon taxes and tradable emission permits. Overall, the

  9. A third option for climate policy within potential limits to growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bergh, Jeroen C. J. M.

    2017-02-01

    Climate change has revived debates around the concept of limits to growth, 45 years after it was first proposed. Many citizens, scientists and politicians fear that stringent climate policy will harm economic growth. Some are anti-growth, whereas others believe green growth is compatible with a transition to a low-carbon economy. As the window to curb warming at 2 °C closes, this debate will intensify. This Review critically reflects on both positions, providing an overview of existing literature on the growth versus climate debate. Both positions are argued here to jeopardize environmental or social goals. A third position, labelled an 'agrowth' strategy, is proposed to depolarize the debate and reduce resistance to climate policies.

  10. Political economy of the energy-groundwater nexus in India: exploring issues and assessing policy options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Tushaar; Giordano, Mark; Mukherji, Aditi

    2012-08-01

    Indian agriculture is trapped in a complex nexus of groundwater depletion and energy subsidies. This nexus is the product of past public policy choices that initially offered opportunities to India's small-holder-based irrigation economy but has now generated in its wake myriad economic, social, and environmental distortions. Conventional `getting-the-price-right' solutions to reduce these distortions have consistently been undermined by the invidious political economy that the nexus has created. The historical evolution of the nexus is outlined, the nature and scale of the distortions it has created are explored, and alternative approaches which Indian policy makers can use to limit, if not eliminate, the damaging impacts of the distortions, are analysed.

  11. Comparison of auctions and alternative policy options for RES-E support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitzing, Lena; Islam, Marco; Fitch-Roy, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    This report concludes the work carried out in the course of Task 6.2 of the AURES project. It is its aim to compare auctions with alternative policy instruments and in particular, to examine under which circumstances auctions may be superior and inferior to achieve intended policy targets...... analysis consists of two parts: First, we conduct a theoretical analysis, which summarises the insights gathered by Weitzman (1974). It illustrates that with uncertainty regarding the marginal costs and marginal benefits of RES, particularly the choice between price (e.g. a FIT) and quantity (e.......g. an auction) instruments will be decisive, since incorrect price or quota signals may have different effects. In essence, while price schemes may reduce the risk of welfare losses given a relatively steep marginal cost and a comparably flat marginal benefit curve, a quantity scheme may be superior...

  12. [Options for a future-oriented innovation policy in the medical devices industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusser, Michael; Lindner, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    From an innovation systems perspective the performance of the German medical devices industry, future challenges and barriers to innovation are assessed. Current performance indicators (e.g., R&D intensity, export growth rates) paint a favourable picture. Nonetheless, a number of innovation barriers are identified: in particular, insufficient network integration of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and ineffective policy coordination. Finally, recommendations addressing identified future challenges and innovation barriers are developed.

  13. U.S. forest products trade policies: what are the options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Darr

    1975-01-01

    Trade and other policies are being considered by the U.S. Forest Service according to the terms of the Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-378,93d Congress, S.2296). This paper describes the issues involved in the question, "Should we or should we not attempt to reduce net imports of forest products?" In terms of...

  14. Carrot, stick, or sledgehammer: U.S. policy options for North Korean nuclear weapons

    OpenAIRE

    Orcutt, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited North Korea's pursuit of nuclear weapons has shaken the foundations of U.S. policy in Northeast Asia. Because of North Korea's record of state-sponsored terrorism, illicit activities, human rights violations, arms sales, and fiery rhetoric, its development of operational nuclear weapons is deeply disturbing. Although most agree North Korea should not possess nuclear weapons, nobody has a solution. This thesis evaluates three U.S. polic...

  15. Bioenergy transition in rural China: Policy options and co-benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, Lin; Yu, Juan

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the current situation of bioenergy development in China, particularly on its relationship to sustainable rural development. It argues that the current government strategy, investment policy and industrial interest are over-emphasized on biomass-burning power generation as part of the clean energy development trajectories, which may not lead to the most cost-effective outcomes in terms of investments, resource use and social development objectives. It points out that there are large potentials in developing and disseminating household-based biomass technologies in rural areas, especially with energy-efficient modern biomass stoves, which can produce far more economic, social and environmental benefits than biomass power plants. It is a decentralized solution to use renewable energy resources for meeting multi-objectives. It is suggested that key incentive policies be provided by the government to encourage this technological transition, or the leapfrogging from using traditional household stoves towards modern biomass stoves, which will lead to a win-win situation in global, regional and local environmental protection, sustainable resource management and related social benefits, particularly for the poor in remote communities. Six policy recommendations are made: (1) financial schemes development; (2) preferable tax and carbon tax; (3) regulatory policy reform; (4) service industry support; (5) market research, training and capacity building for key stakeholders; (6) development of methodologies and standards for CDM projects. The potential co-benefits brought up by this massive biomass technology transition will bring new perspectives to realizing Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and global CO 2 emissions reduction targets in China, and also set an example to other developing countries. (author)

  16. Nuclear Challenges and Policy Options for the Next U.S. Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    from NPT obligations on the part of state parties (e.g., Iraq and Libya) did not diminish the negative impact that the fi rst formal withdrawal...substantive de- bate reminded one of a staged “ beauty pageant ” in which delegations rolled out carefully craft ed statements on well-known positions...travel and fi nancial curbs on named individuals and companies. 16. The sanctions adopted so far have an impact on the economy but no effect on policy

  17. Policy options for the split incentive: Increasing energy efficiency for low-income renters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, Stephen; Hernández, Diana

    2012-01-01

    The split incentive problem concerns the lack of appropriate incentives to implement energy efficiency measures. In particular, low income tenants face a phenomenon of energy poverty in which they allocate significantly more of their household income to energy expenditures than other renters. This problem is substantial, affecting 1.89% of all United States' energy use. If effectively addressed, it would create a range of savings between 4 and 11 billion dollars per year for many of the nation's poorest residents. We argue that a carefully designed program of incentives for participants (including landlords) in conjunction with a unique type of utility-managed on-bill financing mechanism has significant potential to solve many of the complications. We focus on three kinds of split incentives, five concerns inherent to addressing split incentive problems (scale, endurance, incentives, savings, political disfavor), and provide a detailed policy proposal designed to surpass those problems, with a particular focus on low-income tenants in a U.S. context. - Highlights: ► We demonstrate the significant impact of the split incentive on low-income tenants. ► We discuss split incentive characteristics, and policy failures. ► We described an on-bill financing model with unique features. ► This policy has protections and incentives for tenants and landlords.

  18. 20% biofuels in 2020. An outline of policy options for the implementation of 20-20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhagen, B.; Ritter, B.; Van Thuijl, E.; Neeft, J.; Hoogma, R.

    2008-07-01

    This report provides an outline of the technical feasibility of the Dutch target of 20% biofuels on energy basis in 2020. In order to reach this target additional effort is required with respect to the obligatory market share of 10% as proposed by the EU. The first chapters of this report describe the basic data. Chapter 2 gives an overview of developments in the market for transport fuels in the period 2008-2020 and the division of that market in a number of market segments. Chapter 3 provides information on production, distribution, availability of vehicles and user aspects of the main biofuels. Subsequently, chapter 4 addresses the options for achieving the 20% biofuels target. Chapter 5 sketches the variants on the basic route and calculates the costs of these variants. Chapter 6 discusses the timing and cost of the basic route and the variants. The main conclusion of this report is that 20% blending can be achieved. [mk] [nl

  19. System of policy options for the stabilization of the global climate. Chikyu kiko anteika no tame no seisaku option no taikei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Tsuneyuki (National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tokyo, (Japan))

    1990-01-25

    Based on the materials of the Study Council on the Policies against Global Warming, policies were systematized and proposed in the name of COSMO (COmprehensive Strategies for MOderating global warming) Plan-I. In this report policies are meant to be the course of policies, and means are measures to accomplish policies and they include direct regulations, economic measures and education. These measures take root as systems after they are generalized and systematized. The design procedure of the policy frame is composed of three steps; firstly, extraction and identification of basic characteristics of the issue of the global warming: secondly, setting of basic policies based on the characteristics: and thirdly, design of the policy frame based on the set basic policies. Basic policies made through this process are grouped into 8; policies for converting basic structure of the social economy, policies for individual industrial countermeasures, policies for regional control and management, policies for international cooperations and adjustments, and policies for adapting to the global warming. 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child as policy and strategy for social work action in child welfare in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, James L

    2012-01-01

    The United States and Somalia are the only two countries in the world that have not ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). Opposition in the United States stems from the CRC's demand for a cultural change in how a society cares for children and a political hesitancy to become involved in binding international agreements. An earlier analysis for understanding the CRC is reviewed and replaced with one that uses a policy analysis model. This new model provides a basis for uniform child welfare policy and strategy throughout the nation. Although NASW has been supportive, it has not actively studied the consequences of implementation of the CRC, nor has it incorporated the CRC into its policy statements as a fundamental tenet. This article recommends that the NASW use the CRC as a basis for all child welfare policy statements and reference the CRS in future articles on child welfare issues. It also urges social workers to become politically active on behalf of the CRC to achieve ratification. Finally, it recommends a national committee to not only coordinate efforts toward ratification, but also oversee implementation of the CRC once it is ratified.

  1. Child-care nutrition environments: results from a survey of policy and practice in New Zealand early childhood education services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerritsen, Sarah; Wall, Clare; Morton, Susan

    2016-06-01

    To describe nutrition environments in formal child care for 3- and 4-year-olds. Cross-sectional online survey of nutrition-related child-care policy and practice. Written nutrition policies were analysed using the Wellness Child Care Assessment Tool. Licensed child-care services in the Auckland, Counties Manukau and Waikato regions of New Zealand. Eight hundred and forty-seven services (private and community day care, kindergartens and playcentres). Managers/head teachers of 257 child-care services completed the survey. Of services, 82·4 % had a written food, nutrition or wellness policy. Most policies did not refer to the national Food and Nutrition Guidelines and lacked directives for staff regarding recommended behaviours to promote healthy eating. Food was provided daily to children in 56·4 % of child-care services, including 33·5 % that provided lunch and at least two other meals/snacks every day. Teachers talked to children about food, and cooked with children, at least weekly in 60 % of child-care services. Nearly all services had an edible garden (89·5 %). Foods/beverages were sold for fundraising in the past 12 months by 37·2 % of services. The most commonly reported barrier to promoting nutrition was a lack of support from families (20·6 %). Although the majority of child-care services had a written nutrition policy, these were not comprehensive and contained weak statements that could be difficult to action. Foods served at celebrations and for fundraising were largely high in sugar, salt and/or saturated fat. Most services promoted some healthy eating behaviours but other widespread practices encouraged children to overeat or form unhealthy food preferences.

  2. Who Owns Renewable Energy Certificates? An Exploration of PolicyOptions and Practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, Edward A.; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2006-04-05

    Renewable energy certificates (RECs) represent the bundle of information that describes the characteristics of renewable electricity generation, and may be (and increasingly are) sold separately from the underlying electricity itself. RECs are a relatively new phenomenon, emerging as a tradable commodity in voluntary markets in the late 1990s, and gaining strength as a means of compliance with various state policy requirements affecting renewable generation in the early 2000s (Holt and Bird 2005). Twenty states and Washington, D.C. now have mandatory renewables portfolio standard (RPS) obligations, and most of these may be satisfied by owning and retiring RECs. Many states also have fuel source and emissions disclosure requirements, for which RECs are useful. Even where state policy does not allow unbundled and fully tradable RECs to meet these requirements, RECs may still be used as an accounting and verification tool (REC tracking systems are in place or under development in many regions of the U.S.). These applications, plus REC trading activity in support of voluntary green claims, give rise to potential ''double counting'' to the extent that the purchaser of the RECs and the purchaser of the underlying electricity both make claims to the renewable energy attributes of the facility in question (Hamrin and Wingate 2003). When renewable electricity is sold and purchased, an important question therefore arises: ''Who owns the RECs created by the generation of renewable energy?'' In voluntary transactions, most agree that the question of REC ownership can and should be negotiated between the buyer and the seller privately, and should be clearly established by contract. Claims about purchasing renewable energy should only be made if REC ownership can be documented. In many other cases, however, renewable energy transactions are either mandated or encouraged through state or federal policy. In these cases, the issue of REC

  3. Arsenal of democracy in the face of change: Issues and policy options in industrial preparedness planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjornstad, D.J.; Hardy, B.H.

    1990-03-01

    This paper is one of a set of working papers that serves as a background material to a FEMA-sponsored study of Industrial Mobilization planning. It identifies issues that will lead to policy alternatives in support of industrial preparedness. To do this, a simple framework cross classifying types of economic interaction between the DOD and the private sector, given peacetime, surge, and mobilization requirements. Next, policy recommendations from ten recent studies are examined. These came from a variety of different groups and focused on potential actions by DOD, FEMA, Congress, the Navy, and others. These are summarized and restated to match the cross classification framework. The planning framework is then used to organize a set of recommendations around three themes --- acquisition and public/private sector relationships technology and factor input enhancing activities, and offshore sourcing and international competitiveness. The DOD has already addressed the acquisition issue at great length and has implemented the bulk of its findings. These will undoubtedly increase the effectiveness and efficiency of its operations. It cannot, however, by itself fully rationalize the acquisition process so that incentives to achieve greater efficiency are fully passed on to contractors. DOD can, however, revise its acquisition process so that surge provisions are a deliberate step in the contract of each sensitive procurement, and could require a surge analysis for each action, steps that would highlight preparations for surge. DOD should consider the creation of a new institution similar to, but more generic than SEMATECH to handle its activities that directly enhance the defense industrial base. It should also support the creation of a body whose goal it is to identify non-neutralities in government policy. 23 refs., 1 fig., 15 tabs.

  4. The foreign policy and security options of Romania in the vision of Klaus Johannis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu-Ioan Opriș

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available If a decade ago, Romania became a NATO member and it was enrolled in the accession process to the European Union, in 2014, the problem is radically different: Romania has a new status within NATO, it is part of the EU, it is in process of accession to the Schengen area and it has developed its strategic partnership with the United States of America. In this context, the aim of this paper is to bring into attention the vision of the new president of Romania, Klaus Iohannis, regarding the romanian foreign policy and security.

  5. China's one-child policy, a policy without a future. Pitfalls of the “common good” argument and the authoritarian model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jing-Bao

    2014-07-01

    The Chinese Communist Party government has been forcefully promoting its jihua shengyu (planned fertility) program, known as the "one-child policy," for more than three decades. A distinctive authoritarian model of population governance has been developed. A pertinent question to be asked is whether China's one-child policy and the authoritarian model of population governance have a future. The answer must be no; they do not. Although there are many demographic, economic, and social rationales for terminating the one-child policy, the most fundamental reason for opposing its continuation is drawn from ethics. The key ethical rationale offered for the policy is that it promotes the common social good, not only for China and the Chinese people but for the whole human family. The major irony associated with this apparently convincing justification is that, although designed to improve living standards and help relieve poverty and underdevelopment, the one-child policy and the application of the authoritarian model have instead caused massive suffering to Chinese people, especially women, and made them victims of state violence. A lesson from China--one learned at the cost of individual and social suffering on an enormous scale--is that an essential prerequisite for the pursuit of the common good is the creation of adequate constraints on state power.

  6. Situational analysis of infant and young child nutrition policies and programmatic activities in Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuehler, Sara E; Nadjilem, Djasndibye

    2011-04-01

    Progress towards reducing mortality and malnutrition among children Sahel', starting with an analysis of current activities related to infant and young child nutrition (IYCN). The main objectives of the situational analysis are to compile, analyse, and interpret available information on infant and child feeding, and the nutrition situation of children security, and promotion of good hygienic practices. Chad is not on track to reaching the MDGs of reducing mortality by two-thirds and malnutrition by half among children <5 years of age between 1990 and 2015. Most of the key IYCN topics were addressed in a national policy to combat malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies. No national nutrition policy was yet ratified in Chad, so the target of many documents reviewed was the malnourished child. Researchers have identified some barriers to optimal feeding practices. However, the majority of these surveys were small scale, so they do not necessarily provide information relevant to the general population. Expanded surveys would be needed for developing evidence-based educational messages targeted to local needs. Reviewed training materials and related programmes being implemented in Chad provide specific guidance for nearly all of the key IYCN topics, except for appropriate feeding choices for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Some of the programmes were intended for national coverage, but we could not confirm whether these programmes were actually implemented nationally. Monitoring and evaluation reports were available for some small-scale programmes, but few of these evaluated whether IYCN-specific programme components were implemented as designed and none evaluated whether participants adopted the promoted feeding practices. Establishment of the policy and programme framework has commenced for improving IYCN practices. Formative research is needed to guide the development of evidence-based training materials and programmes to address the

  7. Transport sector CO2 emissions growth in Asia: Underlying factors and policy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timilsina, Govinda R.; Shrestha, Ashish

    2009-01-01

    This study analyze the potential factors influencing the growth of transport sector carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions in selected Asian countries during the 1980-2005 period by decomposing annual emissions growth into components representing changes in fuel mix, modal shift, per capita gross domestic product (GDP) and population, as well as changes in emission coefficients and transportation energy intensity. We find that changes in per capita GDP, population growth and transportation energy intensity are the main factors driving transport sector CO 2 emission growth in the countries considered. While growth in per capita income and population are responsible for the increasing trend of transport sector CO 2 emissions in China, India, Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Thailand; the decline of transportation energy intensity is driving CO 2 emissions down in Mongolia. Per capita GDP, population and transportation energy intensity effects are all found responsible for transport sector CO 2 emissions growth in Bangladesh, the Philippines and Vietnam. The study also reviews existing government policies to limit CO 2 emissions growth, such as fiscal instruments, fuel economy standards and policies to encourage switching to less emission intensive fuels and transportation modes.

  8. Situational analysis of infant and young child nutrition policies and programmatic activities in Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuehler, Sara E; Coulibaly, Mouctar

    2011-04-01

    Progress towards reducing mortality and malnutrition among children Sahel', starting with a situational analysis of current activities related to infant and young child nutrition (IYCN). The main objectives of the situational analysis are to compile, analyse and interpret available information on infant and young child feeding, and the nutrition situation of children security, and hygienic practices. Most of the key IYCN topics were addressed in national policies, training materials, and programme documents. Information on the national coverage and impact of these programmes is generally not available. Exclusive breastfeeding (<6 months) has increased in Mali, but no studies identified the contributors to this increase. Despite improvements in breastfeeding practices, optimal infant, and young child feeding is still practiced among too few young children in Mali. Several research articles were identified, but few of these were linked to programme development. Some programme monitoring and evaluation reports were available, but few of these were rigorous enough to identify whether IYCN-specific programme components were implemented as designed or were achieving desired outcomes. Therefore, we could not confirm which programmes contributed to reported improvements. Monitoring of programmes managing malnutrition identified gaps in human and institutional capacities to fully carry out intended interventions and the government has recognized the overall lack of adequate numbers of health care providers to carry out necessary programmes in Mali, of which nutrition programmes are a part. The policy and programme framework is well established for support of optimal IYCN practices, but greater resources and capacity building are needed to: (i) conduct necessary research to adapt training materials and programme protocols to programmatic needs; (ii) implement rigorous monitoring and evaluation that identify effective programme components; and (iii) apply these findings in

  9. Nutrition and physical activity randomized control trial in child care centers improves knowledge, policies, and children's body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkon, Abbey; Crowley, Angela A; Neelon, Sara E Benjamin; Hill, Sherika; Pan, Yi; Nguyen, Viet; Rose, Roberta; Savage, Eric; Forestieri, Nina; Shipman, Linda; Kotch, Jonathan B

    2014-03-01

    To address the public health crisis of overweight and obese preschool-age children, the Nutrition And Physical Activity Self Assessment for Child Care (NAP SACC) intervention was delivered by nurse child care health consultants with the objective of improving child care provider and parent nutrition and physical activity knowledge, center-level nutrition and physical activity policies and practices, and children's body mass index (BMI). A seven-month randomized control trial was conducted in 17 licensed child care centers serving predominantly low income families in California, Connecticut, and North Carolina, including 137 child care providers and 552 families with racially and ethnically diverse children three to five years old. The NAP SACC intervention included educational workshops for child care providers and parents on nutrition and physical activity and consultation visits provided by trained nurse child care health consultants. Demographic characteristics and pre - and post-workshop knowledge surveys were completed by providers and parents. Blinded research assistants reviewed each center's written health and safety policies, observed nutrition and physical activity practices, and measured randomly selected children's nutritional intake, physical activity, and height and weight pre- and post-intervention. Hierarchical linear models and multiple regression models assessed individual- and center-level changes in knowledge, policies, practices and age- and sex-specific standardized body mass index (zBMI), controlling for state, parent education, and poverty level. Results showed significant increases in providers' and parents' knowledge of nutrition and physical activity, center-level improvements in policies, and child-level changes in children's zBMI based on 209 children in the intervention and control centers at both pre- and post-intervention time points. The NAP SACC intervention, as delivered by trained child health professionals such as child care

  10. Health services financing and delivery: analysis of policy options for Dubai, United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidi S

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Samer Hamidi School of Health and Environmental Studies, Hamdan Bin Mohammed Smart University, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Introduction: A national health account (NHA provides a systematic approach to mapping the flow of health sector funds within a specified health system over a defined time period. This article attempts to present a profile of health system financing in Dubai, United Arab Emirates using data from NHAs, and to compare the functional structures of financing schemes in Dubai with schemes in Qatar and selected member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD. Methods: The author analyzed secondary data published in NHAs of Dubai and Qatar and data collected by the OECD countries and publicly available from Eurostat (Statistical Office of the European Union of 25 OECD countries for comparative analysis. All health financing indicators used were as defined in the international System of Health Accounts (SHA. Results: In Dubai, spending on inpatient care was the highest-costing component, with 30% of current health expenditures (CHE. Spending on outpatient care was the second highest-costing component and accounted for about 23% of the CHE. Household spending accounted for about 22% of CHE (equivalent to US$187 per capita, compared to an average of 20% of CHE of OECD countries. Dubai spent 0.02% of CHE on long-term care, compared to an average of 11% of CHE of OECD countries. Dubai spent about 6% of CHE on prevention and public health services, compared to an average of 3.2% of CHE of OECD countries. Conclusion: The findings point to potential opportunities for growth and improvement in several health policy issues in Dubai, including increasing focus and funding of preventive services; shifting from inpatient care to day surgery, outpatient, and home-based services and strengthening long-term care; and introducing cost-containment measures for pharmaceuticals. More investment in the translation of

  11. Policy options when giving negative externalities market value: Clean energy policymaking and restructuring the Western Australian energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHenry, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Uncertainty surrounds the choice of instruments that internalise fossil-fuel pollution at the local, regional and global level. This work outlines the considerable growth in the Western Australian (WA) energy sector and explores the available options and potential hazards of using specific instruments to internalise externalities. These core options are discussed with respect to liberalising energy markets, providing private investment certainty, and imparting commentary on the developments and consequences of reform in the WA context. As a large energy exporter, providing certainty for the WA energy sector investment and the community is necessary to maintain the current prosperity. Remarkably, in the decades of market reform progress, the absence of one essential element is evident: economic externalities. Policymakers are under increasing pressure to understand economic reform, new energy markets and the multifaceted repercussions they entail. With modern energy reform sitting squarely within the milieu of more efficient governments and climate policy, there are clear economic advantages to internalising negative and positive externalities and other market distortions during energy market developments. Ignoring market failures when commercialising government-owned energy utilities in de-regulated and competitive markets invites continued ad-hoc government interference that generates investment uncertainty in addition to a perplexed electorate

  12. Economic and Energy Development in China: Policy Options and Implications for Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElroy, M. B.; Nielsen, C.

    2003-01-23

    The Harvard University Center for the Environment and partner institutions in China established a multidisciplinary program of integrated research on energy-related environmental issues, local air pollution and global climate change, in China and their role in U.S.-Chinese relations. Major research streams included: (a) developing a dynamic, multi-sector model of the Chinese economy that can estimate energy use, emission, and health damages from pollution, and using this model to simulate broad economic effects of market-based pollution-control policies; (b) developing a regionally disaggregated model of technology and investment choice in the Chinese electric power sector; (c) applying an atmospheric chemical tracer transport model to investigate carbon uptake in Eurasis (notably China) and North America, and to inform observational strategies for CO{sub 2} in China and elsewhere.

  13. Low-income energy assistance programs: a profile of need and policy options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    This second report of the Fuel Oil Marketing Advisory Committee (FOMAC) of DOE is twofold: to update information on the energy needs of low-income persons and governmental response to such needs; and to emphasize the need for energy-conservation programs that may alleviate the enormous financial burden placed on low-income people by rising energy prices. FOMAC has continued to develop further and refine its initial energy-conservation recommendations. Mainly, the updated assessment document finds that the poor will expend at least 35% of their income directly on energy and will spend at least 21% of their income on household energy. Other economic impacts of rising energy costs on low-income groups are summarized. Appropriations and stipulations by Congress to aid the lo-income people are reviewed. After careful review of various program designs, FOMAC continues to support the income indexing/vendor line of credit approach. This design provides assistance to elgible households based on: energy needed, cost of fuel, and percentage of income. The cost of implementing the FOMAC design nationally would, according to estimates, range from $3.5 to $4.6 billion for the 1980-1981 winter heating season. A figure of $1.6 to $2.2 billion is being discussed in the Congress. Meeting the ongoing energy needs of the poor will require a coherent national policy which consists of aid in paying energy bills and aid in the poor's effort to conserve energy. The report seeks to promote such policies. Needs assessment, government response, FOMAC model, comments on the programs, projected cost of 1980-1981 Energy Assistance Program, need for conservation programs, and program financing are discussed.

  14. Health services financing and delivery: analysis of policy options for Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Samer

    2015-01-01

    A national health account (NHA) provides a systematic approach to mapping the flow of health sector funds within a specified health system over a defined time period. This article attempts to present a profile of health system financing in Dubai, United Arab Emirates using data from NHAs, and to compare the functional structures of financing schemes in Dubai with schemes in Qatar and selected member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The author analyzed secondary data published in NHAs of Dubai and Qatar and data collected by the OECD countries and publicly available from Eurostat (Statistical Office of the European Union) of 25 OECD countries for comparative analysis. All health financing indicators used were as defined in the international System of Health Accounts (SHA). In Dubai, spending on inpatient care was the highest-costing component, with 30% of current health expenditures (CHE). Spending on outpatient care was the second highest-costing component and accounted for about 23% of the CHE. Household spending accounted for about 22% of CHE (equivalent to US$187 per capita), compared to an average of 20% of CHE of OECD countries. Dubai spent 0.02% of CHE on long-term care, compared to an average of 11% of CHE of OECD countries. Dubai spent about 6% of CHE on prevention and public health services, compared to an average of 3.2% of CHE of OECD countries. The findings point to potential opportunities for growth and improvement in several health policy issues in Dubai, including increasing focus and funding of preventive services; shifting from inpatient care to day surgery, outpatient, and home-based services and strengthening long-term care; and introducing cost-containment measures for pharmaceuticals. More investment in the translation of NHA data into policy is suggested for future researchers.

  15. Policy options to reduce passenger car CO2 emissions after 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Wilde, H.P.J.; Kroon, P. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-02-15

    The EU has set emission targets for new cars up to 2020 and is now preparing the post 2020 legislation. The present study aims to give insight in the design of policies to further reduce passenger car emissions after 2020. Internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles are now expected to enable deeper and less costly CO2 emission reductions than envisioned until recently. However, even advanced ICE vehicles will not enable to meet the very stringent long term emission reduction targets for passenger cars. Therefore transport policies need not only to reduce emissions of ICE vehicles, but also ensure that electric and hydrogen vehicles are phased in timely, along with low-CO2 electricity and hydrogen. Current legislation to regulate tank-to-wheel vehicle emissions is based on CO2-limits, expressed in g CO2/km. On the short term it is important to maximize the efficiency of conventional vehicles. At the same time it is essential to foster the market introduction of electric and hydrogen vehicles, given their potential to reach eventually much deeper overall CO2-reductions. When the market share of electric and hydrogen vehicles grows it becomes increasingly important to maximize their efficiency and to minimize their upstream CO2 emissions. Maximizing both efficiency and overall CO2-performance of all vehicle types - ICE, electric, and hydrogen - will be complicated to achieve with a single CO2-based standard. At this point an efficiency-based standard is more effective, and may offer some additional benefits too. The current report provides basic directions of how such legislation could be shaped.

  16. Private initiatives and policy options: recent health system experience in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, B C

    2001-03-01

    In the recent past the impact of structural adjustment in the Indian health care sector has been felt in the reduction in central grants to States for public health and disease control programmes. This falling share of central grants has had a more pronounced impact on the poorer states, which have found it more difficult to raise local resources to compensate for this loss of revenue. With the continued pace of reforms, the likelihood of increasing State expenditure on the health care sector is limited in the future. As a result, a number of notable trends are appearing in the Indian health care sector. These include an increasing investment by non-resident Indians (NRIs) in the hospital industry, leading to a spurt in corporatization in the States of their original domicile and an increasing participation by multinational companies in diagnostics aiming to capture the potential of the Indian health insurance market. The policy responses to these private initiatives are reflected in measures comprising strategies to attract private sector participation and management inputs into primary health care centres (PHCs), privatization or semi-privatization of public health facilities such as non-clinical services in public hospitals, innovating ways to finance public health facilities through non-budgetary measures, and tax incentives by the State governments to encourage private sector investment in the health sector. Bearing in mind the vital importance of such market forces and policy responses in shaping the future health care scenario in India, this paper examines in detail both of these aspects and their implications for the Indian health care sector. The analysis indicates that despite the promising newly emerging atmosphere, there are limits to market forces; appropriate refinement in the role of government should be attempted to avoid undesirable consequences of rising costs, increasing inequity and consumer exploitation. This may require opening the health

  17. Science as an early driver of policy: child labor reform in the early Progressive Era, 1870-1900.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Frederica

    2014-10-01

    Scientific evidence is an increasingly important driver of social and environmental policy concerning child health. This trend began earlier than generally recognized. The child labor reform movement of the Gilded Age and early Progressive Era reflected not only moral and economic forces but also the dramatic advances during the later decades of the 19th century in scientific knowledge concerning children's biological and psychological vulnerability to environmental and psychosocial stressors. The growing importance of scientific information in shaping policy concerning children's health between 1870 and 1900 is illustrated by the events leading up to and following the New York State Child Labor Law of 1886. Child labor reform during this period was a critical step in the development of a science-based as well as a value-driven movement to protect children's environmental health and well-being that continues today.

  18. Science as an Early Driver of Policy: Child Labor Reform in the Early Progressive Era, 1870–1900

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Scientific evidence is an increasingly important driver of social and environmental policy concerning child health. This trend began earlier than generally recognized. The child labor reform movement of the Gilded Age and early Progressive Era reflected not only moral and economic forces but also the dramatic advances during the later decades of the 19th century in scientific knowledge concerning children’s biological and psychological vulnerability to environmental and psychosocial stressors. The growing importance of scientific information in shaping policy concerning children’s health between 1870 and 1900 is illustrated by the events leading up to and following the New York State Child Labor Law of 1886. Child labor reform during this period was a critical step in the development of a science-based as well as a value-driven movement to protect children’s environmental health and well-being that continues today. PMID:25121809

  19. The diffusion of innovation in nursing regulatory policy: removing a barrier to medication administration training for child care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Carolyn T; Crowley, Angela A

    2011-08-01

    Safe medication administration is an essential component of high-quality child care. Its achievement in New Jersey was impeded by a controversy over whether teaching child care providers medication administration involves registered nurses in the process of nursing delegation. Through the theoretical framework of the Diffusion of Innovation, this paper examines how the interpretation of regulatory policy related to nursing practice in New Jersey was adjusted by the Board of Nursing following a similar interpretation of regulatory policy by the Board of Nursing in Connecticut. This adjustment enabled New Jersey nurses to continue medication administration training for child care providers. National data supporting the need for training child care providers in medication administration is presented, the Diffusion of Innovation paradigm is described; the Connecticut case and the New Jersey dilemma are discussed; the diffusion process between the two states is analyzed and an assessment of the need for further change is made.

  20. Estimating the influence of U.S. ethanol policy on plant investment decisions: A real options analysis with two stochastic variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmit, T.M.; Luo, J.; Conrad, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    U.S. ethanol policies have contributed to changes in the levels and the volatilities of revenues and costs facing ethanol firms. The implications of these policies for optimal investment behavior are investigated through an extension of the real options framework that allows for the consideration of volatility in both revenue and cost components, as well as the correlation between them. The effects of policy affecting plant revenues dominate the effects of those policies affecting production costs. In the absence of these policies, much of the recent expansionary periods would have not existed and market conditions in the late-1990s would have led to some plant closures. We also show that, regardless of plant size, U.S. ethanol policy has narrowed the distance between the optimal entry and exit curves, implying a more narrow range of inactivity and indicative of a more volatile evolution for the industry than would have existed otherwise. - Highlights: ► An extended real options framework with two stochastic variables is developed. ► Ethanol expansion largely induced by the revenue-enhancing effects of policy. ► Removing effects of policy changes optimal entry/exit environment considerably. ► To expand US ethanol industry, size of policy contributions needs to grow. ► US ethanol policy has fostered more volatile industry development.

  1. Impact of Chinese one-child policy on sibling structure: experience from rural areas in three provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemminki, Elina; Long, Qian; Wu, Zhuochun; Klemetti, Reija

    2012-01-01

    To study the influence of population policy and boy preference on the sibling structure, that is, in which order and combinations boys and girls are born into families. A population-based survey with a representative sample of new mothers in 2008-2009 in rural China. Two provinces (Anhui and Shaanxi) where authorisation for a second child was usually given if the first birth was a daughter and one province (Chongqing) where only one child was authorised. The mothers giving birth in 2008-2009 were identified from family planning and hospital birth registers (including births outside hospitals) (n=5049). Of them, 3673 were interviewed by trained medical university staff members and students using structured questionnaire (response rate 73%). Children's distribution by sex and families' distribution by children's birth order and sex composition were calculated and compared with theoretical values based on the assumption that family planning policy is fully followed. The recommended family policy was varyingly followed in the three provinces. In all provinces, there were more second children than allowed. If the policy allowing a second child only after a first-born girl were fully followed, it would result in a sibling structure in which the one-child family is always with a boy and in the two-child family the first one is always a girl. This sibling structure was partly seen in Anhui but weakly in Shaanxi. The policy allowing only one child would result in an equal number of boys and girls, but in Chongqing, there were more boys. In Anhui, unlike the other provinces, there were many more first-born girls than boys, which the authors could not fully explain. Population policy and boy preference influence the actual and relative number of girls and boys and also sibling structure.

  2. Comparative Evaluation of a South Carolina Policy to Improve Nutrition in Child Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin Neelon, Sara E; Mayhew, Meghan; O'Neill, Jennifer R; Neelon, Brian; Li, Fan; Pate, Russell R

    2016-06-01

    Policies to promote healthy eating in young children appear promising, but are largely untested. Recently, South Carolina implemented mandatory nutrition standards governing child-care centers serving low-income children. This study evaluated consistency with the standards before and after the policy took effect. This study evaluated consistency with the nutrition standards in South Carolina, using North Carolina-a state not making policy changes-as the comparison. The research team conducted assessments in a longitudinal sample of centers and a cross-sectional sample of children before and approximately 9 months after the standards took effect. Trained observers recorded foods and beverages served to 102 children from 34 centers in South Carolina and 90 children from 30 centers in North Carolina at baseline. At follow-up, the research team observed 99 children from 33 centers in South Carolina and 78 children from 26 centers in North Carolina. The policy was implemented in April 2012 and included 13 standards governing the nutritional quality of foods and beverages served to children, and staff behaviors related to feeding children in care. The outcome was consistency with each standard at follow-up in South Carolina compared with North Carolina, controlling for baseline consistency and other covariates. Logistic regressions were conducted to evaluate consistency with each standard, adjusting for baseline and potential confounders. Compared with North Carolina, centers in South Carolina were more likely to be consistent with the standard prohibiting the use of food as a reward or punishment (odds ratio=1.22; 95% CI 1.11 to 1.61; P=0.03). Two centers in South Carolina met all 13 standards at follow-up compared with none in North Carolina. No other differences were observed. New standards modestly improved nutrition practices in South Carolina child-care centers, but additional support is needed to bring all centers into compliance with the current policies

  3. Exploring policy options for a transition to sustainable heating system diffusion using an agent-based simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maya Sopha, Bertha; Kloeckner, Christian A.; Hertwich, Edgar G.

    2011-01-01

    Change in home heating to more efficient and renewable systems is important for a sound climate policy. The present paper aims to identify potential interventions for the uptake of wood-pellet heating in Norway using an agent-based model (ABM). The theoretically based, empirically founded, agent-based simulation demonstrates that financial support, i.e., a stable wood-pellet price, and technical development, i.e., functional reliability improvement, have to be established all at the same time for a successful wood-pellet market to start. Furthermore, a soft intervention through persuading households to use environmentally beneficial heating system is not a promising driver for wood-pellet diffusion. Limitations and suggestions for future work are also discussed. - Research highlights: → The theoretically based, empirically founded, agent-based simulation is applied to investigate potential policy options toward diffusion of wood-pellet heating in Norway. → Relative advantages are necessary for wood-pellet heating to be adopted, consistent with Diffusion of Innovation theory (). → Simultaneous development is also required for further uptake of wood-pellet heating, supporting the existing empirical hypothesis by . → Persuading households to use environmentally friendly heating system is not a promising driver, in line with empirical finding of , who investigated psychological factors underlying the adoption of wood-pellet heating.

  4. The delusion of decoupling, and policy options for mitigating the rebound effect and the environmental impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    reduce, or at least limit, ‘P’ and ‘A’, including their rebound growth from the ‘T’ decrease. The paper suggest this to be achievable in affluent countries, by letting ‘P’ decline through low birth rates, and encouraging ‘A’ to decline in exchange for lowering labor input to the economy, partly......’. All three factors are through the equation coupled to ‘I’, and in general we should avoid using the misleading terminology of decoupling environmental impact (energy consumption) from the economy, represented by ‘P·A’. So far essentially all policies towards lowering ‘I’ has been devoted towards...... technical increase in energy efficiency, i.e., lowering ‘T’. The relief thereby obtained on ‘I’, however, tends to be rebounded by increasing both ‘P’ and ‘A’, which pull ‘I’ upwards. In a future degrowth economy, aiming at reducing ‘I’ significantly, focusing only on ‘T’ will not suffice. We must also...

  5. Compensating the opportunity cost of forest functional zoning - two alternative options for the Romanian forest policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Drăgoi,

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available An important challenge of the environmental policy is conceivingappropriate economic instruments able to account for the positive externalities provided by forest ecosystems. This issue is extremely important for implementing the provisions of the Romanian Forest Act, which states that forest owners shall be compensated for the opportunity costs of giving up harvesting operations due to various conservation purposes. The paper presents a statistical method based on analytical assessment of the effective forgone revenues brought about by banning the harvesting operations in 96 cases, each case being a distinctive forest management plan conceived for a large forest area, i.e. a production unit. Doing so, the scale effect has been taken into account because all legal provisions referring to forest management planning systems are focused on production units, considered the basic reference elements for sustainable forest management. The multiple regression function produced by the statistical analysis was turned into a simple formula allowing for a straightforward set up of the average compensation worth being paid per year and hectare. In order to better fetch the real opportunity cost paid for each hectare of protected forest, the algorithmwas further improved in order to account for the differences in stumpage residual value. Actually, the average compensation is differentiated onto five categories of hauling distances, using the same algorithm used by the National Forest Administration for differentiating the average reservation price established at national level on the ground of full-cost method stumpage pricing system.

  6. Lifestyle Vaccines and Public Health: Exploring Policy Options for a Vaccine to Stop Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Experimental vaccines are being developed for the treatment of ‘unhealthy lifestyles’ and associated chronic illnesses. Policymakers and other stakeholders will have to deal with the ethical issues that this innovation path raises: are there morally justified reasons to integrate these innovative biotechnologies in future health policies? Should public money be invested in further research? Focusing on the case of an experimental nicotine vaccine, this article explores the ethical aspects of ‘lifestyle vaccines’ for public health. Based on findings from a qualitative study into a vaccine for smoking cessation, the article articulates possible value conflicts related to nicotine vaccination as an intervention in tobacco control. The ‘vaccinization’ of lifestyle disease piggybacks on the achievements of classic vaccines. Contrary to expectations of simplicity and success, quitting smoking with a vaccine requires a complex supportive network. Social justice and public trust may become important ethical challenges when deciding whether to use further public funds for research or whether to implement these innovative vaccines in the future. PMID:27551304

  7. Household demand for insecticide-treated bednets in Tanzania and policy options for increasing uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingrich, Chris D; Hanson, Kara G; Marchant, Tanya J; Mulligan, Jo-Ann; Mponda, Hadji

    2011-03-01

    There has been considerable controversy about the most appropriate means of delivering insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) to prevent malaria. Household demand for ITNs is a key factor influencing the choice of delivery strategy, but evidence to date about price and income elasticities comes either from studies of hypothetical willingness to pay or small-scale policy experiments. This study estimates the price and income elasticities of demand for ITNs using nationally representative household survey data and actual consumer choices, in the context of a national scheme to provide vouchers for subsidized nets to pregnant women in Tanzania. Under this distribution system, the estimated price elasticity of demand for subsidized ITNs equals -0.12 and the income elasticity estimates range from zero to 0.47, depending on household socio-economic status. The model also shows a substantial decline in short-term ITN purchases for women whose household received a free ITN. These findings suggest that if the Tanzanian government continues to use a mixed public-private model to distribute ITNs, increasing the consumer subsidy alone will not dramatically improve ITN coverage. A concerted effort is required including an increase in the subsidy amount, attention to income growth for poor households, increases in women's and girls' education levels, and expansion of the retail ITN distribution network. Use of a catch-up campaign to distribute free ITNs would increase coverage but raises questions about the effect of households' long-term purchase decisions for ITNs.

  8. Policies to Keep and Expand the Option of Concentrating Solar Power for Dispatchable Renewable Electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehos, Mark S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lilliestam, Johan [Federal Swiss Institute for Technology (ETH); Barradi, Touria [MENARES; Caldes, Natalia [CIEMAT; Gomez, Marta [Dow Chemicals; Hanger, Susanne [Federal Swiss Institute for Technology (ETH); Kern, Jurgen [German Aerospace Center (DLR); Komendantova, Nadejda [Federal Swiss Institute for Technology (ETH); Hong, Wai Mun [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid; Wang, Zhifeng [Chinese Academy of Science; Patt, Anthony [Federal Swiss Institute for Technology (ETH)

    2018-02-16

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) is one of the few renewable electricity technologies that can offer dispatchable electricity at large scale. Thus, it may play an important role in the future, especially to balance fluctuating sources in increasingly renewables-based power systems. Today, its costs are higher than those of PV and wind power and, as most countries do not support CSP, deployment is slow. Unless the expansion gains pace and costs decrease, the industry may stagnate or collapse, and an important technology for climate change mitigation has been lost. Keeping CSP as a maturing technology for dispatchable renewable power thus requires measures to improve its short-term economic attractiveness and to continue reducing costs in the longer term. We suggest a set of three policy instruments - feed-in tariffs or auctions reflecting the value of dispatchable CSP, and not merely its cost; risk coverage support for innovative designs; and demonstration projects - to be deployed, in regions where CSP has a potentially large role to play. This could provide the CSP industry with a balance of attractive profits and competitive pressure, the incentive to expand CSP while also reducing its costs, making it ready for broad-scale deployment when it is needed.

  9. A critical analysis of Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services policy in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Jane Em; Fellin, Lisa Chiara; Warner-Gale, Fiona

    2017-01-01

    Policy on Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) in England has undergone radical changes in the last 15 years, with far reaching implications for funding models, access to services and service delivery. Using corpus analysis and critical discourse analysis, we explore how childhood, mental health and CAMHS are constituted in 15 policy documents, 9 pre-2010 and 6 post-2010. We trace how these constructions have changed over time and consider the practice implications of these changes. We identify how children's distress is individualised, through medicalising discourses and shifting understandings of the relationship between socio-economic context and mental health. This is evidenced in a shift from seeing children's mental health challenges as produced by social and economic inequities to a view that children's mental health must be addressed early to prevent future socio-economic burden. We consider the implications of CAMHS policies for the relationship between children, families, mental health services and the state. The article concludes by exploring how concepts of 'parity of esteem' and 'stigma reduction' may inadvertently exacerbate the individualisation of children's mental health.

  10. Domestic Violence and Welfare Policy: Research Findings That Can Inform Policies on Marriage and Child Well-Being. Research Forum on Children, Families, and the New Federalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Sharmila

    Asserting that the welfare reform proposals of the mid-1990s drew attention to the problem of domestic violence among individuals receiving public assistance who are among the poorest of the poor, this report examines what is known from past research on domestic violence that may inform policies related to marriage and child well-being. In…

  11. Changing policy and practice in the child welfare system through collaborative efforts to identify and respond effectively to family violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Duren; Landsverk, John; Wang, Kathleen

    2008-07-01

    The Greenbook provides a roadmap for child welfare agencies to collaborate and provide effective responses to families who are experiencing co-occurring child maltreatment and domestic violence. A multisite developmental evaluation was conducted of six demonstration sites that received federal funding to implement Greenbook recommendations for child welfare agencies. Surveys of child welfare caseworkers show significant changes in several areas of agency policy and practice, including regular domestic violence training, written guidelines for reporting domestic violence, and working closely and sharing resources with local domestic violence service providers. Case file reviews show significant increases in the level of active screening for domestic violence, although this increase peaks at the midpoint of the initiative. These findings, coupled with on-site interview data, point to the importance of coordinating system change activities in child welfare agencies with a number of other collaborative activities.

  12. Impact of Policies on Physical Activity and Screen Time Practices in 50 Child-Care Centers in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erinosho, Temitope; Hales, Derek; Vaughn, Amber; Mazzucca, Stephanie; Ward, Dianne S

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed physical activity and screen time policies in child-care centers and their associations with physical activity and screen time practices and preschool children's (3-5 years old) physical activity. Data were from 50 child-care centers in North Carolina. Center directors reported on the presence/absence of written policies. Trained research assistants observed physical activity and screen time practices in at least 1 preschool classroom across 3 to 4 days. Children (N = 544) wore accelerometers to provide an objective measure of physical activity. Physical activity and screen time policies varied across centers. Observational data showed 82.7 min/d of active play opportunities were provided to children. Screen time provided did not exceed 30 min/d/child at 98% of centers. Accelerometer data showed children spent 38 min/d in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and 206 min/d in sedentary activity. Policies about staff supervision of media use were negatively associated with screen time (P < .05). Contrary to expectation, policies about physical activity were associated with less time in physical activity. Clear strategies are needed for translating physical activity policies to practice. Further research is needed to evaluate the quality of physical activity policies, their impact on practice, and ease of operationalization.

  13. Managing vulnerability to drought and enhancing livelihood resilience in sub-Saharan Africa: Technological, institutional and policy options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekele Shiferaw

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture and the economies of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA are highly sensitive to climatic variability. Drought, in particular, represents one of the most important natural factors contributing to malnutrition and famine in many parts of the region. The overall impact of drought on a given country/region and its ability to recover from the resulting social, economic and environmental impacts depends on several factors. The economic, social and environmental impacts of drought are huge in SSA and the national costs and losses incurred threaten to undermine the wider economic and development gains made in the last few decades in the region. There is an urgent need to reduce the vulnerability of countries to climate variability and to the threats posed by climate change. This paper attempts to highlight the challenges of drought in SSA and reviews the current drought risk management strategies, especially the promising technological and policy options for managing drought risks to protect livelihoods and reduce vulnerability. The review suggests the possibilities of several ex ante and ex post drought management strategies in SSA although their effectiveness depends on agro-climatic and socio-economic conditions. Existing technological, policy and institutional risk management measures need to be strengthened and integrated to manage drought ex ante and to minimize the ex post negative effects for vulnerable households and regions. A proactive approach that combines promising technological, institutional and policy solutions to manage the risks within vulnerable communities implemented by institutions operating at different levels (community, sub-national, and national is considered to be the way forward for managing drought and climate variability.

  14. Nutrition policies at child-care centers and impact on role modeling of healthy eating behaviors of caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erinosho, Temitope O; Hales, Derek P; McWilliams, Christina P; Emunah, Josie; Ward, Dianne Stanton

    2012-01-01

    Studies suggest that caregivers influence children's dietary behaviors through role modeling in child-care environments. However, few studies have examined role modeling by caregivers and child-care center policies. This cross-sectional study evaluated the associations between child-care center policies about staff eating practices and caregivers' eating behaviors during mealtime interactions with children. Data were collected in 2008-2009 at 50 North Carolina child-care centers. Caregivers (n=124) reported about modeling healthy eating behaviors to children, trained research staff observed caregivers' (n=112) eating behaviors in classrooms, and directors reported about the presence/absence of center policies on staff eating practices. About 90% of caregivers reported modeling healthy eating behaviors to children. At 80% of centers, caregivers were observed modeling healthy dietary behaviors (eg, sitting with or eating same foods as children), but at fewer centers they were observed consuming unhealthy foods (eg, fast foods, salty snacks: 25%; and sugar-sweetened beverages: 50%). Although no substantial associations were observed between caregiver behaviors and center policies, effect size estimates suggest differences that may be of clinical significance. For example, caregivers were observed modeling healthy dietary behaviors more frequently at centers that had written policies about staff discouraging unhealthy foods for meals/snacks and having informal nutrition talks with children at meals. However, caregivers were observed consuming unhealthy foods and sugar-sweetened beverages more often at centers with policies that promoted healthier foods for meals/snacks. Future research should build on this study by using larger samples to understand why healthy food policies in child-care centers may not translate to eating practices among caregivers. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Residential Water Scarcity in Cyprus: Impact of Climate Change and Policy Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodoros Zachariadis

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an assessment of the cost of water scarcity in Cyprus, today and in the next 20 years, taking into account the effect of projected climate change in the region. It focuses on the residential sector, accounting also for tourism and industry. Using a simple demand function, total scarcity costs in Cyprus are computed for the period 2010–2030, and three scenarios of future water demand are presented. The central estimate shows that the present value of total costs due to water shortages will amount to 72 million Euros (at 2009 prices, and, if future water demand increases a little faster, these costs may reach 200 million Euros. Using forecasts of regional climate models, costs are found to be about 20% higher in a “climate change” scenario. Compared to the loss of consumer surplus due to water shortages, desalination is found to be a costly solution, even if environmental damage costs from the operation of desalination plants are not accounted for. Finally, dynamic constrained optimization is employed and shows that efficient residential water prices should include a scarcity price of about 40 Eurocents per cubic meter at  2009 prices; this would constitute a 30–100% increase in current prices faced by residential consumers. Reductions in rainfall due to climate change would raise this price by another 2-3 Eurocents. Such a pricing policy would provide a clear long-term signal to consumers and firms and could substantially contribute to a sustainable use of water resources in the island.

  16. Quantifying policy options for reducing future coronary heart disease mortality in England: a modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes, Shaun; Bajekal, Madhavi; Norman, Paul; O'Flaherty, Martin; Hawkins, Nathaniel; Kivimäki, Mika; Capewell, Simon; Raine, Rosalind

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the number of coronary heart disease (CHD) deaths potentially preventable in England in 2020 comparing four risk factor change scenarios. Using 2007 as baseline, the IMPACTSEC model was extended to estimate the potential number of CHD deaths preventable in England in 2020 by age, gender and Index of Multiple Deprivation 2007 quintiles given four risk factor change scenarios: (a) assuming recent trends will continue; (b) assuming optimal but feasible levels already achieved elsewhere; (c) an intermediate point, halfway between current and optimal levels; and (d) assuming plateauing or worsening levels, the worst case scenario. These four scenarios were compared to the baseline scenario with both risk factors and CHD mortality rates remaining at 2007 levels. This would result in approximately 97,000 CHD deaths in 2020. Assuming recent trends will continue would avert approximately 22,640 deaths (95% uncertainty interval: 20,390-24,980). There would be some 39,720 (37,120-41,900) fewer deaths in 2020 with optimal risk factor levels and 22,330 fewer (19,850-24,300) in the intermediate scenario. In the worst case scenario, 16,170 additional deaths (13,880-18,420) would occur. If optimal risk factor levels were achieved, the gap in CHD rates between the most and least deprived areas would halve with falls in systolic blood pressure, physical inactivity and total cholesterol providing the largest contributions to mortality gains. CHD mortality reductions of up to 45%, accompanied by significant reductions in area deprivation mortality disparities, would be possible by implementing optimal preventive policies.

  17. Quantifying policy options for reducing future coronary heart disease mortality in England: a modelling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Scholes

    Full Text Available To estimate the number of coronary heart disease (CHD deaths potentially preventable in England in 2020 comparing four risk factor change scenarios.Using 2007 as baseline, the IMPACTSEC model was extended to estimate the potential number of CHD deaths preventable in England in 2020 by age, gender and Index of Multiple Deprivation 2007 quintiles given four risk factor change scenarios: (a assuming recent trends will continue; (b assuming optimal but feasible levels already achieved elsewhere; (c an intermediate point, halfway between current and optimal levels; and (d assuming plateauing or worsening levels, the worst case scenario. These four scenarios were compared to the baseline scenario with both risk factors and CHD mortality rates remaining at 2007 levels. This would result in approximately 97,000 CHD deaths in 2020. Assuming recent trends will continue would avert approximately 22,640 deaths (95% uncertainty interval: 20,390-24,980. There would be some 39,720 (37,120-41,900 fewer deaths in 2020 with optimal risk factor levels and 22,330 fewer (19,850-24,300 in the intermediate scenario. In the worst case scenario, 16,170 additional deaths (13,880-18,420 would occur. If optimal risk factor levels were achieved, the gap in CHD rates between the most and least deprived areas would halve with falls in systolic blood pressure, physical inactivity and total cholesterol providing the largest contributions to mortality gains.CHD mortality reductions of up to 45%, accompanied by significant reductions in area deprivation mortality disparities, would be possible by implementing optimal preventive policies.

  18. Meaningful participation for children in the Dutch child protection system: A critical analysis of relevant provisions in policy documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouma, Helen; López López, Mónica; Knorth, Erik J; Grietens, Hans

    2018-05-01

    Policymakers are increasingly focusing on the participation of children in the child protection system (CPS). However, research shows that actual practice still needs to be improved. Embedding children's participation in legislation and policy documents is one important prerequisite for achieving meaningful participation in child protection practice. In this study, the participation of children in the Dutch CPS under the new Youth Act 2015 is critically analyzed. National legislation and policy documents were studied using a model of "meaningful participation" based on article 12 of the UNCRC. Results show that the idea of children's participation is deeply embedded in the current Dutch CPS. However, Dutch policy documents do not fully cover the three dimensions of what is considered to be meaningful participation for children: informing, hearing, and involving. Furthermore, children's participation differs among the organizations included in the child protection chain. A clear overall policy concerning the participation of children in the Dutch CPS is lacking. The conclusions of this critical analysis of policy documents and the framework of meaningful participation presented may provide a basis for the embedding of meaningful participation for children in child protection systems of other countries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Policy options and their potential effects on Moroccan small farmers and the poor facing increased world food prices: A general equilibrium model analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Diao, Xinshen; Doukkali, Rachid; Yu, Bingxin

    2008-01-01

    "This study evaluates the potential impact of the recent rise in world food prices on the Moroccan economy and possible policy options to respond to it. The study focuses mainly on the poverty effects of such an external shock and the possible policy responses to it. A new social accounting matrix (SAM) and a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model have been developed for this study based on micro-level data in combination with sectoral and economywide data. The CGE model simulations show ...

  20. Situational analysis of infant and young child nutrition policies and programmatic activities in Niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuehler, Sara E; Biga Hassoumi, Abdoulazize

    2011-04-01

    Due to limited progress towards reducing mortality and malnutrition among children Sahel,' starting with a situational analysis of current activities related to infant and young child nutrition (IYCN). The main objectives of this analysis are to compile, analyse, and interpret available information on infant and child feeding and the nutrition situation of children security, and hygienic practices. The results reported are limited by the availability of documents for review. Mortality rates are on track to reaching the Millennium Development Goal to reduce mortality among young children by two-thirds by 2015, but there has been no change in undernutrition, and total mortality rates are still high among young children. Nearly all of the key IYCN topics were addressed, specifically or generally, in national policy documents, training materials, and programmes. A national nutrition council meets regularly to coordinate programme activities nationally. Many of the IYCN-related programmes are intended for national coverage, but few reach this coverage. Monitoring and impact evaluations were conducted on some programmes, but few of these reported on whether the specific IYCN components of the programme were implemented as designed or compared outcomes with non-intervention sites. Human resources have been identified as inadequate to fully carry out nutrition programmes in Niger. Due to these limitations, we could not confirm whether the lack of progress in reducing malnutrition was due to ineffective or inadequately implemented programmes, though both of these were likely contributors. The policy framework is well established for the promotion of optimal IYCN practices, but greater resources and capacity building are needed to: (i) increase human capacities to carry out nutrition programmes; (ii) expand and track the implementation of evidence-based programmes nationally; (iii) improve and carry out monitoring and evaluation that identify effective and ineffective

  1. State-Mandated Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Screen Time Policies in Child Care Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang-Martinez, Catherina; Ahmed, Nasar U; Natale, Ruby A; Messiah, Sarah E

    2017-09-01

    The child care center (CCC) environment presents opportunities for healthy weight promotion in preschoolers. Our study examined the current state of CCC adherence to nutrition, physical activity, and screen time legislative regulations and the differences in their adherence by center socioeconomic position (SEP: low, middle, high) in Miami-Dade County. In 34 CCC, we used the Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation tool to evaluate nutrition, physical activity, and screen time practices during 1-school day. Twenty-five of the centers (73.5%) were participants of the Child and Adult Care Food Program. Almost 80% of the centers adhered to serving low-fat/fat-free milk to children older than 2 years. Only 34.5% served vegetables and 75.9% served whole fruits during meals/snacks. Ninety-four percent of the centers had quiet and active play incorporated into their daily routines. All centers adhered to the 2-hour screen time limit for children older than 2 years. Low- and middle-SEP centers fared better in the serving of fruits, vegetables, and low-fat/fat-free milk. The centers averaged 1 hour in outdoor play regardless of SEP. High-SEP centers had no TV or screen time during day of observation. CCC practices highlight opportunities for improvement in nutrition, physical activity, and screen time practices in the prevention of overweight in early childhood.

  2. Translating biomonitoring data into risk management and policy implementation options for a European Network on Human Biomonitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schoeters G

    2008-01-01

    will eventually lead to the formulation of a variety of policy relevant risk reduction options. Conclusion Although the usefulness of this approach still needs to be tested, and potential fine-tuning of the procedure may be necessary, approaching the policy implications of HBM in an objective framework will prove to be essential.

  3. Teasing apart "the tangled web" of influence of policy dialogues: lessons from a case study of dialogues about healthcare reform options for Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvale, Gillian; McRae, Samantha A; Milicic, Sandra

    2017-07-28

    The knowledge exchange literature suggests that policy dialogues are intended to enhance short-, medium- and long-term capacities of individuals, organizations and health systems to use evidence to inform policy-making. Key features of effective dialogues have been suggested, but the linkages between these features and the realization of improved capacities for evidence-informed policy-making among dialogue attendees and the subsequent influence on policy-making activities are not well understood. We conducted a qualitative case study of a series of four policy dialogues that were convened in Canada among national, provincial and regional stakeholders on topics pertaining to healthcare financing and funding in 2011. Data sources included videos of participant perspectives captured during or immediately following each event and follow-up key informant interviews among dialogue participants held 4 years later in 2015. Three conceptual frameworks pertaining to (i) policy dialogues and capacities for evidence use, (ii) factors shaping policy-making across the policy cycle and (iii) factors shaping implementation of evidence guided the thematic analysis. We then synthesized the findings across the three frameworks. The results suggest the potential benefits of policy dialogues described in the literature were developed among the participants at these dialogues. Informants elaborated on how dialogue features influenced their capacities to use evidence, the ideas, interests and institutions during the agenda-setting and policy formulation stages of policy-making and how implementation was affected by characteristics of policy options, individuals, organizations, the external environment and processes. We present a conceptual framework that furthers our understanding of the potential influence of policy dialogues on the content and mechanisms of policy development and illustrate pathways of influence on various stages of the policy cycle from agenda setting through

  4. "Every Child Counts": Testing Policy Effectiveness Using a Randomised Controlled Trial, Designed, Conducted and Reported to CONSORT Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgerson, Carole; Wiggins, Andy; Torgerson, David; Ainsworth, Hannah; Hewitt, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    We report a randomised controlled trial evaluation of an intensive one-to-one numeracy programme--"Numbers Count"--which formed part of the previous government's numeracy policy intervention--"Every Child Counts." We rigorously designed and conducted the trial to CONSORT guidelines. We used a pragmatic waiting list design to…

  5. China's one-child policy and "the mystery of missing women": Ethnic minorities and male-biased sex ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulte, E.H.; Zhang, X.; Heerink, N.

    2011-01-01

    Recent estimates suggest that as many as 40 million women are ‘missing’ in China. We exploit a special provision in the Chinese one-child policy (OCP; allowing for preferential treatment of ethnic minority groups) to revisit the mystery of these missing women, and in particular to explore the

  6. Meaningful participation for children in the Dutch child protection system : A critical analysis of relevant provisions in policy documents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Helen; López López, Mónica; Knorth, Erik J.; Grietens, Hans

    2018-01-01

    Policymakers are increasingly focusing on the participation of children in the child protection system (CPS). However, research shows that actual practice still needs to be improved. Embedding children’s participation in legislation and policy documents is one important prerequisite for achieving

  7. Strengthening policy research on infant and young child feeding: An imperative to support countries in scaling up impact on nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Purnima; Thow, Anne Marie

    2017-06-13

    Enabling policy environments for nutrition require require evidence to support best practice and engagement with political and policy contexts, as well as leadership, resourcing, advocacy, and technical support. However, research on nutrition policy contexts is limited. The papers in this special supplement on policy contexts for infant and young child feeding (IYCF) in South Asia makes a valuable contribution to understanding the policy landscape and political dynamics in the region and the global literature. Studies included in this special supplement analyzed policy content and stakeholder influence on IYCF in Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, and assess the role of advocacy in addressing multiple elements of the policy environment. These analyses highlight opportunities to harmonize and manage the demands and interests of multiple actors while strengthening policy to strategically support optimal IYCF as the ultimate goal. They also provide robust examples of research on policy environments and policy change. Further investments in research on policy contexts for nutrition can help to understand and support continued progress towards improved actions for nutrition.

  8. Family policy in the Czech Republic: Redistribution of wealth through the child tax bonus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Jahoda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Families with children are traditionally the target group of the social system in developed countries. This paper deals with one component of family policy in the Czech Republic, which is household entitlement. The main focus is on the child tax bonus (hereafter CTB. The paper is divided into descriptive and methodological-analytical parts. The descriptive section provides basic information about the beneficiaries of CTB. In the latter section we formulate research questions about the impacts and effects of CTB. We discover that the influence of tax instruments has grown in recent years. The amount of the tax bonus for children exceeded CZK 3 billion in 2009, with almost 22% of all households with children eligible. Although CTB is income-tested, its redistributive impact is rather small – approximately 80% of recipients cannot be considered as poor. Outcomes from our microsimulation model reveal that 82 to 86% households with CTB were at the same time modelled as eligible and therefore we can use microsimulation techniques for future analyses of policy change.

  9. Situational analysis of infant and young child nutrition policies and programmatic activities in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuehler, Sara E; Ouedraogo, Albertine Wendpagnagdé

    2011-04-01

    Progress towards reducing mortality and malnutrition among children Sahel', starting with an analysis of current activities related to infant and young child nutrition (IYCN). The objectives of the present paper are to compare relevant national policies, training materials, programmes, and monitoring and evaluation activities with internationally accepted IYCN recommendations. These findings are available to assist countries in identifying inconsistencies and filling gaps in current programming. Between August and November 2008, key informants responsible for conducting IYCN-related activities in Burkina Faso were interviewed, and 153 documents were examined on the following themes: optimal breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices, prevention of micronutrient deficiencies, screening and treatment of acute malnutrition, prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, food security and hygienic practices. National policy documents addressed nearly all of the key IYCN topics, specifically or generally. Formative research has identified some local barriers and beliefs related to general breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices, and other formative research addressed about half of the IYCN topics included in this review. However, there was little evidence that this formative research was being utilized in developing training materials and designing programme interventions. Nevertheless, the training materials that were reviewed do provide specific guidance for nearly all of the key IYCN topics. Although many of the IYCN programmes are intended for national coverage, we could only confirm with available reports that programme coverage extended to certain regions. Some programme monitoring and evaluation were conducted, but few of these provided information on whether the specific IYCN programme components were implemented as designed. Most surveys that were identified reported on general nutrition status indicators, but did not provide the detail

  10. Nutrition and physical activity in child care centers: the impact of a wellness policy initiative on environment and policy assessment and observation outcomes, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyn, Rodney; Maalouf, Joyce; Evers, Sarah; Davis, Justin; Griffin, Monica

    2013-05-23

    The child care environment has emerged as an ideal setting in which to implement policies that promote healthy body weight of children. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a wellness policy and training program on the physical activity and nutrition environment in 24 child care centers in Georgia. We used the Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation instrument to identify changes to foods served, staff behaviors, and physical activity opportunities. Observations were performed over 1 day, beginning with breakfast and concluding when the program ended for the day. Observations were conducted from February 2010 through April 2011 for a total of 2 observations in each center. Changes to nutrition and physical activity in centers were assessed on the basis of changes in scores related to the physical activity and nutrition environment documented in the observations. Paired t test analyses were performed to determine significance of changes. Significant improvements to total nutrition (P environments of centers by enhancing active play (P = .02), the sedentary environment (P = .005), the portable environment (P = .002), staff behavior (P = .004), and physical activity training and education (P environment (P policies and training caregivers in best practices for physical activity and nutrition can promote healthy weight for young children in child care settings.

  11. A qualitative analysis of men's involvement in maternal and child health as a policy intervention in rural Central Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkandawire, Elizabeth; Hendriks, Sheryl L

    2018-01-19

    Men's involvement in maternal and child health presents an opportunity for the advancement of maternal and child nutrition as men often play a key role in decision-making particularly regarding women's reproductive health. While most research on men's involvement in maternal and child health has focused on men's participation in antenatal care, this study focuses specifically on men's involvement in maternal and child nutrition. The purpose of the study is to explore how men's involvement is conceptualised in rural Central Malawi, highlighting the key factors influencing men's involvement in maternal and child health. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were conducted with 26 informants and 44 community members. Critical policy was used as the theoretical framework to inform the analysis of research findings. In this study, we identified several factors that facilitate men's involvement in maternal and child health, but we also identified several barriers. Facilitators of men's involvement included: recognition by men of the impact of their involvement, pride, advocacy, incentives and disincentives and male champions. Barriers included socio-cultural beliefs, stigmatisation and opportunity costs. The study also found that there were several limitations that had unintended consequences on desired programme outcomes. These included: discriminating against women, marginalisation of married women and reinforcing men's decision-making roles. The study findings highlight the importance of involving men in maternal and child health for improved nutrition outcomes. We emphasise the need for nutrition policy-makers to be aware that gender dynamics are changing. It is no longer just women who are involved in nutrition activities, therefore policy-makers need to revise their approach to ensure that they consider men's role in nutrition.

  12. An Overview of Turkish Healthcare System after Health Transformation Program: Main Successes, Performance Assessment, Further Challenges, and Policy Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir GÜRSOY

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Turkish healthcare system has been stated to show significant improvements regarding wider access to healthcare facilities, and the quality and efficiency through the introduction of Health Transformation Program launched in 2003. While the old system relied on differing provisions and financing and lacked behind many developed nations in terms of health outcomes, the new system achieved nearly universal coverage and many health outcomes enhanced significantly. Health expenditures rose to 5.4% of GDP in 2013 from 4.8% in 1998. Furthermore, Turkey provided both better financial protection for the poor against high health expenditures, and equity in access to health care across the population. However, Turkey still faces new challenges to catch other developed countries to have better health and further improve financial sustainability. To reach these targets, Turkey needs to further implement new policy options for reform such as combating informal economy, allocating more on health resources, designing incentive- based payment methods, adopting gate keeping system and referral chain, developing capacity to deploy health technology assessments in reimbursement decisions, and ensuring the hospital autonomy.

  13. Informing child welfare policy and practice: using knowledge discovery and data mining technology via a dynamic Web site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Dean F; Kum, Hye-Chung; Weigensberg, Elizabeth Caplick; Flair, Kimberly A; Stewart, C Joy

    2008-11-01

    Proper management and implementation of an effective child welfare agency requires the constant use of information about the experiences and outcomes of children involved in the system, emphasizing the need for comprehensive, timely, and accurate data. In the past 20 years, there have been many advances in technology that can maximize the potential of administrative data to promote better evaluation and management in the field of child welfare. Specifically, this article discusses the use of knowledge discovery and data mining (KDD), which makes it possible to create longitudinal data files from administrative data sources, extract valuable knowledge, and make the information available via a user-friendly public Web site. This article demonstrates a successful project in North Carolina where knowledge discovery and data mining technology was used to develop a comprehensive set of child welfare outcomes available through a public Web site to facilitate information sharing of child welfare data to improve policy and practice.

  14. Current and future groundwater withdrawals: Effects, management and energy policy options for a semi-arid Indian watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sishodia, Rajendra P.; Shukla, Sanjay; Graham, Wendy D.; Wani, Suhas P.; Jones, James W.; Heaney, James

    2017-12-01

    Effects of future expansion/intensification of irrigated agriculture on groundwater and surface water levels and availability in a semi-arid watershed were evaluated using an integrated hydrologic model (MIKE SHE/MIKE 11) in conjunction with biophysical measurements. Improved water use efficiency, water storage, and energy policy options were evaluated for their ability to sustain the future (2035) increased groundwater withdrawals. Three future withdrawal scenarios (low = 20, medium = 30, high = 50 wells/100 km2/year) based on the historical rate of growth of irrigation wells were formulated. While well drying from falling groundwater levels was limited to drought and consecutive below average rainfall years, under the current (2015) withdrawals, significant increases in frequency and duration (17-97 days/year) of well drying along with 13-26% (19-37 mm) reductions in surface flows were predicted under the future withdrawals. Higher (27-108%) energy demands of existing irrigation pumps due to declining groundwater levels and reduced hydroelectric generation due to decreased surface flows would create a vicious water-food-energy nexus in the future. Crop failure, one of the main causes of farmers' emotional distress and death in the region, is predicted to exacerbate under the future withdrawal scenarios. Shift to negative net recharge (-63 mm) and early and prolonged drying of wells under the high scenario will reduce the groundwater availability and negatively affect crop production in more than 60% and 90% of cropped areas in the Rabi (November-February) and summer (March-May) seasons, respectively during a drought year. Individual and combined demand (drip irrigation and reduced farm electricity subsidy) and supply (water storage) management options improved groundwater levels and reduced well drying by 55-97 days/year compared to business-as-usual management under the high scenario. The combined management (50% drip conversion, 50% reduction in subsidy, and

  15. Infant and young child feeding in emergencies: Organisational policies and activities during the refugee crisis in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker-Berbari, Linda; Ghattas, Hala; Symon, Andrew G; Anderson, Annie S

    2018-01-08

    Appropriate infant and young child feeding (IYCF) is key to reducing mortality amongst children aged under 2. Facilitating adherence to recommended IYCF practices during emergencies includes having relevant policies to support breastfeeding and complementary feeding as well as regulating the distribution of breast milk substitutes. In the current crisis, more than 1.2 million Syrian refugees are in Lebanon and it is timely to examine organisational IYCF policies and programmes. One hundred and thirty-five non-governmental organisations providing humanitarian aid in Lebanon were invited to participate in an online survey about organisational policies and programmatic activities on IYCF. Responses were obtained from 54 organisations: 29 International Non-Governmental Organisations (INGOs) and 25 Local Non-Governmental Organisations (LNGOs). In total, 8 (15%) reported having a written policy on IYCF, but only 1 policy (in draft format) was available for inspection. Twelve (8 INGOs and 4 LNGOs) indicated endorsing an external IYCF policy, but only 6 listed a valid policy. Four organisations (3 INGOs and 1 LNGO) had programme objectives that indicate protection, promotion, and support of IYCF. Three LNGOs reported receiving infant formula donations and 5 organisations (2 INGOs and 3 LNGOs) indicated distributing infant formula; 2 (1 INGO and 1 LNGO) did so in accordance with international and national policies. Few organisations violated IYCF guidance but organisational policies and activities on IYCF are not well established. In order to improve response in the current refugee crisis in Lebanon, there is a need to ensure policies are in place and implemented so that interventions support, promote, and protect IYCF. © 2018 The Authors. Maternal and Child Nutrition Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Getting It Right for Every Child: A National Policy Framework to Promote Children's Well-being in Scotland, United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Emma; Cheyne, Helen; Rankin, Jean; Daniel, Brigid

    2016-06-01

    Getting It Right for Every Child (GIRFEC), a landmark policy framework for improving children's well-being in Scotland, United Kingdom, is a practice initiative signifying a distinct way of thinking, an agenda for change, and the future direction of child welfare policy. GIRFEC represents a unique case study of national transformative change within the contexts of children's well-being and universal services and is of relevance to other jurisdictions. Implementation is under way, with an understanding of well-being and the requirement for information sharing enshrined in law. Yet there is scope for interpretation within the legislation and associated guidance. Inherent tensions around intrusion, data gathering, professional roles, and balancing well-being against child protection threaten the effectiveness of the policy if not resolved. Despite persistent health inequalities and intergenerational deprivation, the Scottish government aspires for Scotland to be the best country for children to grow up in. Getting It Right for Every Child (GIRFEC) is a landmark children's policy framework to improve children's well-being via early intervention, universal service provision, and multiagency coordination across organizational boundaries. Placing the child and family "at the center," this approach marks a shift from welfare to well-being, yet there is still a general lack of consensus over how well-being is defined and measured. As an umbrella policy framework with broad reach, GIRFEC represents the current and future direction of children's/family policy in Scotland, yet large-scale practice change is required for successful implementation. This article explores the origins and emergence of GIRFEC and presents a critical analysis of its incremental design, development, and implementation. There is considerable scope for interpretation within the GIRFEC legislation and guidance, most notably around assessment of well-being and the role and remit of those charged with

  17. Child protection and out of home care: Policy, practice, and research connectionsAustralia and New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an outline of the early development of care and protection in Australia and New Zealand as a backdrop to an overview of child protection systems and policies and the current childprotection profile in both countries. Key issues that have become the focus of policy reform are canvassed and legislative and policy initiatives to promote child safety as well as strengthen families are elaborated. An overview of trends in relation to out of home care, including routes into care, care arrangements and permanency policies is provided. The article profiles selected research studies from Australia focusing on outcomes of care: stability of care, mental health and educational outcomes of looked after children, abuse in care, and routes out of care through reunification and aging out. Other issues treated are the overrepresentation of indigenous children in care systems in both countries and the challenges of maintaining cultural connections. The article concludes with a brief comparative analysis identifying similarities and differences in child welfare systems in both countries.

  18. Low-level radioactive waste disposal in the USA - Use of mill tailings impoundments as a new policy option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, C.W.

    2006-01-01

    Disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in the United States is facing severe and immediate capacity limitations. Seemingly intractable regulatory and jurisdictional conflicts make establishment of new LLW disposal sites effectively impossible. Uranium mill tailings impoundments constructed at conventional uranium open-cast and underground mines could offer approximately 40 to 80+ million tons of disposal capacity for low activity radioactive waste. Such impoundments would provide an enhanced, high level of environmental and health and safety protection for the direct disposal of depleted uranium, special nuclear material, technologically-enhanced, naturally-occurring radioactive material (TENORM) and mixed waste. Many waste streams, such as TENORM and decommissioning rubble, will be high-volume, low activity materials and ideally suited for disposal in such structures. Materials in a given decay chain with a total activity from all radionuclides present of ∼820 Bq/g (2.22 x 10 -08 Ci/g) with no single radionuclide present in an activity greater than ∼104 Bq/g (2,800 pCi/g) should be acceptable for disposal. Materials of this type could be accepted without any site-specific dose modelling, so long as the total activity of the tailings impoundment not exceed its design capacity (generally 82 x 10 07 Bq/metric tonne) (0.020 Ci/short ton) and the cover design requirements to limit radon releases are satisfied. This paper provides background on US LLW disposal regulations, examines LLW disposal options under active consideration by the US Environmental Protection Agency and Department of Energy, develops generic waste acceptance criteria and identifies policy needs for federal and state governments to facilitate use of uranium mill tailings impoundments for LLW disposal. (author)

  19. Building convergence in science, programs, and policy actions on child undernutrition: symposium rationale and overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Purnima; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2012-03-01

    Childhood stunting and wasting are often portrayed as relatively distinct manifestations of undernutrition. Little is known about how children progress from one manifestation of undernutrition to another as they grow older, nor how intervention strategies need to consider the potential overlap of these manifestations of undernutrition. While much is known about the causes of growth faltering in general, much less is known about which pre-disposing contextual and biological factors cause children to become stunted as opposed to wasted or both. Increasingly, nutrition researchers have tended to focus on one form of malnutrition or the other, lacking an integrated framework for understanding both phenomena. Similarly, some practitioner communities focus on prevention of stunting while others focus on recuperative treatment of wasting. The fragmentation of interests and perspectives on childhood undernutrition has negative consequences for advocacy efforts that aim to bring attention and resources to child nutrition across the globe. It also has serious implications for how children worldwide receive nutrition interventions and services. The symposium aimed to bring together a set of speakers from academic, practice and policy communities to discuss and debate these issues.

  20. Did Child Restraint Laws Globally Converge? Examining 40 Years of Policy Diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazif-Muñoz, José Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the current study is to determine what factors have been associated with the global adoption of mandatory child restraint laws (ChRLs) since 1975. In order to determine what factors explained the global adoption of mandatory ChRLs, Weibull models were analyzed. To carry out this analysis, 170 countries were considered and the time risk corresponded to 5,146 observations for the period 1957-2013. The dependent variable was first time to adopt a ChRL. Independent variables representing global factors were the World Health Organization (WHO) and World Bank's (WB) road safety global campaign; the Geneva Convention on Road Traffic; and the United Nation's (UN) 1958 Vehicle Agreement. Independent variables representing regional factors were the creation of the European Transport Safety Council and being a Commonwealth country. Independent variables representing national factors were population; gross domestic product (GDP) per capita; political violence; existence of road safety nongovernmental organizations (NGOs); and existence of road safety agencies. Urbanization served as a control variable. To examine regional dynamics, Weibull models for Africa, Asia, Europe, North America, Latin America, the Caribbean, and the Commonwealth were also carried out. Empirical estimates from full Weibull models suggest that 2 global factors and 2 national factors are significantly associated with the adoption of this measure. The global factors explaining adoption are the WHO and WB's road safety global campaign implemented after 2004 (P policy was global. Regional analysis showed that the UN's Convention on Road Traffic was significant in Asia, the creation of the European Transport Safety Council was significant in Europe and North America, and the global campaign was in Africa. In Commonwealth and European and North American countries, the existence of road safety agencies was also positively associated with ChRL adoption. Results of the world models suggest that

  1. Comparative effectiveness of two disparate policies on child health: experimental evidence from the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peabody, John W; Quimbo, Stella; Florentino, Jhiedon; Shimkhada, Riti; Javier, Xylee; Paculdo, David; Jamison, Dean; Solon, Orville

    2017-05-01

    Should health systems invest more in access to care by expanding insurance coverage or in health care services including improving the quality of care? Comparing these options experimentally would shed light on the impact and cost-effectiveness of these strategies. The Quality Improvement Demonstration Study (QIDS) was a randomized policy experiment conducted across 30 districts in the Philippines. The study had a control group and two policy intervention groups intended to improve the health of young children. The demand-side intervention in QIDS was universal health insurance coverage (UHC) for children aged 5 years or younger, and a supply-side intervention, a pay-for-performance (P4P) bonus for all providers who met pre-determined quality levels. In this paper, we compare the impacts of these policies from the QIDS experiment on childhood wasting by calculating DALYs averted per US$spent. The direct per capita costs to implement UHC and P4P are US$4.08 and US$1.98 higher, respectively, compared to control. DALYs due to wasting were reduced by 334,862 in UHC and 1,073,185 in P4P. When adjustments are made for the efficiency of higher quality, the DALYS averted per US$ spent is similar in the two arms, 1.56 and 1.58 for UHC and P4P, respectively. Since the P4P quality improvements touches all patients seen by qualifying providers (32% in UHC versus 100% in P4P), there is a larger reduction in DALYs. With similar programmatic costs for either intervention, in this study, each US$spent under P4P yielded 1.52 DALYs averted compared to the standard program, while UHC yielded only a 0.50 DALY reduction. P4P had a greater impact and was more cost-effective compared to UHC as measured by DALYs averted. While expanded insurance benefit ceilings affected only those who are covered, P4P incentivizes practice quality improvement regardless of whether children are insured or uninsured. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London

  2. Factors that influence mother-child reunification for mothers with a history of substance use: A systematic review of the evidence to inform policy and practice in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doab, Anna; Fowler, Cathrine; Dawson, Angela

    2015-09-01

    An estimated 60-70% of Australian children in out of home care have a parent with a substance use disorder (SUD). The assessment of a parent's history and needs and the design of supportive interventions, particularly for mothers who are often the primary carers of children, are important considerations in deciding whether or not family reunification is desirable and possible. It is not clear from the research how the needs of families can be best met. There are no systematic reviews that provide evidence to inform the development of preventative and remedial interventions and related policy options. We undertook a systematic review to examine maternal characteristics and program features that facilitate or pose a barrier to mother-child reunification in contexts where mothers have a SUD. A structured search of nine databases was undertaken to identify peer reviewed literature in English between 2004 and 2014 and examine factors that influenced mother-child reunification in mothers with SUD. We employed a narrative synthesis design to analyse the findings sections of all papers as the methods of the various studies did not permit the pooling of data. A total of 11 studies were included in this review. Findings show that factors such as timeliness of treatment entry, treatment completion and the receipt of matched services, and programs that provided a greater level of integrated care are positively related to reunification. The presence of a mental health disorder, use of opiates and having a greater number of children were barriers to reunification. Women with SUD who have a child in out of home care appear to have multiple unmet needs. Accessible, stigma free and comprehensive integrated care services, as well as greater access to primary health care that address social and medical issues must be considered to improve the physical and psycho-social outcomes of these women and their children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Introducing short term flexibility in the EU ETS to assure its long-term credibility: a multi-criteria analysis of policy options. Climate Report no. 45

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, Zuheir; Alberola, Emilie; Berghmans, Nicolas

    2014-07-01

    It is now well established that the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) needs to be reformed. After more than 18 months of discussions, the EU Commission disclosed, in its communication published in January 2014 on 'A policy framework for climate and energy in the period from 2020 to 2030', its legislative proposal of a market stability reserve (MSR) in the EU ETS. This measure, that should be implemented from the next compliance period (2021-2028) onwards, would reduce the surplus of allowances growing since 2008 and improve the ETS's resilience to external shocks by automatically adjusting the supply of allowances to be auctioned. The operation of this MSR would be determined by predefined rules that, once agreed on, leave no discretion to either the Commission or Member States. The choice of the EU Commission to introduce a reserve in the EU ETS is very innovative even if other emissions trading schemes have already introduced a reserve in their design. Initial discussions began in March and April 2014 in the European Parliament and Council and the question of whether the MSR really improves the functioning of the EU ETS in the long term is still being debated. What other structural mechanism would be better suited in improving the long-term effectiveness of the EU ETS? To help in the decision making process, this report presents a multi-criteria analysis. Without prejudging their political support, five policy options have been evaluated that would introduce some flexibility in the EU ETS and potentially ensure its long-term credibility: an auction reserve price, permit supply rules that target a certain corridor of surplus (market stability reserve), permit supply rules that target economic activity, permit supply rules that target overlap with other energy policies and a rolling emissions cap. The assessment of these five policy options was based on a criteria tree and on the EU ETS experts' panel's votes that expressed

  4. Assessing the Impact of U.S. Food Assistance Delivery Policies on Child Mortality in Northern Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikulkov, Alex; Barrett, Christopher B; Mude, Andrew G; Wein, Lawrence M

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. is the main country in the world that delivers its food assistance primarily via transoceanic shipments of commodity-based in-kind food. This approach is costlier and less timely than cash-based assistance, which includes cash transfers, food vouchers, and local and regional procurement, where food is bought in or nearby the recipient country. The U.S.'s approach is exacerbated by a requirement that half of its transoceanic food shipments need to be sent on U.S.-flag vessels. We estimate the effect of these U.S. food assistance distribution policies on child mortality in northern Kenya by formulating and optimizing a supply chain model. In our model, monthly orders of transoceanic shipments and cash-based interventions are chosen to minimize child mortality subject to an annual budget constraint and to policy constraints on the allowable proportions of cash-based interventions and non-US-flag shipments. By varying the restrictiveness of these policy constraints, we assess the impact of possible changes in U.S. food aid policies on child mortality. The model includes an existing regression model that uses household survey data and geospatial data to forecast the mean mid-upper-arm circumference Z scores among children in a community, and allows food assistance to increase Z scores, and Z scores to influence mortality rates. We find that cash-based interventions are a much more powerful policy lever than the U.S.-flag vessel requirement: switching to cash-based interventions reduces child mortality from 4.4% to 3.7% (a 16.2% relative reduction) in our model, whereas eliminating the U.S.-flag vessel restriction without increasing the use of cash-based interventions generates a relative reduction in child mortality of only 1.1%. The great majority of the gains achieved by cash-based interventions are due to their reduced cost, not their reduced delivery lead times; i.e., the reduction of shipping expenses allows for more food to be delivered, which reduces

  5. Assessing the Impact of U.S. Food Assistance Delivery Policies on Child Mortality in Northern Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Nikulkov

    Full Text Available The U.S. is the main country in the world that delivers its food assistance primarily via transoceanic shipments of commodity-based in-kind food. This approach is costlier and less timely than cash-based assistance, which includes cash transfers, food vouchers, and local and regional procurement, where food is bought in or nearby the recipient country. The U.S.'s approach is exacerbated by a requirement that half of its transoceanic food shipments need to be sent on U.S.-flag vessels. We estimate the effect of these U.S. food assistance distribution policies on child mortality in northern Kenya by formulating and optimizing a supply chain model. In our model, monthly orders of transoceanic shipments and cash-based interventions are chosen to minimize child mortality subject to an annual budget constraint and to policy constraints on the allowable proportions of cash-based interventions and non-US-flag shipments. By varying the restrictiveness of these policy constraints, we assess the impact of possible changes in U.S. food aid policies on child mortality. The model includes an existing regression model that uses household survey data and geospatial data to forecast the mean mid-upper-arm circumference Z scores among children in a community, and allows food assistance to increase Z scores, and Z scores to influence mortality rates. We find that cash-based interventions are a much more powerful policy lever than the U.S.-flag vessel requirement: switching to cash-based interventions reduces child mortality from 4.4% to 3.7% (a 16.2% relative reduction in our model, whereas eliminating the U.S.-flag vessel restriction without increasing the use of cash-based interventions generates a relative reduction in child mortality of only 1.1%. The great majority of the gains achieved by cash-based interventions are due to their reduced cost, not their reduced delivery lead times; i.e., the reduction of shipping expenses allows for more food to be delivered

  6. Women's preferences regarding infant or maternal antiretroviral prophylaxis for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV during breastfeeding and their views on Option B+ in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilda Ngarina

    Full Text Available The WHO 2010 guidelines for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT of HIV recommended prophylactic antiretroviral treatment (ART either for infants (Option A or mothers (Option B during breastfeeding for pregnant women with a CD4 count of >350 cell/µL in low-income countries. In 2012, WHO proposed that all HIV-infected pregnant women should receive triple ART for life (B+ irrespective of CD4 count. Tanzania has recently switched from Option A to B+, with a few centers practicing B. However, more information on the real-life feasibility of these options is needed. This qualitative study explored women's preferences for Option A vs B and their views on Option B+ in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.We conducted four focus group discussions with a total of 27 pregnant women with unknown HIV status, attending reproductive and child health clinics, and 31 in-depth interviews among HIV-infected pregnant and post-delivery women, 17 of whom were also asked about B+.Most participants were in favor of Option B compared to A. The main reasons for choosing Option B were: HIV-associated stigma, fear of drug side-effects on infants and difficult logistics for postnatal drug adherence. Some of the women asked about B+ favored it as they agreed that they would eventually need ART for their own survival. Some were against B+ anticipating loss of motivation after protecting the child, fearing drug side-effects and not feeling ready to embark on lifelong medication. Some were undecided.Option B was preferred. Since Tanzania has recently adopted Option B+, women with CD4 counts of >350 cell/µL should be counseled about the possibility to "opt-out" from ART after cessation of breastfeeding. Drug safety and benefits, economic concerns and available resources for laboratory monitoring and evaluation should be addressed during B+ implementation to enhance long-term feasibility and effectiveness.

  7. Public health economic evaluation of different European Union–level policy options aimed at reducing population dietary trans fat intake12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouratidou, Theodora; Livaniou, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    Background: The adverse relation between dietary trans fatty acid (TFA) intake and coronary artery disease risk is well established. Many countries in the European Union (EU) and worldwide have implemented different policies to reduce the TFA intake of their populations. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the added value of EU-level action by estimating the cost-effectiveness of 3 possible EU-level policy measures to reduce population dietary TFA intake. This was calculated against a reference situation of not implementing any EU-level policy (i.e., by assuming only national or self-regulatory measures). Design: We developed a mathematical model to compare different policy options at the EU level: 1) to do nothing beyond the current state (reference situation), 2) to impose mandatory TFA labeling of prepackaged foods, 3) to seek voluntary agreements toward further reducing industrially produced TFA (iTFA) content in foods, and 4) to impose a legislative limit for iTFA content in foods. Results: The model indicated that to impose an EU-level legal limit or to make voluntary agreements may, over the course of a lifetime (85 y), avoid the loss of 3.73 and 2.19 million disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), respectively, and save >51 and 23 billion euros when compared with the reference situation. Implementing mandatory TFA labeling can also avoid the loss of 0.98 million DALYs, but this option incurs more costs than it saves compared with the reference option. Conclusions: The model indicates that there is added value of an EU-level action, either via a legal limit or through voluntary agreements, with the legal limit option producing the highest additional health benefits. Introducing mandatory TFA labeling for the EU common market may provide some additional health benefits; however, this would likely not be a cost-effective strategy. PMID:27680991

  8. Combined Heat and Power (CHP) as a Compliance Option under the Clean Power Plan: A Template and Policy Options for State Regulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-07-30

    Combined Heat and Power (CHP) is an important option for states to consider in developing strategies to meet their emission targets under the US Environmental Protection Agency's Clean Power Plan. This Template is designed to highlight key issues that states should consider when evaluating whether CHP could be a meaningful component of their compliance plans. It demonstrates that CHP can be a valuable approach for reducing emissions and helping states achieve their targets. While the report does not endorse any particular approach for any state, and actual plans will vary dependent upon state-specific factors and determinations, it provides tools and resources that states can use to begin the process, and underscores the opportunity CHP represents for many states. . By producing both heat and electricity from a single fuel source, CHP offers significant energy savings and carbon emissions benefits over the separate generation of heat and power, with a typical unit producing electricity with half the emissions of conventional generation. These efficiency gains translate to economic savings and enhanced competitiveness for CHP hosts, and emissions reductions for the state, along with helping to lower electric bills; and creating jobs in the design, construction, installation and maintenance of equipment. In 2015, CHP represents 8 percent of electric capacity in the United States and provides 12 percent of total power generation. Projects already exist in all 50 states, but significant technical and economic potential remains. CHP offers a tested way for states to achieve their emission limits while advancing a host of ancillary benefits.

  9. Paying for Cures: How Can We Afford It? Managed Care Pharmacy Stakeholder Perceptions of Policy Options to Address Affordability of Prescription Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Kai; Suh, Kangho; Basu, Anirban; Garrison, Louis P; Bansal, Aasthaa; Carlson, Josh J

    2017-10-01

    High-priced medications with curative potential, such as the newer hepatitis C therapies, have contributed to the recent growth in pharmaceutical expenditure. Despite the obvious benefits, health care decision makers are just beginning to grapple with questions of how to value and pay for curative therapies that may feature large upfront cost, followed by health benefits that are reaped over a patient's lifespan. Alternative policy options have been proposed to promote high value and financially sustainable use of these therapies. It is unclear which policy options would be most acceptable to health care payer and biomedical manufacturer stakeholders. To (a) briefly review pharmaceutical policy options to address health system affordability and (b) assess the acceptability of alternative policy options to health care payers and biomedical manufacturers before and after an Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy (AMCP) continuing pharmacy education (CPE) session. We searched MEDLINE and Cochran databases for pharmaceutical policy options addressing affordability. With input from a focus group of managed care professionals, we developed CPE session content and an 8-question survey focusing on the most promising policy options. We fielded the survey before and after the CPE session, which occurred as part of the 2016 AMCP Annual Meeting. We first conducted a chi-squared goodness-of-fit test to assess response distributions. Next, we tested how responses differed before and after by using an ordered logit and a multinomial logit to model Likert scale and unordered responses, respectively. Although risk-sharing payments over time remained the most favorable choice before (37%) and after (35%) the CPE session, this choice was closely followed by HealthCoin after the session, which increased in favorability from 4% to 33% of responses (P = 0.001). About half of the respondents (54%) indicated that legislative change is the most significant barrier to the implementation of any

  10. Identifying Policy Implications and Future Research Directions Regarding Military Community Support and Child Psychosocial Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conforte, Allison M; DeLeon, Patrick H; Engel, Charles C; Ling, Catherine; Bakalar, Jennifer L; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian

    2017-05-01

    As former U.S. Army Surgeon General Horoho points out, a large fraction of what determines the health and readiness of our military families does not occur during appointments with professionals, but rather within the "Lifespace-where health really happens...." Indeed, when children of military families experience psychosocial difficulties, such stress impacts the service members' personal well-being and ability to focus at work, impairing their capacity to attend to the mission. As such, the Department of Defense (DoD) has instituted a family readiness system to bolster resiliency within military families, including children, e.g., by linking families with support networks. Bolstering military family resiliency, including the prevention of and effective intervention for child psychosocial problems, is an important issue at all levels of the DoD. Service members, leaders, and policy makers have a vested interest in promoting mission readiness and a healthy force. Research can play an important role in shaping decision-making by consolidating what is currently known and not known about a particular expertise area. To date, there has been no consolidation of research regarding outcomes associated with military community support and the programs that currently exist to bolster child and family resiliency. Given the importance of military families to mission readiness, a review of the relevant research is warranted. This commentary article reviews the literature on community support for military children, provides an overview of currently available resources, discusses concerns with the current provision of support services to military families, and offers recommendations for future research, policy, and implementation of military community support programs. Although there is a dearth of research on available support programs, there appears to be no lack of services available to military families. However, several steps could be taken to make these resources into a

  11. The effect of administration family planning policy on maternal and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabin, L S

    1983-09-01

    Several ideologies of the present Administration appear to converge as they impinge upon family planning--themes which are not restricted to reproductive health but which interact in ways particularly threatening to its achievements of the last decade. Most of these ideologies are clear, articulated objectives of the present government such as overall budget reduction and the return of budgetary control to the states. Others are responsive to the influence of the so called "moral mojority." Essentially, the federal government can affect family planning delivery through 4 different routes: through the allocation of funds; through specific legislation; and through regulation or organizational structure (areas in the hands of the executive branch alone). There have been recent and prime examples of all 4 routes, all directed at weakening the federal family planning program which has grown steadily stronger with bipartisan support in the last decades. Major sources of family planning support are reviewed in order to indicate the areas of change or of serious risk to the field. By retaining the categorical funding of Title 10 (half of the federal money in the family planning field has, for some years, come through Title 10 of the Public Health Service Act) in 1981, Congress reasserted the importance it places upon fertility regualtion against Administration pressure to block-grant. Despite an approximately 23% cut, this funding remains the single best hope for the field in these tight money times. In the language of the House Budget Committee report, Congress expressed its intention that an emphasis upon family planning be retained in the Maternal and Child Health block grant. It is no surprise that under the pressure of funding cuts that intention has not been honored. An upsurge in the use of Medicaid funding by family planning providers has increased the proportion of family planning funds from this source. In Title 20 of the Social Security Act (Social Services) it

  12. Estimating the effect of the one-child policy on the sex ratio imbalance in China: identification based on the difference-in-differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongbin; Yi, Junjian; Zhang, Junsen

    2011-11-01

    In China, the male-biased sex ratio has increased significantly. Because the one-child policy applies only to the Han Chinese but not to minorities, this unique affirmative policy allows us to identify the causal effect of the one-child policy on the increase in sex ratios by using a difference-in-differences (DD) estimator. Using the 1990 census, we find that the strict enforcement of the one-child policy led to 4.4 extra boys per 100 girls in the 1980s, accounting for about 94% of the total increase in sex ratios during this period. The robust tests indicate that the estimated policy effect is not likely confounded by other omitted policy shocks or socioeconomic changes. Moreover, we conduct the DD estimation using both the 2000 census and the 2005 mini-census. Our estimates suggest that the one-child policy resulted in about 7.0 extra boys per 100 girls for the 1991-2005 birth cohorts. The effect of the one-child policy accounts for about 57% and 54% of the total increases in sex ratios for the 1991-2000 and 2001-2005 birth cohorts, respectively.

  13. Overview of the infant and young child feeding policy environment in Pakistan: Federal, Sindh and Punjab context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Mahmood

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Appropriate infant and young child feeding (IYCF practices have been identified as important for appropriate child growth and development. (Ministry of Planning and Development, Ministry of National Health Services, Regulations and Coordination (2012 Children in Pakistan still experience high rates of malnutrition, indicating a likely need for stronger IYCF policy. The purpose of this study was to identify major stakeholders who shape the IYCF policy environment and analyze which policies protect, promote and support IYCF practices, either directly or indirectly. Methods This study was conducted at the federal level, and in the provinces of Sindh and Punjab. We identified policies relevant to IYCF using a matrix developed by the South Asian Infant Feeding Research Network (SAIFRN, designed to capture policies at a range of levels (strategic policy documents through to implementation guidelines in sectors relevant to IYCF. We analyzed the content using predetermined themes focused on support for mothers, and used narrative synthesis to present our findings. For the stakeholder analysis, we conducted four Net-Map activities with 49 interviewees using the Net-Map methodology. We analyzed the quantitative data using Organizational Risk Analyzer ORA and used the qualitative data to elucidate further information regarding relationships between stakeholders. Results We identified 19 policy documents for analysis. Eleven of these were nutrition and/or IYCF focused and eight were broader policies with IYCF as a component. The majority lacked detail relevant to implementation, particularly in terms of: ownership of the policies by a specific government body; sustainability of programs/strategies (most are donor funded, multi-sectoral collaboration; and effective advocacy and behavior change communication. Data collected through four Net-Map activities showed that after devolution of health ministry, provincial health departments were

  14. Overview of the infant and young child feeding policy environment in Pakistan: Federal, Sindh and Punjab context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Hana; Suleman, Yasmeen; Hazir, Tabish; Akram, Durre Samin; Uddin, Shahadat; Dibley, Michael J; Abassi, Saleem; Shakeel, Amara; Kazmi, Narjis; Thow, Anne Marie

    2017-06-13

    Appropriate infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices have been identified as important for appropriate child growth and development. (Ministry of Planning and Development, Ministry of National Health Services, Regulations and Coordination (2012)) Children in Pakistan still experience high rates of malnutrition, indicating a likely need for stronger IYCF policy. The purpose of this study was to identify major stakeholders who shape the IYCF policy environment and analyze which policies protect, promote and support IYCF practices, either directly or indirectly. This study was conducted at the federal level, and in the provinces of Sindh and Punjab. We identified policies relevant to IYCF using a matrix developed by the South Asian Infant Feeding Research Network (SAIFRN), designed to capture policies at a range of levels (strategic policy documents through to implementation guidelines) in sectors relevant to IYCF. We analyzed the content using predetermined themes focused on support for mothers, and used narrative synthesis to present our findings. For the stakeholder analysis, we conducted four Net-Map activities with 49 interviewees using the Net-Map methodology. We analyzed the quantitative data using Organizational Risk Analyzer ORA and used the qualitative data to elucidate further information regarding relationships between stakeholders. We identified 19 policy documents for analysis. Eleven of these were nutrition and/or IYCF focused and eight were broader policies with IYCF as a component. The majority lacked detail relevant to implementation, particularly in terms of: ownership of the policies by a specific government body; sustainability of programs/strategies (most are donor funded), multi-sectoral collaboration; and effective advocacy and behavior change communication. Data collected through four Net-Map activities showed that after devolution of health ministry, provincial health departments were the key actors in the government whereas UNICEF and

  15. Gender Inequality: Is the National Population Policy's Objective of Two Child Norm Heading the Correct Way?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrikar, S R; Bhalwar, R; Datta, A; Basannar, D R

    2008-07-01

    Male Preference is well known phenomena world wide from ancient ages. A descriptive study was carried out to assess the attitude of women towards birth of son, use of contraception methods and sex determination methods in rural village Kasurdi in Pune district. Univariate analysis was carried out by considering each factor determining sex preference separately as well as using a Logistic Regression Model. Adequacy of fit of the model has also been tested. Out of 110 respondents interviewed, 62.7% felt that male child is necessary in the family. Univariate analysis revealed that sex of first child, concern undergone for second pregnancy with regards to sex of the child, number of children in family and type of family were significant factors contributing to the son preference. The analysis under the logistic regression model revealed that sex of the first child and concern undergone in second pregnancy with respect to the sex of the second child are the most dominating and significant factors in the causation of son preference. The difference between family sizes when compared with the sex of first child was statistically significant signifying that if the first child is a male then it hardly matters whether the second child is male or female, but if the sex of first child is female then the families land up with bigger family size. On an average most of the respondents favour two children with an equal share of male and female children.

  16. Instruments and options for environmental policy during the accession process of EU associated countries in the area of environment and energy. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cames, M.; Matthes, F.C.; Baer, S.; Oberthuer, S.; Krug, M.; Mez, L.; Tempel, S.

    2001-07-01

    With regard to the leading role of the EU in climate protection policies, it is important to consider the impact of the accession process on EU climate policy. This study includes the analysis of the most important issues related to environment and energy within the accession process, namely: 1) status quo and development of the energy sector and structural CO{sub 2} mitigation options; 2) legal gap assessment and analysis of performance in the accession process; 3) identification of implementation patterns through detailed policy analysis; 4) evaluation of co-operation projects in the field of environment and energy in order to develop new projects that promote the accession process. This volume includes comparative analysis of the five Accession Countries. The detailed analysis of each country is documented in five country reports, each in a separate volume available only on the attached CD. (orig.)

  17. Developing a Child and Youth Mental Health and Addictions Framework for Yukon as a Foundation for Policy Reform: Engaging Stakeholders Through a Policy and Research Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Mulvale

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In April 2015 the Yukon Government released a new child and youth mental health and addictions framework (CYMHAF to improve territory-wide access to basic mental health care and coordination of services for children and families. Yukon’s limited resource base and dispersed population challenges delivery of child and youth mental health and addictions services to small rural communities where needs are often high as a legacy of residential school policies. The objective of CYMHAF is to improve outcomes by identifying and capitalizing on current strengths, and reallocating existing resources to better meet the mental health needs of Yukon youth and families. Access, coordination and quality problems associated with existing services, growing public awareness of mental health issues, and a new national policy framework designed to assist provinces and territories, led Yukon policy makers to partner with researchers to capitalize on a Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR strategic grant initiative. CYMHAF was based on extensive stakeholder engagement, best evidence and advice from key informants in other jurisdictions, and offers a cascading model of service delivery through which basic mental health care can be provided by existing health and human service workers in communities. These workers will be trained in child and youth mental health competencies, and will have electronic linkages and support to integrated teams of primary care providers who will be located in regional hubs once fully implemented, and to specialists in Whitehorse and out of Territory. Implementation is underway with some training of front line Health and Social Service and First Nations workers, a new mental wellness strategy for Yukon founded on CYMHAF scheduled for release in spring 2016, and may be accelerated by federal government promises of a new Health Accord and a new relationship with indigenous people.

  18. Where's Papa? Fathers' Role in Child Care. Population Trends and Public Policy No. 20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Martin

    Men are taking a more active role in child care. By 1991, 20% of preschool children were cared for by their fathers while their mothers worked outside the home--an increase since 1988, when only 15 percent of preschoolers were cared for by their fathers. This report summarizes the latest findings on child care arrangements of mothers who work…

  19. Child Poverty as Public Policy: Direct Provision and Asylum Seeker Children in the Republic of Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanning, Bryan; Veale, Angela

    2004-01-01

    This paper evaluates responses to asylum seeker children in Ireland from a child poverty perspective and from that of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. It draws upon research undertaken in early 2001 on behalf of the Irish Refugee Council among asylum seeker families with children in Cork, Limerick and Ennis on their…

  20. Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education: A review of School Policy and Curriculum Provision in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Berthelsen, Donna; Nicholson, Jan M.; Brandon, Leisa; Stevens, Judyann; Rachele, Jerome N.

    2013-01-01

    The past four decades have seen increasing public and professional awareness of child sexual abuse. Congruent with public health approaches to prevention, efforts to eliminate child sexual abuse have inspired the emergence of prevention initiatives which can be provided to all children as part of their standard school curriculum. However,…

  1. New Policies Allow High School Child Development Programs to Provide CDA Licensure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlais, Amanda G.

    2012-01-01

    Recent changes made by the Council for Professional Recognition to the Child Development Associate (CDA) credentialing program create an opportunity to redesign high school child development programs. On April 1, 2011, the Council for Professional Recognition lifted the age restriction in the CDA credentialing requirements, now allowing students…

  2. Understanding Quality in Context: Child Care Centers, Communities, Markets, and Public Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohacek, Monica; Adams, Gina C.; Kisker, Ellen E.

    2010-01-01

    Early care and education can prepare children for school, but while some preschool and child care programs do an excellent job, others are inadequate and some may even harm healthy development. This study focuses on child care center directors to better understand why there is so much variation, and how public initiatives can better help…

  3. Are single children more likely to be overweight or obese than those with siblings? The influence of China's one-child policy on childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Jungwon; Xue, Hong; Wang, Vivian H C; Li, Miao; Wang, Youfa

    2017-10-01

    China's one-child policy (1979-2015) has affected Chinese parenting practices and children's health behaviors and also may have contributed to increased childhood obesity. However, very limited research has investigated the association between one-child policy and childhood obesity. We examined characteristics of single-child families and the influence of one-child policy (indicated by single-child status) on children's weight status and related health behaviors. Data from children aged 6-18years old in the 2011 (n=1580) and 2000 (n=2317) China Health and Nutrition Survey were cross-sectionally analyzed with multilevel models. From 2000 to 2011, the rates about doubled for being a single-child (30.1% to 57.0%) and being overweight or obese (OWB, 6.6% to 16.5%) along with urbanization (27.5% to 37.1%). Single-child families had higher levels of parental education, household income and urban residence than families with ≥ two children (pchildren with siblings, single children were more likely to be OWB; the association became stronger over time (OR=4.5 (1.7-12.4) in 2011 and 1.7 (1.0-2.8) in 2000). Also, single children had less recreational screen time, but similar physical activity levels; however single urban children were more likely to have excess total energy intake (OR=5.70 (1.58-20.60)) than those with siblings. Being single-child is about four times more likely to be overweight/obesity than those having siblings, and the association became stronger over time in China. China's one-child policy might have contributed to its rising childhood obesity rates. Obesity intervention programs may need to account for the influence of the one-child policy in China. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Elderly care and the one-child policy: concerns, expectations and preparations for elderly life in a rural Chinese township.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Kiira; Baofeng, Huang

    2014-03-01

    Several studies have looked at the effect of the one-child policy on elderly care in China. This study compares the differences in concerns, expectations and preparations for elderly life of parents of reproductive age between one- and two-child families in a rural Chinese village. With support from the Bill and Melinda Gates Institute for Population and Reproductive Health, 800 one- and two-child families were surveyed from 2009 to 2010. The data showed that the parents of one-child families were significantly more concerned about being abandoned in old age. There was a discrepancy between parents' preferences and expectations for elderly care: while many parents "preferred" to live with their children in old age, only a small percentage "expected" to co-reside with their adult children. Some elders even preferred to live in elderly care institutions, indicating a change in the perception and accessibility of these institutions, which have historically been stigmatized and heavily restricted. As China's population ages, there is increased need for expanded services and alternatives to the traditional model of co-residence for the rural elderly.

  5. System-wide and Superemitter Policy Options for the Abatement of Methane Emissions from the U.S. Natural Gas System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, E. N.; Robinson, A. L.; Cohon, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    This work assesses trade-offs between system-wide and superemitter policy options for reducing methane emissions from compressor stations in the U.S. transmission and storage system. Leveraging recently collected national emissions and activity data sets, we developed a new process-based emissions model implemented in a Monte Carlo simulation framework to estimate emissions for each component and facility in the system. We find that approximately 83% of emissions, given the existing suite of technologies, have the potential to be abated, with only a few emission categories comprising a majority of emissions. We then formulate optimization models to determine optimal abatement strategies. Most emissions across the system (approximately 80%) are efficient to abate, resulting in net benefits ranging from 160M to 1.2B annually across the system. The private cost burden is minimal under standard and tax instruments, and if firms market the abated natural gas, private net benefits may be generated. Superemitter policies, namely, those that target the highest emitting facilities, may reduce the private cost burden and achieve high emission reductions, especially if emissions across facilities are highly skewed. However, detection across all facilities is necessary regardless of the policy option and there are nontrivial net benefits resulting from abatement of relatively low-emitting sources.

  6. Spatial–temporal trend for mother-to-child transmission of HIV up to infancy and during pre-Option B+ in western Kenya, 2007–13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Waruru

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Using spatial–temporal analyses to understand coverage and trends in elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (e-MTCT efforts may be helpful in ensuring timely services are delivered to the right place. We present spatial–temporal analysis of seven years of HIV early infant diagnosis (EID data collected from 12 districts in western Kenya from January 2007 to November 2013, during pre-Option B+ use. Methods We included in the analysis infants up to one year old. We performed trend analysis using extended Cochran–Mantel–Haenszel stratified test and logistic regression models to examine trends and associations of infant HIV status at first diagnosis with: early diagnosis (<8 weeks after birth, age at specimen collection, infant ever having breastfed, use of single dose nevirapine, and maternal antiretroviral therapy status. We examined these covariates and fitted spatial and spatial–temporal semiparametric Poisson regression models to explain HIV-infection rates using R-integrated nested Laplace approximation package. We calculated new infections per 100,000 live births and used Quantum GIS to map fitted MTCT estimates for each district in Nyanza region. Results Median age was two months, interquartile range 1.5–5.8 months. Unadjusted pooled positive rate was 11.8% in the seven-years period and declined from 19.7% in 2007 to 7.0% in 2013, p < 0.01. Uptake of testing ≤8 weeks after birth was under 50% in 2007 and increased to 64.1% by 2013, p < 0.01. By 2013, the overall standardized MTCT rate was 447 infections per 100,000 live births. Based on Bayesian deviance information criterion comparisons, the spatial–temporal model with maternal and infant covariates was best in explaining geographical variation in MTCT. Discussion Improved EID uptake and reduced MTCT rates are indicators of progress towards e-MTCT. Cojoined analysis of time and covariates in a spatial context provides a robust approach for explaining

  7. China's excess males, sex selective abortion, and one child policy: analysis of data from 2005 national intercensus survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei Xing; Lu, Li; Hesketh, Therese

    2009-04-09

    To elucidate current trends and geographical patterns in the sex ratio at birth and in the population aged under 20 in China and to determine the roles played by sex selective abortion and the one child policy. Analysis of household based cross sectional population survey done in November 2005. All of China's 2861 counties. Population 1% of the total population, selected to be broadly representative of the total. Sex ratio defined as males per 100 females. 4 764 512 people under the age of 20 were included. Overall sex ratios were high across all age groups and residency types, but they were highest in the 1-4 years age group, peaking at 126 (95% confidence interval 125 to 126) in rural areas. Six provinces had sex ratios of over 130 in the 1-4 age group. The sex ratio at birth was close to normal for first order births but rose steeply for second order births, especially in rural areas, where it reached 146 (143 to 149). Nine provinces had ratios of over 160 for second order births. The highest sex ratios were seen in provinces that allow rural inhabitants a second child if the first is a girl. Sex selective abortion accounts for almost all the excess males. One particular variant of the one child policy, which allows a second child if the first is a girl, leads to the highest sex ratios. In 2005 males under the age of 20 exceeded females by more than 32 million in China, and more than 1.1 million excess births of boys occurred. China will see very high and steadily worsening sex ratios in the reproductive age group over the next two decades. Enforcing the existing ban on sex selective abortion could lead to normalisation of the ratios.

  8. Rethinking India’s Nuclear Policy:Credible Minimum Nuclear Deterrence as a Dynamic Transformation of Nuclear Option Open

    OpenAIRE

    Nakanishi, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    After its 1998 nuclear test, India’s nuclear doctrine was described as ‘credible minimum nuclear deterrence’. India’s nuclear doctrine and policy are often characterized, in the academic discourse, as if the country pursues an assertive military doctrine and policy. Has the Indian National Congress (INC)-led government that has been in place since 2004 altered the nuclear policy formulated by the former Bharatiya Jhanata Party (BJP)-led government? Although the BJP-led government led India to...

  9. Mandatory Reporting? Issues to consider when developing legislation and policy to improve discovery of child abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Emma Davies; Ben Mathews; John Read

    2014-01-01

    Article by Dr Emma Davies (School of Law, Liverpool John Moores University), Associate Professor Ben Mathews (School of Law, Queensland University of Technology) and Professor John Read (Institute of Psychology, Health and Society, University of Liverpool). In the United Kingdom, recent investigations into child sexual abuse occurring within schools, the Catholic Church and the British Broadcasting Corporation, have intensified debate on ways to improve the discovery of child sexual abuse, ...

  10. The Cost of Compliance: A CGE Assessment of Canada's Policy Options under the Kyoto Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehringer, Christoph (Univ. of Oldenburg, Dept. of Economics, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany)); Rutherford, Thomas F. (ETH Zuerich, Center for Energy Policy and Economy, CH-8032 Zuerich (Switzerland))

    2008-07-01

    Canada is committed under the Kyoto Protocol to reduce greenhouse gas emissions between 2008 and 2012 to a level six percent below the 1990 reference value. To date, however, Canada's greenhouse gas emissions remain far above 1990 levels. Stringent short-term policy measures are needed if Canada is to meet this legally binding commitment. This paper uses a multi-region, multi-commodity static general equilibrium model to quantify the economic impacts of alternative compliance strategies for Canada in the context of climate policies undertaken by other Kyoto Parties. The numerical results confirm fears among Canadian policy makers of larger economic adjustment cost should Canada fulfill its Kyoto commitment solely through domestic action. Comprehensive use of flexible mechanisms - in particular the Clean Development Mechanism - could allow Canada to live up with its international climate policy commitment at a substantially lower economic cost

  11. Physical Activity Practices, Policies and Environments in Washington State Child Care Settings: Results of a Statewide Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Pooja S; Walters, Kelly M; Igoe, Bridget M; Payne, Elizabeth C; Johnson, Donna B

    2017-03-01

    Objectives Child care is an important setting for the promotion of physical activity (PA) in early childhood. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between specific PA environments and recommended practices in child care settings as well as the degree to which child care settings met recommended standards for total PA time. Methods In 2013, all programs licensed to care for children ages 2-5 in WA state were surveyed about their PA related practices. Logistic regression was used to determine odds of meeting best-practice standards for outdoor time and PA. Results The response rate was 45.8 % from centers (692/1511) and 32.1 % from homes (1281/3991). Few programs reported meeting best-practice standards for the amount of time children spend being physically active (centers: 12.1 %, homes: 20.1 %) and outdoor time (centers: 21.8 %, homes: 21.7 %). Programs where children go outside regardless of weather and those reporting more adult-led PA had higher odds of meeting best-practice standards for both PA and outdoor time. Meeting best-practice standards for outdoor time was the strongest predictor of meeting best-practice standards for total PA time [centers: OR 15.9 (9.3-27.2), homes: OR 5.2 (3.8-7.1)]. Conclusions for Practice There is considerable room for improvement in licensed child care settings in WA to meet best-practice standards for young children's outdoor and PA time. Initiatives that create policies and environments encouraging outdoor play and adult-led PA in child care have the potential to increase physical activity in substantial numbers of young children.

  12. Child mental-health policy development in sub-Saharan Africa: broadening the perspectives using Bronfenbrenner's ecological model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atilola, Olayinka

    2017-04-01

    Despite socio-economic, demographic and epidemiological facts and realities that point to a potential risk for explosion in the prevalence of childhood mental health problems in sub-Saharan Africa, there is still a severe dearth of child and adolescent mental health (CAMH) policy or strategy to respond to the situation in the region. Unfortunately, current attempts at suggesting courses of action in this regard appear to be focused on narrow reactionary approaches. There is a need for theoretical frameworks to capture the full ramification of childhood in sub-Saharan Africa, from which multi-level, context-appropriate and holistic CAMH policy directions can be understood. In this commentary, we propose an amended version of the Bronfenbrenner's ecological model of childhood as such framework that captures proximal, intermediate and distal factors that influence the care environment of children. We then used the insights provided by the model to identify and prioritize intervention points and appropriate intervention strategies in charting a tentative course for CAMH policy development in the region. Though the ecological model provides a distinct perspective to the structure and dynamics of the care environment of children, the proposed framework using the model is still largely theoretical and need to be further integrated into future studies on CAMH policy development in the region. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. PUBLIC POLICY, CHILD DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH AND BOYS AT RISK: CHALLENGING, ENDURING AND NECESSARY PARTNERSHIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckinney, Marvin; Fitzgerald, Hiram E; Winn, Donna-Marie; Babcock, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Research findings documenting the issues and challenges of boys prebirth through age 5 years have barely penetrated the arena of public policy making nor has it permeated the public agenda of politicians, government, or other funding stakeholders. The purpose of this article is to articulate pathways for researchers to enter into the policy-making process. We review critical issues related to implementing the process of public policy. We argue that the policy process needs to be informed by more dynamic theoretical models of human development, and that researchers and clinicians need to be exposed more deeply to the processes required to inform and subsequently change public policy. We contend that most quantitative research on boys at risk occurs at the micro- and the mesosystem level rather than at the exo- and the macrosystem levels where structural societal policies embedded in economic and racial inequities contribute to risk. Researchers, clinicians, and policy makers need to create collaborative partnerships designed to develop, advocate, and implement more evidence-based policies designed to enhance the quality of life for boys at risk. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  14. Mandates for Collaboration: Health Care and Child Welfare Policy and Practice Reforms Create the Platform for Improved Health for Children in Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnik, Sarah; Wilson, Leigh; Scribano, Philip; Wood, Joanne N; Noonan, Kathleen

    2015-10-01

    Improving the health of children in foster care requires close collaboration between pediatrics and the child welfare system. Propelled by recent health care and child welfare policy reforms, there is a strong foundation for more accountable, collaborative models of care. Over the last 2 decades health care reforms have driven greater accountability in outcomes, access to care, and integrated services for children in foster care. Concurrently, changes in child welfare legislation have expanded the responsibility of child welfare agencies in ensuring child health. Bolstered by federal legislation, numerous jurisdictions are developing innovative cross-system workforce and payment strategies to improve health care delivery and health care outcomes for children in foster care, including: (1) hiring child welfare medical directors, (2) embedding nurses in child welfare agencies, (3) establishing specialized health care clinics, and (4) developing tailored child welfare managed care organizations. As pediatricians engage in cross-system efforts, they should keep in mind the following common elements to enhance their impact: embed staff with health expertise within child welfare settings, identify long-term sustainable funding mechanisms, and implement models for effective information sharing. Now is an opportune time for pediatricians to help strengthen health care provision for children involved with child welfare. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Policy implications of Iran's Nuclear Deal in technical terms for the plutonium route, uranium route, covert options, inspections, monitoring and verifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, Andre Ricardo M., E-mail: andrericardopinheiro@usp.br [Universidade de São Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Naval; Guimarães, Leonam dos Santos, E-mail: leonam@eletronuclear.gov.br [Eletrobrás Termonuclear S.A. (ELETRONUCLEAR), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The present Paper addresses the policy implications of Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) known as 'Ian Nuclear Deal', implemented on 16{sup th} January of 2016 between the Iran and the P5+1 countries (the U.S., U.K. France, Germany, Russia, and China), along with the EU in technical terms to analyze the Plutonium Route, Uranium Route and the Covert options and Inspections, Monitoring and Verifications. A historical review is presented to understand how the Iranian Nuclear Program is formed. Following is shown the current nuclear facilities in Iran and its capacity to process nuclear materials. It is analyzed the impact of JCPOA in Uranium and Plutonium routes. Covert Options always will be an option, so the most sensitive impact is related to the new monitoring and verification policies that must ensure real control of illegal procedures. The main conclusion is that the deal postpones the Iran's nuclear program for more than a decade (15 years), delaying Iran's nuclear bomb time from a few months to at least one year, although there is a current latent capacity to develop a nuclear bomb in Uranium route. It also gives IAEA inspectors capability to monitor nuclear activities and prevent to possible development to a nuclear bomb. To arrive in this conclusion an extensive technical analyze of impact of JCPOA in Iran's nuclear capabilities was made to discover how effective is the deal to prevent Iran to build, or acquire a nuclear weapon. (author)

  16. Policy implications of Iran's Nuclear Deal in technical terms for the plutonium route, uranium route, covert options, inspections, monitoring and verifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, Andre Ricardo M.

    2017-01-01

    The present Paper addresses the policy implications of Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) known as 'Ian Nuclear Deal', implemented on 16 th January of 2016 between the Iran and the P5+1 countries (the U.S., U.K. France, Germany, Russia, and China), along with the EU in technical terms to analyze the Plutonium Route, Uranium Route and the Covert options and Inspections, Monitoring and Verifications. A historical review is presented to understand how the Iranian Nuclear Program is formed. Following is shown the current nuclear facilities in Iran and its capacity to process nuclear materials. It is analyzed the impact of JCPOA in Uranium and Plutonium routes. Covert Options always will be an option, so the most sensitive impact is related to the new monitoring and verification policies that must ensure real control of illegal procedures. The main conclusion is that the deal postpones the Iran's nuclear program for more than a decade (15 years), delaying Iran's nuclear bomb time from a few months to at least one year, although there is a current latent capacity to develop a nuclear bomb in Uranium route. It also gives IAEA inspectors capability to monitor nuclear activities and prevent to possible development to a nuclear bomb. To arrive in this conclusion an extensive technical analyze of impact of JCPOA in Iran's nuclear capabilities was made to discover how effective is the deal to prevent Iran to build, or acquire a nuclear weapon. (author)

  17. 12 CFR 225.142 - Statement of policy concerning bank holding companies engaging in futures, forward and options...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.142 Statement of policy... agency securities and money market instruments. (a) Purpose of financial contract positions. In.... Accordingly, the Board believes that any positions that bank holding companies or their nonbank subsidiaries...

  18. Policy options to reduce consumer waste to zero: comparing product stewardship and extended producer responsibility for refrigerator waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Scott; Thompson, Shirley

    2007-06-01

    Today, over-consumption, pollution and resource depletion threaten sustainability. Waste management policies frequently fail to reduce consumption, prevent pollution, conserve resources and foster sustainable products. However, waste policies are changing to focus on lifecycle impacts of products from the cradle to the grave by extending the responsibilities of stakeholders to post-consumer management. Product stewardship and extended producer responsibility are two policies in use, with radically different results when compared for one consumer product, refrigerators. North America has enacted product stewardship policies that fail to require producers to take physical or financial responsibility for recycling or for environmentally sound disposal, so that releases of ozone depleting substances routinely occur, which contribute to the expanding the ozone hole. Conversely, Europe's Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) Directive requires extended producer responsibility, whereby producers collect and manage their own post-consumer waste products. WEEE has resulted in high recycling rates of greater than 85%, reduced emissions of ozone-depleting substances and other toxins, greener production methods, such as replacing greenhouse gas refrigerants with environmentally friendly hydrocarbons and more reuse of refrigerators in the EU in comparison with North America.

  19. Child passenger safety laws in the United States, 1978-2010: policy diffusion in the absence of strong federal intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jin Yung; Anderson, Evan; Silver, Diana; Macinko, James

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the diffusion of U.S. state child passenger safety laws, analyzing over-time changes and inter-state differences in all identifiable features of laws that plausibly influence crash-related morbidity and mortality. The observed trend shows many states' continuing efforts to update their laws to be consistent with latest motor vehicle safety recommendations, with each state modifying their laws on average 6 times over the 30-year period. However, there has been a considerable time lag in knowledge diffusion and policy adoption. Even though empirical evidence supporting the protective effect of child restraint devices was available in the early 1970s, laws requiring their use were not adopted by all 50 states until 1986. For laws requiring minors to be seated in rear seats, the first state law adoption did not occur until two decades after the evidence became publicly available. As of 2010, only 12 states explicitly required the use of booster seats, 9 for infant seats and 6 for toddler seats. There is also great variation among states in defining the child population to be covered by the laws, the vehicle operators subject to compliance, and the penalties resulting from non-compliance. Some states cover only up to 4-year-olds while others cover children up to age 17. As of 2010, states have as many as 14 exemptions, such as those for non-residents, non-parents, commercial vehicles, large vehicles, or vehicles without seatbelts. Factors such as the complexity of the state of the science, the changing nature of guidelines (from age to height/weight-related criteria), and the absence of coordinated federal actions are potential explanations for the observed patterns. The resulting uneven policy landscape among states suggests a strong need for improved communication among state legislators, public health researchers, advocates and concerned citizen groups to promote more efficient and effective policymaking. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All

  20. Epistemic communities in global health and the development of child survival policy: a case study of iCCM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalglish, Sarah L; George, Asha; Shearer, Jessica C; Bennett, Sara

    2015-12-01

    Nearly all African countries have recently implemented some form of integrated community case management of childhood illness (iCCM), a strategy aimed at reducing child mortality by providing curative care for common yet fatal childhood illnesses. This case study describes the evolution of iCCM at the global level using the theory of epistemic communities first outlined by Haas, which explains how international policy coordination on technical issues takes place via transnational expert networks. We draw from in-depth interviews with global policy-makers (n = 25), a document review (n = 72) and co-authorship network analysis of scientific articles on iCCM. We find that members of the iCCM epistemic community were mainly mid- to upper-level technical officers working in the headquarters of large norm-setting bodies, implementing partners, funders and academic/research groups in global health. Already linked by pre-existing relationships, the epistemic community was consolidated as conflicts were overcome through structural changes in the network (including or excluding some members), changes in the state of technology or scientific evidence, shifting funding considerations, and the development of consensus through argument, legitimation and other means. Next, the epistemic community positioned iCCM as a preferred solution via three causal dynamics outlined by Haas: (1) responding to decision-makers' uncertainty about how to reduce child mortality after previous policies proved insufficient, (2) using sophisticated analytic tools to link the problem of child mortality to iCCM as a solution and (3) gaining buy-in from major norm-setting bodies and financial and institutional support from large implementing agencies. Applying the epistemic communities framework to the iCCM case study reveals the strengths and weaknesses of a focused policy enterprise with highly specialized and homogenous disciplinary origins, allowing for efficient sharing of complex, high

  1. Nutrition and physical activity randomized control trial in child care centers improves knowledge, policies, and children’s body mass index

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background To address the public health crisis of overweight and obese preschool-age children, the Nutrition And Physical Activity Self Assessment for Child Care (NAP SACC) intervention was delivered by nurse child care health consultants with the objective of improving child care provider and parent nutrition and physical activity knowledge, center-level nutrition and physical activity policies and practices, and children’s body mass index (BMI). Methods A seven-month randomized control trial was conducted in 17 licensed child care centers serving predominantly low income families in California, Connecticut, and North Carolina, including 137 child care providers and 552 families with racially and ethnically diverse children three to five years old. The NAP SACC intervention included educational workshops for child care providers and parents on nutrition and physical activity and consultation visits provided by trained nurse child care health consultants. Demographic characteristics and pre - and post-workshop knowledge surveys were completed by providers and parents. Blinded research assistants reviewed each center’s written health and safety policies, observed nutrition and physical activity practices, and measured randomly selected children’s nutritional intake, physical activity, and height and weight pre- and post-intervention. Results Hierarchical linear models and multiple regression models assessed individual- and center-level changes in knowledge, policies, practices and age- and sex-specific standardized body mass index (zBMI), controlling for state, parent education, and poverty level. Results showed significant increases in providers’ and parents’ knowledge of nutrition and physical activity, center-level improvements in policies, and child-level changes in children’s zBMI based on 209 children in the intervention and control centers at both pre- and post-intervention time points. Conclusions The NAP SACC intervention, as delivered by

  2. Quality Improvement in Home-Based Child Care Settings: Research Resources to Inform Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Sharmila; Stephens, Samuel A.

    2016-01-01

    This "Topic of Interest" provides a comprehensive list of research in the Research Connections collection that was published in 2005 or later addressing issues related to quality improvement specifically in home-based child care. The resources are grouped under the following headings: Overviews, Summaries, and Reviews of Quality…

  3. Embedding the global womb: Global child labour and the new policy agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuys, O.; Aitken, S.; Lund, R.; Kjørholt, T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper seeks to understand how representations of child labour shape children’s lifeworlds globally. I use the term lifeworld to qualify the social world, which unevenly distributed symbolic resources contribute to misrecognize in favour of a mythical global order (cf. Couldry, 2003, 41 ff). My

  4. Economic Evaluation Research in the Context of Child Welfare Policy: A Structured Literature Review and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D.; Snowden, Lonnie R.; Wulczyn, Fred; Landsverk, John; Horwitz, Sarah M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: With over 1 million children served by the US Child Welfare system at a cost of $20 billion annually, this study examines the economic evaluation literature on interventions to improve outcomes for children at risk for and currently involved with the system, identifies areas where additional research is needed, and discusses the use of…

  5. On the importance of families and public policies for child development outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosero Moncayo, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis investigates how public interventions in developing countries can promote human capital accumulation of children at different stages of life (pre-school, compulsory and post-compulsory school) and how a specific characteristic of a child, the order of birth, might affect the

  6. A feasible example of implementation of the one-child policy in the countryside: an evaluation of the results of implementation of family planning policies in Heishan County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, X

    1992-01-01

    The impact of the family planning (FP) program on fertility and contraceptive behavior in Heishan County of Liaoning Province, China, is examined in the periods before 1973, 1973-79, and 1980-84 and after 1984. A sample of 1906 women aged 15-64 years provided information on marital and fertility status. The average age at first marriage was high at 22.23 years for the period 1964-88. In the analysis of women age 30 years and older in 1988, it appears that the average age at first marriage declined as the average age of the women surveyed increased. The highest proportion of marriages were in the 18-24 year group. The trend has been for a high age at first marriage, a high late marriage rate, and a low early marriage rate. Recently, early marriage and the early marriage rate have increased somewhat. In the analysis of distribution of children according to the 4 stages of FP policy, it appears that women were having 2-4 children before FP went into effect. An FP movement in rural villages was begun after 1973 with the message of later, longer, and fewer; fertility dropped to 1-3 children and fertility was highest for 2 children followed by 24.2% having 1 child. 20.7% had 3 children, and very few had 4 or more children. Success was achieved during this period. After 1980, the 1-child policy went into effect. Between 1980 and 1984 in Heishan County, 76% of women had only 1 child and 21.4% had 2 children. Very few had 3 children and multiple parities were gone entirely. After 1985, a relaxed FP regime was practiced. Single parity women dropped to 62.9% and 2 parities rose by 5.4%. The relaxation did not have as strong an effect as in other parts of China because of the awareness and acceptance of the idea of FP and the moderate economic level. Fertility occurred primarily within 3 years in Heishan County (about 80%). The usual practice is to use natural birth control until the birth of the first child. The second birth occurs in 67.3% of the cases within 5 years

  7. Future electricity generation: An economic and environmental life cycle perspective on near-, mid- and long-term technology options and policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergerson, Joule Andrea

    This thesis evaluates the cost and environmental tradeoffs of current and future electricity generation options from a life cycle perspective. Policy and technology options are considered for each critical time horizon (near-, mid-, and long-term). The framework developed for this analysis is a hybrid life cycle analysis which integrates several models and frameworks including process and input-output life cycle analysis, an integrated environmental control model, social costing, forecasting and future energy scenario analysis. The near-term analysis shows that several recent LCA studies of electricity options have contributed to our understanding of the technologies available and their relative environmental impacts. Several promising options could satisfy our electricity demands. Other options remain unproven or too costly to encourage investment in the near term but show promise for future use (e.g. photovoltaic, fuel cells). Public concerns could impede the use of some desirable technologies (e.g. hydro, nuclear). Finally, less tangible issues such as intermittency of some renewable technologies, social equity and visual and land use impacts, while difficult to quantify, must be considered in the investment decision process. In the mid-term analysis, this thesis explores alternative methods for transport of coal energy. A hybrid life cycle analysis is critical for evaluating the cost, efficiency and environmental tradeoffs of the entire system. If a small amount of additional coal is to be shipped, current rail infrastructure should be used where possible. If entirely new infrastructure is required, the mine mouth generation options are cheaper but have increased environmental impact due to the increased generation required to compensate for transmission line losses. Gasifying the coal to produce methane also shows promise in terms of lowering environmental emissions. The long-term analysis focuses on the implications of a high coal use future. This scenario

  8. Ensuring an optimal environment for peer education in South African schools: Goals, systems, standards and policy options for effective learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Sharlene; Deutsch, Charles; Moolman, Benita; Arogundade, Emma; Isaacs, Dane; Michel, Barbara

    2016-12-01

    Peer education has long been seen as a key health promotion strategy and an important tool in preventing HIV infection. In South African schools, it is currently one of the strategies employed to do so. Based on both a recent research study of peer education across 35 schools and drawing on multiple previous studies in South Africa, this paper examines the key elements of peer education that contribute to its effectiveness and asks how this aligns with current educational and health policies. From this research, it summarises and proposes shared goals and aims, minimum standards of implementation and reflects on the necessary infrastructure required for peer education to be effective. In light of these findings, it offers policy recommendations regarding who should be doing peer education and the status peer education should have in a school's formal programme.

  9. Preferences on policy options for ensuring the financial sustainability of health care services in the future: results of a stakeholder survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordrup, David; Angelis, Aris; Kanavos, Panos

    2013-12-01

    Universal access to health care in most western European countries has been a given for many decades; however, macroeconomic developments and increased pressure on health care budgets could mean the status quo cannot be maintained. As populations age, a declining proportion of economically active citizens are being required to support a larger burden of health and social care, while increasing availability of novel technologies for extending and improving life continues to push health care costs upwards. With health expenditure continuing to rise as a proportion of national income, concerns are raised about the current and future financial sustainability of Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) health care systems. Against this backdrop, a discussion about options to fund health care in the future, including whether to raise additional health care finance (and the ways to do so), reallocate resources and/or ration services becomes very pertinent. This study elicits preferences among a group of key stakeholders (payers, providers, government, academia and health-related industry) on the issue of health care financial sustainability and the future funding of health care services, with a view to understanding the different degrees of acceptability between policy interventions and future funding options as well as their feasibility. We invited 842 individuals from academia, other research organisations (eg. think tanks), national health services, providers, health insurance organisations, government representatives and health-related industry and related advisory stakeholders to participate in an online survey collecting preferences on a variety of revenue-generating mechanisms and cost/demand reducing policies. Respondents represented the 28 EU member states as well as Norway, Iceland, Switzerland, Australia, Russian Federation, Canada and New Zealand. We received 494 responses to our survey from all stakeholder groups. Across all groups, the

  10. Assessing policy options for increasing the use of renewable energy for sustainable development: Modelling energy scenarios for Sichuan, China. A UN-ENERGY demonstration study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    UN-Energy was created in 2004 as the United Nations' principal interagency mechanism in the field of energy. Its creation responds to a request in the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation, adopted by the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development, for a new collaborative mechanism between UN agencies, programmes and institutions. UN-Energy has published several reports. The first was prepared for the September 2005 World Summit, 'The Energy Challenge for Achieving the Millennium Development Goals', showing the key role energy access plays for countries to achieve the MDGs. A second report was presented at the May 2006 session of the UN Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD-14), 'Energy in the United Nations: An Overview of UN-Energy Activities'. For the May 2007 CSD-15 UN-Energy brought forward 'Sustainable Bio-Energy: A Framework for Decision-Makers' to help inform dialogue in one critical area of future energy policy choice. Another critical energy policy issue is how renewable energy can be promoted as countries plan for sustainable development. UN-Energy therefore decided to look at how the tools for energy modelling could be evolved. In May 2006, for CSD-14, UN-Energy presented 'Assessing Policy Options for Increasing the Use of Renewable Energy for Sustainable Development: Modelling Energy Scenarios for Ghana'. The Ghana study was carried out by five UN organizations and the Energy Commission of Ghana. It was led by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and included the Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) in the UN Secretariat, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) and the UN Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO). UN-Energy now presents a similar study for Sichuan, China. Together these two reports are the first UN-Energy reports to present analytic results from interagency cooperation that, without UN-Energy, would not have happened. This report analyzes alternative provincial

  11. From Market Uncertainty to Policy Uncertainty for Investment in Power Generation: Real Options for NPP on Electricity Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomsic, Zeljko

    2014-01-01

    In the electricity sector, market participants must make decisions about capacity choice in a situation of radical uncertainty about future market conditions. Sector is normally characterised by non-storability and periodic and stochastic demand fluctuations. In these cases capacity determination is a decision for the long term, whereas production is adjusted in the short run. Capacities need to be installed well in advance (decision for investment even earlier because of long construction time and even longer in case of NPP to prepare all needed legal, financial and physical infrastructure), at times when firms face considerable demand and cost uncertainty when choosing their capacity. Paper looks on the main contributions in investment planning under uncertainty, in particular in the electricity market for capital intensive investments like NPP. The relationship between market and non-market factors (recent UK policy example) in determining investment signals in competitive electricity markets was analysed. Paper analyse the ability of competitive electricity markets to deliver the desired quantity and type of generation capacity and also investigates the variety of market imperfections operating in electricity generation and their impact on long-term dynamics for generation capacity, the most capital-intensive of the liberalised functions in the electricity supply industry. Paper analyses how price formation influences investment signals. Today, investment decisions are made by several operators that act independently. Number of factors (including market power, wholesale price volatility, lack of liquidity in the wholesale and financial market, policy and regulatory risks etc.) contribute to polluting the price signal and generating sub-optimal behaviour. Climate change policies can easily distort market signals, insulating renewables generation from market dynamics. This in turn reduces the proportion of the market that is effectively opened to competitive

  12. A comparison of adoptive parents' perceptions of their child's behavior among Indian children adopted to Norway, the United States, and within country: implications for adoption policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Suzanne; Groza, Victor

    2013-01-01

    The Hague Convention on the Protection of Children suggests that intercountry adoption be considered as a permanent care option only after other solutions within the child's country of origin have been exhausted. Data from the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) were examined for 478 Indian children ages 4-18 adopted domestically, adopted to Norway, and adopted to the United States. The CBCL has a reported reliability of .9 (Achenbach, 1991; Achenbach & Edelbrock, 1983) and contains five subscales assessing internalizing problems plus a summative Internalizing Scale, and three subscales assessing externalizing problems plus a summative Externalizing Scale. Perceptions of Norwegian, American, and Indian adoptive parents regarding their child's functioning were compared. Children adopted to Norway and the United States were perceived by their parents to be functioning significantly better behaviorally than children adopted within country, while controlling for age of child and gender of adoptive parent completing the CBCL. Policymakers should examine the evidence prioritizing within country adoption over intercountry adoption.

  13. Encouraging private sector investment in climatefriendly technologies in developing countries. An assessment of policy options for the Dutch government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Rooijen, S.N.M.; Van Wees, M.T.

    2006-10-01

    This study aims to explore new or reformed policies to be adopted by the Dutch government to encourage private sector investments in climate-friendly technologies in developing countries. A literature review of barriers to climate-friendly investments and of directions for solutions has been complemented with a number of in-depth interviews with stakeholders representing the major actors involved in investment projects (project sponsors, financing institutions, institutional investors and government). The barrier analysis has resulted in the following list of key obstacles to climate-friendly investments: (1) Lack of a sound, transparent and stable enabling environment for investing in developing countries; (2) Shortage of experienced and creditworthy sponsors; (3) High specific project risks; (4) Overestimation investment risks related to (sustainable) investments in developing countries in general (risk perspective); (5) Additional costs of climate-friendly technologies; (6) Shortage of risk capital; (7) Insufficient guarantee mechanisms; (8) Lack of know-how on public-private partnership structures and on financial design; and (9) Lack of insight how corporate social responsibility can be operationalised. Four main gaps have been identified on the basis of an assessment of current Dutch policies and instruments: (1) Shortage of instruments to directly promote investments; (2) Underdeveloped guarantee instruments; (3) Too restrictive cap on project size in financial schemes; (4) Lack of support in operationalising the concept of corporate social responsibility. Four areas for new or intensified policies have been identified based on the barrier and gap analysis: (1) Direct promotion of (potentially large scale) investments, including: (a) Supporting (the establishment of) sponsor companies developing sustainable energy projects in developing countries; (b) Making risk capital available; (c) Creating investment credit facilities; (d) Making development capital in

  14. Analysis of the economic impact of different Chinese climate policy options based on a CGE model incorporating endogenous technological change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ke; Wang Can; Chen Jining

    2009-01-01

    Abatement cost is the main concern for climate change mitigation and the key factor for mitigation cost is technological change. This study established an integrated economic, energy, environmental, dynamic, computable general equilibrium (CGE) model representing endogenous technological change for China's climate change policy analysis. This study analyzed and compared the economic impact of different approaches to mitigation commitments as well as the potential role of technological change in the formulation of mitigation targets and commitments, taking into account China's climate policy-making needs based on the current international climate negotiation process. The results show that, absolute emission limits similar to the Kyoto Protocol will seriously impede the future economic development of China, while the impact of an 80% reduction in carbon intensity, forecast for 2050 based on the 2005 level, is relatively small. Technological change can promote economic growth, improve energy efficiency and reduce carbon intensity per unit of output through the substitution of production factors. Consequently it can reduce marginal abatement cost and related GDP loss by mitigation. At the same time it can increase mitigation potentials and extend the emission reduction amount, showing that consideration of the impact of technological change when deciding the emission reduction targets is necessary.

  15. Assessment of policy makers' individual and organizational capacity to acquire, assess, adapt and apply research evidence for maternal and child health policy making in Nigeria: a cross-sectional quantitative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Sombie, Issiaka; Keita, Namoudou; Lokossou, Virgil; Johnson, Ermel; Ongolo-Zogo, Pierre; Uro-Chukwu, Henry Chukwuemeka

    2017-09-01

    Throughout the world, there is increasing awareness and acknowledgement of the value of research evidence in the development of effective health policy and in quality health care practice and administration. Among the major challenges associated with the lack of uptake of research evidence into policy and practice in Nigeria is the capacity constraints of policymakers to use research evidence in policy making. To assess the capacity of maternal and child health policy makers to acquire, access, adapt and apply available research evidence. This cross-sectional quantitative survey was conducted at a national maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH) stakeholders' engagement event. An evidence to policy self-assessment questionnaire was used to assess the capacity of forty MNCH policy makers to acquire, assess, adapt and apply research evidence for policy making. Low mean ratings were observed ranging from 2.68-3.53 on a scale of 5 for knowledge about initiating/conducting research and capacity to assess authenticity, validity, reliability, relevance and applicability of research evidence and for organizational capacity for promoting and using of research for policy making. There is need to institute policy makers' capacity development programmes to improve evidence-informed policymaking.

  16. Balancing Fiscal, Energy, and Environmental Concerns: Analyzing the Policy Options for California’s Energy and Economic Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Manderson

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study estimates the fiscal, energy, and environmental tradeoffs involved in supplying California’s future energy needs. An integrated framework is developed whereby an econometric forecasting system of California energy demand is coupled with engineering-economic models of energy supply, and economic impacts are estimated using input-output models of the California economy. A baseline scenario in which California relies on imported electricity to meet future demand is then compared against various energy supply development scenarios over the forecast horizon (2012–2035. The results indicate that if California implements its renewable portfolio standard (RPS, there will be a substantial net cost in terms of value added, employment, and state tax revenues because the economic benefits of building capacity are outweighed by higher energy prices. Although carbon emissions fall, the cost per ton of avoided emissions is well above market prices. Building out natural gas fired generation capacity also leads to losses compared to the baseline, although the impacts are relatively minor. Meanwhile, a strategy of replacing imported crude oil and natural gas with domestic production using indigenous resources increases gross state product, employment, and tax revenues, with minimal impact on carbon emissions. This option could, therefore, help mitigate the costs of California meeting its RPS commitment.

  17. Shifting Directions in ECEC Policy in New Zealand: From a Child Rights to an Interventionist Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Early childhood education and care (ECEC) policy reflects ideas about childhood, labour force participation, education, the economy and the role of the state. This article spans a period of political change in New Zealand from a left of centre government during the first decade of the twenty-first century to a right of centre government from 2009.…

  18. Analysis of the Characteristics of Pregnancy and Delivery before and after Implementation of the Two-child Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Xia; Zhao, Yang-Yu; Wang, Yong-Qing

    2018-01-01

    Background: After the two-child policy is fully implemented, new challenges regarding pregnancy management and the treatment of pregnancy complications will arise. The aim of this study was to analyze the characteristics of pregnancy and delivery before and after the implementation of the two-child policy to make suggestions on the quality assurance of the new era of obstetrics. Methods: In total, 5895 cases of pregnant women who delivered from April 2016 to March 2017 in Peking University Third Hospital served as the study group and 5103 cases of pregnant women who delivered from January to December 2015 served as the control group. The characteristics of pregnancy and delivery were retrospectively analyzed. Results: In the study group, the percentage of pregnant women who were older (over 40 years) (3.6% vs. 2.2%), were multipara (30.3% vs. 17.0%), received irregular prenatal care (1.5% vs. 0.9%), were transferred for treatment from a subordinate hospital (4.4% vs. 2.8%), and were not residents of Beijing (3.8% vs. 2.2%), were significantly increased compared with the control group (P complicating pregnancy (6.4% vs. 5.0%), gestational diabetes mellitus (25.3% vs. 23.1%), dangerous placenta previa (3.0% vs. 2.3%), placental implantation (2.4% vs. 1.8%), and severe postpartum hemorrhage (2.8% vs. 1.9%) was significantly increased compared with the control group (P cesarean section rate during primipara was significantly reduced compared with the control group (42.0% vs. 44.2%). However, the rate during multipara was significantly increased compared with the control group (P cesarean section in the study group as well as the percentages of scared uterus and placenta previa were significantly increased compared with the control group (P cesarean section, and ensure a positive outcome for mothers and babies. PMID:29271378

  19. A qualitative study of nulliparous women's decision making on mode of delivery under China's two-child policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Chunyi; Zhu, Xinli; Ding, Yan; Setterberg Simone; Wang, Xiaojiao; Tao, Hua; Zhang, Yu

    2018-03-20

    To explore nulliparous women's perceptions of decision making regarding mode of delivery under China's two-child policy. Qualitative descriptive design with in-depth semi-structured interviews. Postnatal wards at a tertiary specialized women's hospital in Shanghai, China. 21 nulliparous women 2-3 days postpartum were purposively sampled until data saturation. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted between October 8th, 2015 and January 31st, 2016. Two overarching descriptive categories were identified: (1) women's decision-making process: stability versus variability, and (2) factors affecting decision making: variety versus interactivity. Four key themes emerged from each category: (1) initial decision making with certainty: anticipated trial of labour, failed trial of labour, 'shy away' and compromise, anticipated caesarean delivery; (2) initial decision making with uncertainty: anticipated trial of labour, failed trial of labour, 'shy away' and compromise; (3) internal factors affecting decision making: knowledge and attitude, and childbirth self-efficacy; and (4) external factors affecting decision making: social support, and the situational environment. At the initial period of China's two-child policy, nulliparous women have perceived their decision-making process regarding mode of delivery as one with complexity and uncertainty, influenced by both internal and external factors. This may have implications for the obstetric setting to develop a well-designed decision support system for pregnant women during the entire pregnancy periods. And it is recommended that care providers should assess women's preferences for mode of delivery from early pregnancy and provide adequate perinatal support and continuity of care for them. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Infant and Young Child Feeding Behavior among Working Mothers in India: Implications for Global Health Policy and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Kumar, MD, MPH

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The National Guidelines on Infant and Young Child Feeding introduced in 2006 recommended the initiation of breastfeeding immediately after birth, preferably within one hour; exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months; appropriate and adequate complementary feeding from six months of age while continuing breastfeeding; and continued breastfeeding up to the age of two years or beyond. Working women in India constitute a dominant and expanding pool of mothers. There is paucity of research focused on feeding behavior within this group. Method: One hundred and fifty working women answered a structured questionnaire about their demographics, birth history, levels of awareness and practice of feeding guidelines, and perceptions about breastfeeding and counseling. Data analysis was carried out using Microsoft Excel and the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Results: Majority of participants belonged to 21-39 years age group, had nuclear families, received college education, and delivered in institutional setups. Gaps were observed between the mother’s levels of awareness and practice for different tenets of national guidelines. Higher education, longer maternity leave, higher income, and utilization of counseling services facilitated adoption of optimal feeding behavior. Most women perceived breast milk to be superior to any alternative and favored provision of counseling during last trimester. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Counseling women on optimal feeding behavior is a potential intervention to convert its awareness into actual practice. The lessons learned from this study can help refine both national and global Mother and Child Health policies and programs.

  1. Sustainable alternatives for land-based biofuels in the European Union. Assessment of options and development of a policy strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kampman, B.; Van Grinsven, A.; Croezen, H.

    2012-12-15

    It is feasible for EU member states to meet their commitments regarding transport fuels under the Renewable Energy Directive (RED) and the Fuel Quality Directive (FQD) without resorting to biofuels from food crops. The RED target (10% renewable transport energy in 2020) can be met by a mix of measures aimed at improving energy efficiency, combined with a strong focus on growth of renewable electricity use and biofuels and biomethane from waste and residues. These measures also contribute to the FQD target (6% reduction in carbon intensity of fuels by 2020), but will need to be complemented by other measures such as reduced flaring and venting during oil production. The report shows how EU transport energy policy could reduce its reliance on biofuels from food crops that are likely to cause land use change. This alternative vision for the transport sector in 2020 would cut CO2 emissions by 205 million tonnes.

  2. How do international trade obligations affect policy options for obesity prevention? Lessons from recent developments in trade and tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Tigerstrom, Barbara

    2013-06-01

    Regulatory measures, including taxes and subsidies on food and beverage products, food labelling requirements, regulation of food content and regulation of food marketing, have been proposed to encourage healthier eating and prevent obesity. The objective of this article is to explore the extent to which international trade agreements affect governments' choices to use such regulatory measures. It reviews key provisions of relevant World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements and their implications. Some insights can be gained by examining 2 recent developments in the WTO regarding tobacco control: a current dispute involving Australia's plain packaging law and its effect on trademarks, and a recent decision involving the United States law banning flavoured cigarettes. This decision said that the ban did not restrict trade more than necessary to fulfil its legitimate health objective, but it was discriminatory because it banned imported products (clove cigarettes) while exempting domestic products (menthol cigarettes) with similar characteristics. The conclusion we can draw from this decision is that WTO member states probably enjoy a significant degree of latitude in developing food regulations as part of an obesity prevention strategy, so long as those do not disproportionately affect imported products and therefore raise questions of discrimination. The approach taken in this case encourages the adoption of public health policies that are consistent with strong scientific evidence, but may restrict governments' ability to make political compromises, which could frustrate some proposals. The ongoing development of WTO law will continue to affect policy choices in public health. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Evaluation of a social policy program: the Maternal and Child Health and Nutrition Program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronna, Alicia

    2006-02-01

    This study is based on an evaluation of the Maternal and Child Health and Nutrition Program (PROMIN) targeting pregnant women and their children under five years of age. The objective was to identify the conditioning factors for the Program's implementation in Rosario, Argentina. There were three levels of analysis: the organizational environment as perceived by the Executive Directors of the Health and Child Development Centers; management of interventions by the health teams; and the community's perception of the program's accessibility and acceptability. Two centers were chosen for the year 1998. Empirical evidence was obtained through quantitative and qualitative procedures. The results suggest that the two centers' respective organizational environments influenced the intervention strategies. The goal for coverage had been set at 80%. Documentation of the interventions by the two teams shows a partial and heterogeneous implementation. In terms of accessibility, mothers recognize the institutions by their reputation, quality of services, and extra services beyond the PROMIN basics. Acceptability is expressed as the provision of supplementary nutrition.

  4. Health literacy and child health promotion: implications for research, clinical care, and public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Lee M; Shaw, Judith S; Guez, Ghislaine; Baur, Cynthia; Rudd, Rima

    2009-11-01

    The nation's leading sources of morbidity and health disparities (eg, preterm birth, obesity, chronic lung disease, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, mental health disorders, and cancer) require an evidence-based approach to the delivery of effective preventive care across the life course (eg, prenatal care, primary preventive care, immunizations, physical activity, nutrition, smoking cessation, and early diagnostic screening). Health literacy may be a critical and modifiable factor for improving preventive care and reducing health disparities. Recent studies among adults have established an independent association between lower health literacy and poorer understanding of preventive care information and poor access to preventive care services. Children of parents with higher literacy skills are more likely to have better outcomes in child health promotion and disease prevention. Adult studies in disease prevention have suggested that addressing health literacy would be an efficacious strategy for reducing health disparities. Future initiatives to reduce child health inequities should include health-promotion strategies that meet the health literacy needs of children, adolescents, and their caregivers.

  5. Cost-effectiveness of public-health policy options in the presence of pretreatment NNRTI drug resistance in sub-Saharan Africa: a modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Andrew N; Cambiano, Valentina; Nakagawa, Fumiyo; Revill, Paul; Jordan, Michael R; Hallett, Timothy B; Doherty, Meg; De Luca, Andrea; Lundgren, Jens D; Mhangara, Mutsa; Apollo, Tsitsi; Mellors, John; Nichols, Brooke; Parikh, Urvi; Pillay, Deenan; Rinke de Wit, Tobias; Sigaloff, Kim; Havlir, Diane; Kuritzkes, Daniel R; Pozniak, Anton; van de Vijver, David; Vitoria, Marco; Wainberg, Mark A; Raizes, Elliot; Bertagnolio, Silvia

    2018-03-01

    There is concern over increasing prevalence of non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) resistance in people initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in low-income and middle-income countries. We assessed the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of alternative public health responses in countries in sub-Saharan Africa where the prevalence of pretreatment drug resistance to NNRTIs is high. The HIV Synthesis Model is an individual-based simulation model of sexual HIV transmission, progression, and the effect of ART in adults, which is based on extensive published data sources and considers specific drugs and resistance mutations. We used this model to generate multiple setting scenarios mimicking those in sub-Saharan Africa and considered the prevalence of pretreatment NNRTI drug resistance in 2017. We then compared effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of alternative policy options. We took a 20 year time horizon, used a cost effectiveness threshold of US$500 per DALY averted, and discounted DALYs and costs at 3% per year. A transition to use of a dolutegravir as a first-line regimen in all new ART initiators is the option predicted to produce the most health benefits, resulting in a reduction of about 1 death per year per 100 people on ART over the next 20 years in a situation in which more than 10% of ART initiators have NNRTI resistance. The negative effect on population health of postponing the transition to dolutegravir increases substantially with higher prevalence of HIV drug resistance to NNRTI in ART initiators. Because of the reduced risk of resistance acquisition with dolutegravir-based regimens and reduced use of expensive second-line boosted protease inhibitor regimens, this policy option is also predicted to lead to a reduction of overall programme cost. A future transition from first-line regimens containing efavirenz to regimens containing dolutegravir formulations in adult ART initiators is predicted to be effective and cost-effective in

  6. Energy drink consumption in Europe: A review of the risks, adverse health effects and policy options to respond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Joaquim Breda

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With the worldwide consumption of energy drinks increasing in recent years, concerns have been raised both in the scientific community and among the general public about the health effects of these products. Recent studies provide data on consumption patterns in Europe however more research is needed to determine the potential for adverse health effects related to the increasing consumption of energy drinks, particularly among young people. A review of the literature was conducted to identify published articles that examined the health risks, consequences and policies related to energy drink consumption. The health risks associated with energy drink consumption are primarily related to their caffeine content, but more research is needed that evaluates the long term effects of consuming common energy drink ingredients. The evidence indicating adverse health effects due to the consumption of energy drinks with alcohol is growing. The risks of heavy consumption of energy drinks among young people have largely gone unaddressed and are poised to become a significant public health problem in the future.

  7. Energy Drink Consumption in Europe: A Review of the Risks, Adverse Health Effects, and Policy Options to Respond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breda, João Joaquim; Whiting, Stephen Hugh; Encarnação, Ricardo; Norberg, Stina; Jones, Rebecca; Reinap, Marge; Jewell, Jo

    2014-01-01

    With the worldwide consumption of energy drinks increasing in recent years, concerns have been raised both in the scientific community and among the general public about the health effects of these products. Recent studies provide data on consumption patterns in Europe; however, more research is needed to determine the potential for adverse health effects related to the increasing consumption of energy drinks, particularly among young people. A review of the literature was conducted to identify published articles that examined the health risks, consequences, and policies related to energy drink consumption. The health risks associated with energy drink consumption are primarily related to their caffeine content, but more research is needed that evaluates the long-term effects of consuming common energy drink ingredients. The evidence indicating adverse health effects due to the consumption of energy drinks with alcohol is growing. The risks of heavy consumption of energy drinks among young people have largely gone unaddressed and are poised to become a significant public health problem in the future. PMID:25360435

  8. ELECTRICITY SUPPLY, FOSSIL FUEL CONSUMPTION, CO2 EMISSIONS AND ECONOMIC GROWTH: IMPLICATIONS AND POLICY OPTIONS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chibueze Eze Nnaji

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the causal relationship among electricity supply, fossil fuel consumption, CO2 emissions and economic growth in Nigeria for the period 1971-2009, in a multivariate framework.Using the bound test approach to cointegration, we found a short-run as well as a long-run relationship among the variables with a positive and statistically significant relationship between CO2 emissions and fossil fuel consumption. The findings also indicate that economic growth is associated with increased CO2 emissions while a positive relationship exists between electricity supply and CO2 emissions revealing the poor nature of electricity supply in Nigeria. Further, the Granger causality test results indicate that electricity supply has not impacted significantly on economic growth in Nigeria. The results also strongly imply that policies aimed at reducing carbon emissions in Nigeria will not impede economic growth. The paper therefore concludes that a holistic energy planning and investment in energy infrastructure is needed to drive economic growth. In the long-run however, it is possible to meet the energy needs of the country, ensure sustainable development and at the same time reduce CO2 emissions by developing alternatives to fossil fuel consumption, the main source of CO2 emissions.

  9. Towards the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in Bhutan: A cost-utility analysis to determine the optimal policy option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorji, Kinley; Phuntsho, Sonam; Pempa; Kumluang, Suthasinee; Khuntha, Sarayuth; Kulpeng, Wantanee; Rajbhandari, Sneha; Teerawattananon, Yot

    2018-03-20

    Due to competing health priorities and limited resources, many low-income countries, even those with a high disease burden, are not able to introduce pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. To determine the cost-utility of 10- and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV10 and PCV13) compared to no vaccination in Bhutan. A model-based cost-utility analysis was performed in the Bhutanese context using a government perspective. A Markov simulation model with one-year cycle length was used to estimate the costs and outcomes of three options: PCV10, PCV13 and no PCV programmes for a lifetime horizon. A discount rate of 3% per annum was applied. Results are presented using an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) in United State Dollar per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained (USD 1 = Ngultrum 65). A one-way sensitivity analysis and a probabilistic sensitivity analysis were conducted to assess uncertainty. Compared to no vaccination, PCV10 and PCV13 gained 0.0006 and 0.0007 QALYs with additional lifetime costs of USD 0.02 and USD 0.03 per person, respectively. PCV10 and PCV13 generated ICERs of USD 36 and USD 40 per QALY gained compared to no vaccination. In addition, PCV13 produced an ICER of USD 92 compared with PCV10. When including PCV into the Expanded Programme on Immunization, the total 5-year budgetary requirement is anticipated to increase to USD. 3.77 million for PCV10 and USD 3.75 million for PCV13. Moreover, the full-time equivalent (FTE) of one health assistant would increase by 2.0 per year while the FTE of other health workers can be reduced each year, particularly of specialist (0.6-1.1 FTE) and nurse (1-1.6 FTE). At the suggested threshold of 1xGDP per capita equivalent to USD 2708, both PCVs are cost-effective in Bhutan and we recommend that they be included in the routine immunization programme. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Incremental health system reform policy: Ecuador's law for the provision of free maternity and child care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiriboga, Sonia Ruiz

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the impact that the Ley de Maternidad Gratuita y Atencion a la Infancia (LMGAI) [Law for the Provision of Free Maternity and Child Care] in Ecuador has had on health services utilization and infant mortality. These outcomes were also examined by socioeconomic status. This retrospective study used demographic and health surveys, ENDEMAIN 1999 and 2004, with multivariate logistic regression to assess the impact post-LMGAI, controlling for mother's socioeconomic status, maternal and birth history, and demographic characteristics. Primary healthcare services utilization outcomes significantly improved post-LMGAI. Neonatal mortality decreased post-LMGAI. Further evaluation is needed as implementation continues to understand the expansion of primary healthcare services in future health system reforms.

  11. Indonesian options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderluh, J.H.M.; van der Weide, J.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Jakarta Stock Exchange Indonesia has started to trade Indonesian options at September 9th, 2004. An Indonesian option can be considered as an American style barrier option with immediate (forced) exercise if the price hits or crosses the barrier before maturity. The payoff of the option is based on

  12. Treatment Options for Childhood Craniopharyngioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... back) no matter how it was treated the first time. Treatment options for recurrent childhood craniopharyngioma depend on the type of treatment that was given when the tumor was first diagnosed and the needs of the child. Treatment ...

  13. Towards a Nordic child care policy – the political processes and agendas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Tine; Eydal, Gudny

    2012-01-01

    This chapter will address the question of why childcare policies have been shaped in the way that it has. In other words, the chapter examines the underlying political processes and the agendas of the various political parties. In the literature about the driving forces of welfare state development......, two types of approaches have dominated the theoretical debate: functionalism, stressing the importance of structures and whole systems, and conflict theories, stressing institutions and actors (Borchorst & Siim 2009; Esping-Andersen 1991). This chapter will adopt a conflict-theory perspective....

  14. Meeting human resources for health staffing goals by 2018: a quantitative analysis of policy options in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schroder Kate

    2010-06-01

    training school enrolment. Supplemental interventions targeting attrition, graduation and public sector entry rates can help close the gap. HRH modelling can help MOH policy makers determine the relative priority and level of investment needed to expand Zambia's workforce to target staffing levels.

  15. Policy options to improve leadership of middle managers in the Australian residential aged care setting: a narrative synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merlyn Teri

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of both chronic diseases and multi-morbidity increases with longer life spans. As Australia's population ages, the aged care sector is under increasing pressure to ensure that quality aged care is available. Key to responding to this pressure is leadership and management capability within the aged care workforce. A systematic literature review was conducted to inform the policy development necessary for the enhancement of clinical and managerial leadership skills of middle managers within residential aged care. Methods Using scientific journal databases, hand searching of specialist journals, Google, snowballing and suggestions from experts, 4,484 papers were found. After a seven-tiered culling process, we conducted a detailed review (narrative synthesis of 153 papers relevant to leadership and management development in aged care, incorporating expert and key stakeholder consultations. Results • Positive staff experiences of a manager's leadership are critical to ensure job satisfaction and workforce retention, the provision of quality care and the well-being of care recipients, and potentially a reduction of associated costs. • The essential attributes of good leadership for aged care middle management are a hands-on accessibility and professional expertise in nurturing respect, recognition and team building, along with effective communication and flexibility. However, successful leadership and management outcomes depend on coherent and good organisational leadership (structural and psychological empowerment. • There is inadequate preparation for middle management leadership roles in the aged care sector and a lack of clear guidelines and key performance indicators to assess leadership and management skills. • Theory development in aged care leadership and management research is limited. A few effective generic clinical leadership programs targeting both clinical and managerial leaders exist. However

  16. Policy options to improve leadership of middle managers in the Australian residential aged care setting: a narrative synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The prevalence of both chronic diseases and multi-morbidity increases with longer life spans. As Australia's population ages, the aged care sector is under increasing pressure to ensure that quality aged care is available. Key to responding to this pressure is leadership and management capability within the aged care workforce. A systematic literature review was conducted to inform the policy development necessary for the enhancement of clinical and managerial leadership skills of middle managers within residential aged care. Methods Using scientific journal databases, hand searching of specialist journals, Google, snowballing and suggestions from experts, 4,484 papers were found. After a seven-tiered culling process, we conducted a detailed review (narrative synthesis) of 153 papers relevant to leadership and management development in aged care, incorporating expert and key stakeholder consultations. Results • Positive staff experiences of a manager's leadership are critical to ensure job satisfaction and workforce retention, the provision of quality care and the well-being of care recipients, and potentially a reduction of associated costs. • The essential attributes of good leadership for aged care middle management are a hands-on accessibility and professional expertise in nurturing respect, recognition and team building, along with effective communication and flexibility. However, successful leadership and management outcomes depend on coherent and good organisational leadership (structural and psychological empowerment). • There is inadequate preparation for middle management leadership roles in the aged care sector and a lack of clear guidelines and key performance indicators to assess leadership and management skills. • Theory development in aged care leadership and management research is limited. A few effective generic clinical leadership programs targeting both clinical and managerial leaders exist. However, little is known regarding

  17. Policy options to improve leadership of middle managers in the Australian residential aged care setting: a narrative synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Yun-Hee; Glasgow, Nicholas J; Merlyn, Teri; Sansoni, Emily

    2010-07-06

    The prevalence of both chronic diseases and multi-morbidity increases with longer life spans. As Australia's population ages, the aged care sector is under increasing pressure to ensure that quality aged care is available. Key to responding to this pressure is leadership and management capability within the aged care workforce. A systematic literature review was conducted to inform the policy development necessary for the enhancement of clinical and managerial leadership skills of middle managers within residential aged care. Using scientific journal databases, hand searching of specialist journals, Google, snowballing and suggestions from experts, 4,484 papers were found. After a seven-tiered culling process, we conducted a detailed review (narrative synthesis) of 153 papers relevant to leadership and management development in aged care, incorporating expert and key stakeholder consultations. * Positive staff experiences of a manager's leadership are critical to ensure job satisfaction and workforce retention, the provision of quality care and the well-being of care recipients, and potentially a reduction of associated costs.* The essential attributes of good leadership for aged care middle management are a hands-on accessibility and professional expertise in nurturing respect, recognition and team building, along with effective communication and flexibility. However, successful leadership and management outcomes depend on coherent and good organisational leadership (structural and psychological empowerment).* There is inadequate preparation for middle management leadership roles in the aged care sector and a lack of clear guidelines and key performance indicators to assess leadership and management skills.* Theory development in aged care leadership and management research is limited. A few effective generic clinical leadership programs targeting both clinical and managerial leaders exist. However, little is known regarding how appropriate and effective they are

  18. Population-level effectiveness of PMTCT Option A on early mother-to-child (MTCT) transmission of HIV in South Africa: implications for eliminating MTCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goga, Ameena E; Dinh, Thu-Ha; Jackson, Debra J; Lombard, Carl J; Puren, Adrian; Sherman, Gayle; Ramokolo, Vundli; Woldesenbet, Selamawit; Doherty, Tanya; Noveve, Nobuntu; Magasana, Vuyolwethu; Singh, Yagespari; Ramraj, Trisha; Bhardwaj, Sanjana; Pillay, Yogan

    2016-12-01

    Eliminating mother-to-child transmission of HIV (EMTCT), defined as ≤50 infant HIV infections per 100 000 live births, is a global priority. Since 2011 policies to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) shifted from maternal antiretroviral (ARV) treatment or prophylaxis contingent on CD4 cell count to lifelong maternal ARV treatment (cART). We sought to measure progress with early (4-8 weeks postpartum) MTCT prevention and elimination, 2011-2013, at national and sub-national levels in South Africa, a high antenatal HIV prevalence setting ( ≈ 29%), where early MTCT was 3.5% in 2010. Two surveys were conducted (August 2011-March 2012 and October 2012-May 2013), in 580 health facilities, randomly selected after two-stage probability proportional to size sampling of facilities (the primary sampling unit), to provide valid national and sub-national-(provincial)-level estimates. Data collectors interviewed caregivers of eligible infants, reviewed patient-held charts, and collected infant dried blood spots (iDBS). Confirmed positive HIV enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and positive total HIV nucleic acid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) indicated infant HIV exposure or infection, respectively. Weighted survey analysis was conducted for each survey and for the pooled data. National data from 10 106 and 9120 participants were analyzed (2011-12 and 2012-13 surveys respectively). Infant HIV exposure was 32.2% (95% confidence interval (CI) 30.7-33.6%), in 2011-12 and 33.1% (95% CI 31.8-34.4%), provincial range of 22.1-43.6% in 2012-13. MTCT was 2.7% (95% CI 2.1%-3.2%) in 2011-12 and 2.6% (95% CI 2.0-3.2%), provincial range of 1.9-5.4% in 2012-13. HIV-infected ARV-exposed mothers had significantly lower unadjusted early MTCT (2.0% [2011-12: 1.6-2.5%; 2012-13:1.5-2.6%]) compared to HIV-infected ARV-naive mothers [10.2% in 2011-12 (6.5-13.8%); 9.2% in 2012-13 (5.6-12.7%)]. Pooled analyses demonstrated significantly lower early MTCT among exclusive breastfeeding

  19. Constructing the "Media Competent" Child: Media Literacy and Regulatory Policy in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Buckingham

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the past fifteen years, sociologists have mounted an influential challenge to traditional psychological accounts of childhood. The new sociology of childhood has presented a powerful critique of the developmentalist view of children as merely ‹adults in the making›. Such a view, it is argued, judges children only in terms of what they will become in the future, once they have been adequately socialised: they are seen as inherently vulnerable, incomplete and dependent. This article considers how recent research on children and media relates to public policy, and specifically to current debates about media regulation in the UK. Debates about the media are obviously an important arena for contemporary concerns about childhood.

  20. The Supply of Medical Radioisotopes. Policy Options for Ensuring Long-term Supply Security of Molybdenum-99 and/or Technetium-99m Produced Without Highly Enriched Uranium Targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westmacott, Chad; Cameron, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Following the shortages of the key medical radioisotopes, molybdenum-99 ( 99 Mo) and its daughter technetium-99m (' 99m Tc), the OECD-Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) created the High-level Group on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (HLG-MR). Since 2009, this group has identified the reasons for the isotope shortages and developed a policy approach to address the challenges to a long-term secure supply of these important medical isotopes. On top of the ongoing concerns related to long-term reliability, all current long-term major 99 Mo-producing nations have agreed to convert to using low-enriched uranium (LEU) targets for the production of 99 Mo. This decision was made based on important nonproliferation reasons; however, the conversion will have potential impacts on the global supply chain - both in terms of costs and available capacity. Recognising that conversion is important and will occur, and also recognising the need to ensure a long-term secure supply of 99 Mo/' 99m Tc, the NEA, along with stakeholders, examined potential policy options that could be used by to ensure a reliable supply of 99 Mo and/or ' 99m Tc produced without highly enriched uranium (HEU), consistent with the time frames and policies of the HLG-MR. This discussion paper provides the various policy options available to governments to encourage a reliable supply of 99 Mo and/or ' 99m Tc produced without HEU. The examination of these options was done through the lens of ensuring a reliable supply, consistent with the time frames and policies of the HLG-MR. The options described in this document are meant to meet this objective by taking one of three general actions: - Making the option of purchasing or producing non-HEU-based 99 Mo and/or ' 99m Tc more attractive. - Making the option of purchasing or producing HEU-based 99 Mo and/or ' 99m Tc less attractive. - Limiting access to HEU-based 99 Mo and/or ' 99m Tc. This paper presents the options in each category and provides some views

  1. Physical environments, policies and practices for physical activity and screen-based sedentary behaviour among preschoolers within child care centres in Melbourne, Australia and Kingston, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkley, T; Carson, V; Hesketh, K D

    2015-01-01

    Characteristics of preschool and child care centres have previously been shown to be associated with children's health behaviours such as physical activity and screen-based sedentary behaviour. This paper investigates differences in physical environments, policies and practices between child care centres in Melbourne, Australia and Kingston, Canada which may be associated with such behaviours. Audits of child care centres were undertaken by trained research assistants for the Healthy Active Preschool and Primary Years (Melbourne, Australia; n = 136) study and the Healthy Living Habits in Pre-School Children (Kingston, Canada; n = 46) study. Twenty-one of the audit items (nine physical environment; 12 policies and practices) were assessed in both samples. Example items included outdoor play and shaded areas, availability of equipment, physical activity instruction for children and staff, opportunities to use electronic media and staff/child interaction during physical activity time. Analyses were completed using SAS version 9.2. Compared with Australian centres, a higher per cent of Canadian centres had a formal physical activity policy, reported children sat more frequently for 30 min or more and allowed children to watch television. A higher per cent of Australian centres provided an indoor area for physical activity, shade outdoors and physical activity education to staff. Children in Australian centres had access to more fixed play equipment and spent more time outdoors than in Canadian centres. These findings may help inform the development of best practice and policy guidelines to enhance opportunities for healthy levels of physical activity and screen-based sedentary behaviour within child care centres in both countries. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. A practical and applied approach to assessing the cross cutting nature of child injury prevention as a basis for policy making at the local level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Scholtes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Risk factors for child injury are multi-faceted. Social, environmental and economic factors place responsibility for prevention upon many stakeholders across traditional sectors such as health, justice, environment and education. Multi-sectoral collaboration for injury prevention is thus essential. In addition, co-benefits due to injury prevention initiatives exist. However, multi-sectoral collaboration is often difficult to establish and maintain. We present an applied approach for practitioners and policy makers at the local level to use to explore and address the multi-sectoral nature of child injury. Methods: We combined elements of the Haddon Matrix and the Lens and Telescope model, to develop a new approach for practitioners and policy makers at the local level. Results: The approach offers the opportunity for diverse sectors at the local level to work together to identify their role in child injury prevention. Based on ecological injury prevention and life-course epidemiology it encourages multi-disciplinary team building from the outset. The process has three phases: first, visualising the multi-sectoral responsibilities for child injury prevention in the local area; second,  demonstrating the need for multi-sectoral collaboration and helping plan prevention activities together; and third, visualising potential co-benefits to other sectors and age groups that may arise from child injury prevention initiatives. Conclusion: The approach and process encourages inter-sectoral collaboration for child injury prevention at the local level. It is a useful addition for child injury  prevention at the local level, however testing the practicality of the approach in a real-world setting, and refinement of the process would improve it further.

  3. Implementation of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV programme through private hospitals of Delhi--policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A K; Garg, C R; Joshi, B C; Rawat, N; Dabla, V; Gupta, A

    2015-01-01

    In India, programme for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV is primarily implemented through public health system. State AIDS Control Societies (SACSs) encourage private hospitals to set up integrated counselling and testing centres (ICTCs). However, private hospitals of Delhi did not set up ICTCs. Consequently, there is no information on PMTCT interventions in private hospitals of Delhi. This study was undertaken by Delhi SACS during March 2013 through September 2013 to assess status of implementation of PMTCT programme in various private hospitals of Delhi to assist programme managers in framing national policy to facilitate uniform implementation of National PMTCT guidelines. Out of total 575 private hospitals registered with Government of Delhi, 336 (58.4%) catering to pregnant women were identified. About 100 private hospitals with facility of antenatal care, vaginal/caesarean delivery and postnatal care and minimum 10 indoor beds were selected for study. Study sample comprised of large corporate hospitals (≥100 beds; n = 29), medium-sized hospitals (25 to Policy, HIV testing was done without pre/post-test counselling/or consent of women, no PMTCT protocol existed, delivery of HIV-positive women was not undertaken and no efforts were made to link HIV-positive women to antiretroviral treatment. Major intervention observed was medical termination of pregnancy, which indicates lack of awareness in private hospitals about available interventions under national programme. The role of private hospitals in management of HIV in pregnant women must be recognized and mainstreamed in HIV control efforts. There is an urgent need for capacity building of private health care providers to improve standards of practice. National AIDS Control Organization may consider establishing linkages or adopting model developed by some countries with generalized epidemic for delivering PMTCT services in private health sector.

  4. Rehabilitation Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Speech Pathology Occupational Therapy Art Therapy Recreational therapy Neuropsychology Home Care Options Advanced Care Planning Palliative Care ... Speech Pathology Occupational Therapy Art Therapy Recreational therapy Neuropsychology Home Care Options Advanced Care Planning Palliative Care ...

  5. Human attitudes in environmental management: Fuzzy Cognitive Maps and policy option simulations analysis for a coal-mine ecosystem in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Song, Jie; Su, Chao; He, Mengying

    2013-01-30

    Ecosystem management is a complex process, and every stakeholder's cognition plays a crucial role in it. In order to manage the ecosystem better, it is significant for the coal-mining environmental managers to choose appropriate measures, in accord with the stakeholders' interests. Hence, the purpose of this study is to assess knowledge of and attitudes towards coal-mine ecosystems among stakeholders and then simulate policy options in a typical coal-mine region in China. The Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping (FCM) method was used to develop a participatory ecosystem management model in research area. Combining the initial state of variables and the adjacency matrix getting from FCM, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was used to conduct simulations. The results found that among stakeholder groups' FCM model, 'air pollution' and 'water pollution' are the most frequently mentioned variables, while 'health effects' and 'expansion of related industries' are the core variables. However, different stakeholders expressed diverse perceptions on coal-mine ecosystem management. Mine workers paid more attention to occupational safety and their health impacts inducted by air and water pollution during coal-mine process. Local residents were concerned with local economic development and welfare facilities improvement; they also concerned their health impacts raised by coal-mine related problems such as air and water pollution, traffic and noises. Managers emphasized economic interests and environmental projects with immediate environmental effects other than long-term ecosystem improvement. Engineers mentioned more variables than other groups; they believed that air pollution, water pollution, soil erosion and biodiversity loss were important. Scenario analysis for policy simulation based on ANN suggested that the local governments and enterprises should place an emphasis on protecting farmland, increasing vegetation coverage, reducing solid contamination and improving energy efficiency to

  6. Policy-related determinants of child nutritional status in China: the effect of only-child status and access to healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredenkamp, Caryn

    2009-11-01

    This paper examines the determinants of child nutritional status in China, focusing specifically on those determinants related to health system reform and only-child status. Data are drawn from four waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (1991-2000). The empirical relationship between nutritional status, on the one hand, and income, access to quality healthcare and being an only-child, on the other hand, is investigated using ordinary least squares (OLS), random effects (RE), fixed effects (FE) and instrumental variables (IV) models. In the preferred model - a fixed effects model where income is instrumented - we find that being an only-child increases height-for-age z-scores by 0.12 of a standard deviation. By contrast, measures of access to quality healthcare are not found to be significantly associated with improved nutritional status.

  7. Discourse, ideas and power in global health policy networks: political attention for maternal and child health in the millennium development goal era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Lori

    2016-05-18

    Maternal and child health issues have gained global political attention and resources in the past 10 years, due in part to their prominence on the Millennium Development Goal agenda and the use of evidence-based advocacy by policy networks. This paper identifies key factors for this achievement, and raises questions about prospective challenges for sustaining attention in the transition to the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals, far broader in scope than the Millennium Development Goals. This paper relies on participant observation methods and document analysis to develop a case study of the behaviours of global maternal and child health advocacy networks during 2005-2015. The development of coordinated networks of heterogeneous actors facilitated the rise in attention to maternal and child health during the past 10 years. The strategic use of epidemiological and economic evidence by these networks enabled policy attention and promoted network cohesion. The time-bound opportunity of reaching the 2015 Millennium Development Goals created a window of opportunity for joint action. As the new post-2015 goals emerge, networks seek to sustain attention by repositioning their framing of issues, network structures, and external alliances, including with networks that lay both inside and outside of the health domain. Issues rise on global policy agendas because of how ideas are constructed, portrayed and positioned by actors within given contexts. Policy networks play a critical role by uniting stakeholders to promote persuasive ideas about policy problems and solutions. The behaviours of networks in issue-framing, member-alignment, and strategic outreach can force open windows of opportunity for political attention -- or prevent them from closing.

  8. What Is Child Traumatic Stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Awareness Sustainability Policy Issues What Is Child Traumatic Stress? Order NCTSN documents and other products where you ... these challenging times. Questions & Answers about Child Traumatic Stress Network experts answer questions about child trauma and ...

  9. Idaho's Energy Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert M. Neilson

    2006-03-01

    This report, developed by the Idaho National Laboratory, is provided as an introduction to and an update of the status of technologies for the generation and use of energy. Its purpose is to provide information useful for identifying and evaluating Idaho’s energy options, and for developing and implementing Idaho’s energy direction and policies.

  10. Bringing the global to the local:Review of global trends in the prevalence and services for child maltreatment in order to inform research, policy and practice in England

    OpenAIRE

    Fry, Deborah; Casey, Tabitha

    2017-01-01

    Presents international child protection data in order to compare England with other countries and inform research, policy and practice. Part of wider research commissioned by the Early Intervention Foundation (EIF) in collaboration with the Local Government Association (LGA) and supported by the NSPCC, Research in Practice and the University of Oxford. Presents 16 indicators including: child deaths, child suicides, recorded sexual offences, self-reported prevalence of abuse, online abuse, vio...

  11. Changes in the policy environment for infant and young child feeding in Vietnam, Bangladesh, and Ethiopia, and the role of targeted advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jody; Frongillo, Edward A; Nguyen, Phuong H; Kim, Sunny S; Menon, Purnima

    2017-06-13

    There is limited literature examining shifts in policy environments for nutrition and infant and young child feeding (IYCF) over time, and on the potential contribution of targeted advocacy to improved policy environments in low- and middle-income countries. This study tracked changes in the policy environment over a four-year period in three countries, and examined the role of targeted nutrition and IYCF advocacy strategies by a global initiative. Qualitative methods, including key informant interviews, social network mapping, document and literature review, and event tracking, were used to gather data on nutrition and IYCF policies and programs, actor networks, and perceptions and salience of nutrition as an issue in 2010 and 2014 in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, and Vietnam. Theoretical frameworks from the policy sciences were used to analyze policy change over time, and drivers of change, across countries. The written policy environment improved to differing extents in each country. By 2014, the discourse in all three countries mirrored international priorities of stunting reduction and exclusive breastfeeding. Yet competing nutrition priorities such as acute malnutrition, food insecurity, and nutrition transitions remained in each context. Key actor groups in each country were government, civil society, development partners and the private sector. Infant formula companies, in particular, emerged as key players against enforcement of IYCF legislation. The role of a targeted IYCF advocacy and policy support initiative was well-recognized in supporting multiple facets of the policy environment in each country, ranging from alliances to legislation and implementation support. Despite progress, however, government commitment to funding, implementation, and enforcement is still emerging in each country, thus challenging the potential impact of new and improved policies. Targeted policy advocacy can catalyze change in national nutrition and IYCF policy environments

  12. A scoping review of training and deployment policies for human resources for health for maternal, newborn, and child health in rural Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Gail Tomblin; Goma, Fastone; MacKenzie, Adrian; Bradish, Stephanie; Price, Sheri; Nzala, Selestine; Rose, Annette Elliott; Rigby, Janet; Muzongwe, Chilweza; Chizuni, Nellisiwe; Carey, Amanda; Hamavhwa, Derrick

    2014-12-16

    Most African countries are facing a human resources for health (HRH) crisis, lacking the required workforce to deliver basic health care, including care for mothers and children. This is especially acute in rural areas and has limited countries' abilities to meet maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) targets outlined by Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5. To address the HRH challenges, evidence-based deployment and training policies are required. However, the resources available to country-level policy makers to create such policies are limited. To inform future HRH planning, a scoping review was conducted to identify the type, extent, and quality of evidence that exists on HRH policies for rural MNCH in Africa. Fourteen electronic health and health education databases were searched for peer-reviewed papers specific to training and deployment policies for doctors, nurses, and midwives for rural MNCH in African countries with English, Portuguese, or French as official languages. Non-peer reviewed literature and policy documents were also identified through systematic searches of selected international organizations and government websites. Documents were included based on pre-determined criteria. There was an overall paucity of information on training and deployment policies for HRH for MNCH in rural Africa; 37 articles met the inclusion criteria. Of these, the majority of primary research studies employed a variety of qualitative and quantitative methods. Doctors, nurses, and midwives were equally represented in the selected policy literature. Policies focusing exclusively on training or deployment were limited; most documents focused on both training and deployment or were broader with embedded implications for the management of HRH or MNCH. Relevant government websites varied in functionality and in the availability of policy documents. The lack of available documentation and an apparent bias towards HRH research in developed areas suggest a need for

  13. Changing Policy and Practice in the Child Welfare System through Collaborative Efforts to Identify and Respond Effectively to Family Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Duren; Landsverk, John; Wang, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    The "Greenbook" provides a roadmap for child welfare agencies to collaborate and provide effective responses to families who are experiencing co-occurring child maltreatment and domestic violence. A multisite developmental evaluation was conducted of six demonstration sites that received federal funding to implement "Greenbook" recommendations for…

  14. CDC Vital Signs: Child Passenger Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the best way to save lives and reduce injuries. Child passenger restraint laws result in more children being ... booster seat, and seat belt use and reducing child motor vehicle injuries and deaths. Options for effective strategies include: Child ...

  15. Family size, fertility preferences, and sex ratio in China in the era of the one child family policy: results from national family planning and reproductive health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Qu Jian; Hesketh, Therese

    2006-08-19

    To examine the impact of the one child family policy in China on fertility, preferred family size, and sex ratio. Secondary analysis of data from the Chinese cross sectional national family planning and reproductive health survey, 2001. Interviews of representative sample of women aged 15-49. Data were obtained from 39,585 women, with a total of 73,202 pregnancies and 56,830 live births. The average fertility rate in women over 35 (n = 17,078) was 1.94 (2.1 in rural areas and 1.4 in urban areas) and for women under 35 (n = 11,543) 1.73 (1.25 and 1.79). Smaller families were associated with younger age, higher level of education, and living in an urban area. The male to female ratio was 1.15 and rose from 1.11 in 1980-9 to 1.23 for 1996-2001. Most women wanted small families: 35% preferred one child and 57% preferred two. Since the one child family policy began, the total birth rate and preferred family size have decreased, and a gross imbalance in the sex ratio has emerged.

  16. Situational analysis of infant and young child nutrition policies and programmatic activities in the Islamic Republic of Mauritania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuehler, Sara E; El Hafed Ould Dehah, Cheikh Mohamed

    2011-04-01

    Progress towards reducing mortality and malnutrition among children Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal). These findings are available to assist countries in identifying inconsistencies and filling gaps in current programming. Between August and November of 2008, key informants responsible for conducting IYCN-related activities in Mauritania were interviewed, and 46 documents were examined on the following themes: optimal breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices, prevention of micronutrient deficiencies, prevention of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), management of acute malnutrition, food security, and hygienic practices. Mauritania is on track to reaching the MDG of halving undernutrition among children infrastructure capacity building was also recently implemented in nutritionally high-risk regions, and increases were reported in exclusive breastfeeding rates among children <6 months. The recent National Behaviour Change Communication Strategy is intended to address the needs of adapting programme activities to local needs. Despite these noteworthy accomplishments, the prevalence of acute malnutrition remains high, mortality rates did not decrease as malnutrition rates decreased, the overall prevalence of desirable nutrition-related practices is low, and human resources are reportedly insufficient to carry out all nutrition-related programme activities. Very little nutrition research has been conducted in Mauritania, and key informants identified gaps in adapting international programmes to local needs. Monitoring and evaluation reports have not been rigorous enough to identify which programme activities were implemented as designed or whether programmes were effective at improving nutritional and health status of young children. Therefore, we could not confirm which programmes might have been responsible for the reported improvements, or if other population-wide changes contributed to these changes

  17. Assessment of the health system and policy environment as a critical complement to tracking intervention coverage for maternal, newborn, and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagnero, Eleonora; Daelmans, Bernadette; Gupta, Neeru; Scherpbier, Robert; Shankar, Anuraj

    2008-04-12

    In 2008, the Countdown to 2015 initiative identified 68 priority countries for action on maternal, newborn, and child health. Much attention was paid to monitoring country-level progress in achieving high and equitable coverage with interventions effective in reducing mortality of mothers, newborn infants, and children up to 5 years of age. To have a broader understanding of the environment in which health services are delivered and health outcomes are produced is essential to increase intervention coverage. Programmes to address MNCH rely on health systems to generate information needed for effective decisions and to achieve the expected outcomes. Governance and leadership are needed throughout the process not only to create policies and implement them but also to assure quality and efficiency of care, to finance health services sufficiently and in an equitable way, and to manage the health workforce. We present a systematic approach to assess the wider health system and policy environment needed to achieve positive outcomes for maternal, newborn, and child health. We report on results from 13 indicators and show gaps in policy adoption as well as weaknesses in other health system building blocks. We identify areas for future action in measurement of key indicators and their use to support decision making. We hope that this information will provide an additional dimension to the discussions on feasible and sustainable solutions to accelerate progress towards Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5, both at the global level but most importantly in individual countries.

  18. Budget Options

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    This volume-part of the Congressional Budget Office's (CBO's) annual report to the House and Senate Committees on the Budget-is intended to help inform policymakers about options for the federal budget...

  19. Urban-rural disparities in child nutrition-related health outcomes in China: The role of hukou policy

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hong; Rizzo, John A.; Fang, Hai

    2015-01-01

    Background Hukou is the household registration system in China that determines eligibility for various welfare benefits, such as health care, education, housing, and employment. The hukou system may lead to nutritional and health disparities in China. We aim at examining the role of the hukou system in affecting urban-rural disparities in child nutrition, and disentangling the institutional effect of hukou from the effect of urban/rural residence on child nutrition-related health outcomes. Me...

  20. Acceptability and feasibility of infant-feeding options: experiences of HIV-infected mothers in the World Health Organization Kesho Bora mother-to-child transmission prevention (PMTCT) trial in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cames, Cécile; Saher, Aisha; Ayassou, Kossiwavi A; Cournil, Amandine; Meda, Nicolas; Simondon, Kirsten Bork

    2010-07-01

    In Burkina Faso, prolonged breastfeeding with introduction of ritual fluids from birth is a deep-seated norm. We explored HIV-infected mothers' views and experiences of the acceptability and feasibility of the World Health Organization's recommended infant-feeding options within a mother-to-child-transmission prevention trial. A qualitative study was conducted on 17 formula-feeding and 19 breastfeeding mothers, from a larger cohort of 51 eligible HIV-infected women, consenting to participate in separate focus group discussions in early post-partum. Mothers opted for breastfeeding essentially out of fear of family rejection. Most of them were afraid of denigration for disrespecting tradition if they formula-fed or being suspected of HIV infection. Achieving exclusive breastfeeding remained a difficult challenge as they engaged in a continuous struggle with close elders to avoid fluid feeding. Additional stress and fatigue were fed by their perception of a high transmission risk through breast milk. Exclusive formula-feeding seemed easier to implement, especially as formula was provided free of charge. Formula-feeding mothers more frequently had a supportive partner, a strong personality and lived in better socio-economic conditions than breastfeeding mothers (76% had education and electricity supply vs. 42%, respectively). Exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months remains the most appropriate option for many HIV-infected mothers in sub-Saharan Africa. Its acceptability and feasibility urgently need to be improved by promoting it as the best feeding option for all infants. Other crucial interventions are the promotion of voluntary counselling and testing for couples, and greater partner involvement in infant-feeding counselling.

  1. Analysing key influences over actors' use of evidence in developing policies and strategies in Nigeria: a retrospective study of the Integrated Maternal Newborn and Child Health strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbachu, Chinyere O; Onwujekwe, Obinna; Chikezie, Ifeanyi; Ezumah, Nkoli; Das, Mahua; Uzochukwu, Benjamin S C

    2016-04-12

    Evidence-informed policymaking has been promoted as a means of ensuring better outcomes. However, what counts as evidence in policymaking lies within a spectrum of expert knowledge and scientifically generated information. Since not all forms of evidence share an equal validity or weighting for policymakers, it is important to understand the key factors that influence their preferences for different types of evidence in policy and strategy development. A retrospective study was carried out at the national level in Nigeria using a case-study approach to examine the Nigerian Integrated Maternal Newborn and Child Health (IMNCH) strategy. Two frameworks were used for conceptualization and data analysis, namely (1) to analyse the role of evidence in policymaking and (2) the policy triangle. They were used to explore the key contextual and participatory influences on choice of evidence in developing the IMNCH strategy. Data was collected through review of relevant national documents and in-depth interviews of purposively selected key policy and strategic decision makers. Thematic analysis was applied to generate information from collected data. The breadth of evidence used was wide, ranging from expert opinions to systematic reviews. The choice of different types of evidence was found to overlap across actor categories. Key influences over actors' choice of evidence were: (1) perceived robustness of evidence - comprehensive, representative, recent, scientifically sound; (2) roles in evidence process, i.e. their degree and level of participation in evidence generation and dissemination, with regards to their role in the policy process; and (3) contextual factors such as global agenda and influence, timeline for strategy development, availability of resources for evidence generation, and lessons learnt from previous unsuccessful policies/plans. Actors' preferences for different types of evidence for policy are influenced not only by the characteristics of evidence itself

  2. A Case for "Reverse One-Child" Policies in Japan and South Korea? Examining the Link between Education Costs and Lowest-Low Fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Poh Lin; Morgan, S Philip; Zagheni, Emilio

    2016-06-01

    Household spending on children's pre-tertiary education is exceptionally high in Japan and South Korea, and has been cited as a cause of low fertility. Previous research attributes this high spending to a cultural emphasis on education in East Asian countries. In this paper, we argue that institutional factors, namely higher education and labor market systems, play an important role in reinforcing the pressure on parents to invest in their children's education. We review evidence showing that graduating from a prestigious university has very high economic and social returns in Japan and South Korea, and examine the implications for fertility within the framework of quantity-quality models. Finally, we put forward 'reverse one-child' policies that directly address the unintended consequences of these institutional factors on fertility. These policies have the additional virtues of having very low fiscal requirements and reducing social inequality.

  3. THE PHENOMENON OF UNDERSPECIFICATION IN EARLY CHILD GRAMMAR: THE EXAMPLE OF VERB PLACEMENT AND OPTIONALITY / LE PHÉNOMÈNE DE SOUS-SPÉCIFICATION DANS LA GRAMMAIRE ENFANTINE: L'EXEMPLE DU POSITIONNEMENT DU VERBE ET DE L'OPTIONNALITÉ / FENOMENUL FORMULĂRII INEXACTE ÎN GRAMATICA TIMPURIE A COPILULUI: EXEMPLUL PLASĂRII VERBULUI ŞI OPŢIONALITATEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Kitanovska-Kimovska

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to discuss the phenomenon of underspecification in early child grammar with respect to the syntactic consequences it has in the child language system. The paper addresses the phenomena of verb placement and optionality and how they are accounted for by first language acquisition theories assuming identity between child and adult grammatical systems. These phenomena are discussed within the weak and strong continuity frameworks which account for L1A by incorporating the notion of underspecification among their basic assumptions. Continuity approaches to L1A find underspecification to be of crucial importance in the early grammar. It seems that underspecification of functional categories and their features is what makes the child and adult systems different by provoking a number of syntactic consequences evident in the child system, while absent in the adult one

  4. Free formula milk in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission programme: voices of a peri-urban community in South Africa on policy change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijumba, Petrida; Doherty, Tanya; Jackson, Debra; Tomlinson, Mark; Sanders, David; Persson, Lars-Åke

    2013-10-01

    In 2001, South Africa began implementing the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programme. This programme included distribution of free formula milk for infants up to 6 months of age at all public health facilities. Effective from 1 January 2011, KwaZulu-Natal became the first province to phase out free formula milk from its PMTCT programme. On 23 August 2011, the South African National Department of Health adopted promotion of exclusive breastfeeding as the national infant feeding strategy and made a decision to withdraw free formula milk from the PMTCT programme. To explore the perceptions and understanding of households at community level on the policy decision to phase out free formula milk from the PMTCT programme in South Africa. An exploratory qualitative study was conducted amongst women enrolled in a community randomized trial known as Good Start III. Focus group discussions were held with grandmothers, fathers and teenage mothers; and in-depth interviews were performed with HIV-positive and HIV-negative mothers. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Identified themes included: (1) variations in awareness and lack of understanding of the basis for the policy change, (2) abuse of and dysfunctional policy as perceived reasons for policy change and (3) proposed strategies for communicating the policy change. There is an urgent need to develop a multifaceted communication strategy clearly articulating the reasons for the infant feeding policy change and promoting the new breastfeeding strategy. The communication strategy should take into account inputs from the community. With a supportive environment and one national infant feeding strategy, South Africa has an opportunity to reverse years of poor infant feeding practices and to improve the health of all children in the country.

  5. Assessment of nutrition and physical activity environments in family child care homes: modification and psychometric testing of the Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Amber E; Mazzucca, Stephanie; Burney, Regan; Østbye, Truls; Benjamin Neelon, Sara E; Tovar, Alison; Ward, Dianne S

    2017-08-29

    Early care and education (ECE) settings play an important role in shaping the nutrition and physical activity habits of young children. Increasing research attention is being directed toward family child care homes (FCCHs) specifically. However, existing measures of child care nutrition and physical activity environments are limited in that they have been created for use with center-based programs and require modification for studies involving FCCHs. This paper describes the modification of the Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation (EPAO) for use in FCCHs. The EPAO underwent a through modification process that incorporated an updated format for the data collection instrument, assessment of emerging best practices, tailoring to the FCCH environment, and creation of a new scoring rubric. The new instrument was implemented as part of a larger randomized control trial. To assess inter-rater reliability, observations on 61 different days were performed independently by two data collectors. To assess construct validity, associations between EPAO scores and measures of children's dietary intake (Healthy Eating Index (HEI) score) and physical activity (accelerometer-measured minutes per hour of moderate to vigorous physical activity, MVPA) were examined. The modified EPAO assesses 38 nutrition and 27 physical activity best practices, which can be summarized into 7 nutrition-related and 10 physical activity-related environmental sub- scores as well as overall nutrition and overall physical activity scores. There was generally good agreement between data collectors (ICC > 0.60). Reliability was slightly lower for feeding practices and physical activity education and professional development (ICC = 0.56 and 0.22, respectively). Child HEI was significantly correlated with the overall nutrition score (r = 0.23), foods provided (r = 0.28), beverages provided (r = 0.15), nutrition education and professional development (r = 0.21), and nutrition policy (r

  6. Assessment of nutrition and physical activity environments in family child care homes: modification and psychometric testing of the Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber E. Vaughn

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early care and education (ECE settings play an important role in shaping the nutrition and physical activity habits of young children. Increasing research attention is being directed toward family child care homes (FCCHs specifically. However, existing measures of child care nutrition and physical activity environments are limited in that they have been created for use with center-based programs and require modification for studies involving FCCHs. This paper describes the modification of the Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation (EPAO for use in FCCHs. Methods The EPAO underwent a through modification process that incorporated an updated format for the data collection instrument, assessment of emerging best practices, tailoring to the FCCH environment, and creation of a new scoring rubric. The new instrument was implemented as part of a larger randomized control trial. To assess inter-rater reliability, observations on 61 different days were performed independently by two data collectors. To assess construct validity, associations between EPAO scores and measures of children’s dietary intake (Healthy Eating Index (HEI score and physical activity (accelerometer-measured minutes per hour of moderate to vigorous physical activity, MVPA were examined. Results The modified EPAO assesses 38 nutrition and 27 physical activity best practices, which can be summarized into 7 nutrition-related and 10 physical activity-related environmental sub- scores as well as overall nutrition and overall physical activity scores. There was generally good agreement between data collectors (ICC > 0.60. Reliability was slightly lower for feeding practices and physical activity education and professional development (ICC = 0.56 and 0.22, respectively. Child HEI was significantly correlated with the overall nutrition score (r = 0.23, foods provided (r = 0.28, beverages provided (r = 0.15, nutrition education and professional

  7. School environment and policies, child eating behavior and overweight/obesity in urban China: the childhood obesity study in China megacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, P; Li, M; Xue, H; Lu, L; Xu, F; Wang, Y

    2017-05-01

    Childhood obesity is rising rapidly in China, especially in urban areas. Knowledge about how school environment and policies (SEPs) may have contributed to the epidemic remains limited. We examined SEP and their associations with students' eating behaviors and overweight/obesity in urban China. Data were collected from 1648 students (plus their parents and schools) in 16 primary and middle schools (4 schools per city) in four megacities across China: Beijing, Shanghai, Nanjing and Xi'an. We examined nutrition-related SEP such as unhealthy food restriction, healthy food promotion, price control and nutrition guideline in school cafeterias (SCs), campus food stores (CFS), school vicinity food stalls (SVFS); SEP on physical activity, physical education (PE) and physical examination. Cluster robust regression models were fit to assess associations of SEP with child eating behaviors and overweight/obesity (defined based on body mass index, from measured weight and height). All 16 schools had regular PE classes and annual physical examination. Most schools (n=12; 75%) had food policies in SC; few had policies on CFS (n=1; 6.25%) or SVFS (n=4; 25%). Local governments had a major role in regulating food prices, setting nutrition guidelines and regulating SVFS. Policies on CFS and SVFS were associated with less frequent intake of sugary beverage (odds ratio (OR)=0.54 (0.47-0.61); OR=0.70 (0.61-0.80)), snack (OR=0.84 (0.74-0.95); OR=0.78 (0.67-0.92)) and fast food (OR=0.58 (0.42-0.81); OR=0.56 (0.39-0.80)). The associations were stronger for boys. Policies on SC, CFS and SVFS were associated with lower likelihood for overweight/obesity (OR=0.60 (0.46-0.79); OR=0.74 (0.62-0.90); OR=0.51 (0.35-0.73)) and central obesity (OR=0.79 (0.70-0.89); OR=0.67 (0.48-0.92); OR=0.63 (0.48-0.84)) in boys. Policies on SC were associated with lower overweight/obesity odds (OR=0.48 (0.28-0.82)) for girls. SEP are heterogeneous in the four Chinese megacities, high-income areas. They affect

  8. Global Human Trafficking and Child Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Jordan; Bodrick, Nia

    2017-12-01

    Trafficking of children for labor and sexual exploitation violates basic human rights and constitutes a major global public health problem. Pediatricians and other health care professionals may encounter victims who present with infections, injuries, posttraumatic stress disorder, suicidality, or a variety of other physical or behavioral health conditions. Preventing child trafficking, recognizing victimization, and intervening appropriately require a public health approach that incorporates rigorous research on the risk factors, health impact, and effective treatment options for child exploitation as well as implementation and evaluation of primary prevention programs. Health care professionals need training to recognize possible signs of exploitation and to intervene appropriately. They need to adopt a multidisciplinary, outward-focused approach to service provision, working with nonmedical professionals in the community to assist victims. Pediatricians also need to advocate for legislation and policies that promote child rights and victim services as well as those that address the social determinants of health, which influence the vulnerability to human trafficking. This policy statement outlines major issues regarding public policy, medical education, research, and collaboration in the area of child labor and sex trafficking and provides recommendations for future work. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Teenage Pregnancy: Consider the Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Tween and teen health Teenage pregnancy can have a profound impact on a teen's life. Help your child understand the options, health risks and challenges ahead. By Mayo Clinic Staff Pregnancy can be one of the most difficult experiences a teenager faces. Understand how to ...

  10. Early and Forced Child Marriage on Girls' Education, in Migori County, Kenya: Constraints, Prospects and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganira, Lilian K.; Inda, Nancy A.; Odundo, Paul A.; Akondo, Joseph Ochieng; Ngaruiya, Boniface

    2015-01-01

    Early and forced marriage infringes rights of women and girls globally, undermining initiatives to raise involvement in education, reduce maternal mortality, increase employment and enterprise levels. Parental and Communal involvement in Early and Forced Child Marriage negatively influence Girls' Education, which hinders their participation in…

  11. Does Child Labor Displace Schooling? Evidence on Behavioral Responses to an Enrollment Subsidy. Policy Research Working Papers No. 2116.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravallion, Martin; Wodon, Quentin

    This paper examines whether children sent to work in rural Bangladesh are caught in a "poverty trap," with the extra income from child labor coming at the expense of the children's longer-term prospects of escaping poverty through education. The poverty trap argument depends on children's work being substitutable for schooling. Casual…

  12. One Welfare State, Two Care Regimes: Understanding Developments in Child and Elderly Care Policies in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hooren, F.; Becker, U.

    2012-01-01

    The different development of child and elderly care in the Netherlands reflects the hybrid character of its welfare system, which, until the 1980s, featured both social democratic and conservative elements. While public involvement in the provision of elderly care services rapidly increased after

  13. No Child Left Behind in Art Education Policy: A Review of Key Recommendations for Arts Language Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Anne C.

    2010-01-01

    From bipartisan origins and a laudable intent, the No Child Left Behind (Act) of 2001 has profoundly altered the condition of art education. A historical vantage point and review of literature reveals the current status of pending arts language revisions to the NCLB Act, as well as a pressing need to examine the key recommendations and to consider…

  14. Urban-rural disparities in child nutrition-related health outcomes in China: The role of hukou policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Rizzo, John A; Fang, Hai

    2015-11-23

    Hukou is the household registration system in China that determines eligibility for various welfare benefits, such as health care, education, housing, and employment. The hukou system may lead to nutritional and health disparities in China. We aim at examining the role of the hukou system in affecting urban-rural disparities in child nutrition, and disentangling the institutional effect of hukou from the effect of urban/rural residence on child nutrition-related health outcomes. This study uses data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey 1993-2009 with a sample of 9616 children under the age of 18. We compute height-for-age z-score and weight-for-age z-score for children. We use both descriptive statistics and multiple regression techniques to study the levels and significance of the association between child nutrition-related health outcomes and hukou type. Children with urban hukou have 0.25 (P rural hukou, and this difference by urban vs. rural hukou status is larger than the difference in height and weight (0.23 and 0.09, respectively) by urban vs. rural residence. Controlling for place of residence, children with urban hukou had 0.18 higher height z-scores and 0.17 (P rural hukou. The hukou system exacerbates urban-rural disparities in child nutrition-related health outcomes independent of the well-known disparity stemming from urban-rural residence. Fortunately, however, child health disparities due to hukou have been declining since 2000.

  15. Policy at play: The implementation of Healthy Eating and Active Living Guidelines in municipal child care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Kelly; Nigro, Sherry

    2017-03-01

    In 2012, Ottawa Public Health (OPH) partnered with the City of Ottawa Municipal Child Care (MCC) Services to develop Healthy Eating and Active Living (HEAL) Guidelines. The Guidelines aim to promote consistent standards of practice in child care settings related to healthy environments and food, physical activity, physical literacy, decreased sedentary behaviours, and positive role modeling by staff. The Guidelines targeted 498 children aged 18 months to 5 years, attending MCC centres. Resources and training were provided to 10 supervisors, 63 child care educators and 9 cooks. Components of the Guidelines were piloted in 5 MCC sites prior to being launched in 10 MCC sites across Ottawa, Ontario. Two project Advisory Groups supported the development of the Guidelines. Staff training, resources, recipes and menus were provided. An evaluation was conducted and has informed the Guidelines' subsequent community implementation. In 2015, accompanying web-based resources and e-modules were developed. The evaluation demonstrated environmental and programming changes. Parent satisfaction was high and preliminary findings showed no real changes in food costs. Following implementation, the cooks reported high compliance to the 6-week menu plans provided, and the number of sites offering 120 minutes or more of daily physical activity increased. Through novel intersectoral partnerships, OPH was able to implement and evaluate HEAL Guidelines in tandem. The interdisciplinary project Advisory Groups, training of cooks, and engagement of the Ontario Coaches Association were all innovative elements of this project and may influence future public health activity in this area.

  16. Impact of single versus multiple policy options on the economic feasibility of biogas energy production: Swine and dairy operations in Nova Scotia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Bettina B.; Yiridoe, Emmanuel K.; Gordon, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The economic feasibility of on-farm biogas energy production was investigated for swine and dairy operations under Nova Scotia, Canada farming conditions, using net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), and payback period (PP) economic decision criteria. In addition, the effects of selected environmental and 'green' energy policy schemes on co-generation of on-farm biogas energy production and other co-benefits from anaerobic digestion of livestock manure were investigated. Cost-efficiencies arising from economies of scale for on-farm anaerobic biogas production were found for swine farms, and less so for dairy production systems. Without incentive schemes, on-farm biogas energy production was not economically feasible across the farm size ranges studied, except for 600- and 800-sow operations. Among single policy schemes investigated, green energy credit policy schemes generated the highest financial returns, compared to cost-share and low-interest loan schemes. Combinations of multiple policies that included cost-share and green energy credit incentive schemes generated the most improvement in financial feasibility of on-farm biogas energy production, for both swine and dairy operations

  17. An Exploratory Study of the Factors That Influence Enrolling in Alternative Educational Options: Adult Perceptions and Implications for Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsis-McNerney, Violet

    2013-01-01

    This research obtained information using focus groups as qualitative method to determine the factors that influenced alternative education decisions. The purpose of this study was to help bridge theory, research, and educational practices and examine policy reform efforts. Through the lenses of returning adult education students, this research…

  18. Using equitable impact sensitive tool (EQUIST) and knowledge translation to promote evidence to policy link in maternal and child health: report of first EQUIST training workshop in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Sombie, Issiaka; Uro-Chukwu, Henry Chukwuemeka; Johnson, Ermel; Okonofua, Friday

    2017-01-01

    The Equitable Impact Sensitive Tool (EQUIST) designed by UNICEF and knowledge translation (KT) are important strategies that can help policymakers to improve equity and evidence-informed policy making in maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH). The purpose of this study was to improve the knowledge and capacity of an MNCH implementation research team (IRT) and policy makers to use EQUIST and KT. A modified "before and after" intervention study design was used in which outcomes were measured on the target participants both before the intervention (workshop) is implemented and after. A 5-point likert scale according to the degree of adequacy was employed. A three -day intensive EQUIST and KT training workshop was organized in Edo State, Nigeria with 45 participants in attendance. Some of the topics covered included: (i) Knowledge translation models, measures & tools; (ii) Policy review, analysis and contextualization; (iii) Policy formulation and legislation process; (iv) EQUIST Overview & Theory of change; (v) EQUIST's situation analysis, scenario analysis and scenario comparison. The pre-workshop mean of understanding of use of KT ranged from 2.02-3.41, while the post-workshop mean ranged from 3.24-4.30. Pre-workshop mean of understanding of use of EQUIST ranged from 1.66-2.41, while the post-workshop mean ranged from 3.56-4.54 on the 5point scale. The percentage increase in mean of KT and EQUIST at the end of the workshop ranged from 8.0%-88.1% and 65.6%-158.4% respectively. Findings of this study suggest that policymakers' and researchers KT and EQUSIT use competence relevant to evidence-informed policymaking can be enhanced through training workshop.

  19. The impact of women's education, workforce experience, and the One Child Policy on fertility in China: a census study in Guangdong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Manyu; Kuang, Yaoqiu

    2016-01-01

    The impact of women's education on fertility is of interest to researchers, particularly in China. However, few studies have provided well-founded assessments of how women's education, workforce experience, and birth control policy jointly affect fertility in China. This study, conducted in Guangdong Province, aimed to analyze how these three factors influenced the timing of births and affected women at different stages of their reproductive lives. We used census data for Guangdong Province (1990, 2000, and 2010) to make cross-sectional age-specific comparisons to examine the effects of women's education and workforce participation on fertility outcomes under China's One Child Policy. We found that: (1) under circumstances of low fertility, women tend to have more children with greater educational attainment; (2) the impact of women's education and workforce experience on fertility varied across age groups, with the effect of education showing a bimodal curve peaking at 25-29 years and 40-44 years, and a workforce experience effect at 25-34 years; and (3) the fertility time-squeeze effect by educational attainment was relatively small, the effect by workforce participation was larger, and the most important effect was birth control policy and its implementation. These results suggest that educational attainment and workforce experience have a substantial effect on women's fertility, and a tradeoff between them is unavoidable. China's 2015 birth control policy adjustment should be considered in planning future services to accommodate anticipated increases in the birth rate. More attention should be directed to the causal mechanism (women's preference and selection effects) behind the factors analyzed in this study.

  20. Effect of tobacco control policies on perinatal and child health: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, T. (Timor); Kumar, A. (Arun); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); C. Millett (Christopher); Basu, S. (Sanjay); A. Sheikh (Aziz); J.V. Been (Jasper V.)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground Tobacco smoking and smoke exposure during pregnancy and childhood cause considerable childhood morbidity and mortality. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate whether implementation of WHO's recommended tobacco control policies (MPOWER) was of benefit to

  1. Nutrition and physical activity related school environment/policy factors and child obesity in China: a nationally representative study of 8573 students in 110 middle schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M; Xue, H; Wen, M; Wang, W; Wang, Y

    2017-12-01

    Obesity is a serious threat to global health. School is a key setting for obesity intervention. Research on school risk factors for child obesity is limited in developing countries. To examine regional variations in obesity and school environments/policies and their associations among students in China. Analyses were based on the first nationally representative sample of 8573 9 th graders in 110 middle schools from 28 regions across China. Multilevel models tested associations between school factors and child self-reported weight outcomes and by school urbanicity setting (urban, rural). Overweight/obesity rate is higher among boys and in urban areas. Schools in rural areas, or less developed regions, promote longer on-campus life, as is indicated by the presence of school cafeterias, night study sessions and longer class hours. Multilevel models show that (i) school cafeterias (OR = 2.53, 95% CI = 1.35-4.75) and internet bars close to school (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.15-2.30) are associated with increased overweight/obesity risk in rural areas, especially for boys; (ii) school night study sessions are associated with lower overweight/obesity risk (OR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.50-0.96) in rural areas. China has large regional disparities in school environment/policies related to nutrition and physical activity. Some school factors are associated with students' weight status, which vary across gender and areas. Future school-based interventions should attend to diverse regional contexts. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  2. Options theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markland, J.T.

    1992-01-01

    Techniques used in conventional project appraisal are mathematically very simple in comparison to those used in reservoir modelling, and in the geosciences. Clearly it would be possible to value assets in mathematically more sophisticated ways if it were meaningful and worthwhile so to do. The DCf approach in common use has recognized limitations; the inability to select a meaningful discount rate being particularly significant. Financial Theory has advanced enormously over the last few years, along with computational techniques, and methods are beginning to appear which may change the way we do project evaluations in practice. The starting point for all of this was a paper by Black and Scholes, which asserts that almost all corporate liabilities can be viewed as options of varying degrees of complexity. Although the financial presentation may be unfamiliar to engineers and geoscientists, some of the concepts used will not be. This paper outlines, in plain English, the basis of option pricing theory for assessing the market value of a project. it also attempts to assess the future role of this type of approach in practical Petroleum Exploration and Engineering economics. Reference is made to relevant published Natural Resource literature

  3. Solar energy policy review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-08-17

    A number of memoranda and reports are collected which deal with evaluations of solar energy policy options, including direct and indirect labor impacts and costs of different options and consumer protection. (LEW)

  4. Associations between birth health, maternal employment, and child care arrangement among a community sample of mothers with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Chi; Chyu, Laura; Ksobiech, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Although a large body of literature exists on how different types of child care arrangements affect a child's subsequent health and sociocognitive development, little is known about the relationship between birth health and subsequent decisions regarding type of nonparental child care as well as how this relationship might be influenced by maternal employment. This study used data from the Los Angeles Families and Neighborhoods Survey (L.A.FANS). Mothers of 864 children (ages 0-5) provided information regarding birth weight, maternal evaluation of a child's birth health, child's current health, maternal employment, type of child care arrangement chosen, and a variety of socioeconomic variables. Child care options included parental care, relative care, nonrelative care, and daycare center. Multivariate analyses found that birth weight and subjective rating of birth health had similar effects on child care arrangement. After controlling for a child's age and current health condition, multinomial logit analyses found that mothers with children with poorer birth health are more likely to use nonrelative and daycare centers than parental care when compared to mothers with children with better birth health. The magnitude of these relationships diminished when adjusting for maternal employment. Working mothers were significantly more likely to use nonparental child care than nonemployed mothers. Results suggest that a child's health early in life is significantly but indirectly related to subsequent decisions regarding child care arrangements, and this association is influenced by maternal employment. Development of social policy aimed at improving child care service should take maternal and family backgrounds into consideration.

  5. Antiretroviral drug regimens to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV: a review of scientific, program, and policy advances for sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Benjamin H; Stringer, Jeffrey S A; Moodley, Dhayendre

    2013-06-01

    Considerable advances have been made in the effort to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) in sub-Saharan Africa. Clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of antiretroviral regimens to interrupt HIV transmission through the antenatal, intrapartum, and postnatal periods. Scientific discoveries have been rapidly translated into health policy, bolstered by substantial investment in health infrastructure capable of delivering increasingly complex services. A new scientific agenda is also emerging, one that is focused on the challenges of effective and sustainable program implementation. Finally, global campaigns to "virtually eliminate" pediatric HIV and dramatically reduce HIV-related maternal mortality have mobilized new resources and renewed political will. Each of these developments marks a major step in regional PMTCT efforts; their convergence signals a time of rapid progress in the field, characterized by an increased interdependency between clinical research, program implementation, and policy. In this review, we take stock of recent advances across each of these areas, highlighting the challenges--and opportunities--of improving health services for HIV-infected mothers and their children across the region.

  6. Research Options for Controlling Zoonotic Disease in India, 2010–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekar, Nitin; Shah, Naman K.; Abbas, Syed Shahid; Kakkar, Manish

    2011-01-01

    Background Zoonotic infections pose a significant public health challenge for low- and middle-income countries and have traditionally been a neglected area of research. The Roadmap to Combat Zoonoses in India (RCZI) initiative conducted an exercise to systematically identify and prioritize research options needed to control zoonoses in India. Methods and Findings Priority setting methods developed by the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative were adapted for the diversity of sectors, disciplines, diseases and populations relevant for zoonoses in India. A multidisciplinary group of experts identified priority zoonotic diseases and knowledge gaps and proposed research options to address key knowledge gaps within the next five years. Each option was scored using predefined criteria by another group of experts. The scores were weighted using relative ranks among the criteria based upon the feedback of a larger reference group. We categorized each research option by type of research, disease targeted, factorials, and level of collaboration required. We analysed the research options by tabulating them along these categories. Seventeen experts generated four universal research themes and 103 specific research options, the majority of which required a high to medium level of collaboration across sectors. Research options designated as pertaining to ‘social, political and economic’ factorials predominated and scored higher than options focussing on ecological, genetic and biological, or environmental factors. Research options related to ‘health policy and systems’ scored highest while those related to ‘research for development of new interventions’ scored the lowest. Conclusions We methodically identified research themes and specific research options incorporating perspectives of a diverse group of stakeholders. These outputs reflect the diverse nature of challenges posed by zoonoses and should be acceptable across diseases, disciplines, and sectors

  7. The Unintended, Pernicious Consequences of "Staying the Course" on the United States' No Child Left Behind Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Amrein-Beardsley

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The phrase “no child left behind” has become a familiar expression in American education circles and in popular culture. The sentiment implied by these four words is noble. However, the effects of the top-down implementation of the high-stakes testing provisions of the law have been anything but salutary for public school children, teachers, and administrators. This claim is supported by data describing many of the ways in which well-intentioned but desperate educators, from the statehouse to the schoolhouse, have been driven to game the system in ironic defense of the children, teachers, and administrators least equipped to defend themselves. It is argued herein that, instead of reauthorizing the stronger accountability tenet of NCLB, it might do very well to let it fade away.

  8. Tough Policies, Incredible Policies?

    OpenAIRE

    Andres Velasco; Alejandro Neut

    2003-01-01

    We revisit the question of what determines the credibility of macroeconomic policies here, of promises to repay public debt. Almost all thinking on the issue has focused on governments' strategic decision to default (or erode the value of outstanding debt via inflation/devaluation). But sometimes governments default not because they want to, but because they cannot avoid it: adverse shocks leave them no option. We build a model in which default/devaluation can occur deliberately (for strategi...

  9. How much is a child worth? Providers' and patients' views and responses concerning ethical and policy challenges in paying for ART.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitzman, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Infertility treatments remain expensive and in many countries are covered by little, if any, insurance, raising critical questions concerning how patients and providers view and make decisions regarding these challenges. In-depth semi-structured interviews of approximately 1 hour were conducted with 37 IVF providers and 10 patients (17 physicians, 10 other providers and 10 patients), and were systematically analyzed. These data suggest current insurance policies and legislation pose critical ethical and logistical challenges for both patients and providers. These individuals face multiple uncertainties about costs and insurance, related to unclear causes of fertility, treatment length, costs and outcomes, and odds that insurers will cover expenses. Insurers frequently decline to agree to reimbursement beforehand, and decide only afterwards, case-by-case, generating stress. Patients and providers thus may not be able to predict how best to allocate limited resources. Providers may advocate for patients, but are usually unsuccessful. Patients may adopt several strategies: e.g., moving/seeking treatment elsewhere, switching or feeling "stuck" in jobs because of insurance, seeking "free" medications, going into debt, or using funds intended for other purposes. Patients do not perceive and respond to resource limitations as fixed phenomena-i.e., patients do not see treatment simply as "affordable" or not. Rather, patients face quandaries of how much to keep spending-how much a child is worth-and are forced to make complex risk/benefit calculations. Couples can disagree, straining relationships. In sum, these data, the first to explore how providers and patients struggle, view, and make decisions regarding limited insurance and resources for infertility, raise several critical ethical and policy issues. These data suggest that individuals have difficulty translating profoundly life-altering, deeply personal quests for meaning and fulfillment into purely economic terms

  10. Improving Maternal and Child Healthcare Programme Using Community-Participatory Interventions in Ebonyi State Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chigozie Jesse Uneke

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In Nigeria, the government is implementing the Free Maternal and Child Health Care Programme (FMCHCP. The policy is premised on the notion that financial barriers are one of the most important constraints to equitable access and use of skilled maternal and child healthcare. In Ebonyi State, Southeastern Nigeria the FMCHCP is experiencing implementation challenges including: inadequate human resource for health, inadequate funding, out of stock syndrome, inadequate infrastructure, and poor staff remuneration. Furthermore, there is less emphasis on community involvement in the programme implementation. In this policy brief, we recommend policy options that emphasize the implementation of community-based participatory interventions to strengthen the government’s FMCHCP as follows: Option 1: Training community women on prenatal care, life-saving skills in case of emergency, reproductive health, care of the newborn and family planning. Option 2: Sensitizing the community women towards behavioural change, to understand what quality services that respond to their needs are but also to seek and demand for such. Option 3: Implementation packages that provide technical skills to women of childbearing age as well as mothers’ groups, and traditional birth attendants for better home-based maternal and child healthcare. The effectiveness of this approach has been demonstrated in a number of community-based participatory interventions, building on the idea that if community members take part in decision-making and bring local knowledge, experiences and problems to the fore, they are more likely to own and sustain solutions to improve their communities’ health.

  11. A model of residential energy end-use in Canada: Using conditional demand analysis to suggest policy options for community energy planners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newsham, Guy R.; Donnelly, Cara L.

    2013-01-01

    We applied conditional demand analysis (CDA) to estimate the average annual energy use of various electrical and natural gas appliances, and derived energy reductions associated with certain appliance upgrades and behaviours. The raw data came from 9773 Canadian households, and comprised annual electricity and natural gas use, and responses to >600 questions on dwelling and occupant characteristics, appliances, heating and cooling equipment, and associated behaviours. Replacing an old (>10 years) refrigerator with a new one was estimated to save 100 kW h/year; replacing an incandescent lamp with a CFL/LED lamp was estimated to save 20 kW h/year; and upgrading an old central heating system with a new one was estimated to save 2000 kW h/year. This latter effect was similar to that of reducing the number of walls exposed to the outside. Reducing the winter thermostat setpoint during occupied, waking hours was estimated to lower annual energy use by 200 kW h/°C-reduction, and lowering the thermostat setting overnight in winter relative to the setting during waking hours (night-time setback) was estimated to have a similar effect. This information may be used by policy-makers to optimize incentive programs, information campaigns, or other energy use change instruments. - Highlights: ► Conditional demand analysis (CDA) applied to data from 9773 Canadian households. ► Energy savings associated with certain appliance upgrades estimated. ► Energy savings associated with thermostat behaviours estimated. ► Policy-makers can use findings to optimize incentives and information campaigns

  12. Mitigation of Short-Lived Climate Pollutants from Residential Coal Heating and Combined Heating/Cooking Stoves: Impacts on the Cryosphere, Policy Options, and Co-benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafe, Z.; Anenberg, S.; Klimont, Z.; Kupiainen, K.; Lewis, J.; Metcalfe, J.; Pearson, P.

    2017-12-01

    Residential solid fuel combustion for cooking, heating, and other energy services contributes to indoor and outdoor air pollution, and creates impacts on the cryosphere. Solid fuel use often occurs in colder climates and at higher elevations, where a wide range of combustion emissions can reduce reflectivity of the snow- and ice-covered surfaces, causing climatic warming. Reducing short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs), such as black carbon (BC), could have substantial climate and health co-benefits, especially in areas where emissions influence the cryosphere. A review of existing literature and emissions estimates, conducted as part of the Warsaw Summit on BC and Other Emissions from Residential Coal Heating Stoves and Combined Cooking/Heating Stoves, found little nationally-representative data on the fuels and technologies used for heating and combined cooking/heating. The GAINS model estimates that 24 million tonnes of coal equivalent were combusted by households for space heating globally in 2010, releasing 190 kilotons (kt) BC. Emissions from combined cooking/heating are virtually unknown. Policy instruments could mitigate cryosphere-relevant emissions of SLCPs from residential heating or cooking. These include indoor air quality guidelines, stove emission limits, bans on the use of specific fuels, regulatory codes that stipulate when burning can occur, stove changeout programs, and voluntary public education campaigns. These measures are being implemented in countries such as Chile (fuelwood moisture reduction campaign, energy efficiency, heating system improvements), Mongolia (stove renovation, fuel switching), Peru (improved stove programs), Poland (district heating, local fuel bans), United States (stove emission regulation) and throughout the European Community (Ecodesign Directive). Few, if any, of these regulations are likely to reduce emissions from combined cooking/heating. This research team found no global platform to create and share model

  13. State Policy Initiatives for Reducing Teen and Adult Nonmarital Childbearing: Family Planning to Family Caps. New Federalism: Issues and Options for States. An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies, Series A, No. A-43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertheimer, Richard; Jager, Justin; Moore, Kristin Anderson

    This paper presents data from a survey of all 50 states that examined specific programs and policies being pursued at the state level to discourage teenage and nonmarital childbearing. Overall, the teen childbearing rate has continued to fall, and in 1999 it was the lowest on record. Some research points to a relationship between welfare policies…

  14. Deliberating emission reduction options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowd, A.M.; Rodriguez, M.; Jeanneret, T. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation CSIRO, 37 Graham Rd, Highett VIC 3190 (Australia); De Best-Waldhober, M.; Straver, K.; Mastop, J.; Paukovic, M. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    For more than 20 years there has been a concerted international effort toward addressing climate change. International conventions, such as the United Nations Foreign Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC; ratified in 1994), have been established by committed nations seeking to address global climate change through the reduction of greenhouse gases emitted into the Earth's atmosphere (Global CCS Institute, 2011). Long recognised as the most crucial of the greenhouse gases to impact global warming, the majority of carbon dioxide's anthropogenic global emissions are directly related to fuel combustion of which both Australia and the Netherlands' energy production is significantly reliant. Both these nations will need to consider many opinions and make hard decisions if alternative energy options are to be implemented at the scale that is required to meet international emission targets. The decisions that are required not only need to consider the many options available but also their consequences. Along with politicians, policy developers and industry, the general public also need to be active participants in deciding which energy options, and their subsequent consequences, are acceptable for implementation at the national level. Access to balanced and factual information is essential in establishing informed opinions on the many policy options available. Past research has used several methods to measure public perceptions and opinions yet for complex issues, such as emission reduction, some of these methods have shown to be problematic. For example, semi structured interviews can provide data that is flexible and context rich yet is does also come with the limitations such as it seldom provides a practical assessment that can be utilised from researcher to researcher, across disciplines and public participation techniques. Surveys on the other hand usually address these limitations but surveys that do not encourage comparison of information or ask

  15. Impact of family-friendly prison policies on health, justice and child protection outcomes for incarcerated mothers and their dependent children: a cohort study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Leonie; Lopez, Derrick; Li, Ian W; Preen, David B

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Female imprisonment has numerous health and social sequelae for both women prisoners and their children. Examples of comprehensive family-friendly prison policies that seek to improve the health and social functioning of women prisoners and their children exist but have not been evaluated. This study will determine the impact of exposure to a family-friendly prison environment on health, child protection and justice outcomes for incarcerated mothers and their dependent children. Methods and analysis A longitudinal retrospective cohort design will be used to compare outcomes for mothers incarcerated at Boronia Pre-release Centre, a women’s prison with a dedicated family-friendly environment, and their dependent children, with outcomes for mothers incarcerated at other prisons in Western Australia (that do not offer this environment) and their dependent children. Routinely collected administrative data from 1985 to 2013 will be used to determine child and mother outcomes such as hospital admissions, emergency department presentations, custodial sentences, community service orders and placement in out-of home care. The sample consists of all children born in Western Australia between 1 January 1985 and 31 December 2011 who had a mother in a West Australian prison between 1990 and 2012 and their mothers. Children are included if they were alive and aged less than 18 years at the time of their mother’s incarceration. The sample comprises an exposed group of 665 women incarcerated at Boronia and their 1714 dependent children and a non-exposed comparison sample of 2976 women incarcerated at other West Australian prisons and their 7186 dependent children, creating a total study sample of 3641 women and 8900 children. Ethics and dissemination This project received ethics approval from the Western Australian Department of Health Human Research Ethics Committee, the Western Australian Aboriginal Health Ethics Committee and the University of Western Australia

  16. “Post-Feminist” Era of Social Investment and Territorial Welfare? Exploring the Issue Salience and Policy Framing of Child Care in U.K. Elections 1983-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Chaney

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Earlier work has tended to overlook the formative origins of child care policy in liberal democracies. Accordingly, this study examines mandate-seeking and parties’ envisioning of child care with reference to issue salience and policy framing in party manifestos in U.K. Westminster and regional elections. It reveals a significant increase in issue salience following its emergence as a manifesto issue in the 1980s, thereby confirming it as part of the wider rise of “valence politics.” The framing data reveal that a “post-feminist” discourse of “social investment” has generally displaced the political framing of child care as a gender equality issue. It is argued that this is inherently problematic and reflects parties’ failure to address ongoing gender inequality in the labor market. Notably, the data also illustrate the way devolution is leading to the territorialization of child care in the United Kingdom—no longer solely mandated in Westminster elections, policy is now contingent on the discursive practices of regional party politics and shaped by local socio-economic factors.

  17. Priority mental health disorders of children and adolescents in primary-care pediatric setting in India 1: developing a child and adolescent mental health policy, program, and service model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, P S; Mammen, P; Nair, M K C; Russell, Sushila; Shankar, S R

    2012-01-01

    India has a huge child and adolescent population. Psychiatric disorders are widely prevalent and the mental health needs of these children are well recognized. Nonetheless, there are no country-centric and child specific mental health policies, plans or programs. There is also a significant lack of human resources for child and adolescent mental health in India. This combination of factors makes the primary care a critical setting for the early identification, treatment, consultation and referral of children and adolescents with mental health and developmental needs. Even though the importance of primary care as a system for addressing the mental health care has been recognized for de